Sample records for rose-scented geranium pelargonium

  1. Weed control in rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp).

    PubMed

    Kothari, Sushil K; Singh, Chandra P; Singh, Kamla

    2002-12-01

    Abstract: Field investigations were carried out during 1999 and 2000 to identify effective chemical/ cultural methods of weed control in rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp). The treatments comprised pre-emergence applications of oxyfluorfen (0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 kg AI ha(-1)) and pendimethalin (0.50, 0.75 and 1.00kg AI ha(-1)), successive hand weeding, hoeing and mulching using spent of lemon grass (at 5 tonnes ha(-1)) 45 days after planting (DAP), three hand-weedings 30, 60 and 90 DAP, weed-free (frequent manual weeding) and weedy control. Broad-leaf weeds were more predominant than grass and sedge weeds, accounting for 85.8% weed density and 93.0% weed dry weight in 1999 and 77.2% weed density and 93.9% weed dry weight in 2000. Unrestricted weed growth significantly reduced geranium oil yield, by 61.6% and 70.6% in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Pre-emergence application of pendimethalin (0.75-1.00 kgAI ha(-1)) or oxyfluorfen (0.25 kg AI ha(-1)), successive hand-weeding, hoeing and mulching and three hand-weedings were highly effective in reducing weed density and dry weight and gave oil yield comparable to the weed-free check. Application of oxyfluorfen (0.15 or 0.20 kg AI ha(-1)) and pendimethalin (0.50 kg AI ha(-1)) were less effective in controlling the weed species in geranium. None of the herbicides impaired the quality of rose-scented geranium oil measured in terms of citronellol and geraniol content. PMID:12477000

  2. Biomass yield, essential oil yield and essential oil composition of rose-scented geranium ( Pelargonium species) as influenced by row spacings and intercropping with cornmint ( Mentha arvensis L.f. piperascens Malinv. ex Holmes)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Rajeswara Rao

    2002-01-01

    Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium species, family, Geraniaceae) is a vegetatively propagated (through rooted stem cuttings), initially slow growing, high value aromatic crop. Cornmint (Mentha arvensis L. f. piperascens Malinvaud ex Holmes, family, Lamiaceae) is also a vegetatively propagated (through rhizomes, runners or stolons and terminal stem cuttings), high demand aromatic–cum–medicinal crop. Essential oils isolated through steam distillation of shoot biomass of

  3. Impact of plant growth promoting Pseudomonas monteilii PsF84 and Pseudomonas plecoglossicida PsF610 on metal uptake and production of secondary metabolite (monoterpenes) by rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolenscv. bourbon) grown on tannery sludge amended soil.

    PubMed

    Dharni, Seema; Srivastava, Atul Kumar; Samad, Abdul; Patra, Dharani Dhar

    2014-12-01

    Bacterial strains PsF84 and PsF610 were isolated from tannery sludge polluted soil, Jajmau, Kanpur, India. 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the taxonomic affiliation of PsF84 as Pseudomonas monteilii and PsF610 as Pseudomonas plecoglossicida. A greenhouse study was carried out with rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolenscv. bourbon) grown in soil treated with tannery sludge in different proportions viz. soil: sludge ratio of 100:0, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 0:100 to evaluate the effects of bacterial inoculation on the heavy metal uptake. The isolates solubilized inorganic phosphorus and were capable of producing indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore. The isolate PsF84 increased the dry biomass of shoot by 44%, root by 48%, essential oil yield 43% and chlorophyll by 31% respectively over uninoculated control. The corresponding increase with the isolate PsF610 were 38%, 40%, 39% and 28%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies reveal that the Cr(VI) accumulation resulted in breakdown of vascular bundles and sequesters Cr(VI) in roots. The glandular trichomes (GT) were investigated using SEM studies as these glands are probably the main site of essential oil synthesis. Owing to its wide action spectrum, these isolates could serve as an effective metal sequestering and bioinoculants due to the production of IAA, siderophore and solubilization of phosphate for geranium in metal-stressed soil. The present study has provided a new insight into the phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soil. PMID:25194330

  4. Effect of 24-epibrassinolide on growth, photosynthesis, and essential oil content of Pelargonium graveolens (L.) Herit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. N. Swamy; S. S. R. Rao

    2009-01-01

    The effects of 24-epibrassinolide on growth, photosynthesis, chlorophyll content, carbohydrate fractions, and essential oil\\u000a content of rose scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens (L.) Herit) were investigated. Foliar application of 24-epibrassinolide at 0.5, 1, and 3 ?M concentrations substantially\\u000a increased the growth. 24-epibrassinolide at all concentrations improved herbage yield as reflected in the increase of foliar\\u000a biomass. Exogenous application of 24-epibrassinolide increased

  5. Substrate Acidification by Geranium (Pelargonium x Hortorum) II: Light Effects and Phosphorus Uptake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sudden pH decline (SPD) describes the situation where crops growing at an appropriate pH, suddenly (1-2 weeks) cause the substrate pH to shift downward one to two units. ‘Designer Dark Red’ geraniums (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey) were grown in three experiments to test the effects of light on SPD...

  6. Substrate Acidification by Geranium (Pelargonium x Hortorum) I: Temperature Effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sudden pH decline (SPD) describes the situation where crops growing at an appropriate pH, suddenly (1-2 weeks) cause the substrate pH to shift downward one to two units. ‘Designer Dark Red’ Geraniums were grown in three experiments to test the effects of temperature on SPD. The first experiment te...

  7. Susceptibility of Geranium Cultivars (Pelargonium spp.) to Ralstonia solanacearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty-one cultivars of geraniums including zonal, regal, ivy, and scented were tested for susceptibility to three strains of Ralstonia solanacearum: a Race 1 Biovar 1 (R1B1) strain P597 isolated from tomato in Florida, a R1B1 strain P673 obtained from pothos originating in Costa Rica, and a Race 3 B...

  8. Fragrant volatile oil composition of Nutmeg Geranium (Pelargonium?×?fragrans Willd.) from India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ram S; Padalia, Rajendra C; Chauhan, Amit

    2013-04-01

    Hydrodistilled essential oil of 'Nutmeg Geranium' (Pelargonium?×?fragrans Willd.), grown in foothills of northern India was analysed by capillary gas chromatography (GC/flame ionisation detector (FID)) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 51 constituents, representing 90.2% of the total oil composition were identified. The oil was mainly dominated by monoterpenoids (58.4%), followed by sesquiterpenoids (19.4%), and phenyl propanoids (10.1%). Major constituents of the essential oil were fenchone (10.7%), methyl eugenol (9.9%), ?-pinene (9.4%), ?-thujene (7.6%), limonene (6.4%), spathulenol (4.7%), sabinene (4.3%), linalool (4.2%), (E)-caryophyllene (4.2%), terpinen-4-ol (3.2%), ?-pinene (2.9%), caryophyllene oxide (2.2%) and bicyclogermacrene (2.1%). This is the first report on essential oil composition of Nutmeg Geranium oil grown in India. PMID:22616953

  9. Effect of prilled urea and modified urea materials on yield and quality of geranium ( Pelargonium graveolens L. Her.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Rajeswara Rao; Kailash Singh; A. K. Bhattacharya; A. A. Naqvi

    1990-01-01

    Two field experiments were conducted to study the effect of prilled urea, neem cake coated urea, dicyandiamide treated urea and urea supergranules applied to a perennial aromatic herb, geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L. Her'.) grown on a sandy loam soil. Application of nitrogen increased the biomass and essential oil yields. Neem cake coated urea significantly increased the yields over prilled urea.

  10. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of leaf essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér.), which is used in traditional Tunisian folk medicine for the treatment of hyperglycaemia, is widely known as one of the medicinal herbs with the highest antioxidant activity. The present paper is conducted to test the hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities of the leaf essential oil of P. graveolens. Methods The essential oil P. graveolens was administered daily and orally to the rats at two doses of 75?mg/kg and 150?mg/kg body weight (b.w.) for 30?days. The chemical composition of P. graveolens essential oil, body weight, serum glucose, hepatic glycogen, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), the components of hepatic, and renal and serum antioxidant systems were evaluated. The hypoglycemic effect of rose-scented geranium was compared to that of the known anti-diabetic drug glibenclamide (600??g/kg b.w.). Results After the administration of two doses of essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. together with glibenclamide which is known by its antidiabetic activities and used as reference (600??g/kg b.w.), for four weeks, the serum glucose significantly decreased and antioxidant perturbations were restored. The hypoglycemic effect of P. graveolens at the dose of 150?mg/kg b.w. was significantly (pgeranium oils were confirmed. Conclusions It suggests that administration of essential oil of P. graveolens may be helpful in the prevention of diabetic complications associated with oxidative stress. Our results, therefore, suggest that the rose-scented geranium could be used as a safe alternative antihyperglycemic drug for diabetic patients. PMID:22734822

  11. Morphoregulatory role of thidiazuron: morphogenesis of root outgrowths in thidiazuron-treated geranium ( Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimo H. M. Sanago; Susan J. Murch; Tannis Y. Slimmon; Sankaran KrishnaRaj; Praveen K. Saxena

    1995-01-01

    Root outgrowths formed on the root tissue of geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey cv. Kim and cv. Shone Helena) plants in response to treatment with the phenylurea derivative, thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N'-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5'-ylurea; TDZ). Treatment with the cytokinin N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) or the auxin a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) did not result in stimulation of similar abnormal structures on the root tissue. Significantly more outgrowths developed

  12. RANGE OF NUTRIENTS IN PELARGONIUM X HORTORUM AND PELARGONIUM SPP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zonal geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum) and scented geranium (Pelargonium spp) together are among of the top-selling floriculture plants in the US today, with several hundred cultivars and species available each year. With such diversity in appearances, growth habits, and developmental traits, we h...

  13. How Does Geranium (Pelargonium) Respond To Specific Nutrient Deficiencies? A Visual Primer For Grower Diagnosis And Correction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Pelargonium, which is native to south Africa, is the most popular floriculture crop because of its use as a bedding plant, potted crop, or in hanging baskets (USDA Ag Statistics, 2004). In spite of their popularity and diversity, only the most general nutritional guidelines are available ...

  14. Effect of Phosphorus Deficiency and High Temperature on Ammonium and Nitrate Uptake by Geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cause of sudden substrate pH decline by geranium is unknown and may be due to a shift in cation-anion balance. Nitrogen plays a very important role in cation-anion balance since it accounts for over 50% of the mineral ions that will cross the plasma membrane and is the only mineral nutrient tha...

  15. Methylhexanamine is not detectable in Pelargonium or Geranium species and their essential oils: A multi-centre investigation.

    PubMed

    ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Gul, Waseem; Tolbert, Candice; ElSohly, Kareem M; Murphy, Timothy P; Avula, Bharathi; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Wang, Mei; Khan, Ikhlas A; Yang, Min; Guo, Dean; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Su, Juan

    2014-10-23

    In an earlier study, we developed two sensitive and reliable procedures for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of methylhexaneamine (MHA) in P. graveolens plant materials and volatile oils. None of the analyzed plant materials or oils showed any detectable levels of MHA which was further substantiated by high resolution liquid chromatography-quantum time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) analysis with a limit of detection of 10?ppb. However, other laboratories (two studies) reported the presence of MHA in some samples of P. graveolens and pelargonium oil acquired by the investigators from China. Because of the controversy of whether Pelargonium species or pelargonium oil contains MHA, it was recommended that splits of multiple samples be analyzed by different laboratories. In this investigation, multiple plant materials and oil samples were collected from around the world. These samples were submitted to four different sites for analysis. All sites adopted a similar extraction method. All the analysis sites used LC-MS/MS or LC-QTOF-MS and detection limit was set close to the 10?ng/mL as previously reported. A total of 18 plant samples belonging to 6 different Pelargonium species and 9 oils from different locations around the world were split among 4 different analytical laboratories for analysis (each lab received the same samples). None of the laboratories detected MHA in any of the samples at or around the 10?ppb detection level of the procedure used. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25346500

  16. Fumigant antitermitic activity of plant essential oils and components from Ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ), Allspice ( Pimenta dioica ), caraway ( Carum carvi ), dill ( Anethum graveolens ), Geranium ( Pelargonium graveolens ), and Litsea ( Litsea cubeba ) oils against Japanese termite ( Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe).

    PubMed

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Chang-Hoon; Shin, Sang-Chul; Park, Il-Kwon

    2009-08-12

    Plant essential oils from 26 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against the Japanese termite, Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe, using a fumigation bioassay. Responses varied with source, exposure time, and concentration. Among the essential oils tested, strong insecticidal activity was observed with the essential oils of ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ), allspice ( Pimenta dioica ), caraway ( Carum carvi ), dill ( Anethum graveolens ), geranium ( Pelargonium graveolens ), and litsea ( Litsea cubeba ). The composition of six essential oils was identified by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The compounds thus identified were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against Japanese termites. Responses varied in a dose-dependent manner for each compound. Phenol compounds exhibited the strongest insecticidal activity among the test compounds; furthermore, alcohol and aldehyde groups were more toxic than hydrocarbons. The essential oils and compounds described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for termite control. PMID:19722567

  17. Rose Scent

    PubMed Central

    Guterman, Inna; Shalit, Moshe; Menda, Naama; Piestun, Dan; Dafny-Yelin, Mery; Shalev, Gil; Bar, Einat; Davydov, Olga; Ovadis, Mariana; Emanuel, Michal; Wang, Jihong; Adam, Zach; Pichersky, Eran; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Zamir, Dani; Vainstein, Alexander; Weiss, David

    2002-01-01

    For centuries, rose has been the most important crop in the floriculture industry; its economic importance also lies in the use of its petals as a source of natural fragrances. Here, we used genomics approaches to identify novel scent-related genes, using rose flowers from tetraploid scented and nonscented cultivars. An annotated petal EST database of ?2100 unique genes from both cultivars was created, and DNA chips were prepared and used for expression analyses of selected clones. Detailed chemical analysis of volatile composition in the two cultivars, together with the identification of secondary metabolism–related genes whose expression coincides with scent production, led to the discovery of several novel flower scent–related candidate genes. The function of some of these genes, including a germacrene D synthase, was biochemically determined using an Escherichia coli expression system. This work demonstrates the advantages of using the high-throughput approaches of genomics to detail traits of interest expressed in a cultivar-specific manner in nonmodel plants. PMID:12368489

  18. Using Leaf Temperature to Detect Pythium Root Rot Stress in Geranium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diagnosis of incipient disease based on visual symptoms of geraniums (Pelargonium × hortorum L. H. Bailey) exposed to water mold pathogens is often difficult, especially when the plants are maintained under optimum growing conditions. Such plants tend to be asymptomatic until late in the infection ...

  19. USE OF LEAF TEMPERATURE TO ASSESS THE RESPONSE OF GERANIUM PLANTS FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO SOIL PATHOGENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early response of geranium plants (Pelargonium x hortorum cv. "Maverick Red") exposed to soil pathogens was assessed by measuring changes in leaf temperature. Differences between air temperature and leaf temperature were noticed 7 days after exposure to pathogens. Differences were greatest between...

  20. Water-Soluble Fertilizer Concentration and pH of a Peat-Based Substrate Affect Growth, Nutrient Uptake, and Chlorosis of Container-Grown Seed Geraniums

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brandon R. Smith; Paul R. Fisher; William R. Argo

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of water-soluble fertilizer concentration (WSF) and substrate-pH on growth, foliar nutrient content, and chlorosis of seed geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum) “Ringo Scarlet.” Geraniums were grown for 21 days in a 70% peat-30% perlite substrate. Experiment 1 included four pre-plant lime rates (pH 3.8, 4.3, 4.8, and 5.5), and plants were irrigated using 1X, 2X,

  1. Transpiration from geranium grown under high temperatures and low humidities in greenhouses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. I. Montero; A. Antón; P. Muñoz; P. Lorenzo

    2001-01-01

    Most transpiration studies of greenhouse crops have been undertaken under cool conditions in northern and central Europe. These conditions are greatly exceeded in most greenhouses of the Mediterranean basin or in other zones where the climate is warmer. This article presents some measured transpiration data of Geranium, Pelargonium zonale grown under high vapour pressure deficit (VPD) (up to 3.4kPa) and

  2. Essential oils and anxiolytic aromatherapy.

    PubMed

    Setzer, William N

    2009-09-01

    A number of essential oils are currently in use as aromatherapy agents to relieve anxiety, stress, and depression. Popular anxiolytic oils include lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), rose (Rosa damascena), orange (Citrus sinensis), bergamot (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), sandalwood (Santalum album), clary sage (Salvia sclarea), Roman chamomile (Anthemis nobilis), and rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp.). This review discusses the chemical constituents and CNS effects of these aromatherapeutic essential oils, as well as recent studies on additional essential oils with anxiolytic activities. PMID:19831048

  3. Evidence for the Presence of 1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) in Geranium Plant Materials

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) is an aliphatic amine with stimulant properties that are reportedly found naturally only in geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). The presence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants was first reported in a paper published in 1996, but some have questioned the identification of 1,3-DMAA in that study. Since then, a number of additional studies have been published, largely reporting the absence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants and commercial geranium oils. However, in two recent studies, 1,3-DMAA was detected in geranium plant tissues and a geranium oil sample using a simplified extraction approach on tissues and oil sourced from China. Whether or not 1,3-DMAA is found naturally in plants has significant implications as to how commercial products containing 1,3-DMAA are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. In this paper, differences in source materials, extraction procedures, and analytical approaches are reviewed in an attempt to rationalize the apparently conflicting evidence for the presence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plant materials. PMID:23843687

  4. Methods for in vitro propagation of Pelargonium x Hortorum and others: from meristems to protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Dorion, Noëlle; Ben Jouira, Hatem; Gallard, Anthony; Hassanein, Anber; Nassour, Mazen; Grapin, Agnès

    2010-01-01

    Geraniums (Pelargonium spp.) are among the most popular bedding and pot plants (25% of the French domestic market). On one hand, as vegetatively propagated plants, Pelargonium are submitted to pathogen pressure. On the other hand, innovation via interspecific hybridisation faces some difficulties. In this chapter, the two first protocols (from seeds and meristems) explain how in vitro plants free of virus could be obtained. The development of this technique is the long-term preservation of genetic resources via meristem cryopreservation. The third protocol describes propagation of Pelargonium with limited risks of variation. This technique also allows the constitution and the maintenance of a plant-stock from which explants can be taken for other studies. The two last protocols describe plant regenerations from leaf discs and mesophyll protoplasts, used for gene transfer and somatic hybridisation. These protocols were established mainly with Pelargonium x hortorum cultivars, but we propose possible solutions for the other species: P. x peltatum, P. x domesticum, P. capitatum and P. graveolens. PMID:20099103

  5. Identification and Quantification of Dimethylamylamine in Geranium by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Li, J.S.; Chen, M.; Li, Z.C.

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive and reliable method of liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/ MS) was developed and validated for determining 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) and 1,4-dimethylamylamine (1,4-DMAA) in geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). The sample was extracted with 0.5 M HCl and purified by liquid-liquid partition with hexane. The parameters for reverse-phase (C18) LC and positive ESI/MS/MS were optimized. The matrix effect, specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy and reproducibility of the method were determined and evaluated. The method was linear over a range of 0.10–10.00 ng/mL examined, with R2 of 0.99 for both 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-DMAA. The recoveries from spiked concentrations between 5.00–40.00 ng/g were 85.1%–104.9% for 1,3-DMAA, with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.9%–11.0%, and 82.9%–101.8% for 1,4-DMAA, with RSD of 3.2%–11.7%. The instrument detection limit was 1–2 pg for both DMAAs. The quantification limit was estimated to be 1–2 ng/g for the plant sample. This method was successfully applied to the quantitative determination of 1,3- and 1,4-DMAA in both geranium plant and geranium oil. PMID:22915838

  6. Analysis and Confirmation of 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-DMAA in Geranium Plants Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry at ng/g Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Heather L.; Ranaivo, Patricia L.; Simone, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) is a stimulant commercially sold in a variety of dietary supplements as a chemical species derived from geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). Whether 1,3-DMAA naturally occurs in geranium plants or other dietary ingredients, it has important regulatory and commercial ramifications. However, the analysis of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants is not trivial due to low concentrations and a complex environmental matrix, requiring high selectivity and sensitivity. An extraction method combined with high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry is used to determine 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-dimethylamylamine (1,4-DMAA) concentrations in geranium plants with both external calibration and standard addition method. Samples from the Changzhou, Kunming, and Guiyang regions of China during both winter and summer were analyzed for 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-DMAA. The diastereomer ratios of the 1,3-DMAA stereoisomers of a racemic standard and the extracted plant were also quantified. PMID:23225994

  7. Development of a shoot regeneration protocol for genetic transformation in Pelargonium zonale and Pelargonium peltatum hybrids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Traud Winkelmann; Kamran Kaviani; Margrethe Serek

    2005-01-01

    The attempts of this investigation were to develop a system for plant regeneration from explants of adult plants and its use for genetic transformation of important commercial Pelargonium zonale hybrid and P. peltatum hybrid cultivars. To this aim, leaf blade and petiole explants of eight cultivars were cultured on modified MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) medium with two concentrations of

  8. Metabolism of l-Threonic Acid in Rumex x acutus L. and Pelargonium crispum (L.) L'Hér 1

    PubMed Central

    Helsper, Johannes P.; Loewus, Frank A.

    1982-01-01

    l-Threonic acid is a natural constituent in leaves of Pelargonium crispum (L.) L'Hér (lemon geranium) and Rumex x acutus L. (sorrel). In both species, l-[14C]threonate is formed after feeding l-[U-14C]ascorbic acid to detached leaves. R. acutus leaves labeled with l-[4-3H]- or l-[6-3H]ascorbic acid produce l-[3H]threonate, in the first case internally labeled and in the second case confined to the hydroxymethyl group. These results are consistent with the formation of l-threonate from carbons three through six of l-ascorbic acid. Detached leaves of P. crispum oxidize l-[U-14C] threonate to l-[14C]tartrate whereas leaves of R. acutus produce negligible tartrate and the bulk of the 14C appears in 14CO2, [14C]sucrose, and other products of carbohydrate metabolism. R. acutus leaves that are labeled with l-[U-14C]threonate release 14CO2 at linear rate until a limiting value of 25% of the total [U-14C]threonate is metabolized. A small quantity of [14C]glycerate is also produced which suggests a process involving decarboxylation of l-[U-14C]threonate. PMID:16662405

  9. The effects of selected Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae on growth and water relation of geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum 'cherry glow') 

    E-print Network

    Sweatt, Michael Raymond

    1982-01-01

    zeatin-like compound was produced by certain mycorrhizal fungi (1). Levy and Krikum found that mycorrhizal fungi altered ABA and cytokinin levels in the leaves of rough lemon and postulated that this affected stomatal control (30). Growth responses... by effecting stomatal control, but not by lowering root resistance to water flow. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I gratefully acknowledge my committee chairman, Dr. Frederick Davies for his patience and sound advice in this thesis project. Thanks are also due to my...

  10. Effect of fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) feeding on subsequent Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dark-winged fungus gnats in the genus Bradysia (Diptera: Sciaridae) and root rot pathogens in the genus Pythium (Oomycetes) are important pests of greenhouse floriculture. Observations have pointed to a possible correlation between Pythium root rot disease and fungus gnat infestations; however, inte...

  11. The Essential Oils of Pelargonium grossularioides and Erodium cicutarium (Geraniaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Lis-Balchin

    1993-01-01

    The essential oils of Pelargonium grossularioides and Erodium cicutarium (Geraniaceae) were examined by GC\\/MS and found to be very similar. The major components were isomenthone (12.8%, 11.2%), citronellol (11.6%, 15.4%), geraniol (15.9%, 16.7%) and methyl eugenol (11.2%, 10.6%) respectively.

  12. Cryopreservation of Pelargonium apices by droplet-vitrification.

    PubMed

    Gallard, Anthony; Panis, Bart; Dorion, Nöelle; Swennen, Rony; Grapin, Agnès

    2008-01-01

    The droplet-vitrification method was adapted to Pelargonium apices by optimizing the duration of the loading solution (LS) as well as the plant vitrification solution 2 (PVS2). The excised apices were dehydrated in two steps (20 min in LS and 15 min in PVS2) and then immersed directly in liquid nitrogen (LN). After thawing and unloading in the recovery solution at room temperature for 15 min, apices were plated onto semi-solid Murashige and Skoog medium. This simple protocol without any pretreatment was successfully applied to eight cultivars with a survival level ranging between 55.6 - 96.2 percent and a regrowth level between 9.1 and 70.6 percent. These results prove the feasibility of the long-term storage of Pelargonium germplasm through cryopreservation. PMID:18754064

  13. Target Region Amplification Polymorphism (TRAP) as a Tool for Detecting Genetic Variation in the Genus Pelargonium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pelargonium is one of the priority genera collected by the Ornamental Plant Germplasm Center (OPGC). In order to protect future breeders from a loss of genetic diversity, OPGC collects heirloom cultivars, breeding lines and wild species. The current Pelargonium collection at OPGC consists primaril...

