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Insecticidal and biting deterrent activity of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp.) essential oils and individual compounds against Stephanitis pyrioides and Aedes aegypti  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rose-scented geranium, Pelargonium spp., essential oils from the cultivars ‘Bourbon’, ‘China’, ‘Egypt’ and cultivars ‘Rober’s Lemon Rose’ and ‘Frensham’ from South Carolina were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. One-hundred and thirty six compounds were identified from five essential oils, which constit...


Biomass yield, essential oil yield and essential oil composition of rose-scented geranium ( Pelargonium species) as influenced by row spacings and intercropping with cornmint ( Mentha arvensis L.f. piperascens Malinv. ex Holmes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium species, family, Geraniaceae) is a vegetatively propagated (through rooted stem cuttings), initially slow growing, high value aromatic crop. Cornmint (Mentha arvensis L. f. piperascens Malinvaud ex Holmes, family, Lamiaceae) is also a vegetatively propagated (through rhizomes, runners or stolons and terminal stem cuttings), high demand aromatic–cum–medicinal crop. Essential oils isolated through steam distillation of shoot biomass of

B. R. Rajeswara Rao



Impact of plant growth promoting Pseudomonas monteilii PsF84 and Pseudomonas plecoglossicida PsF610 on metal uptake and production of secondary metabolite (monoterpenes) by rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolenscv. bourbon) grown on tannery sludge amended soil.  


Bacterial strains PsF84 and PsF610 were isolated from tannery sludge polluted soil, Jajmau, Kanpur, India. 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the taxonomic affiliation of PsF84 as Pseudomonas monteilii and PsF610 as Pseudomonas plecoglossicida. A greenhouse study was carried out with rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolenscv. bourbon) grown in soil treated with tannery sludge in different proportions viz. soil: sludge ratio of 100:0, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 0:100 to evaluate the effects of bacterial inoculation on the heavy metal uptake. The isolates solubilized inorganic phosphorus and were capable of producing indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore. The isolate PsF84 increased the dry biomass of shoot by 44%, root by 48%, essential oil yield 43% and chlorophyll by 31% respectively over uninoculated control. The corresponding increase with the isolate PsF610 were 38%, 40%, 39% and 28%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies reveal that the Cr(VI) accumulation resulted in breakdown of vascular bundles and sequesters Cr(VI) in roots. The glandular trichomes (GT) were investigated using SEM studies as these glands are probably the main site of essential oil synthesis. Owing to its wide action spectrum, these isolates could serve as an effective metal sequestering and bioinoculants due to the production of IAA, siderophore and solubilization of phosphate for geranium in metal-stressed soil. The present study has provided a new insight into the phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soil. PMID:25194330

Dharni, Seema; Srivastava, Atul Kumar; Samad, Abdul; Patra, Dharani Dhar



Substrate Acidification by Geranium (Pelargonium x Hortorum) II: Light Effects and Phosphorus Uptake  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sudden pH decline (SPD) describes the situation where crops growing at an appropriate pH, suddenly (1-2 weeks) cause the substrate pH to shift downward one to two units. ‘Designer Dark Red’ geraniums (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey) were grown in three experiments to test the effects of light on SPD...


Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of leaf essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér.), which is used in traditional Tunisian folk medicine for the treatment of hyperglycaemia, is widely known as one of the medicinal herbs with the highest antioxidant activity. The present paper is conducted to test the hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities of the leaf essential oil of P. graveolens. Methods The essential oil P. graveolens was administered daily and orally to the rats at two doses of 75?mg/kg and 150?mg/kg body weight (b.w.) for 30?days. The chemical composition of P. graveolens essential oil, body weight, serum glucose, hepatic glycogen, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), the components of hepatic, and renal and serum antioxidant systems were evaluated. The hypoglycemic effect of rose-scented geranium was compared to that of the known anti-diabetic drug glibenclamide (600??g/kg b.w.). Results After the administration of two doses of essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. together with glibenclamide which is known by its antidiabetic activities and used as reference (600??g/kg b.w.), for four weeks, the serum glucose significantly decreased and antioxidant perturbations were restored. The hypoglycemic effect of P. graveolens at the dose of 150?mg/kg b.w. was significantly (pgeranium oils were confirmed. Conclusions It suggests that administration of essential oil of P. graveolens may be helpful in the prevention of diabetic complications associated with oxidative stress. Our results, therefore, suggest that the rose-scented geranium could be used as a safe alternative antihyperglycemic drug for diabetic patients. PMID:22734822



Substrate Acidification by Geranium (Pelargonium x Hortorum) I: Temperature Effects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sudden pH decline (SPD) describes the situation where crops growing at an appropriate pH, suddenly (1-2 weeks) cause the substrate pH to shift downward one to two units. ‘Designer Dark Red’ Geraniums were grown in three experiments to test the effects of temperature on SPD. The first experiment te...


Susceptibility of Geranium Cultivars (Pelargonium spp.) to Ralstonia solanacearum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sixty-one cultivars of geraniums including zonal, regal, ivy, and scented were tested for susceptibility to three strains of Ralstonia solanacearum: a Race 1 Biovar 1 (R1B1) strain P597 isolated from tomato in Florida, a R1B1 strain P673 obtained from pothos originating in Costa Rica, and a Race 3 B...


Fungus gnat (Bradysia impatiens) feeding and mechanical wounding inhibit Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A series of laboratory tests were conducted to investigate potential effects of fungus gnat (Bradysia impatiens) feeding damage on susceptibility of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum) to infection by the root rot pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum. Effects were compared to those from similar t...


Induction of high-frequency somatic embryogenesis in geranium ( Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey cv Ringo Rose) cotyledonary cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cv Ringo Rose of hybrid seed geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey), previously shown to be recalcitrant in culture, produced somatic embryos when cotyledonary explants were cultured on regeneration medium containing thidiazuron (TDZ), forchlorfenuron (CPPU), or a combination of indole-3-acetic acid and N6 benzylaminopurine (IAA+BAP). Amendment of the basal medium with TDZ (0.5 µM) was the most effective treatment. Addition

B. N. S. Murthy; R. P. Singh; Praveen K. Saxena



Induction of high-frequency somatic embryogenesis in geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey cv Ringo Rose) cotyledonary cultures.  


The cv Ringo Rose of hybrid seed geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey), previously shown to be recalcitrant in culture, produced somatic embryos when cotyledonary explants were cultured on regeneration medium containing thidiazuron (TDZ), forchlorfenuron (CPPU), or a combination of indole-3-acetic acid and N(6) benzylaminopurine (IAA+BAP). Amendment of the basal medium with TDZ (0.5 ?M) was the most effective treatment. Addition of amino acids to the medium promoted the growth of somatic embryos. Retention of the proximal region of the cotyledon was crucial for regeneration, but the removal of the distal 1/3 to 1/2 cotyledon had no significant effect on somatic embryogenesis. Cotyledonary explants formed somatic embryos in higher frequency and much earlier than hypocotyl explants cultured on the same medium. The somatic embryos induced on cotyledonary explants were germinated on basal medium. More than 70% of the somatic embryos were converted into plants and transferred to soil. PMID:24178422

Murthy, B N; Singh, R P; Saxena, P K




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Zonal geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum) and scented geranium (Pelargonium spp) together are among of the top-selling floriculture plants in the US today, with several hundred cultivars and species available each year. With such diversity in appearances, growth habits, and developmental traits, we h...


How Does Geranium (Pelargonium) Respond To Specific Nutrient Deficiencies? A Visual Primer For Grower Diagnosis And Correction  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genus Pelargonium, which is native to south Africa, is the most popular floriculture crop because of its use as a bedding plant, potted crop, or in hanging baskets (USDA Ag Statistics, 2004). In spite of their popularity and diversity, only the most general nutritional guidelines are available ...


Effect of Phosphorus Deficiency and High Temperature on Ammonium and Nitrate Uptake by Geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cause of sudden substrate pH decline by geranium is unknown and may be due to a shift in cation-anion balance. Nitrogen plays a very important role in cation-anion balance since it accounts for over 50% of the mineral ions that will cross the plasma membrane and is the only mineral nutrient tha...


Fumigant antitermitic activity of plant essential oils and components from Ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ), Allspice ( Pimenta dioica ), caraway ( Carum carvi ), dill ( Anethum graveolens ), Geranium ( Pelargonium graveolens ), and Litsea ( Litsea cubeba ) oils against Japanese termite ( Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe).  


Plant essential oils from 26 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against the Japanese termite, Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe, using a fumigation bioassay. Responses varied with source, exposure time, and concentration. Among the essential oils tested, strong insecticidal activity was observed with the essential oils of ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ), allspice ( Pimenta dioica ), caraway ( Carum carvi ), dill ( Anethum graveolens ), geranium ( Pelargonium graveolens ), and litsea ( Litsea cubeba ). The composition of six essential oils was identified by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The compounds thus identified were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against Japanese termites. Responses varied in a dose-dependent manner for each compound. Phenol compounds exhibited the strongest insecticidal activity among the test compounds; furthermore, alcohol and aldehyde groups were more toxic than hydrocarbons. The essential oils and compounds described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for termite control. PMID:19722567

Seo, Seon-Mi; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Chang-Hoon; Shin, Sang-Chul; Park, Il-Kwon



A Rare Excitatory Amino Acid from Flowers of Zonal Geranium responsible for Paralyzing the Japanese Beetle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

e Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) exhibits rapid paralysis after consuming flowers from zonal geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum). Activity-guided fractionations were conducted with polar flower petal extracts from Pelargonium × hortorum cv. Nittany Lion Red, which led to the isolation of a paraly...


Can the Geranium Bronze, Cacyreus marshalli , become a threat for European biodiversity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cacyreus marshalli Butler is an invasive species in many parts of Europe and Mediterranean area. In Europe, its larvae normally feed on pelargoniums.\\u000a We investigated its potential to spread to native Geranium spp. and evaluated the conservation risks that such a shift would pose for both native geraniums and cohabitant butterflies.\\u000a The host plant preferences of the Geranium Bronze were

Ambra Quacchia; Chiara Ferracini; Simona Bonelli; Emilio Balletto; Alberto Alma




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum) is considered to be one of the top-selling floriculture plants, and is highly responsive to increased macro- and micronutrient bioavailability. In spite of its economic importance, there are few nutrient disorder symptoms reported for this species. The lack of nu...


Directional blue light irradiation triggers epidermal cell elongation of abaxial side resulting in inhibition of leaf epinasty in geranium under red light condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant morphogenesis is strongly affected by light quality. We evaluated the effects of localized blue light irradiation from light-emitting diodes (LED) on the leaf shape of geranium plants, which show epinasty under red light conditions. Geranium (Pelargonium zonale Ait.) plants with five or six true leaves were transplanted into a growth chamber containing a metal halide lamp (MH) or a

Naoya Fukuda; Mitsuko Fujita; Yoshitaka Ohta; Sadanori Sase; Shigeo Nishimura; Hiroshi Ezura



Using Leaf Temperature to Detect Pythium Root Rot Stress in Geranium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diagnosis of incipient disease based on visual symptoms of geraniums (Pelargonium × hortorum L. H. Bailey) exposed to water mold pathogens is often difficult, especially when the plants are maintained under optimum growing conditions. Such plants tend to be asymptomatic until late in the infection ...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Early response of geranium plants (Pelargonium x hortorum cv. "Maverick Red") exposed to soil pathogens was assessed by measuring changes in leaf temperature. Differences between air temperature and leaf temperature were noticed 7 days after exposure to pathogens. Differences were greatest between...


Water-Soluble Fertilizer Concentration and pH of a Peat-Based Substrate Affect Growth, Nutrient Uptake, and Chlorosis of Container-Grown Seed Geraniums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of water-soluble fertilizer concentration (WSF) and substrate-pH on growth, foliar nutrient content, and chlorosis of seed geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum) “Ringo Scarlet.” Geraniums were grown for 21 days in a 70% peat-30% perlite substrate. Experiment 1 included four pre-plant lime rates (pH 3.8, 4.3, 4.8, and 5.5), and plants were irrigated using 1X, 2X,

Brandon R. Smith; Paul R. Fisher; William R. Argo



Topical hemostatic effect of a common ornamental plant, the geraniaceae Pelargonium zonale.  


Geranium has been traditionally used as a local hemostatic medicine in some Andean regions, but this effect has not been tested in controlled experiments. In the present report, the leaves of a geraniaceae (Pelargonium zonale) were tested on a bleeding rat model. The bleeding time was 50% shorter in the geranium leaf juice treatment group (18.10 +/- 2.03 min) and 80% shorter in the geranium crushed-leaf group (7.10 +/- 0.88 min) than in the control (nontreatment) group (37.6 +/- 3.04 min), p < 0.0001. Bleeding time with guava (Psidium guajava) crushed leaves (39.90 +/- 1.54 min) was not different from the control group. A proved hemostatic agent, gelatin sponge, had a similar effect as geranium juice (16.7 +/- 3.32 min) in the same animal model. A buffer solution at pH 3 (the same pH as the geranium leaf extract) did not have any hemostatic effect, and the bleeding time (39.3 +/- 2.71 min) was not different from the control group. The dilution 1:4 geranium leaf juice at pH 3(25.6 +/- 3.08 min) or pH 5 (28.8 +/- 3.98 min) still had a statistically significant hemostatic effect. The results confirm the hemostatic effect of P. zonale leaves and show that it is similar (geranium leaf juice) or better (crushed geranium leaves) than the hemostatic effect of a commercial hemostatic sponge. It seems that the hemostasis caused by P. zonale extract leaves is not due to its low pH. The potential benefits as a new, inexpensive, safe, and easily available natural topical hemostatic agent are discussed. PMID:12638398

Páez, Ximena; Hernández, Luis



Hybridization experiments in Geranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybridization experiments were carried out with species of Geranium sect. Anemonifolia, sect. Lucida, sect. Pyrenaica and sect. Ruberta. All 9 species tested proved to be self-compatible. Of the 13 interspecific combinations tested only two were successful (G. brutium X G. molle and G. purpureum X G. robertianum) but both hybrids were completely sterile. It is concluded that at least the

J. Chr. Loon



Identification and Quantification of Dimethylamylamine in Geranium by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

A sensitive and reliable method of liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/ MS) was developed and validated for determining 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) and 1,4-dimethylamylamine (1,4-DMAA) in geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). The sample was extracted with 0.5 M HCl and purified by liquid-liquid partition with hexane. The parameters for reverse-phase (C18) LC and positive ESI/MS/MS were optimized. The matrix effect, specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy and reproducibility of the method were determined and evaluated. The method was linear over a range of 0.10–10.00 ng/mL examined, with R2 of 0.99 for both 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-DMAA. The recoveries from spiked concentrations between 5.00–40.00 ng/g were 85.1%–104.9% for 1,3-DMAA, with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.9%–11.0%, and 82.9%–101.8% for 1,4-DMAA, with RSD of 3.2%–11.7%. The instrument detection limit was 1–2 pg for both DMAAs. The quantification limit was estimated to be 1–2 ng/g for the plant sample. This method was successfully applied to the quantitative determination of 1,3- and 1,4-DMAA in both geranium plant and geranium oil. PMID:22915838

Li, J.S.; Chen, M.; Li, Z.C.



The chemotaxonomy of Geranium ( Geraniaceae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships amongGeranium species constituting sectt.Anemonifolia, Lucida (monotypic) andRuberta together with representatives of sect.Unguiculata were investigated by gas-chromatographic study of essential oils, electrophoretic comparison of seed proteins and chromatographic separation of nectar amino acids. — Essential oil study gave little information.G. macrorrhizum (sect.Unguiculata) had far greater quantities of essential oils in its foliage than other species and differed from them qualitatively.

Peter F. Yeo; Helen Widler-Kiefer



Intercropping of aromatic crop Pelargonium graveolens with Solanum tuberosum for better productivity and soil health.  


Farmers in hilly regions experience low production potential and resource use efficiency due to low valued crops and poorsoil health. Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.) is a vegetatively propagated initially slow growing, high value aromatic crop. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is also vegetatively propagated high demand cash crop. A field experiment was carried out in temperate climate to investigate the influence of geranium intercropping at different row strips (1:1 and 1:2) and plant density (60 x 45, 75 x 45 and 90 x 45 cm) with potato intercrop on biomass, oil yield, monetary advantage and soil quality parameters. The row spacing 60x45cm and row strip 1:1 was found to be superior and produced 92 t ha(-1) and 14 kg ha(-1) biomass and oil yield, respectively. The row strip 1:2 intercrop earned a maximum $2107, followed by $1862 with row strip 1:1 at 60 x 45 cm plant density. Significant variations were noticed in soil organic carbon (Corg), total N (Nt), available nutrients, soil microbial biomass (Cmic) and nitrogen (Nmic) content. Maximum improvement of Corg (41.0%) and Nt (27.5%)with row strip 1:1 at 75 x 45 cm plant density. While higher soil respiration rate, Cmic, Nmic, and qCO2 was found with 1:2 row strip at 60 x 45 plant density. The buildup of Corg and Cmic potato intercrop can promote long term sustainability on productivity and soil health. PMID:25522521

Vermal, Rajesh Kumar; Yadav, Ajai; Verma, Ram Swaroop; Khan, Khushboo



Fertilization and colors of plastic mulch affect biomass and essential oil of sweet-scented geranium.  


Sweet-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér), a plant belonging to the Geraniaceae family, has medicinal and aromatic properties and is widely used in the cosmetic, soap, perfume, aromatherapy, and food industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fertilization and the use of different colors of plastic mulch on sweet-scented geranium biomass and essential oil. Three colors of plastic mulch (black, white, and silver-colored) and a control without plastic mulch were assessed along with three fertilizers (20,000 L · ha(-1) of cattle manure; 1,000 kg · ha(-1) of NPK 3-12-6; and 20,000 L · ha(-1) of cattle manure + 1,000 kg · ha(-1) of NPK 3-12-6 fertilizer) and a control without fertilizer. The absence of a soil cover negatively influenced the agronomical variables, while coverage with plastic mulch was associated with increased biomass. The use of fertilizer had no effect on the evaluated agronomic variables. When cattle manure and NPK 3-12-6 were used together, combined with white or black plastic mulch, the highest yields of essential oil were obtained. For the silver-colored plastic mulch, higher amounts of essential oil (6,9-guaiadien) were obtained with mineral fertilizer. PMID:24757440

Silva, Anderson de Carvalho; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; dos Santos, Wallace Melo; Prata, Paloma Santana; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima



Fertilization and Colors of Plastic Mulch Affect Biomass and Essential Oil of Sweet-Scented Geranium  

PubMed Central

Sweet-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér), a plant belonging to the Geraniaceae family, has medicinal and aromatic properties and is widely used in the cosmetic, soap, perfume, aromatherapy, and food industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fertilization and the use of different colors of plastic mulch on sweet-scented geranium biomass and essential oil. Three colors of plastic mulch (black, white, and silver-colored) and a control without plastic mulch were assessed along with three fertilizers (20,000?L·ha?1 of cattle manure; 1,000?kg·ha?1 of NPK 3-12-6; and 20,000?L·ha?1 of cattle manure + 1,000?kg·ha?1 of NPK 3-12-6 fertilizer) and a control without fertilizer. The absence of a soil cover negatively influenced the agronomical variables, while coverage with plastic mulch was associated with increased biomass. The use of fertilizer had no effect on the evaluated agronomic variables. When cattle manure and NPK 3-12-6 were used together, combined with white or black plastic mulch, the highest yields of essential oil were obtained. For the silver-colored plastic mulch, higher amounts of essential oil (6,9-guaiadien) were obtained with mineral fertilizer. PMID:24757440

Silva, Anderson de Carvalho; dos Santos, Wallace Melo; Prata, Paloma Santana; Alves, Péricles Barreto



Fungus gnat feeding and mechanical wounding inhibit Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings.  


ABSTRACT A series of laboratory tests were conducted to investigate potential effects of fungus gnat (Bradysia impatiens) feeding damage on susceptibility of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum) to infection by the root rot pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum. Effects were compared with those from similar tests in which the seedlings were mechanically wounded by severing the root tip with a scalpel. Assays of geranium seedlings in petri dishes revealed a pronounced negative fungus gnat-Pythium interaction, with exposure to fungus gnat larvae 24 h prior to inoculation with P. aphanidermatum zoospores resulting in up to 47% fewer seedling deaths than would have been expected if the two agents had acted independently. Similar results were observed when seedlings were subjected to mechanical wounding 24 h prior to zoospore inoculation. In contrast, no interaction occurred when seedlings were mechanically wounded immediately prior to inoculation. The degree of plant damage inflicted by the feeding activities of the larval fungus gnats had no significant effect on the combined damage from fungus gnats and Pythium in petri dishes. Ancillary studies showed that Pythium development on V8 agar was not inhibited by the presence of fungus gnat-associated microorganisms, nor were seedlings inoculated with these microbes less susceptible to Pythium infection. The precise mechaism or mechanisms underlying the observed interactions were not elucidated; however, the results strongly suggest that both fungus gnat feeding and mechanical wounding activated systemic defenses that made the seedlings more resistant to Pythium infection. PMID:19900009

Braun, S E; Sanderson, J P; Nelson, E B; Daughtrey, M L; Wraight, S P



Sonosynthesis of gold nanoparticles from a geranium leaf extract.  


A rapid in situ biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is proposed in which a geranium (Pelargonium zonale) leaf extract was used as a non-toxic reducing and stabilizing agent in a sonocatalysis process based on high-power ultrasound. The synthesis process took only 3.5 min in aqueous solution under ambient conditions. The stability of the nanoparticles was studied by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy with reference to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band. AuNPs have an average lifetime of about 8 weeks at 4 °C in the absence of light. The morphology and crystalline phase of the gold nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The composition of the nanoparticles was evaluated by electron diffraction and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). A total of 80% of the gold nanoparticles obtained in this way have a diameter in the range 8-20 nm, with an average size of 12±3 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated the presence of biomolecules that could be responsible for reducing and capping the biosynthesized gold nanoparticles. A hypothesis concerning the type of organic molecules involved in this process is also given. Experimental design linked to the simplex method was used to optimize the experimental conditions for this green synthesis route. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a high-power ultrasound-based sonocatalytic process and experimental design coupled to a simplex optimization process has been used in the biosynthesis of AuNPs. PMID:24530142

Franco-Romano, M; Gil, M L A; Palacios-Santander, J M; Delgado-Jaén, J J; Naranjo-Rodríguez, I; Hidalgo-Hidalgo de Cisneros, J L; Cubillana-Aguilera, L M



Antibacterial activity of extracts and constituents of Pelargonium sidoides and Pelargonium reniforme.  


The antibacterial activity of extracts and isolated constituents (scopoletin, umckalin, 5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin, 6,8-dihydroxy-5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, (+)-catechin, gallic acid and its methyl ester) of Pelargonium sidoides and Pelargonium reniforme (Geraniaceae), plant species used in folk medicine by the Southern African native population, was evaluated against 8 microorganisms, including 3 Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and beta-hemolytic Streptococcus 1451) and 5 Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) varied with the preparation of the extracts and microorganisms tested, from about 0.6 mg/ml for aqueous phases to over 10 mg/ml for crude Pelargonium extracts. With the exception of the ineffective (+)-catechin, all the potentially active compounds exhibited antibacterial activities with MICs of 200-1000 micrograms/ml. The results provide for a rational basis of the traditional use of the titled Pelargonium species. PMID:9434601

Kayser, O; Kolodziej, H



Pigment chemistry and colour of Pelargonium flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major factors responsible for colour variation in a range of Pelargonium species and cultivars were shown to be the types and relative levels of pigments present. Variations in pH and copigment levels were not found to contribute significantly. Flowers with colours ranging from cream and pink through to deep purple, including salmon, orange and red, were studied. While either

Kevin A. Mitchell; Kenneth R. Markham; Murray R. Boase




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Ornamental Plant Germplasm Center (OPGC) maintains a collection of herbaceous ornamental plants in order to protect future breeders from a loss of genetic diversity. The current Pelargonium collection includes approximately 870 accessions. Our preliminary studies showed that TRAP (Target Regio...


Analysis and Confirmation of 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-DMAA in Geranium Plants Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry at ng/g Concentrations  

PubMed Central

1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) is a stimulant commercially sold in a variety of dietary supplements as a chemical species derived from geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). Whether 1,3-DMAA naturally occurs in geranium plants or other dietary ingredients, it has important regulatory and commercial ramifications. However, the analysis of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants is not trivial due to low concentrations and a complex environmental matrix, requiring high selectivity and sensitivity. An extraction method combined with high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry is used to determine 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-dimethylamylamine (1,4-DMAA) concentrations in geranium plants with both external calibration and standard addition method. Samples from the Changzhou, Kunming, and Guiyang regions of China during both winter and summer were analyzed for 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-DMAA. The diastereomer ratios of the 1,3-DMAA stereoisomers of a racemic standard and the extracted plant were also quantified. PMID:23225994

Fleming, Heather L.; Ranaivo, Patricia L.; Simone, Paul S.



Apertural chambers in Geranium : Development and ultrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen grains ofGeranium robertianum andG. pratense are tricolpate. At the time of the vacuolated microspore stage intine protrusions are formed at each aperture. Each aperture becomes separated from the vegetative cytoplasm by a thick ectintine layer. Starch grains are enclosed in the protrusions and do not participate in pollen tube growth.

Martina Weber



Investigating contact toxicity of Geranium and Artemisia essential oils on Bemisia tabaci Gen.  

PubMed Central

Objective: Sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gen. (B. tabaci), is one of the most important pests of various greenhouse crops in Iran. Nowadays, chemical insecticides are broadly used for control of the pests that causes risk to consumer's health. For the first time, contact toxicity of Pelargonium roseum Andrews and Artemisia sieberi Besser essential oils on B. tabaci and its possible application against the whitefly was evaluated in 2012. Materials and Methods: Essential oil with concentrations of 2500, 1250, 125, and 12 ppm were used. Infested leaves of greenhouse cucumber were treated by mentioned concentrations. After 24 hours, mortality of B. tabaci was recorded and compared after correcting by Abbot's formula. Results: Results showed that all concentrations of the essential oil could significantly reduce population of B. tabaci compared with the control treatment. Phytotoxicity of the treated leaves were recorded after 24, 48, and 72 hours and compared with the control. Concentrations of 2500, 1250, and 125 ppm caused severe phytotoxicity on greenhouse cucumber leaves and therefore are not suitable for greenhouse application. Phytotoxicity of 12 ppm was relatively low. Conclusions: This data implicated suitable protective effects of the essential oils to the pest infestation. Therefore, essential oils distillated from Geranium and Artemisia could be applied to control B. tabaci in greenhouse cucumber at V/V 12 ppm. PMID:25050264

Yarahmadi, Fatemeh; Rajabpour, Ali; Zandi Sohani, Nooshin; Ramezani, Leila



Highly oxygenated coumarins from Pelargonium sidoides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The range of natural simple coumarins is extended by discovery of the highly oxygenated representatives 6,8-dihydroxy-7-methoxycoumarin, 6,7,8-trihydroxycoumarin, 6,8-dihydroxy-5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, and 7-acetoxy-5,6-dimethoxycoumarin. They are accompanied in the roots of Pelargonium sidoides by the widely occurring scopoletin, associated withtthe uncommon analogues 5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin, 7-hydroxy-5,6-dimethoxycoumarin (umckalin), and 5,6,7,8-tetramethoxycoumarin (artelin), these being reported from a plant source for the second time. The structures of these compounds

Oliver Kayser; Herbert Kolodziej



Effect of fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) feeding on subsequent Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dark-winged fungus gnats in the genus Bradysia (Diptera: Sciaridae) and root rot pathogens in the genus Pythium (Oomycetes) are important pests of greenhouse floriculture. Observations have pointed to a possible correlation between Pythium root rot disease and fungus gnat infestations; however, inte...


The effects of selected Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae on growth and water relation of geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum 'cherry glow')  

E-print Network

of the Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science. allowing additional water uptake (23, 52, 54). Water stress may be pre- vented or alleviated in mycorrhisal plants through exploitation of larger volumes of soil, oz by maintaining a soil..., then the mycorrhixal association will become quite important to agriculturally related industries. Consequently, this research proj- ect was established to further elucidate the effects of mycorrhizal fungi on water relations of selected horticultural crops...

