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1

Weed control in rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp).  

PubMed

Abstract: Field investigations were carried out during 1999 and 2000 to identify effective chemical/ cultural methods of weed control in rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp). The treatments comprised pre-emergence applications of oxyfluorfen (0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 kg AI ha(-1)) and pendimethalin (0.50, 0.75 and 1.00kg AI ha(-1)), successive hand weeding, hoeing and mulching using spent of lemon grass (at 5 tonnes ha(-1)) 45 days after planting (DAP), three hand-weedings 30, 60 and 90 DAP, weed-free (frequent manual weeding) and weedy control. Broad-leaf weeds were more predominant than grass and sedge weeds, accounting for 85.8% weed density and 93.0% weed dry weight in 1999 and 77.2% weed density and 93.9% weed dry weight in 2000. Unrestricted weed growth significantly reduced geranium oil yield, by 61.6% and 70.6% in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Pre-emergence application of pendimethalin (0.75-1.00 kgAI ha(-1)) or oxyfluorfen (0.25 kg AI ha(-1)), successive hand-weeding, hoeing and mulching and three hand-weedings were highly effective in reducing weed density and dry weight and gave oil yield comparable to the weed-free check. Application of oxyfluorfen (0.15 or 0.20 kg AI ha(-1)) and pendimethalin (0.50 kg AI ha(-1)) were less effective in controlling the weed species in geranium. None of the herbicides impaired the quality of rose-scented geranium oil measured in terms of citronellol and geraniol content. PMID:12477000

Kothari, Sushil K; Singh, Chandra P; Singh, Kamla

2002-12-01

2

Water soluble fractions of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium species) essential oil.  

PubMed

The essential oil of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium species, family: Geraniaceae) obtained through steam or water plus steam distillation of shoot biomass is extensively used in the fragrance industry and in aromatherapy. During distillation, a part of the essential oil becomes dissolved in the distillation water (hydrosol) and is lost as this hydrosol is discarded. In this investigation, hydrosol was shaken for 30 min with hexane (10:1 proportion) and the hexane was distilled to yield 'secondary' or 'recovered' essential oil. The chemical composition of secondary oil was compared with that of 'primary' oil (obtained directly by distilling shoot biomass of the crop). Primary oil accounted for 93.0% and secondary oil 7.0% of the total oil yield (100.2 ml from 100 kg green shoot biomass). Fifty-two compounds making up 95.0-98.5% of the primary and the secondary oils were characterized through gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC--MS). Primary oil was richer in hydrocarbons (8.5-9.4%), citronellyl formate (6.2-7.5%), geranyl formate (4.1-4.7%), citronellyl propionate (1.0-1.2%), alpha-selinene (1.8-2.2%), citronellyl butyrate (1.4-1.7%), 10-epi-gamma-eudesmol (4.9-5.5%) and geranyl tiglate (1.8-2.1%). Recovered oil was richer in organoleptically important oxygenated compounds (88.9-93.9%), commercial rhodinol fraction (74.3-81.2%), sabinene (0.4-6.2%), cis-linool oxide (furanoid) (0.7-1.2%), linalool (14.7-19.6%), alpha-terpineol (3.3-4.8%) and geraniol (21.3-38.4%). Blending of recovered oil with primary oil is recommended to enhance the olfactory value of the primary oil of rose-scented geranium. Distillation water stripped of essential oil through hexane extraction can be recycled for distilling the next batch of rose-scented geranium. PMID:12118700

Rao, B R Rajeswara; Kaul, P N; Syamasundar, K V; Ramesh, S

2002-09-01

3

Yield and Chemical Composition of Rose-Scented Geranium (Pelargonium Species) Oil at Different Times of Harvesting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted for six months covering rainy, autumn and spring seasons, to investigate the influence of time of harvesting on yield and quality of the oil of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium sp.) cv. Bourbon, in the semi-arid tropical climate of south India. A diurnal fluctuation in oil yield was observed with a maximum at 12:00 noon (0.27%) and

Bhaskaruni Rajeswara Rao; Arun Bhattacharya; Pran Kaul; S. Ramesh

2001-01-01

4

A somaclonal variant of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp.) with moderately high content of isomenthone in its essential oil.  

PubMed

Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp.), which is highly valued for its essential oil, is exclusively propagated vegetatively. Hence no genetic improvement work is possible through conventional breeding. Somaclonal variation was generated with and without in vitro mutagenesis using N-nitroso-N-methyl urea (NMU) in an Indian cultivar 'Bourbon', and a clone 'Narmada'. A somaclonal variant (N75) with a moderately high content of isomenthone in its essential oil was isolated from somaclones generated after treatment of internodal explants of clone, 'Narmada' with 0.25 mM NMU for 1 h. The contents of isomenthone in its essential oil were 26% and 35%, respectively, in SC2/VM2 and SC3/VM3 generations (second and third vegetative generations, respectively, after in vitro mutagen treatment) as compared with 0.7% and 0.3%, respectively, in the parental clone, 'Narmada'. The contents of alcohols and their esters (linalool, citronellol, geraniol, citronellyl formate and geranyl formate) in the essential oil of N75 in SC2/VM2 and SC3/VM3 generations were 49% and 35%, respectively, as compared with 69% and 63%, respectively, in the parental clone, 'Narmada'. This is the first report on a chemovariant of rose-scented geranium with a moderately high content of isomenthone. All earlier reported isomenthone-rich variants of rose-scented geranium had quite high contents of isomenthone (64-71%) in their essential oils. The probable modes of origin of this somaclonal variant, its parental clone 'Narmada' (with very low content of isomenthone) and four earlier reported isomenthone-rich variants of Indian cultivars of geranium are discussed. PMID:23074914

Kulkarni, Swaroop S; Ravindra, Nagawara S; Srinivas, Kalavagunta V N S; Kulkarni, Raghavendra N

2012-09-01

5

Insecticidal and biting deterrent activity of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp.) essential oils and individual compounds against Stephanitis pyrioides and Aedes aegypti  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rose-scented geranium, Pelargonium spp., essential oils from the cultivars ‘Bourbon’, ‘China’, ‘Egypt’ and cultivars ‘Rober’s Lemon Rose’ and ‘Frensham’ from South Carolina were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. One-hundred and thirty six compounds were identified from five essential oils, which constit...

6

Biomass yield, essential oil yield and essential oil composition of rose-scented geranium ( Pelargonium species) as influenced by row spacings and intercropping with cornmint ( Mentha arvensis L.f. piperascens Malinv. ex Holmes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium species, family, Geraniaceae) is a vegetatively propagated (through rooted stem cuttings), initially slow growing, high value aromatic crop. Cornmint (Mentha arvensis L. f. piperascens Malinvaud ex Holmes, family, Lamiaceae) is also a vegetatively propagated (through rhizomes, runners or stolons and terminal stem cuttings), high demand aromatic–cum–medicinal crop. Essential oils isolated through steam distillation of shoot biomass of

B. R. Rajeswara Rao

2002-01-01

7

Carbonate extraction process for the metabolic, isozymic and proteomic profiling of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium sp.), a hyper-acidic plant.  

PubMed

Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium sp.) is a valuable monoterpene-yielding plant. It has been well characterised phytochemically through the isolation of >270 secondary metabolites, however, there is hardly any biochemical or metabolic information concerning this plant. Initial attempts to investigate its metabolism failed to produce any enzyme activity in the tissue extracts prepared in routine extraction buffers owing to the intrinsic properties of the tissue matrix. It was recognised that cellular hyper-acidity (cell sap pH approximately 3.0) gave rise to very low protein levels in the extracts, thus prohibiting detection of activities of even primary metabolic enzymes that are usually abundantly present in plants. Tissue extraction in Tris solution without pH adjustment (as used for studies involving citrus and banana) led to little or no improvement. Therefore, a novel approach using sodium carbonate solution as an efficient extraction system for enzymes and proteins from the plant was studied. Functionality of the carbonate extraction has been demonstrated through its effectiveness, a several-fold superior performance, in yielding protein, monitoring primary metabolism and secondary metabolic enzymes, and isozymic and polypeptide profiling. The process may also be helpful in the reliable analysis of other acidic plant tissues. PMID:17721867

Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Sangwan, Neelam Singh; Sharma, Pankaj Kumar; Chaurasiya, Narayan Das; Mishra, Siddhartha Kumar; Tyagi, Bali Ram; Srivastava, Avdhesh Kumar

2008-01-01

8

Chemical composition and biological activities of polar extracts and essential oil of rose-scented geranium, Pelargonium graveolens.  

PubMed

Pelargonium graveolens (Geraniaceae) was characterized with respect to its chemical composition, antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activities. This is the first investigation focusing on the comparison of both essential oil and polar extracts from this species. The chemical composition of the essential oil of the aerial parts of P. graveolens was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The main constituents of the oil were found to be ?-citronellol (21.9%), citronellyl formate (13.2%), geraniol (11.1%), 10-epi-?-eudesmol (7.9%), geranyl formate (6.2%) and (l)-linalool (5.6%). Nine flavonoids were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-MS in leaf and flower extracts. Kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside-glucoside, isorhamnetin aglycone, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3,7-di-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-pentose and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-pentoside-glucoside, myrisetin 3-O-glucoside-rhamnoside flavonoids were detected in methanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. The total flavonoids ranged between 29.9 and 78.2 mg QE/g in flower water and methanol extracts, respectively, and 22.5 and 71.2 mg QE/g dry weight in leaf water and methanol extracts, respectively. The highest antioxidant activities using two methods of free radical scavenging capacities were obtained with the essential oil (9.16 mM of Trolox and 2.68 µg/ml). All P. graveolens essential oil and polar extracts were active against at least one bacterium. PMID:23027699

Boukhris, Maher; Simmonds, Monique S J; Sayadi, Sami; Bouaziz, Mohamed

2013-08-01

9

Impact of plant growth promoting Pseudomonas monteilii PsF84 and Pseudomonas plecoglossicida PsF610 on metal uptake and production of secondary metabolite (monoterpenes) by rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolenscv. bourbon) grown on tannery sludge amended soil.  

PubMed

Bacterial strains PsF84 and PsF610 were isolated from tannery sludge polluted soil, Jajmau, Kanpur, India. 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the taxonomic affiliation of PsF84 as Pseudomonas monteilii and PsF610 as Pseudomonas plecoglossicida. A greenhouse study was carried out with rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolenscv. bourbon) grown in soil treated with tannery sludge in different proportions viz. soil: sludge ratio of 100:0, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 0:100 to evaluate the effects of bacterial inoculation on the heavy metal uptake. The isolates solubilized inorganic phosphorus and were capable of producing indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore. The isolate PsF84 increased the dry biomass of shoot by 44%, root by 48%, essential oil yield 43% and chlorophyll by 31% respectively over uninoculated control. The corresponding increase with the isolate PsF610 were 38%, 40%, 39% and 28%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies reveal that the Cr(VI) accumulation resulted in breakdown of vascular bundles and sequesters Cr(VI) in roots. The glandular trichomes (GT) were investigated using SEM studies as these glands are probably the main site of essential oil synthesis. Owing to its wide action spectrum, these isolates could serve as an effective metal sequestering and bioinoculants due to the production of IAA, siderophore and solubilization of phosphate for geranium in metal-stressed soil. The present study has provided a new insight into the phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soil. PMID:25194330

Dharni, Seema; Srivastava, Atul Kumar; Samad, Abdul; Patra, Dharani Dhar

2014-12-01

10

Substrate Acidification by Geranium (Pelargonium x Hortorum) II: Light Effects and Phosphorus Uptake  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sudden pH decline (SPD) describes the situation where crops growing at an appropriate pH, suddenly (1-2 weeks) cause the substrate pH to shift downward one to two units. ‘Designer Dark Red’ geraniums (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey) were grown in three experiments to test the effects of light on SPD...

11

IMPACT OF LOW IRON AND PHOSPHORUS STRESSES ON ACIDIFICATION OF NUTRIENT SOLUTION BY GERANIUM (PELARGONIUM X HORTORUM BAILEY)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cause of sudden substrate pH decline by geranium is unknown. Low Fe and low P have been shown to cause many plant species to acidify the substrate. Research was done to determine if low Fe or P stresses caused 4 geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey) cultivars to acidify nutrient solution. ...

12

Susceptibility of Geranium Cultivars (Pelargonium spp.) to Ralstonia solanacearum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sixty-one cultivars of geraniums including zonal, regal, ivy, and scented were tested for susceptibility to three strains of Ralstonia solanacearum: a Race 1 Biovar 1 (R1B1) strain P597 isolated from tomato in Florida, a R1B1 strain P673 obtained from pothos originating in Costa Rica, and a Race 3 B...

13

Substrate Acidification by Geranium (Pelargonium x Hortorum) I: Temperature Effects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sudden pH decline (SPD) describes the situation where crops growing at an appropriate pH, suddenly (1-2 weeks) cause the substrate pH to shift downward one to two units. ‘Designer Dark Red’ Geraniums were grown in three experiments to test the effects of temperature on SPD. The first experiment te...

14

Fragrant volatile oil composition of Nutmeg Geranium (Pelargonium?×?fragrans Willd.) from India.  

PubMed

Hydrodistilled essential oil of 'Nutmeg Geranium' (Pelargonium?×?fragrans Willd.), grown in foothills of northern India was analysed by capillary gas chromatography (GC/flame ionisation detector (FID)) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 51 constituents, representing 90.2% of the total oil composition were identified. The oil was mainly dominated by monoterpenoids (58.4%), followed by sesquiterpenoids (19.4%), and phenyl propanoids (10.1%). Major constituents of the essential oil were fenchone (10.7%), methyl eugenol (9.9%), ?-pinene (9.4%), ?-thujene (7.6%), limonene (6.4%), spathulenol (4.7%), sabinene (4.3%), linalool (4.2%), (E)-caryophyllene (4.2%), terpinen-4-ol (3.2%), ?-pinene (2.9%), caryophyllene oxide (2.2%) and bicyclogermacrene (2.1%). This is the first report on essential oil composition of Nutmeg Geranium oil grown in India. PMID:22616953

Verma, Ram S; Padalia, Rajendra C; Chauhan, Amit

2013-04-01

15

Fungus gnat (Bradysia impatiens) feeding and mechanical wounding inhibit Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A series of laboratory tests were conducted to investigate potential effects of fungus gnat (Bradysia impatiens) feeding damage on susceptibility of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum) to infection by the root rot pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum. Effects were compared to those from similar t...

16

IMPACT OF FLOWER REMOVAL AND LIGHT AND TEMPERATURE STRESSES ON ACIDIFICATION OF NUTRIENT SOLUTION BY GERANIUM (PELARGONIUM X HORTORUM BAILEY)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cause of sudden substrate pH decline by geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey) is unknown. Published reports indicate that this response can be influenced in other plants by temperature and light extremes. The first of five experiments compared plants with all flowers removed to plants that ...

17

Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of leaf essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér.), which is used in traditional Tunisian folk medicine for the treatment of hyperglycaemia, is widely known as one of the medicinal herbs with the highest antioxidant activity. The present paper is conducted to test the hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities of the leaf essential oil of P. graveolens. Methods The essential oil P. graveolens was administered daily and orally to the rats at two doses of 75?mg/kg and 150?mg/kg body weight (b.w.) for 30?days. The chemical composition of P. graveolens essential oil, body weight, serum glucose, hepatic glycogen, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), the components of hepatic, and renal and serum antioxidant systems were evaluated. The hypoglycemic effect of rose-scented geranium was compared to that of the known anti-diabetic drug glibenclamide (600??g/kg b.w.). Results After the administration of two doses of essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. together with glibenclamide which is known by its antidiabetic activities and used as reference (600??g/kg b.w.), for four weeks, the serum glucose significantly decreased and antioxidant perturbations were restored. The hypoglycemic effect of P. graveolens at the dose of 150?mg/kg b.w. was significantly (pgeranium oils were confirmed. Conclusions It suggests that administration of essential oil of P. graveolens may be helpful in the prevention of diabetic complications associated with oxidative stress. Our results, therefore, suggest that the rose-scented geranium could be used as a safe alternative antihyperglycemic drug for diabetic patients. PMID:22734822

2012-01-01

18

Induction of high-frequency somatic embryogenesis in geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey cv Ringo Rose) cotyledonary cultures.  

PubMed

The cv Ringo Rose of hybrid seed geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey), previously shown to be recalcitrant in culture, produced somatic embryos when cotyledonary explants were cultured on regeneration medium containing thidiazuron (TDZ), forchlorfenuron (CPPU), or a combination of indole-3-acetic acid and N(6) benzylaminopurine (IAA+BAP). Amendment of the basal medium with TDZ (0.5 ?M) was the most effective treatment. Addition of amino acids to the medium promoted the growth of somatic embryos. Retention of the proximal region of the cotyledon was crucial for regeneration, but the removal of the distal 1/3 to 1/2 cotyledon had no significant effect on somatic embryogenesis. Cotyledonary explants formed somatic embryos in higher frequency and much earlier than hypocotyl explants cultured on the same medium. The somatic embryos induced on cotyledonary explants were germinated on basal medium. More than 70% of the somatic embryos were converted into plants and transferred to soil. PMID:24178422

Murthy, B N; Singh, R P; Saxena, P K

1996-02-01

19

RANGE OF NUTRIENTS IN PELARGONIUM X HORTORUM AND PELARGONIUM SPP  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Zonal geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum) and scented geranium (Pelargonium spp) together are among of the top-selling floriculture plants in the US today, with several hundred cultivars and species available each year. With such diversity in appearances, growth habits, and developmental traits, we h...

20

Effect of Phosphorus Deficiency and High Temperature on Ammonium and Nitrate Uptake by Geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cause of sudden substrate pH decline by geranium is unknown and may be due to a shift in cation-anion balance. Nitrogen plays a very important role in cation-anion balance since it accounts for over 50% of the mineral ions that will cross the plasma membrane and is the only mineral nutrient tha...

21

Methylhexanamine is not detectable in Pelargonium or Geranium species and their essential oils: A multi-centre investigation.  

PubMed

In an earlier study, we developed two sensitive and reliable procedures for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of methylhexaneamine (MHA) in P. graveolens plant materials and volatile oils. None of the analyzed plant materials or oils showed any detectable levels of MHA which was further substantiated by high resolution liquid chromatography-quantum time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) analysis with a limit of detection of 10?ppb. However, other laboratories (two studies) reported the presence of MHA in some samples of P. graveolens and pelargonium oil acquired by the investigators from China. Because of the controversy of whether Pelargonium species or pelargonium oil contains MHA, it was recommended that splits of multiple samples be analyzed by different laboratories. In this investigation, multiple plant materials and oil samples were collected from around the world. These samples were submitted to four different sites for analysis. All sites adopted a similar extraction method. All the analysis sites used LC-MS/MS or LC-QTOF-MS and detection limit was set close to the 10?ng/mL as previously reported. A total of 18 plant samples belonging to 6 different Pelargonium species and 9 oils from different locations around the world were split among 4 different analytical laboratories for analysis (each lab received the same samples). None of the laboratories detected MHA in any of the samples at or around the 10?ppb detection level of the procedure used. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25346500

ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Gul, Waseem; Tolbert, Candice; ElSohly, Kareem M; Murphy, Timothy P; Avula, Bharathi; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Wang, Mei; Khan, Ikhlas A; Yang, Min; Guo, Dean; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Su, Juan

2014-10-23

22

Fumigant antitermitic activity of plant essential oils and components from Ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ), Allspice ( Pimenta dioica ), caraway ( Carum carvi ), dill ( Anethum graveolens ), Geranium ( Pelargonium graveolens ), and Litsea ( Litsea cubeba ) oils against Japanese termite ( Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe).  

PubMed

Plant essential oils from 26 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against the Japanese termite, Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe, using a fumigation bioassay. Responses varied with source, exposure time, and concentration. Among the essential oils tested, strong insecticidal activity was observed with the essential oils of ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ), allspice ( Pimenta dioica ), caraway ( Carum carvi ), dill ( Anethum graveolens ), geranium ( Pelargonium graveolens ), and litsea ( Litsea cubeba ). The composition of six essential oils was identified by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The compounds thus identified were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against Japanese termites. Responses varied in a dose-dependent manner for each compound. Phenol compounds exhibited the strongest insecticidal activity among the test compounds; furthermore, alcohol and aldehyde groups were more toxic than hydrocarbons. The essential oils and compounds described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for termite control. PMID:19722567

Seo, Seon-Mi; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Chang-Hoon; Shin, Sang-Chul; Park, Il-Kwon

2009-08-12

23

Variability Associated with Suppression of Gray Mold (Botrytis cinerea) on Geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum) by Foliar Applications of Non-Aerated and Aerated Compost Teas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Compost teas were shown to significantly reduce leaf infection severity on geranium caused by Botrytis cinerea under environmental conditions that are extremely favorable for disease development. However, the majority of compost teas did not significantly suppress B. cinerea infection of geranium. ...

24

A Rare Excitatory Amino Acid from Flowers of Zonal Geranium responsible for Paralyzing the Japanese Beetle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

e Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) exhibits rapid paralysis after consuming flowers from zonal geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum). Activity-guided fractionations were conducted with polar flower petal extracts from Pelargonium × hortorum cv. Nittany Lion Red, which led to the isolation of a paraly...

25

Analysis of trichome exudate from mite-resistant geraniums.  

PubMed

Trichome exudate from mite-resistant geraniums (Pelargonium horlorum) was analyzed, principally by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. The exudate was found to consist of two anacardic acid derivatives,o-pentadecenylsalicylic acid ando-heptadecenylsalicylic acid. Bioassays established a moderate toxicity of these compounds to the two-spotted spider mite,Tetranychus urticae. The production of these compounds in geraniums was correlated with the two complementary dominant genes previously reported for host resistance to spider mites. PMID:24318735

Gerhold, D L; Craig, R; Mumma, R O

1984-05-01

26

USE OF LEAF TEMPERATURE TO ASSESS THE RESPONSE OF GERANIUM PLANTS FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO SOIL PATHOGENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Early response of geranium plants (Pelargonium x hortorum cv. "Maverick Red") exposed to soil pathogens was assessed by measuring changes in leaf temperature. Differences between air temperature and leaf temperature were noticed 7 days after exposure to pathogens. Differences were greatest between...

27

H-mutant Bacteriophages as a Potential Biocontrol of Bacterial Blight of Geranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteriophages specific to Xanthomonas compestris pv. pelargonii (Xcp), the causal agent of bacterial blight of geranium, Pelargonium ×hortorum L.H. Bailey, were isolated from soil and sludge samples from Florida, California, Minnesota, and Utah. Sixteen phages were evaluated for their potential to lyse 21 Xcp strains collected from around the world. The Xcp strains varied in their susceptibility to the phage

J. E. Flaherty; B. K. Harbaugh; J. B. Jones; G. C. Somodi; L. E. Jackson

28

Essential oils and anxiolytic aromatherapy.  

PubMed

A number of essential oils are currently in use as aromatherapy agents to relieve anxiety, stress, and depression. Popular anxiolytic oils include lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), rose (Rosa damascena), orange (Citrus sinensis), bergamot (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), sandalwood (Santalum album), clary sage (Salvia sclarea), Roman chamomile (Anthemis nobilis), and rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp.). This review discusses the chemical constituents and CNS effects of these aromatherapeutic essential oils, as well as recent studies on additional essential oils with anxiolytic activities. PMID:19831048

Setzer, William N

2009-09-01

29

Evidence for the Presence of 1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) in Geranium Plant Materials  

PubMed Central

1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) is an aliphatic amine with stimulant properties that are reportedly found naturally only in geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). The presence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants was first reported in a paper published in 1996, but some have questioned the identification of 1,3-DMAA in that study. Since then, a number of additional studies have been published, largely reporting the absence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants and commercial geranium oils. However, in two recent studies, 1,3-DMAA was detected in geranium plant tissues and a geranium oil sample using a simplified extraction approach on tissues and oil sourced from China. Whether or not 1,3-DMAA is found naturally in plants has significant implications as to how commercial products containing 1,3-DMAA are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. In this paper, differences in source materials, extraction procedures, and analytical approaches are reviewed in an attempt to rationalize the apparently conflicting evidence for the presence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plant materials. PMID:23843687

Gauthier, Thomas D.

2013-01-01

30

Antimicrobial activity of geranium oil against clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate the antibacterial properties of geranium oil obtained from Pelargonium graveolens Ait. (family Geraniaceae), against one standard S. aureus strain ATCC 433000 and seventy clinical S. aureus strains. The agar dilution method was used for assessment of bacterial growth inhibition at various concentrations of geranium oil. Susceptibility testing of the clinical strains to antibiotics was carried out using the disk-diffusion and E-test methods. The results of our experiment showed that the oil from P. graveolens has strong activity against all of the clinical S. aureus isolates-including multidrug resistant strains, MRSA strains and MLS(B)-positive strains-exhibiting MIC values of 0.25-2.50 ?L/mL. PMID:22929626

Bigos, Monika; Wasiela, Ma?gorzata; Kalemba, Danuta; Sienkiewicz, Monika

2012-01-01

31

Clinical evaluation of the essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens for the treatment of denture stomatitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Natural products are proved to play a good role as an alternative to synthetic chemicals in clinical conditions. Previous studies showed that Pelargonium graveolens has anti-inflammatory and antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens in the treatment of denture stomatitis. Materials and Methods: In this double-blind randomized clinical trial conducted in Isfahan (Iran), 80 (51 females and 29 males) eligible wearers of complete denture were included. According to the patients’ profiles number, they randomly divided to 2 groups of 40 patients’ case and 40 patients control treated with Pelargonium 1% gel or placebo, respectively. They were recommended to apply the gel twice daily for a 14-day course. All data were analyzed using SPSS® for windows (v.18). We have used the ?2 test for analyzing qualitative and Student t-test for quantitative data considering as P<0.05 as significant. Results: According to mycological data and clinical observation after treatment in the case group, 34% of patients had been improved completely, 56% partially and 10% had no improvement. In the control group, 5% of patients had complete recovery, 25% partial recovery, and 70% no improvement. A significant reduction in fungal growth was observed in case group rather than the control group (P value<0.0001). Conclusion: It seems that the application of a 1% Geranium oil topical gel formulation is more effective than placebo in the treatment of denture stomatitis. PMID:23372587

Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Shirdare, Zahra; Ebadian, Behnaz; Aslani, Abolfazl; Ghannadi, Alireza

2011-01-01

32

Identification and Quantification of Dimethylamylamine in Geranium by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

A sensitive and reliable method of liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/ MS) was developed and validated for determining 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) and 1,4-dimethylamylamine (1,4-DMAA) in geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). The sample was extracted with 0.5 M HCl and purified by liquid-liquid partition with hexane. The parameters for reverse-phase (C18) LC and positive ESI/MS/MS were optimized. The matrix effect, specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy and reproducibility of the method were determined and evaluated. The method was linear over a range of 0.10–10.00 ng/mL examined, with R2 of 0.99 for both 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-DMAA. The recoveries from spiked concentrations between 5.00–40.00 ng/g were 85.1%–104.9% for 1,3-DMAA, with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.9%–11.0%, and 82.9%–101.8% for 1,4-DMAA, with RSD of 3.2%–11.7%. The instrument detection limit was 1–2 pg for both DMAAs. The quantification limit was estimated to be 1–2 ng/g for the plant sample. This method was successfully applied to the quantitative determination of 1,3- and 1,4-DMAA in both geranium plant and geranium oil. PMID:22915838

Li, J.S.; Chen, M.; Li, Z.C.

2012-01-01

33

Intercropping of aromatic crop Pelargonium graveolens with Solanum tuberosum for better productivity and soil health.  

PubMed

Farmers in hilly regions experience low production potential and resource use efficiency due to low valued crops and poorsoil health. Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.) is a vegetatively propagated initially slow growing, high value aromatic crop. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is also vegetatively propagated high demand cash crop. A field experiment was carried out in temperate climate to investigate the influence of geranium intercropping at different row strips (1:1 and 1:2) and plant density (60 x 45, 75 x 45 and 90 x 45 cm) with potato intercrop on biomass, oil yield, monetary advantage and soil quality parameters. The row spacing 60x45cm and row strip 1:1 was found to be superior and produced 92 t ha(-1) and 14 kg ha(-1) biomass and oil yield, respectively. The row strip 1:2 intercrop earned a maximum $2107, followed by $1862 with row strip 1:1 at 60 x 45 cm plant density. Significant variations were noticed in soil organic carbon (Corg), total N (Nt), available nutrients, soil microbial biomass (Cmic) and nitrogen (Nmic) content. Maximum improvement of Corg (41.0%) and Nt (27.5%)with row strip 1:1 at 75 x 45 cm plant density. While higher soil respiration rate, Cmic, Nmic, and qCO2 was found with 1:2 row strip at 60 x 45 plant density. The buildup of Corg and Cmic potato intercrop can promote long term sustainability on productivity and soil health. PMID:25522521

Vermal, Rajesh Kumar; Yadav, Ajai; Verma, Ram Swaroop; Khan, Khushboo

2014-11-01

34

Fertilization and colors of plastic mulch affect biomass and essential oil of sweet-scented geranium.  

PubMed

Sweet-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér), a plant belonging to the Geraniaceae family, has medicinal and aromatic properties and is widely used in the cosmetic, soap, perfume, aromatherapy, and food industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fertilization and the use of different colors of plastic mulch on sweet-scented geranium biomass and essential oil. Three colors of plastic mulch (black, white, and silver-colored) and a control without plastic mulch were assessed along with three fertilizers (20,000 L · ha(-1) of cattle manure; 1,000 kg · ha(-1) of NPK 3-12-6; and 20,000 L · ha(-1) of cattle manure + 1,000 kg · ha(-1) of NPK 3-12-6 fertilizer) and a control without fertilizer. The absence of a soil cover negatively influenced the agronomical variables, while coverage with plastic mulch was associated with increased biomass. The use of fertilizer had no effect on the evaluated agronomic variables. When cattle manure and NPK 3-12-6 were used together, combined with white or black plastic mulch, the highest yields of essential oil were obtained. For the silver-colored plastic mulch, higher amounts of essential oil (6,9-guaiadien) were obtained with mineral fertilizer. PMID:24757440

Silva, Anderson de Carvalho; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; dos Santos, Wallace Melo; Prata, Paloma Santana; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima

2014-01-01

35

Fertilization and Colors of Plastic Mulch Affect Biomass and Essential Oil of Sweet-Scented Geranium  

PubMed Central

Sweet-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér), a plant belonging to the Geraniaceae family, has medicinal and aromatic properties and is widely used in the cosmetic, soap, perfume, aromatherapy, and food industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fertilization and the use of different colors of plastic mulch on sweet-scented geranium biomass and essential oil. Three colors of plastic mulch (black, white, and silver-colored) and a control without plastic mulch were assessed along with three fertilizers (20,000?L·ha?1 of cattle manure; 1,000?kg·ha?1 of NPK 3-12-6; and 20,000?L·ha?1 of cattle manure + 1,000?kg·ha?1 of NPK 3-12-6 fertilizer) and a control without fertilizer. The absence of a soil cover negatively influenced the agronomical variables, while coverage with plastic mulch was associated with increased biomass. The use of fertilizer had no effect on the evaluated agronomic variables. When cattle manure and NPK 3-12-6 were used together, combined with white or black plastic mulch, the highest yields of essential oil were obtained. For the silver-colored plastic mulch, higher amounts of essential oil (6,9-guaiadien) were obtained with mineral fertilizer. PMID:24757440

Silva, Anderson de Carvalho; dos Santos, Wallace Melo; Prata, Paloma Santana; Alves, Péricles Barreto

2014-01-01

36

Essential oil analysis and field evaluation of the citrosa plant "Pelargonium citrosum" as a repellent against populations of Aedes mosquitoes.  