  14. Efficacy of an aqueous Pelargonium sidoides extract against herpesvirus.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, P; Schneider, S; Stintzing, F C; Carle, R; Reichling, J

    2008-12-01

    The compounds of an aqueous root extract of the African medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides were analysed by LC-MS spectroscopy and the antiviral effect of this extract against herpes simplex virus was examined in cell culture. Besides predominant coumarins, simple phenolic structures as well as flavonoid and catechin derivatives were identified as major constituents in the Pelargonium extract. The inhibitory activity of this extract against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was tested in vitro on RC-37 cells using a plaque reduction assay and exhibited high antiviral activity against both herpesviruses in viral suspension tests. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of the aqueous Pelargonium sidoides extract for herpes simplex virus plaque formation was determined at 0.00006% and 0.000005% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. At maximum noncytotoxic concentrations of the extract, plaque formation was significantly reduced by more than 99.9% for HSV-1 and HSV-2 and a clear concentration-dependent antiviral activity against HSV could be demonstrated for this extract. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action, the extract was added at different times to the cells or viruses during the infection cycle. Both herpesviruses were significantly inhibited when pretreated with the plant extract or when the extract was added during the adsorption phase, whereas acyclovir demonstrated antiviral activity only intracellularly during replication of HSV. These results indicate that P. sidoides extract affected the virus before penetration into the host cell and reveals a different mode of action when compared to the classical drug acyclovir. Hence this extract is capable of exerting an antiviral effect on herpes simplex virus and might be suitable for topical therapeutic use as antiviral drug both in labial and genital herpes infection. PMID:18691858

  15. The biological activities of cinnamon, geranium and lavender essential oils.

    PubMed

    Sienkiewicz, Monika; G?owacka, Anna; Kowalczyk, Edward; Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Anna; Jó?wiak-B?benista, Marta; ?ysakowska, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Acinetobacter sp. represent an important cause of nosocomial infections. Their resistance to some antibiotics, their ability to survive on inanimate surfaces in the hospital environment and their ability to produce biofilms contributes to their virulence. The aim of the study was to determine the antibacterial properties of cinnamon, lavender and geranium essential oils against bacteria of the genus Acinetobacter isolated from several clinical materials and from the hospital environment. A comprehensive evaluation of the susceptibility of Acinetobacter sp. clinical strains to recommended antibiotics was performed. The constituents of cinnamon, lavender and geranium essential oils were identified by GC-FID-MS analysis, and their Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) against tested clinical strains were determined by the micro-dilution broth method. In addition, the effects of essential oils on the viability of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) and glioblastoma cell line (T98G) were evaluated. Cinnamon bark oil was the most active against clinical and environmental strains of Acinetobacter baumannii with MIC values ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 µL/mL. The MIC values for geranium oil were between 7.5 and 9.5 µL/mL, and between 10.5 and 13.0 µL/mL for lavender oil. These essential oils can be best employed in the fight against infections caused by bacteria from Acinetobacter genus as components of formulations for hygiene and disinfection of hospital environment. PMID:25514231

  16. Timing of Seed Production and Dispersal Geranium Carolinianum: Effects on Fitness Author(s): Deborah Ann Roach

    E-print Network

    Roach,. Deborah

    Timing of Seed Production and Dispersal Geranium Carolinianum: Effects on Fitness Author TIMING OF SEED PRODUCTION AND DISPERSAL IN GERANIUM CAROLINIANUM: EFFECTS ON FITNESS' DEBORAH ANN ROACH2 of seed production and of seed dispersal to the fitness of an annual plant was examined using Geranium

  17. Anxiety reduction by aromatherapy: Anxiolytic effects of inhalation of geranium and rosemary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil Morris; Steven Birtwistle; Margaret Toms

    1995-01-01

    Some aromatherapists suggest that geranium oil is useful for reducing anxiety but do not recommend the use of rosemary oil. To examine these assertions, using a standard psychological instrument for measuring anxiety, three groups of twelve undergraduates filled out the Spielberger State-Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and then inhaled either just steam, steam plus geranium oil, or steam with rosemary oil added.

  18. RALSTONIA SOLANACEARUM BIOVAR 2, RACE 3 IN GERANIUM IMPORTED FROM GUATEMALA TO PENNSYLVANIA IN 1999

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The PA Department of Agriculture Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratory received geraniums infected with Ralstonia solanacearum Biovar 2, Race 3 (RsB2R3) from three greenhouses in Spring 1999 and two additional greenhouses in Spring 2000. The geranium cultivars originated from propagators in Guatemala ...

  19. Scanning electron microscograph of vessel member from Pelargonium leaf with perforations and pits.

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katherine Esau

    2004-03-09

    Scanning electron microscograph of vessel member from Pelargonium leaf with perforations and pits. Micrograph, courtesy of Professor Peter B. Kaufman and Dr. P Dayanandan, Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

  20. Influence of biochar, mycorrhizal inoculation, and fertilizer rate on growth and flowering of Pelargonium (Pelargonium zonale L.) plants

    PubMed Central

    Conversa, Giulia; Bonasia, Anna; Lazzizera, Corrado; Elia, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Peat is the most common substrate used in nurseries despite being a very expensive and a non-renewable material. Peat replacement with biochar could be a sound environmental practice, as it is produced from waste biomass, but evaluation of biochar as a potting substrate is needed. Ratios of peat:biochar of 100:0, 70:30, 30:70 (BC0, BC30, and BC70, respectively), two fertilizer rates (FERT1, FERT2), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation were tested on potted Pelargonium plants. Plant growth, flowering, bio-physiological and nutritional responses, and root mycorrhization were evaluated. The BC30 mixture did not affect plant growth compared with pure peat. However, BC30 in combination with FERT2 treatment was more effective in enhancing nitrogen (N) and chlorophyll (CHL) leaf concentrations, and leaf and flower numbers. The BC70 mixture depressed plant growth, flowering traits, and root mycorrhization. Leaf N concentration was below the sufficiency range reported for Pelargonium growth. Leaf concentration of phosphorous (P) was adequate in pure peat and in BC30 but it dropped close to sub-optimal values in BC70. The pH value of the mixtures lowered P availability, though in BC30 the mycorrhizal activity could have allowed adequate P plant uptake. In BC70 plants, the deficiency of both N and P might be a reason for the observed growth reduction. The inoculation of the substrate with selected AMF improved plant growth (higher dry biomass, greater floral clusters, larger and more abundant leaves) and quality resulting in unstressed (lower electrolyte leakage and higher relative water content values) and greener leaves (low L? and C?, high CHL content) and in more intensely colored flowers. We conclude that biochar can be applied in nursery/potted plant production provided that the proportion in the peat mixture does not exceed 30%. Furthermore, AMF inoculation contributed to achieving the best plant performance in 30% biochar amended medium. PMID:26136757

  1. Influence of biochar, mycorrhizal inoculation, and fertilizer rate on growth and flowering of Pelargonium (Pelargonium zonale L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Conversa, Giulia; Bonasia, Anna; Lazzizera, Corrado; Elia, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Peat is the most common substrate used in nurseries despite being a very expensive and a non-renewable material. Peat replacement with biochar could be a sound environmental practice, as it is produced from waste biomass, but evaluation of biochar as a potting substrate is needed. Ratios of peat:biochar of 100:0, 70:30, 30:70 (BC0, BC30, and BC70, respectively), two fertilizer rates (FERT1, FERT2), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation were tested on potted Pelargonium plants. Plant growth, flowering, bio-physiological and nutritional responses, and root mycorrhization were evaluated. The BC30 mixture did not affect plant growth compared with pure peat. However, BC30 in combination with FERT2 treatment was more effective in enhancing nitrogen (N) and chlorophyll (CHL) leaf concentrations, and leaf and flower numbers. The BC70 mixture depressed plant growth, flowering traits, and root mycorrhization. Leaf N concentration was below the sufficiency range reported for Pelargonium growth. Leaf concentration of phosphorous (P) was adequate in pure peat and in BC30 but it dropped close to sub-optimal values in BC70. The pH value of the mixtures lowered P availability, though in BC30 the mycorrhizal activity could have allowed adequate P plant uptake. In BC70 plants, the deficiency of both N and P might be a reason for the observed growth reduction. The inoculation of the substrate with selected AMF improved plant growth (higher dry biomass, greater floral clusters, larger and more abundant leaves) and quality resulting in unstressed (lower electrolyte leakage and higher relative water content values) and greener leaves (low L(?) and C(?), high CHL content) and in more intensely colored flowers. We conclude that biochar can be applied in nursery/potted plant production provided that the proportion in the peat mixture does not exceed 30%. Furthermore, AMF inoculation contributed to achieving the best plant performance in 30% biochar amended medium. PMID:26136757

  2. Studies on effects of Pelargonium citrosa leaf extracts on malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Jeyabalan; N Arul; P Thangamathi

    2003-01-01

    Methanol extracts of Pelargonium citrosa leaf were tested for their biological, larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, antiovipositional activity, repellency and biting deterrency against Anopheles stephensi. Larval mortality was dose dependent with the highest dose of 4% plant extract evoking 98% mortality. The extracts affected pupicidal and adulticidal activity and significantly decreased fecundity and longevity of A. stephensi. The larval, pupal and adult

  3. A Pharmacological Appraisal of the Folk Medicinal Usage of Pelargonium grossularioides and Erodium cicutarium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. T. Lis-Balchin; S. L. Hart

    1994-01-01

    Pelargonium grossularioides and Erodium cicutarium, Geraniaceae family, have been used as folk medicines in South Africa, mainly to procure abortions. The pharmacological activity of extracts of the leaves of the 2 species was therefore investigated on in vitro preparations of smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle. Most extracts contracted or increased the tone of guinea pig ileum, rat uterus and rat

  4. Overexpression of RoDELLA impacts the height, branching, and flowering behaviour of Pelargonium × domesticum transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Hamama, L; Naouar, A; Gala, R; Voisine, L; Pierre, S; Jeauffre, J; Cesbron, D; Leplat, F; Foucher, F; Dorion, N; Hibrand-Saint Oyant, L

    2012-11-01

    KEY MESSAGE : We reported the cloning of a rose DELLA gene. We obtained transgenic Pelargonium lines overexpressing this gene which presented several phenotypes in plant growth, root growth, flowering time and number of inflorescences. Control of development is an important issue for production of ornamental plant. The plant growth regulator, gibberellins (GAs), plays a pivotal role in regulating plant growth and development. DELLA proteins are nuclear negative regulator of GA signalling. Our objective was to study the role of GA in the plant architecture and in the blooming of ornamentals. We cloned a rose DELLA homologous gene, RoDELLA, and studied its function by genetic transformation of pelargonium. Several transgenic pelargonium (Pelargonium × domesticum 'Autum Haze') lines were produced that ectopically expressed RoDELLA under the control of the 35S promoter. These transgenic plants exhibited a range of phenotypes which could be related to the reduction in GA response. Most of transgenic plants showed reduced growth associated to an increase of the node and branch number. Moreover, overexpression of RoDELLA blocked or delayed flowering in transgenic pelargonium and exhibited defects in the root formation. We demonstrated that pelargonium could be used to validate ornamental gene as the rose DELLA gene. RoDELLA overexpression modified many aspects of plant developmental pathways, as the plant growth, the transition of vegetative to floral stage and the ability of rooting. PMID:22898902

  5. Evaluation of antioxidative properties of Geranium macrorrhizum and Potentilla fruticosa extracts in Dutch style fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Miliauskas, G; Mulder, E; Linssen, J P H; Houben, J H; van Beek, T A; Venskutonis, P R

    2007-12-01

    Antioxidative properties of Geranium macrorrhizum, Potentilla fruticosa and Rosmarinus officinalis (as a reference) extracts were evaluated in Dutch style fermented sausages. Extracts were incorporated into sausages during preparation. The sausages were subsequently fermented, tested and compared to a standard spices mix, traditionally used for the production of such sausages. Formation of the primary oxidation products - peroxides, and secondary - TBARS and hexanal was monitored. The polar extracts from Potentilla showed some antioxidant activity, especially in combination with ascorbate, however the activity was low compared to the standard spices mix. Polar extracts from Geranium showed only negligible antioxidant activity. PMID:22061961

  6. Phosphorus Deficiency in Pelargonium: Effects on Nitrate and Ammonium Uptake and Acidity Generation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cause of sudden substrate pH decline by geranium is unknown and may be due to a shift in cation-anion balance. Nitrogen plays a very important role in cation-anion balance since it accounts for over 50% of the mineral ions that will cross the plasma membrane and is the only mineral nutrient tha...

  7. Suppression of neutrophil accumulation in mice by cutaneous application of geranium essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Naho; Sekimoto, Yuka; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Inouye, Shigeharu; Oshima, Haruyuki; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

    2005-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggested that essential oils suppressed the adherence response of human neutrophils in vitro and that intraperitoneal application of geranium oil suppressed the neutrophil accumulation into peritoneal cavity in vivo. Usually, essential oils are applied through skin in aromatherapy in inflammatory symptoms. The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of cutaneous application of essential oils on the accumulation of neutrophils in inflammatory sites in skin of mice. Methods Inflammation with accumulation of inflammatory cells was induced by injection of curdlan, a (1?3)-?-D-glucan in skin or peritoneal cavity of mice. Essential oils were applied cutaneously to the mice immediately and 3 hr after intradermal injection of curdlan. The skin with inflammatory lesion was cut off 6 hr after injection of curdlan, and the homogenates were used for myeloperoxidase (MPO: a marker enzyme of neutrophil granule) assay. Results The MPO activity of the skin lesion induced by curdlan was suppressed dose-dependently by cutaneous application of geranium oil. Other oils such as lavender, eucalyptus and tea tree oils also suppressed the activity, but their activities seemed weaker than geranium. Juniper oil didn't suppress the activity Conclusion Cutaneous application of essential oils, especially geranium oil, can suppress the inflammatory symptoms with neutrophil accumulation and edema. PMID:15813994

  8. Effects of belowground grazing by collembola on growth, mycorrhizal infection, and P uptake of Geranium robertianum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen K. Harris; R. E. J. Boerner

    1990-01-01

    We hypothesized that the grazing of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) hyphae by soil animals could be responsible for the lack of a direct relationship between mycorrhizal infection intensity and nutrient uptake under field conditions. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effect of a range of densities of the collembola, Folsomia candida, on growth, VAM infection, and P uptake in Geranium

  9. Are resources allocated differently to symbiosis and reproduction in Geranium sylvaticum under different light conditions?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jarkko Korhonen; Minna-Maarit Kytöviita; Pirkko Siikamäki

    2004-01-01

    Light levels under the forest canopy are low and generally limit plant photosynthetic gains. We hypothesized that in low-light habitats, plant photosynthate acquisition is too low to allow the same magnitude of resource allocation to symbiosis and reproduction as in high-light habitats. We tested this hypothesis in a field study where Geranium sylvaticum L. plants were collected on three occasions

  10. Evaluation of antioxidative properties of Geranium macrorrhizum and Potentilla fruticosa extracts in Dutch style fermented sausages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Miliauskas; E. Mulder; J. P. H. Linssen; J. H. Houben; T. A. van Beek; P. R. Venskutonis

    2007-01-01

    Antioxidative properties of Geranium macrorrhizum, Potentilla fruticosa and Rosmarinus officinalis (as a reference) extracts were evaluated in Dutch style fermented sausages. Extracts were incorporated into sausages during preparation. The sausages were subsequently fermented, tested and compared to a standard spices mix, traditionally used for the production of such sausages. Formation of the primary oxidation products – peroxides, and secondary –

  11. Detecting Root Rot Stress in Geranium by Measuring Changes in Leaf Temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine if changes in geranium leaf temperature, measured by infrared (IR) transducers aimed at the plant canopy or individual leaves, correlate with root infection by pathogenic water molds. This is the first report to our knowledge that addresses the use of environmental se...

  12. The influence of phosphorus concentration on the development of Pythium root rot disease of seedling geranium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In greenhouse production systems, growers may increase nutrient supply to meet production demands or decrease nutrient supply due to cost or environmental concerns. Only a few floriculture crops’ response in different nutrient environments to a handful of diseases are well known. Seeding geraniums...

  13. Field demonstration of age dependent increase in lead phytoextraction by Pelargonium cultivar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad; Pinelli, Eric; Alric, Alain; Kaemmerer, Michel; Pradere, Philippe; Dumat, Camille

    2013-04-01

    Unnecessary for living organisms, lead (Pb) is one of the major widespread toxic metals found in the environment with potential danger to human health and to ecosystems (Shahid et al. 2012). Lead is known to induce a broad range of toxic effects to living organism, including those that are morphological, physiological and biochemical in origin (Pourrut et al. 2011). A field study was carried out in the vicinity of Pb recycling plant near Toulouse-France, and contaminated by atmospheric fallouts to evaluate lead extraction and uptake efficiency of hyperaccumulater Attar of Roses Pelargonium cultivar. It was found that Attar of Roses has ability to accumulate (8644 mgPb/kg DW plant) and survive on highly contaminated acidic soil (39250 mg kg-1 of total Pb) without any morpho-phytotoxicity symptoms. Moreover Attar showed increased extraction of lead from bulk soil to rhizosphere through Pb mobilization and ultimately increased uptake by roots and translocation to shoots. The studied contaminated soil could be cleaned up in few years by planting hyperaccumulater Attar of Rose for longer time period. Under optimum fertlization, irrigation and use of natural or synthetic chelates (EDTA, LMOWA, humic substances etc.) along with old Attar of rose plants, time requires for complete remediation of contaminated site can be reduced to practically applicable time period. Moreover, the use of Pelargonium for remediation has several additional practical, esthetical and economic advantages. The extraction of value-added essential oils from harvested biomass could offset the cost of deploying phytoremediation and renders it as a viable approach for remediating highly contaminated soils, on large scale. Keywords: metal uptake, Pelargonium, phytoremediation, cultivar, soil-plant transfer and kinetic. References Pourrut, B., Shahid, M., Dumat, C., Winterton, P., Pinelli, E., 2011a. Lead uptake, toxicity and detoxification in plants. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 213, 113-136. Shahid, M., Arshad, M., Kaemmerer, M., Pinelli, E., Probst, A., Baque, D., Pradere, P., Dumat, C., 2012a. Long term field metal extraction by pelargonium: Phytoextraction efficiency in relation with plant maturity. Inter. J. Phytorem. 14, 493-505.

  14. Biological activity of transcripts from cDNA of Pelargonium line pattern virus.

    PubMed

    Castaño, A; Hernández, C

    2007-01-01

    A set of cDNAs of Pelargonium line pattern virus (PLPV) was assembled under the control of T7 RNA polymerase promoter and ligated into the plasmid pUC18. Transcripts synthesized in vitro from cDNA were infectious on Chenopodium quinoa according to locally induced lesions and hybridization assay. The biological activity of the viral transcripts was particularly sensitive to the short 3' terminus extensions, whereas inclusion of the 3 extra bases at the 5' terminus did not substantially affect the infectivity. Inoculation of the transcripts on plants Nicotiana benthamiana and Nicotiana clevelandii give rise to the systemic infection indistinguishable from that established by the parental isolate. This is the first report about the preparation of infectious RNA transcripts from a full-length cDNA clone of PLPV. PMID:18197735

  15. UTILIZATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM THE TEQUILA INDUSTRY. PART 6: FERTILIZATION OF POTTED GERANIUM WITH A SLAUGHTERHOUSE WASTE COMPOST

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilberto ÍÑIGUEZ; David M. CROHN

    2004-01-01

    A greenhouse pot study was conducted to evaluate the use of a slaughterhouse waste compost (SWC) as fertilizer for potted geranium plants. This SWC was mixed with agave bagasse compost (ABC) at rates of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90% and 100% by volume. The effects of the SWC on the germination and initial growth of

  16. Chemical composition and hepatotoxic effect of Geranium schiedeanum in a thioacetamide-induced liver injury model.

    PubMed

    Gayosso-De-Lucio, Juan; Bautista, Mirandeli; Velazquez-González, C; De la O Arciniega, M; Morales-González, J A; Benedí, Juana

    2014-08-01

    One of the major components of some geraniums is geraniin, described by its discoverer as crystallizable tannin, well known as an excellent antioxidant, and also found in fruits such as pomegranate. Recently, natural antioxidants have attracted great attention from consumers over the world due to their lower toxicity than synthetics. But geraniin is not a stable compound, and also is difficult to obtain, that is why in the present study we obtained acetonylgeraniin from Geranium schideanum (Gs), a stable acetone condensate of geraniin. In the present study the effect of Gs acetone-water extract was studied in reference to postnecrotic liver regeneration induced by thioacetamide (TA) in rats. Two months male rats were pretreated with daily dose of Gs extract for 4 days (300 mg/kg) and the last day also were intraperitoneally injected with TA (6.6 mmol/kg). Samples of blood were obtained from rats at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h following TA intoxication. The pre-treatment with the crude extract in the model of thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats decreased and delayed liver injury by 66% at 24 h. This result suggests that Gs extract may be used as an alternative for reduction of liver damage. On the other hand, acute toxicity study revealed that the LD50 value of the Gs extract is more than the dose 5000 mg/kg in rats, according to the Lorke method. PMID:25298677

  17. Transgenic regal pelargoniums that express the rol C gene from Agrobacterium rhizogenes exhibit a dwarf floral and vegetative phenotype

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Boase; C. S. Winefield; T. A. Lill; M. J. Bendall

    2004-01-01

    Summary  The regal pelargonium, ev. Dubonnet, was transformed using the disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains LBA4404 or EHA105 containing the binary vector pLN70. This plasmid carries on its T-DNA the rolC gene from Agrobacterium rhizogenes under control of the CaMV 35S promoter and the npt II selectable marker gene under a NOS promoter. Six independent transformants were produced and grouped according to

  18. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by extracts and constituents from Angelica archangelica and Geranium sylvaticum.