Sweatt, Michael Raymond



Menthone and isomenthone biosynthesis in Pelargonium tomentosum Jacq.  


Pelargonium tomentosum was fed with aqueous solutions of different deuterium labelled monoterpenoid precursors. After headspace extraction with solid phase microextraction (SPME) the essential oil was analyzed with enantioselective multidimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (enantio-MDGC/MS). Labelled piperitone with different enantiomeric distributions led to labelled (-)-isomenthone and labelled (+)-menthone in the same ratio as genuine (-)-isomenthone and (+)-menthone. Furthermore, labelled pulegone, piperitenone, piperitole and citronellyl glycopyranoside were investigated. PMID:11958337

Fuchs, S; Montag, V; Mosandl, A



Callus and suspension cultures from Geranium robertianum L (Geraniaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Frieble calli, obtained from petioles ofGeranium roberlianum were used for the production of cell suspension cultures in liquid MS modified medium supplemented with BAP and NAA. Casamino acids were shown to be necessary for suspension cultures establishment With a 15.9×104 cell. ml-1 concentration a td=38.2h was achieved.

L. Pedro; M. J. Sousa; J. M. Novais; M. Salomé S. Pais



Antimicrobial and Antifungal Activity of Pelargonium roseum Essential Oils  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The antiseptic qualities of aromatic and medicinal plants and their extracts have been recognized since antiquity, while attempts to characterize these properties in the laboratory date back the beginning of the XXth century. In the current study essential oils obtained from Pelargonium roseum (Geraniacea) were analyzed for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. Methods: The antimicrobial activity of the Pelargonium essential oil was tested against Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli), Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis) and fungi (Candida albicans). Disc diffusion method was used to study antimicrobial activity. Results: Inhibition zones showed that the studied essential oils were active against all of the studied bacteria. In the case of Candida albicans, the complete inhibition of the fungus’s development was observed. In the cases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus we observed an inhibition comparable to that obtained by the use of an appropriate antimicrobial substance. Conclusion: The volatile oils exhibited considerable inhibitory effects against all the organisms under test, in some cases comparable with those of the reference antibiotics. There were no considerable differences between the antimicrobial activities of the oil obtained by distillation and commercially available Pelargonium oils. PMID:25671182

Carmen, Gâlea; Hancu, Gabriel



The biological activities of cinnamon, geranium and lavender essential oils.  


Acinetobacter sp. represent an important cause of nosocomial infections. Their resistance to some antibiotics, their ability to survive on inanimate surfaces in the hospital environment and their ability to produce biofilms contributes to their virulence. The aim of the study was to determine the antibacterial properties of cinnamon, lavender and geranium essential oils against bacteria of the genus Acinetobacter isolated from several clinical materials and from the hospital environment. A comprehensive evaluation of the susceptibility of Acinetobacter sp. clinical strains to recommended antibiotics was performed. The constituents of cinnamon, lavender and geranium essential oils were identified by GC-FID-MS analysis, and their Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) against tested clinical strains were determined by the micro-dilution broth method. In addition, the effects of essential oils on the viability of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) and glioblastoma cell line (T98G) were evaluated. Cinnamon bark oil was the most active against clinical and environmental strains of Acinetobacter baumannii with MIC values ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 µL/mL. The MIC values for geranium oil were between 7.5 and 9.5 µL/mL, and between 10.5 and 13.0 µL/mL for lavender oil. These essential oils can be best employed in the fight against infections caused by bacteria from Acinetobacter genus as components of formulations for hygiene and disinfection of hospital environment. PMID:25514231

Sienkiewicz, Monika; G?owacka, Anna; Kowalczyk, Edward; Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Anna; Jó?wiak-B?benista, Marta; Lysakowska, Monika




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The PA Department of Agriculture Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratory received geraniums infected with Ralstonia solanacearum Biovar 2, Race 3 (RsB2R3) from three greenhouses in Spring 1999 and two additional greenhouses in Spring 2000. The geranium cultivars originated from propagators in Guatemala ...


Scanning electron microscograph of vessel member from Pelargonium leaf with perforations and pits.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scanning electron microscograph of vessel member from Pelargonium leaf with perforations and pits. Micrograph, courtesy of Professor Peter B. Kaufman and Dr. P Dayanandan, Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Esau, Katherine



Antioxidant activity of Tunisian Geranium robertianum L. (Geraniaceae).  


The present investigation focuses on the methanolic extract obtained from Geranium robertianum L. (Geraniaceae) (Herb Robert), a herbal plant used in traditional medicine for the treatment of human and animal diseases. The antioxidant capacities of the extract were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, ?-carotene/linoleic acid and reducing power and metal chelating activity assays. The amount of total phenolic content, flavonoids and condensed tannins was very high, and the correlation between the antioxidant activity potential and total phenolic level of the extract was pointed out. PMID:23557033

Ben Jemia, Mariem; Aidi Wannes, Wissem; Ouchikh, Olfa; Bruno, Maurizio; Kchouk, Mohamed Elyes




EPA Science Inventory

The study investigated ways in which genetically determined differences in SO2 susceptibility resulting from ecotypic differentiation in Geranium carolinianum were expressed physiologically. The SO2-resistant and SO2-sensitive ecotypes were exposed to a combination of short- and ...


Production of engineered long-life and male sterile Pelargonium plants  

PubMed Central

Background Pelargonium is one of the most popular garden plants in the world. Moreover, it has a considerable economic importance in the ornamental plant market. Conventional cross-breeding strategies have generated a range of cultivars with excellent traits. However, gene transfer via Agrobacterium tumefaciens could be a helpful tool to further improve Pelargonium by enabling the introduction of new genes/traits. We report a simple and reliable protocol for the genetic transformation of Pelargonium spp. and the production of engineered long-life and male sterile Pelargonium zonale plants, using the pSAG12::ipt and PsEND1::barnase chimaeric genes respectively. Results The pSAG12::ipt transgenic plants showed delayed leaf senescence, increased branching and reduced internodal length, as compared to control plants. Leaves and flowers of the pSAG12::ipt plants were reduced in size and displayed a more intense coloration. In the transgenic lines carrying the PsEND1::barnase construct no pollen grains were observed in the modified anther structures, which developed instead of normal anthers. The locules of sterile anthers collapsed 3–4?days prior to floral anthesis and, in most cases, the undeveloped anther tissues underwent necrosis. Conclusion The chimaeric construct pSAG12::ipt can be useful in Pelargonium spp. to delay the senescence process and to modify plant architecture. In addition, the use of engineered male sterile plants would be especially useful to produce environmentally friendly transgenic plants carrying new traits by preventing gene flow between the genetically modified ornamentals and related plant species. These characteristics could be of interest, from a commercial point of view, both for pelargonium producers and consumers. PMID:22935247



First report of Pelargonium zonate spot virus from tomato in the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pelargonium zonate spot virus (PZSV) was first isolated from tomato in southern Italy in 1982, and later was also reported from Spain and France. Infected tomato plants showed stunting, malformation, yellow rings and line patterns on the leaves, and concentric chlorotic ringspots on the stems. In Ju...


Insights into the Selective Pressures Restricting Pelargonium Flower Break Virus Genome Variability: Evidence for Host Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular diversity of Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV) was assessed using a collection of isolates from different geographical origins, hosts, and collecting times. The genomic region examined was 1,828 nucleotides (nt) long and comprised the coding sequences for the movement (p7 and p12) and the coat (CP) proteins, as well as flanking segments including the entire 3 untranslated region

Patricia Rico; Pilar Ivars; Santiago F. Elena; Carmen Hernandez



Measuring and optimising umckalin concentration in wild-harvested and cultivated Pelargonium sidoides (Geraniaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pelargonium sidoides DC. (Geraniaceae) root extracts are used locally and globally as herbal medicines. Subsequently, high levels of wild root harvest in the years preceding this study, to supply international demand for raw materials, prompted this investigation of the prospects for sustainable root harvest through wild collection and greenhouse cultivation. A novel method was developed for the purification of umckalin,

A. G. White; M. T. Davies-Coleman; B. S. Ripley



Overexpression of RoDELLA impacts the height, branching, and flowering behaviour of Pelargonium × domesticum transgenic plants.  


KEY MESSAGE : We reported the cloning of a rose DELLA gene. We obtained transgenic Pelargonium lines overexpressing this gene which presented several phenotypes in plant growth, root growth, flowering time and number of inflorescences. Control of development is an important issue for production of ornamental plant. The plant growth regulator, gibberellins (GAs), plays a pivotal role in regulating plant growth and development. DELLA proteins are nuclear negative regulator of GA signalling. Our objective was to study the role of GA in the plant architecture and in the blooming of ornamentals. We cloned a rose DELLA homologous gene, RoDELLA, and studied its function by genetic transformation of pelargonium. Several transgenic pelargonium (Pelargonium × domesticum 'Autum Haze') lines were produced that ectopically expressed RoDELLA under the control of the 35S promoter. These transgenic plants exhibited a range of phenotypes which could be related to the reduction in GA response. Most of transgenic plants showed reduced growth associated to an increase of the node and branch number. Moreover, overexpression of RoDELLA blocked or delayed flowering in transgenic pelargonium and exhibited defects in the root formation. We demonstrated that pelargonium could be used to validate ornamental gene as the rose DELLA gene. RoDELLA overexpression modified many aspects of plant developmental pathways, as the plant growth, the transition of vegetative to floral stage and the ability of rooting. PMID:22898902

Hamama, L; Naouar, A; Gala, R; Voisine, L; Pierre, S; Jeauffre, J; Cesbron, D; Leplat, F; Foucher, F; Dorion, N; Hibrand-Saint Oyant, L



[Study on morphology of the pollen of 4 species from Geranium in Heilongjiang Province].  


Morphology of the pollen of 4 species from Geranium in Heilongjiang province which are G. wilfordii Maxim., G. sibiricum L., G. platyanthum Duthie. and G. dahuricum DC. were observed with optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. The results showed pollen grains of the four species were nearly spherical, with short clavate-shaped, net-shaped and cave-shaped veins on the outer walls and three short-furrow germ pores. Both the clava size and number of clava per unit surface area were different. This paper provided evidences for palynology classification of Geranium. PMID:12583235

Liu, Juan; Lu, Ye; Shen, Li




EPA Science Inventory

Populations of Geranium carolinianum, winter annual plant common in disturbed habitats vary in their folair response to sulfur dioxide and pollution resistance is characteristic of populations sampled from areas in which SO2 has been a prominent stress. The physiological basis of...


Some observations on the very rapid abscission of the petals of Geranium robertianum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The petals of young flowers ofGeranium robertianum L. start to be shed 2.25 hours after exposure to 20 ppm ethylene whilst controls kept in air take approximately 8 hours longer. The detachment of the petal takes place at its junction with the receptacle. The cells in the region show evidence of cell wall degradation and fracture takes place by

R. Sexton; W. A. Struthers; L. N. Lewis



Effects of belowground grazing by collembola on growth, mycorrhizal infection, and P uptake of Geranium robertianum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesized that the grazing of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) hyphae by soil animals could be responsible for the lack of a direct relationship between mycorrhizal infection intensity and nutrient uptake under field conditions. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effect of a range of densities of the collembola, Folsomia candida, on growth, VAM infection, and P uptake in Geranium

Kathleen K. Harris; R. E. J. Boerner



Leaf shape linked to photosynthetic rates and temperature optima in South African Pelargonium species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal response of gas exchange varies among plant species and with growth conditions. Plants from hot dry climates generally\\u000a reach maximal photosynthetic rates at higher temperatures than species from temperate climates. Likewise, species in these\\u000a environments are predicted to have small leaves with more-dissected shapes. We compared eight species of Pelargonium (Geraniaceae) selected as phylogenetically independent contrasts on leaf

A. B. Nicotra; M. J. Cosgrove; A. Cowling; C. D. Schlichting; C. S. Jones



Shifts in Climate Foster Exceptional Opportunities for Species Radiation: The Case of South African Geraniums  

PubMed Central

Climate change is often assumed to be a major driver of biodiversity loss. However, it can also set the stage for novel diversification in lineages with the evolutionary ability to colonize new environments. Here we tested if the extraordinary evolutionary success of the genus Pelargonium was related to the ability of its species to capitalize on the climate niche variation produced by the historical changes in southern Africa. We evaluated the relationship between rates of climate niche evolution and diversification rates in the main Pelargonium lineages and disentangled the roles of deep and recent historical events in the modification of species niches. Pelargonium clades exhibiting higher ecological differentiation along summer precipitation (SPP) gradients also experienced higher diversification rates. Faster rates of niche differentiation in spatially structured variables, along with lower levels of niche overlap among closely related species, suggest recent modification in species niches (e.g. dispersal or range shift) and niche lability. We suggest that highly structured SPP gradients established during the aridification process within southern Africa, in concert with niche lability and low niche overlap, contributed to species divergence. These factors are likely to be responsible for the extensive diversification of other lineages in this diversity hot spot. PMID:24358250

Martínez-Cabrera, Hugo I.; Peres-Neto, Pedro R.



Photosynthesis, carbon allocation, and growth of sulfur dioxide ecotypes of Geranium carolinianum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study investigated ways in which genetically determined differences in SO2 susceptibility resulting from ecotypic differentiation inGeranium carolinianum were expressed physiologically. The SO2-resistant and SO2-sensitive ecotypes were exposed to a combination of short- and long-term SO2 exposures to evaluate the responses of photosynthesis, H2S efflux from foliage (sulfur detoxification), photoassimilate retention, leaf-diffusive resistance to CO2, and growth. When exposed

G. E. Taylor; D. T. Tingey; C. A. Gunderson



Fertility relationships of Geranium ( Geraniaceae ): sectt. Ruberta, Anemonifolia, Lucida and Unguiculata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-pollinations were carried out among 11 briefly described species ofGeranium. Eight species pairs produced hybrids, of which five had not been reported before. The close relationship ofG. purpureum, G. robertianum andG. rubescens (sect.Ruberta) was confirmed; they form a polyploid series (diploid, tetraploid and octoploid on base x = 16). ForG. canariense (sect.Anemonifolia), another octoploid on base x = 16, the

Helen Widler-Kiefer; Peter F. Yeo



Field demonstration of age dependent increase in lead phytoextraction by Pelargonium cultivar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unnecessary for living organisms, lead (Pb) is one of the major widespread toxic metals found in the environment with potential danger to human health and to ecosystems (Shahid et al. 2012). Lead is known to induce a broad range of toxic effects to living organism, including those that are morphological, physiological and biochemical in origin (Pourrut et al. 2011). A field study was carried out in the vicinity of Pb recycling plant near Toulouse-France, and contaminated by atmospheric fallouts to evaluate lead extraction and uptake efficiency of hyperaccumulater Attar of Roses Pelargonium cultivar. It was found that Attar of Roses has ability to accumulate (8644 mgPb/kg DW plant) and survive on highly contaminated acidic soil (39250 mg kg-1 of total Pb) without any morpho-phytotoxicity symptoms. Moreover Attar showed increased extraction of lead from bulk soil to rhizosphere through Pb mobilization and ultimately increased uptake by roots and translocation to shoots. The studied contaminated soil could be cleaned up in few years by planting hyperaccumulater Attar of Rose for longer time period. Under optimum fertlization, irrigation and use of natural or synthetic chelates (EDTA, LMOWA, humic substances etc.) along with old Attar of rose plants, time requires for complete remediation of contaminated site can be reduced to practically applicable time period. Moreover, the use of Pelargonium for remediation has several additional practical, esthetical and economic advantages. The extraction of value-added essential oils from harvested biomass could offset the cost of deploying phytoremediation and renders it as a viable approach for remediating highly contaminated soils, on large scale. Keywords: metal uptake, Pelargonium, phytoremediation, cultivar, soil-plant transfer and kinetic. References Pourrut, B., Shahid, M., Dumat, C., Winterton, P., Pinelli, E., 2011a. Lead uptake, toxicity and detoxification in plants. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 213, 113-136. Shahid, M., Arshad, M., Kaemmerer, M., Pinelli, E., Probst, A., Baque, D., Pradere, P., Dumat, C., 2012a. Long term field metal extraction by pelargonium: Phytoextraction efficiency in relation with plant maturity. Inter. J. Phytorem. 14, 493-505.

Shahid, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad; Pinelli, Eric; Alric, Alain; Kaemmerer, Michel; Pradere, Philippe; Dumat, Camille



The antibacterial activity of geranium oil against Gram-negative bacteria isolated from difficult-to-heal wounds.  


Hard-to-heal wounds represent a significant problem to patients, health care professionals, and health care system. They can be formed as a result of mechanical injuries and burns, and any co-existing chronic disease increases the risk of their emergence. Diabetics are at a greater risk of developing chronic wounds because of poor circulation, slow healing times, vascular disease and neuropathy. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of geranium oil against Gram-negative bacterial clinical strains. Clinical strains were isolated from patients with difficult-to-treat wounds and a comprehensive evaluation of their sensitivity to antibiotics was carried out. The constituents of geranium oil were specified by GC-FID-MS analysis. The micro-dilution broth method was used to check the inhibition of microbial growth at various concentrations of geranium oil. The tested geranium oil was efficacious against Gram-negative pathogens responsible for problems with wound treatment. The results suggest that geranium oil may be considered an effective component of therapy in the case of frequent recurrences of infections caused by resistant pathogens. PMID:24290961

Sienkiewicz, Monika; Pozna?ska-Kurowska, Katarzyna; Kaszuba, Andrzej; Kowalczyk, Edward




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pelargonium zonate spot virus (PZSV), a new emerging disease on tomato in the United States, has been classified as the first member of new proposed genus, Anulavirus, within the family Bromoviridae and characterized as having unstable virions with weakly immunogenic properties. To develop serologic...


Introduction The greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, feeds on a variety of vegetable and  

E-print Network

and floral crops: pointsettia, cucumber, tomato, lettuce, geraniums, pelargonium, salvia, ageratum, lantana. The mold will interfere with the plant's photosynthetic processes, reduce its vigor and eventually cause

New Hampshire, University of


A field study of lead phytoextraction by various scented Pelargonium cultivars.  


Phytoremediation appears to be a promising technique for metal soil clean up, although its successful application on a large scale still remains a challenge. Field experiments for six scented Pelargonium cultivars, conducted on two Pb-contaminated calcareous and acidic soils, revealed vigorous plant growth, with no symptoms of morpho-phytotoxicity in spite of high Pb accumulation levels. Lead contents in the harvestable parts of all plants grown on the acidic and more contaminated soil were significantly higher than those grown on the calcareous soil. Three cultivars (Attar of Roses, Clorinda and Atomic Snowflake) are Pb-hyperaccumulator plants: they accumulated more than 1,000 mg Pb kg(-1)DW, with high biomass produced. PMID:18355894

Arshad, M; Silvestre, J; Pinelli, E; Kallerhoff, J; Kaemmerer, M; Tarigo, A; Shahid, M; Guiresse, M; Pradere, P; Dumat, C



Chemical composition and hepatotoxic effect of Geranium schiedeanum in a thioacetamide-induced liver injury model  

PubMed Central

One of the major components of some geraniums is geraniin, described by its discoverer as crystallizable tannin, well known as an excellent antioxidant, and also found in fruits such as pomegranate. Recently, natural antioxidants have attracted great attention from consumers over the world due to their lower toxicity than synthetics. But geraniin is not a stable compound, and also is difficult to obtain, that is why in the present study we obtained acetonylgeraniin from Geranium schideanum (Gs), a stable acetone condensate of geraniin. In the present study the effect of Gs acetone-water extract was studied in reference to postnecrotic liver regeneration induced by thioacetamide (TA) in rats. Two months male rats were pretreated with daily dose of Gs extract for 4 days (300 mg/kg) and the last day also were intraperitoneally injected with TA (6.6 mmol/kg). Samples of blood were obtained from rats at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h following TA intoxication. The pre-treatment with the crude extract in the model of thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats decreased and delayed liver injury by 66% at 24 h. This result suggests that Gs extract may be used as an alternative for reduction of liver damage. On the other hand, acute toxicity study revealed that the LD50 value of the Gs extract is more than the dose 5000 mg/kg in rats, according to the Lorke method. PMID:25298677

Gayosso-De-Lucio, Juan; Bautista, Mirandeli; Velazquez-González, C.; De la O Arciniega, M; Morales-González, J.A.; Benedí, Juana



Determination of umckalin in commercial tincture and phytopreparations containing Pelargonium sidoides by HPLC: Comparison of sample preparation procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roots of Pelargonium sidoides D.C. are used for the production of phytomedicines. Current quality control of phytopreparations containing P. sidoides extracts has been made in terms of total phenolics content. In this work we describe the development and validation of an HPLC method for the analysis of P. sidoides tincture and commercial syrup phytopreparations using umckalin (7-hydroxy-5,6-dimethoxycoumarin) as chemical marker.

L. Franco; B. H. de Oliveira



The root extract of the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides is a potent HIV-1 attachment inhibitor.  


Global HIV-1 treatment would benefit greatly from safe herbal medicines with scientifically validated novel anti-HIV-1 activities. The root extract from the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides (PS) is licensed in Germany as the herbal medicine EPs®7630, with numerous clinical trials supporting its safety in humans. Here we provide evidence from multiple cell culture experiments that PS extract displays potent anti-HIV-1 activity. We show that PS extract protects peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages from infection with various X4 and R5 tropic HIV-1 strains, including clinical isolates. Functional studies revealed that the extract from PS has a novel mode-of-action. It interferes directly with viral infectivity and blocks the attachment of HIV-1 particles to target cells, protecting them from virus entry. Analysis of the chemical footprint of anti-HIV activity indicates that HIV-1 inhibition is mediated by multiple polyphenolic compounds with low cytotoxicity and can be separated from other extract components with higher cytotoxicity. Based on our data and its excellent safety profile, we propose that PS extract represents a lead candidate for the development of a scientifically validated herbal medicine for anti-HIV-1 therapy with a mode-of-action different from and complementary to current single-molecule drugs. PMID:24489923

Helfer, Markus; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Schneider, Martha; Rebensburg, Stephanie; Forcisi, Sara; Müller, Constanze; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Schindler, Michael; Brack-Werner, Ruth



The Root Extract of the Medicinal Plant Pelargonium sidoides Is a Potent HIV-1 Attachment Inhibitor  

PubMed Central

Global HIV-1 treatment would benefit greatly from safe herbal medicines with scientifically validated novel anti-HIV-1 activities. The root extract from the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides (PS) is licensed in Germany as the herbal medicine EPs®7630, with numerous clinical trials supporting its safety in humans. Here we provide evidence from multiple cell culture experiments that PS extract displays potent anti-HIV-1 activity. We show that PS extract protects peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages from infection with various X4 and R5 tropic HIV-1 strains, including clinical isolates. Functional studies revealed that the extract from PS has a novel mode-of-action. It interferes directly with viral infectivity and blocks the attachment of HIV-1 particles to target cells, protecting them from virus entry. Analysis of the chemical footprint of anti-HIV activity indicates that HIV-1 inhibition is mediated by multiple polyphenolic compounds with low cytotoxicity and can be separated from other extract components with higher cytotoxicity. Based on our data and its excellent safety profile, we propose that PS extract represents a lead candidate for the development of a scientifically validated herbal medicine for anti-HIV-1 therapy with a mode-of-action different from and complementary to current single-molecule drugs. PMID:24489923

Helfer, Markus; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Schneider, Martha; Rebensburg, Stephanie; Forcisi, Sara; Müller, Constanze; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Schindler, Michael; Brack-Werner, Ruth



Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the volatile oils of Geranium sanguineum L. and G . robertianum L. (Geraniaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract  Volatile compounds of Geranium sanguineum and G. robertianum were isolated by hydrodistillation, analyzed in detail by GC and GC\\/MS and screened for their in vitro antibacterial and\\u000a antifungal activity in a microdilution assay. In total, 304 constituents were identified, representing more than 90% of the\\u000a isolated oils. The volatiles of G. sanguineum have been studied for the first time in

Niko Radulovi?; Milan Deki?; Zorica Stojanovi?-Radi?


Nitric oxide synthase and cytokines gene expression analyses in Leishmania-infected RAW 264.7 cells treated with an extract of Pelargonium sidoides (Eps ® 7630)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modern aqueous-ethanolic formulation of the roots of Pelargonium sidoides (Eps® 7630), elaborated from the traditional herbal medicine used in areas of southern Africa, is effectively employed for the treatment of ENT and respiratory tract infections in modern phytotherapy. Previous studies have demonstrated antibacterial and immunomodulatory activities. To gain insight into the mode of action at the molecular level, gene

W. Trun; A. F. Kiderlen; H. Kolodziej



Combinations of Fungicides with Phylloplane Yeasts for Improved Control of Botrytis cinerea on Geranium Seedlings.  


ABSTRACT Control of Botrytis cinerea on geranium seedlings was evaluated in treatments with phylloplane yeasts in combination with 10 fungicides used to manage Botrytis blight of ornamental plants. Rhodotorula glutinis PM4 significantly reduced the development of lesions caused by B. cinerea on geranium cotyledons; however, yeast biocontrol efficacy was highly variable between trials. Treatment with the yeast in combination with azoxystrobin or trifloxystrobin at one tenth the labeled rate (7.5 mug a.i. ml(-1)) or the full labeled rate (7.5 mug a.i. ml(-1)) reduced lesion development, compared to treatment with the yeast or the fungicide alone. Vinclozolin at half the labeled rate or the full labeled rate (250 or 500 mug a.i. ml(-1)), in combination with R. glutinis PM4, significantly reduced the development of lesions caused by an isolate of B. cinerea resistant to vinclozolin. Copper hydroxide and iprodione at one-tenth the labeled rates, with or without yeast, were highly effective in limiting lesion development. Mancozeb did not increase the biocontrol efficacy of the yeast, and thiophanate-methyl negatively affected the yeast efficacy. Improved disease control was observed in treatments with vinclozolin at the labeled rate and R. glutinis PM4 at cell densities of 5 x 10(5) and 1 x 10(6) cells ml(-1), but not 1 x 10(5) cells ml(-1), on seedlings co-inoculated with B. cinerea in a suspension containing 1 x 10(5) conidia ml(-1). Disease control improved in treatments with combinations of vinclozolin and eight other isolates of R. glutinis, two isolates of R. graminis, and two isolates of R. mucilaginosa. Biocontrol was not observed in treatments with two isolates of R. minuta. The combination of yeast and vinclozolin significantly reduced the germination of conidia of B. cinerea and the growth of R. glutinis PM4 in vitro. All combinations of R. glutinis PM4 with azoxystrobin, trifloxystrobin, or vinclozolin provided highly effective and consistent disease control not observed in treatments with the fungicides alone or the yeast alone. PMID:18943543

Buck, J W



Casparian bands occur in the periderm of Pelargonium hortorum stem and root  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Casparian bands are characteristic of the endodermis and exodermis of roots, but also occur infrequently in other plant organs, for example stems and leaves. To date, these structures have not been detected in phellem cells of a periderm. The aim of this study was to determine whether Casparian bands occur in phellem cells using tests that are known to detect Casparian bands in cells that also contain suberin lamellae. Both natural periderm and wound-induced structures were examined in shoots and roots. Methods Using Pelargonium hortorum as a candidate species, the following tests were conducted: (1) staining with berberine and counterstaining with aniline blue, (2) mounting sections in concentrated sulphuric acid and (3) investigating the permeability of the walls with berberine as an apoplastic, fluorescent tracer. Key Results (1) Berberine–aniline blue staining revealed a modification in the radial and transverse walls of mature phellem cells in both stems and roots. Three days after wounding through to the cortex of stems, the boundary zone cells (pre-existing, living cells nearest the wound) had developed vividly stained primary walls. By 17 d, staining of mature phellem cells of wound-induced periderm was similar to that of natural periderm. (2) Mature native phellem cells of stems resisted acid digestion. (3) Berberine was excluded from the anticlinal (radial and transverse) walls of mature phellem cells in stems and roots, and from the wound-induced boundary zone. Conclusions Casparian bands are present in mature phellem cells in both stems and roots of P. hortorum. It is proposed that Casparian bands act to retard water loss and pathogen entry through the primary cell walls of the phellem cells, thus contributing to the main functions of the periderm. PMID:21239408

Meyer, Chris J.; Peterson, Carol A.