PubMed

A plant recently introduced into North America as the citrosa, Pelargonium citrosum ('Van Leenii'), has been marketed as a biological repellent against mosquitoes. Citrosa is claimed to repel mosquitoes within a 10 ft.2 (0.93 m2) area due to a continuous fragrant release of citronella oil. The total essential oil yield was 0.2 +/- 0.1% from fresh plant material. Chemical analysis by the authors revealed that combined essential oils of fresh greenhouse- and field-grown citrosa have 35.4 +/- 6.2% geraniol, 10.4 +/- 1.6% citronellol, 8.9 +/- 2.0% isomenthone, and 6.8 +/- 3.8% linalool. Both the morphology and essential oil of citrosa fall within the Pelargonium x asperum hybrid complex and are similar to 'Rosé', the commercial rose geranium. No character of morphology or essential oil of a Cymbopogon species yielding commercial citronella oil could be detected in the citrosa. The effectiveness of the citrosa as a repellent against field populations of spring Aedes spp. mosquitoes was evaluated and compared with a 75% deet (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) formulation. Deet provided > 90% reduction in mosquitoes biting subjects for up to 8 h post-treatment. There was no significant difference between citrosa-treated and nontreated subjects. PMID:8723261

Matsuda, B M; Surgeoner, G A; Heal, J D; Tucker, A O; Maciarello, M J

1996-03-01

37

Analysis and Confirmation of 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-DMAA in Geranium Plants Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry at ng/g Concentrations  

PubMed Central

1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) is a stimulant commercially sold in a variety of dietary supplements as a chemical species derived from geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). Whether 1,3-DMAA naturally occurs in geranium plants or other dietary ingredients, it has important regulatory and commercial ramifications. However, the analysis of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants is not trivial due to low concentrations and a complex environmental matrix, requiring high selectivity and sensitivity. An extraction method combined with high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry is used to determine 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-dimethylamylamine (1,4-DMAA) concentrations in geranium plants with both external calibration and standard addition method. Samples from the Changzhou, Kunming, and Guiyang regions of China during both winter and summer were analyzed for 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-DMAA. The diastereomer ratios of the 1,3-DMAA stereoisomers of a racemic standard and the extracted plant were also quantified. PMID:23225994

Fleming, Heather L.; Ranaivo, Patricia L.; Simone, Paul S.

2012-01-01

38

Investigating contact toxicity of Geranium and Artemisia essential oils on Bemisia tabaci Gen.  

PubMed Central

Objective: Sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gen. (B. tabaci), is one of the most important pests of various greenhouse crops in Iran. Nowadays, chemical insecticides are broadly used for control of the pests that causes risk to consumer's health. For the first time, contact toxicity of Pelargonium roseum Andrews and Artemisia sieberi Besser essential oils on B. tabaci and its possible application against the whitefly was evaluated in 2012. Materials and Methods: Essential oil with concentrations of 2500, 1250, 125, and 12 ppm were used. Infested leaves of greenhouse cucumber were treated by mentioned concentrations. After 24 hours, mortality of B. tabaci was recorded and compared after correcting by Abbot's formula. Results: Results showed that all concentrations of the essential oil could significantly reduce population of B. tabaci compared with the control treatment. Phytotoxicity of the treated leaves were recorded after 24, 48, and 72 hours and compared with the control. Concentrations of 2500, 1250, and 125 ppm caused severe phytotoxicity on greenhouse cucumber leaves and therefore are not suitable for greenhouse application. Phytotoxicity of 12 ppm was relatively low. Conclusions: This data implicated suitable protective effects of the essential oils to the pest infestation. Therefore, essential oils distillated from Geranium and Artemisia could be applied to control B. tabaci in greenhouse cucumber at V/V 12 ppm. PMID:25050264

Yarahmadi, Fatemeh; Rajabpour, Ali; Zandi Sohani, Nooshin; Ramezani, Leila

2013-01-01

39

Metabolism of l-Threonic Acid in Rumex x acutus L. and Pelargonium crispum (L.) L'Hér 1  

PubMed Central

l-Threonic acid is a natural constituent in leaves of Pelargonium crispum (L.) L'Hér (lemon geranium) and Rumex x acutus L. (sorrel). In both species, l-[14C]threonate is formed after feeding l-[U-14C]ascorbic acid to detached leaves. R. acutus leaves labeled with l-[4-3H]- or l-[6-3H]ascorbic acid produce l-[3H]threonate, in the first case internally labeled and in the second case confined to the hydroxymethyl group. These results are consistent with the formation of l-threonate from carbons three through six of l-ascorbic acid. Detached leaves of P. crispum oxidize l-[U-14C] threonate to l-[14C]tartrate whereas leaves of R. acutus produce negligible tartrate and the bulk of the 14C appears in 14CO2, [14C]sucrose, and other products of carbohydrate metabolism. R. acutus leaves that are labeled with l-[U-14C]threonate release 14CO2 at linear rate until a limiting value of 25% of the total [U-14C]threonate is metabolized. A small quantity of [14C]glycerate is also produced which suggests a process involving decarboxylation of l-[U-14C]threonate. PMID:16662405

Helsper, Johannes P.; Loewus, Frank A.

1982-01-01

40

Effect of fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) feeding on subsequent Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dark-winged fungus gnats in the genus Bradysia (Diptera: Sciaridae) and root rot pathogens in the genus Pythium (Oomycetes) are important pests of greenhouse floriculture. Observations have pointed to a possible correlation between Pythium root rot disease and fungus gnat infestations; however, inte...

41

The effects of selected Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae on growth and water relation of geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum 'cherry glow')  

E-print Network

plants associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi (20) . Considering the ubiquitous occurrence of mycorrhizal fungi, it is apparent that even a small effect on the "host" plant can have considerable ramifications. In the case of agronomic and horticultural... crops, such effects could be economically important. It is well documented that both the mycorrhizal fungi and host plant benefit from their relationship (11, 35, 40, 17). The nature of this symbiosis has been examined in considerable detail. Carbo...

Sweatt, Michael Raymond

1982-01-01

42

Effect of High Temperature on Extreme Substrate Acidification by Geranium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cause of sudden substrate pH decline by geranium is unknown and it may be due to high temperature and/or low P. ‘Designer Dark Red’ Geraniums were grown in two experiments and the first tested the effect of four temperatures (57/50, 64/57, 72/64 and 79/72º F day/night) on substrate acidificatio...

43

Citronellic Acid: A Major Component in Two Pelargonium Species (Geraniaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaf oils of the leaves of two Pelargonium species, P. papilionaceum L. L'Herit. and P. vitifolium L. L'Herit. (Geraniaceae) and a cultivar ‘Sweet Rosina,’ were found to contain citronellic acid, ranging from 27.9% to 89.3%. The essential oils were obtained by both steam distillation and using solvent extraction in both hexane and petroleum spirit and the citronellic acid was

Maria Lis-Balchin; G. Roth

1999-01-01

44

Target Region Amplification Polymorphism (TRAP) as a Tool for Detecting Genetic Variation in the Genus Pelargonium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pelargonium is one of the priority genera collected by the Ornamental Plant Germplasm Center (OPGC). In order to protect future breeders from a loss of genetic diversity, OPGC collects heirloom cultivars, breeding lines and wild species. The current Pelargonium collection at OPGC consists primaril...

45

Polyacylated neohesperidosides from Geranium caespitosum: bacterial multidrug resistance pump inhibitors.  

PubMed

Bioassay-directed fractionation for Staphylococcus aureus multidrug resistance efflux pump inhibitors resulted in isolation of novel acylated neohesperidosides from Geranium caespitosum. The more highly acylated compounds had no direct activity against S. aureus, but potentiated activity of the antibiotics berberine, rhein, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin. Cellular concentrations of berberine were greatly increased in the presence of active esters. PMID:12749897

Stermitz, Frank R; Cashman, Kevin K; Halligan, Kathleen M; Morel, Cécile; Tegos, George P; Lewis, Kim

2003-06-01

46

Polyacylated neohesperidosides From Geranium caespitosum: bacterial multidrug resistance pump inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioassay-directed fractionation for Staphylococcus aureus multidrug resistance efflux pump inhibitors resulted in isolation of novel acylated neohesperidosides from Geranium caespitosum. The more highly acylated compounds had no direct activity against S. aureus, but potentiated activity of the antibiotics berberine, rhein, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin. Cellular concentrations of berberine were greatly increased in the presence of active esters.

Frank R Stermitz; Kevin K Cashman; Kathleen M Halligan; Cécile Morel; George P Tegos; Kim Lewis

2003-01-01

47

Comparative antibacterial effects of novel Pelargonium essential oils and solvent extracts.  

PubMed

The scented leaves of a number of Pelargonium (Geraniaceae) species and cultivars were extracted using steam distillation, petroleum spirit and methanol. The extracts were assessed for their antibacterial activity in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cereus and Staph. epidermidis. The results indicated substantial antibacterial activity and suggested that Pelargonium essential oils could be used as novel antibacterial agents. The methanolic and petroleum spirit extracts were more potent antibacterial agents than the steam-distilled volatile samples. The results suggest that Pelargonium essential oils and solvent extracts could be used as novel food or cosmetic antimicrobial agents. PMID:9750316

Lis-Balchin, M; Buchbauer, G; Ribisch, K; Wenger, M T

1998-09-01

48

Scanning electron microscograph of vessel member from Pelargonium leaf with perforations and pits.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scanning electron microscograph of vessel member from Pelargonium leaf with perforations and pits. Micrograph, courtesy of Professor Peter B. Kaufman and Dr. P Dayanandan, Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Katherine Esau

2004-03-09

49

Biparental inheritance of plastidial and mitochondrial DNA and hybrid variegation in Pelargonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastidial (pt) and mitochondrial (mt) genes usually show maternal inheritance. Non-Mendelian, biparental inheritance of plastids\\u000a was first described by Baur (Z Indukt Abstamm Vererbungslehre 1:330–351, 1909) for crosses between Pelargonium cultivars. We have analyzed the inheritance of pt and mtDNA by examining the progeny from reciprocal crosses of Pelargonium\\u000a zonale and P. inquinans using nucleotide sequence polymorphisms of selected pt

Andreas Weihe; Janina Apitz; Frank Pohlheim; Annabel Salinas-Hartwig; Thomas Börner

2009-01-01

50

The biological activities of cinnamon, geranium and lavender essential oils.  

PubMed

Acinetobacter sp. represent an important cause of nosocomial infections. Their resistance to some antibiotics, their ability to survive on inanimate surfaces in the hospital environment and their ability to produce biofilms contributes to their virulence. The aim of the study was to determine the antibacterial properties of cinnamon, lavender and geranium essential oils against bacteria of the genus Acinetobacter isolated from several clinical materials and from the hospital environment. A comprehensive evaluation of the susceptibility of Acinetobacter sp. clinical strains to recommended antibiotics was performed. The constituents of cinnamon, lavender and geranium essential oils were identified by GC-FID-MS analysis, and their Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) against tested clinical strains were determined by the micro-dilution broth method. In addition, the effects of essential oils on the viability of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) and glioblastoma cell line (T98G) were evaluated. Cinnamon bark oil was the most active against clinical and environmental strains of Acinetobacter baumannii with MIC values ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 µL/mL. The MIC values for geranium oil were between 7.5 and 9.5 µL/mL, and between 10.5 and 13.0 µL/mL for lavender oil. These essential oils can be best employed in the fight against infections caused by bacteria from Acinetobacter genus as components of formulations for hygiene and disinfection of hospital environment. PMID:25514231

Sienkiewicz, Monika; G?owacka, Anna; Kowalczyk, Edward; Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Anna; Jó?wiak-B?benista, Marta; ?ysakowska, Monika

2014-01-01

51

Suppression of Carrageenan- and Collagen II-Induced Inflammation in Mice by Geranium Oil  

PubMed Central

To obtain experimental evidence on the therapeutic efficacy of essential oils in aromatherapy for inflammatory diseases, we examined the effects of geranium oil on carrageenan-induced and collagen II-induced inflammation in mice, to assess acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activities of the oil. Single intraperitoneal injection of 5 ?L of geranium oil clearly suppressed the carrageenan-induced footpaw edema and increase in tissue myeloperoxidase activity, and repeated administration of the oil suppressed collagen-induced arthritis. These results revealed that geranium oil suppressed both acute and chronic inflammatory responses in mice. PMID:16951493

Maruyama, Naho; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Hu, Weimin; Morofuji, Shinichiro; Inouye, Shigeharu; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

2006-01-01

52

PHOTOSYNTHESIS, CARBON ALLOCATION, AND GROWTH OF SULFUR DIOXIDE ECOTYPES OF 'GERANIUM CAROLINIANUM' L  

EPA Science Inventory

The study investigated ways in which genetically determined differences in SO2 susceptibility resulting from ecotypic differentiation in Geranium carolinianum were expressed physiologically. The SO2-resistant and SO2-sensitive ecotypes were exposed to a combination of short- and ...

53

In vitro evaluation of antibacterial and immunomodulatory activities of Pelargonium reniforme, Pelargonium sidoides and the related herbal drug preparation EPs 7630.  

PubMed

The importance of Pelargonium species, most notably Pelargonium reniforme and Pelargonium sidoides, in traditional medicine in the Southern African region is well documented. Nowadays, a modern aqueous-ethanolic formulation of the roots of P. sidoides (EPs) 7630) is successfully employed for the treatment of ear, nose and throat disorders as well as respiratory tract infections. To provide a scientific basis of its present utilization in phytomedicine, EPs 7630, extracts and isolated constituents of the titled Pelargoniums with emphasis on P. sidoides were evaluated for antibacterial activity and for their effects on nonspecific immune functions. The samples exhibited merely moderate direct antibacterial capabilities against a spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Functional bioassays including an in vitro model for intracellular diseases, a fibroblast-lysis assay (tumour necrosis factor (TNF) activity), a fibroblast-virus protection assay (IFN activity) and a biochemical assay for nitric oxides revealed significant immunomodulatory properties. Gene expression experiments (iNOS, IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, Interleukin (IL)-1, IL-10, IL12, IL-18) not only confirmed functional data, they also clearly showed differences in the response of infected macrophages when compared to that of noninfected cells. ELISA confirmed the protein production of TNF-alpha, IL-1alpha and IL-12, while FACS analyses reaffirmed the cytokines IL-1alpha and IL-12 at the singular cell level. The current data provide convincing support for the improvement of immune functions at various levels, hence, validating the medicinal uses of EPs 7630. Despite considerable efforts, the remedial effects cannot yet be related to a chemically defined principle. PMID:17188480

Kolodziej, Herbert; Kiderlen, Albrecht F

2007-01-01

54

First report of Pelargonium zonate spot virus from tomato in the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pelargonium zonate spot virus (PZSV) was first isolated from tomato in southern Italy in 1982, and later was also reported from Spain and France. Infected tomato plants showed stunting, malformation, yellow rings and line patterns on the leaves, and concentric chlorotic ringspots on the stems. In Ju...

55

Insights into the Selective Pressures Restricting Pelargonium Flower Break Virus Genome Variability: Evidence for Host Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular diversity of Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV) was assessed using a collection of isolates from different geographical origins, hosts, and collecting times. The genomic region examined was 1,828 nucleotides (nt) long and comprised the coding sequences for the movement (p7 and p12) and the coat (CP) proteins, as well as flanking segments including the entire 3 untranslated region

Patricia Rico; Pilar Ivars; Santiago F. Elena; Carmen Hernandez

2006-01-01

56

Further antibacterial Geranium macrorrhizum L. metabolites and synthesis of epoxygermacrones.  

PubMed

4,5- and 1,10-Epoxygermacrones were isolated from the essential oil of aerial parts of Geranium macrorrhizum L. (Geraniaceae). The structures of the epoxy derivatives were deduced from their 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra, molecular modeling, and confirmed by synthesis starting from germacrone. The epoxy compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activities by a microdilution assay, which revealed high activities of both compounds against Bacillus subtilis (minimum inhibitory concentrations (M/Cs) determined were 4.3 and 43?nmol/ml for 1,10- and 4,5-epoxygermacrone, resp.) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.043 and 0.855??mol/ml for 1,10- and 4,5-epoxygermacrone, resp.). The discovery and observed activity of the two epoxides fills the gap in our knowledge of the active principles in this highly renowned ethnomedicinal plant species. PMID:24706624

Radulovi?, Niko S; Zlatkovi?, Dragan; Deki?, Milan; Stojanovi?-Radi?, Zorica

2014-04-01

57

Phosphorus Deficiency in Pelargonium: Effects on Nitrate and Ammonium Uptake and Acidity Generation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cause of sudden substrate pH decline by geranium is unknown and may be due to a shift in cation-anion balance. Nitrogen plays a very important role in cation-anion balance since it accounts for over 50% of the mineral ions that will cross the plasma membrane and is the only mineral nutrient tha...

58

SULFUR DIOXIDE FLUX INTO LEAVES OF 'GERANIUM CAROLINIANUM' L.: EVIDENCE FOR A NONSTOMATAL OR RESIDUAL RESISTANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The concurrent exchange of SO2 and H2O vapor between the atmosphere and foliage of Geranium carolinanum was investigated using a whole-plant gas exchange chamber. Total leaf flux of SO2 was partitioned into leaf surface and internal fractions. The emission rate of SO2-induced H2S...

59

PHYSIOLOGY OF ECOTYPIC PLANT RESPONSE TO SULFUR DIOXIDE IN 'GERANIUM CAROLINIANUM' L  

EPA Science Inventory

Populations of Geranium carolinianum, winter annual plant common in disturbed habitats vary in their folair response to sulfur dioxide and pollution resistance is characteristic of populations sampled from areas in which SO2 has been a prominent stress. The physiological basis of...

60

Shifts in Climate Foster Exceptional Opportunities for Species Radiation: The Case of South African Geraniums  

PubMed Central

Climate change is often assumed to be a major driver of biodiversity loss. However, it can also set the stage for novel diversification in lineages with the evolutionary ability to colonize new environments. Here we tested if the extraordinary evolutionary success of the genus Pelargonium was related to the ability of its species to capitalize on the climate niche variation produced by the historical changes in southern Africa. We evaluated the relationship between rates of climate niche evolution and diversification rates in the main Pelargonium lineages and disentangled the roles of deep and recent historical events in the modification of species niches. Pelargonium clades exhibiting higher ecological differentiation along summer precipitation (SPP) gradients also experienced higher diversification rates. Faster rates of niche differentiation in spatially structured variables, along with lower levels of niche overlap among closely related species, suggest recent modification in species niches (e.g. dispersal or range shift) and niche lability. We suggest that highly structured SPP gradients established during the aridification process within southern Africa, in concert with niche lability and low niche overlap, contributed to species divergence. These factors are likely to be responsible for the extensive diversification of other lineages in this diversity hot spot. PMID:24358250

Martínez-Cabrera, Hugo I.; Peres-Neto, Pedro R.

2013-01-01

61

Chemical composition of the essential oil of Pelargonium quercetorum Agnew. of Iran.  

PubMed

The volatile constituents in the essential oil of Pelargonium quercetorum Agnew., growing wild in Kurdistan, Iran were investigated through GC and GC/MS technique. Twenty-six compounds, representing 21 (80.77%) of the total oil were identified. The main components were: alpha-pinene (25.28%), alpha-fenchyl acetate (20.63%), limonene (9.94%), beta-caryophyllene (8.20%), camphene (4.31%), delta-cadinene (3.32%), beta-pinene (3.21%), alpha-amorphene (2.80%), valencene (2.73%), ledene (2.25%) and p-cymene (1.63%). PMID:17365684

Taherpour, Avat Arman; Maroofi, Hossein; Kheradmand, Khojasteh

2007-01-01

62

Field demonstration of age dependent increase in lead phytoextraction by Pelargonium cultivar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unnecessary for living organisms, lead (Pb) is one of the major widespread toxic metals found in the environment with potential danger to human health and to ecosystems (Shahid et al. 2012). Lead is known to induce a broad range of toxic effects to living organism, including those that are morphological, physiological and biochemical in origin (Pourrut et al. 2011). A field study was carried out in the vicinity of Pb recycling plant near Toulouse-France, and contaminated by atmospheric fallouts to evaluate lead extraction and uptake efficiency of hyperaccumulater Attar of Roses Pelargonium cultivar. It was found that Attar of Roses has ability to accumulate (8644 mgPb/kg DW plant) and survive on highly contaminated acidic soil (39250 mg kg-1 of total Pb) without any morpho-phytotoxicity symptoms. Moreover Attar showed increased extraction of lead from bulk soil to rhizosphere through Pb mobilization and ultimately increased uptake by roots and translocation to shoots. The studied contaminated soil could be cleaned up in few years by planting hyperaccumulater Attar of Rose for longer time period. Under optimum fertlization, irrigation and use of natural or synthetic chelates (EDTA, LMOWA, humic substances etc.) along with old Attar of rose plants, time requires for complete remediation of contaminated site can be reduced to practically applicable time period. Moreover, the use of Pelargonium for remediation has several additional practical, esthetical and economic advantages. The extraction of value-added essential oils from harvested biomass could offset the cost of deploying phytoremediation and renders it as a viable approach for remediating highly contaminated soils, on large scale. Keywords: metal uptake, Pelargonium, phytoremediation, cultivar, soil-plant transfer and kinetic. References Pourrut, B., Shahid, M., Dumat, C., Winterton, P., Pinelli, E., 2011a. Lead uptake, toxicity and detoxification in plants. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 213, 113-136. Shahid, M., Arshad, M., Kaemmerer, M., Pinelli, E., Probst, A., Baque, D., Pradere, P., Dumat, C., 2012a. Long term field metal extraction by pelargonium: Phytoextraction efficiency in relation with plant maturity. Inter. J. Phytorem. 14, 493-505.

Shahid, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad; Pinelli, Eric; Alric, Alain; Kaemmerer, Michel; Pradere, Philippe; Dumat, Camille

2013-04-01

63

Essential oil variation in dwarf plants of Pelargonium sp. capitatum , induced by a new plant growth bioregulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dwarf plants derived from tissue cultures of Pelargonium capitatum, gave an essential oil of quite different composition from that produced by normal plants. This difference persisted for as long as the plant demonstrated the effect of the growth retardant. The chemical composition of the essential oil derived from ‘growth-retarded plants’ is presented.

N. Yannovits-Argiriadis; V. Dourtoglou; D. Lyberopoulou; V. Papageorgiou

1992-01-01

64

Lethal activity of individual and mixed monoterpenoids of geranium essential Oil on Musca domestica.  

PubMed

Plant essential oils and its constituent molecules have been suggested as an alternative to control insect. The contribution of the constituents to the effect of the oil is determined by the interactions occurring between them. Synergistic interactions would improve the insecticide efficacy of the compounds due to the utilization of lower doses. We evaluated the insecticidal activity of geranium (Geranium maculatum L.) oil and its major constituents against Musca domestica L. and studied the toxic interactions in artificial mixtures of those constituents in the natural ratio. While synergistic interactions were determined in house fly in this study, these were of low intensity evidencing that the effect of each constituent was slightly modified by the other constituents present in the mixtures. The search for synergism between components is a strategy to improve the insecticide activity of natural compounds. The synergism helps to reduce the environmental and toxicological impact due to the reduction of the dose of use. PMID:25604671

Gallardo, Anabella; Picollo, María Inés; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón

2015-03-01

65

The antibacterial activity of geranium oil against Gram-negative bacteria isolated from difficult-to-heal wounds.  

PubMed

Hard-to-heal wounds represent a significant problem to patients, health care professionals, and health care system. They can be formed as a result of mechanical injuries and burns, and any co-existing chronic disease increases the risk of their emergence. Diabetics are at a greater risk of developing chronic wounds because of poor circulation, slow healing times, vascular disease and neuropathy. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of geranium oil against Gram-negative bacterial clinical strains. Clinical strains were isolated from patients with difficult-to-treat wounds and a comprehensive evaluation of their sensitivity to antibiotics was carried out. The constituents of geranium oil were specified by GC-FID-MS analysis. The micro-dilution broth method was used to check the inhibition of microbial growth at various concentrations of geranium oil. The tested geranium oil was efficacious against Gram-negative pathogens responsible for problems with wound treatment. The results suggest that geranium oil may be considered an effective component of therapy in the case of frequent recurrences of infections caused by resistant pathogens. PMID:24290961

Sienkiewicz, Monika; Pozna?ska-Kurowska, Katarzyna; Kaszuba, Andrzej; Kowalczyk, Edward

2014-08-01

66

Chemical composition and hepatotoxic effect of Geranium schiedeanum in a thioacetamide-induced liver injury model  

PubMed Central

One of the major components of some geraniums is geraniin, described by its discoverer as crystallizable tannin, well known as an excellent antioxidant, and also found in fruits such as pomegranate. Recently, natural antioxidants have attracted great attention from consumers over the world due to their lower toxicity than synthetics. But geraniin is not a stable compound, and also is difficult to obtain, that is why in the present study we obtained acetonylgeraniin from Geranium schideanum (Gs), a stable acetone condensate of geraniin. In the present study the effect of Gs acetone-water extract was studied in reference to postnecrotic liver regeneration induced by thioacetamide (TA) in rats. Two months male rats were pretreated with daily dose of Gs extract for 4 days (300 mg/kg) and the last day also were intraperitoneally injected with TA (6.6 mmol/kg). Samples of blood were obtained from rats at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h following TA intoxication. The pre-treatment with the crude extract in the model of thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats decreased and delayed liver injury by 66% at 24 h. This result suggests that Gs extract may be used as an alternative for reduction of liver damage. On the other hand, acute toxicity study revealed that the LD50 value of the Gs extract is more than the dose 5000 mg/kg in rats, according to the Lorke method. PMID:25298677

Gayosso-De-Lucio, Juan; Bautista, Mirandeli; Velazquez-González, C.; De la O Arciniega, M; Morales-González, J.A.; Benedí, Juana

2014-01-01

67

Herbivore pressure by weevils associated with flower color polymorphism in Geranium thunbergii (Geraniaceae).  

PubMed

Although floral herbivory has recently received increased attention as an important factor influencing plant reproduction, relatively little is known about how its frequency and intensity vary depending on traits of host plants. Here we report that herbivore pressure by a weevil, Zacladus geranii, is associated with a flower color polymorphism of Geranium thunbergii (Geraniaceae). Pink and white flower color morphs have been reported in G. thunbergii, and we found in a three-year field survey in multiple populations that, generally, adult weevils more preferentially visited white flowers than pink flowers. Consistently, we found more severe damage by weevil larvae in white flowers. Overall herbivore pressure for G. thunbergii varied strongly between populations, and the difference seems to be partly explained by the co-occurrence of a related plant species, Geranium yezoense, in a population, as weevils preferred it to both color morphs of G. thunbergii, thereby relaxing overall herbivore pressure for G. thunbergii. Nonetheless, despite such high variability, the preference of weevils for white morphs over pink morphs of G. thunbergii was found across multiple populations. We discuss possible mechanisms causing the association between flower color and herbivore preference as well as its evolutionary consequences. PMID:24253757

Tsuchimatsu, Takashi; Yoshitake, Hiraku; Ito, Motomi

2014-03-01

68

UTILIZATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM THE TEQUILA INDUSTRY. PART 6: FERTILIZATION OF POTTED GERANIUM WITH A SLAUGHTERHOUSE WASTE COMPOST  

Microsoft Academic Search

A greenhouse pot study was conducted to evaluate the use of a slaughterhouse waste compost (SWC) as fertilizer for potted geranium plants. This SWC was mixed with agave bagasse compost (ABC) at rates of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90% and 100% by volume. The effects of the SWC on the germination and initial growth of

Gilberto ÍÑIGUEZ; David M. CROHN

2004-01-01

69

Pelargonium zonate spot virus is transmitted vertically via seed and pollen in tomato.  

PubMed

In autumn 2007, a new disease with unknown etiology was observed in open-field tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in the Lachish region of Israel. The symptoms included mild mosaic, leaf malformation, and severe stunting of the plants. The causal agent was readily transmitted mechanically from the sap of infected plants to indicator plants. Viral particles were purified from infected plants and cDNA was synthesized from RNA isolated from the particles. Cloning and sequencing of the cDNA showed 95% identity to RNA 3 of Pelargonium zonate spot virus (PZSV). Using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, PZSV was detected in both seed and pollen grains of infected tomato plants. Attempts to disinfect seed by using hydrochloric acid and trisodium phosphate failed to eliminate this PZSV detection. Seed from infected tomato plants gave rise to infected seedlings with a seed-transmission rate of PZSV of 11 to 29%. Pollen grains collected from flowers of infected plants were used to hand pollinate healthy mother tomato plants. Although none of the pollinated mother plants became infected with PZSV, 29% of the seedlings produced from seed harvested from these plants were found to be infected. This is the first demonstration that PZSV is transmitted vertically via both pollen and seed in tomato plants. PMID:20626283

Lapidot, M; Guenoune-Gelbart, D; Leibman, D; Holdengreber, V; Davidovitz, M; Machbash, Z; Klieman-Shoval, S; Cohen, S; Gal-On, A

2010-08-01

70

The root extract of the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides is a potent HIV-1 attachment inhibitor.  

PubMed

Global HIV-1 treatment would benefit greatly from safe herbal medicines with scientifically validated novel anti-HIV-1 activities. The root extract from the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides (PS) is licensed in Germany as the herbal medicine EPs®7630, with numerous clinical trials supporting its safety in humans. Here we provide evidence from multiple cell culture experiments that PS extract displays potent anti-HIV-1 activity. We show that PS extract protects peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages from infection with various X4 and R5 tropic HIV-1 strains, including clinical isolates. Functional studies revealed that the extract from PS has a novel mode-of-action. It interferes directly with viral infectivity and blocks the attachment of HIV-1 particles to target cells, protecting them from virus entry. Analysis of the chemical footprint of anti-HIV activity indicates that HIV-1 inhibition is mediated by multiple polyphenolic compounds with low cytotoxicity and can be separated from other extract components with higher cytotoxicity. Based on our data and its excellent safety profile, we propose that PS extract represents a lead candidate for the development of a scientifically validated herbal medicine for anti-HIV-1 therapy with a mode-of-action different from and complementary to current single-molecule drugs. PMID:24489923

Helfer, Markus; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Schneider, Martha; Rebensburg, Stephanie; Forcisi, Sara; Müller, Constanze; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Schindler, Michael; Brack-Werner, Ruth

2014-01-01

71

Spontaneous reports of primarily suspected herbal hepatotoxicity by Pelargonium sidoides: was causality adequately ascertained?  

PubMed

Spontaneous reports of primarily assumed hepatotoxicity in connection with the use of Pelargonium sidoides (PS) have been interpreted by the Drug Commission of the German Medical Association (DCGMA) as showing some hepatotoxic potential of PS used to treat common cold and other respiratory tract infections. Causality for PS was assessed using the liver specific, structured, quantitative, and updated scale of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS). In none of the 15 cases was there a highly probable or probable causality for PS. Analysis revealed confounding factors such as numerous final diagnoses unrelated to PS and poor data quality in virtually all cases. In only a minority of the cases were data provided to consider even common other diseases of the liver. For instance, biliary tract imaging data were available in only 3 patients; data to exclude virus infections by hepatitis A-C were provided in 4 cases and by CMV and EBV in 1 case, whereas HSV and VZV virus infections remained unconsidered. Thus, convincing evidence is lacking that PS was a potential hepatotoxin in the analyzed cases. PMID:22381150

Teschke, Rolf; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

2012-06-01

72

Antioxidant properties of Pelargonium graveolens L’Her essential oil on the reproductive damage induced by deltamethrin in mice as compared to alpha-tocopherol  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin has been demonstrated to exert a wide range of effects on non-targeted organisms. The beneficial effects of geranuim essential oil (EO) as an antioxidant has been assessed in deltamethrin (DL) orally administered mice by studying whether the reprotoxicity caused by deltamethrin can be effectively combated with the geranium oil and the effects were compared to vitamin E, as the standard reference drug. Result Sixty male albino mice were divided into six equal groups: a control group, a group of mice was given deltamethrin (5 mg/kg b.w.), two groups were administered deltamethrin after having given geranium essential oil (67 mg/kg b.w.) or vitamin E (Vit E) (100 mg/kg b.w.), and two groups received only EO of geranium or Vit E. When compared to control, a dose of deltamethrin 5 mg/kg/day causes a decrease in the epididymal sperm count motility and viability and an increase in the number of abnormal morphology in spermatozoa. DL-exposed mice showed a significant increase of lipid peroxidation (LPP) in the testis compared to control animals. Conclusion Essential oil of geranium prevented testicular oxidative damage explored by reduced LPP and improved total sperm motility, viability and morphology in mice spermatozoa. Our study showed a positive influence of geranium essential oil in the animal male reproductive system similar than that of Vit E. PMID:23496944

2013-01-01

73

Antibacterial, Antifungal, Cytotoxic, Phytotoxic, Insecticidal, and Enzyme Inhibitory Activities of Geranium wallichianum  

PubMed Central

The present study describes the phytochemical investigations of the crude extracts of rhizomes and leaves of Geranium wallichianum. The crude extracts were fractionated to obtain n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol fractions, which were subjected to different biological activities and enzyme inhibition assays to explore the therapeutic potential of this medicinally important herb. The results indicated that the crude extracts and different fractions of rhizomes and leaves showed varied degree of antimicrobial activities and enzyme inhibitions in different assays. Overall, the rhizome extract and its different fractions showed comparatively better activities in various assays. Furthermore, the purified constituents from the repeated chromatographic separations were also subjected to enzyme inhibition studies against three different enzymes. The results of these studies showed that lipoxygenase enzyme was significantly inhibited as compared to urease. In case of chemical constituents, the sterols (2–4) showed no inhibition, while ursolic acid (1) and benzoic ester (6) showed significant inhibition of urease enzymes. PMID:23049606

Ismail, Muhammad; Hussain, Javid; Khan, Arif-ullah; Khan, Abdul Latif; Ali, Liaqat; Khan, Farman-ullah; Khan, Amir Zada; Niaz, Uzma; Lee, In-Jung

2012-01-01

74

Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by extracts and constituents from Angelica archangelica and Geranium sylvaticum.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition of several Icelandic medicinal herbs. Ethanolic extracts of Angelica archangelica seeds and the aerial parts of Geranium sylvaticum proved effective, with IC50 values of 2.20 mg/ml and 3.56 mg/ml, respectively. The activity of imperatorin and xanthotoxin from A. archangelica was measured. Xanthotoxin proved much more potent than imperatorin, with an IC50 value of 155 microg/ml (0.72 mM) but that for imperatorin was above 274 microg/ml (1.01 mM). However, furanocoumarins seem to have a minor part in the total activity of this extract. Synergistic interaction was observed between the extracts of A. archangelica and G. sylvaticum. Several medicinal herbs (Achillea millefolium, Filipendula ulmaria, Thymus praecox and Matricaria maritima) did not show AChE inhibitory activity. PMID:18069242

Sigurdsson, Steinthor; Gudbjarnason, Sigmundur

2007-01-01

75

A preliminary assessment of singlet oxygen scavenging, cytotoxic and genotoxic properties of Geranium macrorrhizum extracts.  