    PubMed

    Sigurdsson, Steinthor; Gudbjarnason, Sigmundur

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition of several Icelandic medicinal herbs. Ethanolic extracts of Angelica archangelica seeds and the aerial parts of Geranium sylvaticum proved effective, with IC50 values of 2.20 mg/ml and 3.56 mg/ml, respectively. The activity of imperatorin and xanthotoxin from A. archangelica was measured. Xanthotoxin proved much more potent than imperatorin, with an IC50 value of 155 microg/ml (0.72 mM) but that for imperatorin was above 274 microg/ml (1.01 mM). However, furanocoumarins seem to have a minor part in the total activity of this extract. Synergistic interaction was observed between the extracts of A. archangelica and G. sylvaticum. Several medicinal herbs (Achillea millefolium, Filipendula ulmaria, Thymus praecox and Matricaria maritima) did not show AChE inhibitory activity. PMID:18069242

  19. The Root Extract of the Medicinal Plant Pelargonium sidoides Is a Potent HIV-1 Attachment Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Helfer, Markus; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Schneider, Martha; Rebensburg, Stephanie; Forcisi, Sara; Müller, Constanze; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Schindler, Michael; Brack-Werner, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Global HIV-1 treatment would benefit greatly from safe herbal medicines with scientifically validated novel anti-HIV-1 activities. The root extract from the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides (PS) is licensed in Germany as the herbal medicine EPs®7630, with numerous clinical trials supporting its safety in humans. Here we provide evidence from multiple cell culture experiments that PS extract displays potent anti-HIV-1 activity. We show that PS extract protects peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages from infection with various X4 and R5 tropic HIV-1 strains, including clinical isolates. Functional studies revealed that the extract from PS has a novel mode-of-action. It interferes directly with viral infectivity and blocks the attachment of HIV-1 particles to target cells, protecting them from virus entry. Analysis of the chemical footprint of anti-HIV activity indicates that HIV-1 inhibition is mediated by multiple polyphenolic compounds with low cytotoxicity and can be separated from other extract components with higher cytotoxicity. Based on our data and its excellent safety profile, we propose that PS extract represents a lead candidate for the development of a scientifically validated herbal medicine for anti-HIV-1 therapy with a mode-of-action different from and complementary to current single-molecule drugs. PMID:24489923

  20. Analysis of antifungal and anticancer effects of the extract from Pelargonium zonale.

    PubMed

    Lewtak, Kinga; Fio?ka, Marta J; Szczuka, Ewa; Ptaszy?ska, Aneta A; Kotowicz, Natalia; Ko?odziej, Przemys?aw; Rzymowska, Jolanta

    2014-11-01

    The extract from Pelargonium zonale stalks exhibits activity against Candida albicans and exerts an effect on the HeLa cell line. The action against C. albicans cells was analysed using light, CLSM, SEM, and TEM microscopes. The observations indicate that the extract influenced fungal cell morphology and cell metabolic activity. The morphological changes include cell wall damage, deformations of cell surfaces, and abnormalities in fungal cell shape and size. Cells of C. albicans treated with the extract exhibited disturbances in the budding pattern and a tendency to form agglomerates and multicellular chains. The P. zonale extract caused a significant decrease in the metabolic activity of C. albicans cells. Cells died via both apoptosis and necrosis. The antitumor activity of the extract was analysed using the MTT assay. The P. zonale extract exhibited minor cytotoxicity against the HeLa cell line but a dose-dependent cytopathic effect was noticed. The P. zonale extract is a promising source for the isolation of antifungal and anticancer compounds. PMID:24972056

  1. Insights into the Selective Pressures Restricting Pelargonium Flower Break Virus Genome Variability: Evidence for Host Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Rico, Patricia; Ivars, Pilar; Elena, Santiago F.; Hernández, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    The molecular diversity of Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV) was assessed using a collection of isolates from different geographical origins, hosts, and collecting times. The genomic region examined was 1,828 nucleotides (nt) long and comprised the coding sequences for the movement (p7 and p12) and the coat (CP) proteins, as well as flanking segments including the entire 3? untranslated region (3? UTR). Some constraints limiting viral heterogeneity could be inferred from sequence analyses, such as the conservation of the amino acid sequences of p7 and of the shell domain of the CP, the maintenance of a leucine zipper motif in p12, and the preservation of a particular folding in the 3? UTR. A remarkable covariation, involving five specific amino acid sites, was found in the CP of isolates largely propagated in the local lesion host Chenopodium quinoa and in the progeny of a PFBV variant subjected to serial passages in this host. Concomitant with this covariation, up to 30 nucleotide substitutions in a 1,428-nt region of the viral RNA could be attributable to C. quinoa-specific adaptation, representing one of the most outstanding cases of host-driven genome variation for a plant virus. Globally, the results indicate that the selective pressures exerted by the host play a critical role in shaping PFBV populations and that these populations are likely being selected for at both protein and RNA levels. PMID:16873268

  2. Evaluation of biological control agents for control of botrytis blight of geranium and powdery mildew of rose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janice F. Elmhirst; C. Haselhan; Z. K. Punja

    2011-01-01

    Four commercially formulated biological control products, containing Gliocladium catenulatum (Prestop® WP), Trichoderma harzianum (PlantShield®) and Bacillus subtilis [Serenade® MAX™ (wettable powder) and Rhapsody® ASO™ (liquid)] were evaluated for control of rose powdery mildew (Podosphaera pannosa) on outdoor, container-grown roses and botrytis blight (Botrytis cinerea) on greenhouse-grown zonal geraniums in 2006 and 2007. The products were applied every 7–14 days and

  3. Interspecific variation in SOâ flux: leaf surface versus internal flux, and components of leaf conductance. [Pisum sativum L. , Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Flacca, Geranium carolinianum L. , Diplacus aurantiacus (Curtis) Jeps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Olszyk; D. T. Tingey

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the relationships among stomatal, residual, and epidermal conductances in determining the flux of SOâ air pollution to leaves. Variations in leaf SOâ and HâO vapor fluxes were determined using four plant species: Pisum sativum L. (garden pea), Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. flacca (mutant of tomato), Geranium carolinianum L. (wild geranium), and Diplacus aurantiacus

  4. Rose geranium essential oil as a source of new and safe anti-inflammatory drugs

    PubMed Central

    Boukhatem, Mohamed Nadjib; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Ferhat, Mohamed Amine; Saidi, Fairouz; Mekarnia, Maamar

    2013-01-01

    Background Since the available anti-inflammatory drugs exert an extensive variety of side effects, the search for new anti-inflammatory agents has been a priority of pharmaceutical industries. Aims The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oil of rose geranium (RGEO). Methods The chemical composition of the RGEO was investigated by gas chromatography. The major components were citronellol (29.13%), geraniol (12.62%), and citronellyl formate (8.06%). In the carrageenan-induced paw edema, five different groups were established and RGEO was administered orally in three different doses. Results RGEO (100 mg/kg) was able to significantly reduce the paw edema with a comparable effect to that observed with diclofenac, the positive control. In addition, RGEO showed a potent anti-inflammatory activity by topical treatment in the method of croton oil-induced ear edema. When the dose was 5 or 10 µl of RGEO per ear, the inflammation was reduced by 73 and 88%, respectively. This is the first report to demonstrate a significant anti-inflammatory activity of Algerian RGEO. In addition, histological analysis confirmed that RGEO inhibited the inflammatory responses in the skin. Conclusion Our results indicate that RGEO may have significant potential for the development of novel anti-inflammatory drugs with improved safety profile. PMID:24103319

  5. Absence of Sex Differential Plasticity to Light Availability during Seed Maturation in Geranium sylvaticum

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Sandra; Laaksonen, Ester; Siikamäki, Pirkko; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

    2015-01-01

    Sex-differential plasticity (SDP) hypothesis suggests that since hermaphrodites gain fitness through both pollen and seed production they may have evolved a higher degree of plasticity in their reproductive strategy compared to females which achieve fitness only through seed production. SDP may explain the difference in seed production observed between sexes in gynodioecious species in response to resource (nutrients or water) availability. In harsh environments, hermaphrodites decrease seed production whereas females keep it relatively similar regardless of the environmental conditions. Light availability can be also a limiting resource and thus could theoretically affect differently female and hermaphrodite seed output even though this ecological factor has been largely overlooked. We tested whether the two sexes in the gynodioecious species Geranium sylvaticum differ in their tolerance to light limitation during seed maturation in the field. We used a fully factorial block experiment exposing female and hermaphrodite plants to two different light environments (control and shade) after their peak flowering period. Specifically, we measured fruit and seed production in response to decreased light availability and compared it between the sexes. Shading reduced the number of fruits and seeds produced, but the decrease was similar between the sexes. Furthermore, shading delayed seed production by three days in both sexes, but did not affect seed mass, seed P content, or the probability of re-flowering the following year. Our results give no evidence for reproductive SDP in response to light during seed maturation. PMID:25738943

  6. Hepatoprotective effect of Geranium schiedeanum against ethanol toxicity during liver regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Bautista, Mirandeli; Gayosso-De-Lucio, Juan A; Reyes-Rosales, Yadira; Posadas-Mondragón, Araceli; Morales-González, Ángel; Soriano-Ursúa, Marvin A; García-Machorro, Jazmín; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Álvarez-González, Isela; Morales-González, José A

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of an extract of Geranium schiedeanum (Gs) as a hepatoprotective agent against ethanol (EtOH)-induced toxicity in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats weighing 200-230 g were subjected to a 70% partial hepatectomy (PH); they were then divided into three groups (groups 1-3). During the experiment, animals in group 1 drank only water. The other two groups (2-3) drank an aqueous solution of EtOH (40%, v/v). Additionally, rats in group 3 received a Gs extract daily at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight intragastically. Subsequently, to identify markers of liver damage in serum, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin and bilirubin were measured by colorimetric methods. Glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations were also determined. In addition, oxidative damage was estimated by measuring lipid peroxidation [using thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances (TBARS)] in both plasma and the liver and by measuring the total concentration of antioxidants in serum and the total antioxidant capacity in the liver. In addition, a liver mass gain assessment, total DNA analysis and a morpho-histological analysis of the liver from animals in all three groups were performed and compared. Finally, the number of deaths observed in the three groups was analyzed. RESULTS: Administration of the Geranium shiedeanum extract significantly reduced the unfavorable effect of ethanol on liver regeneration (restitution liver mass: PH-EtOH group 60.68% vs PH-Gs-EtOH group 69.22%). This finding was congruent with the reduced levels of hepatic enzymes and the sustained or increased levels of albumin and decreased bilirubin in serum. The extract also modified the metabolic processes that regulate glucose and lipid levels, as observed from the serum measurements. Lower antioxidant levels and the liver damage induced by EtOH administration appeared to be mitigated by the extract, as observed from the TBARs (PH-EtOH group 200.14 mmol/mg vs PH-Gs-EtOH group 54.20 mmol/mg; P < 0.05), total status of antioxidants (PH-EtOH group 1.43 mmol/L vs PH-Gs-EtOH group 1.99 mmol/L; P < 0.05), total antioxidant capacity values, liver mass gain and total DNA determination (PH-EtOH group 4.80 mg/g vs PH-Gs-EtOH 9.10 mg/g; P < 0.05). Overall, these processes could be related to decreased mortality in these treated animals. CONCLUSION: The administered extract showed a hepatoprotective effect, limiting the EtOH-induced hepatotoxic effects. This effect can be related to modulating oxido-reduction processes.

  7. Effect of Inhalation of Aroma of Geranium Essence on Anxiety and Physiological Parameters during First Stage of Labor in Nulliparous Women: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi Fakari, Fahimeh; Tabatabaeichehr, Mahbubeh; Kamali, Hossian; Rashidi Fakari, Farzaneh; Naseri, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Anxiety increases significantly during labor, especially among nulliparous women. Such anxiety may affect the progress of labor and physiological parameters. The use of essential oils of aromatic plants, or aromatherapy, is a non-invasive procedure that can decrease childbirth anxiety. This study examined the effect of inhalation of the aroma of geranium essential oil on the level of anxiety and physiological parameters of nulliparous women in the first stage of labor. Methods: In study, was carried out on 100 nulliparous women admitted to Bent al-Hoda Hospital in the city of Bojnord in North Khorasan province of Iran during 2012-2013. The women were randomly assigned to two groups of equal size, one experimental group (geranium essential oil) and one control (placebo) group. Anxiety levels were measured using Spielberger' questionnaire before and after intervention. Physiological parameters (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, pulse rate) were also measured before and after intervention in both groups. Data analysis was conducted using the x2 test, paired t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Wilcox on test on SPSS 11.5. Results: The mean anxiety score decreased significantly after inhalation of the aroma of geranium essential oil. There was also a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion: Aroma of essential oil of geraniums can effectively reduce anxiety during labor and can be recommended as a non-invasive anti-anxiety aid during childbirth. PMID:26161367

  8. Pelargonium graveolens L’Her. and Artemisia arborescens L. essential oils: Chemical composition, antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani and insecticidal activity against Rhysopertha dominica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hafsia Bouzenna; Lamia Krichen

    2012-01-01

    The chemical composition of the Pelargonium graveolens essential oil allowed the identification of 15 compounds (93.86% of the total essential oil). The major fractions were citronellol (35%) and geraniol (28.8%). The chemical composition of the Artemisia arborescens essential oil revealed twenty-one compounds representing 93.57% of the total essential oil. The main compounds were chamazulene (31.9%) and camphor (25.8%). The insecticidal

  9. Defensive strategies in Geranium sylvaticum. Part 1: organ-specific distribution of water-soluble tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Anu; Toivonen, Eija; Mutikainen, Pia; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

    2013-11-01

    A combination of high-resolution mass spectrometry and modern HPLC column technology, assisted by diode array detection, was used for accurate characterization of water-soluble polyphenolic compounds in the pistils, stamens, petals, sepals, stems, leaves, roots and seeds of Geranium sylvaticum. The organs contained a large variety of polyphenols, five types of tannins (ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, gallotannins, galloyl glucoses and galloyl quinic acids) as well as flavonoids and simple phenolic acids. In all, 59 compounds were identified. Geraniin and other ellagitannins dominated in all the green photosynthetic organs. The other organs seem to produce distinctive polyphenol groups: pistils accumulated gallotannins; petals acetylglucose derivatives of galloylglucoses; stamens kaempferol glycosides, and seeds and roots accumulated proanthocyanidins. The intra-plant distribution of the different polyphenol groups may reflect the different functions and importance of various types of tannins as the defensive chemicals against herbivory. PMID:23790750

  10. Direct gene transfer study and transgenic plant regeneration after electroporation into mesophyll protoplasts of Pelargonium x hortorum, 'Panaché Sud'.

    PubMed

    Hassanein, Anber; Hamama, Latifa; Loridon, Karine; Dorion, Noëlle

    2009-10-01

    Direct genetic transformation of mesophyll protoplasts was studied in Pelargonium x hortorum. Calcein and green-fluorescent protein (GFP) gene were used to set up the process. Electroporation (three electric pulses from a 33-microF capacitor in a 250-V cm(-1) electric field) was more efficient than PEG 6000 for membrane permeation, protoplast survival and cell division. Transient expression of GFP was detected in 33-36% of electroporated protoplasts after 2 days and further in colonies. A protoplast suspension conductivity of >1,500 microS cm(-1) allowed high colony formation and plant regeneration. Stable transformation was obtained using the plasmid FAJ3000 containing uidA and nptII genes. When selection (50 mg l(-1) kanamycin) was achieved 6 weeks after electroporation, regenerated shoots were able to grow and root on 100 mg l(-1) kanamycin. The maximum transformation efficiency was 4.5%, based on the number of colonies producing kanamycin-resistant rooted plants or 0.7% based on the number of cultured protoplasts. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis on in vitro micropropagated plants showed that 18 clones out of 20 contained the nptII gene, while the uidA gene was absent. These results were confirmed after PCR analyses of five glasshouse-acclimatized clones. PMID:19652973

  11. Genetic alterations for increased coumarin production lead to metabolic changes in the medicinally important Pelargonium sidoides DC (Geraniaceae).

    PubMed

    Colling, J; Groenewald, J-H; Makunga, N P

    2010-11-01

    The medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides is fast becoming threatened due to the overharvest of its tubers from the wild to produce a phytopharmaceutical for treating respiratory infections. The action of the coumarins is implicated in the efficacy of the commercial herbal extract with the highly oxygenated coumarins exhibiting the best anti-bacterial and anti-viral activity. Through this work we aimed at exploring the metabolic effects of Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformation. After confirmation of transgenesis using PCR amplification of the rol A (320 bp), rol B (400 bp) and rol C (600 bp) genes, metabolite profiles indicated a high level of variability between the different transgenic clones but these had more compounds compared to non-transgenic control cultures. This was represented by a two- to four-fold increase in detected metabolites in transgenic clones. We quantified several commercially important coumarins, flavonoids and phenolic acids. One of the clones had six out of nine of these metabolites. Overall, the concentration of these metabolites of interest were significantly changed in transgenic root cultures, for instance shikimic acid was recorded at the highest level in clone A4T-A. Production of key metabolites at significantly higher concentrations due to transgenesis and positive anti-bacterial activity exhibited by transgenic roots lends support to the idea of developing these clones as an alternative source that will allow for sustainable access to economically valuable secondary compounds of P. sidoides. PMID:20797445

  12. Phytochemical composition and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils and organic extracts from pelargonium graveolens growing in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pelargonium graveolens (P. graveolens) L. is an aromatic and medicinal plant belonging to the geraniacea family. Results The chemical compositions of the essential oil as well as the in vitro antimicrobial activities were investigated. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil revealed 42 compounds. Linallol L, Citronellol, Geraniol, 6-Octen-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl, formate and Selinene were identified as the major components. The tested oil and organic extracts exhibited a promising antimicrobial effect against a panel of microorganisms with diameter inhibition zones ranging from 12 to 34?mm and MICs values from 0.039 to10 mg/ml. The investigation of the phenolic content showed that EtOAc, MeOH and water extracts had the highest phenolic contents. Conclusion Overall, results presented here suggest that the essential oil and organic extracts of P. graveolens possesses antimicrobial and properties, and is therefore a potential source of active ingredients for food and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:23216669

  13. Antimicrobial, Antiviral and Immunomodulatory Activity Studies of Pelargonium sidoides (EPs® 7630) in the Context of Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Kolodziej, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Pelargonium species contribute significantly to the health care of a large population in the Southern African region, as part of a long-standing medical system intimately linked to traditional healing practices. Most notably, extracts of the roots of P. sidoides have commonly been applied for the treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea but only occasionally for respiratory complaints. Clinical trials have shown that a modern aqueous-ethanolic formulation of P. sidoides extracts (EPs® 7630) is an efficacious treatment for disorders of the respiratory tract, for example bronchitis and sinusitis. It should be noted that EPs® 7630 is the most widely investigated extract and therefore is the focus of this review. In order to provide a rationale for its therapeutic activity extracts have been evaluated for antibacterial activity and for their effects on non-specific immune functions. Only moderate direct antibacterial capabilities against a spectrum of bacteria, including Mycobacteria strains, have been noted. In contrast, a large body of in vitro studies has provided convincing evidence for an anti-infective principle associated with activation of the non-specific immune system. Interestingly, significant inhibition of interaction between bacteria and host cells, a key to the pathogenesis of respiratory tract infections, has emerged from recent studies. In addition, antiviral effects have been demonstrated, including inhibition of the replication of respiratory viruses and the enzymes haemagglutinin and neuraminidase. Besides, an increase of cilliary beat frequency of respiratory cells may contribute to the beneficial effects of P. sidoides extracts. This example provides a compelling argument for continuing the exploration of Nature and traditional medical systems as a source of therapeutically useful herbal medicines.

  14. Variable mycorrhizal benefits on the reproductive output of Geranium sylvaticum, with special emphasis on the intermediate phenotype.

    PubMed

    Varga, S; Kytöviita, M-M

    2014-03-01

    In several gynodioecious species, intermediate sex between female and hermaphrodite has been reported, but few studies have investigated fitness parameters of this intermediate phenotype. Here, we examined the interactions between plant sex and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal species affecting the reproductive output of Geranium sylvaticum, a sexually polymorphic plant species with frequent intermediate sexes between females and hermaphrodites, using a common garden experiment. Flowering phenology, AM colonisation levels and several plant vegetative and reproductive parameters, including seed and pollen production, were measured. Differences among sexes were detected in flowering, fruit set, pollen production and floral size. The two AM species used in the present work had different effects on plant fitness parameters. One AM species increased female fitness through increasing seed number and seed mass, while the other species reduced seed mass in all sexes investigated. AM fungi did not affect intermediate and hermaphrodite pollen content in anthers. The three sexes in G. sylvaticum did not differ in their reproductive output in terms of total seed production, but hermaphrodites had potentially larger fathering ability than intermediates due to higher anther number. The ultimate female function--seed production--did not differ among the sexes, but one of the AM fungi used potentially decreased host plant fitness. In addition, in the intermediate sex, mycorrhizal symbiosis functioned similarly in females as in hermaphrodites. PMID:23870051

  15. Biophysical studies of interaction between hydrolysable tannins isolated from Oenothera gigas and Geranium sanguineum with human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Sekowski, Szymon; Ionov, Maksim; Kaszuba, Mateusz; Mavlyanov, Saidmukhtar; Bryszewska, Maria; Zamaraeva, Maria

    2014-11-01

    Tannins, secondary plant metabolites, possess diverse biological activities and can interact with biopolymers such as lipids or proteins. Interactions between tannins and proteins depend on the structures of both and can result in changes in protein structure and activity. Because human serum albumin is the most abundant protein in plasma and responsible for interactions with important biological compounds (e.g. bilirubin) and proper blood pressure, therefore, it is very important to investigate reactions between HSA and tannins. This paper describes the interaction between human serum albumin (HSA) and two tannins: bihexahydroxydiphenoyl-trigalloylglucose (BDTG) and 1-O-galloyl-4,6-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-?-d-glucose (OG?DG), isolated from Geranium sanguineum and Oenothera gigas leafs, respectively. Optical (spectrofluorimetric) and chiral optical (circular dichroism) methods were used in this study. Fluorescence analysis demonstrated that OG?DG quenched HSA fluorescence more strongly than BDTG. Both OG?DG and BDTG formed complexes with albumin and caused a red shift of the fluorescence spectra but did not significantly change the protein secondary structure. Our studies clearly demonstrate that the tested tannins interact very strongly with human serum albumin (quenching constant K=88,277.26±407.04 M(-1) and K=55,552.67±583.07 M(-1) respectively for OG?DG and BDTG) in a manner depending on their chemical structure. PMID:25456986

  16. The inhibitory effects of Geranium thunbergii on interferon-?- and LPS-induced inflammatory responses are mediated by Nrf2 activation

    PubMed Central

    CHOI, HEE-JIN; CHOI, HEE-JUNG; PARK, MI-JU; LEE, JI-YEON; JEONG, SEUNG-IL; LEE, SEONGOO; KIM, KYUN HA; JOO, MYUNGSOO; JEONG, HAN-SOL; KIM, JAI-EUN; HA, KI-TAE

    2015-01-01

    Geranium thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc. (GT; which belongs to the Geraniaceae family) has been used as a traditional medicine in East Asia for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, including arthritis and diarrhea. However, the underlying mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects of GT remain poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of GT in macrophages. The results revealed that GT significantly inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and interferon-? (IFN-?)-induced expression of pro-inflammatory genes, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1?, as shown by RT-PCR. However, the inhibitory effects of GT on LPS- and IFN-?-induced inflammation were associated with an enhanced nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activity, but not with the suppression of nuclear factor (NF)-?B activity, as shown by western blot analysis. In addition, in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) isolated from Nrf2 knockout mice, GT did not exert any inhibitory effect on the LPS- and IFN-?-induced inflammation. Taken together, our findings indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of GT may be associated with the activation of Nrf2, an anti-inflammatory transcription factor. PMID:25761198

  17. Defensive strategies in Geranium sylvaticum, Part 2: Roles of water-soluble tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids against natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Anu

    2013-11-01

    Geranium sylvaticum is a common herbaceous plant in Fennoscandia, which has a unique phenolic composition. Ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, galloylglucoses, gallotannins, galloyl quinic acids and flavonoids possess variable distribution in its different organs. These phenolic compounds are thought to have an important role in plant-herbivore interactions. The aim of this study was to quantify these different water-soluble phenolic compounds and measure the biological activity of the eight organs of G. sylvaticum. Compounds were characterized and quantified using HPLC-DAD/MS, in addition, total proanthocyanidins were determined by BuOH-HCl assay and total phenolics by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Two in vitro biological activity measurements were used: the prooxidant activity was measured by the browning assay and antioxidant activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Organ extracts were fractionated using column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and the activities of fractions was similarly measured to evaluate which polyphenol groups contributed the most to the biological activity of each organ. The data on the activity of fractions were examined by multivariate data analysis. The water-soluble extracts of leaves and pistils, which contained over 30% of the dry weight as ellagitannins, showed the highest pro-oxidant activity among the organ extracts. Fraction analysis revealed that flavonoids and galloyl quinic acids also exhibited high pro-oxidant activity. In contrast, the most antioxidant active organ extracts were those of the main roots and hairy roots that contained high amounts of proanthocyanidins in addition to ellagitannins. Analysis of the fractions showed that especially ellagitannins and galloyl quinic acids have high antioxidant activity. We conclude that G. sylvaticum allocates a significant amount of tannins in those plant parts that are important to the fitness of the plant and susceptible to natural enemies, i.e. pistil and leaf tannins protect against insect herbivores and root tannins against soil pathogens. PMID:24050514

  18. Simultaneous functions of the installed DAS/DAK formaldehyde-assimilation pathway and the original formaldehyde metabolic pathways enhance the ability of transgenic geranium to purify gaseous formaldehyde polluted environment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shengen; Xiao, Sunqin; Xuan, Xiuxia; Sun, Zhen; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2015-04-01

    The overexpression of dihydroxyacetone synthase (DAS) and dihydroxyacetone kinase (DAK) from methylotrophic yeasts in chloroplasts created a photosynthetic formaldehyde (HCHO)-assimilation pathway (DAS/DAK pathway) in transgenic tobacco. Geranium has abilities to absorb and metabolize HCHO. Results of this study showed that the installed DAS/DAK pathway functioning in chloroplasts greatly enhanced the role of the Calvin cycle in transgenic geranium under high concentrations of gaseous HCHO stress. Consequently, the yield of sugars from HCHO-assimilation increased approximately 6-fold in transgenic geranium leaves, and concomitantly, the role of three original HCHO metabolic pathways reduced, leading to a significant decrease in formic acid, citrate and glycine production from HCHO metabolism. Although the role of three metabolic pathways reduced in transgenic plants under high concentrations of gaseous HCHO stress, the installed DAS/DAK pathway could still function together with the original HCHO metabolic pathways. Consequently, the gaseous HCHO-resistance of transgenic plants was significantly improved, and the generation of H2O2 in the transgenic geranium leaves was significantly less than that in the wild type (WT) leaves. Under environmental-polluted gaseous HCHO stress for a long duration, the stomata conductance of transgenic plants remained approximately 2-fold higher than that of the WT, thereby increasing its ability to purify gaseous HCHO polluted environment. PMID:25698666

  19. Investigation of the influence of EPs® 7630, a herbal drug preparation from Pelargonium sidoides, on replication of a broad panel of respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Michaelis, Martin; Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2011-03-15

    The Pelargonium sidoides extract EPs® 7630 is an approved drug for the treatment of acute bronchitis in Germany. The postulated mechanisms underlying beneficial effects of EPs® 7630 in bronchitis patients include immunomodulatory and cytoprotective effects, inhibition of interaction between bacteria and host cells, and increase of cilliary beat frequency on respiratory cells. Here, we investigated the influence of EPs® 7630 on replication of a panel of respiratory viruses. Determination of virus-induced cytopathogenic effects and virus titres revealed that EPs® 7630 at concentrations up to 100 ?g/ml interfered with replication of seasonal influenza A virus strains (H1N1, H3N2), respiratory syncytial virus, human coronavirus, parainfluenza virus, and coxsackie virus but did not affect replication of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H5N1), adenovirus, or rhinovirus. Therefore, antiviral effects may contribute to the beneficial effects exerted by EPs® 7630 in acute bronchitis patients. PMID:21036571

  20. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Pelargonium x hortorum: organization and evolution of the largest and most highly rearranged chloroplast genome of land plants.