A combined physical and physiological dormancy controls seasonal seedling emergence of Geranium robertianum.  


Temperate forest herbs with seeds exhibiting both a physical and a physiological dormancy mechanism are rare, and knowledge on the factors regulating germination of these species is fragmentary. The biennial Geranium robertianum L. grows mainly in temperate woodlands, but can also be found in exposed habitats. Seedlings of G. robertianum are known to emerge from spring until autumn, but little is known about the environmental factors regulating germination. In this study, phenology of seedling emergence and of physical dormancy loss was examined for seeds buried at shaded or sunny exposed locations. The role of temperature in regulating dormancy and germination was analysed by incubating seeds in temperature sequences simulating temperatures that seeds experience in nature. The results indicate that most seeds of G. robertianum buried in sunny conditions germinate immediately after physical dormancy loss in summer. Seeds buried in shaded conditions also lose physical dormancy mainly during summer, but remain physiologically dormant and do not germinate until late winter or early spring. Besides physical dormancy, seeds of G. robertianum also initially have a high level of physiological dormancy, which is reduced during dry storage. Physiological dormancy is reduced through chilling in winter, thus enabling the seeds to germinate at low temperatures. We conclude that a complex combination of physical and physiological dormancy ensures that G. robertianum seeds germinate in summer at exposed sites and in early spring at shaded sites. PMID:20701699

Vandelook, F; Van Assche, J A



Rose geranium essential oil as a source of new and safe anti-inflammatory drugs  

PubMed Central

Background Since the available anti-inflammatory drugs exert an extensive variety of side effects, the search for new anti-inflammatory agents has been a priority of pharmaceutical industries. Aims The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oil of rose geranium (RGEO). Methods The chemical composition of the RGEO was investigated by gas chromatography. The major components were citronellol (29.13%), geraniol (12.62%), and citronellyl formate (8.06%). In the carrageenan-induced paw edema, five different groups were established and RGEO was administered orally in three different doses. Results RGEO (100 mg/kg) was able to significantly reduce the paw edema with a comparable effect to that observed with diclofenac, the positive control. In addition, RGEO showed a potent anti-inflammatory activity by topical treatment in the method of croton oil-induced ear edema. When the dose was 5 or 10 µl of RGEO per ear, the inflammation was reduced by 73 and 88%, respectively. This is the first report to demonstrate a significant anti-inflammatory activity of Algerian RGEO. In addition, histological analysis confirmed that RGEO inhibited the inflammatory responses in the skin. Conclusion Our results indicate that RGEO may have significant potential for the development of novel anti-inflammatory drugs with improved safety profile. PMID:24103319

Boukhatem, Mohamed Nadjib; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Ferhat, Mohamed Amine; Saidi, Fairouz; Mekarnia, Maamar



Nectar Sugar Production across Floral Phases in the Gynodioecious Protandrous Plant Geranium sylvaticum  

PubMed Central

Many zoophilous plants attract their pollinators by offering nectar as a reward. In gynodioecious plants (i.e. populations are composed of female and hermaphrodite individuals) nectar production has been repeatedly reported to be larger in hermaphrodite compared to female flowers even though nectar production across the different floral phases in dichogamous plants (i.e. plants with time separation of pollen dispersal and stigma receptivity) has rarely been examined. In this study, sugar production in nectar standing crop and secretion rate were investigated in Geranium sylvaticum, a gynodioecious plant species with protandry (i.e. with hermaphrodite flowers releasing their pollen before the stigma is receptive). We found that flowers from hermaphrodites produced more nectar than female flowers in terms of total nectar sugar content. In addition, differences in nectar production among floral phases were found in hermaphrodite flowers but not in female flowers. In hermaphrodite flowers, maximum sugar content coincided with pollen presentation and declined slightly towards the female phase, indicating nectar reabsorption, whereas in female flowers sugar content did not differ between the floral phases. These differences in floral reward are discussed in relation to visitation patterns by pollinators and seed production in this species. PMID:23614053

Varga, Sandra; Nuortila, Carolin; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit



Preliminary HPLC study on some polyphenols of Geranium robertianum L. (Geraniaceae).  


In order to continue our previous studies concerning Geranium robertianum L., herb Robert (Geraniaceae), we have realised a HPLC study of some polyphenols using an original method created by a group of young researchers from the University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Cluj-Napoca. We have identified and measured in the dried Geranii robertiani herba (harvested from Valea Runcului, district of Alba-Iulia) the following compounds: hyperoside (3.64 microg/100 mg), ellagic acid (7599.76 microg/100 mg), isoquercitrin (49.49 microg/100 mg), quercetrin (83.92 microg/100 mg), kaempferols (143.43 microg/100 mg), caftaric acid (166.92 microg/100 mg), rutoside (72.23 microg/100 mg). We have also analysed a hydrolysed sample of the same drug in which we have identified and measured: caffeic acid (6.62 microg/100 mg), ellagic acid (10550.65 microg/100 mg), quercetrin (203.44 microg/100 mg), kaempferols (231.80 microg/100 mg), caftaric acid (47.41 microg/100 mg). We have indirectly proved the presence of ellagic tannins (the amount of ellagic acid increases after acid hydrolise) and the existence of bi- or polycaffeoil derivatives (the caffeic acid is present only in the hydrolysed sample). The flavonoid aglycones exist in both forms: as free compounds and as part of the flavonoid molecules. PMID:16607850

Fodorea, Cristina-Stefania; Vlase, L; Suciu, Simona; T?ma?, M; Leucu?a, S E



Floral dimorphism, pollination, and self-fertilization in gynodioecious GERANIUM RICHARDSONII (Geraniaceae).  


The selective maintenance of gynodioecy depends on the relative fitness of the male-sterile (female) and hermaphroditic morphs. Females may compensate for their loss of male fitness by reallocating resources from male function (pollen production and pollinator attraction) to female function (seeds and fruits), thus increasing seed production. Females may also benefit from their inability to self-fertilize if selfing and inbreeding depression reduce seed quality in hermaphrodites. We investigated how differences in floral resource allocation (flower size) between female and hermaphroditic plants affect two measures of female reproductive success, pollinator visitation and pollen receipt, in gynodioecious populations of Geranium richardsonii in Colorado. Using emasculation treatments in natural populations, we further examined whether selfing by autogamy and geitonogamy comprises a significant proportion of pollen receipt by hermaphrodites. Flowers of female plants are significantly smaller than those of hermaphrodites. The reduction in allocation to pollinator-attracting structures (petals) is correlated with a significant reduction in pollinator visitation to female flowers in artificial arrays. The reduction in attractiveness is further manifested in significantly less pollen being deposited on the stigmas of female flowers in natural populations. Autogamy is rare in these protandrous flowers, and geitonogamy accounts for most of the difference in pollen receipt between hermaphrodites and females. Female success at receiving pollen was negatively frequency dependent on the relative frequency of females in populations. Thus, two of the prerequisites for the maintenance of females in gynodioecious populations, differences in resource allocation between floral morphs and high selfing rates in hermaphrodites, occur in G. richardsonii. PMID:10811790

Williams, C F; Kuchenreuther, M A; Drew, A



Uptake of cadmium by the invasive perennial weeds Ranunculus repens and Geranium robertianum under laboratory conditions.  


The objective of this study was to compare the accumulation and partitioning of cadmium (Cd) in a fibrous versus a tap root weed, Ranunculus repens and Geranium robertianum respectively. To meet this objective, we compared the accumulation by and the partitioning of Cd in R repens versus G. robertianum grown in soils spiked with 0.015 grams of Cd for a period of three weeks. The rate of Cd uptake was also compared by following the fate of 109Cd within the root, stem and leaf of the two weeds. Prior to Cd exposure, leaf and stem of control R. repens contained significantly greater amounts of Cd as compared to G. robertianum, whereas Cd concentrations in roots of the control plants for the two species were not significantly different (p > 0.05, student's t-test). Post Cd exposure the two species contained similar amounts of Cd in leaf and stem, however, roots of R. repens contained almost two-fold the amounts of Cd as compared to G. robertianum. Comparison of k (h(-1), rate of 109Cd uptake) for stem, leaf and root of the two species indicated that G. robertianum accumulated 109Cd over the first 24-48 h at a faster rate as compared to R. repens. For both species and all three organs, maximum accumulation of 109Cd occurred within the first 24-48 h. Our findings indicate that the fate of Cd within these two species is quite different with the fibrous root of R. repens serving to accumulate and store Cd whereas in G. robertianum, Cd is rapidly taken up and tends to be accumulated within its leaf. PMID:12094937

O'Keeffe, Juliette; Bendell-Young, L I



EPs7630(®) from Pelargonium sidoides increases stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans probably via the DAF-16/FOXO pathway.  


EPs7630(®) a water alcohol extract of the roots from Pelargonium sidoides contains several secondary metabolites including highly oxygenated coumarins, various phenolics and polyphenols. Using the DPPH assay to measure antioxidant activity a free radical scavenging activity of 14.7±0.85?g/ml (IC50) was determined. As an in vivo model Caenorhabditis elegans was applied to study the effect of EPs7630(®) on stress resistance. EPs7630(®) treatment reduces intracellular hsp-16.2::GFP expression (induced by the pro-oxidant juglone) indicating that the secondary metabolites of EPs7630(®) are bioavailable and exhibit antioxidant activities in vivo. Application of EPs7630(®) (50?g/ml) to the transgenic mutant TJ356 induced the migration of the transcription factor DAF-16 from cytosol to the nucleus, suggesting a prominent role of DAF-16/FOXO in the daf-2 pathway for stress resistance. PMID:24252337

Rezaizadehnajafi, Leila; Wink, Michael



Within-plant distribution of twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), on ivy geranium: development of a presence-absence sampling plan.  


The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is an important pest of ivy geranium and other ornamental plants. As a part of our long-term goal to develop an integrated crop management program for ivy geraniums, the focus of this study was to produce a reliable sampling method for T. urticae on this bedding plant. Within-plant mite distribution data from a greenhouse experiment were used to identify the young-fully-opened leaf as the sampling unit. We found that 53% of the mites on a plant are on the young-fully-opened leaves. On average 22, 37, and 41% of the leaves belonged to the young, young-fully-opened, and old leaf categories, respectively. We then developed a presence-absence sampling method for T. urticae in ivy geranium using generic Taylor's coefficients for this pest. We found the optimal binomial sample sizes for estimating populations of T. urticae at densities of between 0 and 3 mites/leaf to be quite large; therefore, we recommend the use of numerical sampling within this range of T. urticae densities. We also suggest that population estimates of T. urticae on ivy geranium be done based on mite density/unit area of greenhouse space, both for conventional greenhouse pest management, and for determining how many phytoseid predators to release when using biological control. PMID:14994819

Opit, G P; Margolies, D C; Nechols, J R



Synorganisation without organ fusion in the flowers of Geranium robertianum (Geraniaceae) and its not so trivial obdiplostemony  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Synorganisation of floral organs, an important means in angiosperm flower evolution, is mostly realized by congenital or post-genital organ fusion. Intimate synorganisation of many floral organs without fusion, as present in Geranium robertianum, is poorly known and needs to be studied. Obdiplostemony, the seemingly reversed position of two stamen whorls, widely distributed in core eudicots, has been the subject of much attention, but there is confusion in the literature. Obdiplostemony occurs in Geranium and whether and how it is involved in this synorganisation is explored here. Methods Floral development and architecture were studied with light microscopy based on microtome section series and with scanning electron microscopy. Key Results Intimate synorganisation of floral organs is effected by the formation of five separate nectar canals for the proboscis of pollinators. Each nectar canal is formed by six adjacent organs from four organ whorls. In addition, the sepals are hooked together by the formation of longitudinal ribs and grooves, and provide a firm scaffold for the canals. Obdiplostemony provides a guide rail within each canal formed by the flanks of the antepetalous stamen filaments. Conclusions Intimate synorganisation in flowers can be realized without any fusion, and obdiplostemony may play a role in this synorganisation. PMID:20802050

Endress, Peter K.



Defensive strategies in Geranium sylvaticum. Part 1: organ-specific distribution of water-soluble tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids.  


A combination of high-resolution mass spectrometry and modern HPLC column technology, assisted by diode array detection, was used for accurate characterization of water-soluble polyphenolic compounds in the pistils, stamens, petals, sepals, stems, leaves, roots and seeds of Geranium sylvaticum. The organs contained a large variety of polyphenols, five types of tannins (ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, gallotannins, galloyl glucoses and galloyl quinic acids) as well as flavonoids and simple phenolic acids. In all, 59 compounds were identified. Geraniin and other ellagitannins dominated in all the green photosynthetic organs. The other organs seem to produce distinctive polyphenol groups: pistils accumulated gallotannins; petals acetylglucose derivatives of galloylglucoses; stamens kaempferol glycosides, and seeds and roots accumulated proanthocyanidins. The intra-plant distribution of the different polyphenol groups may reflect the different functions and importance of various types of tannins as the defensive chemicals against herbivory. PMID:23790750

Tuominen, Anu; Toivonen, Eija; Mutikainen, Pia; Salminen, Juha-Pekka



Antibacterial activity and composition of essential oils from Pelargonium graveolens L'Her and Vitex agnus-castus L  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Essential oils are volatile compounds that have been used since Middle Ages as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, sedative, local anesthetic and food flavoring agents. In the current study, essential oils of Pelargonium graveolens L'Her and Vitex agnus-castus L. were analyzed for their antibacterial activities. Materials and Methods The chemical compositions of essential oils were characterized by GC-MS. Disc diffusion method was used to study antimicrobial activity. Results and Conclusion Inhibition zones showed that the essential oils of the two plants were active against all of the studied bacteria (except Listeria monocytogenes). The susceptibility of the strains changed with the dilution of essential oils in DMSO. The pure essential oils showed the most extensive inhibition zones and they were very effective antimicrobial compounds compared to chloramphenicol and amoxicillin. The most susceptible strain against these two essential oils was Staphylococcus aureus. It seems that ?-citronellol is a prominent part of P. graveolens volatile oil and caryophyllene oxide is a famous and important part of V. agnus-castus volatile oil and their probable synergistic effect with other constituents are responsible for the antibacterial effects of these oils. However further studies must be performed to confirm the safety of these oils for use as antimicrobial agents and natural preservatives in different products. PMID:23205247

Ghannadi, A; Bagherinejad, MR; Abedi, D; Jalali, M; Absalan, B; Sadeghi, N



Determination of umckalin in commercial tincture and phytopreparations containing Pelargonium sidoides by HPLC: comparison of sample preparation procedures.  


Roots of Pelargonium sidoides D.C. are used for the production of phytomedicines. Current quality control of phytopreparations containing P. sidoides extracts has been made in terms of total phenolics content. In this work we describe the development and validation of an HPLC method for the analysis of P. sidoides tincture and commercial syrup phytopreparations using umckalin (7-hydroxy-5,6-dimethoxycoumarin) as chemical marker. Two sample preparation procedures, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) were also developed and compared. The samples were analyzed by RP-HPLC and the two methods were then validated and compared. The repeatability of the two procedures showed coefficients of variation (CV) of 1.2% for SPE procedure, and 1.3% for LLE. Recovery for both methods was higher than 95.2%. The linearity showed correlation coefficients better than 0.999 for both methods. The detection and quantification limit were 0.0098 and 0.0298microgmL(-1), respectively. The validated procedure was then used for the analysis of tincture and five batches of two commercial phytopreparations containing P. sidoides tincture. PMID:20441909

Franco, L; de Oliveira, B H



The comparative effect of novel Pelargonium essential oils and their corresponding hydrosols as antimicrobial agents in a model food system.  


Essential oils and their corresponding hydrosols, obtained after distillation of various scented Pelargonium (Geraniaceae) leaves were assessed for their antimicrobial activity in a model food system. Both the essential oils and hydrosols were used at 1000 ppm in broccoli soup, previously inoculated with Enterobacter aerogenes (at 10(5) cfu g(-1)) and Staphylococcus aureus (at 10(4) cfu g(-1)). The results showed a complete inhibition of S. aureus in the broccoli soup by the essential oils of 'Sweet Mimosa', 'Mabel Grey', P. graveolens, 'Atomic Snowflake', 'Royal Oak', 'Attar of Roses' and a lesser effect by 'Chocolate Peppermint' and 'Clorinda'; the hydrosols, however, had a potentiating effect on the bacterial population in the food. Both extracts showed a complete inhibition of S. aureus in the Maximum Recovery Diluent (MRD). Antibacterial activity against E. aerogenes in the broccoli soup was generally very much reduced: only the essential oil of 'Mabel Grey' showed complete inhibition and virtually no reductions in colonies were seen with the other essential oils; the hydrosols again caused an increase in bacterial colonies. All the essential oils, bar Chocolate Peppermint showed complete inhibition of E. aerogenes in MRD, but the hydrosols showed no effect. The results strongly suggest that the residual hydrosols from distillation of these plant essential oils have no potential as antibacterial agents in foods, in contrast to most of the essential oils, which show potential against some micro-organisms, but only in some food systems. The problem of food component interference and its possible management is discussed. PMID:12557249

Lis-Balchin, M; Steyrl, H; Krenn, E



Biophysical studies of interaction between hydrolysable tannins isolated from Oenothera gigas and Geranium sanguineum with human serum albumin.  


Tannins, secondary plant metabolites, possess diverse biological activities and can interact with biopolymers such as lipids or proteins. Interactions between tannins and proteins depend on the structures of both and can result in changes in protein structure and activity. Because human serum albumin is the most abundant protein in plasma and responsible for interactions with important biological compounds (e.g. bilirubin) and proper blood pressure, therefore, it is very important to investigate reactions between HSA and tannins. This paper describes the interaction between human serum albumin (HSA) and two tannins: bihexahydroxydiphenoyl-trigalloylglucose (BDTG) and 1-O-galloyl-4,6-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-?-d-glucose (OG?DG), isolated from Geranium sanguineum and Oenothera gigas leafs, respectively. Optical (spectrofluorimetric) and chiral optical (circular dichroism) methods were used in this study. Fluorescence analysis demonstrated that OG?DG quenched HSA fluorescence more strongly than BDTG. Both OG?DG and BDTG formed complexes with albumin and caused a red shift of the fluorescence spectra but did not significantly change the protein secondary structure. Our studies clearly demonstrate that the tested tannins interact very strongly with human serum albumin (quenching constant K=88,277.26±407.04 M(-1) and K=55,552.67±583.07 M(-1) respectively for OG?DG and BDTG) in a manner depending on their chemical structure. PMID:25456986

Sekowski, Szymon; Ionov, Maksim; Kaszuba, Mateusz; Mavlyanov, Saidmukhtar; Bryszewska, Maria; Zamaraeva, Maria



Evaluation of Geranium spp., Helleborus spp. and Hyssopus spp. polyphenolic extracts inhibitory activity against urease and ?-chymotrypsin.  


This study was meant to determine the inhibitory activity of tannins and flavonoid compounds from Geranium robertianum, Helleborus purpurascens and Hyssopus officinale plant polyphenol rich extracts against urease and ?-chymotrypsin. The G. robertianum, H. purpurascens and H. officinale extracts were purified and concentrated by microfiltration and ultrafiltration. Phenolic compounds including flavonoids and tannins have been linked to many pharmacological activities. Thus, the polyphenolic content of the extracts was assessed by UV-Vis spectroscopy and HPLC. The concentrated extracts enriched in polyphenolic compounds (flavonoids, tannins and phenolic acids) showed a significant inhibition against urease from jack bean (over 90%), whereas in case of the ?-chymotrypsin, they proved to have an inhibition below 54%. The results of this support the use of G. robertianum, H. purpurascens and H. officinale polyphenolic extracts as potential sources of urease inhibitors. Among the three plant extracts tested, H. officinale polyphenolic extracts exhibited a high inhibitory activity (92.67%) against urease and low inhibition (19.6%) against ?-chymotrypsin and could be considered as possible remedy in ulcer treatment. PMID:23317419

Paun, Gabriela; Litescu, Simona Carmen; Neagu, Elena; Tache, Andreia; Lucian Radu, Gabriel




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum) is considered to be one of the top-selling floriculture plants, but there are few nutrient disorder symptoms reported for this species. The lack of nutritional information for geranium during growth and development and subsequent inability to identify specific visu...


"MitoTea": Geranium robertianum L. decoctions decrease blood glucose levels and improve liver mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats.  


Several chemical compounds found in plant products have proven to possess beneficial properties, being currently pointed out due to their pharmacological potential in type 2 diabetes mellitus complications. In this context, we studied the effect of Geranium robertianum L. (herb Robert) leaf decoctions in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a model of type 2 diabetes. Our results showed that oral administration of G. robertianum leaf decoctions over a period of four weeks lowered the plasma glucose levels in diabetic rats. Furthermore, the treatment with G. robertianum extracts improved liver mitochondrial respiratory parameters (state 3, state 4 and FCCP-stimulated respiration) and increased oxidative phosphorylation efficiency. PMID:21046015

Ferreira, Fernanda M; Peixoto, Francisco; Nunes, Elsa; Sena, Cristina; Seiça, Raquel; Santos, Maria Sancha



Acquisition of physical dormancy and ontogeny of the micropyle–water-gap complex in developing seeds of Geranium carolinianum (Geraniaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The ‘hinged valve gap’ has been previously identified as the initial site of water entry (i.e. water gap) in physically dormant (PY) seeds of Geranium carolinianum (Geraniaceae). However, neither the ontogeny of the hinged valve gap nor acquisition of PY by seeds of Geraniaceae has been studied previously. The aims of the present study were to investigate the physiological events related to acquisition of PY and the ontogeny of the hinged valve gap and seed coat of G. carolinianum. Methods Seeds of G. carolinianum were studied from the ovule stage until dispersal. The developmental stages of acquisition of germinability, physiological maturity and PY were determined by seed measurement, germination and imbibition experiments using intact seeds and isolated embryos of both fresh and slow-dried seeds. Ontogeny of the seed coat and water gap was studied using light microscopy. Key Results Developing seeds achieved germinability, physiological maturity and PY on days 9, 14 and 20 after pollination (DAP), respectively. The critical moisture content of seeds on acquisition of PY was 11 %. Slow-drying caused the stage of acquisition of PY to shift from 20 to 13 DAP. Greater extent of cell division and differentiation at the micropyle, water gap and chalaza than at the rest of the seed coat resulted in particular anatomical features. Palisade and subpalisade cells of varying forms developed in these sites. A clear demarcation between the water gap and micropyle is not evident due to their close proximity. Conclusions Acquisition of PY in seeds of G. carolinianum occurs after physiological maturity and is triggered by maturation drying. The micropyle and water gap cannot be considered as two separate entities, and thus it is more appropriate to consider them together as a ‘micropyle–water-gap complex’. PMID:21546433

Gama-Arachchige, N. S.; Baskin, J. M.; Geneve, R. L.; Baskin, C. C.



Defensive strategies in Geranium sylvaticum, Part 2: Roles of water-soluble tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids against natural enemies.  


Geranium sylvaticum is a common herbaceous plant in Fennoscandia, which has a unique phenolic composition. Ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, galloylglucoses, gallotannins, galloyl quinic acids and flavonoids possess variable distribution in its different organs. These phenolic compounds are thought to have an important role in plant-herbivore interactions. The aim of this study was to quantify these different water-soluble phenolic compounds and measure the biological activity of the eight organs of G. sylvaticum. Compounds were characterized and quantified using HPLC-DAD/MS, in addition, total proanthocyanidins were determined by BuOH-HCl assay and total phenolics by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Two in vitro biological activity measurements were used: the prooxidant activity was measured by the browning assay and antioxidant activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Organ extracts were fractionated using column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and the activities of fractions was similarly measured to evaluate which polyphenol groups contributed the most to the biological activity of each organ. The data on the activity of fractions were examined by multivariate data analysis. The water-soluble extracts of leaves and pistils, which contained over 30% of the dry weight as ellagitannins, showed the highest pro-oxidant activity among the organ extracts. Fraction analysis revealed that flavonoids and galloyl quinic acids also exhibited high pro-oxidant activity. In contrast, the most antioxidant active organ extracts were those of the main roots and hairy roots that contained high amounts of proanthocyanidins in addition to ellagitannins. Analysis of the fractions showed that especially ellagitannins and galloyl quinic acids have high antioxidant activity. We conclude that G. sylvaticum allocates a significant amount of tannins in those plant parts that are important to the fitness of the plant and susceptible to natural enemies, i.e. pistil and leaf tannins protect against insect herbivores and root tannins against soil pathogens. PMID:24050514

Tuominen, Anu



Chemical characterization (GC/MS and NMR Fingerprinting) and bioactivities of South-African Pelargonium capitatum (L.) L'?Her. (Geraniaceae) essential oil.  


Chemical fingerprinting of commercial Pelargonium capitatum (Geraniaceae) essential oil samples of south African origin was performed by GC, GC/MS, and (13) C- and (1) H-NMR. Thirty-seven compounds were identified, among which citronellol (32.71%) and geraniol (19.58%) were the most abundant. NMR Spectra of characteristic chemicals were provided. Broad-spectrum bioactivity properties of the oil were evaluated and compared with those of commercial Thymus vulgaris essential oil with the aim to obtain a functional profile in terms of efficacy and safety. P. capitatum essential oil provides a good performance as antimicrobial, with particular efficacy against Candida albicans strains. Antifungal activity performed against dermatophyte and phytopathogen strains revealed the latter as more sensitive, while antibacterial activity was not remarkable against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. P. capitatum oil provided a lower antioxidant activity (IC(50) ) than that expressed by thyme essential oil, both in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ?-carotene bleaching tests. Results in photochemiluminescence (PCL) assay were negligible. To test the safety aspects of P. capitatum essential oil, mutagenic and toxicity properties were assayed by Ames test, with and without metabolic activation. Possible efficacy of P. capitatum essential oil as mutagenic protective agent against NaN(3) , 2-nitrofluorene, and 2-aminoanthracene was also assayed, providing interesting and significant antigenotoxic properties. PMID:21480508

Guerrini, Alessandra; Rossi, Damiano; Paganetto, Guglielmo; Tognolini, Massimiliano; Muzzoli, Mariavittoria; Romagnoli, Carlo; Antognoni, Fabiana; Vertuani, Silvia; Medici, Alessandro; Bruni, Alessandro; Useli, Chiara; Tamburini, Elena; Bruni, Renato; Sacchetti, Gianni



A membrane-associated movement protein of Pelargonium flower break virus shows RNA-binding activity and contains a biologically relevant leucine zipper-like motif.  


Two small viral proteins (DGBp1 and DGBp2) have been proposed to act in a concerted manner to aid intra- and intercellular trafficking of carmoviruses though the distribution of functions and mode of action of each protein partner are not yet clear. Here we have confirmed the requirement of the DGBps of Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV), p7 and p12, for pathogen movement. Studies focused on p12 have shown that it associates to cellular membranes, which is in accordance to its hydrophobic profile and to that reported for several homologs. However, peculiarities that distinguish p12 from other DGBps2 have been found. Firstly, it contains a leucine zipper-like motif which is essential for virus infectivity in plants. Secondly, it has an unusually long and basic N-terminal region that confers RNA binding activity. The results suggest that PFBV p12 may differ mechanistically from related proteins and possible roles of PFBV DGBps are discussed. PMID:21444100

Martínez-Turiño, Sandra; Hernández, Carmen



Nitric oxide synthase and cytokines gene expression analyses in Leishmania-infected RAW 264.7 cells treated with an extract of Pelargonium sidoides (Eps 7630).  