PubMed

Strong radical-scavenging activity of Geranium macrorrhizum extracts isolated by using various solvent systems has been reported previously. This study aimed at expanding the knowledge on the bioactivities of antioxidatively active G. macrorrhizum butanol fraction, which was isolated from ethanolic extract (EB), and water fraction, which was isolated from water extract (WW) by measuring their singlet oxygen scavenging properties, as well as preliminary assessment of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity toward mammalian cells. The cytotoxicity (necrosis induction) of the extracts in bovine leukemia virus-transformed lamb kidney fibroblasts (line FLK) was partly prevented by antioxidants and stimulated by the prooxidant BCNU (N,N'-bis(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea). This indicates that the cytotoxicity of G. macrorrhizum extracts is at least partly attributed to their prooxidant action, presumably due to the formation of quinoidal products of their (auto)oxidation. The latter was evidenced by the nature of the peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation products, which supported DT-diaphorase-catalyzed oxidation of NADPH and participated in conjugation reactions with reduced glutathione. The genotoxic properties were studied using chromosome aberration (CA) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) tests in human lymphocytes in vitro and Drosophila melanogaster somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in vivo. In the CA test, only the highest doses of both fractions significantly increased chromosome aberration frequency. In the SCE test, both fractions induced SCEs in a clear dose-dependent manner. G. macrorrhizum extracts were not genotoxic in the SMART test in vivo. Our data indicate that in spite of the possible beneficial (antioxidant) effects of Geranium extracts, the possibilities of their use as ingredients of functional foods and/or food supplements should be further examined due to their cyto- and genotoxic effects resulting mainly from the action of quercetin-derived components abundant in the extracts. PMID:20454706

Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas; Dedonyte, Veronika; Lazutka, Juozas; Slapsyte, Grazina; Maroziene, Audrone; Nemeikaite-Ceniene, Ausra; Cenas, Narimantas; Miliauskas, Giedrius

2010-01-01

76

Immune responses induced by Pelargonium sidoides extract in serum and nasal mucosa of athletes after exhaustive exercise: Modulation of secretory IgA, IL6 and IL15  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence that exhaustive exercise may compromise the immune response is mainly confirmed by upper respiratory tract infections which are probably related to the decrease in secretory immunoglobulin A in the upper airway mucosa and\\/or profile changes of systemic cytokines as well as local cytokines of the upper respiratory tract. An extract from Pelargonium sidoides roots is currently used to

L. A. Luna; A. L. L. Bachi; R. R. Novaes e Brito; R. G. Eid; V. M. Suguri; P. W. Oliveira; L. C. Gregorio; M. Vaisberg

2011-01-01

77

COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA DE LOS METABOLITOS SECUNDARIOS VOLÁTILES DE Pelargonium graveolens, EN FUNCIÓN DEL MÉTODO DE EXTRACCIÓN Y ÉPOCA DE RECOLECCIÓN DEL MATERIAL VEGETAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN En la presente investigación se estudió la composición química de los metabolitos secundarios volátiles aislados del geranio, Pelargonium graveolens, en diferentes épocas de recolección del material vegetal mediante dos técnicas de extracción: hidrodestilación asistida por la radiación de microondas (MWHD) y destilación - extracción con solvente simultánea (SDE). Las fracciones volátiles se analizaron por cromatografía de gases acoplada a

DEYNY LETICIA; MENDIVELSO PÉREZ; MARTHA CECILIA OLIVARES; Estudiante de Química

78

EPs7630(®) from Pelargonium sidoides increases stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans probably via the DAF-16/FOXO pathway.  

PubMed

EPs7630(®) a water alcohol extract of the roots from Pelargonium sidoides contains several secondary metabolites including highly oxygenated coumarins, various phenolics and polyphenols. Using the DPPH assay to measure antioxidant activity a free radical scavenging activity of 14.7±0.85?g/ml (IC50) was determined. As an in vivo model Caenorhabditis elegans was applied to study the effect of EPs7630(®) on stress resistance. EPs7630(®) treatment reduces intracellular hsp-16.2::GFP expression (induced by the pro-oxidant juglone) indicating that the secondary metabolites of EPs7630(®) are bioavailable and exhibit antioxidant activities in vivo. Application of EPs7630(®) (50?g/ml) to the transgenic mutant TJ356 induced the migration of the transcription factor DAF-16 from cytosol to the nucleus, suggesting a prominent role of DAF-16/FOXO in the daf-2 pathway for stress resistance. PMID:24252337

Rezaizadehnajafi, Leila; Wink, Michael

2014-03-15

79

Rose geranium essential oil as a source of new and safe anti-inflammatory drugs  

PubMed Central

Background Since the available anti-inflammatory drugs exert an extensive variety of side effects, the search for new anti-inflammatory agents has been a priority of pharmaceutical industries. Aims The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oil of rose geranium (RGEO). Methods The chemical composition of the RGEO was investigated by gas chromatography. The major components were citronellol (29.13%), geraniol (12.62%), and citronellyl formate (8.06%). In the carrageenan-induced paw edema, five different groups were established and RGEO was administered orally in three different doses. Results RGEO (100 mg/kg) was able to significantly reduce the paw edema with a comparable effect to that observed with diclofenac, the positive control. In addition, RGEO showed a potent anti-inflammatory activity by topical treatment in the method of croton oil-induced ear edema. When the dose was 5 or 10 µl of RGEO per ear, the inflammation was reduced by 73 and 88%, respectively. This is the first report to demonstrate a significant anti-inflammatory activity of Algerian RGEO. In addition, histological analysis confirmed that RGEO inhibited the inflammatory responses in the skin. Conclusion Our results indicate that RGEO may have significant potential for the development of novel anti-inflammatory drugs with improved safety profile. PMID:24103319

Boukhatem, Mohamed Nadjib; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Ferhat, Mohamed Amine; Saidi, Fairouz; Mekarnia, Maamar

2013-01-01

80

Absence of Sex Differential Plasticity to Light Availability during Seed Maturation in Geranium sylvaticum  

PubMed Central

Sex-differential plasticity (SDP) hypothesis suggests that since hermaphrodites gain fitness through both pollen and seed production they may have evolved a higher degree of plasticity in their reproductive strategy compared to females which achieve fitness only through seed production. SDP may explain the difference in seed production observed between sexes in gynodioecious species in response to resource (nutrients or water) availability. In harsh environments, hermaphrodites decrease seed production whereas females keep it relatively similar regardless of the environmental conditions. Light availability can be also a limiting resource and thus could theoretically affect differently female and hermaphrodite seed output even though this ecological factor has been largely overlooked. We tested whether the two sexes in the gynodioecious species Geranium sylvaticum differ in their tolerance to light limitation during seed maturation in the field. We used a fully factorial block experiment exposing female and hermaphrodite plants to two different light environments (control and shade) after their peak flowering period. Specifically, we measured fruit and seed production in response to decreased light availability and compared it between the sexes. Shading reduced the number of fruits and seeds produced, but the decrease was similar between the sexes. Furthermore, shading delayed seed production by three days in both sexes, but did not affect seed mass, seed P content, or the probability of re-flowering the following year. Our results give no evidence for reproductive SDP in response to light during seed maturation. PMID:25738943

Varga, Sandra; Laaksonen, Ester; Siikamäki, Pirkko; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

2015-01-01

81

Nectar Sugar Production across Floral Phases in the Gynodioecious Protandrous Plant Geranium sylvaticum  

PubMed Central

Many zoophilous plants attract their pollinators by offering nectar as a reward. In gynodioecious plants (i.e. populations are composed of female and hermaphrodite individuals) nectar production has been repeatedly reported to be larger in hermaphrodite compared to female flowers even though nectar production across the different floral phases in dichogamous plants (i.e. plants with time separation of pollen dispersal and stigma receptivity) has rarely been examined. In this study, sugar production in nectar standing crop and secretion rate were investigated in Geranium sylvaticum, a gynodioecious plant species with protandry (i.e. with hermaphrodite flowers releasing their pollen before the stigma is receptive). We found that flowers from hermaphrodites produced more nectar than female flowers in terms of total nectar sugar content. In addition, differences in nectar production among floral phases were found in hermaphrodite flowers but not in female flowers. In hermaphrodite flowers, maximum sugar content coincided with pollen presentation and declined slightly towards the female phase, indicating nectar reabsorption, whereas in female flowers sugar content did not differ between the floral phases. These differences in floral reward are discussed in relation to visitation patterns by pollinators and seed production in this species. PMID:23614053

Varga, Sandra; Nuortila, Carolin; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

2013-01-01

82

Variation of chromosome numbers and essential oil components of plants derived from anther culture of the diploid and the tetraploid in Pelargonium roseum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthers of the diploid (2n=77) and the colchi-tetraploid (2n=154) Pelargonium roseum were cultured in vitro. In both ploidy level anthers containing uninucleate or binucleate microspores were incubated on a modified White's medium. Calli formed were then subcultured on Murashige and Skoog's medium for organoid differentiation. Plants developed from organoids were transferred to filter paper bridges and after that transplanted into

Satoru Tokumasu; Masahiro Kato

1979-01-01

83

Synorganisation without organ fusion in the flowers of Geranium robertianum (Geraniaceae) and its not so trivial obdiplostemony  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Synorganisation of floral organs, an important means in angiosperm flower evolution, is mostly realized by congenital or post-genital organ fusion. Intimate synorganisation of many floral organs without fusion, as present in Geranium robertianum, is poorly known and needs to be studied. Obdiplostemony, the seemingly reversed position of two stamen whorls, widely distributed in core eudicots, has been the subject of much attention, but there is confusion in the literature. Obdiplostemony occurs in Geranium and whether and how it is involved in this synorganisation is explored here. Methods Floral development and architecture were studied with light microscopy based on microtome section series and with scanning electron microscopy. Key Results Intimate synorganisation of floral organs is effected by the formation of five separate nectar canals for the proboscis of pollinators. Each nectar canal is formed by six adjacent organs from four organ whorls. In addition, the sepals are hooked together by the formation of longitudinal ribs and grooves, and provide a firm scaffold for the canals. Obdiplostemony provides a guide rail within each canal formed by the flanks of the antepetalous stamen filaments. Conclusions Intimate synorganisation in flowers can be realized without any fusion, and obdiplostemony may play a role in this synorganisation. PMID:20802050

Endress, Peter K.

2010-01-01

84

Within-plant distribution of twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), on ivy geranium: development of a presence-absence sampling plan.  

PubMed

The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is an important pest of ivy geranium and other ornamental plants. As a part of our long-term goal to develop an integrated crop management program for ivy geraniums, the focus of this study was to produce a reliable sampling method for T. urticae on this bedding plant. Within-plant mite distribution data from a greenhouse experiment were used to identify the young-fully-opened leaf as the sampling unit. We found that 53% of the mites on a plant are on the young-fully-opened leaves. On average 22, 37, and 41% of the leaves belonged to the young, young-fully-opened, and old leaf categories, respectively. We then developed a presence-absence sampling method for T. urticae in ivy geranium using generic Taylor's coefficients for this pest. We found the optimal binomial sample sizes for estimating populations of T. urticae at densities of between 0 and 3 mites/leaf to be quite large; therefore, we recommend the use of numerical sampling within this range of T. urticae densities. We also suggest that population estimates of T. urticae on ivy geranium be done based on mite density/unit area of greenhouse space, both for conventional greenhouse pest management, and for determining how many phytoseid predators to release when using biological control. PMID:14994819

Opit, G P; Margolies, D C; Nechols, J R

2003-04-01

85

Antibacterial activity and composition of essential oils from Pelargonium graveolens L'Her and Vitex agnus-castus L  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Essential oils are volatile compounds that have been used since Middle Ages as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, sedative, local anesthetic and food flavoring agents. In the current study, essential oils of Pelargonium graveolens L'Her and Vitex agnus-castus L. were analyzed for their antibacterial activities. Materials and Methods The chemical compositions of essential oils were characterized by GC-MS. Disc diffusion method was used to study antimicrobial activity. Results and Conclusion Inhibition zones showed that the essential oils of the two plants were active against all of the studied bacteria (except Listeria monocytogenes). The susceptibility of the strains changed with the dilution of essential oils in DMSO. The pure essential oils showed the most extensive inhibition zones and they were very effective antimicrobial compounds compared to chloramphenicol and amoxicillin. The most susceptible strain against these two essential oils was Staphylococcus aureus. It seems that ?-citronellol is a prominent part of P. graveolens volatile oil and caryophyllene oxide is a famous and important part of V. agnus-castus volatile oil and their probable synergistic effect with other constituents are responsible for the antibacterial effects of these oils. However further studies must be performed to confirm the safety of these oils for use as antimicrobial agents and natural preservatives in different products. PMID:23205247

Ghannadi, A; Bagherinejad, MR; Abedi, D; Jalali, M; Absalan, B; Sadeghi, N

2012-01-01

86

Phytochemical composition and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils and organic extracts from pelargonium graveolens growing in Tunisia  

PubMed Central

Background Pelargonium graveolens (P. graveolens) L. is an aromatic and medicinal plant belonging to the geraniacea family. Results The chemical compositions of the essential oil as well as the in vitro antimicrobial activities were investigated. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil revealed 42 compounds. Linallol L, Citronellol, Geraniol, 6-Octen-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl, formate and Selinene were identified as the major components. The tested oil and organic extracts exhibited a promising antimicrobial effect against a panel of microorganisms with diameter inhibition zones ranging from 12 to 34?mm and MICs values from 0.039 to10 mg/ml. The investigation of the phenolic content showed that EtOAc, MeOH and water extracts had the highest phenolic contents. Conclusion Overall, results presented here suggest that the essential oil and organic extracts of P. graveolens possesses antimicrobial and properties, and is therefore a potential source of active ingredients for food and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:23216669

2012-01-01

87

Defensive strategies in Geranium sylvaticum. Part 1: organ-specific distribution of water-soluble tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids.  

PubMed

A combination of high-resolution mass spectrometry and modern HPLC column technology, assisted by diode array detection, was used for accurate characterization of water-soluble polyphenolic compounds in the pistils, stamens, petals, sepals, stems, leaves, roots and seeds of Geranium sylvaticum. The organs contained a large variety of polyphenols, five types of tannins (ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, gallotannins, galloyl glucoses and galloyl quinic acids) as well as flavonoids and simple phenolic acids. In all, 59 compounds were identified. Geraniin and other ellagitannins dominated in all the green photosynthetic organs. The other organs seem to produce distinctive polyphenol groups: pistils accumulated gallotannins; petals acetylglucose derivatives of galloylglucoses; stamens kaempferol glycosides, and seeds and roots accumulated proanthocyanidins. The intra-plant distribution of the different polyphenol groups may reflect the different functions and importance of various types of tannins as the defensive chemicals against herbivory. PMID:23790750

Tuominen, Anu; Toivonen, Eija; Mutikainen, Pia; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

2013-11-01

88

Seasonal Display Plant List Summer 2012 The list below identifies plants that are part of our seasonal displays. Throughout the gardens, you will  

E-print Network

- Rudbeckia hirta 'Maya' (black-eyed-Susan) 013 - Pelargonium x hortorum 'Wilhelm Langguth' (fish geranium begonia) Euphorbia hypericifolia 'Inneuphe' (Diamond Frost® chickenweed) Fuchsia triphylla 'Gartenmeister' (alum-root) Euphorbia 'Balb

dePamphilis, Claude

89

The inhibitory effects of Geranium thunbergii on interferon-?- and LPS-induced inflammatory responses are mediated by Nrf2 activation  

PubMed Central

Geranium thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc. (GT; which belongs to the Geraniaceae family) has been used as a traditional medicine in East Asia for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, including arthritis and diarrhea. However, the underlying mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects of GT remain poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of GT in macrophages. The results revealed that GT significantly inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and interferon-? (IFN-?)-induced expression of pro-inflammatory genes, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1?, as shown by RT-PCR. However, the inhibitory effects of GT on LPS- and IFN-?-induced inflammation were associated with an enhanced nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activity, but not with the suppression of nuclear factor (NF)-?B activity, as shown by western blot analysis. In addition, in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) isolated from Nrf2 knockout mice, GT did not exert any inhibitory effect on the LPS- and IFN-?-induced inflammation. Taken together, our findings indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of GT may be associated with the activation of Nrf2, an anti-inflammatory transcription factor. PMID:25761198

CHOI, HEE-JIN; CHOI, HEE-JUNG; PARK, MI-JU; LEE, JI-YEON; JEONG, SEUNG-IL; LEE, SEONGOO; KIM, KYUN HA; JOO, MYUNGSOO; JEONG, HAN-SOL; KIM, JAI-EUN; HA, KI-TAE

2015-01-01

90

Evaluation of Geranium spp., Helleborus spp. and Hyssopus spp. polyphenolic extracts inhibitory activity against urease and ?-chymotrypsin.  

PubMed

This study was meant to determine the inhibitory activity of tannins and flavonoid compounds from Geranium robertianum, Helleborus purpurascens and Hyssopus officinale plant polyphenol rich extracts against urease and ?-chymotrypsin. The G. robertianum, H. purpurascens and H. officinale extracts were purified and concentrated by microfiltration and ultrafiltration. Phenolic compounds including flavonoids and tannins have been linked to many pharmacological activities. Thus, the polyphenolic content of the extracts was assessed by UV-Vis spectroscopy and HPLC. The concentrated extracts enriched in polyphenolic compounds (flavonoids, tannins and phenolic acids) showed a significant inhibition against urease from jack bean (over 90%), whereas in case of the ?-chymotrypsin, they proved to have an inhibition below 54%. The results of this support the use of G. robertianum, H. purpurascens and H. officinale polyphenolic extracts as potential sources of urease inhibitors. Among the three plant extracts tested, H. officinale polyphenolic extracts exhibited a high inhibitory activity (92.67%) against urease and low inhibition (19.6%) against ?-chymotrypsin and could be considered as possible remedy in ulcer treatment. PMID:23317419

Paun, Gabriela; Litescu, Simona Carmen; Neagu, Elena; Tache, Andreia; Lucian Radu, Gabriel

2014-02-01

91

Selective inactivation of triosephosphate isomerase from Trypanosoma cruzi by brevifolin carboxylate derivatives isolated from Geranium bellum Rose.  

PubMed

In the search of molecules that can serve as leads in the design of a new drug for the treatment of Chagas' disease, we found that some brevifolin carboxylate derivatives isolated from Geranium bellum Rose, inactivate triosephosphate isomerase from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcTIM) in a species-specific manner. After spectroscopic characterization, these compounds were identified as methylbrevifolin carboxylate (1), ethylbrevifolin carboxylate (2), butylbrevifolin carboxylate (3) and the methylated derivate methyl tri-O-methylbrevifolin carboxylate (4). The concentrations required to inactivate fifty percent the activity of TcTIM were 6.5, 8 and 14 microM of 1, 2 and 3, respectively, while compound 4 had no inhibitory effect. Molecular docking simulations of 1 on the structure of TcTIM showed that residues of both monomers interact with the compound. These compounds are very selective with respect to the parasite enzyme, since they showed no effect on the activity of human TIM at concentrations as high as 1mM. In conclusion, the brevifolin carboxylate derivatives described here are excellent leads in the search of a new chemotherapy for the treatment of this disease. PMID:19733070

Gayosso-De-Lucio, Juan; Torres-Valencia, Martin; Rojo-Domínguez, Arturo; Nájera-Peña, Hugo; Aguirre-López, Beatriz; Salas-Pacheco, José; Avitia-Domínguez, Claudia; Téllez-Valencia, Alfredo

2009-10-15

92

The inhibitory effects of Geranium thunbergii on interferon-?- and LPS-induced inflammatory responses are mediated by Nrf2 activation.  

PubMed

Geranium thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc. (GT; which belongs to the Geraniaceae family) has been used as a traditional medicine in East Asia for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, including arthritis and diarrhea. However, the underlying mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects of GT remain poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of GT in macrophages. The results revealed that GT significantly inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and interferon-? (IFN-?)-induced expression of pro-inflammatory genes, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1?, as shown by RT-PCR. However, the inhibitory effects of GT on LPS- and IFN-?-induced inflammation were associated with an enhanced nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activity, but not with the suppression of nuclear factor (NF)-?B activity, as shown by western blot analysis. In addition, in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) isolated from Nrf2 knockout mice, GT did not exert any inhibitory effect on the LPS- and IFN-?-induced inflammation. Taken together, our findings indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of GT may be associated with the activation of Nrf2, an anti-inflammatory transcription factor. PMID:25761198

Choi, Hee-Jin; Choi, Hee-Jung; Park, Mi-Ju; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Jeong, Seung-Il; Lee, Seongoo; Kim, Kyun Ha; Joo, Myungsoo; Jeong, Han-Sol; Kim, Jai-Eun; Ha, Ki-Tae

2015-05-01

93

Biophysical studies of interaction between hydrolysable tannins isolated from Oenothera gigas and Geranium sanguineum with human serum albumin.  

PubMed

Tannins, secondary plant metabolites, possess diverse biological activities and can interact with biopolymers such as lipids or proteins. Interactions between tannins and proteins depend on the structures of both and can result in changes in protein structure and activity. Because human serum albumin is the most abundant protein in plasma and responsible for interactions with important biological compounds (e.g. bilirubin) and proper blood pressure, therefore, it is very important to investigate reactions between HSA and tannins. This paper describes the interaction between human serum albumin (HSA) and two tannins: bihexahydroxydiphenoyl-trigalloylglucose (BDTG) and 1-O-galloyl-4,6-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-?-d-glucose (OG?DG), isolated from Geranium sanguineum and Oenothera gigas leafs, respectively. Optical (spectrofluorimetric) and chiral optical (circular dichroism) methods were used in this study. Fluorescence analysis demonstrated that OG?DG quenched HSA fluorescence more strongly than BDTG. Both OG?DG and BDTG formed complexes with albumin and caused a red shift of the fluorescence spectra but did not significantly change the protein secondary structure. Our studies clearly demonstrate that the tested tannins interact very strongly with human serum albumin (quenching constant K=88,277.26±407.04 M(-1) and K=55,552.67±583.07 M(-1) respectively for OG?DG and BDTG) in a manner depending on their chemical structure. PMID:25456986

Sekowski, Szymon; Ionov, Maksim; Kaszuba, Mateusz; Mavlyanov, Saidmukhtar; Bryszewska, Maria; Zamaraeva, Maria

2014-11-01

94

The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Pelargonium x hortorum: organization and evolution of the largest and most highly rearranged chloroplast genome of land plants.  

PubMed

The chloroplast genome of Pelargonium x hortorum has been completely sequenced. It maps as a circular molecule of 217,942 bp and is both the largest and most rearranged land plant chloroplast genome yet sequenced. It features 2 copies of a greatly expanded inverted repeat (IR) of 75,741 bp each and, consequently, diminished single-copy regions of 59,710 and 6,750 bp. Despite the increase in size and complexity of the genome, the gene content is similar to that of other angiosperms, with the exceptions of a large number of pseudogenes, the recognition of 2 open reading frames (ORF56 and ORF42) in the trnA intron with similarities to previously identified mitochondrial products (ACRS and pvs-trnA), the losses of accD and trnT-ggu and, in particular, the presence of a highly divergent set of rpoA-like ORFs rather than a single, easily recognized gene for rpoA. The 3-fold expansion of the IR (relative to most angiosperms) accounts for most of the size increase of the genome, but an additional 10% of the size increase is related to the large number of repeats found. The Pelargonium genome contains 35 times as many 31 bp or larger repeats than the unrearranged genome of Spinacia. Most of these repeats occur near the rearrangement hotspots, and 2 different associations of repeats are localized in these regions. These associations are characterized by full or partial duplications of several genes, most of which appear to be nonfunctional copies or pseudogenes. These duplications may also be linked to the disruption of at least 1 but possibly 2 or 3 operons. We propose simple models that account for the major rearrangements with a minimum of 8 IR boundary changes and 12 inversions in addition to several insertions of duplicated sequence. PMID:16916942

Chumley, Timothy W; Palmer, Jeffrey D; Mower, Jeffrey P; Fourcade, H Matthew; Calie, Patrick J; Boore, Jeffrey L; Jansen, Robert K

2006-11-01

95

TOWARDS A HEALTHY PLANT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum) is considered to be one of the top-selling floriculture plants, but there are few nutrient disorder symptoms reported for this species. The lack of nutritional information for geranium during growth and development and subsequent inability to identify specific visu...

96

Acquisition of physical dormancy and ontogeny of the micropyle–water-gap complex in developing seeds of Geranium carolinianum (Geraniaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The ‘hinged valve gap’ has been previously identified as the initial site of water entry (i.e. water gap) in physically dormant (PY) seeds of Geranium carolinianum (Geraniaceae). However, neither the ontogeny of the hinged valve gap nor acquisition of PY by seeds of Geraniaceae has been studied previously. The aims of the present study were to investigate the physiological events related to acquisition of PY and the ontogeny of the hinged valve gap and seed coat of G. carolinianum. Methods Seeds of G. carolinianum were studied from the ovule stage until dispersal. The developmental stages of acquisition of germinability, physiological maturity and PY were determined by seed measurement, germination and imbibition experiments using intact seeds and isolated embryos of both fresh and slow-dried seeds. Ontogeny of the seed coat and water gap was studied using light microscopy. Key Results Developing seeds achieved germinability, physiological maturity and PY on days 9, 14 and 20 after pollination (DAP), respectively. The critical moisture content of seeds on acquisition of PY was 11 %. Slow-drying caused the stage of acquisition of PY to shift from 20 to 13 DAP. Greater extent of cell division and differentiation at the micropyle, water gap and chalaza than at the rest of the seed coat resulted in particular anatomical features. Palisade and subpalisade cells of varying forms developed in these sites. A clear demarcation between the water gap and micropyle is not evident due to their close proximity. Conclusions Acquisition of PY in seeds of G. carolinianum occurs after physiological maturity and is triggered by maturation drying. The micropyle and water gap cannot be considered as two separate entities, and thus it is more appropriate to consider them together as a ‘micropyle–water-gap complex’. PMID:21546433

Gama-Arachchige, N. S.; Baskin, J. M.; Geneve, R. L.; Baskin, C. C.

2011-01-01

97

Defensive strategies in Geranium sylvaticum, Part 2: Roles of water-soluble tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids against natural enemies.  

PubMed

Geranium sylvaticum is a common herbaceous plant in Fennoscandia, which has a unique phenolic composition. Ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, galloylglucoses, gallotannins, galloyl quinic acids and flavonoids possess variable distribution in its different organs. These phenolic compounds are thought to have an important role in plant-herbivore interactions. The aim of this study was to quantify these different water-soluble phenolic compounds and measure the biological activity of the eight organs of G. sylvaticum. Compounds were characterized and quantified using HPLC-DAD/MS, in addition, total proanthocyanidins were determined by BuOH-HCl assay and total phenolics by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Two in vitro biological activity measurements were used: the prooxidant activity was measured by the browning assay and antioxidant activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Organ extracts were fractionated using column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and the activities of fractions was similarly measured to evaluate which polyphenol groups contributed the most to the biological activity of each organ. The data on the activity of fractions were examined by multivariate data analysis. The water-soluble extracts of leaves and pistils, which contained over 30% of the dry weight as ellagitannins, showed the highest pro-oxidant activity among the organ extracts. Fraction analysis revealed that flavonoids and galloyl quinic acids also exhibited high pro-oxidant activity. In contrast, the most antioxidant active organ extracts were those of the main roots and hairy roots that contained high amounts of proanthocyanidins in addition to ellagitannins. Analysis of the fractions showed that especially ellagitannins and galloyl quinic acids have high antioxidant activity. We conclude that G. sylvaticum allocates a significant amount of tannins in those plant parts that are important to the fitness of the plant and susceptible to natural enemies, i.e. pistil and leaf tannins protect against insect herbivores and root tannins against soil pathogens. PMID:24050514

Tuominen, Anu

2013-11-01

98

Simultaneous functions of the installed DAS/DAK formaldehyde-assimilation pathway and the original formaldehyde metabolic pathways enhance the ability of transgenic geranium to purify gaseous formaldehyde polluted environment.  

PubMed

The overexpression of dihydroxyacetone synthase (DAS) and dihydroxyacetone kinase (DAK) from methylotrophic yeasts in chloroplasts created a photosynthetic formaldehyde (HCHO)-assimilation pathway (DAS/DAK pathway) in transgenic tobacco. Geranium has abilities to absorb and metabolize HCHO. Results of this study showed that the installed DAS/DAK pathway functioning in chloroplasts greatly enhanced the role of the Calvin cycle in transgenic geranium under high concentrations of gaseous HCHO stress. Consequently, the yield of sugars from HCHO-assimilation increased approximately 6-fold in transgenic geranium leaves, and concomitantly, the role of three original HCHO metabolic pathways reduced, leading to a significant decrease in formic acid, citrate and glycine production from HCHO metabolism. Although the role of three metabolic pathways reduced in transgenic plants under high concentrations of gaseous HCHO stress, the installed DAS/DAK pathway could still function together with the original HCHO metabolic pathways. Consequently, the gaseous HCHO-resistance of transgenic plants was significantly improved, and the generation of H2O2 in the transgenic geranium leaves was significantly less than that in the wild type (WT) leaves. Under environmental-polluted gaseous HCHO stress for a long duration, the stomata conductance of transgenic plants remained approximately 2-fold higher than that of the WT, thereby increasing its ability to purify gaseous HCHO polluted environment. PMID:25698666

Zhou, Shengen; Xiao, Sunqin; Xuan, Xiuxia; Sun, Zhen; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

2015-04-01

99

Moderate Temperature Fluctuations Rapidly Reduce the Viability of Ralstonia solanacearum Race 3, Biovar 2, in Infected Geranium, Tomato, and Potato Plants?  