    PubMed

    Chumley, Timothy W; Palmer, Jeffrey D; Mower, Jeffrey P; Fourcade, H Matthew; Calie, Patrick J; Boore, Jeffrey L; Jansen, Robert K

    2006-11-01

    The chloroplast genome of Pelargonium x hortorum has been completely sequenced. It maps as a circular molecule of 217,942 bp and is both the largest and most rearranged land plant chloroplast genome yet sequenced. It features 2 copies of a greatly expanded inverted repeat (IR) of 75,741 bp each and, consequently, diminished single-copy regions of 59,710 and 6,750 bp. Despite the increase in size and complexity of the genome, the gene content is similar to that of other angiosperms, with the exceptions of a large number of pseudogenes, the recognition of 2 open reading frames (ORF56 and ORF42) in the trnA intron with similarities to previously identified mitochondrial products (ACRS and pvs-trnA), the losses of accD and trnT-ggu and, in particular, the presence of a highly divergent set of rpoA-like ORFs rather than a single, easily recognized gene for rpoA. The 3-fold expansion of the IR (relative to most angiosperms) accounts for most of the size increase of the genome, but an additional 10% of the size increase is related to the large number of repeats found. The Pelargonium genome contains 35 times as many 31 bp or larger repeats than the unrearranged genome of Spinacia. Most of these repeats occur near the rearrangement hotspots, and 2 different associations of repeats are localized in these regions. These associations are characterized by full or partial duplications of several genes, most of which appear to be nonfunctional copies or pseudogenes. These duplications may also be linked to the disruption of at least 1 but possibly 2 or 3 operons. We propose simple models that account for the major rearrangements with a minimum of 8 IR boundary changes and 12 inversions in addition to several insertions of duplicated sequence. PMID:16916942

  1. Moderate Temperature Fluctuations Rapidly Reduce the Viability of Ralstonia solanacearum Race 3, Biovar 2, in Infected Geranium, Tomato, and Potato Plants?

    PubMed Central

    Scherf, Jacob M.; Milling, Annett; Allen, Caitilyn

    2010-01-01

    Most Ralstonia solanacearum strains are tropical plant pathogens, but race 3, biovar 2 (R3bv2), strains can cause bacterial wilt in temperate zones or tropical highlands where other strains cannot. R3bv2 is a quarantine pathogen in North America and Europe because of its potential to damage the potato industry in cooler climates. However, R3bv2 will not become established if it cannot survive temperate winters. Previous experiments showed that in water at 4°C, R3bv2 does not survive as long as native U.S. strains, but R3bv2 remains viable longer than U.S. strains in potato tubers at 4°C. To further investigate the effects of temperature on this high-concern pathogen, we assessed the ability of R3bv2 and a native U.S. strain to survive typical temperate winter temperature cycles of 2 days at 5°C followed by 2 days at ?10°C. We measured pathogen survival in infected tomato and geranium plants, in infected potato tubers, and in sterile water. The population sizes of both strains declined rapidly under these conditions in all three plant hosts and in sterile water, and no culturable R. solanacearum cells were detected after five to seven temperature cycles in plant tissue. The fluctuations played a critical role in loss of bacterial viability, since at a constant temperature of ?20°C, both strains could survive in infected geranium tissue for at least 6 months. These results suggest that even when sheltered in infected plant tissue, R3bv2 is unlikely to survive the temperature fluctuations typical of a northern temperate winter. PMID:20851983

  2. A membrane-associated movement protein of Pelargonium flower break virus shows RNA-binding activity and contains a biologically relevant leucine zipper-like motif.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Turiño, Sandra; Hernández, Carmen

    2011-05-10

    Two small viral proteins (DGBp1 and DGBp2) have been proposed to act in a concerted manner to aid intra- and intercellular trafficking of carmoviruses though the distribution of functions and mode of action of each protein partner are not yet clear. Here we have confirmed the requirement of the DGBps of Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV), p7 and p12, for pathogen movement. Studies focused on p12 have shown that it associates to cellular membranes, which is in accordance to its hydrophobic profile and to that reported for several homologs. However, peculiarities that distinguish p12 from other DGBps2 have been found. Firstly, it contains a leucine zipper-like motif which is essential for virus infectivity in plants. Secondly, it has an unusually long and basic N-terminal region that confers RNA binding activity. The results suggest that PFBV p12 may differ mechanistically from related proteins and possible roles of PFBV DGBps are discussed. PMID:21444100

  3. Chemical characterization (GC/MS and NMR Fingerprinting) and bioactivities of South-African Pelargonium capitatum (L.) L'?Her. (Geraniaceae) essential oil.

    PubMed

    Guerrini, Alessandra; Rossi, Damiano; Paganetto, Guglielmo; Tognolini, Massimiliano; Muzzoli, Mariavittoria; Romagnoli, Carlo; Antognoni, Fabiana; Vertuani, Silvia; Medici, Alessandro; Bruni, Alessandro; Useli, Chiara; Tamburini, Elena; Bruni, Renato; Sacchetti, Gianni

    2011-04-01

    Chemical fingerprinting of commercial Pelargonium capitatum (Geraniaceae) essential oil samples of south African origin was performed by GC, GC/MS, and (13) C- and (1) H-NMR. Thirty-seven compounds were identified, among which citronellol (32.71%) and geraniol (19.58%) were the most abundant. NMR Spectra of characteristic chemicals were provided. Broad-spectrum bioactivity properties of the oil were evaluated and compared with those of commercial Thymus vulgaris essential oil with the aim to obtain a functional profile in terms of efficacy and safety. P. capitatum essential oil provides a good performance as antimicrobial, with particular efficacy against Candida albicans strains. Antifungal activity performed against dermatophyte and phytopathogen strains revealed the latter as more sensitive, while antibacterial activity was not remarkable against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. P. capitatum oil provided a lower antioxidant activity (IC(50) ) than that expressed by thyme essential oil, both in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ?-carotene bleaching tests. Results in photochemiluminescence (PCL) assay were negligible. To test the safety aspects of P. capitatum essential oil, mutagenic and toxicity properties were assayed by Ames test, with and without metabolic activation. Possible efficacy of P. capitatum essential oil as mutagenic protective agent against NaN(3) , 2-nitrofluorene, and 2-aminoanthracene was also assayed, providing interesting and significant antigenotoxic properties. PMID:21480508

  4. Pelargonium graveolens L'Her. and Artemisia arborescens L. essential oils: chemical composition, antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani and insecticidal activity against Rhysopertha dominica.

    PubMed

    Bouzenna, Hafsia; Krichen, Lamia

    2013-01-01

    The chemical composition of the Pelargonium graveolens essential oil allowed the identification of 15 compounds (93.86% of the total essential oil). The major fractions were citronellol (35%) and geraniol (28.8%). The chemical composition of the Artemisia arborescens essential oil revealed twenty-one compounds representing 93.57% of the total essential oil. The main compounds were chamazulene (31.9%) and camphor (25.8%). The insecticidal effects were tested towards the insect Rhysopertha dominica. Results revealed that these two essential oils were highly effective against R. dominica at the dose of 50?µL on Petri dish of 8.5?cm of diameter. The antifungal activity was evaluated against Rhizoctonia solani and results showed that both of the essential oils were highly active at a dose of 12.5?µL/20?mL of PDA. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of P. graveolens essential oil was evidenced as stronger than that of the A. arborescens oil for all the tested doses. PMID:22840199

  5. Carbon allocation from source to sink leaf tissue in relation to flavonoid biosynthesis in variegated Pelargonium zonale under UV-B radiation and high PAR intensity.

    PubMed

    Vidovi?, Marija; Morina, Filis; Mili?, Sonja; Albert, Andreas; Zechmann, Bernd; Tosti, Tomislav; Winkler, Jana Barbro; Jovanovi?, Sonja Veljovi?

    2015-08-01

    We studied the specific effects of high photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) and ecologically relevant UV-B radiation (0.90 W m(-2)) on antioxidative and phenolic metabolism by exploiting the green-white leaf variegation of Pelargonium zonale plants. This is a suitable model system for examining "source-sink" interactions within the same leaf. High PAR intensity (1350 ?mol m(-2) s(-1)) and UV-B radiation induced different responses in green and white leaf sectors. High PAR intensity had a greater influence on green tissue, triggering the accumulation of phenylpropanoids and flavonoids with strong antioxidative function. Induced phenolics, together with ascorbate, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) provided efficient defense against potential oxidative pressure. UV-B-induced up-regulation of non-phenolic H2O2 scavengers in green leaf sectors was greater than high PAR-induced changes, indicating a UV-B role in antioxidative defense under light excess; on the contrary, minimal effects were observed in white tissue. However, UV-B radiation had greater influence on phenolics in white leaf sections compared to green ones, inducing accumulation of phenolic glycosides whose function was UV-B screening rather than antioxidative. By stimulation of starch and sucrose breakdown and carbon allocation in the form of soluble sugars from "source" (green) tissue to "sink" (white) tissue, UV-B radiation compensated the absence of photosynthetic activity and phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis in white sectors. PMID:25661975

  6. Patterns of genetic diversity reveal multiple introductions and recurrent founder effects during range expansion in invasive populations of Geranium carolinianum (Geraniaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Shirk, R Y; Hamrick, J L; Zhang, C; Qiang, S

    2014-01-01

    Genetic diversity, and thus the adaptive potential of invasive populations, is largely based on three factors: patterns of genetic diversity in the species' native range, the number and location of introductions and the number of founding individuals per introduction. Specifically, reductions in genetic diversity (‘founder effects') should be stronger for species with low within-population diversity in their native range and few introductions of few individuals to the invasive range. We test these predictions with Geranium carolinianum, a winter annual herb native to North America and invasive in China. We measure the extent of founder effects using allozymes and microsatellites, and ask whether this is consistent with its colonization history and patterns of diversity in the native range. In the native range, genetic diversity is higher and structure is lower than expected based on life history traits. In China, our results provide evidence for multiple introductions near Nanjing, Jiangsu province, with subsequent range expansion to the west and south. Patterns of genetic diversity across China reveal weak founder effects that are driven largely by low-diversity populations at the expansion front, away from the introduction location. This suggests that reduced diversity in China has resulted from successive founder events during range expansion, and that the loss of genetic diversity in the Nanjing area was mitigated by multiple introductions from diverse source populations. This has implications for the future of G. carolinianum in China, as continued gene flow among populations should eventually increase genetic diversity within the more recently founded populations. PMID:24346497

  7. Chromosome number and secondary chromosomal associations in wild populations of Geranium pratense L. from the cold deserts of Lahaul-Spiti (India).

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Singhal, V K

    2013-01-01

    In this work we studied the meiotic chromosome number and details of secondary chromosomal associations recorded for the first time in Geranium pratense L. from the alpine environments in the cold deserts of Lahaul-Spiti (India). All the presently studied individuals of the species existed at 4x level (x = 14). The present chromosome count of n = 28 in the species adds a new cytotype to the already existing diploid chromosome count of 2n = 28 from the Eastern Himalayas and outside of India. Out of the six accessions scored presently four showed normal meiotic course. However, two accessions investigated from Mud, 3800 m and Koksar, 3140 m depicted abnormal meiotic course due to the presence of multivalents and univalents, and secondary associations of bivalents/chromosomes. The secondary chromosomal associations in the species existed among bivalents/chromosomes were noticed in the PMCs at prophase-1 (diakinesis) and persisted till the separation of sister chromatids at M-II. The variation in the number of bivalents/chromosomes involved in the secondary associations at M-I (2-8) and A-I/M-II (2-12) has also been recorded. The occurrence of such secondary associations of bivalents/chromosomes in G. pratense which existed at 4x level indicated the secondary polyploid nature of the species. PMID:23745363

  8. Interspecific variation in SO/sub 2/ flux: leaf surface versus internal flux, and components of leaf conductance. [Pisum sativum L. , Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Flacca, Geranium carolinianum L. , Diplacus aurantiacus (Curtis) Jeps

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyk, D.M.; Tingey, D.T.

    1985-12-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the relationships among stomatal, residual, and epidermal conductances in determining the flux of SO/sub 2/ air pollution to leaves. Variations in leaf SO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O vapor fluxes were determined using four plant species: Pisum sativum L. (garden pea), Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. flacca (mutant of tomato), Geranium carolinianum L. (wild geranium), and Diplacus aurantiacus (Curtis) Jeps. (a native California shrub). Fluxes were measured using the mass-balance approach during exposure to 4.56 micromoles per cubic meter (0.11 microliters per liter) SO/sub 2/ for 2 hours in a controlled environmental chamber. Flux through adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces with closed stomata ranged from 1.9 to 9.4 nanomoles per square meter per second for SO/sub 2/, and 0.3 to 1.3 millimoles per square meter per second for H/sub 2/O vapor. Flux of SO/sub 2/ into leaves through stomata ranged from approx.0 to 8.5 (dark) and 3.8 to 16.0 (light) millimoles per square meter per second. Flux of H/sub 2/O vapor from leaves through stomata ranged from approx.0 to 0.6 (dark) to 0.4 to 0.9 (light) millimole per square meter per second. Lycopersicon had internal flux rates for both SO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O vapor over twice as high as for the other species. Stomatal conductance based on H/sub 2/O vapor flux averaged from 0.07 to 0.13 mole per square meter per second among the four species. Internal conductance of SO/sub 2/ as calculated from SO/sub 2/ flux was from 0.04 mole per square meter per second lower to 0.06 mole per square meter per second higher than stomatal conductance. For Pisum, Geranium, and Diplacus stomatal conductance was the same or slightly higher than internal conductance, indicating that, in general, SO/sub 2/ flux could be predicted from stomatal conductance for H/sub 2/O vapor.

  9. Green Synthesis of Small Silver Nanoparticles Using Geraniol and Its Cytotoxicity against Fibrosarcoma-Wehi 164

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mona Safaepour; Ahmad Reza Shahverdi; Hamid Reza Shahverdi; Mohammad Reza Khorramizadeh; Ahmad Reza Gohari; Ahmad-Reza Shahverdi

    Many reports have been published about the biogenesis of silver nanoparticles using several plant extracts such as Pelargonium graveolens (P.graveolens- geranium) and Azadirachta indica (neem) but the capacity of their natural reducing constituents to form silver nanoparticles has not yet been studied. In this research the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using geraniol has been investigated. We successfully synthesized uniformly dispersed

  10. Evaluation of gypsum rates on greenhouse crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was to determine the potential of an added value distribution channel for gypsum waste by evaluating various greenhouse crops with captious pH and calcium needs. Three studies consisting of: Zonal geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum) and petunia (Petunia x hybrida); tomato (Solanum lycoper...

  11. What limits production of unusual monoenoic fatty acids in transgenic plants?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mi Chung Suh; David J. Schultz; John B. Ohlrogge

    2002-01-01

    Unusual monounsaturated fatty acids are major constituents (greater than 80%) in seeds of Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander) and Thunbergia alata Bojer, as well as in glandular trichomes (greater than 80% derived products) of Pelargonium 2hortorum (geranium). These diverged fatty acid structures are produced via distinct plastidial acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturases. When expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. under strong

  12. Elevated CO2 affects plant responses to variation in boron availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of elevated CO2 on N relations are well studied, but effects on other nutrients, especially micronutrients, are not. We investigated effects of elevated CO2 on response to variation in boron (B) availability in three unrelated species: geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum), barley (Hordeum vulga...

  13. Fast Identification of 1,3-Dimethylamylamine Using Direct Analysis in Real Time-QToF-MS.

    PubMed

    Avula, Bharathi; Smillie, Troy J; Wang, Yan-Hong; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-05-01

    The central nervous system stimulant 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) has been found in preworkout products and dietary supplements. A fast direct analysis in real time-quadrupole time of flight-MS method was used for identification of DMAA in dietary supplements and to determine if this compound is present in geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) plants or oil. This method involved the use of [M+H](+) ions in the positive mode based on the exact mass of DMAA. The results of this investigation showed that DMAA was not detected from authentic samples of P. graveolens plant material or pelargonium oil or in multiple samples of commercially available pelargonium oil. DMAA was detected in three samples of dietary supplements. The LOD of DMAA was found to be 10 ng/mL. PMID:26086254

  14. A rapid method for isolating glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Yerger, E H; Grazzini, R A; Hesk, D; Cox-Foster, D L; Craig, R; Mumma, R O

    1992-05-01

    A physical method is described for the rapid isolation of plant trichomes, with emphasis on stalked glandular types. The technique involved breaking frozen trichomes with powdered dry ice and collection of glandular heads by sieving from larger tissue fragments. This method was applied to several plants that bear similar stalked trichomes: geranium (Pelargonium), potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), squash (Cucurbita pepo), and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti). The tissue preparation was of sufficient quality without further purification for biochemical and molecular studies. The preparation maintained the biochemical integrity of the trichomes for active enzymes and usable nucleic acids. A large quantity of tissue can be harvested; for example, 351 milligrams dry weight of glandular trichomes were harvested from geranium pedicels in 12 hours. The utility of the technique was demonstrated by examining the fatty acid composition of tall glandular trichomes of geraniums, Pelargonium xhortorum L.H. Bailey. These purified cells contained high concentrations of unusual omega5-unsaturated fatty acids, proportionally 23.4% of total fatty acids in the trichomes. When the trichomes were removed, the supporting tissue contained no omega5-fatty acids, thereby unequivocally localizing omega5-fatty acids to the trichomes. Because omega5-fatty acids are unique precursors for the biosynthesis of omega5-anacardic acids, we conclude that anacardic acid synthesis must occur in the glandular trichomes. PMID:16668834

  15. Photosynthesis is an Early Target of Boron Deficiency in Geranium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apart from an essential role in cell-wall structure, specific functions for boron (B) in plants are unclear; hence, early responses to B stress are debated, and adaptations to B stress are incompletely understood. We tested hypotheses that (1) photosynthesis is an early target of B deficiency, and ...

  16. Biomonitoring of Boron Micronutrient Stress in Arbidopsis thaliana and Pelargonium X Hortorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horticultural growers typically rely on visual symptoms of nutrient deficiencies to guide them in spot treating their plants with appropriate fertilizers. Often, visible symptoms of nutrient deficiencies occur after it is too late to remedy the situation. There exists a period of nutrient stress b...

  17. Screening, isolation and evaluation of antioxidative compounds from Geranium macrorrhizum, Potentilla fruticosa and Rhaponticum carthamoides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Miliauskas

    2006-01-01

    Food molecules (lipids, proteins, carbohydrates) can be widely involved in oxidation reactions. These reactions, caused by so called reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a major cause of food deterioration. In the case of lipid containing foods this process is defined as rancidity. Significant changes can occur in product colour, texture and nutritive value. Eventually the oxidation can result in complete

  18. Effect of clove oil on plant pathogenic bacteria and bacterial wilt of tomato and geranium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the antibacterial activity of clove oil against seven different genera of plant pathogenic bacteria including Gram-negative Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Erwinia carotovora pv. carotovora, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. pelargonii...

  19. Treatment of the common cold in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Fashner, Julia; Ericson, Kevin; Werner, Sarah

    2012-07-15

    The common cold, or upper respiratory tract infection, is one of the leading reasons for physician visits. Generally caused by viruses, the common cold is treated symptomatically. Antibiotics are not effective in children or adults. In children, there is a potential for harm and no benefits with over-the-counter cough and cold medications; therefore, they should not be used in children younger than four years. Other commonly used medications, such as inhaled corticosteroids, oral prednisolone, and Echinacea, also are ineffective in children. Products that improve symptoms in children include vapor rub, zinc sulfate, Pelargonium sidoides (geranium) extract, and buckwheat honey. Prophylactic probiotics, zinc sulfate, nasal saline irrigation, and the herbal preparation Chizukit reduce the incidence of colds in children. For adults, antihistamines, intranasal corticosteroids, codeine, nasal saline irrigation, Echinacea angustifolia preparations, and steam inhalation are ineffective at relieving cold symptoms. Pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, inhaled ipratropium, and zinc (acetate or gluconate) modestly reduce the severity and duration of symptoms for adults. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and some herbal preparations, including Echinacea purpurea, improve symptoms in adults. Prophylactic use of garlic may decrease the frequency of colds in adults, but has no effect on duration of symptoms. Hand hygiene reduces the spread of viruses that cause cold illnesses. Prophylactic vitamin C modestly reduces cold symptom duration in adults and children. PMID:22962927

  20. Staudengesellschaften mit Geranium sanguineum und Trifolium medium in der (sub)montanen Stufe des Walliser Rhônetals (Schweiz)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hein van Gils; Enny Keysers

    1978-01-01

    Die Arbeit beschreibt die synsystematische Stellung und die primären Standortsfaktoren der xerothermen Staudengesellschaften\\u000a im Wallis und in angrenzender Waadt (Schweizer Zentral-Alpen). Diese Gesellschaften sind alsBrachypodio pinnati-Geranion sanguinei\\u000a Tx. inMüller 1962 emvan Gils etKoz?owska 1977,Brachypodietalia\\u000a Korneck 1974 undFestuco-Brometea\\u000a Br.-Bl. etTx. 1943 klassifiziert.

  1. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  2. Geomorphic and Geochemical Characteristics of Five Alpine Fens in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    E-print Network

    McClenning, Bree Kathleen 1985-

    2012-11-26

    coerulea), fireweed (Chamerion angustifolium), bluebell (Mertensia spp.), buttercup (Ranunculus spp.), geranium (Geranium spp.), senecio (Senecio spp.), queen?s crown (Clementsia rhodantha), aster (Erigeron spp.), and cow parsnip (Heracleum sphondilium...