A modern aqueous-ethanolic formulation of the roots of Pelargonium sidoides (Eps 7630), elaborated from the traditional herbal medicine used in areas of southern Africa, is effectively employed for the treatment of ENT and respiratory tract infections in modern phytotherapy. Previous studies have demonstrated antibacterial and immunomodulatory activities. To gain insight into the mode of action at the molecular level, gene expression analyses for the inducible nitric oxide synthase and the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1, IL-12, IL-18, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interferon (IFN)-alpha, and IFN-gamma, were performed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The experiments were carried out in parallel in non-infected and in Leishmania major-infected RAW 264.7 cells and the expression profiles were compared with those mediated by IFN-gamma+LPS. Eps 7630 induced low mRNA levels in non-infected cells, and it considerably up-regulated the transcript expressions in parasitised cells. Interestingly, and in contrast to activation by IFN-gamma+LPS, Eps 7630 also stimulated infected cells to produce IFN-gamma mRNA. A similar expression profile was observed for the methanol-insoluble fraction (MIF) of Eps 7630 and gallic acid, a trace constituent of the extract, while the methanol-soluble fraction and umckalin, an exclusive and representative member of the occurring coumarins, proved to be devoid of any remarkable gene-inducing capabilities. The present results provide not only convincing support for the improvement of immune functions as previously demonstrated in functional bioassays, but also evidence for activation at the transcriptional level and suggest that the underlying inducing principle is located in the MIF. PMID:16920512

Trun, W; Kiderlen, A F; Kolodziej, H



An internal ribosome entry site directs translation of the 3'-gene from Pelargonium flower break virus genomic RNA: implications for infectivity.  


Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV, genus Carmovirus) has a single-stranded positive-sense genomic RNA (gRNA) which contains five ORFs. The two 5'-proximal ORFs encode the replicases, two internal ORFs encode movement proteins, and the 3'-proximal ORF encodes a polypeptide (p37) which plays a dual role as capsid protein and as suppressor of RNA silencing. Like other members of family Tombusviridae, carmoviruses express ORFs that are not 5'-proximal from subgenomic RNAs. However, in one case, corresponding to Hisbiscus chlorotic ringspot virus, it has been reported that the 3'-proximal gene can be translated from the gRNA through an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Here we show that PFBV also holds an IRES that mediates production of p37 from the gRNA, raising the question of whether this translation strategy may be conserved in the genus. The PFBV IRES was functional both in vitro and in vivo and either in the viral context or when inserted into synthetic bicistronic constructs. Through deletion and mutagenesis studies we have found that the IRES is contained within a 80 nt segment and have identified some structural traits that influence IRES function. Interestingly, mutations that diminish IRES activity strongly reduced the infectivity of the virus while the progress of the infection was favoured by mutations potentiating such activity. These results support the biological significance of the IRES-driven p37 translation and suggest that production of the silencing suppressor from the gRNA might allow the virus to early counteract the defence response of the host, thus facilitating pathogen multiplication and spread. PMID:21818349

Fernández-Miragall, Olga; Hernández, Carmen



Treatment of rats with the Pelargonium sidoides extract EPs 7630 has no effect on blood coagulation parameters or on the pharmacokinetics of warfarin.  


Umckaloabo is a herbal drug for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. It contains an aqueous ethanolic extract from roots of Pelargonium sidoides DC (EPs) 7630) as the active ingredient. Polymeric polyphenols and coumarins have been identified as the principal ingredients of EPs 7630. In view of the coumarin content, it has been suggested that the administration of Umckaloabo could possibly be associated with an increased risk of bleeding. This study, therefore, investigated whether a change in blood coagulation parameters or an interaction with coumarin-type anticoagulants occurred after administration of EPs 7630 to rats. No effect on thromboplastin time (TPT), partial TPT (PTPT) or thrombin time (TT) was observed after oral administration of EPs 7630 (10, 75, 500 mg/kg) for 2 weeks, while treatment with warfarin (0.05 mg/kg) for the same period resulted in significant changes in TPT and PTPT. If EPs 7630 (500 mg/kg) and warfarin (0.05 mg/kg) were given concomitantly, the anticoagulant action of warfarin was not influenced. Similarly, the pharmacokinetics of warfarin were unchanged after pre-treatment with EPs 7630 for 2 weeks. Coumarin-type anticoagulants inhibit the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors via an identical mechanism in rat and man, and have a similar pattern of metabolism in both species. Moreover, as the coumarins so far identified in EPs 7630 do not posses the structural characteristics needed for anticoagulant activity, it appears unlikely that an increased tendency to haemorrhage arises in patients after intake of Umckaloabo. PMID:17188479

Koch, E; Biber, A



Patterns of genetic diversity reveal multiple introductions and recurrent founder effects during range expansion in invasive populations of Geranium carolinianum (Geraniaceae).  


Genetic diversity, and thus the adaptive potential of invasive populations, is largely based on three factors: patterns of genetic diversity in the species' native range, the number and location of introductions and the number of founding individuals per introduction. Specifically, reductions in genetic diversity ('founder effects') should be stronger for species with low within-population diversity in their native range and few introductions of few individuals to the invasive range. We test these predictions with Geranium carolinianum, a winter annual herb native to North America and invasive in China. We measure the extent of founder effects using allozymes and microsatellites, and ask whether this is consistent with its colonization history and patterns of diversity in the native range. In the native range, genetic diversity is higher and structure is lower than expected based on life history traits. In China, our results provide evidence for multiple introductions near Nanjing, Jiangsu province, with subsequent range expansion to the west and south. Patterns of genetic diversity across China reveal weak founder effects that are driven largely by low-diversity populations at the expansion front, away from the introduction location. This suggests that reduced diversity in China has resulted from successive founder events during range expansion, and that the loss of genetic diversity in the Nanjing area was mitigated by multiple introductions from diverse source populations. This has implications for the future of G. carolinianum in China, as continued gene flow among populations should eventually increase genetic diversity within the more recently founded populations. PMID:24346497

Shirk, R Y; Hamrick, J L; Zhang, C; Qiang, S



Evaluation of the antifungal activity of Zataria multiflora, Geranium herbarium, and Eucalyptus camaldolensis essential oils on Saprolegnia parasitica-infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs.  


The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and assess the capability of Zataria multiflora, Geranium herbarium, and Eucalyptus camaldolensis essential oils in treating Saprolegnia parasitica-infected rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) trout eggs. A total of 150 infected eggs were collected and plated on glucose-pepton agar at 24°C for 2 weeks. The antifungal assay of essential oils against S. parasitica was determined by a macrodilution broth technique. The eggs were treated with essential oils at concentrations of 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 ppm daily with three repetitions until the eyed eggs stage. Of 150 eggs examined, S. parasitica (54.3%), Saprolegnia spp. (45%), and Fusarium solani (0.7%) were isolated. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of Z. multiflora, E. camaldolensis, and G. herbarium essential oils against S. parasitica were 0.9, 2.3, and 4.8 ppm, respectively. Zataria multiflora and E. camaldolensis at concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 ppm, and G. herbarium at concentration of 100 ppm had significant differences in comparison with negative control (p<0.05). The results revealed that malachite green, followed by Z. multiflora, E. camaldolensis, and G. herbarium treated eggs had remained the most number of final eyed eggs after treatment. The highest final larvae rates belonged to malachite green, E. camaldolensis, Z. multiflora, and G. herbarium, respectively. The most hatching rates were recorded with malachite green (22%), and then Z. multiflora (11%), E. camaldolensis (7%), G. herbarium (3%), and negative control (1%). Zataria multiflora and E. camaldolensis were more effective than G. herbarium for the treatment of S. parasitica-infected rainbow trout eggs in aquaculture environment. PMID:22690761

Khosravi, Ali Reza; Shokri, Hojjatollah; Sharifrohani, Mostafa; Mousavi, Hosseinali Ebrahimzadeh; Moosavi, Zahra



Quantitative analysis of the thermal requirements for stepwise physical dormancy-break in seeds of the winter annual Geranium carolinianum (Geraniaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Physical dormancy (PY)-break in some annual plant species is a two-step process controlled by two different temperature and/or moisture regimes. The thermal time model has been used to quantify PY-break in several species of Fabaceae, but not to describe stepwise PY-break. The primary aims of this study were to quantify the thermal requirement for sensitivity induction by developing a thermal time model and to propose a mechanism for stepwise PY-breaking in the winter annual Geranium carolinianum. Methods Seeds of G. carolinianum were stored under dry conditions at different constant and alternating temperatures to induce sensitivity (step I). Sensitivity induction was analysed based on the thermal time approach using the Gompertz function. The effect of temperature on step II was studied by incubating sensitive seeds at low temperatures. Scanning electron microscopy, penetrometer techniques, and different humidity levels and temperatures were used to explain the mechanism of stepwise PY-break. Key Results The base temperature (Tb) for sensitivity induction was 17·2 °C and constant for all seed fractions of the population. Thermal time for sensitivity induction during step I in the PY-breaking process agreed with the three-parameter Gompertz model. Step II (PY-break) did not agree with the thermal time concept. Q10 values for the rate of sensitivity induction and PY-break were between 2·0 and 3·5 and between 0·02 and 0·1, respectively. The force required to separate the water gap palisade layer from the sub-palisade layer was significantly reduced after sensitivity induction. Conclusions Step I and step II in PY-breaking of G. carolinianum are controlled by chemical and physical processes, respectively. This study indicates the feasibility of applying the developed thermal time model to predict or manipulate sensitivity induction in seeds with two-step PY-breaking processes. The model is the first and most detailed one yet developed for sensitivity induction in PY-break. PMID:23456728

Gama-Arachchige, N. S.; Baskin, J. M.; Geneve, R. L.; Baskin, C. C.



Elevated CO2 affects plant responses to variation in boron availability  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Effects of elevated CO2 on N relations are well studied, but effects on other nutrients, especially micronutrients, are not. We investigated effects of elevated CO2 on response to variation in boron (B) availability in three unrelated species: geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum), barley (Hordeum vulga...


Nitrogen Availability in Fresh and Aged Douglas Fir Bark  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to determine if there are growth differences in geranium (Pelargonium ×hortorum Bailey 'Maverick Red') produced in either fresh or aged Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco] bark (DFB). A second objective was to document nitrogen immobilization and deco...


Container Medium pH in a Pine Tree Substrate Amended with Peatmoss and Dolomitic Limestone Affects Plant Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was conducted to evaluate the effect of limestone additions to pine tree substrate (PTS) and PTS amended with peatmoss on pH and plant growth. 'Inca Gold' marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) and 'Rocky Mountain White' geranium (Pelargonium ·hortorum L.H. Bailey) were grown in three PTSs—100% PTS, PTS plus 25% peatmoss (v\\/v), and PTS plus 50% peatmoss (v\\/v)—made from freshly

Brian E. Jackson


Antibacterial effect of some essential oils administered alone or in combination with Norfloxacin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was that of verifying a possible synergistic antibacterial effect between Pelargonium graveolens [Lis-Balchin, M., Deans, S.G., Hart, S., 1996. Bioactive Geranium oils from different commercial sources. J. Essential Oil Res. 8, 281–290.] essential oil (and its main components) and Norfloxacin antibiotic.As a first step growth inhibition by some types of essential oils was assessed

Antonio Rosato; Cesare Vitali; Nicolino De Laurentis; Domenico Armenise; Maria Antonietta Milillo



A Rapid Method for Isolating Glandular Trichomes  

PubMed Central

A physical method is described for the rapid isolation of plant trichomes, with emphasis on stalked glandular types. The technique involved breaking frozen trichomes with powdered dry ice and collection of glandular heads by sieving from larger tissue fragments. This method was applied to several plants that bear similar stalked trichomes: geranium (Pelargonium), potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), squash (Cucurbita pepo), and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti). The tissue preparation was of sufficient quality without further purification for biochemical and molecular studies. The preparation maintained the biochemical integrity of the trichomes for active enzymes and usable nucleic acids. A large quantity of tissue can be harvested; for example, 351 milligrams dry weight of glandular trichomes were harvested from geranium pedicels in 12 hours. The utility of the technique was demonstrated by examining the fatty acid composition of tall glandular trichomes of geraniums, Pelargonium ×hortorum L.H. Bailey. These purified cells contained high concentrations of unusual ?5-unsaturated fatty acids, proportionally 23.4% of total fatty acids in the trichomes. When the trichomes were removed, the supporting tissue contained no ?5-fatty acids, thereby unequivocally localizing ?5-fatty acids to the trichomes. Because ?5-fatty acids are unique precursors for the biosynthesis of ?5-anacardic acids, we conclude that anacardic acid synthesis must occur in the glandular trichomes. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:16668834

Yerger, Ellen H.; Grazzini, Richard A.; Hesk, David; Cox-Foster, Diana L.; Craig, Richard; Mumma, Ralph O.



Foliar biofilms of Burkholderia pyrrocinia FP62 on geraniums  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biofilm formation on foliar surfaces is commonly associated with plants in water-saturated environments (e.g. tropics or modified environments). On most leaf surfaces bacteria are thought to reside in aggregates with limited production of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) matrix. However, the biocontrol ag...


Could 1,3 dimethylamylamine (DMAA) in food supplements have a natural origin?  


1,3 dimethylamylamine or methylexaneamine (DMAA) is a synthetic pharmaceutical patented in the 1940s as a nasal decongestant which can be used as a recreational stimulant. Alleged to occur in nature, DMAA has become a widely used ingredient in sports food supplements, despite its status as a doping agent and concerns over its safety. There is now some doubt as to whether it can be sourced naturally or whether it actually occurs naturally at all. The presence of DMAA was investigated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in extracts of the leaves and stems of four geranium species and of three well-known cultivars. The amounts of DMAA in commercial geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) oil and the leading sports supplement which uses the ingredient were also measured. DMAA was not found in any of the leaves or stems or in the commercial geranium oil included in this study. Approximately 30 mg per daily dose was found in the food supplement. Therefore, the amount of DMAA found in the supplement is most unlikely to have been sourced in nature, and it must be concluded that synthetic DMAA, known to be capable of causing severe adverse physiological effects, has been added. PMID:22941904

Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Moro, Enzo; Dos Santos, Ariana; Uberti, Francesca; Restani, Patrizia



Laser Monitoring Of Phytoextraction Enhancement Of Lead Contaminated Soil Adopting EDTA And EDDS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Removal of heavy metals (HMs) such as Pb from soil, wastewater, and air is essential for environment and human health. Phytoremediation is a well established technology based on the use of certain green plants for contaminants removal from soil, wastewater as well as air. Scented geranium, Pelargonium zonal, is a flowering plant recently used in HMs removal from contaminated soil. In the present work, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and EDDS (S, S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid) were used as chemical assistants providing higher Pb availability for extraction by plant roots. Lead was artificially added to the planting media, peatmoss, at different concentrations. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to follow up Pb relative concentrations in peatmoss as well as plant shoots, at different sampling times during the experiment period. Laser induced chlorophyll fluorescence (LICF), has been also used to evaluate chlorophyll formation and photosynthetic apparatus status in geranium plants. Such measurements were performed on geranium plants grown under various Pb levels, as well as EDTA and EDDS combinations. The combined effect of EDTA and EDDS was found to enhance Pb extraction with time. Good correlation was found between LICF results and chlorophyll (a) (Chl.a) concentrations in plant tissues extracted by chemical analysis.

Hassan, M.; Abdelhamied, M.; Hanafy, A. H.; Fantoni, R.; Harith, M. A.



Light absorption by isolated chloroplasts and leaves: effects of scattering and 'packing'.  


Light absorption was quantified in the following systems: isolated chloroplasts and leaves of spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.), a mutant of geranium (Pelargonium zonale L.) widely differing in pigment content, and coleus (Coleus blumei Benth.) at different stages of leaf ontogenesis. For these species and pea (Pisum sativum L.), scattering-compensated absorption spectra of chloroplast suspensions are presented. Comparison of leaf and chloroplast spectra showed considerable changes in the extent of the 'package' effect and the lengthening of the effective optical path in a leaf. The difference between leaf and isolated chloroplast absorption could be quantitatively described by adapting Duysens's treatment of flattening. It was found that the accumulation of chlorophyll in leaves is accompanied by a monotonous enhancement of the package effect. The results are discussed with special reference to the role of light scattering in leaf optics, light utilization in photosynthesis and wavelength-dependent light gradients in a leaf. PMID:19672688

Merzlyak, Mark N; Chivkunova, Olga B; Zhigalova, Tatiana V; Naqvi, K Razi



Evaluating companion planting and non-host masking odors for protecting roses from the Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).  


Effectiveness of companion planting, and use of nonhost masking odors were evaluated under field conditions for protecting roses against the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman. Three reputedly effective companion species, rue (Ruta graveolens L.), zonal geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey), and garlic chives (Allium scheonparum L.) were interplanted with roses in replicated garden plots. Numbers of beetles on these roses were compared with rose-only control plots on 6 d during beetle flight. The masking odor hypothesis was tested by hanging mesh bags of aromatic herbs or other sources of reputedly repellent nonhost volatiles around potted roses in the field. Treatments included crushed red pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.), fennel seeds (Foeniculm vulgare Miller), crushed spearmint (Mentha picata L.), cedar shavings (Juniperus sp.), osage orange fruits (Maclura pomifera (Raif) Schneid.), and fleshy gingko seeds (Gingko biloba L.). No treatment significantly reduced numbers of beetles relative to the controls. Interplanting with geraniums significantly increased numbers of Japanese beetles on roses. Similarly, roses surrounded by sachets with fennel seeds, cedar shavings, crushed red pepper, or osage orange fruits had significantly more beetles than the control plants on two or more sample dates. Our results suggest that the use of companion or reputedly repellent plants or plant odors probably will be ineffective for protecting roses or other highly-susceptible ornamentals from P. japonica. Use of such tactics in an effort to discourage other garden pests might even increase Japanese beetle damage in those plantings. PMID:12650348

Held, D W; Gonsiska, P; Potter, D A



Boron Stress and Boron Tissue Distribution in Arbidopsis thaliana and Pelargonium X Hortorum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The micronutrient boron is essential for plant growth and development. Deficient or excessive levels of this micronutrient result in the formation of growth defects that reduce yield in crop plants and result in discarding of horticultural plants. To study the responses of plants to altered boron ...


Floral Dimorphism, Pollination, and Self-Fertilization in Gynodioecious Geranium richardsonii (Geraniaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selective maintenance of gynodioecy depends on the relative fitness of the male-sterile (female) and hermaphroditic morphs. Females may compensate for their loss of male fitness by reallocating resources from male function (pollen pro- duction and pollinator attraction) to female function (seeds and fruits), thus increasing seed production. Females may also benefit from their inability to self-fertilize if selfing and

Charles F. Williams; Margaret A. Kuchenreuther; Allison Drew



Effect of clove oil on plant pathogenic bacteria and bacterial wilt of tomato and geranium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We determined the antibacterial activity of clove oil against seven different genera of plant pathogenic bacteria including Gram-negative Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Erwinia carotovora pv. carotovora, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. pelargonii...


American Journal of Botany 87(5): 661669. 2000. FLORAL DIMORPHISM, POLLINATION, AND  

E-print Network

-FERTILIZATION IN GYNODIOECIOUS GERANIUM RICHARDSONII (GERANIACEAE)1 CHARLES F. WILLIAMS,2,5,6 MARGARET A. KUCHENREUTHER,3: floral dimorphism; frequency-dependent selection; geitonogamy; Geraniaceae; Geranium richardsonii reproductive success, pollinator visitation and pollen receipt, in gynodioecious populations of Geranium

Williams, Charles F. "Rick"


Modified atmosphere treatments as a potential disinfestation technique for arthropod pests in greenhouses.  


Incidental transport of arthropods on plant material can be a significant mode of pest entry into greenhouses. We evaluated the use of controlled atmosphere treatments as a potential way to eliminate arthropod pests on plant propagules (i.e., cuttings or small rooted plants). Lethal exposures to CO2 or N2 were determined for common greenhouse pests including fungus gnat larvae, Bradysia sp.; green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer); sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia sp.; twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch; and western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande). We also studied the effect of pest species, life stage, and presence or absence of plants on efficacy of modified atmosphere treatments. Finally, effects of modified atmospheres on plant quality were evaluated for several bedding plant species including begonia, Begonia semperflorens-cultorum Hort. 'Cocktail Series', chrysanthemum, Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev., geranium, Pelargonium X hortorum L.H. Bailey, and impatiens, Impatiens wallerana Hook f., and among cultivars of geranium and chrysanthemum. Exposure for 12-18 h to >99% N2 or CO2 caused complete mortality of aphids, mites, thrips, and whiteflies. Fungus gnat larvae were more tolerant of hypoxic conditions. Adult mites and eggs were equally susceptible. For most pests, there was no difference in response to atmospheres modified by CO2 or N2. However, there was variation in response among plant species and cultivars, with effects ranging from delayed flowering to mortality. Despite the possibility of adverse effects on some plants, this work indicates that use of modified atmospheres has potential to eliminate arthropod pests on plant propagules before they are introduced into greenhouses. PMID:11332835

Held, D W; Potter, D A; Gates, R S; Anderson, R G



Multiple major increases and decreases in mitochondrial substitution rates in the plant family Geraniaceae  

PubMed Central

Background Rates of synonymous nucleotide substitutions are, in general, exceptionally low in plant mitochondrial genomes, several times lower than in chloroplast genomes, 10–20 times lower than in plant nuclear genomes, and 50–100 times lower than in many animal mitochondrial genomes. Several cases of moderate variation in mitochondrial substitution rates have been reported in plants, but these mostly involve correlated changes in chloroplast and/or nuclear substitution rates and are therefore thought to reflect whole-organism forces rather than ones impinging directly on the mitochondrial mutation rate. Only a single case of extensive, mitochondrial-specific rate changes has been described, in the angiosperm genus Plantago. Results We explored a second potential case of highly accelerated mitochondrial sequence evolution in plants. This case was first suggested by relatively poor hybridization of mitochondrial gene probes to DNA of Pelargonium hortorum (the common geranium). We found that all eight mitochondrial genes sequenced from P. hortorum are exceptionally divergent, whereas chloroplast and nuclear divergence is unexceptional in P. hortorum. Two mitochondrial genes were sequenced from a broad range of taxa of variable relatedness to P. hortorum, and absolute rates of mitochondrial synonymous substitutions were calculated on each branch of a phylogenetic tree of these taxa. We infer one major, ~10-fold increase in the mitochondrial synonymous substitution rate at the base of the Pelargonium family Geraniaceae, and a subsequent ~10-fold rate increase early in the evolution of Pelargonium. We also infer several moderate to major rate decreases following these initial rate increases, such that the mitochondrial substitution rate has returned to normally low levels in many members of the Geraniaceae. Finally, we find unusually little RNA editing of Geraniaceae mitochondrial genes, suggesting high levels of retroprocessing in their history. Conclusion The existence of major, mitochondrial-specific changes in rates of synonymous substitutions in the Geraniaceae implies major and reversible underlying changes in the mitochondrial mutation rate in this family. Together with the recent report of a similar pattern of rate heterogeneity in Plantago, these findings indicate that the mitochondrial mutation rate is a more plastic character in plants than previously realized. Many molecular factors could be responsible for these dramatic changes in the mitochondrial mutation rate, including nuclear gene mutations affecting the fidelity and efficacy of mitochondrial DNA replication and/or repair and – consistent with the lack of RNA editing – exceptionally high levels of "mutagenic" retroprocessing. That the mitochondrial mutation rate has returned to normally low levels in many Geraniaceae raises the possibility that, akin to the ephemerality of mutator strains in bacteria, selection favors a low mutation rate in plant mitochondria. PMID:16368004

Parkinson, Christopher L; Mower, Jeffrey P; Qiu, Yin-Long; Shirk, Andrew J; Song, Keming; Young, Nelson D; dePamphilis, Claude W; Palmer, Jeffrey D



Molecular fate of thidiazuron and its effects on auxin transport in hypocotyls tissues of Pelargonium?×?hortorum Bailey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thidiazuron, a synthetic phenylurea-type cytokinin, has previously beenfound to induce somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis in a wide range ofplantspecies and to modulate the metabolism of endogenous auxins and cytokinins. Inspite of these findings, the precise mode of action of TDZ remainsundetermined.The current studies were undertaken to determine the fate of the TDZ moleculeand the effects of TDZ exposure on auxin

Susan J. Murch; Praveen K. Saxena



Laboratory evaluation of aromatic essential oils from thirteen plant species as candidate repellents against Leptotrombidium chiggers (Acari: Trombiculidae), the vector of scrub typhus.  


Scrub typhus, a rickettsial disease transmitted by several species of Leptotrombidium chiggers (larvae), is endemic in many areas of Asia. The disease is best prevented by the use of personal protective measures, including repellents. In this study commercially produced aromatic, essential oils of 13 plant species and ethanol (control) were tested in the laboratory for repellency against host-seeking chiggers of Leptotrombidium imphalum Vercammen-Grandjean and Langston (Acari: Trombiculidae). A rapid, simple and economic in vitro test method was used by exposing the chigger for up to 5 min. Repellency was based on relative percentages of chiggers attracted to test and control substances. Four of the 13 essential oils showed promise as effective repellent against L. imphalum chiggers. Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oil exhibited 100% repellency at 5% concentration (dilution with absolute ethanol), whereas Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil exhibited 100% repellency at 40% concentration. Undiluted oils of Zingiber cassamunar (plai) and Eucalyptus globules (blue gum) exhibited 100% repellency. Of the remaining nine essential oils, only 100% Pelargonium graveolens (geranium) exhibited >50% repellency (viz. 57%). Styrax torkinensis (benzoin) oil did not exhibit any repellency. These findings show that several aromatic, essential oils of plants may be useful as chigger repellent for the prevention of scrub typhus. Syzygium aromaticum oil may be safer and more economical to prevent chigger attacks than commercially available synthetic chemicals, such as DEET that may have harmful side effects. PMID:19009361

Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yoolek, Adisak; Kongkaew, Wittaya; Lerdthusnee, Kriangkrai; Khlaimanee, Nittaya; Parsartvit, Anchana; Malainual, Nat; Yong, Hoi-Sen



Identification and characterization of the water gap in physically dormant seeds of Geraniaceae, with special reference to Geranium carolinianum  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Physical dormancy in seeds of species of Geraniaceae is caused by a water-impermeable palisade layer in the outer integument of the seed coat and a closed chalaza. The chalazal cleft has been reported to be the water gap (i.e. location of initial water entry) in innately permeable seeds of Geraniaceae. The primary aim of this study was to re-evaluate the location of the water gap and to characterize its morphology and anatomy in physically dormant seeds of Geraniaceae, with particular reference to G. carolinianum. Methods Length, width, mass, anatomy and germination of two seed types (light brown and dark brown) of G. carolinianum were compared. Location, anatomy and morphology of the water gap were characterized using free-hand and microtome tissue sectioning, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dye tracking, blocking and seed-burial experiments. Key Results Treatment with dry heat caused a colour change in the palisade cells adjacent to the micropyle. When placed in water, the ‘hinged valve’ (blister) erupted at the site of the colour change, exposing the water gap. The morphology and anatomy in the water-gap region differs from those of the rest of the seed coat. The morphology of the seed coat of the water-gap region is similar in G. carolinianum, G. columbinum, G. molle and G. pusillum and differs from that of the closely related species Erodium cicutarium. Conclusions Dislodgment of swollen ‘hinged valve’ palisade cells adjacent to the micropyle caused the water gap to open in physically dormant seeds of G. carolinianum, and it was clear that initial water uptake takes place through this gap and not via the chalazal opening as previously reported. This water gap (‘hinged valve gap’) differs from water gaps previously described for other families in morphology, anatomy and location in the seed coat. PMID:20400757

Gama-Arachchige, N. S.; Baskin, J. M.; Geneve, R. L.; Baskin, C. C.



Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

Schurer, Kees



Genus/Common Name Cultivar Acalypha Kilanea  

E-print Network

Calibrachoa Lavender Improved Calibrachoa Brillian Pink Calibrachoa Mounding White Calibrachoa Brilliant Pink Gaillardia Arizona Red Shades Gaillardia Apricot Shades Geranium Caliente Lavender Geranium (Interspecific Lantana White Trailing Lavender Kew Red Lavender Ellagance Purple Lobelia Fan Burgundy Lobelia Fan Salmon


Latin Name Common Name Achillea millefolium 'Summer Pastels' Yarrow  

E-print Network

oolentangiensis Sky Blue Aster Aster tataricus Tartarian Aster Astilbe Color Flash Lime False Spirea Astilbe x' Butterfly Flower Geranium maculatum Wild Geranium Gypsophila paniculata 'Perfecta' Baby's Breath MSU Gardens


2005-2006 Trial Garden Data The cultivars received from Danziger were planted on September 9, 2005. The Fisher  

E-print Network

Salmon Rose, RM Coral, RM Deep Rose, RM Lavender, RM Light Salmon, RM Red, RM White 06, Tango Fire, Tango Neon Purple, Tango Pink Ivy Geranium ­ Caliente Deep Red Ivy Geranium ­ Freestyle Artic Red, Deep Rose, Pink II Geranium ­ Americana Cherry Rose II, Coral, Dark Rose, Deep Rose II, Light Salmon. Red, Salmon

Mazzotti, Frank


Resources limit the fecundity of three woodland herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of supplemental hand pollination on fruit set, seed number, and seed weight were examined for 3 perennial, woodland herbs, Uvularia sessilifolia, Geranium maculatum, and Maianthemum canadense. We found no evidence for pollen limitation of any measure of fecundity. Low light probably limited fecundity in Geranium, while soil nitrogen limited the number of sseds\\/fruit in Maianthemum. For Geranium and Maianthemum

C. McCall; R. B. Primack



Comparative analyses of two Geraniaceae transcriptomes using next-generation sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Organelle genomes of Geraniaceae exhibit several unusual evolutionary phenomena compared to other angiosperm families including accelerated nucleotide substitution rates, widespread gene loss, reduced RNA editing, and extensive genomic rearrangements. Since most organelle-encoded proteins function in multi-subunit complexes that also contain nuclear-encoded proteins, it is likely that the atypical organellar phenomena affect the evolution of nuclear genes encoding organellar proteins. To begin to unravel the complex co-evolutionary interplay between organellar and nuclear genomes in this family, we sequenced nuclear transcriptomes of two species, Geranium maderense and Pelargonium x hortorum. Results Normalized cDNA libraries of G. maderense and P. x hortorum were used for transcriptome sequencing. Five assemblers (MIRA, Newbler, SOAPdenovo, SOAPdenovo-trans [SOAPtrans], Trinity) and two next-generation technologies (454 and Illumina) were compared to determine the optimal transcriptome sequencing approach. Trinity provided the highest quality assembly of Illumina data with the deepest transcriptome coverage. An analysis to determine the amount of sequencing needed for de novo assembly revealed diminishing returns of coverage and quality with data sets larger than sixty million Illumina paired end reads for both species. The G. maderense and P. x hortorum transcriptomes contained fewer transcripts encoding the PLS subclass of PPR proteins relative to other angiosperms, consistent with reduced mitochondrial RNA editing activity in Geraniaceae. In addition, transcripts for all six plastid targeted sigma factors were identified in both transcriptomes, suggesting that one of the highly divergent rpoA-like ORFs in the P. x hortorum plastid genome is functional. Conclusions The findings support the use of the Illumina platform and assemblers optimized for transcriptome assembly, such as Trinity or SOAPtrans, to generate high-quality de novo transcriptomes with broad coverage. In addition, results indicated no major improvements in breadth of coverage with data sets larger than six billion nucleotides or when sampling RNA from four tissue types rather than from a single tissue. Finally, this work demonstrates the power of cross-compartmental genomic analyses to deepen our understanding of the correlated evolution of the nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial genomes in plants. PMID:24373163



Patent literature on mosquito repellent inventions which contain plant essential oils--a review.  


Bites Bites of mosquitoes belonging to the genera Anopheles Meigen, Aedes Meigen, Culex L. and Haemagogus L. are a general nuisance and are responsible for the transmission of important tropical diseases such as malaria, hemorrhagic dengue and yellow fevers and filariasis (elephantiasis). Plants are traditional sources of mosquito repelling essential oils (EOs), glyceridic oils and repellent and synergistic chemicals. A Chemical Abstracts search on mosquito repellent inventions containing plant-derived EOs revealed 144 active patents mostly from Asia. Chinese, Japanese and Korean language patents and those of India (in English) accounted for roughly 3/4 of all patents. Since 1998 patents on EO-containing mosquito repellent inventions have almost doubled about every 4 years. In general, these patents describe repellent compositions for use in topical agents, cosmetic products, incense, fumigants, indoor and outdoor sprays, fibers, textiles among other applications. 67 EOs and 9 glyceridic oils were individually cited in at least 2 patents. Over 1/2 of all patents named just one EO. Citronella [Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle, C.winterianus Jowitt ex Bor] and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus L?Hér. spp.) EOs were each cited in approximately 1/3 of all patents. Camphor [Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl], cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume), clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry], geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L?Hér.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), lemon [Citrus × limon (L.) Osbeck], lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf] and peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) EOs were each cited in > 10% of patents. Repellent chemicals present in EO compositions or added as pure “natural” ingredients such as geraniol, limonene, p-menthane-3,8-diol, nepetalactone and vanillin were described in approximately 40% of all patents. About 25% of EO-containing inventions included or were made to be used with synthetic insect control agents having mosquito repellent properties such as pyrethroids, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), (±)-p-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD) and dialkyl phthalates. Synergistic effects involving one or more EOs and synthetic and/or natural components were claimed in about 10% of all patents. Scientific literature sources provide evidence for the mosquito repellency of many of the EOs and individual chemical components found in EOs used in patented repellent inventions. PMID:21328177

Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Gama, Renata Antonaci; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Neto, Valter Ferreira de Andrade



Anacardic acid inhibits estrogen receptor alpha-DNA binding and reduces target gene transcription and breast cancer cell proliferation  

PubMed Central

Anacardic acid (2-hydroxy-6-alkylbenzoic acid) is a dietary and medicinal phytochemical with established anticancer activity in cell and animal models. The mechanisms by which anacardic acid inhibits cancer cell proliferation remain undefined. Anacardic acid 24:1?5 (AnAc 24:1?5) was purified from geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum) and shown to inhibit the proliferation of estrogen receptor ? (ER?)-positive MCF-7 and endocrine-resistant LCC9 and LY2 breast cancer cells with greater efficacy than ER?-negative primary human breast epithelial cells, MCF-10A normal breast epithelial cells, and MDA-MB-231 basal-like breast cancer cells. AnAc 24:1?5 inhibited cell cycle progression and induced apoptosis in a cell-specific manner. AnAc 24:1?5 inhibited estradiol (E2)-induced estrogen response element (ERE) reporter activity and transcription of the endogenous E2-target genes: pS2, cyclin D1, and cathepsin D in MCF-7 cells. AnAc 24:1?5 did not compete with E2 for ER? or ER? binding, nor did AnAc 24:1?5 reduce ER? or ER? steady state protein levels in MCF-7 cells; rather, AnAc 24:1?5 inhibited ER-ERE binding in vitro. Virtual Screening with the molecular docking software Surflex evaluated AnAc 24:1?5 interaction with ER? ligand binding and DNA binding domains (LBD and DBD) in conjunction with experimental validation. Molecular modeling revealed AnAc 24:1?5 interaction with the ER? DBD but not the LBD. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments revealed that AnAc 24:1?5 inhibited E2-ER? interaction with the endogenous pS2 gene promoter region containing an ERE. These data indicate that AnAc 24:1?5 inhibits cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis in an ER-dependent manner by reducing ER-DNA interaction and inhibiting ER-mediated transcriptional responses. PMID:20197399

Schultz, David J.; Wickramasinghe, Nalinie S.; Ivanova, Margarita M.; Isaacs, Susan M.; Dougherty, Susan M.; Imbert-Fernandez, Yoannis; Cunningham, Albert R.; Chen, Chunyuan; Klinge, Carolyn M.



An internship in two market research studies: a Southwest Region Greenhouse Market Study and a local garden center market study  

E-print Network

center, Geranium Junction, wished to investigate the demographics of their customers and their customer's awareness of Geranium Junction's empioyment of people with disabilities. A questionnaire was developed to investigate these objectives... committee and to all my professors in College of Business and Agriculture. To the W. R. Grace Company for sponsoring the Greenhouse study and providing financial support and to Geranium Junction's staff for their support in gathering the data I am very...

Whisenant, Donna Kay



Effects of grizzly bear digging on alpine plant community structure  

E-print Network

Festuca altaica Gentiana glauca Gentiana propinqua Geranium erianthum Heracleum lanatum Hieracium triste Lupinus arcticus Mertensiana paniculata Polygonum viviparum Ranunculus Eschscholtzii Ranunculus occidentalis

Doak, D F; Loso, Michael G



Photosynthesis in Cuscuta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Die inCuscuta gronovii undC. Campestris bewiesene Photosynthese ist in ihrem Ausmass in beiden Arten gleichwertig und beträgt ungefähr ein Zehntel desjenigen von Pelargonium-Blättern. Als photosynthetisches Produkt wird in beiden Pflanzen grösstenteils Saccharose festgestellt.

D. MacLeod



Optical Properties and Nondestructive Estimation of Anthocyanin Content in Plant Leaves¶  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absorption and reflectance spectra of maple ( Acer pla- tanoides), cotoneaster (Cotoneaster alaunica), dogwood (Cornus alba) and pelargonium (Pelargonium zonale) leaves with a wide range of pigment content and com- position were studied in visible and near-infrared spectra in order to reveal specific anthocyanin (Anth) spectral features in leaves. Comparing absorption spectra of Anth-containing and Anth-free leaves with the same

Anatoly A. Gitelson; Mark N. Merzlyak; Olga B. Chivkunova



Notes -191 0171-8177/07/0030-0191 $ 0.50  

E-print Network

): 202, Epilobium angustifolium (L. 1753): 2332, Epilobium hirsutum (L. 1753): 40, Geranium robertianum densiflorum (Bertoloni 1810): 0. References CHITTKA L & KEVAN P G [2005]: Flower colour as advertisement. ­ In

Chittka, Lars




... Info Chemical Emergencies A–Z Abrin Adamsite Ammonia Arsenic Arsine Barium Benzene Brevetoxin Bromine BZ Carbon monoxide ... Lewisite has an odor like geraniums. Lewisite contains arsenic, a poisonous element. Lewisite is also known by ...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We evaluated several plant essential oils (cinnamon bark, cinnamon Cassia, cinnamon leaf, clove bud, lemon, lemon grass, orange bitter, orange Mandarin, oregano Spanish, palmarosa, rose Geranium, and thyme) and their major components (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, citral, eugenol, geraniol, limonene, a...


Allergy-Friendly Gardening  


... gardening may also help reduce symptoms. Certain flowers, trees and grasses are better suited for the gardens ... people with outdoor allergies. These include: • Cactus • Cherry tree • Dahlia • Daisy • Geranium • Hibiscus • Iris • Magnolia • Roses • Snapdragon • ...


In vitro multiplication of Cucumis sativus, L. through tissue culture  

E-print Network

(12) to maintain clonal types for extended periods of time without change in genetic make-up of the plant cells (3). Skirvin and Janick (23) did find that in scented geraniums "variation in leaf, flower, oil constituents, fasciation, pubescence...

LeRoy, Thomas Russell



Smart Shelter: A Sustainable Power System Design Using Micro-Energy Harvesting Techniques  

E-print Network

to 500 °C. Silicon Geranium (SiGe) is another semiconductor but it is rarely used as a thermoelectric material and is viable for power generation at very high temperatures [11]. A typical thermoelectric generator typically consists of multiple n...

Hilton, Benjamin D



Light transmission of glass, fiberglass, polyethylene, and polyvinyl chloride greenhouse covers as related to growth of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. variety Homestead 24  

E-print Network

of reinforced plastic panels for a period of five years resulted in a 14. 6' reduction in sunlight transmission. Data were presented on the growth of geraniums, tomatoes, and other plants in the reinforced plastic and glass greenhouses. Light Quality...

Esche, Victor Clemens



Technische Universitat Munchen Institut fur Informatik  

E-print Network

= Geraniums | Roses | Marigolds | Lilies | Gardenias datatype drink = Tea | Milk | Coffee | Juice | Water Norwegian = Water Pet Japanese = Zebra" Sie d¨urfen dabei alle in Isabelle verf¨ugbaren Theoreme benutzen

Cengarle, María Victoria


Intern experience at MEL, Inc.: an internship report  

E-print Network

.T.I. The dormitory buildings included in this project are: I. Pinecrest Dormitory 2. Oakwood Dormitory 3. Willow Dormitory 4. Cedarcrest Dormitory 5. Elmwood Dormitory 6 . Geranium Dormitory 7. Snapdragon Dormitory 8. Training Center (Lilac Dormitory) Site... to be located with the condensers inside enclosures. After careful investigation, the HVAC equipment was selected based on the author's final engineering analysis. The equipment summary table is listed in Table A. The heating systems in both Geranium...

Chen, Chu-Chen, 1937-



Effect of iron concentration on growth and phylloclade edge yellowing of holiday cactus  

E-print Network

chlorosis, bronze spotting of the leaf, and plant stunting) that are commonly observed in other susceptible floricultural crops, such as marigold and geranium (Biembaum et al. , 1988; Vetanovetz and Knauss, 1989). It has been suggested that low potting...). Seedling geraniums and African-type marigolds are considered very sensitive to Fe toxicity problems (Biernbaum et al. , 1987; Biernbaum et al. , 1988; Vetanovetz and Knauss, 1989). Iron toxicity has also been diagnosed on Impatiens x wallerana, Impatiens...

Ramirez, Dario



A preliminary study of population dynamics of cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) related to effects of malathion in a Texas coastal marsh  

E-print Network

Rabbitfoqt Polypogon V&Erg inia Pepperweed Rosering Gaillardia Co zalbean Mat Paspalum Parsley Carolina Geranium Catclaw Sensitivebriar Oueensdelight Goldenmare Coreopsis A t th tee*if( lLt t(Hl h*. ) Nut t ~BAL 1 eh f BG y Phalaris caroliniana... Walt. ~EA 1 H 111 (DC. ) Bht ~PL ~*it* 1 (L. ) D f. ~Ltdt ~tt t 1. Gtel dt pthll PB. ~eeh 1 h b L. ~PL 1 Limnosciadium Eumilum (EngeIm. B Gray) Math 6 Const. Geranium carolinanum L. Schrankia uncinata Willd. ~Petti' ~ ' ut L. ~cl b 1'(Gt &Dte...

Jurries, Royce Wayne



Changes in carotenoid content and distribution in living plant tissue can be observed and mapped in situ using NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-infrared (NIR) excited Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy has been applied for in situ analysis of carotenoids in living plant samples. Pelargonium x hortorum leaf has been mapped using a Raman mapping technique to illustrate heterogeneous distribution of carotenoids. Mapping has also been employed for visualization of carotenoid changes induced by abiotic and biotic stress. In a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum

Rafal Baranski; Malgorzata Baranska; Hartwig Schulz



Natural Antioxidant Constituents from Selected Aromatic Plants and Their Antimicrobial Activity Against Selected Pathogenic Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Aromatic plants contain natural antioxidant constituents such as phenolic compounds, which have attracted a great deal of public and scientific interest because of their health- -promoting effects as antioxidants. Five plants, Filipendula ulmaria (meadow sweet), Cratae- gus monogyna (hawthorn), Polygonum aviculare (polygonum), Potentilla anserina (silverweed), and Pelargonium purpureum (little robin), have been examined in order to determine their phenolic

Charalampos Proestos; Ioannis Spyridon Boziaris; Maria Kapsokefalou; Michael Komaitis



Zur Lokalisierung von Zellkontakten zwischen Cuscuta odorata und verschiedenen höheren Wirtspflanzen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Es wird eine Methode der gezielten Untersuchung von parasitierendenCuscuta-Hyphen innerhalb des Wirtsgewebes (Pelargonium zonale, Primula obconica) beschrieben. Das Arbeiten mit isolierten Leitbündeln (Primula) sowie eine verfeinerte Zielpräparation der fixierten und eingebetteten Gewebe vor der Ultramikrotomie führt bereits mit lichtoptischen Methoden zu einer zellularen Lokalisierung der Hyphen im Wirtsgewebe. Diese wiederum ermöglicht eine genaue Beurteilung des Differenzierungsstadiums der Parasitenzellen vor

Inge Dörr



Cassava Ivorian bacilliform virus is a member of the genus Anulavirus.  


The complete genomic sequence of Cassava Ivorian bacilliform virus (CIBV) is described. The virus has a genomic organization similar to that of pelargonium zonate spot virus (PZSV), the type member of the genus Anulavirus, but it is most closely related to a second, recently described, anulavirus, Amazon lily mild mottle virus (ALiMMV). PMID:24838850

Scott, Simon W; MacFarlane, Stuart A; McGavin, Wendy J; Fargette, Denis



78 FR 36506 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Plants...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...prevent the introduction of plant pests into the United States...importation of Pelargonium spp. plants from the Canary Islands, and...requirements for the importation of plants from Israel, except bulbs...registration and agreements, and production site registration for the...



Screening of Mongolian plants for influence on amylase activity in mouse plasma and gastrointestinal tube.  


Mongolian plants were screened for their influence on alpha-amylase activity in mouse plasma. Methanolic extracts of Geranium pratense, Rhodiola rosea, Ribes pullchelum and Vaccinium uliginosum inhibited the enzyme activity in isolated mouse plasma by greater than 40% and the effect was concentration dependent. Vaccinium uliginosum also showed a depressive effect on elevation of postprandial blood glucose to some extent. PMID:12843638

Kobayashi, Kyoko; Baba, Eriko; Fushiya, Shinji; Takano, Fumihide; Batkhuu, Javzan; Dash, Tzezengiin; Sanchir, Chinbat; Yoshizaki, Fumihiko



Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of 12 medicinal and aromatic plants were investigated for their radical scavenging activity using DPPH and ABTS assays: Salvia sclarea, Salvia glutinosa, Salvia pratensis, Lavandula angustifolia, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Echinacea purpurea, Rhaponticum carthamoides, Juglans regia, Melilotus officinalis, Geranium macrorrhizum and Potentilla fruticosa. Salvia officinalis was used as a reference plant with well documented antioxidant activity. G. macrorrhizum and

G. Miliauskas; P. R. Venskutonis; T. A. van Beek



Contributions to the Flora and Plant Ecology of Campbell Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Native plant species newly recorded for Campbell Island are: Lycopodium cf. australianum, Rumex flexuosus, R. negleclus, Cotula dispersa subsp. dispersa, Acianthus viridis, and possibly Puccinellia macquariensis hitherto regarded as an endemic grass of Macquarie Island. Additions to the exotic flora include cultivars, garden escapes, and otner largely ephemeral introductions. These are: the weeds Cardamine hirsuta, Polygonum convolvulus, Geranium pusillum, Hypericum

Colin D. Meurk



Spring Flowers: Harvest of a Sensitive Eye  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defining and describing a number of spring flowers, this article includes illustrations and explanations that demonstrate "art and science are born of the same parents". The flowers discussed are skunk cabbage, bellwort, spring beauty, jack-in-the-pulpit, Solomon's seal, wild geranium, showy orchids, moccasin flower, bluets, apple, and Indian…

Clark, Eloise; Levin, Ted



New and Corrected Floristic Records for Nebraska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen species (including eight Eurasian ones) are newly recorded for Nebraska: Alopecurus arundinaceus, Amaranthus californicus, Asclepias asperula, A purpurascens, Cardamine {lexuosa*, Centaurea diffusa, Dipsacus laciniatus, Eriochloa villosa, Euclidium syriacum, Gentiana alba, Geranium viscosissimum, Geum vernum, Goodyera oblongifolia, Haplopappus multicaulis, Heterotheca latifolia, Lathyrus tuberosus, Polygonum douglasii, Scirpus saximontanus, Veronica biloba. Twenty-one others are shown to be more widespread in Nebraska than

Steven B. Rolfsmeier; Robert B. Kaul; David M. Sutherland



Evaluation of treated wastewater for the production of Syngonium podophyllum  

E-print Network

area, leaves per plant, leaf thickness, dry weight of shoots and roots, and number of flowers. As a general rule, vegetavie growth was reduced as EC was increased in the growing media (ECg). Hartmann et al. (1988) found geranium growth yields of 90...

Garza Morton, Jose Antonio



Identifying and describing strategies to increase self-esteem in students aged 16-22 with mild to moderate mental retardation  

E-print Network

must also acknowledge the employees of the former Geranium Junction, who, simply by coming to work each day, helped solidify my goals for the future. I am deeply indebted to Mr. Mel Dodd at the LRD of Sterling Evans Library. His kindness...

DeHart, Martha Roberts



Grading of Vegetative Cuttings Using Computer Vision Sanjiv Singh & Mike Montemerlo  

E-print Network

-dimensional monochrome images. We have developed a fast segmentation technique that is able to measure plant fea- tures of many flowering plants in the floricultural industry is accomplished by transplanting cuttings from mature plants into growing media. See Figure 1 for three culti- vars of geranium plants

Singh, Sanjiv


Evaporation Time and Spread Area of Adjuvant-amended Droplets on Waxy and Hairy Leaves  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding the evaporation of pesticide droplets and wetting of leaf surfaces can increase foliar application efficiency and reduce pesticide use. Evaporation time and wetted area of single pesticide droplets on hairy and waxy geranium leaf surfaces were measured under the controlled conditions f...


Influence of Spray Formulation and Leaf Surface Structure on Droplet Evaporation and Wetted Area  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fate of pesticide droplets on leaves is seriously influenced by spray formulations and fine structures on leaf surfaces. Evaporation times and wetted areas of droplets on hairy and waxy geranium leaf surfaces were determined under controlled conditions. Droplet evaporation processes were taken w...


Molecular Structure of Methyl benzoate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Methyl benzoate is used mainly as a perfume; it has a very pleasant smell and mixes well with scents of ylang ylang, musk, rose, and geranium. Methyl benzoate also acts as a solvent for cellulose esters, as a dying carrier, disinfectant additive, penetrating agent, and as a pesticide.



Controlling Diseases on Ornamental Plants.  

E-print Network

watering. Propagate from disease-free plants. Use cop per bordeaux mixture on the following plants: boxwoods, begonias, chrysanthemums, gardenias, irises, narcissus, delphiniums, dogwoods, elms, gladioli, geraniums, holly hocks, ivies, lilacs... fallen, dead leaves or add to compost. Avoid wetting foliage when watering. Select disease-free planting stock. Use maneb on carnations, pansies, dahlias, irises, zinnias, peonies, chrysanthemums (septorla), gladioli (stemphylium) and roses...

Horne, C. Wendell; Johnson, Jerral D.; Walla, Walter J.



Imprints of history in post-agricultural forests  

E-print Network

.6) 1 (3) 2 (4.3) 13 GRP5 Crataegus sp., Urtica dioica, Festuca gigantea, Geranium robertianum 27 (18.2) 17 (15.6) 20 (17.5) 13 (25.7) 77 GRP6 Crataegus sp., Agrostis capillaris, Myosotis arvensis, Knautia

Vojta, Jaroslav


Plant extracts with anti-inflammatory properties—A new approach for characterization of their bioactive compounds and establishment of structure–antioxidant activity relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geranium robertianum L. (Geraniacea) and Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. (Rubiaceae) plant extracts, frequently used in traditional medicine for treatment of inflammatory and cancer diseases, were studied to identify potential bioactive compounds that may justify their therapeutic use and their underlying mechanisms of action. Since some of the pharmacological properties of these plant extracts may be linked to their antioxidant potential,

Sónia Amaral; Lurdes Mira; J. M. F. Nogueira; Alda Pereira da Silva; M. Helena Florêncio



The inhibition of Candida species by selected essential oils and their synergism with amphotericin B.  


In this work we highlight a possible synergistic anti-Candida effect between Melaleuca alternifolia, Origanum vulgare and Pelargonium graveolens essential oils and the antifungal compound Amphotericin B. The antifungal activity was assessed using the agar dilution method in eleven Candida strains. The results obtained indicate the occurrence of a synergistic interaction between the essential oils under study and Amphotericin B. P. graveolens essential oil appeared to be the most effective, inhibiting all the Candida species evaluated by this study. PMID:18579358

Rosato, Antonio; Vitali, Cesare; Gallo, Daniela; Balenzano, Luca; Mallamaci, Rosanna



Morphological analysis of alpine communities of the north-western Caucasus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The species composition of four alpine communities in the north-western Caucasus was subjected to a morphological analysis.\\u000a The communities are an alpine lichen heath type (ALH), aFestuca varia grassland type (FVG), aGeranium-Hedysarum meadow type (GHM) and a snowbed community (SBC). Eighty-two species were studied, using the following morphological parameters:\\u000a vegetative mobility, presence of rosettes, architectural model, life form according toRaunkiaer

Galina A. Pokarzhevskaya



Pollination ecology of five species in a limestone community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen was examined on the stigmatic surfaces of five species- Campanula rotundifolia L., Euphrasia con.fusa Pugsl.,GeraniumrobertianumL.,Potentillaerecta(L.) Rausch. andVeronicachamaedrys L.-sampledfroma locality in North Yorkshire. Competition with blossoms of other species was found to adversely affect pollination in Campanula rotundifolia but enhance il in Geranium robertianum. Proportions of foreign pollen grains, observed on the stigmas of each species. correlate with the breeding



New hosts of Potato virus Y (PVY) among common wild plants in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The infection capacity of Potato virus Y (PVY, genus Potyvirus) for wild-living plants, commonly occurring as arable weeds in Europe and native to or naturalised in other continents, was\\u000a evaluated. In total, 3,712 and 802 seedlings representing 21 weed species were aphid and sap-inoculated with PVY, respectively.\\u000a Experimentally-inoculated plants of Erodium cicutarium, Geranium pusillum, Lactuca serriola and Lamium purpureum tested

Agnieszka Kaliciak; Jerzy Syller



Visitation rates and pollinator sets at the periphery and central parts of single-species plant patches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three model plant species (Aegopodium podagraria, Tripleurospermum inodorum, and Geranium palustri) were used to show the differences in visitation rates and pollinator sets between plant individuals growing at the center\\u000a and periphery of single-species patches. Most of the insect species visited the center more frequently, but Phaonia basalis (Diptera, Muscidae) and Leptura flava (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) preferred the peripheral parts. The

S. N. Lysenkov



Repellent effectiveness of seven plant essential oils, sunflower oil and natural insecticides against horn flies on pastured dairy cows and heifers.  


Plant essential oils (basil, geranium, balsam fir, lavender, lemongrass, peppermint, pine and tea tree), mixed with either sunflower oil or ethyl alcohol, were applied at 5% concentrations to the sides of Holstein cattle. Pastured cattle treated with essential oils diluted in sunflower oil had less flies than the untreated control for a 24-h period. However, the essential oil treatments were not significantly different than the carrier oil alone. Barn-held heifers treated with essential oils and sunflower oil alone had significantly less flies than the untreated control for up to 8 h after treatment. Basil, geranium, lavender, lemongrass and peppermint repelled more flies than sunflower oil alone for a period ranging from 1.5 to 4 h after treatments applied to heifers. All essential oils repelled > 75% of the flies on the treated area for 6 and 8 h on pastured cows and indoor heifers, respectively. Geranium, lemongrass and peppermint stayed effective for a longer duration. Essential oils mixed with ethyl alcohol demonstrated less repellence than when mixed with the carrier oil. Safer's soap, natural pyrethrins without piperonyl butoxide and ethyl alcohol alone were not efficient at repelling flies. Essential oils could be formulated for use as fly repellents in livestock production. PMID:24382265

Lachance, S; Grange, G



Phytophthora tropicalis on Hedera helix and Epipremnum aureum in Polish greenhouses.  


Phytophthora tropicalis was isolated from Hedera helix and Epipremnum aureum showing discoloration of leaves, necrosis of shoot base, spread upwards and on roots. The species was detected from 7/8 plants of Hedera and 3/4 of Epipremnum. Additionally Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium avenaceum and Rhizoctonia solani were recovered from some of diseased plants. P. tropicalis caused leaf necrosis of 13 plant species and tomato seedlings. The quickest spread of necrosis was observed on leaves of Peperomia magnoliaefolia, Pelargonium zonale and Phalaenopsis x hybridum. The disease developed at temperature ranged from 10 degrees to 32.5 degrees C with optimum 30 degrees C. PMID:17390874

Orlikowski, L B; Trzewik, A; Wiejacha, K



The effect of essential oils on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using a dressing model.  