PubMed Central

Most Ralstonia solanacearum strains are tropical plant pathogens, but race 3, biovar 2 (R3bv2), strains can cause bacterial wilt in temperate zones or tropical highlands where other strains cannot. R3bv2 is a quarantine pathogen in North America and Europe because of its potential to damage the potato industry in cooler climates. However, R3bv2 will not become established if it cannot survive temperate winters. Previous experiments showed that in water at 4°C, R3bv2 does not survive as long as native U.S. strains, but R3bv2 remains viable longer than U.S. strains in potato tubers at 4°C. To further investigate the effects of temperature on this high-concern pathogen, we assessed the ability of R3bv2 and a native U.S. strain to survive typical temperate winter temperature cycles of 2 days at 5°C followed by 2 days at ?10°C. We measured pathogen survival in infected tomato and geranium plants, in infected potato tubers, and in sterile water. The population sizes of both strains declined rapidly under these conditions in all three plant hosts and in sterile water, and no culturable R. solanacearum cells were detected after five to seven temperature cycles in plant tissue. The fluctuations played a critical role in loss of bacterial viability, since at a constant temperature of ?20°C, both strains could survive in infected geranium tissue for at least 6 months. These results suggest that even when sheltered in infected plant tissue, R3bv2 is unlikely to survive the temperature fluctuations typical of a northern temperate winter. PMID:20851983

Scherf, Jacob M.; Milling, Annett; Allen, Caitilyn

2010-01-01

100

Chromosome number and secondary chromosomal associations in wild populations of Geranium pratense L. from the cold deserts of Lahaul-Spiti (India).  

PubMed

In this work we studied the meiotic chromosome number and details of secondary chromosomal associations recorded for the first time in Geranium pratense L. from the alpine environments in the cold deserts of Lahaul-Spiti (India). All the presently studied individuals of the species existed at 4x level (x = 14). The present chromosome count of n = 28 in the species adds a new cytotype to the already existing diploid chromosome count of 2n = 28 from the Eastern Himalayas and outside of India. Out of the six accessions scored presently four showed normal meiotic course. However, two accessions investigated from Mud, 3800 m and Koksar, 3140 m depicted abnormal meiotic course due to the presence of multivalents and univalents, and secondary associations of bivalents/chromosomes. The secondary chromosomal associations in the species existed among bivalents/chromosomes were noticed in the PMCs at prophase-1 (diakinesis) and persisted till the separation of sister chromatids at M-II. The variation in the number of bivalents/chromosomes involved in the secondary associations at M-I (2-8) and A-I/M-II (2-12) has also been recorded. The occurrence of such secondary associations of bivalents/chromosomes in G. pratense which existed at 4x level indicated the secondary polyploid nature of the species. PMID:23745363

Kumar, P; Singhal, V K

2013-01-01

101

Quantitative analysis of the thermal requirements for stepwise physical dormancy-break in seeds of the winter annual Geranium carolinianum (Geraniaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Physical dormancy (PY)-break in some annual plant species is a two-step process controlled by two different temperature and/or moisture regimes. The thermal time model has been used to quantify PY-break in several species of Fabaceae, but not to describe stepwise PY-break. The primary aims of this study were to quantify the thermal requirement for sensitivity induction by developing a thermal time model and to propose a mechanism for stepwise PY-breaking in the winter annual Geranium carolinianum. Methods Seeds of G. carolinianum were stored under dry conditions at different constant and alternating temperatures to induce sensitivity (step I). Sensitivity induction was analysed based on the thermal time approach using the Gompertz function. The effect of temperature on step II was studied by incubating sensitive seeds at low temperatures. Scanning electron microscopy, penetrometer techniques, and different humidity levels and temperatures were used to explain the mechanism of stepwise PY-break. Key Results The base temperature (Tb) for sensitivity induction was 17·2 °C and constant for all seed fractions of the population. Thermal time for sensitivity induction during step I in the PY-breaking process agreed with the three-parameter Gompertz model. Step II (PY-break) did not agree with the thermal time concept. Q10 values for the rate of sensitivity induction and PY-break were between 2·0 and 3·5 and between 0·02 and 0·1, respectively. The force required to separate the water gap palisade layer from the sub-palisade layer was significantly reduced after sensitivity induction. Conclusions Step I and step II in PY-breaking of G. carolinianum are controlled by chemical and physical processes, respectively. This study indicates the feasibility of applying the developed thermal time model to predict or manipulate sensitivity induction in seeds with two-step PY-breaking processes. The model is the first and most detailed one yet developed for sensitivity induction in PY-break. PMID:23456728

Gama-Arachchige, N. S.; Baskin, J. M.; Geneve, R. L.; Baskin, C. C.

2013-01-01

102

Evaluation of gypsum rates on greenhouse crop production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was to determine the potential of an added value distribution channel for gypsum waste by evaluating various greenhouse crops with captious pH and calcium needs. Three studies consisting of: Zonal geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum) and petunia (Petunia x hybrida); tomato (Solanum lycoper...

103

Elevated CO2 affects plant responses to variation in boron availability  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Effects of elevated CO2 on N relations are well studied, but effects on other nutrients, especially micronutrients, are not. We investigated effects of elevated CO2 on response to variation in boron (B) availability in three unrelated species: geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum), barley (Hordeum vulga...

104

Nitrogen Availability in Fresh and Aged Douglas Fir Bark  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to determine if there are growth differences in geranium (Pelargonium ×hortorum Bailey 'Maverick Red') produced in either fresh or aged Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco] bark (DFB). A second objective was to document nitrogen immobilization and deco...

105

Graded Index Silicon Geranium on Lattice Matched Silicon Geranium Semiconductor Alloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lattice matched silicon germanium (SiGe) semiconductive alloy is formed when a {111} crystal plane of a cubic diamond structure SiGe is grown on the {0001} C-plane of a single crystalline Al2O3 substrate such that a <110> orientation of the cubic diamond structure SiGe is aligned with a <1,0,-1,0> orientation of the {0001} C-plane. A lattice match between the substrate and the SiGe is achieved by using a SiGe composition that is 0.7223 atomic percent silicon and 0.2777 atomic percent germanium. A layer of Si(1-x), ,Ge(x) is formed on the cubic diamond structure SiGe. The value of X (i) defines an atomic percent of germanium satisfying 0.2277

Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R., Jr. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

106

A Rapid Method for Isolating Glandular Trichomes  

PubMed Central

A physical method is described for the rapid isolation of plant trichomes, with emphasis on stalked glandular types. The technique involved breaking frozen trichomes with powdered dry ice and collection of glandular heads by sieving from larger tissue fragments. This method was applied to several plants that bear similar stalked trichomes: geranium (Pelargonium), potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), squash (Cucurbita pepo), and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti). The tissue preparation was of sufficient quality without further purification for biochemical and molecular studies. The preparation maintained the biochemical integrity of the trichomes for active enzymes and usable nucleic acids. A large quantity of tissue can be harvested; for example, 351 milligrams dry weight of glandular trichomes were harvested from geranium pedicels in 12 hours. The utility of the technique was demonstrated by examining the fatty acid composition of tall glandular trichomes of geraniums, Pelargonium ×hortorum L.H. Bailey. These purified cells contained high concentrations of unusual ?5-unsaturated fatty acids, proportionally 23.4% of total fatty acids in the trichomes. When the trichomes were removed, the supporting tissue contained no ?5-fatty acids, thereby unequivocally localizing ?5-fatty acids to the trichomes. Because ?5-fatty acids are unique precursors for the biosynthesis of ?5-anacardic acids, we conclude that anacardic acid synthesis must occur in the glandular trichomes. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:16668834

Yerger, Ellen H.; Grazzini, Richard A.; Hesk, David; Cox-Foster, Diana L.; Craig, Richard; Mumma, Ralph O.

1992-01-01

107

A rapid method for isolating glandular trichomes.  

PubMed

A physical method is described for the rapid isolation of plant trichomes, with emphasis on stalked glandular types. The technique involved breaking frozen trichomes with powdered dry ice and collection of glandular heads by sieving from larger tissue fragments. This method was applied to several plants that bear similar stalked trichomes: geranium (Pelargonium), potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), squash (Cucurbita pepo), and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti). The tissue preparation was of sufficient quality without further purification for biochemical and molecular studies. The preparation maintained the biochemical integrity of the trichomes for active enzymes and usable nucleic acids. A large quantity of tissue can be harvested; for example, 351 milligrams dry weight of glandular trichomes were harvested from geranium pedicels in 12 hours. The utility of the technique was demonstrated by examining the fatty acid composition of tall glandular trichomes of geraniums, Pelargonium xhortorum L.H. Bailey. These purified cells contained high concentrations of unusual omega5-unsaturated fatty acids, proportionally 23.4% of total fatty acids in the trichomes. When the trichomes were removed, the supporting tissue contained no omega5-fatty acids, thereby unequivocally localizing omega5-fatty acids to the trichomes. Because omega5-fatty acids are unique precursors for the biosynthesis of omega5-anacardic acids, we conclude that anacardic acid synthesis must occur in the glandular trichomes. PMID:16668834

Yerger, E H; Grazzini, R A; Hesk, D; Cox-Foster, D L; Craig, R; Mumma, R O

1992-05-01

108

Spectral Imaging of Matisse's Pot of Geraniums: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy of color image-acquisition systems is most often evaluated using test targets of uniform color patches imaged under optimal conditions. In artwork imaging, system performance is judged visually, comparing the art with images rendered for display or print. Because the surface properties of the art may not be uniform, the spectral properties of the pigments may be different than

Roy S. Berns; Lawrence A. Taplin; Francisco H. Imai; Ellen A. Day; David C. Day

2003-01-01

109

Foliar biofilms of Burkholderia pyrrocinia FP62 on geraniums  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biofilm formation on foliar surfaces is commonly associated with plants in water-saturated environments (e.g. tropics or modified environments). On most leaf surfaces bacteria are thought to reside in aggregates with limited production of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) matrix. However, the biocontrol ag...

110

Laser Monitoring Of Phytoextraction Enhancement Of Lead Contaminated Soil Adopting EDTA And EDDS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Removal of heavy metals (HMs) such as Pb from soil, wastewater, and air is essential for environment and human health. Phytoremediation is a well established technology based on the use of certain green plants for contaminants removal from soil, wastewater as well as air. Scented geranium, Pelargonium zonal, is a flowering plant recently used in HMs removal from contaminated soil. In the present work, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and EDDS (S, S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid) were used as chemical assistants providing higher Pb availability for extraction by plant roots. Lead was artificially added to the planting media, peatmoss, at different concentrations. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to follow up Pb relative concentrations in peatmoss as well as plant shoots, at different sampling times during the experiment period. Laser induced chlorophyll fluorescence (LICF), has been also used to evaluate chlorophyll formation and photosynthetic apparatus status in geranium plants. Such measurements were performed on geranium plants grown under various Pb levels, as well as EDTA and EDDS combinations. The combined effect of EDTA and EDDS was found to enhance Pb extraction with time. Good correlation was found between LICF results and chlorophyll (a) (Chl.a) concentrations in plant tissues extracted by chemical analysis.

Hassan, M.; Abdelhamied, M.; Hanafy, A. H.; Fantoni, R.; Harith, M. A.

2011-09-01

111

Evaluating companion planting and non-host masking odors for protecting roses from the Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).  

PubMed

Effectiveness of companion planting, and use of nonhost masking odors were evaluated under field conditions for protecting roses against the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman. Three reputedly effective companion species, rue (Ruta graveolens L.), zonal geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey), and garlic chives (Allium scheonparum L.) were interplanted with roses in replicated garden plots. Numbers of beetles on these roses were compared with rose-only control plots on 6 d during beetle flight. The masking odor hypothesis was tested by hanging mesh bags of aromatic herbs or other sources of reputedly repellent nonhost volatiles around potted roses in the field. Treatments included crushed red pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.), fennel seeds (Foeniculm vulgare Miller), crushed spearmint (Mentha picata L.), cedar shavings (Juniperus sp.), osage orange fruits (Maclura pomifera (Raif) Schneid.), and fleshy gingko seeds (Gingko biloba L.). No treatment significantly reduced numbers of beetles relative to the controls. Interplanting with geraniums significantly increased numbers of Japanese beetles on roses. Similarly, roses surrounded by sachets with fennel seeds, cedar shavings, crushed red pepper, or osage orange fruits had significantly more beetles than the control plants on two or more sample dates. Our results suggest that the use of companion or reputedly repellent plants or plant odors probably will be ineffective for protecting roses or other highly-susceptible ornamentals from P. japonica. Use of such tactics in an effort to discourage other garden pests might even increase Japanese beetle damage in those plantings. PMID:12650348

Held, D W; Gonsiska, P; Potter, D A

2003-02-01

112

Boron Stress and Boron Tissue Distribution in Arbidopsis thaliana and Pelargonium X Hortorum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The micronutrient boron is essential for plant growth and development. Deficient or excessive levels of this micronutrient result in the formation of growth defects that reduce yield in crop plants and result in discarding of horticultural plants. To study the responses of plants to altered boron ...

113

Biomonitoring of Boron Micronutrient Stress in Arbidopsis thaliana and Pelargonium X Hortorum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Horticultural growers typically rely on visual symptoms of nutrient deficiencies to guide them in spot treating their plants with appropriate fertilizers. Often, visible symptoms of nutrient deficiencies occur after it is too late to remedy the situation. There exists a period of nutrient stress b...

114

Screening, isolation and evaluation of antioxidative compounds from Geranium macrorrhizum, Potentilla fruticosa and Rhaponticum carthamoides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food molecules (lipids, proteins, carbohydrates) can be widely involved in oxidation reactions. These reactions, caused by so called reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a major cause of food deterioration. In the case of lipid containing foods this process is defined as rancidity. Significant changes can occur in product colour, texture and nutritive value. Eventually the oxidation can result in complete

G. Miliauskas

2006-01-01

115

Effect of clove oil on plant pathogenic bacteria and bacterial wilt of tomato and geranium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We determined the antibacterial activity of clove oil against seven different genera of plant pathogenic bacteria including Gram-negative Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Erwinia carotovora pv. carotovora, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. pelargonii...

116

Seedling geranium response to nitrogen deprivation and subsequent recovery in hydroponic culture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nitrogen (N) fertilization recommendations to achieve optimum growth are well established for most floricultural crops. While it has been shown that plant functions can recover from N-deficiency in other crops, little research has investigated the threshold beyond which a bedding plant crop is reco...

117

Effects of a Chinese medical herbs complex on cellular immunity and toxicity-related conditions of breast cancer patients.  

PubMed

Rose geranium (Pelargonium graveolens, Geraniaceae) has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties, and promotes wound healing. Similarly, Ganoderma tsugae (Ganodermataceae), Codonopsis pilosula (Campanulaceae) and Angelica sinensis (Apiaceae) are traditional Chinese herbs associated with immunomodulatory functions. In the present study, a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to examine whether the Chinese medicinal herb complex, RG-CMH, which represents a mixture of rose geranium and extracts of G. tsugae, C. pilosula and A. sinensis, can improve the immune cell count of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy to prevent leucopenia and immune impairment that usually occurs during cancer therapy. A total of fifty-eight breast cancer patients who received chemotherapy or radiotherapy were enrolled. Immune cell levels in patient serum were determined before, and following, 6 weeks of cancer treatment for patients receiving either an RG-CMH or a placebo. Administration of RG-CMH was associated with a significant reduction in levels of leucocytes from 31·5 % for the placebo group to 13·4 % for the RG-CMH group. Similarly, levels of neutrophils significantly decreased from 35·6 % for the placebo group to 11·0 % for the RG-CMH group. RG-CMH intervention was also associated with a decrease in levels of T cells, helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells compared with the placebo group. However, these differences between the two groups were not statistically significant. In conclusion, administration of RG-CMH to patients receiving chemotherapy/radiotherapy may have the capacity to delay, or ease, the reduction in levels of leucocytes and neutrophils that are experienced by patients during cancer treatment. PMID:21864416

Zhuang, S R; Chiu, H F; Chen, S L; Tsai, J H; Lee, M Y; Lee, H S; Shen, Y C; Yan, Y Y; Shane, G T; Wang, C-K

2012-03-01

118

Treatment of the common cold in children and adults.  

PubMed

The common cold, or upper respiratory tract infection, is one of the leading reasons for physician visits. Generally caused by viruses, the common cold is treated symptomatically. Antibiotics are not effective in children or adults. In children, there is a potential for harm and no benefits with over-the-counter cough and cold medications; therefore, they should not be used in children younger than four years. Other commonly used medications, such as inhaled corticosteroids, oral prednisolone, and Echinacea, also are ineffective in children. Products that improve symptoms in children include vapor rub, zinc sulfate, Pelargonium sidoides (geranium) extract, and buckwheat honey. Prophylactic probiotics, zinc sulfate, nasal saline irrigation, and the herbal preparation Chizukit reduce the incidence of colds in children. For adults, antihistamines, intranasal corticosteroids, codeine, nasal saline irrigation, Echinacea angustifolia preparations, and steam inhalation are ineffective at relieving cold symptoms. Pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, inhaled ipratropium, and zinc (acetate or gluconate) modestly reduce the severity and duration of symptoms for adults. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and some herbal preparations, including Echinacea purpurea, improve symptoms in adults. Prophylactic use of garlic may decrease the frequency of colds in adults, but has no effect on duration of symptoms. Hand hygiene reduces the spread of viruses that cause cold illnesses. Prophylactic vitamin C modestly reduces cold symptom duration in adults and children. PMID:22962927

Fashner, Julia; Ericson, Kevin; Werner, Sarah

2012-07-15

119

Updates on chemical and biological research on botanical ingredients in dietary supplements.  

PubMed

Increased use of dietary supplements is a phenomenon observed worldwide. In the USA, more than 40% of the population recently reported using complementary and alternative medicines, including botanical dietary supplements. Perceptions that such dietary supplements are natural and safe, may prevent disease, may replace prescription medicines, or may make up for a poor diet, play important roles in their increased use. Toxicity of botanical dietary supplements may result from the presence of naturally occurring toxic constituents or from contamination or adulteration with pharmaceutical agents, heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, or bacteria, misidentification of a plant species in a product, formation of electrophilic metabolites, organ-specific reactions, or botanical-drug interactions. The topics discussed in this review illustrate several issues in recent research on botanical ingredients in dietary supplements. These include (1) whether 1,3-dimethylamylamine is a natural constituent of rose geranium (Pelargonium graveolens), (2) how analysis of the components of dietary supplements containing bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is essential to understanding their potential biological effects, and (3) how evolving methods for in vitro studies on botanical ingredients can contribute to safety evaluations. The virtual explosion in the use of botanical ingredients in hundreds of products presents a considerable challenge to the analytical community, and the need for appropriate methods cannot be overstated. We review recent developments and use of newer and increasingly sensitive methods that can contribute to increasing the safety and quality of botanical ingredients in dietary supplements. PMID:23322353

Pawar, Rahul S; Tamta, Hemlata; Ma, Jun; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Grundel, Erich; Wamer, Wayne G; Rader, Jeanne I

2013-05-01

120

Evaluation of Pansies, Violas, Geraniums and Assorted Cultivars as Bedding Plants Winter\\/Early Spring 2002-2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. We evaluated 81 cultivars from 4 genera in replicated class tests on assorted crops at the University of Florida's Gulf Coast Research and Education Center at Bradenton, Fla. (lat. 27.4 N, long. 82.5 W; AHS Heat Zone 10; (American Horticultural Society, 1999); USDA Cold Hardiness Zone 9b (U. S. National Arboretum, 1990)) in the winter\\/early spring of 2002-2003. In

Richard O. Kelly; Rick Schoellhorn; Zhanao Deng; Brent K. Harbaugh

121

78 FR 7738 - Notice of Request for Revision to and Extension of Approval of an Information Collection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Certification Program for Imported Articles of Pelargonium spp. and Solanum spp. to Prevent the Introduction of Potato Brown Rot AGENCY...certification program for imported articles of Pelargonium spp. and Solanum spp. to prevent the introduction of...

2013-02-04

122

The Allelopathic Effect of Pictacia Leaf Extracts and Pure Essential Oil Components on Pelargonium Ringo Deep Scarlet F1 Hybrid Seed Germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The allelopathic effects of leaf extracts obtained from Pictacia vera, Pictacia lentiscus and Pictacia terebinthus and limonene, beta-pinene, alpha-pinene, alpha-terpinene and terpinen-4-ol, which occur in essential oils of plants, on seed germination at 1000 and 5000 ppm doses were investigated. Among the tested extracts000 ppm doses of chloroform and ethyl alcohol extracts of P. terebinthus increased the seed germination with

Yahya Bulutsaban Kordali; Omer Atabeyoglu

2006-01-01

123

Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

Schurer, Kees

1994-01-01

124

Geomorphic and Geochemical Characteristics of Five Alpine Fens in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado  

E-print Network

coerulea), fireweed (Chamerion angustifolium), bluebell (Mertensia spp.), buttercup (Ranunculus spp.), geranium (Geranium spp.), senecio (Senecio spp.), queen?s crown (Clementsia rhodantha), aster (Erigeron spp.), and cow parsnip (Heracleum sphondilium...

McClenning, Bree Kathleen 1985-

2012-11-26

125

183USDAForestServiceGen.Tech.Rep.PSW-GTR-160.1997. Understory-Canopy Relationships in  

E-print Network

, Lolium multiflorum, Cynosurus echinatus, Anagalis arvensis, Daucus pusillus, Geranium molle, Madia spp, Taeniatherum asperum, Vulpia megalura (sic), and Lolium multiflorum, while the denser woodlands were Cynosurus echinatus, Lolium multiflorm, Bromus mollis, Geranium molle, Trifolium hirtum, Bromus madritensis, and Stipa

Standiford, Richard B.

126

1 Plant species list........................................................................................................................................................ 84 2 Post-treatment maps of individual treatment units showing openings...........  

E-print Network

oblongifolia rattlesnake-plantain Goodyera repens dwarf rattlesnake orchid Gymnocarpium dryopteris oak fern-flax Geranium erianthum northern geranium Geum macrophyllum large-leaved avens Glyceria sp. mannagrass Goodyera

Northern British Columbia, University of

127

Soil Seed Banks in Coniferous, Fire-Adapted, and Southwestern U.S. Ecosystems: An Annotated Bibliography  

E-print Network

seeds of Geranium bicknellii on jack pine sites in northern lower Michigan. The Michigan Botanist 23:81-88. Geranium bicknellii dominates vegetative cover the first year after fire on many jack pine sites were initiated. Germination of buried geranium seed only occurred in heated treatments from 3- and 35

Abella, Scott R.

128

Resources limit the fecundity of three woodland herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of supplemental hand pollination on fruit set, seed number, and seed weight were examined for 3 perennial, woodland herbs, Uvularia sessilifolia, Geranium maculatum, and Maianthemum canadense. We found no evidence for pollen limitation of any measure of fecundity. Low light probably limited fecundity in Geranium, while soil nitrogen limited the number of sseds\\/fruit in Maianthemum. For Geranium and Maianthemum

C. McCall; R. B. Primack

1987-01-01

129

Comparative analyses of two Geraniaceae transcriptomes using next-generation sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Organelle genomes of Geraniaceae exhibit several unusual evolutionary phenomena compared to other angiosperm families including accelerated nucleotide substitution rates, widespread gene loss, reduced RNA editing, and extensive genomic rearrangements. Since most organelle-encoded proteins function in multi-subunit complexes that also contain nuclear-encoded proteins, it is likely that the atypical organellar phenomena affect the evolution of nuclear genes encoding organellar proteins. To begin to unravel the complex co-evolutionary interplay between organellar and nuclear genomes in this family, we sequenced nuclear transcriptomes of two species, Geranium maderense and Pelargonium x hortorum. Results Normalized cDNA libraries of G. maderense and P. x hortorum were used for transcriptome sequencing. Five assemblers (MIRA, Newbler, SOAPdenovo, SOAPdenovo-trans [SOAPtrans], Trinity) and two next-generation technologies (454 and Illumina) were compared to determine the optimal transcriptome sequencing approach. Trinity provided the highest quality assembly of Illumina data with the deepest transcriptome coverage. An analysis to determine the amount of sequencing needed for de novo assembly revealed diminishing returns of coverage and quality with data sets larger than sixty million Illumina paired end reads for both species. The G. maderense and P. x hortorum transcriptomes contained fewer transcripts encoding the PLS subclass of PPR proteins relative to other angiosperms, consistent with reduced mitochondrial RNA editing activity in Geraniaceae. In addition, transcripts for all six plastid targeted sigma factors were identified in both transcriptomes, suggesting that one of the highly divergent rpoA-like ORFs in the P. x hortorum plastid genome is functional. Conclusions The findings support the use of the Illumina platform and assemblers optimized for transcriptome assembly, such as Trinity or SOAPtrans, to generate high-quality de novo transcriptomes with broad coverage. In addition, results indicated no major improvements in breadth of coverage with data sets larger than six billion nucleotides or when sampling RNA from four tissue types rather than from a single tissue. Finally, this work demonstrates the power of cross-compartmental genomic analyses to deepen our understanding of the correlated evolution of the nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial genomes in plants. PMID:24373163

2013-01-01

130

Patent literature on mosquito repellent inventions which contain plant essential oils--a review.  

PubMed

Bites Bites of mosquitoes belonging to the genera Anopheles Meigen, Aedes Meigen, Culex L. and Haemagogus L. are a general nuisance and are responsible for the transmission of important tropical diseases such as malaria, hemorrhagic dengue and yellow fevers and filariasis (elephantiasis). Plants are traditional sources of mosquito repelling essential oils (EOs), glyceridic oils and repellent and synergistic chemicals. A Chemical Abstracts search on mosquito repellent inventions containing plant-derived EOs revealed 144 active patents mostly from Asia. Chinese, Japanese and Korean language patents and those of India (in English) accounted for roughly 3/4 of all patents. Since 1998 patents on EO-containing mosquito repellent inventions have almost doubled about every 4 years. In general, these patents describe repellent compositions for use in topical agents, cosmetic products, incense, fumigants, indoor and outdoor sprays, fibers, textiles among other applications. 67 EOs and 9 glyceridic oils were individually cited in at least 2 patents. Over 1/2 of all patents named just one EO. Citronella [Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle, C.winterianus Jowitt ex Bor] and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus L?Hér. spp.) EOs were each cited in approximately 1/3 of all patents. Camphor [Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl], cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume), clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry], geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L?Hér.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), lemon [Citrus × limon (L.) Osbeck], lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf] and peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) EOs were each cited in > 10% of patents. Repellent chemicals present in EO compositions or added as pure “natural” ingredients such as geraniol, limonene, p-menthane-3,8-diol, nepetalactone and vanillin were described in approximately 40% of all patents. About 25% of EO-containing inventions included or were made to be used with synthetic insect control agents having mosquito repellent properties such as pyrethroids, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), (±)-p-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD) and dialkyl phthalates. Synergistic effects involving one or more EOs and synthetic and/or natural components were claimed in about 10% of all patents. Scientific literature sources provide evidence for the mosquito repellency of many of the EOs and individual chemical components found in EOs used in patented repellent inventions. PMID:21328177

Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Gama, Renata Antonaci; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Neto, Valter Ferreira de Andrade

2011-04-01

131

To link to this article: DOI:10.1007/s11240-011-0045-1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11240-011-0045-1  

E-print Network

and Kallerhoff, Jean Thidiazuron- induced shoot organogenesis from mature leaf explants of scented Pelargonium;Thidiazuron-induced shoot organogenesis from mature leaf explants of scented Pelargonium capitatum cultivars M species by conventional breeding is hampered by sterility, very low fertility or sexual incompatibility

Mailhes, Corinne

132

American Journal of Botany 87(4): 727734. 2000. MITOCHONDRIAL AND CHLOROPLAST DNA-BASED  

E-print Network

727 American Journal of Botany 87(4): 727­734. 2000. MITOCHONDRIAL AND CHLOROPLAST DNA for the genus. Key words: chloroplast DNA; Geraniaceae; mitochondrial DNA; nad1; Pelargonium; phylogeny; trn Overall phylogenetic relationships within the genus Pelargonium (Geraniaceae) were inferred based on DNA

Hammerton, James

133

20 Teams Participated GGGOOOLLLDDD banded forester: 4 Painted Ladies 70 species  

E-print Network

Blues 43 species Common geranium BBBRRROOONNNZZZEEE: Amanzimtoti 34 species African Monarch (Danaus species Peter's Team 19 species Beautiful Butterfly Squad 14 species Gosnell 13 species Makhasa 11 species

de Villiers, Marienne

134

Rutgers Gardens School of Environmental and Biological Sciences  

E-print Network

`Hot Flash' Lenten Rose #12;Summer Agastache x `Purple Haze' Agastache Agastache x `Blue Fortune' Agastache Agastache rupestris Agastache Calamintha nepeta Calmint Eupatorium purpureum Joe Pye Weed Geranium

Garfunkel, Eric

135

7 CFR 201.47a - Seed unit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...families: Buckwheat (Polygonaceae), sunflower (Compositae), geranium (Geraniaceae), goosefoot (Chenopodiaceae), and valerian (Valerianaceae); (d) One- and two-seeded pods of small-seeded legumes (Leguminosae), burs of the...

2010-01-01

136

Common name Scientific name Flower Color March April May June July August Sept. Oct. Nov. 1. Bloodroot Sanguinaria canadensis White  

E-print Network

. Bloodroot Sanguinaria canadensis White 2. Wild Geranium Geranium maculatum Pink to Rose 3. Creeping Phlox Penstemon canescens Violet 6. Black Cohosh Actaea racemosa White 7. Yellow Wild Indigo Baptisia tinctoria Blazing-star Liatris scariosa var. scariosa Rosy-pink 17. White Wood Aster Eurybia divaricata White 18

Mohaghegh, Shahab

137

Composition and Utilization of Range Vegetation in Sutton and Edwards Counties.  

E-print Network

, Whitlow u art preen parts cf flowering plcnts.. ............................... Echinochlca colonum, jungle rice fruitirppl~nts .............................................. Elymus I,rachystzchys, wild rye plants in he29..... ............................................ budding plants. Gsura parviflora ........................................... fruiticg plants.. Geranium car~linianum, geranium ................................................ green parts Grasses, mixed (Carex, Stipa, Elymus, ctc...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1940-01-01

138

75 FR 14123 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the United States. The regulations in 7 CFR Part 319 include a certification program for articles of Pelargonium spp. and Solanum spp. imported from countries where the bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 is known to occur. This...

2010-03-24

139

Antibacterial activity of plant extracts from the families Fabaceae, Oleaceae, Philadelphaceae, Rosaceae and Staphyleaceae.  

PubMed

The selected plant extracts exhibited antibacterial activity. The strongest effect was manifested by extracts prepared from Gymnocladus dioicus, Amelanchier ovalis, Exochorda racemosa, Holodiscus discolor, Philadelphus microphyllus, Philadelphus coronarius and Pelargonium tabulare. The percentage inhibition of bacterial growth was 0-41.8%. In addition it was found that extracts isolated from Amelanchier ovalis, Exochorda racemosa and Pelargonium tabulare were specifically effective only against the bacterial strains tested. PMID:11113995

Jantová, S; Nagy, M; Ruzeková, L; Grancai, D

2000-12-01

140

The germination and development of seedlings from seeds treated with growth regulators: (2-chloroethyl) trimethylammonium chloride, succinic acid 2,2 dimethylhydrazide and 2,3-dihydro-5-6-diphenyl-1,4 oxathiin  

E-print Network

effectively on geraniums and a few other retardants. Only in isolated instances have growth retarding com- pounds been used as soil amendments. 2, 4-dichlorobenzyl- tributylphosphonium chloride (CBBP) used as a soil amendment on petunia, salvia, and phlox...

Kamp, Marihelen

1976-01-01

141

Biological activity of some Patagonian plants.  

PubMed

Citotoxicity (inhibition of cell division in fertilized eggs of Loxechinus albus) and general toxicity (using embryos of Artemia salina) of plants belonging to the genera Senecio, Deschampsia, Alstroemeria, Anarthrophyllum, Chloraea and Geranium were investigated. PMID:16229970

Cuadra, Pedro; Furrianca, María; Oyarzún, Alejandra; Yáñez, Erwin; Gallardo, Amalia; Fajardo, Víctor

2005-12-01

142

BACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF PLANT ESSENTIAL OILS AND THEIR COMPONENTS AGAINST ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7 AND SALMONELLA ENTERICA IN APPLE JUICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We evaluated several plant essential oils (cinnamon bark, cinnamon Cassia, cinnamon leaf, clove bud, lemon, lemon grass, orange bitter, orange Mandarin, oregano Spanish, palmarosa, rose Geranium, and thyme) and their major components (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, citral, eugenol, geraniol, limonene, a...