  3. 23 April 1 May 2011 GGGOOOLLLDDD -banded Forester: 4 Painted Ladies (Locality 2) 81 species

    E-print Network

    de Villiers, Marienne

    species SSSIIILLLVVVEEERRR -bottom Brown: Ilanda Wilds (Locality 1) 80 Species Water Geranium SSSIIILLLVVVEEERRR -bottom Brown: Glenwood Blues 46 Species Water Geranium BBBRRROOONNNZZZEEE: Carter Clan 37 Species PPaappiilliioonniiddaaee 55 PPiieerriiddaaee 3311 Citrus Swallowtail (Papilio demodocus demodocus) Common Dotted Border

  4. Resources limit the fecundity of three woodland herbs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. McCall; R. B. Primack

    1987-01-01

    Effects of supplemental hand pollination on fruit set, seed number, and seed weight were examined for 3 perennial, woodland herbs, Uvularia sessilifolia, Geranium maculatum, and Maianthemum canadense. We found no evidence for pollen limitation of any measure of fecundity. Low light probably limited fecundity in Geranium, while soil nitrogen limited the number of sseds\\/fruit in Maianthemum. For Geranium and Maianthemum

  5. Patent literature on mosquito repellent inventions which contain plant essential oils--a review.

    PubMed

    Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Gama, Renata Antonaci; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Neto, Valter Ferreira de Andrade

    2011-04-01

    Bites Bites of mosquitoes belonging to the genera Anopheles Meigen, Aedes Meigen, Culex L. and Haemagogus L. are a general nuisance and are responsible for the transmission of important tropical diseases such as malaria, hemorrhagic dengue and yellow fevers and filariasis (elephantiasis). Plants are traditional sources of mosquito repelling essential oils (EOs), glyceridic oils and repellent and synergistic chemicals. A Chemical Abstracts search on mosquito repellent inventions containing plant-derived EOs revealed 144 active patents mostly from Asia. Chinese, Japanese and Korean language patents and those of India (in English) accounted for roughly 3/4 of all patents. Since 1998 patents on EO-containing mosquito repellent inventions have almost doubled about every 4 years. In general, these patents describe repellent compositions for use in topical agents, cosmetic products, incense, fumigants, indoor and outdoor sprays, fibers, textiles among other applications. 67 EOs and 9 glyceridic oils were individually cited in at least 2 patents. Over 1/2 of all patents named just one EO. Citronella [Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle, C.winterianus Jowitt ex Bor] and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus L?Hér. spp.) EOs were each cited in approximately 1/3 of all patents. Camphor [Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl], cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume), clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry], geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L?Hér.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), lemon [Citrus × limon (L.) Osbeck], lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf] and peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) EOs were each cited in > 10% of patents. Repellent chemicals present in EO compositions or added as pure “natural” ingredients such as geraniol, limonene, p-menthane-3,8-diol, nepetalactone and vanillin were described in approximately 40% of all patents. About 25% of EO-containing inventions included or were made to be used with synthetic insect control agents having mosquito repellent properties such as pyrethroids, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), (±)-p-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD) and dialkyl phthalates. Synergistic effects involving one or more EOs and synthetic and/or natural components were claimed in about 10% of all patents. Scientific literature sources provide evidence for the mosquito repellency of many of the EOs and individual chemical components found in EOs used in patented repellent inventions. PMID:21328177

  6. Comparative analyses of two Geraniaceae transcriptomes using next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Organelle genomes of Geraniaceae exhibit several unusual evolutionary phenomena compared to other angiosperm families including accelerated nucleotide substitution rates, widespread gene loss, reduced RNA editing, and extensive genomic rearrangements. Since most organelle-encoded proteins function in multi-subunit complexes that also contain nuclear-encoded proteins, it is likely that the atypical organellar phenomena affect the evolution of nuclear genes encoding organellar proteins. To begin to unravel the complex co-evolutionary interplay between organellar and nuclear genomes in this family, we sequenced nuclear transcriptomes of two species, Geranium maderense and Pelargonium x hortorum. Results Normalized cDNA libraries of G. maderense and P. x hortorum were used for transcriptome sequencing. Five assemblers (MIRA, Newbler, SOAPdenovo, SOAPdenovo-trans [SOAPtrans], Trinity) and two next-generation technologies (454 and Illumina) were compared to determine the optimal transcriptome sequencing approach. Trinity provided the highest quality assembly of Illumina data with the deepest transcriptome coverage. An analysis to determine the amount of sequencing needed for de novo assembly revealed diminishing returns of coverage and quality with data sets larger than sixty million Illumina paired end reads for both species. The G. maderense and P. x hortorum transcriptomes contained fewer transcripts encoding the PLS subclass of PPR proteins relative to other angiosperms, consistent with reduced mitochondrial RNA editing activity in Geraniaceae. In addition, transcripts for all six plastid targeted sigma factors were identified in both transcriptomes, suggesting that one of the highly divergent rpoA-like ORFs in the P. x hortorum plastid genome is functional. Conclusions The findings support the use of the Illumina platform and assemblers optimized for transcriptome assembly, such as Trinity or SOAPtrans, to generate high-quality de novo transcriptomes with broad coverage. In addition, results indicated no major improvements in breadth of coverage with data sets larger than six billion nucleotides or when sampling RNA from four tissue types rather than from a single tissue. Finally, this work demonstrates the power of cross-compartmental genomic analyses to deepen our understanding of the correlated evolution of the nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial genomes in plants. PMID:24373163

  7. Analysis of essential oils, using capillary chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. N. Paukov; B. A. Rudenko; V. F. Kucherov

    1968-01-01

    1.The possibility of using capillary chromatography for a complete analysis of essential oils without preliminary separation into fractions was demonstrated.2.The relative retainable volumes and Kovach indices of a number of components of the essential oils of fennel, geranium, and coriander were determined.3.All the components of the essential oils of fennel, coriander, and geranium detected in capillary chromatography were identified.

  8. Photosynthesis in Cuscuta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. MacLeod

    1961-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Die inCuscuta gronovii undC. Campestris bewiesene Photosynthese ist in ihrem Ausmass in beiden Arten gleichwertig und beträgt ungefähr ein Zehntel desjenigen von Pelargonium-Blättern. Als photosynthetisches Produkt wird in beiden Pflanzen grösstenteils Saccharose festgestellt.

  9. Mcanismes de l'action dpressive de l'ochracine, phytotoxine synthtise par Septoria nodorum Berk.,

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    and increases Stomata, stomatal resistance. To determine its primary site of action, the effect of the phytotoxin on wheat and Septoria nodorum, Pelargonium stomata was analysed. Direct action on stomata seems

  10. The germination and development of seedlings from seeds treated with growth regulators: (2-chloroethyl) trimethylammonium chloride, succinic acid 2,2 dimethylhydrazide and 2,3-dihydro-5-6-diphenyl-1,4 oxathiin

    E-print Network

    Kamp, Marihelen

    1976-01-01

    effectively on geraniums and a few other retardants. Only in isolated instances have growth retarding com- pounds been used as soil amendments. 2, 4-dichlorobenzyl- tributylphosphonium chloride (CBBP) used as a soil amendment on petunia, salvia, and phlox...

  11. 183USDAForestServiceGen.Tech.Rep.PSW-GTR-160.1997. Understory-Canopy Relationships in

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    , with ungrazed open grassland supporting Bromus mollis, Hordeum hystrix, Avena barbata, Bromus madritensis, Lolium multiflorum, Cynosurus echinatus, Anagalis arvensis, Daucus pusillus, Geranium molle, Madia spp., and Trifolium spp. The understory was primarily Brachypodium distachyon, Bromus diandrus, Lolium multiflorum

  12. A photographic guide to some vascular plants of Kiska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    E-print Network

    Jones, Ian L.

    to hike through. Common grasses are Calamagrostis and Poa spp., patches of Anemone narcissiflora and Geum occidentalis, and Geranium erianthum. #12;Empetrum-Loiseleuria low elevation hummock tundra Occurs

  13. Enhancing shelf life of litchi (Litchi chinensis) fruit through integrated approach of surface coating and gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Neha; Joshi, Sanjay Kumar; Singh, C. P.; Kumar, Surendra; Rajput, Sanjay; Khandal, R. K.

    2013-04-01

    India and China account for 91% of the world's litchi (Litchi chinensis) production. Although India is the second largest producer of litchi, its contribution to export is insignificant. Litchi being non-climacteric fruit possesses poor shelf life and fruit quality declines rapidly after harvest. Present investigation was an attempt to enhance shelf life of litchi fruit var. rose scented with integrated treatments of 1% NaCl solution, 2% wax solution and gamma radiation. Out of all, 1% NaCl coated+irradiated samples, proved out to be the best with enhanced shelf life of 24 days at 4 °C (shelf life at ambient temperature without any treatment being 3-4 days). Various biochemical parameters were tested and organoleptic evaluation was done to judge the acceptability of the stored litchi samples. TSS, vitamin C, total & reducing sugar content was found in range of 14.17-15.42°Bx; 35.67-57.88 mg/100 gm pulp weight, 12.44-14.06% and 9.41-11.91%. Organoleptic evaluation for different parameters ranged from 5.92 to 7.72 (fair-good) at 24th day of storage. Radiation dose of 1 kGy was found to be the only effective dose in which enhanced shelf life was achieved without any deterioration of various quality attributes.

  14. Species richness and identity affect the use of aboveground space in experimental grasslands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sönke Lorentzen; Christiane Roscher; Jens Schumacher; Ernst-Detlef Schulze; Bernhard Schmid

    2008-01-01

    Complementary resource use is regarded as a mechanism that contributes to positive relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here, we used a biodiversity experiment composed of nine potentially dominant species (grasses: Alopecurus pratensis, Arrhenatherum elatius, Dactylis glomerata, Phleum pratense, Poa trivialis; legumes: Trifolium pratense, T. repens; non-legume herbs: Anthriscus sylvestris, Geranium pratense) to test for differences among monocultures and mixtures

  15. Influence of Spray Formulation and Leaf Surface Structure on Droplet Evaporation and Wetted Area

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fate of pesticide droplets on leaves is seriously influenced by spray formulations and fine structures on leaf surfaces. Evaporation times and wetted areas of droplets on hairy and waxy geranium leaf surfaces were determined under controlled conditions. Droplet evaporation processes were taken w...

  16. Pollen (quick guide)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    What is pollen, and is it haploid or diploid? Pollen is a crucial stage of the plant life cycle — without pollen there will be no seed. When someone says “Think of a plant,” the plant you think of (whether it’s a tree, a tomato plant, or a geranium) is a sporophyte. Most land plants are sporophytes...

  17. Contributions to the Flora and Plant Ecology of Campbell Island

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin D. Meurk

    1975-01-01

    Native plant species newly recorded for Campbell Island are: Lycopodium cf. australianum, Rumex flexuosus, R. negleclus, Cotula dispersa subsp. dispersa, Acianthus viridis, and possibly Puccinellia macquariensis hitherto regarded as an endemic grass of Macquarie Island. Additions to the exotic flora include cultivars, garden escapes, and otner largely ephemeral introductions. These are: the weeds Cardamine hirsuta, Polygonum convolvulus, Geranium pusillum, Hypericum

  18. Spring Flowers: Harvest of a Sensitive Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Eloise; Levin, Ted

    1978-01-01

    Defining and describing a number of spring flowers, this article includes illustrations and explanations that demonstrate "art and science are born of the same parents". The flowers discussed are skunk cabbage, bellwort, spring beauty, jack-in-the-pulpit, Solomon's seal, wild geranium, showy orchids, moccasin flower, bluets, apple, and Indian…

  19. ROLE OF BIOFILMS IN BIOCONTROL OF BOTRYTIS CINEREA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microorganisms often inhabit the leaf surface in organized structures termed biofilms. Burkholderia sp., FP62 is a biocontrol agent of B. cinerea in geranium and forms extensive biofilms in the phyllosphere. Scanning electron micrographs demonstrate extensive phyllosphere colonization (60-70% of t...

  20. Sample Category Ornamental Date Submitted Sample # Host Diagnosis/ID Genus Species Sample County

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    spot Pseudomonas sp. Hillsborough 1/6/2014 6286 Salvia Bacterial leaf spot Xanthomonas sp. Collier 1 Bacterial stem rot Pseudomonas sp. Hillsborough 2/19/2014 6334 Gerbera Bacterial leaf spot Erwinia sp No pathogen found (blank) Manatee 3/25/2014 6365 Geranium Bacterial leaf spot Pseudomonas sp. or Acidovorax sp

  1. Sample Category (All) Date Submitted Sample # Host Diagnosis/ID Genus Species Sample County

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    spot Pseudomonas sp. Hillsborough 1/6/2014 6285 Strawberry Phytophthora crown rot Phytophthora cactorum) Hillsborough 2/3/2014 6317 Tomato Tomato pith necrosis (suspected) Pseudomonas sp. Manatee 2/3/2014 6315 B/6/2014 6283 Ligustrum Branch dieback Botryosphaeria sp. Hillsborough 1/6/2014 6284 Geranium Bacterial leaf

  2. The effect of essential oils on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using a dressing model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Edwards-Jones; R. Buck; S. G. Shawcross; M. M. Dawson; K. Dunn

    2004-01-01

    Patchouli, tea tree, geranium, lavender essential oils and Citricidal™ (grapefruit seed extract) were used singly and in combination to assess their anti-bacterial activity against three strains of Staphylococcus aureus: Oxford S. aureus NCTC 6571 (Oxford strain), Epidemic methicillin-resistant S. aureus (EMRSA 15) and MRSA (untypable). The individual essential oils, extracts and combinations were impregnated into filter paper discs and placed

  3. Robotic Gripper With Force Control And Optical Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, James L.

    1992-01-01

    Robotic gripper locates, measures, recognizes and manipulates objects in assembly-line setting. Fiber-optic sensors in fingertips help locate and identify object. Gripper grasps object and determines size from finger-position feedback, while grasped under force control. Prototype handles geranium cuttings in commercial greenhouse, basic concept and design modified for other objects (rods or nuts), including sorting to size.

  4. Evaporation Time and Spread Area of Adjuvant-amended Droplets on Waxy and Hairy Leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the evaporation of pesticide droplets and wetting of leaf surfaces can increase foliar application efficiency and reduce pesticide use. Evaporation time and wetted area of single pesticide droplets on hairy and waxy geranium leaf surfaces were measured under the controlled conditions f...

  5. Grading of Vegetative Cuttings Using Computer Vision Sanjiv Singh & Mike Montemerlo

    E-print Network

    Singh, Sanjiv

    -dimensional monochrome images. We have developed a fast segmentation technique that is able to measure plant fea- tures of many flowering plants in the floricultural industry is accomplished by transplanting cuttings from mature plants into growing media. See Figure 1 for three culti- vars of geranium plants

  6. RESEARCH ARTICLE The mechanics of explosive dispersal and self-burial in the seeds of the filaree, Erodium cicutarium (Geraniaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis Evangelista; Scott Hotton; Jacques Dumais

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The filaree (Erodium cicutarium), a small, flowering plant related to geraniums, possesses a unique seed dispersal mechanism: the plant can fling its seeds up to half a meter away; and the seeds can bury themselves by drilling into the ground, twisting and untwisting in response to changes in humidity. These feats are accomplished using awns, helical bristles of dead

  7. Design and development of aqueous nanoformulations for mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Montefuscoli, Antonela Rita; Werdin González, Jorge Omar; Palma, Santiago Daniel; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia; Fernández Band, Beatriz

    2014-02-01

    Microemulsions (ME) are thermodynamically stable isotropic mixtures of oil, water, and surfactant; they would also be attractive as potential insecticidal products due to the high bioviability of the active ingredient, attributable to the small sizes of the oil drops. A laboratory study was conducted in order to compare the biological effect of oil in water (o/w) geranium essential oil (EO) and geraniol MEs and emulsions, against Culex pipiens pipiens mosquito larvae. The systems were based on three nonionic surfactants (Cremophor EL, Brij 35, Tween 80). The MEs showed dispersed phase diameters in the range of 8 to 14 nm and had low PDI values (<0.2). The MEs were analyzed by TEM, indicating that they had nearly spherical morphology. The microemulsified systems based on geranium EO and those of geraniol produced a notable increase of the larvicidal activity when compared with the respectably emulsions, concluding that the biological effect is related with the diameter of the dispersed phase. The smallest drops achieved the highest larvicidal activity, being the aqueous nanoformulations based on geraniol most effective than those of geranium EO. However, geranium microemulsions are preferred due to their residual toxicological profiles. The results indicate that these novel systems could be used in integrated pest management program for the C. pipiens pipiens. PMID:24292544

  8. March, 2014 CAITILYN ALLEN

    E-print Network

    -Associated Bacteria' `Tropical Plant Pathology' (with 2-week field trip in Guatemala). · Undergraduate research with colleagues at Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala to breed tomato varieties resistant to bacterial wilt (2003-present). · Research biology of R. solanacearum for geranium producers here and in Guatemala

  9. New plant disease records in New Zealand: Miscellaneous fungal pathogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. H. C. McKenzie

    1987-01-01

    Three fungi, Entyloma fergussonii (Berk. et Br.) Plowr. (on Myosotis arvensis (L.) J. Hill), Mycovellosiella brachycarpa (H. Syd.) Deighton (on Solanum mauritianum Scop.), and Pseudopeziza geranii Rodway (on Geranium potentilloides L'Hér. ex DC.) are recorded in New Zealand for the first time; 50 new host records are given for 32 other species. Two existing records, Mycosphaerella spissa H. Syd. on

  10. Repellent Podcast Welcome to Bug Bytes, a bimonthly podcast from Texas A&M University's Department of Entomology

    E-print Network

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    and coconut oils, and it has been shown to repel mosquitoes up to 3 hours. Lemon eucalyptus oil has products must be reapplied after only an hour. Another repellant is soybean oil mixed with geranium on the market. A study in 2006 showed that equivalent concentrations of distilled lemon eucalyptus oils

  11. Oxfordshire Flowers and the Plot Memorial Windows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Claridge Druce

    1928-01-01

    In NATURE of May 28, 1927, p. 798, in the excellent account of the unveiling of the Wren-Ashmole-Plot Memorial Windows at Oxford, it is said that ``the surrounding wreath is of two Oxfordshire flowers which Plot was the first to recognise as new to the British flora''-Viola palustris and Geranium dissectum.

  12. 2005-2006 Trial Garden Data The cultivars received from Danziger were planted on September 9, 2005. The Fisher

    E-print Network

    Mazzotti, Frank

    , Pink Shade, Sunshine Blue Bacopa Golden Leaves White Bacopa-Gulliver Lavender, White Bidens Yellow Glow, Hot Lavender, Purple Spash Fisher Ivy Geraniums Holiday Purple Blizzard, Holiday Purple Dream, Holiday Salmon Rose, RM Coral, RM Deep Rose, RM Lavender, RM Light Salmon, RM Red, RM White 06, Tango Fire, Tango

  13. Natural killer cell activity and lymphocyte activation: Investigating the effects of a selection of essential oils and components in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Standen; Paul A Connellan; David N Leach

    2006-01-01

    A selection of essential oils and components were tested in vitro for potential immunomodulating effects on natural killer cell activity (NKCA) and lymphocyte activation through CD69 expression.\\u000aMatricaria recutita, Boswellia carteri, Pelargonium graveolens, Lavandula angustifolia, Citrus limon, Melaleuca alternifolia, Melaleuca viridiflora, Santalum spicatum, Cedrus atlantica, and Thymus vulgaris ct. linalool essential oils were solubilised with ethanol and methylated â-cyclodextrin 1:5:25

  14. Nitrogen storage forms in nine boreal understorey plant species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annika Nordin; Torgny Näsholm

    1997-01-01

    Storage forms of N were studied in below-ground structures of nine boreal forest understorey plants. The ericaceous shrubs\\u000a Vacciniumvitis-idaea and V.myrtillus, the fern Gymnocarpium dryopteris, the grass Deschampsia flexuosa, and the herbs Epilobium angustifolium, Maianthemum bifolium, Solidago virgaurea, Geranium sylvaticum and Trientalis europaea were sampled in early summer and late autumn from plots fertilised with a complete mixture of nutrients

  15. FARMS: The Flexible Agricultural Robotics Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.

    1991-01-01

    A technology utilization project was established with the Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Georgia to develop an Earth-based, robotic end effector to process live plant (geranium) material which will improve productivity and efficiency in agricultural systems such as commercial nurseries and greenhouse systems. The aim is to apply this technology to NASA's presence in space, including permanently manned space stations and manned planetary communities requiring large scale food production needs.

  16. Emerging Plant Pathogenic Bacteria and Global Warming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman W. Schaad

    Several bacteria, previously classified as non-fluorescent, oxidase positive pseudomonads, Ralstonia, Acidovorax, and Burkholderia have emerged as serious problems worldwide. Perhaps the most destructive is R. solanacearum (RS), a soilborne pathogen with a very wide host range. RS race 3, biovar 2 infects potato and geranium during cooler weather\\u000a making it an additional threat. Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae has emerged as

  17. Visitation rates and pollinator sets at the periphery and central parts of single-species plant patches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Lysenkov

    2009-01-01

    Three model plant species (Aegopodium podagraria, Tripleurospermum inodorum, and Geranium palustri) were used to show the differences in visitation rates and pollinator sets between plant individuals growing at the center\\u000a and periphery of single-species patches. Most of the insect species visited the center more frequently, but Phaonia basalis (Diptera, Muscidae) and Leptura flava (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) preferred the peripheral parts. The

  18. Virulence and in?planta movement of Xanthomonas hortorum pv. pelargonii are affected by the diffusible signal factor (DSF)-dependent quorum sensing system.

    PubMed

    Barel, Victoria; Chalupowicz, Laura; Barash, Isaac; Sharabani, Galit; Reuven, Michal; Dror, Orit; Burdman, Saul; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit

    2015-09-01

    Xanthomonas hortorum pv. pelargonii (Xhp), the causal agent of bacterial blight in pelargonium, is the most threatening bacterial disease of this ornamental worldwide. To gain an insight into the regulation of virulence in Xhp, we have disrupted the quorum sensing (QS) genes, which mediate the biosynthesis and sensing of the diffusible signal factor (DSF). Mutations in rpfF (encoding the DSF synthase) and rpfC (encoding the histidine sensor kinase of the two-component system RfpC/RpfG) and overexpression of rpfF showed a significant reduction in incidence and severity of the disease on pelargonium. Confocal laser scanning microscopy images of inoculated plants with a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled wild-type strain showed that the pathogen is homogeneously dispersed in the lumen of xylem vessels, reaching the apex and invading the intercellular spaces of the leaf mesophyll tissue within 21?days. In contrast, the rpfF and rpfC knockout mutants, as well as the rpfF-overexpressing strain, remained confined to the vicinity of the inoculation site. The rpfF and rpfC mutants formed large incoherent aggregates in the xylem vessels that might interfere with upward movement of the bacterium within the plant. Both mutants also formed extended aggregates under in?vitro conditions, whereas the wild-type strain formed microcolonies. Expression levels of putative virulence genes in?planta were substantially reduced within 48?h after inoculation with the QS mutants when compared with the wild-type. The results presented indicate that an optimal DSF concentration is crucial for successful colonization and virulence of Xhp in pelargonium. PMID:25530086

  19. Optical properties and nondestructive estimation of anthocyanin content in plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Gitelson, A A; Merzlyak, M N; Chivkunova, O B

    2001-07-01

    Absorption and reflectance spectra of maple (Acer platanoides), cotoneaster (Cotoneaster alaunica), dogwood (Cornus alba) and pelargonium (Pelargonium zonale) leaves with a wide range of pigment content and composition were studied in visible and near-infrared spectra in order to reveal specific anthocyanin (Anth) spectral features in leaves. Comparing absorption spectra of Anth-containing and Anth-free leaves with the same chlorophyll (Chl) content, absorption spectra of Anth in leaves were derived. The main spectral feature of Anth absorption in vivo was a peak around 550 nm; the peak magnitude was closely related to Anth content. A quantitative nondestructive technique was developed to subtract Chl contribution to reflectance in this spectral region and retrieve Anth content from reflectance over a wide range of pigment content and composition. Anth reflectance index in the form ARI = (R550)-1 - (R700)-1, where (R550)-1 and (R700)-1 are inverse reflectances at 550 and 700 nm, respectively, allowed an accurate estimation of Anth accumulation, even in minute amounts, in intact senescing and stressed leaves. PMID:11460535

  20. Highly Specific Detection of Five Exotic Quarantine Plant Viruses using RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hoseong; Cho, Won Kyong; Yu, Jisuk; Lee, Jong-Seung; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2013-01-01

    To detect five plant viruses (Beet black scorch virus, Beet necrotic yellow vein virus, Eggplant mottled dwarf virus, Pelargonium zonate spot virus, and Rice yellow mottle virus) for quarantine purposes, we designed 15 RT-PCR primer sets. Primer design was based on the nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene, which is highly conserved within species. All but one primer set successfully amplified the targets, and gradient PCRs indicated that the optimal temperature for the 14 useful primer sets was 51.9°C. Some primer sets worked well regardless of annealing temperature while others required a very specific annealing temperature. A primer specificity test using plant total RNAs and cDNAs of other plant virus-infected samples demonstrated that the designed primer sets were highly specific and generated reproducible results. The newly developed RT-PCR primer sets would be useful for quarantine inspections aimed at preventing the entry of exotic plant viruses into Korea. PMID:25288934

  1. Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at the Oakley Southern Sky Observatory: 2009 October thru 2010 April

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, Kenda; Kragh, Katherine; Monnier, Adam; Pligge, Zachary; Stolze, Kellen; West, Josh; Yim, Arnold; Ditteon, Richard

    2010-10-01

    Photometric data for 44 asteroids were collected over 54 nights of observing during 2009 October thru 2010 April at the Oakley Southern Sky Observatory. The asteroids were: 826 Henrika, 918 Itha, 983 Gunila, 1049 Gotho, 1167 Dubiago, 1181 Lilith, 1227 Geranium, 1604 Tombaugh, 1636 Porter, 1826 Miller, 1977 Shura, 2004 Lexell, 2196 Ellicott, 2303 Retsina, 2307 Garuda, 2601 Bologna, 2609 Kiril-Metodi, 2851 Harbin, 2881 Meiden, 3118 Claytonsmith, 3324 Avsyuk, 3640 Gostin, 4207 Chernova, 4536 Drewpinsky, 4838 Billmclaughlin, 5235 Jean-Loup, 5274 Degewij, 5240 Kwasan, (6019) 1991 RO6, 6091 Mitsuru, 6961 Ashitaka, (7111) 1985 QA1, (8228) 1996 YB2, 11017 Billputnam, (13023) 1988 XT1, (14741) 2000 EQ49, 15938 Bohnenblust, 16463 Nayoro, (17633) 1996 JU, (21023) 1989 DK, 21558 Alisonliu, (21594) 1998 VP31, (34459) 2000 SC91, and (189099) 2001 RO.