Patchouli, tea tree, geranium, lavender essential oils and Citricidal (grapefruit seed extract) were used singly and in combination to assess their anti-bacterial activity against three strains of Staphylococcus aureus: Oxford S. aureus NCTC 6571 (Oxford strain), Epidemic methicillin-resistant S. aureus (EMRSA 15) and MRSA (untypable). The individual essential oils, extracts and combinations were impregnated into filter paper discs and placed on the surface of agar plates, pre-seeded with the appropriate strain of Staphylococcus. The effects of the vapours of the oils and oil combinations were also assessed using impregnated filter paper discs that were placed on the underside of the Petri dish lid at a distance of 8mm from the bacteria. The most inhibitory combinations of oils for each strain were used in a dressing model constructed using a four layers of dressings: the primary layer consisted of either Jelonet or TelfaClear with or without Flamazine; the second was a layer of gauze, the third a layer of Gamgee and the final layer was Crepe bandage. The oil combinations were placed in either the gauze or the Gamgee layer. This four-layered dressing was placed over the seeded agar plate, incubated for 24h at 37 degrees C and the zones of inhibition measured. All experiments were repeated on three separate occasions. No anti-bacterial effects were observed when Flamazine was smeared on the gauze in the dressing model. When Telfaclear was used as the primary layer in the dressing model compared to Jelonet, greater zones of inhibition were observed. A combination of Citricidal and geranium oil showed the greatest-anti-bacterial effects against MRSA, whilst a combination of geranium and tea tree oil was most active against the methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (Oxford strain). This study demonstrates the potential of essential oils and essential oil vapours as antibacterial agents and for use in the treatment of MRSA infection. PMID:15555788

Edwards-Jones, V; Buck, R; Shawcross, S G; Dawson, M M; Dunn, K



Photosynthetic Pictures Are Worth More Than a Thousand Words  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity provides an opportunity for learners to observe and examine how carbon dioxide, water, and light produce glucose/starch through a process called photosynthesis. This process is validated through the production of starch picture images produced on a geranium leaf. The fundamental question answered by this activity is: "What actually occurs in plant leaves as a result of photosynthesis?" Learners construct a hypothesis, set up and run the experiment, record observations, and answer reflection questions. This resource guide includes assessment and extension suggestions. When executing this lab, safety precautions involving boiling alcohol should be strictly followed.

C. Ford Morishita



Optical properties and nondestructive estimation of anthocyanin content in plant leaves.  


Absorption and reflectance spectra of maple (Acer platanoides), cotoneaster (Cotoneaster alaunica), dogwood (Cornus alba) and pelargonium (Pelargonium zonale) leaves with a wide range of pigment content and composition were studied in visible and near-infrared spectra in order to reveal specific anthocyanin (Anth) spectral features in leaves. Comparing absorption spectra of Anth-containing and Anth-free leaves with the same chlorophyll (Chl) content, absorption spectra of Anth in leaves were derived. The main spectral feature of Anth absorption in vivo was a peak around 550 nm; the peak magnitude was closely related to Anth content. A quantitative nondestructive technique was developed to subtract Chl contribution to reflectance in this spectral region and retrieve Anth content from reflectance over a wide range of pigment content and composition. Anth reflectance index in the form ARI = (R550)-1 - (R700)-1, where (R550)-1 and (R700)-1 are inverse reflectances at 550 and 700 nm, respectively, allowed an accurate estimation of Anth accumulation, even in minute amounts, in intact senescing and stressed leaves. PMID:11460535

Gitelson, A A; Merzlyak, M N; Chivkunova, O B



Effects of gaseous ammonia on intracellular pH values in leaves of C 3- and C 4-plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Responses of cytosolic and vacuolar pH to different concentrations (1.3-5.4 ?mol NH 3 mol -1 gas or 0.940-3.825 mg NH 3 m -3 gas) of gaseous NH 3 were studied in experiments of 3 h duration by recording changes in fluorescence of pyranine and esculin in leaves of C 3 and C 4 plants. After a lag phase of 0.5-4 min, the uptake of NH 3 at 50-200 nmol m -2 leaf area s -1 increased pyranine fluorescence, indicating cytosolic alkalinization in leaves of Pelargonium zonale L. (C 3) and Amaranthus caudatus L. (C 4). A smaller increase in esculin fluorescence induced by NH 3 indicated some vacuolar alkalization in a Spinacia oleracea L. leaf. Photosynthesis and transpiration remained unchanged during exposure of illuminated leaves to NH 3 for up to 30 min (the maximum tested). CO 2 concentrations influenced the extent of cytosolic alkalinization. 500 ?mol CO 2 mol -1 gas suppressed the NH 3-induced cytosolic alkalinization relative to that found in 16 ?mol CO 2 mol -1 gas. The suppressing effect of CO 2 on NH 3-induced alkalization was larger in illuminated leaves of the C 4Amaranthus than the C 3Pelargonium. These results indicate that the alkaline pH shift caused by solution and protonation of NH 3 in aqueous leaf compartments is affected by assimilation of NH 3.

Yin, Zu-Hua; Kaiser, Werner; Heber, Ulrich; Raven, John A.


Alteration of perceived fragrance of essential oils in relation to type of work: a simple screening test for efficacy of aroma.  


The perceptional change of fragrance of essential oils is described in relation to type of work, i.e. mental work, physical work and hearing environmental (natural) sounds. The essential oils examined in this study were ylang ylang, orange, geranium, cypress, bergamot, spearmint and juniper. In evaluating change in perception of a given aroma, a sensory test was employed in which the perception of fragrance was assessed by 13 contrasting pairs of adjectives. Scores were recorded after inhaling a fragrance before and after each type of work, and the statistical significance of the change of score for 13 impression descriptors was examined by Student's t-test for each type of work. It was confirmed that inhalation of essential oil caused a different subjective perception of fragrance depending on the type of work. For example, inhalation of cypress after physical work produced a much more favorable impression than before work, in contrast to orange, which produced an unfavorable impression after physical work when compared with that before work. For mental work, inhalation of juniper seemed to create a favorable impression after work, whereas geranium and orange both produced an unfavorable impression then. From these studies, together with those conducted previously with lavender, rosemary, linalool, peppermint, marjoram, cardamom, sandalwood, basil and lime, we thus concluded that the sensory test described here might serve not only as a screening test for efficacy of aroma but also as a categorized table for aroma samples which can act as a reference to each other. PMID:10480677

Sugawara, Y; Hino, Y; Kawasaki, M; Hara, C; Tamura, K; Sugimoto, N; Yamanishi, Y; Miyauchi, M; Masujima, T; Aoki, T



[Changes in eco-morphological parameters of alpine plants' leaves as an effect of fertilization].  


Plants growing on rich soil usually have thin leaves with large specific leaf area. On the other hand, at intraspecific level; soil fertilization results in leaves size increasing which, in turn, can lead to reduction in specific leaf area. To what extent soil fertilization implies only leaves increasing in size and does not affect other eco-morphological characteristics is a question that is still open. To assess coherence between plants intraspecific reactions to changes in soil richness and general tendencies in changes of leaves parameters in communities with different productivity, an experiment has been conducted in alpine plant communities of the north-western Caucasus. Changes in leaf traits are studied in four types of alpine plant communities after long term application of mineral nutrients (NP and lime treatment). It is shown that in all species, except legume Hedysarum caucasicum, fertilization results in size leaf characteristics (leaf area, wet and dry mass) increase. Specific leaf area appears to decrease in plants inhabiting alpine heathlands and increase in plants inhabiting alpine snow beds and in dominant species of Geranium-Hedysarum meadows, Geranium gymnocaulon. After correction of specific leaf area that accounts for changes in leaf size, it becomes discernable that in most species the increase in leaf area per se results in specific leaf area reduction while changes in leaf structure under influence of fertilization leads to this trait increasing. Those species demonstrating the increase in specific leaf area as an effect of fertilization, also gain more in terms of biomass. PMID:22121576

Akhmetzhanova, A A; Onipchenko, V G; Él'kanova, M Kh; Stogova, A V; Tekeev, D K



Mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) and distinguish them from other MLOs.  

PubMed Central

DNA of 10 lines of rice yellow dwarf (RYD) mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) from Japan, the Phillippines, and Thailand hybridized with four probes containing chromosomal and six probes containing extrachromosomal DNA of a Tochigi (Japan) line of RYD MLO. One chromosomal probe (RYD9) and all six extrachromosomal probes hybridized with various other MLOs (sugarcane white leaf, onion yellows, cineraria witches'-broom, Japanese hornwort witches'-broom, water dropwort wiches'-broom, gentian witches'-broom, udo dwarf, tsuwabuki witches'-broom, pelargonium witches's-broom, peach western-X, and pear decline). DNA from the culturable mollicutes Spiroplasma kunkelii, Spiroplasma citri, Mycoplasma hominis, and Mycoplasma orale did not hybridize with RYD MLO probes. The extrachromosomal DNAs hybridizing with the probes showed variations in electrophoretic behavior. Images PMID:8489230

Nakashima, K; Kato, S; Iwanami, S; Murata, N



Measuring Osmotic Pressure of Sap within Live Cells by Means of a Visual Melting Point Apparatus.  


A freezing slide apparatus is described for visual observation of freezing water and melting ice within plant cells. The slide consists of an ordinary microscope slide glued into a Plexiglass jacket, through which cold 90% ethyl alcohol is pumped at varying rates for temperature control. Temperature is recorded by means of an iron-constantan thermocouple wire (25-micron diameter) connected to a recording potentiometer. Tissue strips were quick frozen (at a cooling rate of 33 C per (1/2) minute) and then warmed very slowly (at a rate of 2 C per minute) for observation of melting points. This apparatus has been used to determine osmotic pressures of cell sap of guard and adjoining epidermal cells of Chrysanthemum morifolium and Pelargonium hortorum. An accuracy of +/- 1.2 atmospheres is possible. Wide variations among osmotic pressures of both guard and epidermal cells were found at any one stomatal aperture in both species. PMID:16657497

Bearce, B C; Kohl, H C



Key Importance of Small RNA Binding for the Activity of a Glycine-Tryptophan (GW) Motif-containing Viral Suppressor of RNA Silencing.  


Viruses express viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) to counteract RNA silencing-based host defenses. Although virtually all stages of the antiviral silencing pathway can be inhibited by VSRs, small RNAs (sRNAs) and Argonaute (AGO) proteins seem to be the most frequent targets. Recently, GW/WG motifs of some VSRs have been proposed to dictate their suppressor function by mediating interaction with AGO(s). Here we have studied the VSR encoded by Pelargonium line pattern virus (family Tombusviridae). The results show that p37, the viral coat protein, blocks RNA silencing. Site-directed mutagenesis of some p37 sequence traits, including a conserved GW motif, allowed generation of suppressor-competent and -incompetent molecules and uncoupling of the VSR and particle assembly capacities. The engineered mutants were used to assess the importance of p37 functions for viral infection and the relative contribution of diverse molecular interactions to suppressor activity. Two main conclusions can be drawn: (i) the silencing suppression and encapsidation functions of p37 are both required for systemic Pelargonium line pattern virus infection, and (ii) the suppressor activity of p37 relies on the ability to bind sRNAs rather than on interaction with AGOs. The data also caution against potential misinterpretations of results due to overlap of sequence signals related to distinct protein properties. This is well illustrated by mutation of the GW motif in p37 that concurrently affects nucleolar localization, efficient interaction with AGO1, and sRNA binding capability. These concomitant effects could have been overlooked in other GW motif-containing suppressors, as we exemplify with the orthologous p38 of turnip crinkle virus. PMID:25505185

Pérez-Cañamás, Miryam; Hernández, Carmen



Interspecific Variation in SO2 Flux 1  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to clarify the relationships among stomatal, residual, and epidermal conductances in determining the flux of SO2 air pollution to leaves. Variations in leaf SO2 and H2O vapor fluxes were determined using four plant species: Pisum sativum L. (garden pea), Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. flacca (mutant of tomato), Geranium carolinianum L. (wild geranium), and Diplacus aurantiacus (Curtis) Jeps. (a native California shrub). Fluxes were measured using the mass-balance approach during exposure to 4.56 micromoles per cubic meter (0.11 microliters per liter) SO2 for 2 hours in a controlled environmental chamber. Flux through adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces with closed stomata ranged from 1.9 to 9.4 nanomoles per square meter per second for SO2, and 0.3 to 1.3 millimoles per square meter per second for H2O vapor. Flux of SO2 into leaves through stomata ranged from ?0 to 8.5 (dark) and 3.8 to 16.0 (light) millimoles per square meter per second. Flux of H2O vapor from leaves through stomata ranged from ?0 to 0.6 (dark) to 0.4 to 0.9 (light) millimole per square meter per second. Lycopersicon had internal flux rates for both SO2 and H2O vapor over twice as high as for the other species. Stomatal conductance based on H2O vapor flux averaged from 0.07 to 0.13 mole per square meter per second among the four species. Internal conductance of SO2 as calculated from SO2 flux was from 0.04 mole per square meter per second lower to 0.06 mole per square meter per second higher than stomatal conductance. For Pisum, Geranium, and Diplacus stomatal conductance was the same or slightly higher than internal conductance, indicating that, in general, SO2 flux could be predicted from stomatal conductance for H2O vapor. However, for the Lycopersicon mutant, internal leaf conductance was much higher than stomatal conductance, indicating that factors inside leaves can play a significant role in determining SO2 flux. PMID:16664551

Olszyk, David M.; Tingey, David T.



Staining paraffin extracted, alcohol rinsed and air dried plant tissue with an aqueous mixture of three dyes.  


A staining solution containing alcian blue 8GX, Bismarck brown Y and safranin O was prepared with 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer, pH 5.0. Paraffin was extracted with MicroClear solvent from 10 microm tissue sections mounted on slides. Paraffin solvent was removed by rinsing with isopropanol, and tissues were air dried. Slides with bare dry tissue sections were immersed in the triple stain and structures could be distinguished within 30 min as follows: nonlignified cell walls, blue; lignified cell walls, nuclei and chloroplasts, red; and cuticle, brown or yellow-brown. Excess staining solution was removed by rinsing with tap water, and the tissues were air dried again. Coverslips were affixed with resin over the stained dry tissues. This novel procedure was tested with immature tomato fruit, mature apple fruit, and various leaf and stem specimens of dogwood, laurel, pawpaw, poinsettia and zonal geranium. PMID:9735876

Graham, E T; Trentham, W R



Antibacterial properties of some plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.  


Antibacterial properties of aqueous and methanolic extracts of 26 medicinal plants used in Mexico to treat gastrointestinal disorders were tested against eight different species of enteropathogens: two Escherichia coli species; two Shigella sonnei species; two Shigella flexneri species; and two Salmonella sp. species. The results showed that all crude extracts exhibited antibacterial activity, at least against one of the microorganisms tested, at concentrations of 8 mg/mL or lower. The extracts from Caesalpinia pulcherria, Chiranthodendron pentadactylon, Cocos nucifera, Geranium mexicanum (aerial parts and roots), Hippocratea excelsa, and Punica granatum possessed strong antibacterial activity against most of the pathogens tested. In general, methanolic extracts were more active than aqueous extracts. Their activity was higher than chloramphenicol but did not exceed that of trimethoprim. Shigella sonnei species showed the highest susceptibility to both extracts. This is the first evaluation of these plants against bacterial pathogen isolates, which cause diarrhea and dysentery in Mexican population. PMID:16005589

Alanís, A D; Calzada, F; Cervantes, J A; Torres, J; Ceballos, G M



Host Status of Herbaceous Perennials to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria  

PubMed Central

Twenty-two different herbaceous perennials were studied for their reaction to separate inoculations of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita under greenhouse conditions. Perennial taxa that did not develop root-galls following inoculation, and therefore are considered as nonhosts of both nematode species, included species and cultivars of Aethionema, Fragaria, Phlox, and Polygonum. Echinacea, Monarda, and Patrinia developed only a few galls. Root-galls developed on species and cultivars of Achillea, Geranium, Heuchera, Heucherella, Linaria, Nepeta, Nierembergia, Penstemon, and Salvia. There was no difference in the number of root-galls caused by M. arenaria or M. incognita on most plants except for Penstemon cultivars. Plant heights and dry weights varied between species and nematode density. PMID:19274254

Walker, J. T.; Melin, J. B.



Host Status of Herbaceous Perennials to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria.  


Twenty-two different herbaceous perennials were studied for their reaction to separate inoculations of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita under greenhouse conditions. Perennial taxa that did not develop root-galls following inoculation, and therefore are considered as nonhosts of both nematode species, included species and cultivars of Aethionema, Fragaria, Phlox, and Polygonum. Echinacea, Monarda, and Patrinia developed only a few galls. Root-galls developed on species and cultivars of Achillea, Geranium, Heuchera, Heucherella, Linaria, Nepeta, Nierembergia, Penstemon, and Salvia. There was no difference in the number of root-galls caused by M. arenaria or M. incognita on most plants except for Penstemon cultivars. Plant heights and dry weights varied between species and nematode density. PMID:19274254

Walker, J T; Melin, J B



Plant Information Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the University of Minnesota Libraries, Plant Information Online is intended for just about anyone with a green thumb, or those who want to get their thumbs a bit greener. Visitors to this fine database will find details on over 134,000 wild and cultivated plants, along with information on over 2200 North American retail and wholesale seed and nursery firms. From the homepage, visitors can search the plant database by scientific or common name, and they can also take a look at the search tips for a bit more guidance. Additionally, the site also contains links to selected websites that feature both images and more detailed regional data on thousands of plants. After locating plants of interest, some visitors may wish to browse through the nursery database for tips on locating the closest place for geraniums, hydrangeas, and other such forms of vegetation.



[Study of antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds from some species of Georgian flora].  


The antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from different parts of Georgian flora species Hamamelis virginiana L., Astragalus caucasicus Pall., Astragalus microcephalus Willd., Vitis vinifera L., Rhododendron ponticum L., Rhododendron Ungernii Trautv., Ginkgo biloba L., Salvia officinalis L., Querqus iberica Stev., Maclura aurantiaca Nutt., Cotinus coggygria Ledeb., Fraxinus ornus L., Urtica dioica L., Rhododendron caucasicum Pall., Pueraria hirsuta Matsum., Geranium pusillum L., Astragalus Tanae Sosn., Pinus silvestris L. has been studied. Comparison with ethylentetraacetate and ?-tocopherole revealed high efficacy of all extracts studied. 45 individual phenolic compounds were isolated and described by chemical examination of biologically active objects. Common sage (Salvia officinalis) extract turned out as the most active (200 %). The chemical study revealed the dominant content of condensed tannins and low molecular phenolic compounds, which may be attributed to the high antioxidant activity. Biologically active antiatherosclerotic food additive "Salbin" was developed on the basis of Common sage - Salvia officinalis L. phenolic compounds. PMID:24099817

Alaniia, M; Shalashvili, K; Sagareishvili, T; Kavtaradze, N; Sutiashvili, M



Screening of selected plant extracts for in vitro inhibitory activity on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT).  


Methanolic-aqueous extracts of 70 plants were investigated for their ability to inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity in vitro. Two thirds of the extracts screened showed more than 50% inhibition. Two extracts inhibited the enzyme completely while four exhibited more than 90% inhibition. Tannins as nonspecific HIV-1 RT inhibitors were detected and removed from the extracts. The IC50 values of the most potent extracts after the removal of tannins for the HIV-1 RT inhibition are as follows: Sambucus racemosa 0.017 mg/ml and Geranium phaeum 0.067 mg/ml. Daunomycine was chosen as a standard substance in the non-radioactive immuno assay used for screening. As a result from the future isolation and characterization of these compounds, new leading structures are expectable. PMID:10683878

Mlinaric, A; Kreft, S; Umek, A; Strukelj, B



Behavioral effects of plant-derived essential oils in the geller type conflict test in mice.  


The present study was conducted to further explore plant-derived essential oils that possess an anticonflict effect using the Geller type conflict test in ICR mice. The benzodiazepine anxiolytic diazepam increased the response (lever pressing) rate during the alarm period (i.e., an anticonflict effect), but the 5-HT1A partial agonist buspirone did not. Oils of juniper, cypress, geranium and jasmine did not produce any effect in this test. Frankincense oil decreased the response rate during the safe period at 1600 mg/kg, but did not exhibit any effect on the response rate during the alarm period. In contrast, lavender oil increased the response rate during the alarm period in a dose-dependent manner in the same manner as diazepam. These results indicate that not only rose oil but also lavender oil possess an anticonflict effect in mice. PMID:10928328

Umezu, T



[Evaluation of antifungal effects of a traditional medicine containing 17 components on Trichophyton verrucosum and Malassezia pachydermatis by microdilution].  


The minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC)of a traditional medicine containing 17 components against 9 strains of Trichophyton verrucosum and 13 strains of Malassezia pachydermatis was determined using a method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute(CLSI). We also measured the MIC of each of the 17 components using the same method, and identified the main antifungal components.In order to evaluate MIC as a parameter of the antifungal effects using the microdilution method, we prepared 10% working solutions from 10% (w/v)medicines. The geometric mean MIC of the medicinal extract against T. verrucosum was 2.51%, and that against M. pachydermatis was 2.25%. The components that exhibited antifungal effects were Rheum palmatum, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Magnolia obovata, Phellodendron amurense, and Geranium thunbergii. PMID:21891983

Nishikata, Naoko; Nakamori, Kentaro; Sueyoshi, Masuo; Takahashi, Hideo; Yuji, Hiroyuki; Sano, Ayako



Ixora coccinea Linn.: traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology.  


Ixora coccinea Linn., (Rubiaceae) commonly known as jungle of geranium and red ixora, is an evergreen shrub found throughout India. Depending on the medical condition, the flowers, leaves, roots, and the stem are used to treat various ailments in the Indian traditional system of medicine, the Ayurveda, and also in various folk medicines. The fruits, when fully ripe, are used as a dietary source. Phytochemical studies indicate that the plant contains important phytochemicals such as lupeol, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, sitosterol, rutin, lecocyanadin, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin. Pharmacological studies suggest that the plant possesses antioxidative, antibacterial, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, antidiarrhoeal, antinociceptive, antimutagenic, antineoplastic and chemopreventive effects, thus lending scientific support to the plant's ethnomedicinal uses. In the present review, efforts are made in addressing its ethnomedicinal uses, chemical constituents, and validated pharmacological observations. PMID:22231708

Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Kurian, Poruthukaran John



Comparative toxicity of oxygenated monoterpenoids in experimental hydroalcoholic lotions to permethrin-resistant adult head lice.  


The use of botanical compounds such as essential oils has recently become the subject of great interest as a natural means of pest control because of their ovicidal, larvicidal, or adulticidal activity against various insect species including head lice. We tested and compared the efficacy of pure oxygenated monoterpenoids that are main ingredients of essential oils of good biological activity. We used pulegone and citral, components of Aloysia citrodora, and geraniol, citronellol, and linalool, components of Geranium sp. oil. We found that citronellol and geraniol showed the highest knockdown and mortality effect (>60%) on adults of both sexes (50:50%) and third-stage nymphs. Pulegone, linalool, and citral showed knockdown percentages between 42 and 55%, and mortality percentages between 47 and 53%. A simple linear regression analysis showed statistically significant relationships between the studied toxic effects and viscosity of the monoterpenoids (p < 0.05), but not with their partition coefficient (log P). PMID:21174108

Gonzalez-Audino, Paola; Picollo, María Inés; Gallardo, Anabella; Toloza, Ariel; Vassena, Claudia; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón



Peril in the market-classification and dosage of species used as anti-diabetics in Lima, Peru  

PubMed Central

Background Peru is what Peruvian anthropologist Lupe Camino calls the “health axis” of the old Central Andean culture area stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. In particular in the North of the country the traditional use of medicinal dates back as far as the first millennium B.C. Both healers, and the wider population, often buy their medicinal plants in local markets, but there is very little comparative information available about which plants are sold under which vernacular name at any given time, for which indication, and which dosage information and information about side effects is given by vendors. For this study we used two traditionally used species groups “Hercampuri” Gentianella spec. (Gentianaceae) and “Pasuchaca” Geranium spec. (Geraniaceae.), found in the Mercado Aviación in Lima, as small, clearly circumscribed plant group frequently used to treat symptoms of diabetes as a test case to study the taxonomy, indications, dosage, indicated side effects, and additional species used as admixtures and hypothesized that: 1. A wide variety of different species is sold under the same common name, and often several common names exist for one species. 2. There is no consistency in the dosage, or a relationship between dosage and species marketed under one name. 3. However, there is consistency in the knowledge about usage and side effects. Methods Surveys focusing on medicinal plants sold and their properties were conducted at the Mercado Aviación in Lima in December 2012. Vouchers of all specimens were deposited at the National Herbarium of Peru. Results and conclusions Our surveys in Mercado Aviación in Lima yielded four species of Gentianella, two of Geranium, and three additional species from three genera used as common additives that were sold as anti-diabetic. These results indicate that even in case of only a few plant species, used for a very clearly circumscribed application, patients run a considerable risk when purchasing their remedies in the market. The possible side effects in this case are the more serious because diabetes has to be treated long term, and as such the patients are ingesting possible toxic remedies over a long period of time. Much more control, and a much more stringent identification of the material sold in public markets, and entering the global supply chain via internet sales, would be needed. PMID:23718140



A preliminary investigation of anticholinesterase activity of some Iranian medicinal plants commonly used in traditional medicine  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some commonly used herbal medicine in Iran to introduce a new source for management of Alzheimer’s disease. A total of 18 aqueous-methanolic extract (1:1; v/v) from the following plants: Brassica alba, Brassica nigra, Camellia sinensis, Cinchona officinalis, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus x aurantium, Ferula assafoetida, Humulus lupulus, Juglans regia, Juniperus sabina, Myristica fragrans, Pelargonium graveolens, Pistacia vera, Punica granatum, Rheum officinale, Rosa damascena, Salix alba, and Zizyphus vulgaris were prepared and screened for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity using in vitro Ellman spectrophotometric method. Results According to the obtained results, the order of inhibitory activity (IC50 values, ?g /ml) of extracts from highest to the lowest was: C. sinensis (5.96), C. aurantifolia (19.57), Z. vulgaris (24.37), B. nigra (84.30) and R. damascena (93.1). Conclusions The results indicated and confirmed the traditional use of these herbs for management of central nervous system disorders. C. sinensis showed the highest activity in inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. However, further investigations on identification of active components in the extracts are needed. PMID:24401532



A DNA Barcoding Approach to Characterize Pollen Collected by Honeybees  

PubMed Central

In the present study, we investigated DNA barcoding effectiveness to characterize honeybee pollen pellets, a food supplement largely used for human nutrition due to its therapeutic properties. We collected pollen pellets using modified beehives placed in three zones within an alpine protected area (Grigna Settentrionale Regional Park, Italy). A DNA barcoding reference database, including rbcL and trnH-psbA sequences from 693 plant species (104 sequenced in this study) was assembled. The database was used to identify pollen collected from the hives. Fifty-two plant species were identified at the molecular level. Results suggested rbcL alone could not distinguish among congeneric plants; however, psbA-trnH identified most of the pollen samples at the species level. Substantial variability in pollen composition was observed between the highest elevation locality (Alpe Moconodeno), characterized by arid grasslands and a rocky substrate, and the other two sites (Cornisella and Ortanella) at lower altitudes. Pollen from Ortanella and Cornisella showed the presence of typical deciduous forest species; however in samples collected at Ortanella, pollen of the invasive Lonicera japonica, and the ornamental Pelargonium x hortorum were observed. Our results indicated pollen composition was largely influenced by floristic local biodiversity, plant phenology, and the presence of alien flowering species. Therefore, pollen molecular characterization based on DNA barcoding might serve useful to beekeepers in obtaining honeybee products with specific nutritional or therapeutic characteristics desired by food market demands. PMID:25296114

Bruni, Ilaria; Scaccabarozzi, Daniela; Sandionigi, Anna; Barbuto, Michela; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Labra, Massimo



Changes in carotenoid content and distribution in living plant tissue can be observed and mapped in situ using NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy.  