143

Allergy-Friendly Gardening  

MedlinePLUS

... gardening may also help reduce symptoms. Certain flowers, trees and grasses are better suited for the gardens ... people with outdoor allergies. These include: • Cactus • Cherry tree • Dahlia • Daisy • Geranium • Hibiscus • Iris • Magnolia • Roses • Snapdragon • ...

144

Aromatherapy and Essential Oils (PDQ)  

MedlinePLUS

... mechanically pressed. Oils that are made with chemical processes are not considered true essential oils. There are many essential oils used in aromatherapy, including those from Roman chamomile , geranium , lavender , tea tree , ...

145

An internship in two market research studies: a Southwest Region Greenhouse Market Study and a local garden center market study  

E-print Network

the questionnaire cover letter and mailing out the questionnaire. Analysis of data using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and follow-up of Texas respondents were also part of this internship. The W. R. Grace Company was the sponsor of the study... center, Geranium Junction, wished to investigate the demographics of their customers and their customer's awareness of Geranium Junction's empioyment of people with disabilities. A questionnaire was developed to investigate these objectives...

Whisenant, Donna Kay

1987-01-01

146

# 1998 International Union of Crystallography Acta Crystallographica Section B Printed in Great Britain all rights reserved ISSN 0108-7681 # 1998  

E-print Network

of the Tannin Geraniin Based on Conventional X-ray Data at 295 K and on Synchrotron Data at 293 and 120 K Peter April 1997; accepted 6 January 1998) Abstract Geraniin, C41H28O27.7H2O, is the main tannin from Geranium) was isolated in 1977 as the main tannin from Geranium thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc. in an attempt to obtain

147

Visually induced motion sickness can be alleviated by pleasant odors.  

PubMed

Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a common side effect in virtual environments and simulators. Several countermeasures against VIMS exist, but a reliable method to prevent or ease VIMS is unfortunately still missing. In the present study, we tested whether olfactory cues can alleviate VIMS. Sixty-two participants were exposed to a 15-min-long video showing a first-person-view bicycle ride that had successfully induced VIMS in previous studies. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups; the first group was exposed to a pleasant odor (rose) while watching the video, the second group was exposed to an unpleasant odor (leather), and the third group was not exposed to any odor. VIMS was measured using a verbal rating scale (0-20) and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. Results showed that only half of the participants who were exposed to the odor did notice it (n = 21), whereas the other half failed to detect the odor. However, among those participants who did notice the odor, the rose scent significantly reduced the severity of VIMS compared to the group that did not notice the odor. A moderate positive correlation between odor sensitivity and VIMS showed that participants with higher odor sensitivity also reported stronger VIMS. Our results demonstrate that olfaction can modulate VIMS and that a pleasant odor can potentially reduce VIMS. The relationship between olfactory perception, olfactory sensibility, and VIMS is discussed. PMID:25633319

Keshavarz, Behrang; Stelzmann, Daniela; Paillard, Aurore; Hecht, Heiko

2015-05-01

148

Changes in carotenoid content and distribution in living plant tissue can be observed and mapped in situ using NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-infrared (NIR) excited Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy has been applied for in situ analysis of carotenoids in living plant samples. Pelargonium x hortorum leaf has been mapped using a Raman mapping technique to illustrate heterogeneous distribution of carotenoids. Mapping has also been employed for visualization of carotenoid changes induced by abiotic and biotic stress. In a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum

Rafal Baranski; Malgorzata Baranska; Hartwig Schulz

2005-01-01

149

Nutrient antioxidants in some herbs and Mediterranean plant leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hexane extracts obtained by percolation from the leaves of nine Mediterranean plants (Daphne oleoides, Myrtus communis, Pelargonium zonale, Phillyrea latifolia, Pistacia terebinthus, Quercus pubescens, Rhamnus lucioides, Sideritis syriaca, Smilax aspera) and from five leaf spices (Rosmarinum officinalis, Coridothymus capitatus, Laurus nobilis, Salvia fruticosa, Salvia pomifera) were examined for the presence of tocopherols by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, high performance

Anila Demo; Christos Petrakis; Panagiotis Kefalas; Dimitrios Boskou

1998-01-01

150

Cassava Ivorian bacilliform virus is a member of the genus Anulavirus.  

PubMed

The complete genomic sequence of Cassava Ivorian bacilliform virus (CIBV) is described. The virus has a genomic organization similar to that of pelargonium zonate spot virus (PZSV), the type member of the genus Anulavirus, but it is most closely related to a second, recently described, anulavirus, Amazon lily mild mottle virus (ALiMMV). PMID:24838850

Scott, Simon W; MacFarlane, Stuart A; McGavin, Wendy J; Fargette, Denis

2014-10-01

151

Genus/Common Name Cultivar Acalypha Kilanea  

E-print Network

Tut Dahlia Seattle Dahlia Edge of Joy Datura purple Diacsia Diva Red Dianthus Velvet N Lace Diascia) Clorinada Geranium (Scented) Lemona Gerbera Color Mix Gloxinia Single Symphony Heliotroe Marino Blue Lantana White Trailing Lavender Kew Red Lavender Ellagance Purple Lobelia Fan Burgundy Lobelia Fan Salmon

152

Old World bollworm Helicoverpa armigera Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets  

E-print Network

, carnation, cauliflower, corn, chrysanthemum, geranium, peas, pepper, pink, small grains, squash, tomatoes year in the northern range. Identification Adult : 35-40 mm wingspan and 12-20 mm long; body stout: http:// lepidoptera.butterflyhouse.com.au/heli/armi.html. Larva : Up to 40 mm long; body color varies

153

Adapting to an invasive species: Toxic cane toads induce morphological change in Australian snakes  

E-print Network

, carnation, cauliflower, corn, chrysanthemum, geranium, peas, pepper, pink, small grains, squash, tomatoes year in the northern range. Identification Adult : 35-40 mm wingspan and 12-20 mm long; body stout: http:// lepidoptera.butterflyhouse.com.au/heli/armi.html. Larva : Up to 40 mm long; body color varies

Shine, Rick

154

"What's Growing On..." RUTGERS COOPERATIVE EXTENSION  

E-print Network

for their large flowers for many years. Back in the 17th century botany wasn't an exact science. When the first in the 17th century. First came the fragrant geraniums, collected by the German-born Dutch botanist; second Management 5 Eco Fair-- WheatonArts 9 Cooperative Extension of Cumberland County www

Goodman, Robert M.

155

Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of 12 medicinal and aromatic plants were investigated for their radical scavenging activity using DPPH and ABTS assays: Salvia sclarea, Salvia glutinosa, Salvia pratensis, Lavandula angustifolia, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Echinacea purpurea, Rhaponticum carthamoides, Juglans regia, Melilotus officinalis, Geranium macrorrhizum and Potentilla fruticosa. Salvia officinalis was used as a reference plant with well documented antioxidant activity. G. macrorrhizum and

G. Miliauskas; P. R. Venskutonis; T. A. van Beek

2004-01-01

156

Sample Category Ornamental Date Submitted Sample # Host Diagnosis/ID Genus Species Sample County  

E-print Network

Palm Rachis blight Macrophoma sp. Manatee 2/3/2014 6313 Pine No pathogen found (blank) Manatee 2 None (spray burn) (blank) Manatee 2/10/2014 6325 Juniper Possible root rot Cylindrocarpon sp No pathogen found (blank) Manatee 3/25/2014 6365 Geranium Bacterial leaf spot Pseudomonas sp. or Acidovorax sp

Jawitz, James W.

157

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE BIOFILM PHENOTYPE OF BURKHOLDERIA SP., FP62 AND ITS ROLE IN BIOCONTROL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biofilm formation of Burkholderia sp. (FP62) on plant leaves and its role in the biocontrol of Botrytis cinerea(Bc) was examined on geranium. A library of mini-Tn5 lacZ1 transposon mutants was screened for biofilm formation in a polystyrene microtiter plate assay. Mutants deficient in biofilm form...

158

ROLE OF BIOFILMS IN BIOCONTROL OF BOTRYTIS CINEREA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microorganisms often inhabit the leaf surface in organized structures termed biofilms. Burkholderia sp., FP62 is a biocontrol agent of B. cinerea in geranium and forms extensive biofilms in the phyllosphere. Scanning electron micrographs demonstrate extensive phyllosphere colonization (60-70% of t...

159

Evaporation and Coverage Area of Pesticide Droplets on Hairy and Waxy Leaves  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fate of pesticide droplets on leaves is significantly influenced by the fine structures found on leaf surfaces. Evaporation times and the maximum coverage areas of single droplets (246, 343, 575, 762, and 886 µm) on hairy and smooth waxy geranium leaf surfaces were determined under controlled co...

160

Design and development of aqueous nanoformulations for mosquito control.  

PubMed

Microemulsions (ME) are thermodynamically stable isotropic mixtures of oil, water, and surfactant; they would also be attractive as potential insecticidal products due to the high bioviability of the active ingredient, attributable to the small sizes of the oil drops. A laboratory study was conducted in order to compare the biological effect of oil in water (o/w) geranium essential oil (EO) and geraniol MEs and emulsions, against Culex pipiens pipiens mosquito larvae. The systems were based on three nonionic surfactants (Cremophor EL, Brij 35, Tween 80). The MEs showed dispersed phase diameters in the range of 8 to 14 nm and had low PDI values (<0.2). The MEs were analyzed by TEM, indicating that they had nearly spherical morphology. The microemulsified systems based on geranium EO and those of geraniol produced a notable increase of the larvicidal activity when compared with the respectably emulsions, concluding that the biological effect is related with the diameter of the dispersed phase. The smallest drops achieved the highest larvicidal activity, being the aqueous nanoformulations based on geraniol most effective than those of geranium EO. However, geranium microemulsions are preferred due to their residual toxicological profiles. The results indicate that these novel systems could be used in integrated pest management program for the C. pipiens pipiens. PMID:24292544

Montefuscoli, Antonela Rita; Werdin González, Jorge Omar; Palma, Santiago Daniel; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia; Fernández Band, Beatriz

2014-02-01

161

Contributions to the Flora and Plant Ecology of Campbell Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Native plant species newly recorded for Campbell Island are: Lycopodium cf. australianum, Rumex flexuosus, R. negleclus, Cotula dispersa subsp. dispersa, Acianthus viridis, and possibly Puccinellia macquariensis hitherto regarded as an endemic grass of Macquarie Island. Additions to the exotic flora include cultivars, garden escapes, and otner largely ephemeral introductions. These are: the weeds Cardamine hirsuta, Polygonum convolvulus, Geranium pusillum, Hypericum

Colin D. Meurk

1975-01-01

162

Oxfordshire Flowers and the Plot Memorial Windows  

Microsoft Academic Search

In NATURE of May 28, 1927, p. 798, in the excellent account of the unveiling of the Wren-Ashmole-Plot Memorial Windows at Oxford, it is said that ``the surrounding wreath is of two Oxfordshire flowers which Plot was the first to recognise as new to the British flora''-Viola palustris and Geranium dissectum.

G. Claridge Druce

1928-01-01

163

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 WEED CONTROL IN GRAIN SORGHUM  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 137 WEED CONTROL IN GRAIN SORGHUM;South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 138 Important Ground and Surface Water, curly PF GE E F GE eveningprimrose, cutleaf PF GE E F GE geranium, Carolina FG E E GE GE henbit

Stuart, Steven J.

164

New and Corrected Floristic Records for Nebraska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen species (including eight Eurasian ones) are newly recorded for Nebraska: Alopecurus arundinaceus, Amaranthus californicus, Asclepias asperula, A purpurascens, Cardamine {lexuosa*, Centaurea diffusa, Dipsacus laciniatus, Eriochloa villosa, Euclidium syriacum, Gentiana alba, Geranium viscosissimum, Geum vernum, Goodyera oblongifolia, Haplopappus multicaulis, Heterotheca latifolia, Lathyrus tuberosus, Polygonum douglasii, Scirpus saximontanus, Veronica biloba. Twenty-one others are shown to be more widespread in Nebraska than

Steven B. Rolfsmeier; Robert B. Kaul; David M. Sutherland

1991-01-01

165

Molecular Structure of Methyl benzoate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Methyl benzoate is used mainly as a perfume; it has a very pleasant smell and mixes well with scents of ylang ylang, musk, rose, and geranium. Methyl benzoate also acts as a solvent for cellulose esters, as a dying carrier, disinfectant additive, penetrating agent, and as a pesticide.

2002-10-11

166

Plant extracts with anti-inflammatory properties—A new approach for characterization of their bioactive compounds and establishment of structure–antioxidant activity relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geranium robertianum L. (Geraniacea) and Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. (Rubiaceae) plant extracts, frequently used in traditional medicine for treatment of inflammatory and cancer diseases, were studied to identify potential bioactive compounds that may justify their therapeutic use and their underlying mechanisms of action. Since some of the pharmacological properties of these plant extracts may be linked to their antioxidant potential,

Sónia Amaral; Lurdes Mira; J. M. F. Nogueira; Alda Pereira da Silva; M. Helena Florêncio

2009-01-01

167

Formation of l-ascorbic acid and oxalic acid from d-glucosone in Lemna minor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conversion of d-[1-14C]glucosone to l-ascorbate and oxalate occurs in Lemna minor L. to the same extent as reported earlier in spinach and Pelargonium. A significant amount of l-[1-14C]ascorbate is converted to oxalate, but virtually none to either glycine or serine. On the other hand, little [2-14C]glycolate is converted to oxalate but a significant amount to glycine and serine. A

Kazumi Saito

1996-01-01

168

Additional Hosts for the Ring Nematode, Criconemella xenoplax  

PubMed Central

Some common legumes and weeds indigenous to peach orchards in South Carolina were tested in greenhouse experiments to determine their host suitability for Criconemella xenoplax. Legumes that were hosts for the nematode were dwarf English trefoil (Lotus corniculatus var. arvensis), big trefoil (L. uliginosis), birdsfoot trefoil (L. corniculatus), narrowleaf birdsfoot trefoil (L. tenuis), ball clover (Trifolium nigrescens), rose clover (T. hirtum), subterranean clover (T. subterraneum), striate lespedeza (Lespedeza striata), and partridge pea (Cassiafasciculata). Most nonleguminous plants tested did not support population increases, but small increases were observed on orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata), broadleaf signalgrass (Brachiaria platyphylla), purslane (Portulaca oleracea), and Carolina geranium (Geranium carolinianum). Results indicate that leguminous plants probably should not be used as ground cover or rotation crops for plants that are injured by C. xenopax. PMID:19287692

Zehr, E. I.; Aitken, J. B.; Scott, J. M.; Meyer, J. R.

1990-01-01

169

Additional Hosts for the Ring Nematode, Criconemella xenoplax.  

PubMed

Some common legumes and weeds indigenous to peach orchards in South Carolina were tested in greenhouse experiments to determine their host suitability for Criconemella xenoplax. Legumes that were hosts for the nematode were dwarf English trefoil (Lotus corniculatus var. arvensis), big trefoil (L. uliginosis), birdsfoot trefoil (L. corniculatus), narrowleaf birdsfoot trefoil (L. tenuis), ball clover (Trifolium nigrescens), rose clover (T. hirtum), subterranean clover (T. subterraneum), striate lespedeza (Lespedeza striata), and partridge pea (Cassiafasciculata). Most nonleguminous plants tested did not support population increases, but small increases were observed on orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata), broadleaf signalgrass (Brachiaria platyphylla), purslane (Portulaca oleracea), and Carolina geranium (Geranium carolinianum). Results indicate that leguminous plants probably should not be used as ground cover or rotation crops for plants that are injured by C. xenopax. PMID:19287692

Zehr, E I; Aitken, J B; Scott, J M; Meyer, J R

1990-01-01

170

Chemical composition, olfactory evaluation and antimicrobial activity of selected essential oils and absolutes from Morocco.  

PubMed

The chemical compositions of selected essential oils from North Africa, especially Morocco, of geranium, wild Moroccan chamomile and rosemary as well as absolutes of rose and geranium were determined using GC/FID and GC/MS. These oils and absolutes were tested concerning their antimicrobial activity against some food spoilage strains obtained from fresh milk and minced meat products, like sausages and pork fillet, in accordance with ISO testing procedures. Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Salmonella abony and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) strains were used, as well as the yeast Candida albicans. Using a serial broth dilution method, all samples demonstrated weak antimicrobial activity against the Gram-negative bacteria and the yeast, compared with the activity towards the Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:20922989

Wanner, Juergen; Schmidt, Erich; Bail, Stefanie; Jirovetz, Leopold; Buchbauer, Gerhard; Gochev, Velizar; Girova, Tanya; Atanasova, Teodora; Stoyanova, Albena

2010-09-01

171

New hosts of Potato virus Y (PVY) among common wild plants in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The infection capacity of Potato virus Y (PVY, genus Potyvirus) for wild-living plants, commonly occurring as arable weeds in Europe and native to or naturalised in other continents, was\\u000a evaluated. In total, 3,712 and 802 seedlings representing 21 weed species were aphid and sap-inoculated with PVY, respectively.\\u000a Experimentally-inoculated plants of Erodium cicutarium, Geranium pusillum, Lactuca serriola and Lamium purpureum tested

Agnieszka Kaliciak; Jerzy Syller

2009-01-01

172

Keimungsphysiologische Untersuchungen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Für die von mir untersuchten Samen konnten folgende Tatsachen festgestellt werden:1.Folgenden Samen kommt eine Ruheperiode zu:Aethusa cynapium, Acer platanoides, Geranium pyrenaicum, Ranunculus acer, Oenothera biennis undSilene acaulis.2.Weder auf die Keimung von Samen mit noch auf die Keimung von Samen ohne Ruheperiode haben, unter meinen Versuchsbedingungen, bei den von mir untersuchten Arten, Schnee, Eis, Wasser und Luft von 0 °

Edmond Heilpern

1914-01-01

173

Pollination ecology of five species in a limestone community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen was examined on the stigmatic surfaces of five species- Campanula rotundifolia L., Euphrasia con.fusa Pugsl.,GeraniumrobertianumL.,Potentillaerecta(L.) Rausch. andVeronicachamaedrys L.-sampledfroma locality in North Yorkshire. Competition with blossoms of other species was found to adversely affect pollination in Campanula rotundifolia but enhance il in Geranium robertianum. Proportions of foreign pollen grains, observed on the stigmas of each species. correlate with the breeding

D. J. GOYDER

174

Visitation rates and pollinator sets at the periphery and central parts of single-species plant patches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three model plant species (Aegopodium podagraria, Tripleurospermum inodorum, and Geranium palustri) were used to show the differences in visitation rates and pollinator sets between plant individuals growing at the center\\u000a and periphery of single-species patches. Most of the insect species visited the center more frequently, but Phaonia basalis (Diptera, Muscidae) and Leptura flava (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) preferred the peripheral parts. The

S. N. Lysenkov

2009-01-01

175

Nitrogen storage forms in nine boreal understorey plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storage forms of N were studied in below-ground structures of nine boreal forest understorey plants. The ericaceous shrubs\\u000a Vacciniumvitis-idaea and V.myrtillus, the fern Gymnocarpium dryopteris, the grass Deschampsia flexuosa, and the herbs Epilobium angustifolium, Maianthemum bifolium, Solidago virgaurea, Geranium sylvaticum and Trientalis europaea were sampled in early summer and late autumn from plots fertilised with a complete mixture of nutrients

Annika Nordin; Torgny Näsholm

1997-01-01

176

Emerging Plant Pathogenic Bacteria and Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several bacteria, previously classified as non-fluorescent, oxidase positive pseudomonads, Ralstonia, Acidovorax, and Burkholderia have emerged as serious problems worldwide. Perhaps the most destructive is R. solanacearum (RS), a soilborne pathogen with a very wide host range. RS race 3, biovar 2 infects potato and geranium during cooler weather\\u000a making it an additional threat. Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae has emerged as

Norman W. Schaad

177

Repellency of aerosol and cream products containing fennel oil to mosquitoes under laboratory and field conditions.  

PubMed

The repellency of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller)-containing products (5% aerosol and 8% cream) against mosquitoes was compared with those of citronella oil, geranium oil and deet, as well as three commercial repellents, Baby Keeper cream containing IR3535, MeiMei cream containing citronella and geranium oils, and Repellan S aerosol containing 19% N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) under laboratory and field conditions. In a laboratory study with female Aedes aegypti (L), fennel oil exhibited good repellency in a release-in-cage test and repellency in skin and patch tests of the oil was comparable with those of citronella and geranium oils. In paddy field tests with five human volunteers, 5% and 8% fennel oil-containing aerosol and cream produced 84% and 70% repellency, respectively, at 90 min after exposure, whereas Baby Keeper cream and MeiMei cream gave 71% and 57% repellency at 90 min after exposure, respectively, and Repellan S aerosol gave 89% repellency at 210 min. The species and ratio of mosquitoes collected were the genera Culex (44.1%), Anopheles (42.2%), Aedes (7.8%) and Armigeres (5.9%). Fennel oil-containing products could be useful for protection from humans and domestic animals from vector-borne diseases and nuisance caused by mosquitoes. PMID:15532688

Kim, Soon-Il; Chang, Kyu-Sik; Yang, Young-Cheol; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon

2004-11-01

178

Phytophthora tropicalis on Hedera helix and Epipremnum aureum in Polish greenhouses.  

PubMed

Phytophthora tropicalis was isolated from Hedera helix and Epipremnum aureum showing discoloration of leaves, necrosis of shoot base, spread upwards and on roots. The species was detected from 7/8 plants of Hedera and 3/4 of Epipremnum. Additionally Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium avenaceum and Rhizoctonia solani were recovered from some of diseased plants. P. tropicalis caused leaf necrosis of 13 plant species and tomato seedlings. The quickest spread of necrosis was observed on leaves of Peperomia magnoliaefolia, Pelargonium zonale and Phalaenopsis x hybridum. The disease developed at temperature ranged from 10 degrees to 32.5 degrees C with optimum 30 degrees C. PMID:17390874

Orlikowski, L B; Trzewik, A; Wiejacha, K

2006-01-01

179

Self-burial mechanics of hygroscopically responsive awns.  

PubMed

We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the mechanics of self-burial of some plant seeds whose morphologies respond to environmental changes in humidity. The seeds of Erodium and Pelargonium have hygroscopically responsive awns that play a critical role in their self-burial into soil. The awn, coiled in a dry state, uncoils to stretch linearly under highly humid condition because of a tilted arrangement of cellulose microfibrils in one of the layers of the awn's bilayered structure. By measuring the mechanical characteristics of the awns of Pelargonium carnosum, we find that the extensional force of the awn can be aptly modeled by the theory of elasticity for a coiled spring. We further show that although the resistance to the seed-head penetrating relatively coarse soils without spinning is large enough to block the digging seed, the rotation of the seed greatly reduces the soil's resistance down to a level the awn can easily overcome. Our mechanical analysis reveals that the self-burial of the seed is a sophisticated outcome of the helically coiled configuration of the awn. PMID:24760793

Jung, Wonjong; Kim, Wonjung; Kim, Ho-Young

2014-12-01

180

Optical properties and nondestructive estimation of anthocyanin content in plant leaves.  

PubMed

Absorption and reflectance spectra of maple (Acer platanoides), cotoneaster (Cotoneaster alaunica), dogwood (Cornus alba) and pelargonium (Pelargonium zonale) leaves with a wide range of pigment content and composition were studied in visible and near-infrared spectra in order to reveal specific anthocyanin (Anth) spectral features in leaves. Comparing absorption spectra of Anth-containing and Anth-free leaves with the same chlorophyll (Chl) content, absorption spectra of Anth in leaves were derived. The main spectral feature of Anth absorption in vivo was a peak around 550 nm; the peak magnitude was closely related to Anth content. A quantitative nondestructive technique was developed to subtract Chl contribution to reflectance in this spectral region and retrieve Anth content from reflectance over a wide range of pigment content and composition. Anth reflectance index in the form ARI = (R550)-1 - (R700)-1, where (R550)-1 and (R700)-1 are inverse reflectances at 550 and 700 nm, respectively, allowed an accurate estimation of Anth accumulation, even in minute amounts, in intact senescing and stressed leaves. PMID:11460535

Gitelson, A A; Merzlyak, M N; Chivkunova, O B

2001-07-01

181

Photosynthetic Pictures Are Worth More Than a Thousand Words  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity provides an opportunity for learners to observe and examine how carbon dioxide, water, and light produce glucose/starch through a process called photosynthesis. This process is validated through the production of starch picture images produced on a geranium leaf. The fundamental question answered by this activity is: "What actually occurs in plant leaves as a result of photosynthesis?" Learners construct a hypothesis, set up and run the experiment, record observations, and answer reflection questions. This resource guide includes assessment and extension suggestions. When executing this lab, safety precautions involving boiling alcohol should be strictly followed.

C. Ford Morishita

2009-01-01

182

Results from a Search for Light-Mass Dark Matter with a P-type Point Contact Germanium Detector  

SciTech Connect

We report on several features present in the energy spectrum from an ultra low-noise geranium detector operated at 2,100 m.w.e. By implementing a new technique able to reject surface events, a number of cosmogenic peaks can be observed for the first time. We discuss several possible causes for an irreducible excess of bulk-like events below 3 keVee, including a dark matter candidate common to the DAMA/LIBRA annual modulation effect, the hint of a signal in CDMS, and phenomenological predictions. Improved constraints are placed on a cosmological origin for the DAMA/LIBRA effect.

Aalseth, Craig E.; Barbeau, Phil; Bowden, N. S.; Cabrera-Palmer, B.; Colaresi, J.; Collar, J. I.; Dazeley, S.; de Lurgio, P.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Greenberg, C.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Marino, Michael G.; Miley, Harry S.; Miller, M. L.; Orrell, John L.; Radford, D. C.; Reyna, D.; Tench, O.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Wilkerson, J.; Yocum, K. M.

2011-04-01

183

[The in vitro action of plants on Vibrio cholerae].  

PubMed

Natural products of several plants, according to the geographic location, are used by Peruvian people in the popular treatment of diarrhea, with good success. When cholerae cases appeared in Peru, we were interested to know the "in vitro" effect against Vibrio cholerae 01, of these useful plants to treat diarrhea. The following plants were tested: Cichorium intybus, Althaea officinalis, Psorela glandulosa, Geranium maculatum, Punica granatum, Malus sativa, Cydonia oblonga, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Krameria triandria, Tea chinensis, Daucus carota, Persea gratissima, Psidium guayaba and Lippia dulcis. Decoction or infusion of the plants were used in the "in vitro" experiments. The following plants showed no "in vitro" effect against V. cholerae: Cichorium intybus, Althaea officinalis, Psorela glandulosa, Geranium maculatum, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Krameria triandria, Psidium guayaba, Lippia dulcis and Daucus carota. Decoction of Malus sativa and Cydenia oblonga showed bactericidal effect for their acidity and stone avocado (Persea gratissima) a late bactericidal effect. Tea infusión and the decoction of Punica granatum peel, showed the best bactericidal effect and we suggest to use them as to stop cholera spreading. PMID:8018898

Guevara, J M; Chumpitaz, J; Valencia, E

1994-01-01

184

Alteration of perceived fragrance of essential oils in relation to type of work: a simple screening test for efficacy of aroma.  

PubMed

The perceptional change of fragrance of essential oils is described in relation to type of work, i.e. mental work, physical work and hearing environmental (natural) sounds. The essential oils examined in this study were ylang ylang, orange, geranium, cypress, bergamot, spearmint and juniper. In evaluating change in perception of a given aroma, a sensory test was employed in which the perception of fragrance was assessed by 13 contrasting pairs of adjectives. Scores were recorded after inhaling a fragrance before and after each type of work, and the statistical significance of the change of score for 13 impression descriptors was examined by Student's t-test for each type of work. It was confirmed that inhalation of essential oil caused a different subjective perception of fragrance depending on the type of work. For example, inhalation of cypress after physical work produced a much more favorable impression than before work, in contrast to orange, which produced an unfavorable impression after physical work when compared with that before work. For mental work, inhalation of juniper seemed to create a favorable impression after work, whereas geranium and orange both produced an unfavorable impression then. From these studies, together with those conducted previously with lavender, rosemary, linalool, peppermint, marjoram, cardamom, sandalwood, basil and lime, we thus concluded that the sensory test described here might serve not only as a screening test for efficacy of aroma but also as a categorized table for aroma samples which can act as a reference to each other. PMID:10480677

Sugawara, Y; Hino, Y; Kawasaki, M; Hara, C; Tamura, K; Sugimoto, N; Yamanishi, Y; Miyauchi, M; Masujima, T; Aoki, T

1999-08-01

185

Mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) and distinguish them from other MLOs.  

PubMed

DNA of 10 lines of rice yellow dwarf (RYD) mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) from Japan, the Phillippines, and Thailand hybridized with four probes containing chromosomal and six probes containing extrachromosomal DNA of a Tochigi (Japan) line of RYD MLO. One chromosomal probe (RYD9) and all six extrachromosomal probes hybridized with various other MLOs (sugarcane white leaf, onion yellows, cineraria witches'-broom, Japanese hornwort witches'-broom, water dropwort wiches'-broom, gentian witches'-broom, udo dwarf, tsuwabuki witches'-broom, pelargonium witches's-broom, peach western-X, and pear decline). DNA from the culturable mollicutes Spiroplasma kunkelii, Spiroplasma citri, Mycoplasma hominis, and Mycoplasma orale did not hybridize with RYD MLO probes. The extrachromosomal DNAs hybridizing with the probes showed variations in electrophoretic behavior. PMID:8489230

Nakashima, K; Kato, S; Iwanami, S; Murata, N

1993-04-01

186

Key importance of small RNA binding for the activity of a glycine-tryptophan (GW) motif-containing viral suppressor of RNA silencing.  

PubMed

Viruses express viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) to counteract RNA silencing-based host defenses. Although virtually all stages of the antiviral silencing pathway can be inhibited by VSRs, small RNAs (sRNAs) and Argonaute (AGO) proteins seem to be the most frequent targets. Recently, GW/WG motifs of some VSRs have been proposed to dictate their suppressor function by mediating interaction with AGO(s). Here we have studied the VSR encoded by Pelargonium line pattern virus (family Tombusviridae). The results show that p37, the viral coat protein, blocks RNA silencing. Site-directed mutagenesis of some p37 sequence traits, including a conserved GW motif, allowed generation of suppressor-competent and -incompetent molecules and uncoupling of the VSR and particle assembly capacities. The engineered mutants were used to assess the importance of p37 functions for viral infection and the relative contribution of diverse molecular interactions to suppressor activity. Two main conclusions can be drawn: (i) the silencing suppression and encapsidation functions of p37 are both required for systemic Pelargonium line pattern virus infection, and (ii) the suppressor activity of p37 relies on the ability to bind sRNAs rather than on interaction with AGOs. The data also caution against potential misinterpretations of results due to overlap of sequence signals related to distinct protein properties. This is well illustrated by mutation of the GW motif in p37 that concurrently affects nucleolar localization, efficient interaction with AGO1, and sRNA binding capability. These concomitant effects could have been overlooked in other GW motif-containing suppressors, as we exemplify with the orthologous p38 of turnip crinkle virus. PMID:25505185

Pérez-Cañamás, Miryam; Hernández, Carmen

2015-01-30

187

Interspecific Variation in SO2 Flux 1  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to clarify the relationships among stomatal, residual, and epidermal conductances in determining the flux of SO2 air pollution to leaves. Variations in leaf SO2 and H2O vapor fluxes were determined using four plant species: Pisum sativum L. (garden pea), Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. flacca (mutant of tomato), Geranium carolinianum L. (wild geranium), and Diplacus aurantiacus (Curtis) Jeps. (a native California shrub). Fluxes were measured using the mass-balance approach during exposure to 4.56 micromoles per cubic meter (0.11 microliters per liter) SO2 for 2 hours in a controlled environmental chamber. Flux through adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces with closed stomata ranged from 1.9 to 9.4 nanomoles per square meter per second for SO2, and 0.3 to 1.3 millimoles per square meter per second for H2O vapor. Flux of SO2 into leaves through stomata ranged from ?0 to 8.5 (dark) and 3.8 to 16.0 (light) millimoles per square meter per second. Flux of H2O vapor from leaves through stomata ranged from ?0 to 0.6 (dark) to 0.4 to 0.9 (light) millimole per square meter per second. Lycopersicon had internal flux rates for both SO2 and H2O vapor over twice as high as for the other species. Stomatal conductance based on H2O vapor flux averaged from 0.07 to 0.13 mole per square meter per second among the four species. Internal conductance of SO2 as calculated from SO2 flux was from 0.04 mole per square meter per second lower to 0.06 mole per square meter per second higher than stomatal conductance. For Pisum, Geranium, and Diplacus stomatal conductance was the same or slightly higher than internal conductance, indicating that, in general, SO2 flux could be predicted from stomatal conductance for H2O vapor. However, for the Lycopersicon mutant, internal leaf conductance was much higher than stomatal conductance, indicating that factors inside leaves can play a significant role in determining SO2 flux. PMID:16664551

Olszyk, David M.; Tingey, David T.