  2. [Study of antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds from some species of Georgian flora].

    PubMed

    Alaniia, M; Shalashvili, K; Sagareishvili, T; Kavtaradze, N; Sutiashvili, M

    2013-09-01

    The antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from different parts of Georgian flora species Hamamelis virginiana L., Astragalus caucasicus Pall., Astragalus microcephalus Willd., Vitis vinifera L., Rhododendron ponticum L., Rhododendron Ungernii Trautv., Ginkgo biloba L., Salvia officinalis L., Querqus iberica Stev., Maclura aurantiaca Nutt., Cotinus coggygria Ledeb., Fraxinus ornus L., Urtica dioica L., Rhododendron caucasicum Pall., Pueraria hirsuta Matsum., Geranium pusillum L., Astragalus Tanae Sosn., Pinus silvestris L. has been studied. Comparison with ethylentetraacetate and ?-tocopherole revealed high efficacy of all extracts studied. 45 individual phenolic compounds were isolated and described by chemical examination of biologically active objects. Common sage (Salvia officinalis) extract turned out as the most active (200 %). The chemical study revealed the dominant content of condensed tannins and low molecular phenolic compounds, which may be attributed to the high antioxidant activity. Biologically active antiatherosclerotic food additive "Salbin" was developed on the basis of Common sage - Salvia officinalis L. phenolic compounds. PMID:24099817

  3. Screening of selected plant extracts for in vitro inhibitory activity on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT).

    PubMed

    Mlinaric, A; Kreft, S; Umek, A; Strukelj, B

    2000-01-01

    Methanolic-aqueous extracts of 70 plants were investigated for their ability to inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity in vitro. Two thirds of the extracts screened showed more than 50% inhibition. Two extracts inhibited the enzyme completely while four exhibited more than 90% inhibition. Tannins as nonspecific HIV-1 RT inhibitors were detected and removed from the extracts. The IC50 values of the most potent extracts after the removal of tannins for the HIV-1 RT inhibition are as follows: Sambucus racemosa 0.017 mg/ml and Geranium phaeum 0.067 mg/ml. Daunomycine was chosen as a standard substance in the non-radioactive immuno assay used for screening. As a result from the future isolation and characterization of these compounds, new leading structures are expectable. PMID:10683878

  4. The antioxidative activity of traditional Japanese herbs.

    PubMed

    Xiufen, Wang; Hiramatsu, Naoko; Matsubara, Mai

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research was to examine the radical scavenging activity of traditional Japanese herbs. Samples used in the experiments were gennoshoko (Geranium nepalense var. thunbergii), yomogi (Artemisia vulgaris var.indica), senburi (Swertia japonica), iwa-tobacco (Conandron ramondioides), sarunokoshikake (Elfvingia applanata), kanzo (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch) and matatabi (Actinidia polygama). The water-soluble components of the herbs were extracted in boiling water, and the volatile oil was extracted by a distillation apparatus or steeping in some organic solvents such as petroleum ether and ethyl ether. The radical scavenging activity was determined by the decrease of free radicals of DPPH detected by both colorimetric assay and HPLC method at 517 nm. The extracts of gennoshoko, yomogi and iwa-tobacco showed remarkable radical scavenging activity. The volatile oil of yomogi obtained by distillation or steeping in organic solvents had especially strong antioxidative activity. PMID:15630212

  5. Portable Radiation Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from Kennedy Space Center, General Pneumatics Corporation's Western Research Center satisfied a NASA need for a non-clogging Joule-Thomson cryostat to provide very low temperature cooling for various sensors. This NASA-supported cryostat development played a key part in the development of more portable high-purity geranium gamma-ray detectors. Such are necessary to discern between the radionuclides in medical, fuel, weapon, and waste materials. The outcome of the SBIR project is a cryostat that can cool gamma-ray detectors, without vibration, using compressed gas that can be stored compactly and indefinitely in a standby mode. General Pneumatics also produces custom J-T cryostats for other government, commercial and medical applications.

  6. Host Status of Herbaceous Perennials to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria.

    PubMed

    Walker, J T; Melin, J B

    1998-12-01

    Twenty-two different herbaceous perennials were studied for their reaction to separate inoculations of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita under greenhouse conditions. Perennial taxa that did not develop root-galls following inoculation, and therefore are considered as nonhosts of both nematode species, included species and cultivars of Aethionema, Fragaria, Phlox, and Polygonum. Echinacea, Monarda, and Patrinia developed only a few galls. Root-galls developed on species and cultivars of Achillea, Geranium, Heuchera, Heucherella, Linaria, Nepeta, Nierembergia, Penstemon, and Salvia. There was no difference in the number of root-galls caused by M. arenaria or M. incognita on most plants except for Penstemon cultivars. Plant heights and dry weights varied between species and nematode density. PMID:19274254

  7. Selected chromosome counts of the Czechoslovak flora II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Krahulcová

    1990-01-01

    Chromosome numbers are presented in the following 16 Phanerogams of the Czechoslovak flora:Amaranthus blitoides\\u000a S. Watson,Anthoxanthum alpinum\\u000a Á. Löve etD. Löve\\u000a Acter amellus L.,Bistorta major\\u000a S. F. Gray,Cardamine hirsuta L.,Cardamine parviflora L.,Chrysosplenium oppositifolium L.,Dactylis glomerata L.subsp. aschersoniana\\u000a (Graebner) Thell.,Elatine hydropiper L. s. l.,Geranium phaeum L.,Hieracium lachenalii\\u000a C. C. Gmel.,Jovibarba sobolifera\\u000a (Sims) Opiz,Kickxia spuria (L.)Dum.,Persicaria hydropiper (L.)Spach,Sedum alpestre\\u000a Vill. andTephroseris crispa

  8. Staining paraffin extracted, alcohol rinsed and air dried plant tissue with an aqueous mixture of three dyes.

    PubMed

    Graham, E T; Trentham, W R

    1998-07-01

    A staining solution containing alcian blue 8GX, Bismarck brown Y and safranin O was prepared with 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer, pH 5.0. Paraffin was extracted with MicroClear solvent from 10 microm tissue sections mounted on slides. Paraffin solvent was removed by rinsing with isopropanol, and tissues were air dried. Slides with bare dry tissue sections were immersed in the triple stain and structures could be distinguished within 30 min as follows: nonlignified cell walls, blue; lignified cell walls, nuclei and chloroplasts, red; and cuticle, brown or yellow-brown. Excess staining solution was removed by rinsing with tap water, and the tissues were air dried again. Coverslips were affixed with resin over the stained dry tissues. This novel procedure was tested with immature tomato fruit, mature apple fruit, and various leaf and stem specimens of dogwood, laurel, pawpaw, poinsettia and zonal geranium. PMID:9735876

  9. Bacterial spoilage of wine and approaches to minimize it.

    PubMed

    Bartowsky, E J

    2009-02-01

    Bacteria are part of the natural microbial ecosystem of wine and play an important role in winemaking by reducing wine acidity and contributing to aroma and flavour. Conversely, they can cause numerous unwelcome wine spoilage problems, which reduce wine quality and value. Lactic acid bacteria, especially Oenococcus oeni, contribute positively to wine sensory characters, but other species, such as Lactobacillus sp. and Pediococcus sp can produce undesirable volatile compounds. Consequences of bacterial wine spoilage include mousy taint, bitterness, geranium notes, volatile acidity, oily and slimy-texture, and overt buttery characters. Management of wine spoilage bacteria can be as simple as manipulating wine acidity or adding sulfur dioxide. However, to control the more recalcitrant bacteria, several other technologies can be explored including pulsed electric fields, ultrahigh pressure, ultrasound or UV irradiation, and natural products, including bacteriocins and lysozyme. PMID:19141041

  10. A DNA Barcoding Approach to Characterize Pollen Collected by Honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Bruni, Ilaria; Scaccabarozzi, Daniela; Sandionigi, Anna; Barbuto, Michela; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Labra, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated DNA barcoding effectiveness to characterize honeybee pollen pellets, a food supplement largely used for human nutrition due to its therapeutic properties. We collected pollen pellets using modified beehives placed in three zones within an alpine protected area (Grigna Settentrionale Regional Park, Italy). A DNA barcoding reference database, including rbcL and trnH-psbA sequences from 693 plant species (104 sequenced in this study) was assembled. The database was used to identify pollen collected from the hives. Fifty-two plant species were identified at the molecular level. Results suggested rbcL alone could not distinguish among congeneric plants; however, psbA-trnH identified most of the pollen samples at the species level. Substantial variability in pollen composition was observed between the highest elevation locality (Alpe Moconodeno), characterized by arid grasslands and a rocky substrate, and the other two sites (Cornisella and Ortanella) at lower altitudes. Pollen from Ortanella and Cornisella showed the presence of typical deciduous forest species; however in samples collected at Ortanella, pollen of the invasive Lonicera japonica, and the ornamental Pelargonium x hortorum were observed. Our results indicated pollen composition was largely influenced by floristic local biodiversity, plant phenology, and the presence of alien flowering species. Therefore, pollen molecular characterization based on DNA barcoding might serve useful to beekeepers in obtaining honeybee products with specific nutritional or therapeutic characteristics desired by food market demands. PMID:25296114

  11. The Levels of Male Gametic Mitochondrial DNA Are Highly Regulated in Angiosperms with Regard to Mitochondrial Inheritance[W

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan-Yang; Zhang, Quan; Liu, Yang; Lin, Zhi-Fu; Zhang, Shao-Xiang; Sun, Meng-Xiang; Sodmergen

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms that regulate mitochondrial inheritance are not yet clear, even though it is 100 years since the first description of non-Mendelian genetics. Here, we quantified the copy numbers of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the gametic cells of angiosperm species. We demonstrate that each egg cell from Arabidopsis thaliana, Antirrhinum majus, and Nicotiana tabacum possesses 59.0, 42.7, and 73.0 copies of mtDNA on average, respectively. These values are equivalent to those in Arabidopsis mesophyll cells, at 61.7 copies per cell. On the other hand, sperm or generative cells from Arabidopsis, A. majus, and N. tabacum possess minor amounts of mtDNA, at 0.083, 0.47, and 1 copy on average, respectively. We further reveal a 50-fold degradation of mtDNA during pollen development in A. majus. In contrast, markedly high levels of mtDNA are found in the male gametic cells of Cucumis melo and Pelargonium zonale (1296.3 and 256.7 copies, respectively). Our results provide direct evidence for mitochondrial genomic insufficiency in the eggs and somatic cells and indicate that a male gamete of an angiosperm may possess mtDNA at concentrations as high as 21-fold (C. melo) or as low as 0.1% (Arabidopsis) of the levels in somatic cells. These observations reveal the existence of a strong regulatory system for the male gametic mtDNA levels in angiosperms with regard to mitochondrial inheritance. PMID:20605854

  12. Brevipalpus mites Donnadieu (Prostigmata: Tenuipalpidae) associated with ornamental plants in Distrito Federal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Letícia C; Návia, Denise; Rodrigues, José C V

    2007-01-01

    Brevipalpus mites colonize a great number of fruit and ornamental plants. Mite species belonging to this genus have been associated with many plant viruses. Citrus leprosis (CiLV) is the most economically important virus transmitted by B. phoenicis mites. It has recently been shown that ornamental plant species can be alternative hosts of this virus. The high volume of trade and frequent movement of live ornamental plants make them efficient pest disseminators. Because of this, it is desirable to expand knowledge of potential pests aiming to guide the adoption of quarantine measures. This work reports ornamental plant hosts of Brevipalpus mites in the Distrito Federal (DF), as well the occurrence of symptoms consistent with Brevipalpus-borne plant viruses in these same hosts. Between July and September of 2005, five surveys were carried out in 14 localities within DF. Leaves and branches of fifty-five ornamental plant species were sampled. The species Pithecellobium avaremotemo Mart. is for the first time reported as a host for B. phoenicis (Geijskes), B. californicus Banks and B. obovatus Donnadieu species. Additionally, seven new species are reported as hosts for Brevipalpus within South America. New hosts are also listed for individual mite species. Typical symptoms of Brevipalpus-borne viruses were observed in Ligustrum sinense Lour., Pelargonium hortorum L.H. Bailey, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. and orchids (Dendrobium and Oncidium). The results of this work emphasize the potential role of the ornamental plants as vehicles for dissemination of Brevipalpus mites. PMID:17934626

  13. New uses for calcium chloride solution as a mounting medium.

    PubMed

    Herr, J M

    1992-01-01

    Fresh cross sections of stems (Psilotum nudum, Coleus blumei, and Pelargonium peltatum) and roots (Setcreasea purpurea) 120 microns thick were fixed in FPA50 (formalin: propionic acid: 50% ethanol, 5:5:90, v/v) for 24 hr and stored in 70% ethanol. The sections were transferred to water and then to 1% phloroglucin in 20% calcium chloride solution plus either hydrochloric, nitric, or lactic acid in the following ratios of phloroglucin-CaCl2 solution:acid: 25:4, 20:2, or 15:5. The sections were mounted on slides either in one of the three mixtures or in fresh 20% calcium chloride solution. A rapid reaction of the acid-phloroglucin with lignin produced a deep red color in tracheary elements and an orange-red color in sclerenchyma. Fixed and stored leaf pieces from Nymphaea odorata were autoclaved in lactic acid, washed in two changes of 95% ethanol, transferred to water, and treated with the three acid-phloroglucin-calcium chloride mixtures. The abundant astrosclereids stained an orange-red color similar to that of sclerenchyma in the sections. In addition, a new method is reported for specifically staining lignified tissues. When sections or leaf pieces are stained in aqueous 0.05% toluidine blue O, then placed in 20% calcium chloride solution, all tissues destain except those with lignified or partially lignified cell walls. Thus, toluidine blue O applied as described becomes a reliable specific test for lignin comparable to the acid-phloroglucin test. PMID:1377501

  14. Cell wall composition profiling of parasitic giant dodder (Cuscuta reflexa) and its hosts: a priori differences and induced changes.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Hanne R; Striberny, Bernd; Olsen, Stian; Vidal-Melgosa, Silvia; Fangel, Jonatan U; Willats, William G T; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Krause, Kirsten

    2015-08-01

    Host plant penetration is the gateway to survival for holoparasitic Cuscuta and requires host cell wall degradation. Compositional differences of cell walls may explain why some hosts are amenable to such degradation while others can resist infection. Antibody-based techniques for comprehensive profiling of cell wall epitopes and cell wall-modifying enzymes were applied to several susceptible hosts and a resistant host of Cuscuta reflexa and to the parasite itself. Infected tissue of Pelargonium zonale contained high concentrations of de-esterified homogalacturonans in the cell walls, particularly adjacent to the parasite's haustoria. High pectinolytic activity in haustorial extracts and high expression levels of pectate lyase genes suggest that the parasite contributes directly to wall remodeling. Mannan and xylan concentrations were low in P. zonale and in five susceptible tomato introgression lines, but high in the resistant Solanum lycopersicum cv M82, and in C. reflexa itself. Knowledge of the composition of resistant host cell walls and the parasite's own cell walls is useful in developing strategies to prevent infection by parasitic plants. PMID:25808919

  15. Involvement of liver in diabetes mellitus: herbal remedies.

    PubMed

    Thent, Z C; Das, S

    2014-01-01

    Liver disease is considered as one of the major complications in oxidative stress disorders like diabetes mellitus (DM). DM presents with deterioration in carbohydrate metabolism which is characterized with chronic hyperglycemia. The organ which involves in glucose or carbohydrate metabolism and is most likely to be affected is the liver. Deterioration in liver architecture and metabolism in DM, are considered as common findings. In the present review both biochemical and histological changes occurring in diabetic liver are conferred in detail. To counteract the oxidative stress disorders and its untoward complications, antioxidant or herbs have emerged as alternative medicine. The present review focuses on several herbs with antioxidant properties towards diabetic liver disease such as Liquorice, Pelargonium gravenolens, Momordica charantia, Propolis from bee hives, Dihar, Curcuma Longa, Tinospora cordifolia, Kangen-karyu, Parsley, Chard, Green tea Catechins and Piper sarmentosum (P.s). The herbs or the compounds present in herbs have potential to improve the liver metabolism and maintain the integrity of liver tissue in DM. The review also opens the door for effective use of herbal products for complications involved in the diabetic liver disease. PMID:25203338

  16. Anti-Proteus activity of some South African medicinal plants: their potential for the prevention of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cock, I E; van Vuuren, S F

    2014-02-01

    A wide variety of herbal remedies are used in traditional African medicine to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammation. Thirty-four extracts from 13 South African plant species with a history of ethnobotanical usage in the treatment of inflammation were investigated for their ability to control two microbial triggers for RA (Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris). Twenty-nine of the extracts (85.3 %) inhibited the growth of P. mirabilis and 23 of them tested (67.7 %) inhibited the growth of P. vulgaris. Methanol and water extracts of Carpobrotus edulis, Lippia javanica, Pelargonium viridflorum, Ptaeroxylon obliquum, Syzygium cordatum leaf and bark, Terminalia pruinoides, Terminalia sericea, Warburgia salutaris bark and an aqueous extract of W. salutaris leaf were effective Proteus inhibitors, with MIC values <2,000 ?g/ml. The most potent extracts were examined by Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography and UV-Vis spectroscopy for the presence of resveratrol. Only extracts from T. pruinoides and T. sericea contained resveratrol, indicating that it was not responsible for the anti-Proteus properties reported here. All extracts with Proteus inhibitory activity were also either non-toxic, or of low toxicity in the Artemia nauplii bioassay. The low toxicity of these extracts and their inhibitory bioactivity against Proteus spp. indicate their potential for blocking the onset of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:23877712

  17. Large molecules as anti-adhesive compounds against pathogens.

    PubMed

    Wittschier, N; Lengsfeld, C; Vorthems, S; Stratmann, U; Ernst, J F; Verspohl, E J; Hensel, A

    2007-06-01

    Anti-adhesive compounds are potential prophylactic tools in alternative treatment regimes against bacterial infection, as bacterial adhesion is commonly mediated by carbohydrate-protein interactions between surface adhesions of microorganisms and the host cell. The use of exogenous polyvalent, high-molecular carbohydrates and tannin-like plant-derived compounds should antagonize the adhesive interaction. A range of carbohydrates and carbohydrate- and proanthocyanidin-enriched plant extracts were screened for potential anti-adhesive effects against Helicobacter pylori, Campylobacter jejuni, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Candida albicans in different in-situ assays on primary tissue. The adhesion of H. pylori on human stomach tissue was effectively blocked by glucuronic acid-enriched polysaccharides from immature okra fruits (Abelmoschus esculentus). These compounds also had strong in-vitro effects against C. jejuni (inhibition up to 80%), but were ineffective in an in-vivo study in infected chicken broilers due to metabolism in the gastrointestinal system. Polysaccharides from Glycyrrhizia glabra, also enriched with glucuronic acid, showed strong anti-adhesive properties against H. pylori and P. gingivalis (inhibition 60-70%). Pelargonium sidoides extract, containing mainly polymeric proanthocyanidins, was effective against H. pylori in a dose-dependent manner. Due to the multifunctional adhesive strategy of C. albicans, no effective compounds were detected against this yeast. Structure-activity relationships are presented and the potential in-vivo use of carbohydrate-based anti-adhesives is discussed. PMID:17637170

  18. The efficacy of essential oils as natural preservatives in vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Kazempour, Nastaran; Mahboubi, Atefeh

    2014-12-01

    The efforts for finding the natural preservatives with nontoxicity and nonirritancy have encouraged the scientists to research among the medicinal plants. The preservative efficacy of Daucus carota, Ferula gummosa, Eugenium caryophyllata, Oliveria decumbens, Pelargonium graveolens, Ziziphora tenuir, Acorus calamus, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils on challenge test's pathogens and on pathogen's inoculated vegetable oil was evaluated by antimicrobial effectiveness test. Carotol (46%), ?-pinene (62.7%), eugenol (78.4%), thymol (50.6%), cis-asarone (27.5%), thymol (50.1%), and ?-terpineol (19.5%) were the primary main components of D. carota, F. gummosa, E. caryophyllata, T. ammi, A. calamus, O. decumbens, and Z. tenuir essential oils, respectively. A. niger was more sensitive microorganism to oils. The antimicrobial activity of O. decumbens oil was the highest. Different concentrations of essential oils were added to the vegetable oil. The results of test on the vegetable oil showed that the combination of O. decumbens and P. graveolens oils (0.5:0.5%) had enough efficacies as natural preservative in vegetable oil. PMID:24552253

  19. Peril in the market-classification and dosage of species used as anti-diabetics in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Peru is what Peruvian anthropologist Lupe Camino calls the “health axis” of the old Central Andean culture area stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. In particular in the North of the country the traditional use of medicinal dates back as far as the first millennium B.C. Both healers, and the wider population, often buy their medicinal plants in local markets, but there is very little comparative information available about which plants are sold under which vernacular name at any given time, for which indication, and which dosage information and information about side effects is given by vendors. For this study we used two traditionally used species groups “Hercampuri” Gentianella spec. (Gentianaceae) and “Pasuchaca” Geranium spec. (Geraniaceae.), found in the Mercado Aviación in Lima, as small, clearly circumscribed plant group frequently used to treat symptoms of diabetes as a test case to study the taxonomy, indications, dosage, indicated side effects, and additional species used as admixtures and hypothesized that: 1. A wide variety of different species is sold under the same common name, and often several common names exist for one species. 2. There is no consistency in the dosage, or a relationship between dosage and species marketed under one name. 3. However, there is consistency in the knowledge about usage and side effects. Methods Surveys focusing on medicinal plants sold and their properties were conducted at the Mercado Aviación in Lima in December 2012. Vouchers of all specimens were deposited at the National Herbarium of Peru. Results and conclusions Our surveys in Mercado Aviación in Lima yielded four species of Gentianella, two of Geranium, and three additional species from three genera used as common additives that were sold as anti-diabetic. These results indicate that even in case of only a few plant species, used for a very clearly circumscribed application, patients run a considerable risk when purchasing their remedies in the market. The possible side effects in this case are the more serious because diabetes has to be treated long term, and as such the patients are ingesting possible toxic remedies over a long period of time. Much more control, and a much more stringent identification of the material sold in public markets, and entering the global supply chain via internet sales, would be needed. PMID:23718140

  20. Modeling effects of herbicide drift on the competitive interactions between weeds.

    PubMed

    Damgaard, Christian; Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp; Kudsk, Per

    2008-06-01

    Herbicides may drift onto road verges or natural areas adjacent to arable fields and affect nontarget plants. The effect of low doses of mecoprop-P on the competitive interactions and plant community dynamics was investigated in a model system using Capsella bursa-pastoris and Geranium dissectum as test plants. Dose-response experiments on single species showed that compared to G. dissectum, C. bursa-pastoris was more affected by mecoprop-P. Consequently, we expected that G. dissectum would outcompete C. bursa-pastoris when mecoprop-P was applied at a low dose in the competition experiment. Indeed, mecoprop-P had a significant effect on the interspecific competitive ability of both C. bursa-pastoris and G. dissectum. Our previous expectation, however, was not met: The interspecific competitive ability of both species increased significantly with the dose of the herbicide, and it was predicted that C. bursa-pastoris and G. dissectum are more likely to coexist in natural habitats with low concentrations of the herbicide compared to natural habitats with relatively high concentrations. The results from the dose-response experiments on the single species and the more laborious competition experiment approach, which is assumed to mimic the dynamics of plant communities more closely, show considerable discrepancies even though the experiments were performed at the same time and in the same greenhouse. This finding generally reduces the credibility of using single-species tests in ecological risk assessment of herbicide use. PMID:18177209

  1. Aromatherapy Massage Affects Menopausal Symptoms in Korean Climacteric Women: A Pilot-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Myung-Haeng; Yang, Yun Seok

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight times in total). The experimental group reported a significantly lower total menopausal index than wait-listed controls (P < 0.05). There were also significant intergroup differences in subcategories such as vasomotor, melancholia, arthralgia and myalgia (all P < 0.05). These findings suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, depression and pain in climacteric women. However, it could not be verified whether the positive effects were from the aromatherapy, the massage or both. Further rigorous studies should be done with more objective measures. PMID:18830459

  2. Molecular Structure of Camphor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-10-18

    Camphor is found in numerous plants like sage and geraniums and several trees. Since it has wide applications it is both extracted from plants and synthesized around the world, especially in China, India, and the U.S. Camphor is white and has a strong, penetrating fragrant odor and a bitter, pungent taste. The crystalline substance causes an icy feeling when touched. Camphor oil, containing cineol, borneol, camphene, menthol, pinene and other components besides camphor, is mainly found in C.camphora and Dryobalanops camphora. C.camphora is an evergreen tree, which grows slowly and to immense sizes. Some growers believe that the camphor oil should not be taken from a tree younger than fifty years. There are two kinds of camphor oil on the market nowadays: one is from C. cinnamonum, and is recognized as Formosa or Japanese oil of Camphor; the other from D. aromatica is known as east India oil. Camphor oil is used in medical applications to treat numerous diseases. Camphor is also used as food preservative and safe pesticide.