Near-infrared (NIR) excited Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy has been applied for in situ analysis of carotenoids in living plant samples. Pelargonium x hortorum leaf has been mapped using a Raman mapping technique to illustrate heterogeneous distribution of carotenoids. Mapping has also been employed for visualization of carotenoid changes induced by abiotic and biotic stress. In a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit, inhibition of lycopene biosynthesis and accumulation of beta-carotene are demonstrated in tissue affected by sunscald physiological disorder. Raman map of diseased sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaf shows a local carotenoid decline at infection site while the carotenoid accumulation is evident in parsley (Petroselinum crispum Mill. Nym.) as a response to Septoria petroselini infestation. Additionally, occurrence of lutein, beta-carotene and capsanthin, and changes in their relative content during bell pepper (Capsicum annum L.) fruit ripening are described by single Raman spectra. Based on these examples, the potential application of NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy for a non-destructive analysis of carotenoids in various living plant tissues of the size ranging from about 0.01 mm(2) to 35 cm(2) is discussed. PMID:16007452

Baranski, Rafal; Baranska, Malgorzata; Schulz, Hartwig



Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extracts as reducing agents  

PubMed Central

Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared using four different plant extracts as reducing and stabilizing agents. The extracts were obtained from the following plants: Salvia officinalis, Lippia citriodora, Pelargonium graveolens and Punica granatum. The size distributions of the GNPs were measured using three different methods: dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle-tracking analysis and analysis of scanning electron microscopy images. The three methods yielded similar size distributions. Biocompatibility was examined by correlation of L-cell growth in the presence of different amounts of GNPs. All GNPs showed good biocompatibility and good stability for over 3 weeks. Therefore, they can be used for imaging and drug-delivery applications in the human body. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to view the shapes of the larger GNPs, while infrared spectroscopy was employed to characterize the various functional groups in the organic layer that stabilize the particles. Finally, active ingredients in the plant extract that might be involved in the formation of GNPs are proposed, based on experiments with pure antioxidants that are known to exist in that plant. PMID:25187704

Elia, Paz; Zach, Raya; Hazan, Sharon; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Porat, Ze’ev; Zeiri, Yehuda



New uses for calcium chloride solution as a mounting medium.  


Fresh cross sections of stems (Psilotum nudum, Coleus blumei, and Pelargonium peltatum) and roots (Setcreasea purpurea) 120 microns thick were fixed in FPA50 (formalin: propionic acid: 50% ethanol, 5:5:90, v/v) for 24 hr and stored in 70% ethanol. The sections were transferred to water and then to 1% phloroglucin in 20% calcium chloride solution plus either hydrochloric, nitric, or lactic acid in the following ratios of phloroglucin-CaCl2 solution:acid: 25:4, 20:2, or 15:5. The sections were mounted on slides either in one of the three mixtures or in fresh 20% calcium chloride solution. A rapid reaction of the acid-phloroglucin with lignin produced a deep red color in tracheary elements and an orange-red color in sclerenchyma. Fixed and stored leaf pieces from Nymphaea odorata were autoclaved in lactic acid, washed in two changes of 95% ethanol, transferred to water, and treated with the three acid-phloroglucin-calcium chloride mixtures. The abundant astrosclereids stained an orange-red color similar to that of sclerenchyma in the sections. In addition, a new method is reported for specifically staining lignified tissues. When sections or leaf pieces are stained in aqueous 0.05% toluidine blue O, then placed in 20% calcium chloride solution, all tissues destain except those with lignified or partially lignified cell walls. Thus, toluidine blue O applied as described becomes a reliable specific test for lignin comparable to the acid-phloroglucin test. PMID:1377501

Herr, J M



Involvement of liver in diabetes mellitus: herbal remedies.  


Liver disease is considered as one of the major complications in oxidative stress disorders like diabetes mellitus (DM). DM presents with deterioration in carbohydrate metabolism which is characterized with chronic hyperglycemia. The organ which involves in glucose or carbohydrate metabolism and is most likely to be affected is the liver. Deterioration in liver architecture and metabolism in DM, are considered as common findings. In the present review both biochemical and histological changes occurring in diabetic liver are conferred in detail. To counteract the oxidative stress disorders and its untoward complications, antioxidant or herbs have emerged as alternative medicine. The present review focuses on several herbs with antioxidant properties towards diabetic liver disease such as Liquorice, Pelargonium gravenolens, Momordica charantia, Propolis from bee hives, Dihar, Curcuma Longa, Tinospora cordifolia, Kangen-karyu, Parsley, Chard, Green tea Catechins and Piper sarmentosum (P.s). The herbs or the compounds present in herbs have potential to improve the liver metabolism and maintain the integrity of liver tissue in DM. The review also opens the door for effective use of herbal products for complications involved in the diabetic liver disease. PMID:25203338

Thent, Z C; Das, S



Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extracts as reducing agents.  


Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared using four different plant extracts as reducing and stabilizing agents. The extracts were obtained from the following plants: Salvia officinalis, Lippia citriodora, Pelargonium graveolens and Punica granatum. The size distributions of the GNPs were measured using three different methods: dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle-tracking analysis and analysis of scanning electron microscopy images. The three methods yielded similar size distributions. Biocompatibility was examined by correlation of L-cell growth in the presence of different amounts of GNPs. All GNPs showed good biocompatibility and good stability for over 3 weeks. Therefore, they can be used for imaging and drug-delivery applications in the human body. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to view the shapes of the larger GNPs, while infrared spectroscopy was employed to characterize the various functional groups in the organic layer that stabilize the particles. Finally, active ingredients in the plant extract that might be involved in the formation of GNPs are proposed, based on experiments with pure antioxidants that are known to exist in that plant. PMID:25187704

Elia, Paz; Zach, Raya; Hazan, Sharon; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Porat, Ze'ev; Zeiri, Yehuda



Food protective effect of geraniol and its congeners against stored food mites.  


The acaricidal activities of compounds derived from the oil of Pelargonium graveolens leaves against the storage food mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, were compared with the activity of a commercial acaricide, benzyl benzoate, in an impregnated fabric disk bioassay. Purification of the active constituent from P. graveolens was accomplished by silica gel chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Structural analysis of the active constituent by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C-NMR, 1H-13C shift correlated spectroscopy NMR, and distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer NMR identified trans-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol (geraniol). Based on the 50% lethal dose values, the most toxic compounds against T. putrescentiae were geraniol (1.95 microg/cm3), which was followed by nerol (2.21 microg/cm3), citral (9.65 microg/cm3), benzyl benzoate (11.27 microg/cm3), and beta-citronellol (15.86 microg/cm3). Our results suggest that geraniol is more effective in controlling T. putrescentiae than benzyl benzoate is. Furthermore, geraniol, which is used as a flavoring for beverages, candies, ice creams, and baked goods and congeners (citral and nerol), may be useful for managing populations of T. putrescentiae. PMID:19681271

Jeon, J H; Lee, C H; Lee, H S



Adverse effects of herbal medicines: an overview of systematic reviews.  


This overview of systematic reviews (SRs) aims to evaluate critically the evidence regarding the adverse effects of herbal medicines (HMs). Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant SRs, with 50 SRs of 50 different HMs meeting our inclusion criteria. Most had only minor weaknesses in methods. Serious adverse effects were noted only for four HMs: Herbae pulvis standardisatus, Larrea tridentate, Piper methysticum and Cassia senna. The most severe adverse effects were liver or kidney damage, colon perforation, carcinoma, coma and death. Moderately severe adverse effects were noted for 15 HMs: Pelargonium sidoides, Perna canaliculus, Aloe vera, Mentha piperita, Medicago sativa, Cimicifuga racemosa, Caulophyllum thalictroides, Serenoa repens, Taraxacum officinale, Camellia sinensis, Commifora mukul, Hoodia gordonii, Viscum album, Trifolium pratense and Stevia rebaudiana. Minor adverse effects were noted for 31 HMs: Thymus vulgaris, Lavandula angustifolia Miller, Boswellia serrata, Calendula officinalis, Harpagophytum procumbens, Panax ginseng, Vitex agnus-castus, Crataegus spp., Cinnamomum spp., Petasites hybridus, Agave americana, Hypericum perforatum, Echinacea spp., Silybum marianum, Capsicum spp., Genus phyllanthus, Ginkgo biloba, Valeriana officinalis, Hippocastanaceae, Melissa officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Cnicus benedictus, Salvia hispanica, Vaccinium myrtillus, Mentha spicata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Crocus sativus, Gymnema sylvestre, Morinda citrifolia and Curcuma longa. Most of the HMs evaluated in SRs were associated with only moderately severe or minor adverse effects. PMID:23472485

Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala K; Ernst, Edzard



The potential of selected South African plants with anti-Klebsiella activity for the treatment and prevention of Ankylosing spondylitis.  


A wide variety of herbal remedies are used in traditional African medicine to treat inflammatory disorders, including some autoimmune diseases. Thirty-four extracts from 13 South African plant species traditionally used for the treatment of inflam mation were investigated for their ability to control a microbial trigger for ankylosing spondylitis (Klebsiella pneumoniae). Twenty-six of the extracts (76.5 %) inhibited the growth of K. pneumoniae. Methanol and water extracts of Ballota africana, Carpobrotus edulis leaves, Kigellia africana, Lippia javanica, Pelargonium fasiculata, Syzygium cordatum (including bark), Terminalia pruinoides and Terminalia sericea were effective K. pneumoniae inhibitors, with MIC values <1000 µg/ml. The roots of Tulbaghia violaceae and bark from Warburgia salutaris also demonstrated efficacy. The most potent extracts were examined by RP-HPLC and UV-Vis spectroscopy for the presence of resveratrol. Methanolic extracts of B. africana, C. edulis leaves, L. javanica, T. pruinoides and T. sericea, as well as aqueous B. africana, T. pruinoides and T. sericea extracts, displayed peaks with retention times and UV-Vis spectra consistent with the presence of resveratrol. Resveratrol was generally a minor component, indicating that resveratrol was not solely responsible for the anti-Klebsiella growth inhibitory properties. Plant extracts with K. pneumoniae inhibitory activity were either non-toxic, or of low toxicity in the Artemia (brine shrimp) nauplii bioassay. Their low toxicity and antibiotic bioactivity against K. pneumoniae indicate their potential for both preventing the onset of ankylosing spondylitis and minimising its symptoms once the disease is established. PMID:25412961

Cock, I E; van Vuuren, S F



Screening of Crude Plant Extracts with Anti-Obesity Activity  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a global health problem. It is also known to be a risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders, type 2 diabetes, systemic hypertension, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis. In this study, we screened crude extracts from 400 plants to test their anti-obesity activity using porcine pancreatic lipase assay (PPL; triacylglycerol lipase, EC in vitro activity. Among the 400 plants species examined, 44 extracts from plants, showed high anti-lipase activity using 2,4-dinitrophenylbutyrate as a substrate in porcine pancreatic lipase assay. Furthermore, 44 plant extracts were investigated for their inhibition of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Among these 44 extracts examined, crude extracts from 4 natural plant species were active. Salicis Radicis Cortex had the highest fat inhibitory activity, whereas Rubi Fructus, Corni Fructus, and Geranium nepalense exhibited fat inhibitory capacity higher than 30% at 100 ?g/mL in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting anti-obesity activity. These results suggest that four potent plant extracts might be of therapeutic interest with respect to the treatment of obesity. PMID:22408418

Roh, Changhyun; Jung, Uhee



Repellency of Cinnamomum cassia bark compounds and cream containing cassia oil to Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory and indoor conditions.  


Patch and skin bioassays were used in laboratory and indoor tests to evaluate the repellency of (E)-cinnamaldehyde, identified in Cinnamomum cassia Blume bark and essential oil, and a cream containing 5% (w/w) cassia oil against Aedes aegypti (L.) females. Results were compared with those of a known C. cassia compound cinnamyl alcohol, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) and two commercial repellents: MeiMei cream containing citronella and geranium oils and Repellan S aerosol containing 19% DEET. In patch bioassay tests with A. aegypti females, (E)-cinnamaldehyde at 0.153 mg cm(-2) and DEET at 0.051 mg cm(-2) provided 93 and 89% protection at 40 min after exposure. In skin bioassay tests, (E)-cinnamaldehyde at 0.051 mg cm(-2) and DEET at 0.025 mg cm(-2) provided 87 and 95% protection at 30 min after application. (E)-Cinnamaldehyde was significantly more effective than cinnamyl alcohol in both bioassays. In indoor tests with four human volunteers, 5% cassia oil cream provided 94, 83 and 61% protection against A. aegypti females exposed for 30, 50 and 70 min after application respectively. Cassia oil cream was a slightly less effective repellent than MeiMei cream. Repellan S aerosol provided 91% repellency at 120 min after application. Products containing cassia oil merit further study as potential repellents for the protection of humans and domestic animals from blood-feeding vectors and the diseases they transmit. PMID:16894642

Chang, Kyu-Sik; Tak, Jun-Hyung; Kim, Soon-Il; Lee, Won-Ja; Ahn, Young-Joon



Plant extracts with anti-inflammatory properties--a new approach for characterization of their bioactive compounds and establishment of structure-antioxidant activity relationships.  


Geranium robertianum L. (Geraniacea) and Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. (Rubiaceae) plant extracts, frequently used in traditional medicine for treatment of inflammatory and cancer diseases, were studied to identify potential bioactive compounds that may justify their therapeutic use and their underlying mechanisms of action. Since some of the pharmacological properties of these plant extracts may be linked to their antioxidant potential, the antioxidant activity, in relation to free radical scavenging, was measured by the ABTS/HRP and DPPH() assays, presenting U. tomentosa the higher activity. The antioxidant activity was also evaluated by scavenging of HOCl, the major strong oxidant produced by neutrophils and a potent pro-inflammatory agent. U. tomentosa was found to be a better protector against HOCl, which may justify its effectiveness against inflammatory diseases. SPE/LC-DAD was used for separation/purification purposes and ESI-MS/MS for identification/characterization of the major non-volatile components, mainly flavonoids and phenolic acids. The ESI-MS/MS methodology proposed can be used as a model procedure for identification/characterization of unknowns without the prerequisite for standard compounds analysis. The ESI-MS/MS data obtained were consistent with the antioxidant activity results and structure-activity relationships for the compounds identified were discussed. PMID:19201196

Amaral, Sónia; Mira, Lurdes; Nogueira, J M F; da Silva, Alda Pereira; Helena Florêncio, M



A comprehensive review of vaginitis phytotherapy.  


To overview phytotherapy of vaginitis in order to identify new approaches for new pharmacological treatments. All related literature databases were searched for herbal medicinal treatment in vaginitis. The search terms were plant, herb, herbal therapy, phytotherapy, vaginitis, vaginal, anti-candida, anti-bacterial and anti-trichomonas. All of the human, animal and in vitro studies were included. Anti-candida, anti-bacterial and anti-trichomonas effects were the key outcomes. The plants including carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, menthol, terpinen-4-ol and thymol exhibited anti-candida effects. A very low concentration of geranium oil and geraniol blocked mycelial growth, but not yeast. Tea tree oil including terpinen-4-ol, alpha-terpinene, gamma-terpinene and alpha-terpineol showed anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-protozoal properties against trichomonas. Allium hirtifolium (persian shallot) comparable to metronidazole exhibited anti-trichomonas activity due to its components such as allicin, ajoene and other organosulfides. The plants having beneficial effects on vaginitis encompass essential oils that clear the pathway that future studies should be focused to standardize theses herbs. PMID:22514885

Azimi, Hanieh; Fallah-Tafti, Mehrnaz; Karimi-Darmiyan, Maliheh; Abdollahi, Mohammad



Dried leaves from rocky mountain plants decrease infestation by stored-product beetles.  


Leaves of two highly aromatic plants,Artemisia tridentata (Nutt.) andMonarda fistulosa L., prepared according to a patented process, inhibited oviposition by the Mexican bean weevil,Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman), in beans at concentrations less than 1% w/w. Both plant species were less effective against the rice weevil,Sitophilus oryzae L., in wheat, with onlyM. fistulosa exhibiting any concentration-dependent activity. The maximal control achieved against this species was less than 50% at 3% w/w. Two less aromatic plant species,Balsamorhiza sagittata (Pursh.) Nutt. andGeranium viscosissimum Fisch. and Mey., caused only low levels of inhibition against both insect species. Volatiles probably caused the response toA. tridentata andM. fistulosa, while the asymptotic concentration dependence for the less volatile plant material was likely caused by behavioral factors related to the physical presence of foreign particulate matter in the foodstuff. Chemical analysis indicated that most of the volatile components from the dried leaf material from all species were terpenoids, with camphor (9.7 mg/g) and 1,8-cineole (4.0 mg/g) being most abundant inA. tridentata and carvacrol (26.3 mg/g) being most abundant inM. fistulosa. PMID:24234015

Weaver, D K; Phillips, T W; Dunkel, F V; Weaver, T; Grubb, R T; Nance, E L



Bioindication of heavy metals with aquatic macrophytes: the case of a stream polluted with power plant sewages in Poland.  


The Kozi Brod (left tributary of the Biala Przemsza, east of Katowice) flows in a highly industrial coal-mining area dominated by the power plant of Siersza. Concentrations of the microelements nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), barium (Ba), aluminum (Al), vanadium (V), and strontium (Sr), as well as the macronutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and sulfur (S), were measured in water and plants of the Kozi Brod. The collected plants were: Myosotis palustris L. Nathorst, Galium palustre L., Mentha rotundifolia L. Huds., Mentha aquatica L., Berula erecta (Huds.) Coville, Cardamine amara L., Epilobium angustifolium L., Geranium palustre L., Lysimachia vulgaris L., Crepis paludosa L. Much., Calitriche verna L., Solanum dulcamara L., and the aquatic moss Hygrohypnum ochraceum (Turn.) Loesk. These plants were used to evaluate the spatial distribution of elements in the Kozi Brod and contained elevated levels of Co, Cd, Zn, Ni, Mn, Al, Pb, and Cu. Significant correlations between concentrations of Cd, Zn, and Mn in water and plants indicate the potential of these species for pollution monitoring. PMID:11205536

Samecka-Cymerman, A; Kempers, A J



Geraniin suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and ameliorates wear particle-induced osteolysis in mouse model.  


Wear particle-induced osteolysis and subsequent aseptic loosening remains the most common complication that limits the longevity of prostheses. Wear particle-induced osteoclastogenesis is known to be responsible for extensive bone erosion that leads to prosthesis failure. Thus, inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption may serve as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of wear particle induced osteolysis. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that geraniin, an active natural compound derived from Geranium thunbergii, ameliorated particle-induced osteolysis in a Ti particle-induced mouse calvaria model in vivo. We also investigated the mechanism by which geraniin exerts inhibitory effects on osteoclasts. Geraniin inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in a dose-dependent manner, evidenced by reduced osteoclast formation and suppressed osteoclast specific gene expression. Specially, geraniin inhibited actin ring formation and bone resorption in vitro. Further molecular investigation demonstrated geraniin impaired osteoclast differentiation via the inhibition of the RANKL-induced NF-?B and ERK signaling pathways, as well as suppressed the expression of key osteoclast transcriptional factors NFATc1 and c-Fos. Collectively, our data suggested that geraniin exerts inhibitory effects on osteoclast differentiation in vitro and suppresses Ti particle-induced osteolysis in vivo. Geraniin is therefore a potential natural compound for the treatment of wear particle induced osteolysis in prostheses failure. PMID:25016282

Xiao, Fei; Zhai, Zanjing; Jiang, Chuan; Liu, Xuqiang; Li, Haowei; Qu, Xinhua; Ouyang, Zhengxiao; Fan, Qiming; Tang, Tingting; Qin, An; Gu, Dongyun



Interspecific differences in the effects of sulfur dioxide on angiosperm sexual reproduction  

SciTech Connect

The major objective of this study was to test the potential direct effects of SO/sub 2/ on sexual reproduction in several plant species with different reproductive structures and processes. In marked contrast to the sensitivity to SO/sub 2/ reported by other investigators for pollen germination and pollen tube growth in vitro, and recorded for Lepidium virginicum in this study, 4 of 5 species tested were tolerant with respect to fruit and seed set after exposure to 0.6 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 8 hours during flowering. Seed set in the one sensitive species, Geranium carolinianum, was reduced 40% from the control after exposure to SO/sub 2/, but only when relative humidity (RH) was at or above 90%. The effect of SO/sub 2/ on Lepidium pollen germination in vitro was greater than the effect of SO/sub 2/ on sexual reproduction in vivo. Sulfur dioxide reduced pollen germination in vitro 94% from the control. The same concentration of SO/sub 2/, at 90% Rh, reduced pollen germination in vivo 50% from the control, but had no effect on seed set. Predictions of effects of SO/sub 2/ on reproduction in vivo based on effects of SO/sub 2/ on pollen germination and pollen tube growth in vitro are not valid.

DuBay, D.T.



Influence of relative humidity on direct sulfur dioxide damage to plant sexual reproduction  

SciTech Connect

Results of in vivo experiments with Geranium carolinianum L. showed that sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) damaged sexual reproduction (in terms of decreased seed set) when relative humdity (RH) was 80% or above but not when RH was 70% or below. Relative humidity alone, if 80% or higher, damaged sexual reproduction; the addition of SO/sub 2/ increased the damage. A high SO/sub 2/ dosage of 1.5 ppM/7 hours at 50% RH caused leaf injury, but decreased percent seed set <5%, whereas a low SO/sub 2/ dosage of 0.2 ppM/7 hours at 90% RH decreased percent seed set by 32% without visible leaf injury. At an SO/sub 2/ dosage of 0.4 ppM/7 hours administered during anthesis, percent seed set was virtually identical with the control at 70% RH, 35% below the control at 80% RH, and 68% below the control at 90% RH.

Murdy, W.H.; Ragsdale, H.L.



Larval Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) potential for vectoring Pythium root rot pathogens.  


A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the capacity of Bradysia impatiens (Johannsen) larvae to ingest propagules from two strains each of Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. and P. ultimum Trow and transmit the pathogens to healthy geranium seedlings on a filter-paper substrate in petri dishes. The capacity of fungus gnat larvae to transmit P. aphanidermatum to seedlings rooted in a commercial peat-based potting mix and germination of Pythium oospores and hyphal swellings before and after passage through the guts of larval fungus gnats were also examined. Assays revealed that Pythium spp. transmission by larval fungus gnats varied greatly with the assay substrate and also with the number and nature of ingested propagules. Transmission was highest (65%) in the petri dish assays testing larvae fed P. aphanidermatum K-13, a strain that produced abundant oospores. Transmission of strain K-13 was much lower (<6%) in plug cells with potting mix. Larvae were less efficient at vectoring P. ultimum strain PSN-1, which produced few oospores, and no transmission was observed with two non-oospore-producing strains: P. aphanidermatum Pa58 and P. ultimum P4. Passage of P. aphanidermatum K-13 through larval guts significantly increased oospore germination. However, decreased germination of hyphal swellings was observed following larval gut passage for strains of P. ultimum. These results expand previous studies suggesting that larval fungus gnats may vector Pythium spp. PMID:22085299

Braun, S E; Sanderson, J P; Wraight, S P



Evaluation of the effects of plant-derived essential oils on central nervous system function using discrete shuttle-type conditioned avoidance response in mice.  


Although plant-derived essential oils (EOs) have been used to treat various mental disorders, their central nervous system (CNS) acting effects have not been clarified. The present study compared the effects of 20 kinds of EOs with the effects of already-known CNS acting drugs to examine whether the EOs exhibited CNS stimulant-like effects, CNS depressant-like effects, or neither. All agents were tested using a discrete shuttle-type conditioned avoidance task in mice. Essential oils of peppermint and chamomile exhibited CNS stimulant-like effects; that is, they increased the response rate (number of shuttlings/min) of the avoidance response. Linden also increased the response rate, however, the effect was not dose-dependent. In contrast, EOs of orange, grapefruit, and cypress exhibited CNS depressant-like effects; that is, they decreased the response rate of the avoidance response. Essential oils of eucalyptus and rose decreased the avoidance rate (number of avoidance responses/number of avoidance trials) without affecting the response rate, indicating that they may exhibit some CNS acting effects. Essential oils of 12 other plants, including juniper, patchouli, geranium, jasmine, clary sage, neroli, lavender, lemon, ylang-ylang, niaouli, vetivert and frankincense had no effect on the avoidance response in mice. PMID:22086772

Umezu, Toyoshi



Laser-assisted biosynthesis for noble nanoparticles production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extracellular Biosynthesis technique (EBS) for nanoparticles production has attracted a lot of attention as an environmentally friendly and an inexpensive methodology. Our recent research was focused on the rapid approach of the green synthesis method and the reduction of the homogeneous size distribution of nanoparticles using pulse laser application. Noble nanoparticles (NNPs) were produced using various ethanol and water plant extracts. The plants were chosen based on their biomedical applications. The plants we used were Magnolia grandiflora, Geranium, Aloe `tingtinkie', Aloe barbadensis (Aloe Vera), Eucalyptus angophoroides, Sansevieria trifasciata, Impatiens scapiflora. Water and ethanol extract, were used as reducing agents to produce the nanoparticles. The reaction process was monitored using a UV-Visible spectroscopy. NNPs were characterized by Fourier Transfer Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and the Dynamic Light Scattering technique (DLS). During the pulse laser Nd-YAG illumination (?=1064nm, 532nm, PE= 450mJ, 200mJ, 10 min) the blue shift of the surface plasmon resonance absorption peak was observed from ~424nm to 403nm for silver NP; and from ~530nm to 520 nm for gold NPs. In addition, NNPs solution after Nd-YAG illumination was characterized by the narrowing of the surface plasmon absorption resonance band, which corresponds to monodispersed NNPS distribution. FTIR, TEM, DLS, Zeta potential results demonstrated that NNPs were surrounded by biological molecules, which naturally stabilized nanosolutions for months. Cytotoxicity investigation of biosynthesized NNPs is in progress.

Kukhtarev, Tatiana; Edwards, Vernessa; Kukhtareva, Nickolai; Moses, Sherita



Transgenerational effects of plant sex and arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.  


In gynodioecious plants, females are predicted to produce more and/or better offspring than hermaphrodites in order to be maintained in the same population. In the field, the roots of both sexes are usually colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Transgenerational effects of mycorrhizal symbiosis are largely unknown, although theoretically expected. We examined the maternal and paternal effects of AM fungal symbiosis and host sex on seed production and posterior seedling performance in Geranium sylvaticum, a gynodioecious plant. We hand-pollinated cloned females and hermaphrodites in symbiosis with AM fungi or in nonmycorrhizal conditions and measured seed number and mass, and seedling survival and growth in a glasshouse experiment. Females produced more seeds than hermaphrodites, but the seeds did not germinate, survive or grow better. Mycorrhizal plants were larger, but did not produce more seeds than nonmycorrhizal plants. Transgenerational parental effects of AM fungi were verified in seedling performance. This is the first study to show transgenerational mycorrhiza-mediated parental effects in a gynodioecious species. Mycorrhizal symbiosis affects plant fitness mainly through female functions with enduring effects on the next generation. PMID:23659431

Varga, Sandra; Vega-Frutis, Rocío; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit



Aromatherapy Massage Affects Menopausal Symptoms in Korean Climacteric Women: A Pilot-Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight times in total). The experimental group reported a significantly lower total menopausal index than wait-listed controls (P < 0.05). There were also significant intergroup differences in subcategories such as vasomotor, melancholia, arthralgia and myalgia (all P < 0.05). These findings suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, depression and pain in climacteric women. However, it could not be verified whether the positive effects were from the aromatherapy, the massage or both. Further rigorous studies should be done with more objective measures. PMID:18830459

Hur, Myung-Haeng; Yang, Yun Seok



Molecular Structure of Camphor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Camphor is found in numerous plants like sage and geraniums and several trees. Since it has wide applications it is both extracted from plants and synthesized around the world, especially in China, India, and the U.S. Camphor is white and has a strong, penetrating fragrant odor and a bitter, pungent taste. The crystalline substance causes an icy feeling when touched. Camphor oil, containing cineol, borneol, camphene, menthol, pinene and other components besides camphor, is mainly found in C.camphora and Dryobalanops camphora. C.camphora is an evergreen tree, which grows slowly and to immense sizes. Some growers believe that the camphor oil should not be taken from a tree younger than fifty years. There are two kinds of camphor oil on the market nowadays: one is from C. cinnamonum, and is recognized as Formosa or Japanese oil of Camphor; the other from D. aromatica is known as east India oil. Camphor oil is used in medical applications to treat numerous diseases. Camphor is also used as food preservative and safe pesticide.