1985-01-01

188

Behavioral effects of plant-derived essential oils in the geller type conflict test in mice.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to further explore plant-derived essential oils that possess an anticonflict effect using the Geller type conflict test in ICR mice. The benzodiazepine anxiolytic diazepam increased the response (lever pressing) rate during the alarm period (i.e., an anticonflict effect), but the 5-HT1A partial agonist buspirone did not. Oils of juniper, cypress, geranium and jasmine did not produce any effect in this test. Frankincense oil decreased the response rate during the safe period at 1600 mg/kg, but did not exhibit any effect on the response rate during the alarm period. In contrast, lavender oil increased the response rate during the alarm period in a dose-dependent manner in the same manner as diazepam. These results indicate that not only rose oil but also lavender oil possess an anticonflict effect in mice. PMID:10928328

Umezu, T

2000-06-01

189

Effects of aromatherapy massage on blood pressure and lipid profile in korean climacteric women.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on the lipid profile and blood pressure in Korean climacteric women. A wait-listed control group, pretest-posttest design was used. The subjects comprised 58 climacteric women: 30 in the experimental group and 28 in the control group. Aromatherapy massage using lavender, rose geranium, rose, and jasmine was given to the experimental group only. Each massage session lasted 30 minutes, and was performed once weekly for two 8-week periods with self abdominal daily massage at home. The intervention produced significant differences in the systolic blood pressure compare to pretreatment and significant differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressures at posttreatment between the two groups. These results suggest that aromatherapy massage may exert positive effects on blood pressure. However, more objective, clinical measures should be applied in a future study with a randomized placebo-controlled design. PMID:17654092

Hur, Myung-Haeng; Oh, Heeyoung; Lee, Myeong Soo; Kim, Chan; Choi, Ae-Na; Shin, Gil-Ran

2007-09-01

190

Enantiomeric composition of (3R)-(-)- and (3S)-(+)-linalool in various essential oils of Indian origin by enantioselective capillary gas chromatography-flame ionization and mass spectrometry detection methods.  

PubMed

Enantiomeric ratios of linalool have been determined in various authentic essential oils of Indian origin using 10% heptakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-beta-cyclodextrin as a chiral stationary phase. A complete enantiomeric excess (ee) for (3S)-(+)-linalool was characteristic of Lippia alba and Cinnamomum tamala leaf oils while less than 90% excess was noticed in Zanthoxylum armatum leaf, Zingiber roseum root/rhizome and Citrus sinensis leaf oils. On the contrary, an enantiomeric excess of (3R)-(-)-linalool characterizes essential oils of basil (100% for Ocimum basilicum) and bergamot mint (72 to 75% for Mentha citrata). Notably, some essential oils containing both enantiomers in equal ratios or in racemic forms are rose, geranium, lemongrass and Origanum. The enantiomeric composition studies are discussed as indicators of origin authenticity and quality of essential oil of Indian origin. PMID:19476006

Chanotiya, Chandan S; Yadav, Anju

2009-04-01

191

Portable Radiation Detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from Kennedy Space Center, General Pneumatics Corporation's Western Research Center satisfied a NASA need for a non-clogging Joule-Thomson cryostat to provide very low temperature cooling for various sensors. This NASA-supported cryostat development played a key part in the development of more portable high-purity geranium gamma-ray detectors. Such are necessary to discern between the radionuclides in medical, fuel, weapon, and waste materials. The outcome of the SBIR project is a cryostat that can cool gamma-ray detectors, without vibration, using compressed gas that can be stored compactly and indefinitely in a standby mode. General Pneumatics also produces custom J-T cryostats for other government, commercial and medical applications.

1997-01-01

192

Effect of oral imperatorin on memory in mice.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the effect of the acetylcholinesterase inhibiting mixture of extracts of Angelica archangelica fruit and Geranium sylvaticum on memory. Furthermore the effect of the main compound, the furanocoumarin imperatorin, which has been shown to affect several neurotransmitters, was studied. Passive avoidance was measured by step-down latency and step-through latency of 10 months old mice receiving 0.79 mg/kg of imperatorin daily, pure or as part of the extracts, for 14 days or longer. Step-down latency was significantly higher in both groups receiving imperatorin than in the control group. In contrast, no difference was found between treatment groups regarding step-through latency. The results indicate that the imperatorin is the main active component of the extract mixture. PMID:24140410

Sigurdsson, Steinthor; Gudbjarnason, Sigmundur

2013-11-15

193

Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at the Oakley Southern Sky Observatory: 2009 October thru 2010 April  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photometric data for 44 asteroids were collected over 54 nights of observing during 2009 October thru 2010 April at the Oakley Southern Sky Observatory. The asteroids were: 826 Henrika, 918 Itha, 983 Gunila, 1049 Gotho, 1167 Dubiago, 1181 Lilith, 1227 Geranium, 1604 Tombaugh, 1636 Porter, 1826 Miller, 1977 Shura, 2004 Lexell, 2196 Ellicott, 2303 Retsina, 2307 Garuda, 2601 Bologna, 2609 Kiril-Metodi, 2851 Harbin, 2881 Meiden, 3118 Claytonsmith, 3324 Avsyuk, 3640 Gostin, 4207 Chernova, 4536 Drewpinsky, 4838 Billmclaughlin, 5235 Jean-Loup, 5274 Degewij, 5240 Kwasan, (6019) 1991 RO6, 6091 Mitsuru, 6961 Ashitaka, (7111) 1985 QA1, (8228) 1996 YB2, 11017 Billputnam, (13023) 1988 XT1, (14741) 2000 EQ49, 15938 Bohnenblust, 16463 Nayoro, (17633) 1996 JU, (21023) 1989 DK, 21558 Alisonliu, (21594) 1998 VP31, (34459) 2000 SC91, and (189099) 2001 RO.

Albers, Kenda; Kragh, Katherine; Monnier, Adam; Pligge, Zachary; Stolze, Kellen; West, Josh; Yim, Arnold; Ditteon, Richard

2010-10-01

194

Effects of sewage sludge and toxic metals upon vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal symbionts  

SciTech Connect

Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAMF) are common plant symbionts that increase the uptake of water, phosphate and other nutrients into their host plants. Enhanced uptake of ions could be detrimental to plants in sludge-amended soils. This study examined the role and response of VAMF in the uptake of toxic metals (Cu, Cd and Zn) common in sewage sludge. Examination of field-grown plants (after 5 years of sludge amendment) revealed that mycorrhizal colonization of Cirsium arvense and Barbarea vulgaris was not depressed. Greenhouse bioassays of VAMF colonization potential with corn and geranium produced similar results. Enumeration of VAMF spores revealed similar values in sludge-amended and unamended control plots. Colonization (both field and greenhouse observations) and spore numbers were lower in the urea-phosphate-amended plots compared to sludge-amended and control plots.

Arnold, P.T.

1987-01-01

195

Bacterial spoilage of wine and approaches to minimize it.  

PubMed

Bacteria are part of the natural microbial ecosystem of wine and play an important role in winemaking by reducing wine acidity and contributing to aroma and flavour. Conversely, they can cause numerous unwelcome wine spoilage problems, which reduce wine quality and value. Lactic acid bacteria, especially Oenococcus oeni, contribute positively to wine sensory characters, but other species, such as Lactobacillus sp. and Pediococcus sp can produce undesirable volatile compounds. Consequences of bacterial wine spoilage include mousy taint, bitterness, geranium notes, volatile acidity, oily and slimy-texture, and overt buttery characters. Management of wine spoilage bacteria can be as simple as manipulating wine acidity or adding sulfur dioxide. However, to control the more recalcitrant bacteria, several other technologies can be explored including pulsed electric fields, ultrahigh pressure, ultrasound or UV irradiation, and natural products, including bacteriocins and lysozyme. PMID:19141041

Bartowsky, E J

2009-02-01

196

Staining paraffin extracted, alcohol rinsed and air dried plant tissue with an aqueous mixture of three dyes.  

PubMed

A staining solution containing alcian blue 8GX, Bismarck brown Y and safranin O was prepared with 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer, pH 5.0. Paraffin was extracted with MicroClear solvent from 10 microm tissue sections mounted on slides. Paraffin solvent was removed by rinsing with isopropanol, and tissues were air dried. Slides with bare dry tissue sections were immersed in the triple stain and structures could be distinguished within 30 min as follows: nonlignified cell walls, blue; lignified cell walls, nuclei and chloroplasts, red; and cuticle, brown or yellow-brown. Excess staining solution was removed by rinsing with tap water, and the tissues were air dried again. Coverslips were affixed with resin over the stained dry tissues. This novel procedure was tested with immature tomato fruit, mature apple fruit, and various leaf and stem specimens of dogwood, laurel, pawpaw, poinsettia and zonal geranium. PMID:9735876

Graham, E T; Trentham, W R

1998-07-01

197

[Study of antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds from some species of Georgian flora].  

PubMed

The antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from different parts of Georgian flora species Hamamelis virginiana L., Astragalus caucasicus Pall., Astragalus microcephalus Willd., Vitis vinifera L., Rhododendron ponticum L., Rhododendron Ungernii Trautv., Ginkgo biloba L., Salvia officinalis L., Querqus iberica Stev., Maclura aurantiaca Nutt., Cotinus coggygria Ledeb., Fraxinus ornus L., Urtica dioica L., Rhododendron caucasicum Pall., Pueraria hirsuta Matsum., Geranium pusillum L., Astragalus Tanae Sosn., Pinus silvestris L. has been studied. Comparison with ethylentetraacetate and ?-tocopherole revealed high efficacy of all extracts studied. 45 individual phenolic compounds were isolated and described by chemical examination of biologically active objects. Common sage (Salvia officinalis) extract turned out as the most active (200 %). The chemical study revealed the dominant content of condensed tannins and low molecular phenolic compounds, which may be attributed to the high antioxidant activity. Biologically active antiatherosclerotic food additive "Salbin" was developed on the basis of Common sage - Salvia officinalis L. phenolic compounds. PMID:24099817

Alaniia, M; Shalashvili, K; Sagareishvili, T; Kavtaradze, N; Sutiashvili, M

2013-09-01

198

A DNA barcoding approach to characterize pollen collected by honeybees.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated DNA barcoding effectiveness to characterize honeybee pollen pellets, a food supplement largely used for human nutrition due to its therapeutic properties. We collected pollen pellets using modified beehives placed in three zones within an alpine protected area (Grigna Settentrionale Regional Park, Italy). A DNA barcoding reference database, including rbcL and trnH-psbA sequences from 693 plant species (104 sequenced in this study) was assembled. The database was used to identify pollen collected from the hives. Fifty-two plant species were identified at the molecular level. Results suggested rbcL alone could not distinguish among congeneric plants; however, psbA-trnH identified most of the pollen samples at the species level. Substantial variability in pollen composition was observed between the highest elevation locality (Alpe Moconodeno), characterized by arid grasslands and a rocky substrate, and the other two sites (Cornisella and Ortanella) at lower altitudes. Pollen from Ortanella and Cornisella showed the presence of typical deciduous forest species; however in samples collected at Ortanella, pollen of the invasive Lonicera japonica, and the ornamental Pelargonium x hortorum were observed. Our results indicated pollen composition was largely influenced by floristic local biodiversity, plant phenology, and the presence of alien flowering species. Therefore, pollen molecular characterization based on DNA barcoding might serve useful to beekeepers in obtaining honeybee products with specific nutritional or therapeutic characteristics desired by food market demands. PMID:25296114

Galimberti, Andrea; De Mattia, Fabrizio; Bruni, Ilaria; Scaccabarozzi, Daniela; Sandionigi, Anna; Barbuto, Michela; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Labra, Massimo

2014-01-01

199

A preliminary investigation of anticholinesterase activity of some Iranian medicinal plants commonly used in traditional medicine  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some commonly used herbal medicine in Iran to introduce a new source for management of Alzheimer’s disease. A total of 18 aqueous-methanolic extract (1:1; v/v) from the following plants: Brassica alba, Brassica nigra, Camellia sinensis, Cinchona officinalis, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus x aurantium, Ferula assafoetida, Humulus lupulus, Juglans regia, Juniperus sabina, Myristica fragrans, Pelargonium graveolens, Pistacia vera, Punica granatum, Rheum officinale, Rosa damascena, Salix alba, and Zizyphus vulgaris were prepared and screened for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity using in vitro Ellman spectrophotometric method. Results According to the obtained results, the order of inhibitory activity (IC50 values, ?g /ml) of extracts from highest to the lowest was: C. sinensis (5.96), C. aurantifolia (19.57), Z. vulgaris (24.37), B. nigra (84.30) and R. damascena (93.1). Conclusions The results indicated and confirmed the traditional use of these herbs for management of central nervous system disorders. C. sinensis showed the highest activity in inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. However, further investigations on identification of active components in the extracts are needed. PMID:24401532

2014-01-01

200

Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extracts as reducing agents.  

PubMed

Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared using four different plant extracts as reducing and stabilizing agents. The extracts were obtained from the following plants: Salvia officinalis, Lippia citriodora, Pelargonium graveolens and Punica granatum. The size distributions of the GNPs were measured using three different methods: dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle-tracking analysis and analysis of scanning electron microscopy images. The three methods yielded similar size distributions. Biocompatibility was examined by correlation of L-cell growth in the presence of different amounts of GNPs. All GNPs showed good biocompatibility and good stability for over 3 weeks. Therefore, they can be used for imaging and drug-delivery applications in the human body. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to view the shapes of the larger GNPs, while infrared spectroscopy was employed to characterize the various functional groups in the organic layer that stabilize the particles. Finally, active ingredients in the plant extract that might be involved in the formation of GNPs are proposed, based on experiments with pure antioxidants that are known to exist in that plant. PMID:25187704

Elia, Paz; Zach, Raya; Hazan, Sharon; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Porat, Ze'ev; Zeiri, Yehuda

2014-01-01

201

Functional traits in parallel evolutionary radiations and trait-environment associations in the cape floristic region of South Africa.  

PubMed

Evolutionary radiations with extreme levels of diversity present a unique opportunity to study the role of the environment in plant evolution. If environmental adaptation played an important role in such radiations, we expect to find associations between functional traits and key climatic variables. Similar trait-environment associations across clades may reflect common responses, while contradictory associations may suggest lineage-specific adaptations. Here, we explore trait-environment relationships in two evolutionary radiations in the fynbos biome of the highly biodiverse Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa. Protea and Pelargonium are morphologically and evolutionarily diverse genera that typify the CFR yet are substantially different in growth form and morphology. Our analytical approach employs a Bayesian multiple-response generalized linear mixed-effects model, taking into account covariation among traits and controlling for phylogenetic relationships. Of the pairwise trait-environment associations tested, 6 out of 24 were in the same direction and 2 out of 24 were in opposite directions, with the latter apparently reflecting alternative life-history strategies. These findings demonstrate that trait diversity within two plant lineages may reflect both parallel and idiosyncratic responses to the environment, rather than all taxa conforming to a global-scale pattern. Such insights are essential for understanding how trait-environment associations arise and how they influence species diversification. PMID:25811086

Mitchell, Nora; Moore, Timothy E; Mollmann, Hayley Kilroy; Carlson, Jane E; Mocko, Kerri; Martinez-Cabrera, Hugo; Adams, Christopher; Silander, John A; Jones, Cynthia S; Schlichting, Carl D; Holsinger, Kent E

2015-04-01

202

A DNA Barcoding Approach to Characterize Pollen Collected by Honeybees  

PubMed Central

In the present study, we investigated DNA barcoding effectiveness to characterize honeybee pollen pellets, a food supplement largely used for human nutrition due to its therapeutic properties. We collected pollen pellets using modified beehives placed in three zones within an alpine protected area (Grigna Settentrionale Regional Park, Italy). A DNA barcoding reference database, including rbcL and trnH-psbA sequences from 693 plant species (104 sequenced in this study) was assembled. The database was used to identify pollen collected from the hives. Fifty-two plant species were identified at the molecular level. Results suggested rbcL alone could not distinguish among congeneric plants; however, psbA-trnH identified most of the pollen samples at the species level. Substantial variability in pollen composition was observed between the highest elevation locality (Alpe Moconodeno), characterized by arid grasslands and a rocky substrate, and the other two sites (Cornisella and Ortanella) at lower altitudes. Pollen from Ortanella and Cornisella showed the presence of typical deciduous forest species; however in samples collected at Ortanella, pollen of the invasive Lonicera japonica, and the ornamental Pelargonium x hortorum were observed. Our results indicated pollen composition was largely influenced by floristic local biodiversity, plant phenology, and the presence of alien flowering species. Therefore, pollen molecular characterization based on DNA barcoding might serve useful to beekeepers in obtaining honeybee products with specific nutritional or therapeutic characteristics desired by food market demands. PMID:25296114

Bruni, Ilaria; Scaccabarozzi, Daniela; Sandionigi, Anna; Barbuto, Michela; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Labra, Massimo

2014-01-01

203

Adverse effects of herbal medicines: an overview of systematic reviews.  

PubMed

This overview of systematic reviews (SRs) aims to evaluate critically the evidence regarding the adverse effects of herbal medicines (HMs). Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant SRs, with 50 SRs of 50 different HMs meeting our inclusion criteria. Most had only minor weaknesses in methods. Serious adverse effects were noted only for four HMs: Herbae pulvis standardisatus, Larrea tridentate, Piper methysticum and Cassia senna. The most severe adverse effects were liver or kidney damage, colon perforation, carcinoma, coma and death. Moderately severe adverse effects were noted for 15 HMs: Pelargonium sidoides, Perna canaliculus, Aloe vera, Mentha piperita, Medicago sativa, Cimicifuga racemosa, Caulophyllum thalictroides, Serenoa repens, Taraxacum officinale, Camellia sinensis, Commifora mukul, Hoodia gordonii, Viscum album, Trifolium pratense and Stevia rebaudiana. Minor adverse effects were noted for 31 HMs: Thymus vulgaris, Lavandula angustifolia Miller, Boswellia serrata, Calendula officinalis, Harpagophytum procumbens, Panax ginseng, Vitex agnus-castus, Crataegus spp., Cinnamomum spp., Petasites hybridus, Agave americana, Hypericum perforatum, Echinacea spp., Silybum marianum, Capsicum spp., Genus phyllanthus, Ginkgo biloba, Valeriana officinalis, Hippocastanaceae, Melissa officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Cnicus benedictus, Salvia hispanica, Vaccinium myrtillus, Mentha spicata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Crocus sativus, Gymnema sylvestre, Morinda citrifolia and Curcuma longa. Most of the HMs evaluated in SRs were associated with only moderately severe or minor adverse effects. PMID:23472485

Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala K; Ernst, Edzard

2013-02-01

204

Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extracts as reducing agents  

PubMed Central

Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared using four different plant extracts as reducing and stabilizing agents. The extracts were obtained from the following plants: Salvia officinalis, Lippia citriodora, Pelargonium graveolens and Punica granatum. The size distributions of the GNPs were measured using three different methods: dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle-tracking analysis and analysis of scanning electron microscopy images. The three methods yielded similar size distributions. Biocompatibility was examined by correlation of L-cell growth in the presence of different amounts of GNPs. All GNPs showed good biocompatibility and good stability for over 3 weeks. Therefore, they can be used for imaging and drug-delivery applications in the human body. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to view the shapes of the larger GNPs, while infrared spectroscopy was employed to characterize the various functional groups in the organic layer that stabilize the particles. Finally, active ingredients in the plant extract that might be involved in the formation of GNPs are proposed, based on experiments with pure antioxidants that are known to exist in that plant. PMID:25187704

Elia, Paz; Zach, Raya; Hazan, Sharon; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Porat, Ze’ev; Zeiri, Yehuda

2014-01-01

205

Involvement of liver in diabetes mellitus: herbal remedies.  

PubMed

Liver disease is considered as one of the major complications in oxidative stress disorders like diabetes mellitus (DM). DM presents with deterioration in carbohydrate metabolism which is characterized with chronic hyperglycemia. The organ which involves in glucose or carbohydrate metabolism and is most likely to be affected is the liver. Deterioration in liver architecture and metabolism in DM, are considered as common findings. In the present review both biochemical and histological changes occurring in diabetic liver are conferred in detail. To counteract the oxidative stress disorders and its untoward complications, antioxidant or herbs have emerged as alternative medicine. The present review focuses on several herbs with antioxidant properties towards diabetic liver disease such as Liquorice, Pelargonium gravenolens, Momordica charantia, Propolis from bee hives, Dihar, Curcuma Longa, Tinospora cordifolia, Kangen-karyu, Parsley, Chard, Green tea Catechins and Piper sarmentosum (P.s). The herbs or the compounds present in herbs have potential to improve the liver metabolism and maintain the integrity of liver tissue in DM. The review also opens the door for effective use of herbal products for complications involved in the diabetic liver disease. PMID:25203338

Thent, Z C; Das, S

2014-01-01

206

Apparent Resistivity and Estimated Interaction Potential of Surface Water and Groundwater along Selected Canals and Streams in the Elkhorn-Loup Model Study Area, North-Central Nebraska, 2006-07  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2005, the State of Nebraska adopted new legislation that in part requires local Natural Resources Districts to include the effect of groundwater use on surface-water systems in their groundwater management plan. In response the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Upper Elkhorn, Lower Elkhorn, Upper Loup, Lower Loup, Middle Niobrara, Lower Niobrara, Lewis and Clark, and Lower Platte North Natural Resources Districts, did a study during 2006-07 to investigate the surface-water and groundwater interaction within a 79,800-square-kilometer area in north-central Nebraska. To determine how streambed materials affect surface-water and groundwater interaction, surface geophysical and lithologic data were integrated at four sites to characterize the hydrogeologic conditions within the study area. Frequency-domain electromagnetic and waterborne direct- current resistivity profiles were collected to map the near-surface hydrogeologic conditions along sections of Ainsworth Canal near Ainsworth, Nebraska; Mirdan and Geranium Canals near Ord, Nebraska; North Loup River near Ord, Nebraska; and Middle Loup River near Thedford, Nebraska. Lithologic data were collected from test holes at each site to aid interpretation of the geophysical data. Geostatistical analysis incorporating the spatial variability of resistivity was used to account for the effect of lithologic heterogeneity on effective hydraulic permeability. The geostatistical analysis and lithologic data descriptions were used to make an interpretation of the hydrogeologic system and derive estimates of surface-water/groundwater interaction potential within the canals and streambeds. The estimated interaction potential at the Ainsworth Canal site and the Mirdan and Geranium Canal site is generally low to moderately low. The sediment textures at nearby test holes typically were silt and clay and fine-to-medium sand. The apparent resistivity values for these sites ranged from 2 to 120 ohm-meters. The vertical and horizontal variability of the apparent resistivity data were consistently low. Low resistive variability indicates little lithologic heterogeneity for either canal site. The surface-water/groundwater interaction-potential estimates are in agreement with the narrow frequency distribution of resistivity, low apparent resistivities, low spatial heterogeneity, and test-hole grain-size ranges. The estimated surface-water/groundwater interaction potential at the North Loup and Middle Loup River sites is moderate to moderately high. The sediment textures at nearby test holes were predominantly fine, medium, and coarse sand with some silt and silty to sandy clay. The apparent resistivity values for these sites ranged from 34 to 1,338 ohm-meters. The vertical variability of the resistivity data was moderately high. The horizontal variability at these sites is low to moderately low. The higher resistive variability at these sites indicates generally greater lithologic heterogeneity than at either the Ainsworth Canal site or the Mirdan and Geranium Canal site. The surface-water/groundwater interaction-potential estimates are in agreement with the generally moderate to high apparent resistivity, the greater spatial heterogeneity, and the variable lithologic texture. A higher interaction potential as compared to the canal sites is expected because of the higher subsurface resistivity and greater lithologic heterogeneity.

Teeple, Andrew P.; Vrabel, Joseph; Kress, Wade H.; Cannia, James C.

2009-01-01

207

Peril in the market-classification and dosage of species used as anti-diabetics in Lima, Peru  

PubMed Central

Background Peru is what Peruvian anthropologist Lupe Camino calls the “health axis” of the old Central Andean culture area stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. In particular in the North of the country the traditional use of medicinal dates back as far as the first millennium B.C. Both healers, and the wider population, often buy their medicinal plants in local markets, but there is very little comparative information available about which plants are sold under which vernacular name at any given time, for which indication, and which dosage information and information about side effects is given by vendors. For this study we used two traditionally used species groups “Hercampuri” Gentianella spec. (Gentianaceae) and “Pasuchaca” Geranium spec. (Geraniaceae.), found in the Mercado Aviación in Lima, as small, clearly circumscribed plant group frequently used to treat symptoms of diabetes as a test case to study the taxonomy, indications, dosage, indicated side effects, and additional species used as admixtures and hypothesized that: 1. A wide variety of different species is sold under the same common name, and often several common names exist for one species. 2. There is no consistency in the dosage, or a relationship between dosage and species marketed under one name. 3. However, there is consistency in the knowledge about usage and side effects. Methods Surveys focusing on medicinal plants sold and their properties were conducted at the Mercado Aviación in Lima in December 2012. Vouchers of all specimens were deposited at the National Herbarium of Peru. Results and conclusions Our surveys in Mercado Aviación in Lima yielded four species of Gentianella, two of Geranium, and three additional species from three genera used as common additives that were sold as anti-diabetic. These results indicate that even in case of only a few plant species, used for a very clearly circumscribed application, patients run a considerable risk when purchasing their remedies in the market. The possible side effects in this case are the more serious because diabetes has to be treated long term, and as such the patients are ingesting possible toxic remedies over a long period of time. Much more control, and a much more stringent identification of the material sold in public markets, and entering the global supply chain via internet sales, would be needed. PMID:23718140

2013-01-01

208

Dried leaves from rocky mountain plants decrease infestation by stored-product beetles.  

PubMed

Leaves of two highly aromatic plants,Artemisia tridentata (Nutt.) andMonarda fistulosa L., prepared according to a patented process, inhibited oviposition by the Mexican bean weevil,Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman), in beans at concentrations less than 1% w/w. Both plant species were less effective against the rice weevil,Sitophilus oryzae L., in wheat, with onlyM. fistulosa exhibiting any concentration-dependent activity. The maximal control achieved against this species was less than 50% at 3% w/w. Two less aromatic plant species,Balsamorhiza sagittata (Pursh.) Nutt. andGeranium viscosissimum Fisch. and Mey., caused only low levels of inhibition against both insect species. Volatiles probably caused the response toA. tridentata andM. fistulosa, while the asymptotic concentration dependence for the less volatile plant material was likely caused by behavioral factors related to the physical presence of foreign particulate matter in the foodstuff. Chemical analysis indicated that most of the volatile components from the dried leaf material from all species were terpenoids, with camphor (9.7 mg/g) and 1,8-cineole (4.0 mg/g) being most abundant inA. tridentata and carvacrol (26.3 mg/g) being most abundant inM. fistulosa. PMID:24234015

Weaver, D K; Phillips, T W; Dunkel, F V; Weaver, T; Grubb, R T; Nance, E L

1995-02-01

209

A comprehensive review of vaginitis phytotherapy.  

PubMed

To overview phytotherapy of vaginitis in order to identify new approaches for new pharmacological treatments. All related literature databases were searched for herbal medicinal treatment in vaginitis. The search terms were plant, herb, herbal therapy, phytotherapy, vaginitis, vaginal, anti-candida, anti-bacterial and anti-trichomonas. All of the human, animal and in vitro studies were included. Anti-candida, anti-bacterial and anti-trichomonas effects were the key outcomes. The plants including carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, menthol, terpinen-4-ol and thymol exhibited anti-candida effects. A very low concentration of geranium oil and geraniol blocked mycelial growth, but not yeast. Tea tree oil including terpinen-4-ol, alpha-terpinene, gamma-terpinene and alpha-terpineol showed anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-protozoal properties against trichomonas. Allium hirtifolium (persian shallot) comparable to metronidazole exhibited anti-trichomonas activity due to its components such as allicin, ajoene and other organosulfides. The plants having beneficial effects on vaginitis encompass essential oils that clear the pathway that future studies should be focused to standardize theses herbs. PMID:22514885

Azimi, Hanieh; Fallah-Tafti, Mehrnaz; Karimi-Darmiyan, Maliheh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

2011-11-01

210

Influence of relative humidity on direct sulfur dioxide damage to plant sexual reproduction  

SciTech Connect

Results of in vivo experiments with Geranium carolinianum L. showed that sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) damaged sexual reproduction (in terms of decreased seed set) when relative humdity (RH) was 80% or above but not when RH was 70% or below. Relative humidity alone, if 80% or higher, damaged sexual reproduction; the addition of SO/sub 2/ increased the damage. A high SO/sub 2/ dosage of 1.5 ppM/7 hours at 50% RH caused leaf injury, but decreased percent seed set <5%, whereas a low SO/sub 2/ dosage of 0.2 ppM/7 hours at 90% RH decreased percent seed set by 32% without visible leaf injury. At an SO/sub 2/ dosage of 0.4 ppM/7 hours administered during anthesis, percent seed set was virtually identical with the control at 70% RH, 35% below the control at 80% RH, and 68% below the control at 90% RH.

Murdy, W.H.; Ragsdale, H.L.

1980-07-01

211

Interspecific differences in the effects of sulfur dioxide on angiosperm sexual reproduction  

SciTech Connect

The major objective of this study was to test the potential direct effects of SO/sub 2/ on sexual reproduction in several plant species with different reproductive structures and processes. In marked contrast to the sensitivity to SO/sub 2/ reported by other investigators for pollen germination and pollen tube growth in vitro, and recorded for Lepidium virginicum in this study, 4 of 5 species tested were tolerant with respect to fruit and seed set after exposure to 0.6 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 8 hours during flowering. Seed set in the one sensitive species, Geranium carolinianum, was reduced 40% from the control after exposure to SO/sub 2/, but only when relative humidity (RH) was at or above 90%. The effect of SO/sub 2/ on Lepidium pollen germination in vitro was greater than the effect of SO/sub 2/ on sexual reproduction in vivo. Sulfur dioxide reduced pollen germination in vitro 94% from the control. The same concentration of SO/sub 2/, at 90% Rh, reduced pollen germination in vivo 50% from the control, but had no effect on seed set. Predictions of effects of SO/sub 2/ on reproduction in vivo based on effects of SO/sub 2/ on pollen germination and pollen tube growth in vitro are not valid.

DuBay, D.T.

1981-01-01

212

Plant extracts with anti-inflammatory properties--a new approach for characterization of their bioactive compounds and establishment of structure-antioxidant activity relationships.  

PubMed

Geranium robertianum L. (Geraniacea) and Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. (Rubiaceae) plant extracts, frequently used in traditional medicine for treatment of inflammatory and cancer diseases, were studied to identify potential bioactive compounds that may justify their therapeutic use and their underlying mechanisms of action. Since some of the pharmacological properties of these plant extracts may be linked to their antioxidant potential, the antioxidant activity, in relation to free radical scavenging, was measured by the ABTS/HRP and DPPH() assays, presenting U. tomentosa the higher activity. The antioxidant activity was also evaluated by scavenging of HOCl, the major strong oxidant produced by neutrophils and a potent pro-inflammatory agent. U. tomentosa was found to be a better protector against HOCl, which may justify its effectiveness against inflammatory diseases. SPE/LC-DAD was used for separation/purification purposes and ESI-MS/MS for identification/characterization of the major non-volatile components, mainly flavonoids and phenolic acids. The ESI-MS/MS methodology proposed can be used as a model procedure for identification/characterization of unknowns without the prerequisite for standard compounds analysis. The ESI-MS/MS data obtained were consistent with the antioxidant activity results and structure-activity relationships for the compounds identified were discussed. PMID:19201196

Amaral, Sónia; Mira, Lurdes; Nogueira, J M F; da Silva, Alda Pereira; Helena Florêncio, M

2009-03-01

213

Inhibition of quorum-sensing signals by essential oils.  