  3. Aroma profile of Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines by chromatographic and sensorial analyses.

    PubMed

    Noguerol-Pato, R; González-Álvarez, M; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2012-10-15

    The aroma profiles obtained of three Garnacha Tintorera-based wines were studied: a base wine, a naturally sweet wine, and a mixture of naturally sweet wine with other sweet wine obtained by fortification with spirits. The aroma fingerprint was traced by GC-MS analysis of volatile compounds and by sensorial analysis of odours and tastes. Within the volatiles compounds, sotolon (73 ?g/L) and acetoin (122 ?g/L) were the two main compounds found in naturally sweet wine. With regards to the odorant series, those most dominant for Garnacha Tintorera base wine were floral, fruity and spicy. Instead, the most marked odorant series affected by off-vine drying of the grapes were floral, caramelized and vegetal-wood. Finally, odorant series affected by the switch-off of alcoholic fermentation with ethanol 96% (v/v) fit for human consumption followed by oak barrel aging were caramelized and vegetal-wood. A partial least square test (PLS-2) was used to detect correlations between sets of sensory data (those obtained with mouth and nose) with the ultimate aim of improving our current understanding of the flavour of Garnacha Tintorera red wines, both base and sweet. Based on the sensory dataset analysis, the descriptors with the highest weight for separating base and sweet wines from Garnacha Tintorera were sweetness, dried fruit and caramel (for sweet wines) vs. bitterness, astringency and geranium (for base wines). PMID:23442690

  4. A comprehensive review of vaginitis phytotherapy.

    PubMed

    Azimi, Hanieh; Fallah-Tafti, Mehrnaz; Karimi-Darmiyan, Maliheh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2011-11-01

    To overview phytotherapy of vaginitis in order to identify new approaches for new pharmacological treatments. All related literature databases were searched for herbal medicinal treatment in vaginitis. The search terms were plant, herb, herbal therapy, phytotherapy, vaginitis, vaginal, anti-candida, anti-bacterial and anti-trichomonas. All of the human, animal and in vitro studies were included. Anti-candida, anti-bacterial and anti-trichomonas effects were the key outcomes. The plants including carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, menthol, terpinen-4-ol and thymol exhibited anti-candida effects. A very low concentration of geranium oil and geraniol blocked mycelial growth, but not yeast. Tea tree oil including terpinen-4-ol, alpha-terpinene, gamma-terpinene and alpha-terpineol showed anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-protozoal properties against trichomonas. Allium hirtifolium (persian shallot) comparable to metronidazole exhibited anti-trichomonas activity due to its components such as allicin, ajoene and other organosulfides. The plants having beneficial effects on vaginitis encompass essential oils that clear the pathway that future studies should be focused to standardize theses herbs. PMID:22514885

  5. Dried leaves from rocky mountain plants decrease infestation by stored-product beetles.

    PubMed

    Weaver, D K; Phillips, T W; Dunkel, F V; Weaver, T; Grubb, R T; Nance, E L

    1995-02-01

    Leaves of two highly aromatic plants,Artemisia tridentata (Nutt.) andMonarda fistulosa L., prepared according to a patented process, inhibited oviposition by the Mexican bean weevil,Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman), in beans at concentrations less than 1% w/w. Both plant species were less effective against the rice weevil,Sitophilus oryzae L., in wheat, with onlyM. fistulosa exhibiting any concentration-dependent activity. The maximal control achieved against this species was less than 50% at 3% w/w. Two less aromatic plant species,Balsamorhiza sagittata (Pursh.) Nutt. andGeranium viscosissimum Fisch. and Mey., caused only low levels of inhibition against both insect species. Volatiles probably caused the response toA. tridentata andM. fistulosa, while the asymptotic concentration dependence for the less volatile plant material was likely caused by behavioral factors related to the physical presence of foreign particulate matter in the foodstuff. Chemical analysis indicated that most of the volatile components from the dried leaf material from all species were terpenoids, with camphor (9.7 mg/g) and 1,8-cineole (4.0 mg/g) being most abundant inA. tridentata and carvacrol (26.3 mg/g) being most abundant inM. fistulosa. PMID:24234015

  6. Immersion Deposition of Metal Films on Silicon and Germanium Substrates in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Xiang-Rong; Wai, Chien M.; Zhang, Daqing; Kranov, Yanko; Mcilroy, David; Lin, Yuehe; Engelhard, Mark H.

    2003-01-29

    A low temperature carbon dioxide based on immersion deposition technology (SFID) has been developed for producing palladium, copper, silver, and other metal films on silicon-based substrates in supercritical CO2. The reaction is initiated by oxidation of elemental silicon to SiF4 or H2SiF6 by HF with the release of electrons that cause the reduction of metal ions in an organometallic precursor to the metallic form on silicon surface in CO2. Only the substrate surfaces are coated with metals using this method. Based on surface analysis of the films and spectroscopic analysis of the reaction products, the mechanism of metal film deposition is discussed. The metal films (Pd, Cu, and Ag) formed on silicon surfaces by the SFID method exhibit good coverage, smooth and dense texture, high purity and a metallic behavior. Similarly, metal films can also be deposited onto geranium substrates using SFID. The gas-like properties and the high pressure of the supercritical fluids, combined with the low reaction temperature, make this SFID method potentially useful for depositing thin metal films in small features, which are difficult to accomplish by conventional CVD methods.

  7. Antimutagenicity of Japanese traditional herbs, gennoshoko, yomogi, senburi and iwa-tobacco.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Naoko; Xiufen, Wang; Takechi, Ryusuke; Itoh, Yoshimi; Mamo, John; Pal, Sebely

    2004-01-01

    The multistage induction theory is generally regarded as the mechanism of carcinogenesis. In order to prevent the initiation stage of carcinogenesis, it is meaningful to discover the functional components of edible plants. The objective of this research was to test the antimutagenicity of the functional components of several typical traditional herbs used in Japan. The traditional herbs, gennoshoko (Geranium nepalense var. thunbergii), yomogi (Artemisia vulgaris var. indica), senburi (Swertia japonica), iwa-tobacco (Conandron ramondioides), sarunokoshikake (Elfvingia applanata), kanzo (Glycyeehiza uralensis Fisch) and matatabi (Actinidia polygama) were examined by Ames mutagenesis assay test with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 against mutagens, Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2 and B(a)P. The water-soluble components or volatile oil of the herbs were extracted in boiling water. The extracts of gennoshoko showed strong antimutagenicity against B(a)P with S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100, as well as Trp-P-1 and Trp-P-2 with S. typhimurium TA98. Yomogi, senburi and iwa-tobacco were also proved to have good antimutagenicity against Trp-P-1 and Trp-P-2 with S. typhimurium TA98, but weaker antimutagenicity against B(a)P. Other herbs did not show any obvious antimutagenicity against these mutagens. In addition, the volatile oil of yomogi also had remarkable antimutagenic effect against the mutagens we used with S. typhimurium TA98. PMID:15630266

  8. [Six-month follow-up of the effect of neomenor in patients with painful menstruation].

    PubMed

    Sirakov, M; Karamisheva, V; Ivanov, St

    2011-01-01

    Neomenor is herbal medication especially created to permanently relieve painful menstruation symptoms in girls and women with primary dysmenorrhea. It supplies the organism with substances essential for the metabolic processes that guarantee normal menstrual cycles. In some women these substances are out of balance, there is an excess of prostaglandins, which leads to painful periods, menstrual cramps and even migraine. Each NEOMENOR tablet contains 400 mg of standardized extracts from stalks of: Astragalus glycypyhyllos (Wild liquorice), Erodium cicutarium (Redstem Stork's Bill) and Geranium sanguineum (Bloody Cranesbill). Their biologically active substances inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins and their secretion into the uterus, hence strong muscle contractions are reduced and menstrual cramps disappear. The aim of this short study is to gain personal impressions about the action of the preparation. We have tested 35 girls and women with middle-age--18.74 on (14-28 years) with menarche--average at 12.8, suffering of primary dysmenorrhea. We have watched following factors: degree of dysmenorrhea, duration of complaints, habitus, gynecological and mental status, used painkillers. As a result of three months treatment 63% of the patients with III-d and 37% with II-nd grade of dysmenorrhea transformed in 42% with II-nd and 45% with I-st grade of dysmenorrhea. Only in 4 patients (11%) therapy was without success. The monitoring continues. PMID:21695945

  9. The mechanics of explosive dispersal and self-burial in the seeds of the filaree, Erodium cicutarium (Geraniaceae).

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Dennis; Hotton, Scott; Dumais, Jacques

    2011-02-15

    The filaree (Erodium cicutarium), a small, flowering plant related to geraniums, possesses a unique seed dispersal mechanism: the plant can fling its seeds up to half a meter away; and the seeds can bury themselves by drilling into the ground, twisting and untwisting in response to changes in humidity. These feats are accomplished using awns, helical bristles of dead but hygroscopically active tissue attached to the seeds. Here, we describe the kinematics of explosive dispersal and self-burial based on detailed high-speed and time-lapse videos. We use these observations to develop a simple mechanical model that accounts for the coiling behavior of the awn and allows comparison of the strain energy stored in the awn with the kinetic energy at launch. The model is used to examine tradeoffs between dispersal distance and reliability of the dispersal mechanism. The mechanical model may help in understanding the invasive potential of this species and provides a framework for examining other evolutionary tradeoffs in seed dispersal mechanisms among the Geraniaceae. PMID:21270299

  10. Laser-assisted biosynthesis for noble nanoparticles production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukhtarev, Tatiana; Edwards, Vernessa; Kukhtareva, Nickolai; Moses, Sherita

    2014-08-01

    Extracellular Biosynthesis technique (EBS) for nanoparticles production has attracted a lot of attention as an environmentally friendly and an inexpensive methodology. Our recent research was focused on the rapid approach of the green synthesis method and the reduction of the homogeneous size distribution of nanoparticles using pulse laser application. Noble nanoparticles (NNPs) were produced using various ethanol and water plant extracts. The plants were chosen based on their biomedical applications. The plants we used were Magnolia grandiflora, Geranium, Aloe `tingtinkie', Aloe barbadensis (Aloe Vera), Eucalyptus angophoroides, Sansevieria trifasciata, Impatiens scapiflora. Water and ethanol extract, were used as reducing agents to produce the nanoparticles. The reaction process was monitored using a UV-Visible spectroscopy. NNPs were characterized by Fourier Transfer Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and the Dynamic Light Scattering technique (DLS). During the pulse laser Nd-YAG illumination (?=1064nm, 532nm, PE= 450mJ, 200mJ, 10 min) the blue shift of the surface plasmon resonance absorption peak was observed from ~424nm to 403nm for silver NP; and from ~530nm to 520 nm for gold NPs. In addition, NNPs solution after Nd-YAG illumination was characterized by the narrowing of the surface plasmon absorption resonance band, which corresponds to monodispersed NNPS distribution. FTIR, TEM, DLS, Zeta potential results demonstrated that NNPs were surrounded by biological molecules, which naturally stabilized nanosolutions for months. Cytotoxicity investigation of biosynthesized NNPs is in progress.

  11. In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils

    PubMed Central

    Prabuseenivasan, Seenivasan; Jayakumar, Manickkam; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2006-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of 21 plant essential oils against six bacterial species. Methods: The selected essential oils were screened against four gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris) and two gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus at four different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20) using disc diffusion method. The MIC of the active essential oils were tested using two fold agar dilution method at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 25.6 mg/ml. Results: Out of 21 essential oils tested, 19 oils showed antibacterial activity against one or more strains. Cinnamon, clove, geranium, lemon, lime, orange and rosemary oils exhibited significant inhibitory effect. Cinnamon oil showed promising inhibitory activity even at low concentration, whereas aniseed, eucalyptus and camphor oils were least active against the tested bacteria. In general, B. subtilis was the most susceptible. On the other hand, K. pneumoniae exhibited low degree of sensitivity. Conclusion: Majority of the oils showed antibacterial activity against the tested strains. However Cinnamon, clove and lime oils were found to be inhibiting both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Cinnamon oil can be a good source of antibacterial agents. PMID:17134518

  12. Geraniin suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and ameliorates wear particle-induced osteolysis in mouse model.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fei; Zhai, Zanjing; Jiang, Chuan; Liu, Xuqiang; Li, Haowei; Qu, Xinhua; Ouyang, Zhengxiao; Fan, Qiming; Tang, Tingting; Qin, An; Gu, Dongyun

    2015-01-01

    Wear particle-induced osteolysis and subsequent aseptic loosening remains the most common complication that limits the longevity of prostheses. Wear particle-induced osteoclastogenesis is known to be responsible for extensive bone erosion that leads to prosthesis failure. Thus, inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption may serve as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of wear particle induced osteolysis. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that geraniin, an active natural compound derived from Geranium thunbergii, ameliorated particle-induced osteolysis in a Ti particle-induced mouse calvaria model in vivo. We also investigated the mechanism by which geraniin exerts inhibitory effects on osteoclasts. Geraniin inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in a dose-dependent manner, evidenced by reduced osteoclast formation and suppressed osteoclast specific gene expression. Specially, geraniin inhibited actin ring formation and bone resorption in vitro. Further molecular investigation demonstrated geraniin impaired osteoclast differentiation via the inhibition of the RANKL-induced NF-?B and ERK signaling pathways, as well as suppressed the expression of key osteoclast transcriptional factors NFATc1 and c-Fos. Collectively, our data suggested that geraniin exerts inhibitory effects on osteoclast differentiation in vitro and suppresses Ti particle-induced osteolysis in vivo. Geraniin is therefore a potential natural compound for the treatment of wear particle induced osteolysis in prostheses failure. PMID:25016282

  13. Effects of freezing on thermoluminescence in various plant species.

    PubMed

    Janda, Tibor; Szalai, Gabriella; Papp, Nóra; Pál, Magda; Páldi, Emil

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the effect of sudden frost on the photosynthetic electron transport chain in the leaves of various plant species using the thermoluminescence (TL) technique. A short period of freezing caused a decrease in the afterglow (AG) band in young maize leaves, with a slight upshift in the maximum temperature. The B band induced by far-red (FR) illumination started to decrease at a significantly lower temperature. The flash-induced B band also showed a substantial decrease in intensity after short preliminary freezing. In contrast to other species, for which there was always a well-detectable TL signal even after relatively drastic freezing, there was no TL signal at all in geranium below a threshold temperature. The behavior of the FR-induced TL curve in cucumber plants was a mixture of that found in wheat or pea, on the one hand, and maize, on the other: the AG band gradually decreased with decreasing temperature and finally totally disappeared, as in maize. The FR-induced B band showed an upshift after freezing. These results suggest that AG is a normal component of TL bands induced not only by FR, but also by single turnover flash. PMID:15323581

  14. Bioindication of heavy metals with aquatic macrophytes: the case of a stream polluted with power plant sewages in Poland.

    PubMed

    Samecka-Cymerman, A; Kempers, A J

    2001-01-12

    The Kozi Brod (left tributary of the Biala Przemsza, east of Katowice) flows in a highly industrial coal-mining area dominated by the power plant of Siersza. Concentrations of the microelements nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), barium (Ba), aluminum (Al), vanadium (V), and strontium (Sr), as well as the macronutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and sulfur (S), were measured in water and plants of the Kozi Brod. The collected plants were: Myosotis palustris L. Nathorst, Galium palustre L., Mentha rotundifolia L. Huds., Mentha aquatica L., Berula erecta (Huds.) Coville, Cardamine amara L., Epilobium angustifolium L., Geranium palustre L., Lysimachia vulgaris L., Crepis paludosa L. Much., Calitriche verna L., Solanum dulcamara L., and the aquatic moss Hygrohypnum ochraceum (Turn.) Loesk. These plants were used to evaluate the spatial distribution of elements in the Kozi Brod and contained elevated levels of Co, Cd, Zn, Ni, Mn, Al, Pb, and Cu. Significant correlations between concentrations of Cd, Zn, and Mn in water and plants indicate the potential of these species for pollution monitoring. PMID:11205536

  15. Genome-wide analyses of Geraniaceae plastid DNA reveal unprecedented patterns of increased nucleotide substitutions

    PubMed Central

    Guisinger, Mary M.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Jansen, Robert K.

    2008-01-01

    Angiosperm plastid genomes are generally conserved in gene content and order with rates of nucleotide substitutions for protein-coding genes lower than for nuclear protein-coding genes. A few groups have experienced genomic change, and extreme changes in gene content and order are found within the flowering plant family Geraniaceae. The complete plastid genome sequence of Pelargonium X hortorum (Geraniaceae) reveals the largest and most rearranged plastid genome identified to date. Highly elevated rates of sequence evolution in Geraniaceae mitochondrial genomes have been reported, but rates in Geraniaceae plastid genomes have not been characterized. Analysis of nucleotide substitution rates for 72 plastid genes for 47 angiosperm taxa, including nine Geraniaceae, show that values of dN are highly accelerated in ribosomal protein and RNA polymerase genes throughout the family. Furthermore, dN/dS is significantly elevated in the same two classes of plastid genes as well as in ATPase genes. A relatively high dN/dS ratio could be interpreted as evidence of two phenomena, namely positive or relaxed selection, neither of which is consistent with our current understanding of plastid genome evolution in photosynthetic plants. These analyses are the first to use protein-coding sequences from complete plastid genomes to characterize rates and patterns of sequence evolution for a broad sampling of photosynthetic angiosperms, and they reveal unprecedented accumulation of nucleotide substitutions in Geraniaceae. To explain these remarkable substitution patterns in the highly rearranged Geraniaceae plastid genomes, we propose a model of aberrant DNA repair coupled with altered gene expression. PMID:19011103

  16. Synergistic Antimycobacterial Actions of Knowltonia vesicatoria (L.f) Sims

    PubMed Central

    Labuschagné, Antoinette; Hussein, Ahmed A.; Rodríguez, Benjamín; Lall, Namrita

    2012-01-01

    Euclea natalensis A.DC., Knowltonia vesicatoria (L.f) Sims, and Pelargonium sidoides DC. are South African plants traditionally used to treat tuberculosis. Extracts from these plants were used in combination with isoniazid (INH) to investigate the possibility of synergy with respect to antimycobacterial activity. The ethanol extract of K. vesicatoria was subjected to fractionation to identify the active compounds. The activity of the Knowltonia extract remained superior to the fractions with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 625.0??g/mL against Mycobacterium smegmatis and an MIC of 50.00??g/mL against M. tuberculosis. The K. vesicatoria extract was tested against two different drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis, which resulted in an MIC of 50.00??g/mL on both strains. The combination of K. vesicatoria with INH exhibited the best synergistic antimycobacterial activity with a fractional inhibitory concentration index of 0.25 (a combined concentration of 6.28??g/mL). A fifty percent inhibitory concentration of this combination against U937 cells was 121.0??g/mL. Two compounds, stigmasta-5,23-dien-3-ol (1) and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furan-2(5H)-one (2), were isolated from K. vesicatoria as the first report of isolation for both compounds from this plant and the first report of antimycobacterial activity. Compound (1) was active against drug-sensitive M. tuberculosis with an MIC of 50.00??g/mL. PMID:22611433

  17. A new leafminer on grapevine and Rhoicissus (Vitaceae) in South Africa within an expanded generic concept of Holocacista (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Heliozelidae)

    PubMed Central

    van Nieukerken, Erik J.; Geertsema, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A grapevine leafminer found recently in table grape orchards and vineyards in the Paarl region (Western Cape, South Africa) is described as Holocacista capensis sp. n. It has also been found on native Rhoicissus digitata and bred on that species in the laboratory. It is closely related to Holocacista salutans (Meyrick, 1921), comb. n. (from Antispila), described from Durban in KwaZulu-Natal, but widespread in southern Africa and a native leafminer of various Vitaceae: Rhoicissus tomentosa, Rhoicissus digitata, Rhoicissus tridentata and Cissus cornifolia. Holocacista capensis has been found on Vitis vinifera both in Gauteng and Western Cape, the earliest record being from 1950 in Pretoria. The initial host shift from native Vitaceae to Vitis must have occurred much earlier. The species is sometimes present in high densities, but hitherto no sizeable damage to the crops has been noted. The genus Holocacista Walsingham & Durrant, 1909, previously known from the single European grapevine leafminer Holocacista rivillei (Stainton, 1855), is expanded and redescribed and for the first time reported from Africa, East and South-East Asia and Australia. It comprises seven named species and at least 15 unnamed species. The following species are also recombined with Holocacista: transferred from Antispilina: South-African Holocacista varii (Mey, 2011), comb. n., feeding on Pelargonium, transferred from Antispila: the Indian species Holocacista micrarcha (Meyrick, 1926), comb. n. and Holocacista pariodelta (Meyrick, 1929), comb. n., both feeding on Lannea coromandelica, and Holocacista selastis (Meyrick, 1926), comb. n. on Psychotria dalzelii. We also remove the following from Antispila: Heliozela anna (Fletcher, 1920), comb. n. and Heliozela argyrozona (Meyrick, 1918), comb. n., whereas the following Indian Vitaceae feeding species are confirmed to belong in Antispila s. str.: Antispila argostoma Meyrick, 1916 and Antispila aristarcha Meyrick, 1916. Holocacista salutans and Holocacista varii are redescribed and diagnosed against Holocacista capensis and other South African Heliozelidae. DNA barcodes are provided for 13 species of Holocacista.

  18. Susceptibility of Microsporum canis arthrospores to a mixture of chemically defined essential oils: a perspective for environmental decontamination.

    PubMed

    Nardoni, Simona; Tortorano, Annamaria; Mugnaini, Linda; Profili, Greta; Pistelli, Luisa; Giovanelli, Silvia; Pisseri, Francesca; Papini, Roberto; Mancianti, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The zoophilic dermatophyte Microsporum canis has cats as natural reservoir, but it is able to infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, where different clinical features of the so-called ringworm dermatophytosis have been described. Human infections are increasingly been reported in Mediterranean countries. A reliable control program against M. canis infection in cats should include an antifungal treatment of both the infected animals and their living environment. In this article, a herbal mixture composed of chemically defined essential oils (EOs) of Litsea cubeba (1%), Illicium verum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Pelargonium graveolens (0.5% each) was formulated and its antifungal activity assessed against M. canis arthrospores which represent the infective environmental stage of M. canis. Single compounds present in higher amounts in the mixture were also separately tested in vitro. Litsea cubeba and P. graveolens EOs were most effective (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.5%), followed by EOs of I. verum (MIC 2%) and F. vulgare (MIC 2.5%). Minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) values were 0.75% (L. cubeba), 1.5% (P. graveolens), 2.5% (I. verum) and 3% (F. vulgare). MIC and MFC values of the mixture were 0.25% and 0.5%, respectively. The daily spray of the mixture (200 ?L) directly onto infected hairs inhibited fungal growth from the fourth day onwards. The compounds present in higher amounts exhibited variable antimycotic activity, with MIC values ranging from >10% (limonene) to 0.1% (geranial and neral). Thus, the mixture showed a good antifungal activity against arthrospores present in infected hairs. These results are promising for a further application of the mixture as an alternative tool or as an adjuvant in the environmental control of feline microsporosis. PMID:25854840

  19. Reversible inhibition of three important human liver cytochrome p450 enzymes by tiliroside.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dong-Xue; Lu, Jin-Cai; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Cao, Yun-Feng; Mao, Yu-Xi; Zhu, Liang-Liang; Yin, Jun; Yang, Ling

    2010-11-01

    Tiliroside, an active flavonoid extensively found in many medicinal plants including Helichrysum italicum, Geranium mexicanum and Helianthemum glomeratum, has been demonstrated to exert multiple biological effects including antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant and antitumor activities. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes play an important role in the Phase I oxidation metabolism of a wide range of xenobiotics and inhibition of CYP isoforms might influence the elimination of drugs and induce serious adverse drug response. The inhibition of seven CYP isoforms (CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2C8 and CYP2E1) by tiliroside was investigated using in vitro human liver microsomal incubation assays. The results showed that tiliroside strongly inhibited the activity of CYP3A4 (IC(50) = 9.0 ± 1.7 ?m), CYP2C8 (IC(50) = 12.1 ± 0.9 ?m) and CYP2C9 (IC(50) = 10.2 ± 0.9 ?m) with other CYP isoforms negligibly influenced. Further kinetic analysis showed that inhibition of these three CYP isoforms by tiliroside is best fit to a competitive way. The K(i) value was calculated to be 5.5 ?m, 3.3 ?m, 9.4 ?m for CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C8, respectively. The relatively low K(i) values suggested that tiliroside might induce drug-drug interactions with many clinically used drugs which are mainly metabolized by these three CYP isoforms. Therefore, attention should be given to the probable drug-drug interaction between tiliroside-containing herbs and substrates of CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C8. PMID:21031626

  20. Biotransformation of (R)-(+)- and (S)-(-)-citronellol by Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp., and the use of solid-phase microextraction for screening.