PubMed

The role of quorum sensing (QS) is well known in microbial pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance. QS is responsible for motility, swarming, and biofilm production based on the signal molecules, e.g., acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) produced by micro-organisms above certain population density. The inhibition of QS may reduce pathogenicity, antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation in systemic and local infections. The homoserine lactones and other transmitters contribute to antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity of several bacteria; consequently the inhibition of QS signals reduces the problem of resistance and virulence. Due to the increasing number of persistent non-treatable infections, there is an urgent need to develop new strategies to combat infections that destabilize bacterial communities in the host. The effect of essential oils on bacterial growth and QS were evaluated using the sensor strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) producing Escherichia coli ATTC 31298 and the grapevine colonizing Ezf 10-17 strains. Of the tested oils, rose, geranium, lavender and rosemary oils were the most potent QS inhibitors. Eucalyptus and citrus oils moderately reduced pigment production by CV026, whereas the chamomile, orange and juniper oils were ineffective. PMID:19827025

Szabó, Mira Agnes; Varga, Gábor Zoltán; Hohmann, Judit; Schelz, Zsuzsanna; Szegedi, Erno; Amaral, Leonard; Molnár, József

2010-05-01

214

Assessing the separation of neutral plant secondary metabolites by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.  

PubMed

In this work, partition coefficients (Pwm) and solute-micelle association constants per monomer (Km/N) were measured using micellar electrokinetic chromatography in tetraborate-sodium dodecylsulfate electrolytes for 18 important plant secondary metabolites (coumarin, verbenone, camphor, eucalyptol, carvone, alpha-terpineol, linalool, jasmone, bergapten, rose oxide, geraniol, t-anethole, citronellal, citronellol, p-cymene, limonene, caryophyllene and nerol) of wide occurrence in herbal extracts and essential oils. Caryophyllene presented a retention time longer than anthracene (micelle marker) and its set of constants could not be determined accurately. Pwm and Km/N were generated by the non-linear data fitting of both partition and solute-micelle association models for the 17 solutes under consideration (caryophyllene excluded). Pwm varied from 147 (coumarin) to 13175 (limonene) while Km/N varied from 37 (coumarin) to 3721 (limonene). Under optimal conditions, the separation of the selected compounds was attempted successfully in commercialized samples of rose, anise and geranium essential oils. PMID:12929969

Micke, Gustavo A; Moraes, Edgar P; Farah, João P S; Tavares, Marina F M

2003-07-01

215

Evaluation of the effects of plant-derived essential oils on central nervous system function using discrete shuttle-type conditioned avoidance response in mice.  

PubMed

Although plant-derived essential oils (EOs) have been used to treat various mental disorders, their central nervous system (CNS) acting effects have not been clarified. The present study compared the effects of 20 kinds of EOs with the effects of already-known CNS acting drugs to examine whether the EOs exhibited CNS stimulant-like effects, CNS depressant-like effects, or neither. All agents were tested using a discrete shuttle-type conditioned avoidance task in mice. Essential oils of peppermint and chamomile exhibited CNS stimulant-like effects; that is, they increased the response rate (number of shuttlings/min) of the avoidance response. Linden also increased the response rate, however, the effect was not dose-dependent. In contrast, EOs of orange, grapefruit, and cypress exhibited CNS depressant-like effects; that is, they decreased the response rate of the avoidance response. Essential oils of eucalyptus and rose decreased the avoidance rate (number of avoidance responses/number of avoidance trials) without affecting the response rate, indicating that they may exhibit some CNS acting effects. Essential oils of 12 other plants, including juniper, patchouli, geranium, jasmine, clary sage, neroli, lavender, lemon, ylang-ylang, niaouli, vetivert and frankincense had no effect on the avoidance response in mice. PMID:22086772

Umezu, Toyoshi

2012-06-01

216

Aromatherapy massage affects menopausal symptoms in korean climacteric women: a pilot-controlled clinical trial.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight times in total). The experimental group reported a significantly lower total menopausal index than wait-listed controls (P < 0.05). There were also significant intergroup differences in subcategories such as vasomotor, melancholia, arthralgia and myalgia (all P < 0.05). These findings suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, depression and pain in climacteric women. However, it could not be verified whether the positive effects were from the aromatherapy, the massage or both. Further rigorous studies should be done with more objective measures. PMID:18830459

Hur, Myung-Haeng; Yang, Yun Seok; Lee, Myeong Soo

2008-09-01

217

Molecular diagnostic procedures for production of pathogen-free propagation material.  

PubMed

Production of disease-free propagation material is a major means of controlling most bacterial diseases of plants, particularly when neither resistant clones nor effective chemical treatments are available. For this purpose sensitive, specific and rapid detection methods are required. The advent of molecular biology and, in particular, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has opened new ways for the characterization and identification of plant pathogens and the development of disease-management strategies. PCR-based detection methods rely on the development of primers for the specific detection of the pathogen. The use of pathogenicity genes as targets for primer design is the preferred procedure for obtaining specific primers but other procedures may also be useful for this purpose. In the present review we describe four examples of procedures for detecting four important bacterial pathogens in Israel: Erwinia herbicola pv gypsophilae in gypsophila, Xanthomonas campestris pv pelargonii in geranium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens in asters and roses, and Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris in crucifers. Procedures for constructing specific PCR primers for each bacterium are illustrated and discussed as well as the combination of PCR with other methods. PMID:12449531

Manulis, Shulamit; Chalupowicz, Laura; Dror, Orit; Kleitman, Frida

2002-11-01

218

Bioindication of heavy metals with aquatic macrophytes: the case of a stream polluted with power plant sewages in Poland.  

PubMed

The Kozi Brod (left tributary of the Biala Przemsza, east of Katowice) flows in a highly industrial coal-mining area dominated by the power plant of Siersza. Concentrations of the microelements nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), barium (Ba), aluminum (Al), vanadium (V), and strontium (Sr), as well as the macronutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and sulfur (S), were measured in water and plants of the Kozi Brod. The collected plants were: Myosotis palustris L. Nathorst, Galium palustre L., Mentha rotundifolia L. Huds., Mentha aquatica L., Berula erecta (Huds.) Coville, Cardamine amara L., Epilobium angustifolium L., Geranium palustre L., Lysimachia vulgaris L., Crepis paludosa L. Much., Calitriche verna L., Solanum dulcamara L., and the aquatic moss Hygrohypnum ochraceum (Turn.) Loesk. These plants were used to evaluate the spatial distribution of elements in the Kozi Brod and contained elevated levels of Co, Cd, Zn, Ni, Mn, Al, Pb, and Cu. Significant correlations between concentrations of Cd, Zn, and Mn in water and plants indicate the potential of these species for pollution monitoring. PMID:11205536

Samecka-Cymerman, A; Kempers, A J

2001-01-12

219

In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils  

PubMed Central

Background: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of 21 plant essential oils against six bacterial species. Methods: The selected essential oils were screened against four gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris) and two gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus at four different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20) using disc diffusion method. The MIC of the active essential oils were tested using two fold agar dilution method at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 25.6 mg/ml. Results: Out of 21 essential oils tested, 19 oils showed antibacterial activity against one or more strains. Cinnamon, clove, geranium, lemon, lime, orange and rosemary oils exhibited significant inhibitory effect. Cinnamon oil showed promising inhibitory activity even at low concentration, whereas aniseed, eucalyptus and camphor oils were least active against the tested bacteria. In general, B. subtilis was the most susceptible. On the other hand, K. pneumoniae exhibited low degree of sensitivity. Conclusion: Majority of the oils showed antibacterial activity against the tested strains. However Cinnamon, clove and lime oils were found to be inhibiting both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Cinnamon oil can be a good source of antibacterial agents. PMID:17134518

Prabuseenivasan, Seenivasan; Jayakumar, Manickkam; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

2006-01-01

220

Molecular Structure of Camphor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Camphor is found in numerous plants like sage and geraniums and several trees. Since it has wide applications it is both extracted from plants and synthesized around the world, especially in China, India, and the U.S. Camphor is white and has a strong, penetrating fragrant odor and a bitter, pungent taste. The crystalline substance causes an icy feeling when touched. Camphor oil, containing cineol, borneol, camphene, menthol, pinene and other components besides camphor, is mainly found in C.camphora and Dryobalanops camphora. C.camphora is an evergreen tree, which grows slowly and to immense sizes. Some growers believe that the camphor oil should not be taken from a tree younger than fifty years. There are two kinds of camphor oil on the market nowadays: one is from C. cinnamonum, and is recognized as Formosa or Japanese oil of Camphor; the other from D. aromatica is known as east India oil. Camphor oil is used in medical applications to treat numerous diseases. Camphor is also used as food preservative and safe pesticide.

2002-10-18

221

THE BIOCHEMISTRY OF ANTHOCYANINS.  

PubMed

1. An explanation has been given for the effect of subdued light on the development of anthocyanins. This effect was observed by von Sachs and by Sorby seventy years ago. Nobody has made an exhaustive study of the subject, although Askenasy, Hugo Fischer and others have done work along these lines. 2. When a flavone is reduced to an anthocyanin, as with the Japanese quince, cutting off ultra-violet light prevents the formation of the anthocyanin. 3. When the anthocyanin is formed by the hydrolysis of a leuco-anthocyanin, cutting off of ultraviolet light will not necessarily prevent the formation of the anthocyanin. This occurs with the geranium. 4. We do not know at all approximately how many or which flowers belong to what I call the flavone type and how many or which to the leuco-anthocyanin type. 5. After the biochemistry of the anthocyanins shall have been worked out the botanists and chemists should concentrate on the biochemistry of the carotenes, the lycopenes and chlorophyll. PMID:17743749

Bancroft, W D

1943-07-30

222

Geraniin suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and ameliorates wear particle-induced osteolysis in mouse model.  

PubMed

Wear particle-induced osteolysis and subsequent aseptic loosening remains the most common complication that limits the longevity of prostheses. Wear particle-induced osteoclastogenesis is known to be responsible for extensive bone erosion that leads to prosthesis failure. Thus, inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption may serve as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of wear particle induced osteolysis. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that geraniin, an active natural compound derived from Geranium thunbergii, ameliorated particle-induced osteolysis in a Ti particle-induced mouse calvaria model in vivo. We also investigated the mechanism by which geraniin exerts inhibitory effects on osteoclasts. Geraniin inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in a dose-dependent manner, evidenced by reduced osteoclast formation and suppressed osteoclast specific gene expression. Specially, geraniin inhibited actin ring formation and bone resorption in vitro. Further molecular investigation demonstrated geraniin impaired osteoclast differentiation via the inhibition of the RANKL-induced NF-?B and ERK signaling pathways, as well as suppressed the expression of key osteoclast transcriptional factors NFATc1 and c-Fos. Collectively, our data suggested that geraniin exerts inhibitory effects on osteoclast differentiation in vitro and suppresses Ti particle-induced osteolysis in vivo. Geraniin is therefore a potential natural compound for the treatment of wear particle induced osteolysis in prostheses failure. PMID:25016282

Xiao, Fei; Zhai, Zanjing; Jiang, Chuan; Liu, Xuqiang; Li, Haowei; Qu, Xinhua; Ouyang, Zhengxiao; Fan, Qiming; Tang, Tingting; Qin, An; Gu, Dongyun

2015-01-01

223

Are plants grown under low visible irradiance sensitive to low levels of ultraviolet-B radiation?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical question in ultraviolet-B radiation research is how different portions of the solar spectrum influence plant UV B sensitivity. Field-grown plants show only subtle responses to supplemental UV-B radiation in many aspects of growth, yet plants grown under low visible light (as in most growth chambers and greenhouses) show much more discernible changes. Here we assess a specific aspect of UV-B sensitivity in plants grown under lower PAR: when one maintains a constant proportion of UV-B to PAR, but different absolute irradiance levels, does plant sensitivity to UV-B change? We conducted field experiments at near-ambient PAR and enhanced UV-B, and also with reduced irradiance in both wavebands, on three species. Each of these species occurs in both open and shaded habitats. We found the grass Setaria viridis sensitive to UV-B radiation only when grown at lower irradiances, while the forb Geranium viscosissimum was only sensitive to UV-B at the higher irradiances. In the grass Elymus glaucus, UV-B sensitivity did not appear to be influenced by the irradiance levels. Species appear to respond differently to these changes in irradiance levels, and an array of physiological and anatomical mechanisms are likely involved.

Flint, Stephan D.; Caldwell, Martyn M.; Ryel, Ron J.

2005-08-01

224

Fungal Planet description sheets: 281-319.  

PubMed

Novel species of fungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Alanphillipsia aloeicola from Aloe sp., Arxiella dolichandrae from Dolichandra unguiscati, Ganoderma austroafricanum from Jacaranda mimosifolia, Phacidiella podocarpi and Phaeosphaeria podocarpi from Podocarpus latifolius, Phyllosticta mimusopisicola from Mimusops zeyheri and Sphaerulina pelargonii from Pelargonium sp. Furthermore, Barssia maroccana is described from Cedrus atlantica (Morocco), Codinaea pini from Pinus patula (Uganda), Crucellisporiopsis marquesiae from Marquesia acuminata (Zambia), Dinemasporium ipomoeae from Ipomoea pes-caprae (Vietnam), Diaporthe phragmitis from Phragmites australis (China), Marasmius vladimirii from leaf litter (India), Melanconium hedericola from Hedera helix (Spain), Pluteus albotomentosus and Pluteus extremiorientalis from a mixed forest (Russia), Rachicladosporium eucalypti from Eucalyptus globulus (Ethiopia), Sistotrema epiphyllum from dead leaves of Fagus sylvatica in a forest (The Netherlands), Stagonospora chrysopyla from Scirpus microcarpus (USA) and Trichomerium dioscoreae from Dioscorea sp. (Japan). Novel species from Australia include: Corynespora endiandrae from Endiandra introrsa, Gonatophragmium triuniae from Triunia youngiana, Penicillium coccotrypicola from Archontophoenix cunninghamiana and Phytophthora moyootj from soil. Novelties from Iran include Neocamarosporium chichastianum from soil and Seimatosporium pistaciae from Pistacia vera. Xenosonderhenia eucalypti and Zasmidium eucalyptigenum are newly described from Eucalyptus urophylla in Indonesia. Diaporthe acaciarum and Roussoella acacia are newly described from Acacia tortilis in Tanzania. New species from Italy include Comoclathris spartii from Spartium junceum and Phoma tamaricicola from Tamarix gallica. Novel genera include (Ascomycetes): Acremoniopsis from forest soil and Collarina from water sediments (Spain), Phellinocrescentia from a Phellinus sp. (French Guiana), Neobambusicola from Strelitzia nicolai (South Africa), Neocladophialophora from Quercus robur (Germany), Neophysalospora from Corymbia henryi (Mozambique) and Xenophaeosphaeria from Grewia sp. (Tanzania). Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa. PMID:25737601

Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Schumacher, R K; Summerell, B A; Giraldo, A; Gené, J; Guarro, J; Wanasinghe, D N; Hyde, K D; Camporesi, E; Gareth Jones, E B; Thambugala, K M; Malysheva, E F; Malysheva, V F; Acharya, K; Álvarez, J; Alvarado, P; Assefa, A; Barnes, C W; Bartlett, J S; Blanchette, R A; Burgess, T I; Carlavilla, J R; Coetzee, M P A; Damm, U; Decock, C A; den Breeÿen, A; de Vries, B; Dutta, A K; Holdom, D G; Rooney-Latham, S; Manjón, J L; Marincowitz, S; Mirabolfathy, M; Moreno, G; Nakashima, C; Papizadeh, M; Shahzadeh Fazeli, S A; Amoozegar, M A; Romberg, M K; Shivas, R G; Stalpers, J A; Stielow, B; Stukely, M J C; Swart, W J; Tan, Y P; van der Bank, M; Wood, A R; Zhang, Y; Groenewald, J Z

2014-12-01

225

Applicability of leachates originating from solid-waste landfills for irrigation in landfill restoration projects.  

PubMed

Since, landfill areas are still the most widely used solid waste disposal method across the world, leachate generated from landfills should be given importance. Leachate of landfills exerts environmental risks mostly on surface and groundwater with its high pollutant content, which may cause unbearable water quality. This leads to the obligation for decontamination and remediation program to be taken into progress for the landfill area. Among a number of alternatives to cope with leachate, one is to employ the technology of phytoremediation. The main objective of this study was to determine the N accumulation ratios and the effects of landfill leachate in diluted proportions of chosen ratios (as 1/1, 1/2, 1/4, 0), on the growth and development of Cynodon dactylon, Stenotaphrum secundatum, Paspalum notatum, Pennisetum clandestinum, Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Nerium oleander, Pelargonium peltatum and Kochia scoparia species. In order to simulate the actual conditions of the landfill, soil covering the landfill is taken and used as medium for the trials. The study showed that S. secundatum, K. scoparia and N. oleander species had an impressive survival rate of 100%, being irrigated with pure leachate, while the others' survival rates were between 0 to 35% under the same conditions. As expected, application of leachate to the plants caused an increase in the accumulation of N, in the upper parts of all plants except P. peltatum. The highest N content increase was observed at S. Secundatum set, accumulating 3.70 times higher than its control set, whereas P. clandestinum value was 3.41 times of its control set. PMID:19295082

Erdogan, Reyhan; Zaimoglu, Zeynep; Sucu, M Yavuz; Budak, Fuat; Kekec, Secil

2008-09-01

226

Genome-wide analyses of Geraniaceae plastid DNA reveal unprecedented patterns of increased nucleotide substitutions  

PubMed Central

Angiosperm plastid genomes are generally conserved in gene content and order with rates of nucleotide substitutions for protein-coding genes lower than for nuclear protein-coding genes. A few groups have experienced genomic change, and extreme changes in gene content and order are found within the flowering plant family Geraniaceae. The complete plastid genome sequence of Pelargonium X hortorum (Geraniaceae) reveals the largest and most rearranged plastid genome identified to date. Highly elevated rates of sequence evolution in Geraniaceae mitochondrial genomes have been reported, but rates in Geraniaceae plastid genomes have not been characterized. Analysis of nucleotide substitution rates for 72 plastid genes for 47 angiosperm taxa, including nine Geraniaceae, show that values of dN are highly accelerated in ribosomal protein and RNA polymerase genes throughout the family. Furthermore, dN/dS is significantly elevated in the same two classes of plastid genes as well as in ATPase genes. A relatively high dN/dS ratio could be interpreted as evidence of two phenomena, namely positive or relaxed selection, neither of which is consistent with our current understanding of plastid genome evolution in photosynthetic plants. These analyses are the first to use protein-coding sequences from complete plastid genomes to characterize rates and patterns of sequence evolution for a broad sampling of photosynthetic angiosperms, and they reveal unprecedented accumulation of nucleotide substitutions in Geraniaceae. To explain these remarkable substitution patterns in the highly rearranged Geraniaceae plastid genomes, we propose a model of aberrant DNA repair coupled with altered gene expression. PMID:19011103

Guisinger, Mary M.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Jansen, Robert K.

2008-01-01

227

Extensive rearrangements in the chloroplast genome of Trachelium caeruleum are associated with repeats and tRNA genes.  

PubMed

Chloroplast genome organization, gene order, and content are highly conserved among land plants. We sequenced the chloroplast genome of Trachelium caeruleum L. (Campanulaceae), a member of an angiosperm family known for highly rearranged genomes. The total genome size is 162,321 bp, with an inverted repeat (IR) of 27,273 bp, large single-copy (LSC) region of 100,114 bp, and small single-copy (SSC) region of 7,661 bp. The genome encodes 112 different genes, with 17 duplicated in the IR, a tRNA gene (trnI-cau) duplicated once in the LSC region, and a protein-coding gene (psbJ) with two duplicate copies, for a total of 132 putatively intact genes. ndhK may be a pseudogene with internal stop codons, and clpP, ycf1, and ycf2 are so highly diverged that they also may be pseudogenes. ycf15, rpl23, infA, and accD are truncated and likely nonfunctional. The most conspicuous feature of the Trachelium genome is the presence of 18 internally unrearranged blocks of genes inverted or relocated within the genome relative to the ancestral gene order of angiosperm chloroplast genomes. Recombination between repeats or tRNA genes has been suggested as a mechanism of chloroplast genome rearrangements. The Trachelium chloroplast genome shares with Pelargonium and Jasminum both a higher number of repeats and larger repeated sequences in comparison to eight other angiosperm chloroplast genomes, and these are concentrated near rearrangement endpoints. Genes for tRNAs occur at many but not all inversion endpoints, so some combination of repeats and tRNA genes may have mediated these rearrangements. PMID:18330485

Haberle, Rosemarie C; Fourcade, H Matthew; Boore, Jeffrey L; Jansen, Robert K

2008-04-01

228

Activated charcoal-mediated RNA extraction method for Azadirachta indica and plants highly rich in polyphenolics, polysaccharides and other complex secondary compounds  

PubMed Central

Background High quality RNA is a primary requisite for numerous molecular biological applications but is difficult to isolate from several plants rich in polysaccharides, polyphenolics and other secondary metabolites. These compounds either bind with nucleic acids or often co-precipitate at the final step and many times cannot be removed by conventional methods and kits. Addition of vinyl-pyrollidone polymers in extraction buffer efficiently removes polyphenolics to some extent, but, it failed in case of Azadirachta indica and several other medicinal and aromatic plants. Findings Here we report the use of adsorption property of activated charcoal (0.03%–0.1%) in RNA isolation procedures to remove complex secondary metabolites and polyphenolics to yield good quality RNA from Azadirachta indica. We tested and validated our modified RNA isolation method across 21 different plants including Andrographis paniculata, Aloe vera, Rosa damascena, Pelargonium graveolens, Phyllanthus amarus etc. from 13 other different families, many of which are considered as tough system for isolating RNA. The A260/280 ratio of the extracted RNA ranged between 1.8-2.0 and distinct 28S and 18S ribosomal RNA bands were observed in denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis. Analysis using Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer revealed intact total RNA yield with very good RNA Integrity Number. Conclusions The RNA isolated by our modified method was found to be of high quality and amenable for sensitive downstream molecular applications like subtractive library construction and RT-PCR. This modified RNA isolation procedure would aid and accelerate the biotechnological studies in complex medicinal and aromatic plants which are extremely rich in secondary metabolic compounds. PMID:23537338

2013-01-01

229

Biological and molecular characterization of a novel carmovirus isolated from angelonia.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT A new carmovirus was isolated from Angelonia plants (Angelonia angustifolia), with flower break and mild foliar symptoms, grown in the United States and Israel. The virus, for which the name Angelonia flower break virus (AnFBV) is proposed, has isometric particles, approximately 30 nm in diameter. The experimental host range was limited to Nicotiana species, Schizanthus pinnatus, Myosotis sylvatica, Phlox drummondii, and Digitalis purpurea. Virions were isolated from systemically infected N. benthamiana leaves, and directly from naturally infected Angelonia leaves, using typical carmovirus protocols. Koch's postulates were completed by mechanical inoculation of uninfected Angelonia seedlings with purified virions. Isometric particles were observed in leaf dips and virion preparations from both Angelonia and N. benthamiana, and in thin sections of Angelonia flower tissue by electron microscopy. In sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of dissociated purified virus preparations, a major protein component with a molecular mass of 38 kDa was observed. Virion preparations were used to produce virus-specific polyclonal antisera in both Israel and the United States. The antisera did not react with Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV), Carnation mottle virus (CarMV), or Saguaro cactus virus (SgCV) by either enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or immunoblotting. In reciprocal tests, antisera against PFBV, CarMV, and SgCV reacted only with the homologous viruses. The complete nucleotide sequence of a Florida isolate of AnFBV and the coat protein (CP) gene sequences of Israeli and Maryland isolates were determined. The genomic RNA is 3,964 nucleotides and contains four open reading frames arranged in a manner typical of carmoviruses. The AnFBV CP is most closely related to PFBV, whereas the AnFBV replicase is most closely related to PFBV, CarMV, and SgCV. Particle morphology, serological properties, genome organization, and phylogenetic analysis are all consistent with assignment of AnFBV to the genus Carmovirus. PMID:18944305

Adkins, Scott; Hammond, John; Gera, Abed; Maroon-Lango, Clarissa J; Sobolev, Irena; Harness, Andrea; Zeidan, Mohammad; Spiegel, Sara

2006-05-01

230

The autumn effect: timing of physical dormancy break in seeds of two winter annual species of Geraniaceae by a stepwise process  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The involvement of two steps in the physical dormancy (PY)-breaking process previously has been demonstrated in seeds of Fabaceae and Convolvulaceae. Even though there is a claim for a moisture-controlled stepwise PY-breaking in some species of Geraniaceae, no study has evaluated the role of temperature in the PY-breaking process in this family. The aim of this study was to determine whether a temperature-controlled stepwise PY-breaking process occurs in seeds of the winter annuals Geranium carolinianum and G. dissectum. Methods Seeds of G. carolinianum and G. dissectum were stored under different temperature regimes to test the effect of storage temperature on PY-break. The role of temperature and moisture regimes in regulating PY-break was investigated by treatments simulating natural conditions. Greenhouse (non-heated) experiments on seed germination and burial experiments (outdoors) were carried out to determine the PY-breaking behaviour in the natural habitat. Key Results Irrespective of moisture conditions, sensitivity to the PY-breaking step in seeds of G. carolinianum was induced at temperatures ?20 °C, and exposure to temperatures ?20 °C made the sensitive seeds permeable. Sensitivity of seeds increased with time. In G. dissectum, PY-break occurred at temperatures ?20 °C in a single step under constant wet or dry conditions and in two steps under alternate wet–dry conditions if seeds were initially kept wet. Conclusions Timing of seed germination with the onset of autumn can be explained by PY-breaking processes involving (a) two temperature-dependent steps in G. carolinianum and (b) one or two moisture-dependent step(s) along with the inability to germinate under high temperatures in G. dissectum. Geraniaceae is the third of 18 families with PY in which a two-step PY-breaking process has been demonstrated. PMID:22684684

Gama-Arachchige, N. S.; Baskin, J. M.; Geneve, R. L.; Baskin, C. C.

2012-01-01

231

An Ethnobotanical study of Medicinal Plants in high mountainous region of Chail valley (District Swat- Pakistan)  

PubMed Central

Background This paper represents the first ethnobotanical study in Chail valley of district Swat-Pakistan and provides significant information on medicinal plants use among the tribal people of the area. The aim of this study was to document the medicinal uses of local plants and to develop an ethnobotanical inventory of the species diversity. Methods In present study, semi-structured interviews with 142 inhabitants (age range between 31–75 years) were conducted. Ethnobotanical data was analyzed using relative frequency of citation (RFC) to determine the well-known and most useful species in the area. Results Current research work reports total of 50 plant species belonging to 48 genera of 35 families from Chail valley. Origanum vulgare, Geranium wallichianum and Skimmia laureola have the highest values of relative frequency of citation (RFC) and are widely known by the inhabitants of the valley. The majority of the documented plants were herbs (58%) followed by shrubs (28%), trees (12%) and then climbers (2%). The part of the plant most frequently used was the leaves (33%) followed by roots (17%), fruits (14%), whole plant (12%), rhizomes (9%), stems (6%), barks (5%) and seeds (4%). Decoction was the most common preparation method use in herbal recipes. The most frequently treated diseases in the valley were urinary disorders, skin infections, digestive disorders, asthma, jaundice, angina, chronic dysentery and diarrhea. Conclusion This study contributes an ethnobotanical inventory of medicinal plants with their frequency of citations together with the part used, disease treated and methods of application among the tribal communities of Chail valley. The present survey has documented from this valley considerable indigenous knowledge about the local medicinal plants for treating number of common diseases that is ready to be further investigated for biological, pharmacological and toxicological screening. This study also provides some socio-economic aspects which are associated to the local tribal communities. PMID:24739524

2014-01-01

232

The acceptability of meadow plants to the slug Deroceras reticulatum and implications for grassland restoration  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Despite the selective pressure slugs may exert on seedling recruitment there is a lack of information in this context within grassland restoration studies. Selective grazing is influenced by interspecific differences in acceptability. As part of a larger study of how slug–seedling interactions may influence upland hay meadow restoration, an assessment of relative acceptability is made for seedlings of meadow plants to the slug, Deroceras reticulatum. Methods Slug feeding damage to seedling monocultures of 23 meadow species and Brassica napus was assessed in microcosms over 14 d. The severity and rate of damage incurred by each plant species was analysed with a generalized additive mixed model. Plant species were then ranked for their relative acceptability. Key Results Interspecific variation in relative acceptability suggested seedlings of meadow species form a hierarchy of acceptability to D. reticulatum. The four most acceptable species were Achillea millefolium and the grasses Holcus lanatus, Poa trivialis and Festuca rubra. Trifolium pratense was acceptable to D. reticulatum and was the second highest ranking forb species. The most unacceptable species were mainly forbs associated with the target grassland, and included Geranium sylvaticum, Rumex acetosa, Leontodon hispidus and the grass Anthoxanthum odoratum. A strong positive correlation was found for mean cumulative feeding damage and cumulative seedling mortality at day 14. Conclusions Highly unacceptable species to D. reticulatum are unlikely to be selectively grazed by slugs during the seedling recruitment phase, and were predominantly target restoration species. Seedlings of highly acceptable species may be less likely to survive slug herbivory and contribute to seedling recruitment at restoration sites. Selective slug herbivory, influenced by acceptability, may influence community-level processes if seedling recruitment and establishment of key functional species, such as T. pratense is reduced. PMID:23632124

Barlow, Sarah E.; Close, Andrew J.; Port, Gordon R.

2013-01-01

233

Subsurface Examination of a Foliar Biofilm Using Scanning Electron- and Focused-Ion-Beam Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The dual beam scanning electron microscope, equipped with both a focused ion- and scanning electron- beam (FIB SEM) is a novel tool for the exploration of the subsurface structure of biological tissues. The FIB can remove a predetermined amount of material from a selected site to allow for subsurface exploration and when coupled with SEM or scanning ion- beam microscopy (SIM) could be suitable to examine the subsurface structure of bacterial biofilms on the leaf surface. The suitability of chemical and cryofixation was examined for use with the FIB SEM to examine bacterial biofilms on leaf surfaces. The biological control agent, Burkholderia pyroccinia FP62, that rapidly colonizes the leaf surface and forms biofilms, was inoculated onto geranium leaves and incubated in a greenhouse for 7 or 14 days. Cryofixation was not suitable for examination of leaf biofilms because it created a frozen layer over the leaf surface that cracked when exposed to the electron beam and the protective cap required for FIB milling could not be accurately deposited. With chemically fixed samples, it was possible to precisely FIB mill a single cross section (5 µm) or sequential cross sections from a single site without any damage to the surrounding surface. Biofilms, 7 days post-inoculation (DPI), were composed of 2 to 5 bacterial cell layers while biofilms 14 DPI ranged from 5 to greater than 30 cell layers. Empty spaces between bacteria cells in the subsurface structure were observed in biofilms 7- and 14-DPI. Sequential cross sections inferred that the empty spaces were often continuous between FP62 cells and could possibly make up a network of channels throughout the biofilm. FIB SEM was a useful tool to observe the subsurface composition of a foliar biofilm.

Wallace, Patricia K.; Arey, Bruce W.; Mahaffee, Walt F.

2011-08-01

234

Atrial natriuretic peptides are present throughout the plant kingdom and enhance solute flow in plants.  