    PubMed

    Demyttenaere, Jan C R; Vanoverschelde, Jan; De Kimpe, Norbert

    2004-02-20

    The biotransformation of (R)-(+)- and (S)-(-)-citronellol by fungi was studied. For screening experiments, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used as analytical sampling technique. It was found that sporulated surface cultures of Aspergillus niger were able to convert the substrate into cis- and trans-rose oxides and nerol oxide. The relative contents in the headspace SPME extract of the three bioconversion products cis- and trans-rose oxide and nerol oxide were up to 54, 21 and 12%, respectively. Rose oxide is found in minor amounts in some essential oils, such as Bulgarian rose oil and geranium oil and contributes to its unique odor. It is one of the most important fragrance materials in perfumery in creating rosy notes. Other bioconversion products were 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol, limonene, terpinolene, linalool and alpha-terpineol. These bioconversion reactions were confirmed by sporulated surface cultures on larger scale and sampling by dynamic headspace sweep and steam distillation solvent extraction. The same conversions were noticed with A. tubingensis and Penicillium roqueforti. This bioconversion was enantioselective since more of the chiral cis- than trans-rose oxide was obtained (cisitrans ratio up to 95/5). Submerged liquid cultures of P. roqueforti yielded two unidentified metabolites after conversion of citronellol (yield up to 5%). The stability and acid-catalyzed conversion of citronellol was also investigated. No chemical oxidation or auto-oxidation products were detected in acidified liquid control broths up to pH 3.5. However, when control tests were run with solid media, acid-catalyzed conversion of the substrate to small amounts of cis- and trans-rose oxides, nerol oxide, linalool and alpha-terpineol was observed at pH 3.5 and when heat treatment (steam distillation solvent extraction) was applied. PMID:14971495

  1. Free radical scavenging action of medicinal herbs from Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Myagmar, B E; Aniya, Y

    2000-06-01

    In the present study we evaluated the free radical scavenging action of some medicinal herbs growing in Mongolia. The aqueous extract of nine herbs Chamenerion angustifolium (Ch.ang), Equisetum arvense (Eq.arv), Gentiana decumbens (Gn.dec), Geranium pratense (Gr.pra), Lomatogonium carinthiacum (L.car), Nonea poulla (N.pl), Phodococcum vitis-idaea (Ph.v), Sphallerocarpus gracilis (Sph.gr), Stellera chamaejasme (St.cha) were used in the present experiment. The free radical scavenging action was determined in vitro and ex vivo by using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer and chemiluminescence (CL) analyzer. The results showed that extracts of Ch.ang, Gn.dec, Gr.pra, L.car, N.pl, Ph.v, Sph.gr and St. cha possess strong scavenging action of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. On the other hand, the radical scavenging action of Eq.arv was low. Extracts of N.pl and Ph.v markedly inhibited the CL generated from rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450 system whereas the CL was moderately inhibited by Eq.arv, Gn.dec, Gr.pra, L.car and St.cha. The extracts of Ch.ang and Sph.gr did not decrease the CL generation. Ch.ang, Gr.pra, L.car, N.pl, Ph.v and St.cha also depressed reactive oxygen production from polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated by phorbol-12-myristate acetate ex vivo. Thus it was confirmed that the medicinal herbs from Mongolia possess high antioxidant potency in vitro and ex vivo. PMID:11185733

  2. Repellency to Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) of plant essential oils alone or in combination with Calophyllum inophyllum nut oil.

    PubMed

    Hieu, Tran Trung; Kim, Soon-Il; Lee, Sang-Guei; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2010-07-01

    The repellency to female Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) of 21 essential oils (EOs) alone or in combination with Calophyllum inophyllum L. (Clusiaceae) nut oil (tamanu oil) was examined using an exposed human hand bioassay. Results were compared with those of commonly used repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). In tests with six human male volunteers at a dose of 0.5 mg/cm2, patchouli (protection time [PT], 3.67 h) was the most effective EO but less active than DEET (4.47 h), as judged by the PT to first bite. Very strong repellency also was produced by clove bud, lovage root, and clove leaf EOs (PT, 3.50-3.25 h), whereas strong repellency was obtained from thyme white EO (2.12 h). Thyme red, oregano, and geranium EOs exhibited moderate repellency (PT, 1.24-1.11 h). At 0.25 mg/cm2, protection time of clove bud, clove leaf, and lovage root EOs (PT, approximately equal to 1 h) was shorter than that of DEET (2.17 h). An increase in the protection time was produced by binary mixtures (PT, 2.68-2.04 h) of five EOs (clove bud, clove leaf, thyme white, patchouli, and savory) and tamanu oil (0.25:2.0 mg/cm2) compared with that of either the constituted essential oil or tamanu oil alone (PT, 0.56 h). The protection time of these binary mixtures was comparable with that of DEET. With the exception of savory EO, the other EOs, tamanu oil, and binary mixtures did not induce any adverse effects on the human volunteers at 0.5 mg/cm2. Thus, binary mixtures of essential oils and tamanu oil described merit further study as potential repellents for protection from humans and domestic animals from biting and nuisance caused by S. calcitrans. PMID:20695272

  3. Subsurface Examination of a Foliar Biofilm Using Scanning Electron- and Focused-Ion-Beam Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, Patricia K.; Arey, Bruce W.; Mahaffee, Walt F.

    2011-08-01

    The dual beam scanning electron microscope, equipped with both a focused ion- and scanning electron- beam (FIB SEM) is a novel tool for the exploration of the subsurface structure of biological tissues. The FIB can remove a predetermined amount of material from a selected site to allow for subsurface exploration and when coupled with SEM or scanning ion- beam microscopy (SIM) could be suitable to examine the subsurface structure of bacterial biofilms on the leaf surface. The suitability of chemical and cryofixation was examined for use with the FIB SEM to examine bacterial biofilms on leaf surfaces. The biological control agent, Burkholderia pyroccinia FP62, that rapidly colonizes the leaf surface and forms biofilms, was inoculated onto geranium leaves and incubated in a greenhouse for 7 or 14 days. Cryofixation was not suitable for examination of leaf biofilms because it created a frozen layer over the leaf surface that cracked when exposed to the electron beam and the protective cap required for FIB milling could not be accurately deposited. With chemically fixed samples, it was possible to precisely FIB mill a single cross section (5 µm) or sequential cross sections from a single site without any damage to the surrounding surface. Biofilms, 7 days post-inoculation (DPI), were composed of 2 to 5 bacterial cell layers while biofilms 14 DPI ranged from 5 to greater than 30 cell layers. Empty spaces between bacteria cells in the subsurface structure were observed in biofilms 7- and 14-DPI. Sequential cross sections inferred that the empty spaces were often continuous between FP62 cells and could possibly make up a network of channels throughout the biofilm. FIB SEM was a useful tool to observe the subsurface composition of a foliar biofilm.

  4. Sensitive and specific detection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. pelargonii with DNA primers and probes identified by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Manulis, S; Valinsky, L; Lichter, A; Gabriel, D W

    1994-01-01

    The random amplified polymorphic DNA method was used to distinguish strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. pelargonii from 21 other Xanthomonas species and/or pathovars. Among the 42 arbitrarily chosen primers evaluated, 3 were found to reveal diagnostic polymorphisms when purified DNAs from compared strains were amplified by the PCR. The three primers revealed DNA amplification patterns which were conserved among all 53 strains tested of X. campestris pv. pelargonii isolated from various locations worldwide. The distinctive X. compestris pv. pelargonii patterns were clearly different from those obtained with any of 46 other Xanthomonas strains tested. An amplified 1.2-kb DNA fragment, apparently unique to X. campestris pv. pelargonii by these random amplified polymorphic DNA tests, was cloned and evaluated as a diagnostic DNA probe. It hybridized with total DNA from all 53 X. campestris pv. pelargonii strains tested and not with any of the 46 other Xanthomonas strains tested. The DNA sequence of the terminal ends of this 1.2-kb fragment was obtained and used to design a pair of 18-mer oligonucleotide primers specific for X. campestris pv. pelargonii. The custom-synthesized primers amplified the same 1.2-kb DNA fragment from all 53 X. campestris pv. pelargonii strains tested and failed to amplify DNA from any of the 46 other Xanthomonas strains tested. DNA isolated from saprophytes associated with the geranium plant also did not produce amplified DNA with these primers. The sensitivity of the PCR assay using the custom-synthesized primers was between 10 and 50 cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:7993095

  5. The acceptability of meadow plants to the slug Deroceras reticulatum and implications for grassland restoration

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Sarah E.; Close, Andrew J.; Port, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite the selective pressure slugs may exert on seedling recruitment there is a lack of information in this context within grassland restoration studies. Selective grazing is influenced by interspecific differences in acceptability. As part of a larger study of how slug–seedling interactions may influence upland hay meadow restoration, an assessment of relative acceptability is made for seedlings of meadow plants to the slug, Deroceras reticulatum. Methods Slug feeding damage to seedling monocultures of 23 meadow species and Brassica napus was assessed in microcosms over 14 d. The severity and rate of damage incurred by each plant species was analysed with a generalized additive mixed model. Plant species were then ranked for their relative acceptability. Key Results Interspecific variation in relative acceptability suggested seedlings of meadow species form a hierarchy of acceptability to D. reticulatum. The four most acceptable species were Achillea millefolium and the grasses Holcus lanatus, Poa trivialis and Festuca rubra. Trifolium pratense was acceptable to D. reticulatum and was the second highest ranking forb species. The most unacceptable species were mainly forbs associated with the target grassland, and included Geranium sylvaticum, Rumex acetosa, Leontodon hispidus and the grass Anthoxanthum odoratum. A strong positive correlation was found for mean cumulative feeding damage and cumulative seedling mortality at day 14. Conclusions Highly unacceptable species to D. reticulatum are unlikely to be selectively grazed by slugs during the seedling recruitment phase, and were predominantly target restoration species. Seedlings of highly acceptable species may be less likely to survive slug herbivory and contribute to seedling recruitment at restoration sites. Selective slug herbivory, influenced by acceptability, may influence community-level processes if seedling recruitment and establishment of key functional species, such as T. pratense is reduced. PMID:23632124

  6. The ecological aspect of ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology of population in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Redzi?, Sulejman S

    2007-09-01

    This paper contains first systematical revision of the results on traditional use of wild medicinal and aromatic herbs on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H)--west of Balkan Peninsula; Southeast of Europe. There have been detected 227 plants belonging to 71 different plant families, which are being used with ethno therapeutic purpose. Results were obtained by method of open ethno botanical interview which comprised 150 persons, whose average age was 63. Medicinal plants in ethno therapy are being used either in fresh, raw or dried condition. Different herbal parts, depending on period of vegetation season, sometimes even in winter, are basis for preparation of infusions (59%), decoct (19%), tinctures (4%). Especially original are balms known as Bosnian "mehlems", which are fresh cuted herbal parts mixed with lukewarm resin, raw cow butter or honey. In ethno therapy are mostly being used aerial plant organs. Majority of herbs is being used for treatment of illnesses of respiratory (22%), gastrointestinal (19%) and urinary and genital system (9%), for treatment of skin conditions (11%), as well as for nervous system and heart diseases (16%). The most original plants on the field of ethno pharmacology, comparing with ethno therapy practice of other regions, are as follows: Ballota nigra, Aesculus hippocastanum, Calluna vulgaris, Centaurea cyanus, Euphrasia rostkoviana, Geranium robertianum, Gentiana asclepiadea, Helichrysum italicum, Lycopodium clavatum, Marrubium vulgare, Nepeta cataria, Populus tremula, Ruta graveolens, Tamus communis, Teucrium montanum, T. chamaedrys, and endemic plants Gentiana lutea subsp. symphyandra, Teucrium arduini, Micromeria thymifolia, Satureja montana, S. subspicata, Rhamnus fallax and Viola elegantula. There haven't been noticed significant differences in the frequencies of medicinal plants use among different ethnical groups. But, it has been perceived that longer ethno therapeutic tradition possess inhabitants of sub- and Mediterranean areas, as well as inhabitants of the mountain areas of B&H, regardless their ethnicity. PMID:18041402

  7. Essential Oils, Silver Nanoparticles and Propolis as Alternative Agents Against Fluconazole Resistant Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei Clinical Isolates.

    PubMed

    Szweda, Piotr; Gucwa, Katarzyna; Kurzyk, Ewelina; Romanowska, Ewa; Dzier?anowska-Fangrat, Katarzyna; Zieli?ska Jurek, Anna; Ku?, Piotr Marek; Milewski, S?awomir

    2015-06-01

    Development of effective and safe therapeutic treatment of fungal infections remains one of the major challenge for modern medicine. The aim of presented investigation was to analyze the in vitro antifungal activity of selected essential oils, ethanolic extracts of propolis and silver nanoparticles dropped on TiO2 against azole-resistant C. albicans (n = 20), C. glabrata (n = 14) and C. krusei (n = 10) clinical isolates. Among tested essential oils, the highest activity has definitely been found in the case of the oil isolated from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia, with MIC and MFC values for all tested strains in the range of 0.0006-0.0097 % (v/v) and 0.0012-0.019 % (v/v), respectively. High activity was also observed for the Lemon, Basil, Thyme, Geranium and Clove (from buds) essential oils. Significant differences in fungicidal activity have been observed in the case of four tested propolis samples. Only one of them revealed high activity, with MFC values in the range from 0.156 to 1.25 % (v/v). Satisfactory fungicidal activity, against C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates, was also observed in the case of silver nanoparticles, however C. krusei isolates were mostly resistant. We also revealed that constituents of most of essential oils and propolis as well as silver nanoparticles are not substrates for drug transporters, which belong to the most important factors affecting resistance of Candida spp. clinical isolates to many of conventional antimycotics. To conclude, the results of our investigation revealed that essential oils, propolis and silver nanoparticles represent high potential for controlling and prevention candidiasis. PMID:25805904

  8. Application of Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing To Discriminate Ralstonia solanacearum Strains Associated with English Watercourses and Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Ruth; Bew, Janice; Conyers, Christine; Stones, Robert; Alcock, Michael; Elphinstone, John

    2013-01-01

    Variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis was used for high-resolution discrimination among Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype IIB sequevar 1 (PIIB-1) isolates and further evaluated for use in source tracing. Five tandem-repeat-containing loci (comprising six tandem repeats) discriminated 17 different VNTR profiles among 75 isolates from potato, geranium, bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara), tomato, and the environment. R. solanacearum isolates from crops at three unrelated outbreak sites where river water had been used for irrigation had distinct VNTR profiles that were shared with PIIB-1 isolates from infected bittersweet growing upriver of each site. The VNTR profiling results supported the implication that the source of R. solanacearum at each outbreak was contaminated river water. Analysis of 51 isolates from bittersweet growing in river water at different locations provided a means to evaluate the technique for studying the epidemiology of the pathogen in the environment. Ten different VNTR profiles were identified among bittersweet PIIB-1 isolates from the River Thames. Repeated findings of contiguous river stretches that produced isolates that shared single VNTR profiles supported the hypothesis that the pathogen had disseminated from infected bittersweet plants located upriver. VNTR profiles shared between bittersweet isolates from two widely separated Thames tributaries (River Ray and River Colne) suggested they were independently contaminated with the same clonal type. Some bittersweet isolates had VNTR profiles that were shared with potato isolates collected outside the United Kingdom. It was concluded that VNTR profiling could contribute to further understanding of R. solanacearum epidemiology and assist in control of future disease outbreaks. PMID:23892739

  9. Application of variable-number tandem-repeat typing to discriminate Ralstonia solanacearum strains associated with English watercourses and disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Neil; Bryant, Ruth; Bew, Janice; Conyers, Christine; Stones, Robert; Alcock, Michael; Elphinstone, John

    2013-10-01

    Variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis was used for high-resolution discrimination among Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype IIB sequevar 1 (PIIB-1) isolates and further evaluated for use in source tracing. Five tandem-repeat-containing loci (comprising six tandem repeats) discriminated 17 different VNTR profiles among 75 isolates from potato, geranium, bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara), tomato, and the environment. R. solanacearum isolates from crops at three unrelated outbreak sites where river water had been used for irrigation had distinct VNTR profiles that were shared with PIIB-1 isolates from infected bittersweet growing upriver of each site. The VNTR profiling results supported the implication that the source of R. solanacearum at each outbreak was contaminated river water. Analysis of 51 isolates from bittersweet growing in river water at different locations provided a means to evaluate the technique for studying the epidemiology of the pathogen in the environment. Ten different VNTR profiles were identified among bittersweet PIIB-1 isolates from the River Thames. Repeated findings of contiguous river stretches that produced isolates that shared single VNTR profiles supported the hypothesis that the pathogen had disseminated from infected bittersweet plants located upriver. VNTR profiles shared between bittersweet isolates from two widely separated Thames tributaries (River Ray and River Colne) suggested they were independently contaminated with the same clonal type. Some bittersweet isolates had VNTR profiles that were shared with potato isolates collected outside the United Kingdom. It was concluded that VNTR profiling could contribute to further understanding of R. solanacearum epidemiology and assist in control of future disease outbreaks. PMID:23892739

  10. Evaluation of molecular chaperons Hsp72 and neuropeptide Y as characteristic markers of adaptogenic activity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Asea, Alexzander; Kaur, Punit; Panossian, Alexander; Wikman, Karl Georg

    2013-11-15

    We have previously demonstrated that ADAPT-232, a fixed combination of adaptogenic substances derived from Eleutherococcus senticosus root extract, Schisandra chinensis berry extract, Rhodiola rosea root extract stimulated the expression and release of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and molecular chaperone Hsp72 from isolated human neurolgia cells. Both of these mediators of stress response are known to play an important role in regulation of neuroendocrine system and immune response. We further demonstrated that ADAPT-232 induced release of Hsp70 is mediated by NPY, suggesting an existence of NPY-mediated pathway of activation of Hsp72 release into the blood circulation system. The objective of this study was to determine whether this pathway is common for adaptogens and whether NPY and/or Hsp72 can be considered as necessary specific biomarkers for adaptogenic activity. The release of NPY and Hsp72 from neuroglia cells in response to treatment with various plant extracts (n=23) including selected validated adaptogens, partly validated adaptogens, claimed but negligibly validated adaptogens and some other plant extracts affecting neuroendocrine and immune systems but never considered as adaptogens was measured using high throughput ELISA techniques. We demonstrated that adaptogens, e.g. R. rosea, S. chinensis and E. senticosus stimulate both NPY and Hsp70 release from neuroblastoma cells, while tonics and stimulants have no significant effect on NPY in this in vitro test. In the groups of partly validated adaptogens the effect of Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera was not statistically significant both on NPY and Hsp70 release, while the activating effect of Bryonia alba and Rhaponticum cartamoides was significant only on Hsp70. In contrast, all tested non-adaptogens, such as antiinflammatoty plant extracts Matricaria recutita, Pelargonium sidoides, Hedera helix and Vitis vinifera significantly inhibit Hsp70 release and have no influence on NPY release from neuroblastoma cells. These experiments were further validated using primary human neurons and confirmed that adaptogens activate the release of both NPY and Hsp70, while tested non adaptogens were inactive in NPY assay and inhibit the release of Hsp70. Taken together, our data demonstrates for the first time that neuropeptide Y and heat shock protein Hsp70 can be used as molecular biomarkers for adaptogenic activity. PMID:23920279

  11. [A phytosociological interpretation of vegetation from sandy hills of the Peruvian desert].

    PubMed

    Galán de Mera, Antonio; Linares Perea, Eliana; Campos de la Cruz, José; Vicente Orellana, José Alfredo

    2011-06-01

    The vegetation of the sandy hills ("lomas") constitutes the main originality of the Peruvian and Chilean desert with a high number of endemics that shapes the vicarious associations. In this work, a phytosociological view of sandy environments of the Peruvian coastal desert is presented. According to the Braun-Blanquet method, we have made up 32 phytosociological inventories and added 138 ones from others authors. In each inventory, we have analyzed its floristic composition and ecological parameters, as altitude, soil and geomorphology. All releves were synthesized in a table to deduce the different associations, higher phytosociological units, and the distribu tion of its flora along the Peruvian coast and the Andean Cordillera. Using the Shannon-Wiener diversity index, the diversity of this flora is discussed making a comparison with historical data about the use of the territory with livestock during pre-Inca and Inca cultures, and Spanish invasion. As a result, two associations from Southern Peru -Nolanetum scaposo-spathulatae and Palauetum camanensis-weberbaueri-, two alliances -Nolanion humifusae from central Peru, and Nolanion spathulatae from the Southern Peru- and a new order -Tetragonio crystallinae-Plantaginetalia limensis- are described. In Nolanetum scaposo-spathulatae, Dictyophragnus englerianus, Leptoglossis lomana, Nolana scaposa, N. spathulata, Palaua velutina and Tetragonia vestita are the main characteristics, while in Palauetum camanensis-weberbaueri association N. scaposa and P. velutina are replaced by Palaua camanensis and P. weberbaueri. Nolanion humifusae alliance integrates species as Geranium limae, Hymenocallis amancaes, Nolana humifusa, N. latipes, Palaua rhombifolia or Villanova oppositifolia. Likewise, Cistanthe weberbaueri, Cryptantha parviflora, Hoffmannseggia miranda, Lupinus mollendoensis, Nolana confinis, N. pallidula, N. scaposa, N. spathulata, Palaua camanensis, P. velutina, P. weberbaueri, Tetragonia vestita and Weberbauerella brongniartioides are the characteristic species of Nolanion spathulatae alliance. The Tetragonio crystallinae-Plantaginetalia limensis order presents characteristic plants don't linked with eutrophic soils, as Calandrinia alba, Cryptantha limensis, Dyschoriste repens, Monnina macrostachya, Oxalis lomana, Palaua malvifolia, Pectocarya lateriflora, Plantago limensis or Tetragonia crystallina, with a distribution that claps the geographical area of the new alliances. On the other hand, the vegetation of the desert ravines is discussed in the context of the coastal river plant communities and its disturbance by the dunes. After the application of the Shannon-Wiener diversity index on the synthetic table columns, we can deduce that an increase in Andean and European ruderal species is linked to an intensive livestock activity. The transhumance between the Andes and the coast from pre-Inca times until now, produces the plant dispersion of high Andean plants toward the coast; the Spanish colonization was the origin of the presence of European plants in the "lomas" vegetation of Peru. PMID:21721240

  12. Laboratory evaluation of products to reduce settling of sweetpotato whitefly adults.

    PubMed

    Schuster, D J; Thompson, S; Ortega, L D; Polston, J E

    2009-08-01

    The impact of trademarked and commercial products on settling of adults of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), was studied in the laboratory. A no-choice bioassay using leaf disks of tomato, Solanum esculentum L., was developed to evaluate the impact of concentration series of products on settling of B. tabaci adults. The concentration of each product that would reduce settling by 50% (SC50) was estimated for each product using standard probit analyses, and the values were compared with that of Ultra-Fine Oil, a paraffinic oil product that is known to reduce settling of whitefly adults. Twenty-two trademarked products and 42 other products were evaluated in the laboratory bioassay. Based upon comparisons of fiducial limits of the respective SC50 values, Dawn detergent and E-RASE jojoba oil were the only trademarked products that were as effective as Ultra-Fine Oil in reducing settling of B. tabaci adults. Of the nontrademarked products, 25 were similar to Ultra-Fine Oil, although cedar, geranium, ginger, Hamlin (citrus), patchouli, olive and wintergreen oils, as well as citronellal and limonene, had ratios of respective SC50 values with that of Ultra-Fine Oil of approximately 1.5 or less. Combinations of limonene and citronellal with either olive oil or Ultra-Fine Oil were 15 and 30 times, respectively, more effective than Ultra-Fine Oil alone. Candidate products and combinations of products were further evaluated on tomato seedlings in no-choice screenhouse trials for effects on oviposition and on transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (family Geminiviridae, genus Begomovirus, TYLCV) by B. tabaci. Ultra-Fine Oil and olive oil reduced oviposition and transmission of TYLCV in the screenhouse trials. Ginger oil and limonene reduced oviposition in at least one screenhouse trial but did reduce transmission of TYLCV. The laboratory bioassay provided a rapid and relatively easy method to compare products for reducing settling of B. tabaci adults. Even though the reduced settling indicated in the laboratory bioassays was not always reflected in reduced oviposition or TYLCV transmission in the screenhouse trials, the bioassay was useful in rapidly identifying products that reduce settling and that could be investigated further. PMID:19736760