PubMed

The present investigation was designed to 1) determine if atrial natriuretic-like peptides are present throughout the plant kingdom and 2) to determine if these peptides increase the flow of solute and/or water upward to leaves and flowers of plants. The 126-amino acid prohormone of atrial natriuretic factor (proANF)-(1-30), proANF-(31-67), and atrial natriuretic factor (ANF)-like peptides were present in the roots, stems, leaves, and flower petals of the more highly developed plants (Tracheophyta), with their highest concentrations being: Florida beauty > buddhist pine > Boston fern > rose = geranium = resurrection plant or club moss > Moses-in-the-cradle > Florida coontie. These peptides were also present in Bryophata (plants without vascular tissue or roots) and even in Euglena, flagellated chlorophyll-containing plants without leaves, stems, or roots. proANF-(1-30), proANF-(31-67), and proANF-(79-98) but not ANF (each at < 5.9 pg/ml) significantly increased (P < 0.001) the flow of colored water up stems, coloring their flowers 15-35 min earlier than the other one-half of the same flowers without exogenous peptide addition. These same peptides increased the rate of transpiration (i.e., loss of water from the leaves) and the absorption of solutions. High-performance gel permeation chromatography revealed that proANF-(1-30), proANF-(31-67), and ANF extracted from plants are very similar to their pure synthetic human sequences, with elution profiles and molecular weights of the plant extracts duplicating those of the pure synthetic peptides. PMID:8214054

Vesely, D L; Gower, W R; Giordano, A T

1993-09-01

235

Biotransformation of (R)-(+)- and (S)-(-)-citronellol by Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp., and the use of solid-phase microextraction for screening.  

PubMed

The biotransformation of (R)-(+)- and (S)-(-)-citronellol by fungi was studied. For screening experiments, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used as analytical sampling technique. It was found that sporulated surface cultures of Aspergillus niger were able to convert the substrate into cis- and trans-rose oxides and nerol oxide. The relative contents in the headspace SPME extract of the three bioconversion products cis- and trans-rose oxide and nerol oxide were up to 54, 21 and 12%, respectively. Rose oxide is found in minor amounts in some essential oils, such as Bulgarian rose oil and geranium oil and contributes to its unique odor. It is one of the most important fragrance materials in perfumery in creating rosy notes. Other bioconversion products were 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol, limonene, terpinolene, linalool and alpha-terpineol. These bioconversion reactions were confirmed by sporulated surface cultures on larger scale and sampling by dynamic headspace sweep and steam distillation solvent extraction. The same conversions were noticed with A. tubingensis and Penicillium roqueforti. This bioconversion was enantioselective since more of the chiral cis- than trans-rose oxide was obtained (cisitrans ratio up to 95/5). Submerged liquid cultures of P. roqueforti yielded two unidentified metabolites after conversion of citronellol (yield up to 5%). The stability and acid-catalyzed conversion of citronellol was also investigated. No chemical oxidation or auto-oxidation products were detected in acidified liquid control broths up to pH 3.5. However, when control tests were run with solid media, acid-catalyzed conversion of the substrate to small amounts of cis- and trans-rose oxides, nerol oxide, linalool and alpha-terpineol was observed at pH 3.5 and when heat treatment (steam distillation solvent extraction) was applied. PMID:14971495

Demyttenaere, Jan C R; Vanoverschelde, Jan; De Kimpe, Norbert

2004-02-20

236

Application of variable-number tandem-repeat typing to discriminate Ralstonia solanacearum strains associated with English watercourses and disease outbreaks.  

PubMed

Variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis was used for high-resolution discrimination among Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype IIB sequevar 1 (PIIB-1) isolates and further evaluated for use in source tracing. Five tandem-repeat-containing loci (comprising six tandem repeats) discriminated 17 different VNTR profiles among 75 isolates from potato, geranium, bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara), tomato, and the environment. R. solanacearum isolates from crops at three unrelated outbreak sites where river water had been used for irrigation had distinct VNTR profiles that were shared with PIIB-1 isolates from infected bittersweet growing upriver of each site. The VNTR profiling results supported the implication that the source of R. solanacearum at each outbreak was contaminated river water. Analysis of 51 isolates from bittersweet growing in river water at different locations provided a means to evaluate the technique for studying the epidemiology of the pathogen in the environment. Ten different VNTR profiles were identified among bittersweet PIIB-1 isolates from the River Thames. Repeated findings of contiguous river stretches that produced isolates that shared single VNTR profiles supported the hypothesis that the pathogen had disseminated from infected bittersweet plants located upriver. VNTR profiles shared between bittersweet isolates from two widely separated Thames tributaries (River Ray and River Colne) suggested they were independently contaminated with the same clonal type. Some bittersweet isolates had VNTR profiles that were shared with potato isolates collected outside the United Kingdom. It was concluded that VNTR profiling could contribute to further understanding of R. solanacearum epidemiology and assist in control of future disease outbreaks. PMID:23892739

Parkinson, Neil; Bryant, Ruth; Bew, Janice; Conyers, Christine; Stones, Robert; Alcock, Michael; Elphinstone, John

2013-10-01

237

Application of Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing To Discriminate Ralstonia solanacearum Strains Associated with English Watercourses and Disease Outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis was used for high-resolution discrimination among Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype IIB sequevar 1 (PIIB-1) isolates and further evaluated for use in source tracing. Five tandem-repeat-containing loci (comprising six tandem repeats) discriminated 17 different VNTR profiles among 75 isolates from potato, geranium, bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara), tomato, and the environment. R. solanacearum isolates from crops at three unrelated outbreak sites where river water had been used for irrigation had distinct VNTR profiles that were shared with PIIB-1 isolates from infected bittersweet growing upriver of each site. The VNTR profiling results supported the implication that the source of R. solanacearum at each outbreak was contaminated river water. Analysis of 51 isolates from bittersweet growing in river water at different locations provided a means to evaluate the technique for studying the epidemiology of the pathogen in the environment. Ten different VNTR profiles were identified among bittersweet PIIB-1 isolates from the River Thames. Repeated findings of contiguous river stretches that produced isolates that shared single VNTR profiles supported the hypothesis that the pathogen had disseminated from infected bittersweet plants located upriver. VNTR profiles shared between bittersweet isolates from two widely separated Thames tributaries (River Ray and River Colne) suggested they were independently contaminated with the same clonal type. Some bittersweet isolates had VNTR profiles that were shared with potato isolates collected outside the United Kingdom. It was concluded that VNTR profiling could contribute to further understanding of R. solanacearum epidemiology and assist in control of future disease outbreaks. PMID:23892739

Bryant, Ruth; Bew, Janice; Conyers, Christine; Stones, Robert; Alcock, Michael; Elphinstone, John

2013-01-01

238

Essential Oils, Silver Nanoparticles and Propolis as Alternative Agents Against Fluconazole Resistant Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei Clinical Isolates.  

PubMed

Development of effective and safe therapeutic treatment of fungal infections remains one of the major challenge for modern medicine. The aim of presented investigation was to analyze the in vitro antifungal activity of selected essential oils, ethanolic extracts of propolis and silver nanoparticles dropped on TiO2 against azole-resistant C. albicans (n = 20), C. glabrata (n = 14) and C. krusei (n = 10) clinical isolates. Among tested essential oils, the highest activity has definitely been found in the case of the oil isolated from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia, with MIC and MFC values for all tested strains in the range of 0.0006-0.0097 % (v/v) and 0.0012-0.019 % (v/v), respectively. High activity was also observed for the Lemon, Basil, Thyme, Geranium and Clove (from buds) essential oils. Significant differences in fungicidal activity have been observed in the case of four tested propolis samples. Only one of them revealed high activity, with MFC values in the range from 0.156 to 1.25 % (v/v). Satisfactory fungicidal activity, against C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates, was also observed in the case of silver nanoparticles, however C. krusei isolates were mostly resistant. We also revealed that constituents of most of essential oils and propolis as well as silver nanoparticles are not substrates for drug transporters, which belong to the most important factors affecting resistance of Candida spp. clinical isolates to many of conventional antimycotics. To conclude, the results of our investigation revealed that essential oils, propolis and silver nanoparticles represent high potential for controlling and prevention candidiasis. PMID:25805904

Szweda, Piotr; Gucwa, Katarzyna; Kurzyk, Ewelina; Romanowska, Ewa; Dzier?anowska-Fangrat, Katarzyna; Zieli?ska Jurek, Anna; Ku?, Piotr Marek; Milewski, S?awomir

2015-06-01

239

In vitro screening of forty medicinal plant extracts from the United States Northern Great Plains for anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus.  

PubMed

An egg hatch assay (EHA) and a larval migration assay (LMA) involving Haemonchus contortus was used to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of methanol extracts from 40 plants that are native or naturalized within the U.S.A. Northern Great Plains. Only one of these 40 plants (i.e. Lotus corniculatus) had been previously evaluated for activity against any gastrointestinal nematode. The various extracts were initially screened at 50mg/ml diluted either in 0.5% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) or 3-(N-morpholino) propanesulfonic acid (MOPS buffer), and plants showing 100% inhibition at 50mg/ml, were further evaluated at 8 other concentrations (25-0.19 mg/ml). Extracts with 100% activity with the EHA were again screened with the LMA (50mg/ml). Two extracts with the highest LMA inhibition were also evaluated at lower concentrations (25-3.1mg/ml). Of the 40 methanolic extracts screened, 7 (Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus, Ericameria nauseosa, Liatris punctata, Melilotus alba, Melilotus officinalis, Perideridia gairdneri, and Sanguinaria canadensis) showed significant egg-hatch inhibition in DMSO and MOPS buffer. Three extracts (Geranium viscosissimum, L. corniculatus, and Rhus aromatica) only showed significant inhibition in DMSO. The 8 extracts showing 100% efficacy at 50mg/ml exhibited dose-dependent effects at the 8 lower concentrations, and R. aromatica and E. nauseosa extracts had the lowest ED50 values. Similarly, when these 8 plant extracts were further evaluated with the LMA, the extracts of E. nauseosa and R. aromatica again exhibited the highest activity (p<0.001), with ED50 values of 4.0mg/ml and 10.43 mg/ml respectively. Three other extracts (C. viscidiflorus, M. alba and M. officinalis) also showed inhibitory activity in the LMA. These results support the need for additional evaluations of the nematocidal properties for at least these 5 plants. PMID:24548703

Acharya, Jyotsna; Hildreth, Michael B; Reese, R Neil

2014-03-17

240

Sensitive and specific detection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. pelargonii with DNA primers and probes identified by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis.  

PubMed Central

The random amplified polymorphic DNA method was used to distinguish strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. pelargonii from 21 other Xanthomonas species and/or pathovars. Among the 42 arbitrarily chosen primers evaluated, 3 were found to reveal diagnostic polymorphisms when purified DNAs from compared strains were amplified by the PCR. The three primers revealed DNA amplification patterns which were conserved among all 53 strains tested of X. campestris pv. pelargonii isolated from various locations worldwide. The distinctive X. compestris pv. pelargonii patterns were clearly different from those obtained with any of 46 other Xanthomonas strains tested. An amplified 1.2-kb DNA fragment, apparently unique to X. campestris pv. pelargonii by these random amplified polymorphic DNA tests, was cloned and evaluated as a diagnostic DNA probe. It hybridized with total DNA from all 53 X. campestris pv. pelargonii strains tested and not with any of the 46 other Xanthomonas strains tested. The DNA sequence of the terminal ends of this 1.2-kb fragment was obtained and used to design a pair of 18-mer oligonucleotide primers specific for X. campestris pv. pelargonii. The custom-synthesized primers amplified the same 1.2-kb DNA fragment from all 53 X. campestris pv. pelargonii strains tested and failed to amplify DNA from any of the 46 other Xanthomonas strains tested. DNA isolated from saprophytes associated with the geranium plant also did not produce amplified DNA with these primers. The sensitivity of the PCR assay using the custom-synthesized primers was between 10 and 50 cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:7993095

Manulis, S; Valinsky, L; Lichter, A; Gabriel, D W

1994-01-01

241

Free radical scavenging action of medicinal herbs from Mongolia.  

PubMed

In the present study we evaluated the free radical scavenging action of some medicinal herbs growing in Mongolia. The aqueous extract of nine herbs Chamenerion angustifolium (Ch.ang), Equisetum arvense (Eq.arv), Gentiana decumbens (Gn.dec), Geranium pratense (Gr.pra), Lomatogonium carinthiacum (L.car), Nonea poulla (N.pl), Phodococcum vitis-idaea (Ph.v), Sphallerocarpus gracilis (Sph.gr), Stellera chamaejasme (St.cha) were used in the present experiment. The free radical scavenging action was determined in vitro and ex vivo by using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer and chemiluminescence (CL) analyzer. The results showed that extracts of Ch.ang, Gn.dec, Gr.pra, L.car, N.pl, Ph.v, Sph.gr and St. cha possess strong scavenging action of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. On the other hand, the radical scavenging action of Eq.arv was low. Extracts of N.pl and Ph.v markedly inhibited the CL generated from rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450 system whereas the CL was moderately inhibited by Eq.arv, Gn.dec, Gr.pra, L.car and St.cha. The extracts of Ch.ang and Sph.gr did not decrease the CL generation. Ch.ang, Gr.pra, L.car, N.pl, Ph.v and St.cha also depressed reactive oxygen production from polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated by phorbol-12-myristate acetate ex vivo. Thus it was confirmed that the medicinal herbs from Mongolia possess high antioxidant potency in vitro and ex vivo. PMID:11185733

Myagmar, B E; Aniya, Y

2000-06-01

242

The ecological aspect of ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology of population in Bosnia and Herzegovina.  

PubMed

This paper contains first systematical revision of the results on traditional use of wild medicinal and aromatic herbs on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H)--west of Balkan Peninsula; Southeast of Europe. There have been detected 227 plants belonging to 71 different plant families, which are being used with ethno therapeutic purpose. Results were obtained by method of open ethno botanical interview which comprised 150 persons, whose average age was 63. Medicinal plants in ethno therapy are being used either in fresh, raw or dried condition. Different herbal parts, depending on period of vegetation season, sometimes even in winter, are basis for preparation of infusions (59%), decoct (19%), tinctures (4%). Especially original are balms known as Bosnian "mehlems", which are fresh cuted herbal parts mixed with lukewarm resin, raw cow butter or honey. In ethno therapy are mostly being used aerial plant organs. Majority of herbs is being used for treatment of illnesses of respiratory (22%), gastrointestinal (19%) and urinary and genital system (9%), for treatment of skin conditions (11%), as well as for nervous system and heart diseases (16%). The most original plants on the field of ethno pharmacology, comparing with ethno therapy practice of other regions, are as follows: Ballota nigra, Aesculus hippocastanum, Calluna vulgaris, Centaurea cyanus, Euphrasia rostkoviana, Geranium robertianum, Gentiana asclepiadea, Helichrysum italicum, Lycopodium clavatum, Marrubium vulgare, Nepeta cataria, Populus tremula, Ruta graveolens, Tamus communis, Teucrium montanum, T. chamaedrys, and endemic plants Gentiana lutea subsp. symphyandra, Teucrium arduini, Micromeria thymifolia, Satureja montana, S. subspicata, Rhamnus fallax and Viola elegantula. There haven't been noticed significant differences in the frequencies of medicinal plants use among different ethnical groups. But, it has been perceived that longer ethno therapeutic tradition possess inhabitants of sub- and Mediterranean areas, as well as inhabitants of the mountain areas of B&H, regardless their ethnicity. PMID:18041402

Redzi?, Sulejman S

2007-09-01

243

Where are you sucking from? Using Stable Isotopes to understand Host Specificity in two Hemiparasitic plants above the tree line in Northern Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By Alejandro Macias, Erik Hobbie, Ruth Varner, Kaitlyn Steele Hemiparasites are known to suck nutrients from nearby plants but their host specificity is not well understood. Hemiparasites are ecosystem engineers, limiting surrounding plant's growth, and decreasing local biodiversity. To better understand this phenomenon, the host specificities of two hemiparasitic angiosperms, Bartsia alpina , and Pedicularis lapponica were studied above the tree line along an elevational gradient in Sweden. B. alpina specialized in wetter environments, as indicated by their higher ?13C signature, and their growth among Salixsp.Betula nana, Bistorta vivipara, Viola biflora, Geranium sp., and Trollious europaeus. P. lapponica was common in drier, less species rich environments, known as heaths, where B. nana, Empetrum negrum, Phyllodoce coeruela, Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea are the most common species. P. lapponica had higher foliage ?13C due to its better water-use efficiency in a dry environment. Field survey data and ?N15 values of both the foliage of the parasitic plants and their potential hosts were used to determine host specificity. Since the ?N15 value of the hemiparasitic plant and its host are similar due to parasitism, it was determined that P. lapponica had a preference for plants with an ericoid mycorrhizal association, such as Vaccinium sp, and E. negrum, but not for the common P. coeruela. This does not support the idea found in the literature that P. lapponica has a preference for grasses. B. alpina was less host specific, associating with non-mycorrhizal, ericoid, and ectomycorhizal plants, such as Carex sp, Vaccinium sp., and S. lapponum. The ectomycorrhizal species, Salix sp., and B. nana, were both potential hosts for B. alpina and P. lapponica due to their presence among them. However, the isotopic data revealed that B. alpina had a preference for Salix sp., and P. lapponica had a preference for B. nana.

Macias Sevde, A. S.

2012-12-01

244

Impact of Fertilizing Pattern on the Biodiversity of a Weed Community and Wheat Growth  

PubMed Central

Weeding and fertilization are important farming practices. Integrated weed management should protect or improve the biodiversity of farmland weed communities for a better ecological environment with not only increased crop yield, but also reduced use of herbicides. This study hypothesized that appropriate fertilization would benefit both crop growth and the biodiversity of farmland weed communities. To study the effects of different fertilizing patterns on the biodiversity of a farmland weed community and their adaptive mechanisms, indices of species diversity and responses of weed species and wheat were investigated in a 17-year field trial with a winter wheat-soybean rotation. This long term field trial includes six fertilizing treatments with different N, P and K application rates. The results indicated that wheat and the four prevalent weed species (Galium aparine, Vicia sativa, Veronica persica and Geranium carolinianum) showed different responses to fertilizer treatment in terms of density, plant height, shoot biomass, and nutrient accumulations. Each individual weed population exhibited its own adaptive mechanisms, such as increased internode length for growth advantages and increased light interception. The PK treatment had higher density, shoot biomass, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou Indices of weed community than N plus P fertilizer treatments. The N1/2PK treatment showed the same weed species number as the PK treatment. It also showed higher Shannon-Wiener and Pielou Indices of the weed community, although it had a lower wheat yield than the NPK treatment. The negative effects of the N1/2PK treatment on wheat yield could be balanced by the simultaneous positive effects on weed communities, which are intermediate in terms of the effects on wheat and weeds. PMID:24416223

Tang, Leilei; Cheng, Chuanpeng; Wan, Kaiyuan; Li, Ruhai; Wang, Daozhong; Tao, Yong; Pan, Junfeng; Xie, Juan; Chen, Fang

2014-01-01

245

Field evaluation of essential oils for reducing attraction by the Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).  

PubMed

Forty-one plant essential oils were tested under field conditions for the ability to reduce the attraction of adult Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), to attractant-baited or nonbaited traps. Treatments applied to a yellow and green Japanese beetle trap included a nonbaited trap, essential oil alone, a Japanese beetle commercial attractant (phenethyl proprionate:eugenol:geraniol, 3:7:3 by volume) (PEG), and an essential oil plus PEG attractant. Eight of the 41 oils reduced attractiveness of the PEG attractant to the Japanese beetle. When tested singly, wintergreen and peppermint oils were the two most effective essential oils at reducing attractiveness of the PEG attractant by 4.2x and 3.5x, respectively. Anise, bergamont mint, cedarleaf, dalmation sage, tarragon, and wormwood oils also reduced attraction of the Japanese beetle to the PEG attractant. The combination of wintergreen oil with ginger, peppermint, or ginger and citronella oils reduced attractiveness of the PEG attractant by 4.7x to 3.1x. Seventeen of the 41 essential oils also reduced attraction to the nonbaited yellow and green traps, resulting in 2.0x to 11.0x reductions in trap counts relative to nonbaited traps. Camphor, coffee, geranium, grapefruit, elemi, and citronella oils increased attractiveness of nonbaited traps by 2.1x to 7.9x when tested singly, but none were more attractive than the PEG attractant. Results from this study identified several plant essential oils that act as semiochemical disruptants against the Japanese beetle. PMID:19736768

Youssef, Nadeer N; Oliver, Jason B; Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Moyseenko, James J; Klein, Michael G; Pappas, Robert S

2009-08-01

246

Phenotypical differences among B. cinerea isolates from ornamental plants.  

PubMed

B. cinerea is a common pathogenic fungus which causes Botrytis blight (Grey mould) in most ornamental plants. It may be responsible for serious preharvest diseases and postharvest losses in fruits, vegetables and flowers. In this work, several B. cinerea isolates from ornamental plants (Chamelaucium uncinatum, Pelargonium x hortorum, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Lantana camara, Lonicera japonica, Hydrangea macrophylla, and Cyclamen persicum) affected by Botrytis blight in the south of Spain were studied. All the isolates were confirmed as B. cinerea by PCR using a specific 750-bp molecular marker, which is present in all strains of this species but absent from other species of Botrytis. The isolates were evaluated by reference to mature conidia length, sclerotia production, and growth rate. Conidia, conidiophores and hyphae were described by light microscopy and some by cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM). Conidium length was measured by using an eyepiece micrometer at 400x power, whereas the growth rate was assessed from differences in colony diameter between the third and fourth day of growth in potato-dextrose agar culture medium at 26 degrees C. B. cinerea showed a high degree of phenotypical variability among isolates, not only as regards visual aspects of the colonies but also in some morphological structures such as conidium length, conidiophores, sclerotia production, and hyphae. Differences were also observed in the growth rates. Conidiation was insignificant in the isolates from H. macrophylla, and P. x hortorum, where the overall appearance was white in all the growing stages, whereas isolates from L. camara, C. persicum and C. uncinatum were mainly grey or brown in mature stages. The longest conidia were obtained in isolates from H. macrophylla and C. persicum (17-18 microm) and the lowest in C. uncinatum (9 microm). All the isolates, except L. camara, developed mature sclerotia after approximately 16 days in the conditions used. H. macrophylla had around 72 sclerotia per colony, whereas C. persicum had only nine after 28 days. The growth rate of isolates from L. camara was the highest (1.64 cm/day). Such phenotypical variability may result in a differential response to plant growth regulators if plants are infected by Botrytis in the early stages of growth. In this way, we confirm, as we have done in other published studies, that isolates show different responses to some plant hormones and inhibitors. PMID:19226749

Martínez, J A; Valdés, R; Vicente, M J; Bañón, S

2008-01-01

247

Evaluation of molecular chaperons Hsp72 and neuropeptide Y as characteristic markers of adaptogenic activity of plant extracts.  

PubMed

We have previously demonstrated that ADAPT-232, a fixed combination of adaptogenic substances derived from Eleutherococcus senticosus root extract, Schisandra chinensis berry extract, Rhodiola rosea root extract stimulated the expression and release of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and molecular chaperone Hsp72 from isolated human neurolgia cells. Both of these mediators of stress response are known to play an important role in regulation of neuroendocrine system and immune response. We further demonstrated that ADAPT-232 induced release of Hsp70 is mediated by NPY, suggesting an existence of NPY-mediated pathway of activation of Hsp72 release into the blood circulation system. The objective of this study was to determine whether this pathway is common for adaptogens and whether NPY and/or Hsp72 can be considered as necessary specific biomarkers for adaptogenic activity. The release of NPY and Hsp72 from neuroglia cells in response to treatment with various plant extracts (n=23) including selected validated adaptogens, partly validated adaptogens, claimed but negligibly validated adaptogens and some other plant extracts affecting neuroendocrine and immune systems but never considered as adaptogens was measured using high throughput ELISA techniques. We demonstrated that adaptogens, e.g. R. rosea, S. chinensis and E. senticosus stimulate both NPY and Hsp70 release from neuroblastoma cells, while tonics and stimulants have no significant effect on NPY in this in vitro test. In the groups of partly validated adaptogens the effect of Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera was not statistically significant both on NPY and Hsp70 release, while the activating effect of Bryonia alba and Rhaponticum cartamoides was significant only on Hsp70. In contrast, all tested non-adaptogens, such as antiinflammatoty plant extracts Matricaria recutita, Pelargonium sidoides, Hedera helix and Vitis vinifera significantly inhibit Hsp70 release and have no influence on NPY release from neuroblastoma cells. These experiments were further validated using primary human neurons and confirmed that adaptogens activate the release of both NPY and Hsp70, while tested non adaptogens were inactive in NPY assay and inhibit the release of Hsp70. Taken together, our data demonstrates for the first time that neuropeptide Y and heat shock protein Hsp70 can be used as molecular biomarkers for adaptogenic activity. PMID:23920279

Asea, Alexzander; Kaur, Punit; Panossian, Alexander; Wikman, Karl Georg

2013-11-15

248

Temperature-dependent growth of Botrytis cinerea isolates from potted plants.  

PubMed

Botrytis cinereo is a common aggressive saprophyte fungus which also invades injured plant tissues, causing Botrytis blight (Grey mould) in many ornamental plants, including potted flowering plants. Several B. cinerea isolates from potted plants (Pelargonium x hortorum, Lantana camara, Lonicera japonica, Hydrangea macrophylla, and Cyclamen persicum) affected by Botrytis blight in the south of Spain were studied and identified by PCR. The isolates showed phenotypic differences between them, as previously reported by the authors. In this work we demonstrate that these isolates show different temperature-dependent growth phenomena, expressed as mycelial growth rates, conidiation (measured as the number of conidia per colony and time of appearance), mass of both aerial and submerged mycelia, and sclerotia production. Growth rates were assessed from differences in colony area and mass of both aerial and submerged mycelium growing in potato dextrose agar culture medium (PDA). Three temperatures were used to measure these variables (6, 16, and 26 degrees C) and to establish the differences among isolates by modelling the effects of temperature on the growth variables. B. cinerea showed a high degree of phenotypic variability and differences in its growth kinetics, depending on temperature and isolate in question. The isolate from P. x hortorum showed the greatest conidiation although this process did not depend on the temperatures assayed. The growth rate of the isolates from P. x hortorum was the highest. The growth rates in all the isolates were determined and the growth kinetics could be fitted to a typical equation of fungi growing on solid culture medium. The isolate from P. x hortorum was the most vigorous, while the least vigorous was the isolate from L. japonica. A relationship between mycelial growth rate, conidiation and aerial mycelium could be established. A temperature of 26 degrees C accelerated sclerotia production, but only in the isolate from C. persicum. Such phenotypical variability and differences in growth rates may result in a differential response in plant-pathogen interactions when isolates attack hosts at different temperatures, meaning that a variety of plant protection strategies should be considered when B. cinerea attacks these potted plants. PMID:20222557

Martínez, J A; Gómez-Bellot, M J; Bañón, S

2009-01-01

249

Laboratory evaluation of products to reduce settling of sweetpotato whitefly adults.  

PubMed

The impact of trademarked and commercial products on settling of adults of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), was studied in the laboratory. A no-choice bioassay using leaf disks of tomato, Solanum esculentum L., was developed to evaluate the impact of concentration series of products on settling of B. tabaci adults. The concentration of each product that would reduce settling by 50% (SC50) was estimated for each product using standard probit analyses, and the values were compared with that of Ultra-Fine Oil, a paraffinic oil product that is known to reduce settling of whitefly adults. Twenty-two trademarked products and 42 other products were evaluated in the laboratory bioassay. Based upon comparisons of fiducial limits of the respective SC50 values, Dawn detergent and E-RASE jojoba oil were the only trademarked products that were as effective as Ultra-Fine Oil in reducing settling of B. tabaci adults. Of the nontrademarked products, 25 were similar to Ultra-Fine Oil, although cedar, geranium, ginger, Hamlin (citrus), patchouli, olive and wintergreen oils, as well as citronellal and limonene, had ratios of respective SC50 values with that of Ultra-Fine Oil of approximately 1.5 or less. Combinations of limonene and citronellal with either olive oil or Ultra-Fine Oil were 15 and 30 times, respectively, more effective than Ultra-Fine Oil alone. Candidate products and combinations of products were further evaluated on tomato seedlings in no-choice screenhouse trials for effects on oviposition and on transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (family Geminiviridae, genus Begomovirus, TYLCV) by B. tabaci. Ultra-Fine Oil and olive oil reduced oviposition and transmission of TYLCV in the screenhouse trials. Ginger oil and limonene reduced oviposition in at least one screenhouse trial but did reduce transmission of TYLCV. The laboratory bioassay provided a rapid and relatively easy method to compare products for reducing settling of B. tabaci adults. Even though the reduced settling indicated in the laboratory bioassays was not always reflected in reduced oviposition or TYLCV transmission in the screenhouse trials, the bioassay was useful in rapidly identifying products that reduce settling and that could be investigated further. PMID:19736760

Schuster, D J; Thompson, S; Ortega, L D; Polston, J E

2009-08-01

250

NTP Carcinogenesis Studies of Food Grade Geranyl Acetate (71% Geranyl Acetate, 29% Citronellyl Acetate) (CAS No. 105-87-3) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Study).  

PubMed

Geranyl acetate (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadiene-1-ol acetate) is a colorless liquid prepared by fractional distillation of selected essential oils or by acetylation of geraniol. It is a natural constituent of more than 60 essential oils, including Ceylon citronella, palmarosa, lemon grass, petit grain, neroli bigarade, geranium, coriander, carrot, and sassafras. Geranyl acetate is used primarily as a component of perfumes for creams and soaps and as a flavoring ingredient. On the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's list of substances "generally recognized as safe," the Food Chemicals Codex (1972) specifies that geranyl acetate must contain at least 90% total esters. Carcinogenesis studies of food-grade geranyl acetate (containing approximately 29% citronellyl acetate) were conducted by administering the test chemical in corn oil by gavage to groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats at doses of 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg body weight and to groups of 50 male and 50 female B6C3F1 mice at doses of 500 or 1,000 mg/kg. Doses were administered five times per week for 103 weeks. Groups of 50 rats and 50 mice of each sex received corn oil by gavage on the same dosing schedule and served as vehicle controls. The cumulative toxicity of geranyl acetate in the 2-year study was indicated by the significantly shorter survival of high dose male rats (control, 34/50; low dose, 29/50; high dose, 18/50) and of high dose male mice (control, 31/50; low dose, 32/50; high dose, 0/50) and of dosed female mice (38/50; 15/50; 0/50) when compared with controls. Throughout most of the 2-year study, mean body weights of high dose rats and mice of each sex were lower than those of the controls. The occurrence of retinopathy or cataracts in the high dose male rats and low dose female rats as compared with the controls does not appear to be related to the administration of geranyl acetate but rather the proximity of the rats to fluorescent light. The incidence of retinopathy or cataracts (combined) was: males: control, 0/50, 0%; low dose, 1/50, 2%; high dose, 11/50, 22%; females: control, 1/50, 2%; low dose, 13/50, 26%; high dose, 2/50, 4%. Kidney tubular cell adenomas, an uncommon tumor type, were found in 2/50 (4%) low dose male rats. The historical incidence of male corn oil gavage control F344/N rats with kidney tumors is 1/250 (0.4%) at this laboratory and 4/998 (0.4%) in the program. Squamous cell papillomas in the skin were increased marginally in low dose male rats (control, 0/50; low dose, 4/50, 8%; high dose, 1/50, 2%). In addition, one low dose male rat had a squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. The incidence of low dose male rats with either squamous cell papillomas or carcinomas was greater (P<0.05) in comparison with the controls. The historical incidence of squamous cell papillomas or carcinomas (combined) in gavage control male F344/N rats is 3.6% (9/250) at this laboratory and 2.5% (25/999) throughout the program. The incidence of all epidermal tumors was not significantly elevated in dosed male rats relative to controls (control, 3/50, 6%; low dose, 6/50, 12%; high dose, 1/50, 2%). All high dose (1,000 mg/kg) male and female mice were dead by week 91 as a result of accidentally being administered 2,800 mg/kg for 3 days during week 91; survival of low dose and control male mice was comparable. Survival of high dose male and dosed female mice may have been inadequate for the detection of late-appearing tumors. No evidence of any carcinogenic effect was found in either low or high dose mice of either sex. An infection of the genital tract was probably responsible for the deaths of 14/22 control and 8/32 low dose female mice before the end of the study. Cytoplasmic vacuolization was increased in the liver and in the kidney of male and female mice and was considered to be compound related (liver-- male: control, 1/50, 2%; low dose, 7/50, 14%; high dose, 47/50, 94%; female: 1/50, 2%; 27/50, 54%; 46/50, 92%; kidney or kidney tubule--male: 0/50; 0/50; 41/50, 82%; female: 0/50; 24/49, 49%; 37/50, 74%). Under the conditions of these studi

1987-10-01