A method for quantifying rotational symmetry.  


Here, a new approach for quantifying rotational symmetry based on vector analysis was described and compared with information obtained from a geometric morphometric analysis and a technique based on distance alone. A new method was developed that generates a polygon from the length and angle data of a structure and then quantifies the minimum change necessary to convert that polygon into a regular polygon. This technique yielded an asymmetry score (s) that can range from 0 (perfect symmetry) to 1 (complete asymmetry). Using digital images of Geranium robertianum flowers, this new method was compared with a technique based on lengths alone and with established geometric morphometric methods used to quantify shape variation. Asymmetry scores (s) more clearly described variation in symmetry and were more consistent with a visual assessment of the images than either comparative technique. This procedure is the first to quantify the asymmetry of radial structures accurately, uses easily obtainable measures to calculate the asymmetry score and allows comparisons among individuals and species, even when the comparisons involve structures with different patterns of symmetry. This technique enables the rigorous analysis of polysymmetric structures and provides a foundation for a better understanding of symmetry in nature. PMID:17688593

Frey, Frank M; Robertson, Aaron; Bukoski, Michael



Allergic sensitization to ornamental plants in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma.  


Ornamental plants (OPs) can lead to immediate-type sensitization and even asthma and rhinitis symptoms in some cases. This study aimed to evaluate sensitization to OPs in patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and to determine the factors affecting the rate of sensitization to OPs. A total of 150 patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Demographics and disease characteristics were recorded. Skin-prick tests were performed with a standardized inhalant allergen panel. Skin tests by "prick-to-prick" method with the leaves of 15 Ops, which are known to lead to allergenic sensitization, were performed. Skin tests with OPs were positive in 80 patients (47.1%). There was no significant difference between OP sensitized and nonsensitized patients in terms of gender, age, number of exposed OPs, and duration of exposure. Skin test positivity rate for OPs was significantly high in atopic subjects, patients with allergic rhinitis, food sensitivity, and indoor OP exposure, but not in patients with pollen and latex allergy. Most sensitizing OPs were Yucca elephantipes (52.5%), Dieffenbachia picta (50.8%), and Euphorbia pulcherrima (47.5%). There was significant correlation between having Saintpaulia ionantha, Croton, Pelargonium, Y. elephantipes, and positive skin test to these plants. Sensitivity to OPs was significantly higher in atopic subjects and patients with allergic rhinitis, food allergy, and indoor OP exposure. Furthermore, atopy and food sensitivity were found as risk factors for developing sensitization to indoor plants. Additional trials on the relationship between sensitization to OPs and allergic symptoms are needed. PMID:24717779

Aydin, Ömür; Erkekol, Ferda Öner; Misirloigil, Zeynep; Demirel, Yavuz Selim; Mungan, Dil?ad



Biological and molecular characterization of a novel carmovirus isolated from angelonia.  


ABSTRACT A new carmovirus was isolated from Angelonia plants (Angelonia angustifolia), with flower break and mild foliar symptoms, grown in the United States and Israel. The virus, for which the name Angelonia flower break virus (AnFBV) is proposed, has isometric particles, approximately 30 nm in diameter. The experimental host range was limited to Nicotiana species, Schizanthus pinnatus, Myosotis sylvatica, Phlox drummondii, and Digitalis purpurea. Virions were isolated from systemically infected N. benthamiana leaves, and directly from naturally infected Angelonia leaves, using typical carmovirus protocols. Koch's postulates were completed by mechanical inoculation of uninfected Angelonia seedlings with purified virions. Isometric particles were observed in leaf dips and virion preparations from both Angelonia and N. benthamiana, and in thin sections of Angelonia flower tissue by electron microscopy. In sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of dissociated purified virus preparations, a major protein component with a molecular mass of 38 kDa was observed. Virion preparations were used to produce virus-specific polyclonal antisera in both Israel and the United States. The antisera did not react with Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV), Carnation mottle virus (CarMV), or Saguaro cactus virus (SgCV) by either enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or immunoblotting. In reciprocal tests, antisera against PFBV, CarMV, and SgCV reacted only with the homologous viruses. The complete nucleotide sequence of a Florida isolate of AnFBV and the coat protein (CP) gene sequences of Israeli and Maryland isolates were determined. The genomic RNA is 3,964 nucleotides and contains four open reading frames arranged in a manner typical of carmoviruses. The AnFBV CP is most closely related to PFBV, whereas the AnFBV replicase is most closely related to PFBV, CarMV, and SgCV. Particle morphology, serological properties, genome organization, and phylogenetic analysis are all consistent with assignment of AnFBV to the genus Carmovirus. PMID:18944305

Adkins, Scott; Hammond, John; Gera, Abed; Maroon-Lango, Clarissa J; Sobolev, Irena; Harness, Andrea; Zeidan, Mohammad; Spiegel, Sara



Genome-wide analyses of Geraniaceae plastid DNA reveal unprecedented patterns of increased nucleotide substitutions  

PubMed Central

Angiosperm plastid genomes are generally conserved in gene content and order with rates of nucleotide substitutions for protein-coding genes lower than for nuclear protein-coding genes. A few groups have experienced genomic change, and extreme changes in gene content and order are found within the flowering plant family Geraniaceae. The complete plastid genome sequence of Pelargonium X hortorum (Geraniaceae) reveals the largest and most rearranged plastid genome identified to date. Highly elevated rates of sequence evolution in Geraniaceae mitochondrial genomes have been reported, but rates in Geraniaceae plastid genomes have not been characterized. Analysis of nucleotide substitution rates for 72 plastid genes for 47 angiosperm taxa, including nine Geraniaceae, show that values of dN are highly accelerated in ribosomal protein and RNA polymerase genes throughout the family. Furthermore, dN/dS is significantly elevated in the same two classes of plastid genes as well as in ATPase genes. A relatively high dN/dS ratio could be interpreted as evidence of two phenomena, namely positive or relaxed selection, neither of which is consistent with our current understanding of plastid genome evolution in photosynthetic plants. These analyses are the first to use protein-coding sequences from complete plastid genomes to characterize rates and patterns of sequence evolution for a broad sampling of photosynthetic angiosperms, and they reveal unprecedented accumulation of nucleotide substitutions in Geraniaceae. To explain these remarkable substitution patterns in the highly rearranged Geraniaceae plastid genomes, we propose a model of aberrant DNA repair coupled with altered gene expression. PMID:19011103

Guisinger, Mary M.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Jansen, Robert K.



Activated charcoal-mediated RNA extraction method for Azadirachta indica and plants highly rich in polyphenolics, polysaccharides and other complex secondary compounds  

PubMed Central

Background High quality RNA is a primary requisite for numerous molecular biological applications but is difficult to isolate from several plants rich in polysaccharides, polyphenolics and other secondary metabolites. These compounds either bind with nucleic acids or often co-precipitate at the final step and many times cannot be removed by conventional methods and kits. Addition of vinyl-pyrollidone polymers in extraction buffer efficiently removes polyphenolics to some extent, but, it failed in case of Azadirachta indica and several other medicinal and aromatic plants. Findings Here we report the use of adsorption property of activated charcoal (0.03%–0.1%) in RNA isolation procedures to remove complex secondary metabolites and polyphenolics to yield good quality RNA from Azadirachta indica. We tested and validated our modified RNA isolation method across 21 different plants including Andrographis paniculata, Aloe vera, Rosa damascena, Pelargonium graveolens, Phyllanthus amarus etc. from 13 other different families, many of which are considered as tough system for isolating RNA. The A260/280 ratio of the extracted RNA ranged between 1.8-2.0 and distinct 28S and 18S ribosomal RNA bands were observed in denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis. Analysis using Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer revealed intact total RNA yield with very good RNA Integrity Number. Conclusions The RNA isolated by our modified method was found to be of high quality and amenable for sensitive downstream molecular applications like subtractive library construction and RT-PCR. This modified RNA isolation procedure would aid and accelerate the biotechnological studies in complex medicinal and aromatic plants which are extremely rich in secondary metabolic compounds. PMID:23537338



Impact of Fertilizing Pattern on the Biodiversity of a Weed Community and Wheat Growth  

PubMed Central

Weeding and fertilization are important farming practices. Integrated weed management should protect or improve the biodiversity of farmland weed communities for a better ecological environment with not only increased crop yield, but also reduced use of herbicides. This study hypothesized that appropriate fertilization would benefit both crop growth and the biodiversity of farmland weed communities. To study the effects of different fertilizing patterns on the biodiversity of a farmland weed community and their adaptive mechanisms, indices of species diversity and responses of weed species and wheat were investigated in a 17-year field trial with a winter wheat-soybean rotation. This long term field trial includes six fertilizing treatments with different N, P and K application rates. The results indicated that wheat and the four prevalent weed species (Galium aparine, Vicia sativa, Veronica persica and Geranium carolinianum) showed different responses to fertilizer treatment in terms of density, plant height, shoot biomass, and nutrient accumulations. Each individual weed population exhibited its own adaptive mechanisms, such as increased internode length for growth advantages and increased light interception. The PK treatment had higher density, shoot biomass, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou Indices of weed community than N plus P fertilizer treatments. The N1/2PK treatment showed the same weed species number as the PK treatment. It also showed higher Shannon-Wiener and Pielou Indices of the weed community, although it had a lower wheat yield than the NPK treatment. The negative effects of the N1/2PK treatment on wheat yield could be balanced by the simultaneous positive effects on weed communities, which are intermediate in terms of the effects on wheat and weeds. PMID:24416223

Tang, Leilei; Cheng, Chuanpeng; Wan, Kaiyuan; Li, Ruhai; Wang, Daozhong; Tao, Yong; Pan, Junfeng; Xie, Juan; Chen, Fang



Sensitive and specific detection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. pelargonii with DNA primers and probes identified by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis.  

PubMed Central

The random amplified polymorphic DNA method was used to distinguish strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. pelargonii from 21 other Xanthomonas species and/or pathovars. Among the 42 arbitrarily chosen primers evaluated, 3 were found to reveal diagnostic polymorphisms when purified DNAs from compared strains were amplified by the PCR. The three primers revealed DNA amplification patterns which were conserved among all 53 strains tested of X. campestris pv. pelargonii isolated from various locations worldwide. The distinctive X. compestris pv. pelargonii patterns were clearly different from those obtained with any of 46 other Xanthomonas strains tested. An amplified 1.2-kb DNA fragment, apparently unique to X. campestris pv. pelargonii by these random amplified polymorphic DNA tests, was cloned and evaluated as a diagnostic DNA probe. It hybridized with total DNA from all 53 X. campestris pv. pelargonii strains tested and not with any of the 46 other Xanthomonas strains tested. The DNA sequence of the terminal ends of this 1.2-kb fragment was obtained and used to design a pair of 18-mer oligonucleotide primers specific for X. campestris pv. pelargonii. The custom-synthesized primers amplified the same 1.2-kb DNA fragment from all 53 X. campestris pv. pelargonii strains tested and failed to amplify DNA from any of the 46 other Xanthomonas strains tested. DNA isolated from saprophytes associated with the geranium plant also did not produce amplified DNA with these primers. The sensitivity of the PCR assay using the custom-synthesized primers was between 10 and 50 cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:7993095

Manulis, S; Valinsky, L; Lichter, A; Gabriel, D W



The autumn effect: timing of physical dormancy break in seeds of two winter annual species of Geraniaceae by a stepwise process  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The involvement of two steps in the physical dormancy (PY)-breaking process previously has been demonstrated in seeds of Fabaceae and Convolvulaceae. Even though there is a claim for a moisture-controlled stepwise PY-breaking in some species of Geraniaceae, no study has evaluated the role of temperature in the PY-breaking process in this family. The aim of this study was to determine whether a temperature-controlled stepwise PY-breaking process occurs in seeds of the winter annuals Geranium carolinianum and G. dissectum. Methods Seeds of G. carolinianum and G. dissectum were stored under different temperature regimes to test the effect of storage temperature on PY-break. The role of temperature and moisture regimes in regulating PY-break was investigated by treatments simulating natural conditions. Greenhouse (non-heated) experiments on seed germination and burial experiments (outdoors) were carried out to determine the PY-breaking behaviour in the natural habitat. Key Results Irrespective of moisture conditions, sensitivity to the PY-breaking step in seeds of G. carolinianum was induced at temperatures ?20 °C, and exposure to temperatures ?20 °C made the sensitive seeds permeable. Sensitivity of seeds increased with time. In G. dissectum, PY-break occurred at temperatures ?20 °C in a single step under constant wet or dry conditions and in two steps under alternate wet–dry conditions if seeds were initially kept wet. Conclusions Timing of seed germination with the onset of autumn can be explained by PY-breaking processes involving (a) two temperature-dependent steps in G. carolinianum and (b) one or two moisture-dependent step(s) along with the inability to germinate under high temperatures in G. dissectum. Geraniaceae is the third of 18 families with PY in which a two-step PY-breaking process has been demonstrated. PMID:22684684

Gama-Arachchige, N. S.; Baskin, J. M.; Geneve, R. L.; Baskin, C. C.



Evaluation of commercial products for personal protection against mosquitoes.  


Human landing catch studies were conducted in a semi-field setting to determine the efficacy of seven commercial products used for personal protection against mosquitoes. Experiments were conducted in two empty, insecticide free, mesh-enclosed greenhouses, in Israel, with either 1500 Aedes albopictus or 1500 Culex pipiens released on consecutive study nights. The products tested in this study were the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ Mosquito Repellent (Metofluthrin 31.2%) and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick Mosquito Repeller (Cinnamon oil 10.5%; Eugenol 13%; Geranium oil 21%; Peppermint 5.3%; Lemongrass oil 2.6%), which are personal diffusers; Super Band™ Wristband (22% Citronella oil) and the PIC(®) Citronella Plus Wristband (Geraniol 15%; Lemongrass oil 5%, Citronella oil 1%); the Sonic Insect Repeller Keychain; the Mosquito Guard Patch (Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus 80mg), an adhesive-backed sticker for use on textiles; and the Mosquito Patch (vitamin B1 300mg), a transdermal patch. It was determined that the sticker, transdermal patch, wristbands and sonic device did not provide significant protection to volunteers compared with the mosquito attack rate on control volunteers who were not wearing a repellent device. The personal diffusers: - OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick - provided superior protection compared with all other devices in this study. These diffusers reduced biting on the arms of volunteers by 96.28% and 95.26% respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 94.94% and 92.15% respectively, for Cx. pipiens. In a second trial conducted to compare these devices directly, biting was reduced by the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) by 87.55% and 92.83%, respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 97.22% and 94.14%, respectively, for Cx. pipiens. There was no significant difference between the performances of the two diffusers for each species. PMID:23092689

Revay, Edita E; Junnila, Amy; Xue, Rui-De; Kline, Daniel L; Bernier, Ulrich R; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Qualls, Whitney A; Ghattas, Nina; Müller, Günter C



An Ethnobotanical study of Medicinal Plants in high mountainous region of Chail valley (District Swat- Pakistan)  

PubMed Central

Background This paper represents the first ethnobotanical study in Chail valley of district Swat-Pakistan and provides significant information on medicinal plants use among the tribal people of the area. The aim of this study was to document the medicinal uses of local plants and to develop an ethnobotanical inventory of the species diversity. Methods In present study, semi-structured interviews with 142 inhabitants (age range between 31–75 years) were conducted. Ethnobotanical data was analyzed using relative frequency of citation (RFC) to determine the well-known and most useful species in the area. Results Current research work reports total of 50 plant species belonging to 48 genera of 35 families from Chail valley. Origanum vulgare, Geranium wallichianum and Skimmia laureola have the highest values of relative frequency of citation (RFC) and are widely known by the inhabitants of the valley. The majority of the documented plants were herbs (58%) followed by shrubs (28%), trees (12%) and then climbers (2%). The part of the plant most frequently used was the leaves (33%) followed by roots (17%), fruits (14%), whole plant (12%), rhizomes (9%), stems (6%), barks (5%) and seeds (4%). Decoction was the most common preparation method use in herbal recipes. The most frequently treated diseases in the valley were urinary disorders, skin infections, digestive disorders, asthma, jaundice, angina, chronic dysentery and diarrhea. Conclusion This study contributes an ethnobotanical inventory of medicinal plants with their frequency of citations together with the part used, disease treated and methods of application among the tribal communities of Chail valley. The present survey has documented from this valley considerable indigenous knowledge about the local medicinal plants for treating number of common diseases that is ready to be further investigated for biological, pharmacological and toxicological screening. This study also provides some socio-economic aspects which are associated to the local tribal communities. PMID:24739524



Subsurface Examination of a Foliar Biofilm Using Scanning Electron- and Focused-Ion-Beam Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The dual beam scanning electron microscope, equipped with both a focused ion- and scanning electron- beam (FIB SEM) is a novel tool for the exploration of the subsurface structure of biological tissues. The FIB can remove a predetermined amount of material from a selected site to allow for subsurface exploration and when coupled with SEM or scanning ion- beam microscopy (SIM) could be suitable to examine the subsurface structure of bacterial biofilms on the leaf surface. The suitability of chemical and cryofixation was examined for use with the FIB SEM to examine bacterial biofilms on leaf surfaces. The biological control agent, Burkholderia pyroccinia FP62, that rapidly colonizes the leaf surface and forms biofilms, was inoculated onto geranium leaves and incubated in a greenhouse for 7 or 14 days. Cryofixation was not suitable for examination of leaf biofilms because it created a frozen layer over the leaf surface that cracked when exposed to the electron beam and the protective cap required for FIB milling could not be accurately deposited. With chemically fixed samples, it was possible to precisely FIB mill a single cross section (5 µm) or sequential cross sections from a single site without any damage to the surrounding surface. Biofilms, 7 days post-inoculation (DPI), were composed of 2 to 5 bacterial cell layers while biofilms 14 DPI ranged from 5 to greater than 30 cell layers. Empty spaces between bacteria cells in the subsurface structure were observed in biofilms 7- and 14-DPI. Sequential cross sections inferred that the empty spaces were often continuous between FP62 cells and could possibly make up a network of channels throughout the biofilm. FIB SEM was a useful tool to observe the subsurface composition of a foliar biofilm.

Wallace, Patricia K.; Arey, Bruce W.; Mahaffee, Walt F.



In vitro screening of forty medicinal plant extracts from the United States Northern Great Plains for anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus.  


An egg hatch assay (EHA) and a larval migration assay (LMA) involving Haemonchus contortus was used to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of methanol extracts from 40 plants that are native or naturalized within the U.S.A. Northern Great Plains. Only one of these 40 plants (i.e. Lotus corniculatus) had been previously evaluated for activity against any gastrointestinal nematode. The various extracts were initially screened at 50mg/ml diluted either in 0.5% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) or 3-(N-morpholino) propanesulfonic acid (MOPS buffer), and plants showing 100% inhibition at 50mg/ml, were further evaluated at 8 other concentrations (25-0.19 mg/ml). Extracts with 100% activity with the EHA were again screened with the LMA (50mg/ml). Two extracts with the highest LMA inhibition were also evaluated at lower concentrations (25-3.1mg/ml). Of the 40 methanolic extracts screened, 7 (Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus, Ericameria nauseosa, Liatris punctata, Melilotus alba, Melilotus officinalis, Perideridia gairdneri, and Sanguinaria canadensis) showed significant egg-hatch inhibition in DMSO and MOPS buffer. Three extracts (Geranium viscosissimum, L. corniculatus, and Rhus aromatica) only showed significant inhibition in DMSO. The 8 extracts showing 100% efficacy at 50mg/ml exhibited dose-dependent effects at the 8 lower concentrations, and R. aromatica and E. nauseosa extracts had the lowest ED50 values. Similarly, when these 8 plant extracts were further evaluated with the LMA, the extracts of E. nauseosa and R. aromatica again exhibited the highest activity (p<0.001), with ED50 values of 4.0mg/ml and 10.43 mg/ml respectively. Three other extracts (C. viscidiflorus, M. alba and M. officinalis) also showed inhibitory activity in the LMA. These results support the need for additional evaluations of the nematocidal properties for at least these 5 plants. PMID:24548703

Acharya, Jyotsna; Hildreth, Michael B; Reese, R Neil



Enzymatic profile, adhesive and invasive properties of Candida albicans under the influence of selected plant essential oils.  


The influence of essential oils (EOs) used at sublethal level, on the presence and intensity of Candida albicans virulence factors was evaluated. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Lemon balm, Citronella, Geranium and Clove oils were established as 0.097% (v/v). Using the agar plates with substrates for proteases, phospholipases and hemolysins it was shown that C. albicans ATCC 10231 and C. albicans ATCC 90028 strains differed in the type and amount of enzymes produced. No significant difference in their total amount could be detected after pretreatment for 24 h with EOs at ½ MIC. However, the short-term (1 h) acting oils at MIC caused a statistically significant reduction in this activity. In the API ZYM test it was demonstrated that both strains exhibited activity of the same 9 out of 19 enzyme types and that EOs caused a significant decrease in the release of some of them. In the presence of subMIC of EOs, or when the fungus had previously been exposed to the MIC of oil, germ tubes formation was significantly and irreversibly reduced. Such C. albicans spotted on the Spider agar containing EOs at subMICs were unable to penetrate the agar. A significant decrease in the C. albicans adhesion to the fibroblast monolayer with respect to controls was also demonstrated when yeasts had been exposed to EOs at MIC (1 h) in liquid medium. Thus, it has been shown that tested oils, used even at subMIC, exhibit significant activity reducing the presence/quantity of important C. albicans virulence factors. PMID:24644554

Budzy?ska, Aleksandra; Sadowska, Beata; Wi?ckowska-Szakiel, Marzena; Ró?alska, Barbara



Reversible inhibition of three important human liver cytochrome p450 enzymes by tiliroside.  


Tiliroside, an active flavonoid extensively found in many medicinal plants including Helichrysum italicum, Geranium mexicanum and Helianthemum glomeratum, has been demonstrated to exert multiple biological effects including antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant and antitumor activities. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes play an important role in the Phase I oxidation metabolism of a wide range of xenobiotics and inhibition of CYP isoforms might influence the elimination of drugs and induce serious adverse drug response. The inhibition of seven CYP isoforms (CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2C8 and CYP2E1) by tiliroside was investigated using in vitro human liver microsomal incubation assays. The results showed that tiliroside strongly inhibited the activity of CYP3A4 (IC(50) = 9.0 ± 1.7 ?m), CYP2C8 (IC(50) = 12.1 ± 0.9 ?m) and CYP2C9 (IC(50) = 10.2 ± 0.9 ?m) with other CYP isoforms negligibly influenced. Further kinetic analysis showed that inhibition of these three CYP isoforms by tiliroside is best fit to a competitive way. The K(i) value was calculated to be 5.5 ?m, 3.3 ?m, 9.4 ?m for CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C8, respectively. The relatively low K(i) values suggested that tiliroside might induce drug-drug interactions with many clinically used drugs which are mainly metabolized by these three CYP isoforms. Therefore, attention should be given to the probable drug-drug interaction between tiliroside-containing herbs and substrates of CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C8. PMID:21031626

Sun, Dong-Xue; Lu, Jin-Cai; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Cao, Yun-Feng; Mao, Yu-Xi; Zhu, Liang-Liang; Yin, Jun; Yang, Ling



Differential costs of reproduction in females and hermaphrodites in a gynodioecious plant  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Plants exhibit a variety of reproductive systems where unisexual (females or males) morphs coexist with hermaphrodites. The maintenance of dimorphic and polymorphic reproductive systems may be problematic. For example, to coexist with hermaphrodites the females of gynodioecious species have to compensate for the lack of male function. In our study species, Geranium sylvaticum, a perennial gynodioecious herb, the relative seed fitness advantage of females varies significantly between years within populations as well as among populations. Differences in reproductive investment between females and hermaphrodites may lead to differences in future survival, growth and reproductive success, i.e. to differential costs of reproduction. Since females of this species produce more seeds, higher costs of reproduction in females than in hermaphrodites were expected. Due to the higher costs of reproduction, the yearly variation in reproductive output of females might be more pronounced than that of hermaphrodites. Methods Using supplemental hand-pollination of females and hermaphrodites of G. sylvaticum we examined if increased reproductive output leads to differential costs of reproduction in terms of survival, probability of flowering, and seed production in the following year. Key Results Experimentally increased reproductive output had differential effects on the reproduction of females and hermaphrodites. In hermaphrodites, the probability of flowering decreased significantly in the following year, whereas in females the costs were expressed in terms of decreased future seed production. Conclusions When combining the probability of flowering and seed production per plant to estimate the multiplicative change in fitness, female plants showed a 56 % and hermaphrodites showed a 39 % decrease in fitness due to experimentally increased reproduction. Therefore, in total, female plants seem to be more sensitive to the cost of reproduction in terms of seed fitness than hermaphrodites. PMID:22419762

Toivonen, Eija; Mutikainen, Pia



The ecological aspect of ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology of population in Bosnia and Herzegovina.  


This paper contains first systematical revision of the results on traditional use of wild medicinal and aromatic herbs on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H)--west of Balkan Peninsula; Southeast of Europe. There have been detected 227 plants belonging to 71 different plant families, which are being used with ethno therapeutic purpose. Results were obtained by method of open ethno botanical interview which comprised 150 persons, whose average age was 63. Medicinal plants in ethno therapy are being used either in fresh, raw or dried condition. Different herbal parts, depending on period of vegetation season, sometimes even in winter, are basis for preparation of infusions (59%), decoct (19%), tinctures (4%). Especially original are balms known as Bosnian "mehlems", which are fresh cuted herbal parts mixed with lukewarm resin, raw cow butter or honey. In ethno therapy are mostly being used aerial plant organs. Majority of herbs is being used for treatment of illnesses of respiratory (22%), gastrointestinal (19%) and urinary and genital system (9%), for treatment of skin conditions (11%), as well as for nervous system and heart diseases (16%). The most original plants on the field of ethno pharmacology, comparing with ethno therapy practice of other regions, are as follows: Ballota nigra, Aesculus hippocastanum, Calluna vulgaris, Centaurea cyanus, Euphrasia rostkoviana, Geranium robertianum, Gentiana asclepiadea, Helichrysum italicum, Lycopodium clavatum, Marrubium vulgare, Nepeta cataria, Populus tremula, Ruta graveolens, Tamus communis, Teucrium montanum, T. chamaedrys, and endemic plants Gentiana lutea subsp. symphyandra, Teucrium arduini, Micromeria thymifolia, Satureja montana, S. subspicata, Rhamnus fallax and Viola elegantula. There haven't been noticed significant differences in the frequencies of medicinal plants use among different ethnical groups. But, it has been perceived that longer ethno therapeutic tradition possess inhabitants of sub- and Mediterranean areas, as well as inhabitants of the mountain areas of B&H, regardless their ethnicity. PMID:18041402

Redzi?, Sulejman S



Evaluation of molecular chaperons Hsp72 and neuropeptide Y as characteristic markers of adaptogenic activity of plant extracts.  


We have previously demonstrated that ADAPT-232, a fixed combination of adaptogenic substances derived from Eleutherococcus senticosus root extract, Schisandra chinensis berry extract, Rhodiola rosea root extract stimulated the expression and release of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and molecular chaperone Hsp72 from isolated human neurolgia cells. Both of these mediators of stress response are known to play an important role in regulation of neuroendocrine system and immune response. We further demonstrated that ADAPT-232 induced release of Hsp70 is mediated by NPY, suggesting an existence of NPY-mediated pathway of activation of Hsp72 release into the blood circulation system. The objective of this study was to determine whether this pathway is common for adaptogens and whether NPY and/or Hsp72 can be considered as necessary specific biomarkers for adaptogenic activity. The release of NPY and Hsp72 from neuroglia cells in response to treatment with various plant extracts (n=23) including selected validated adaptogens, partly validated adaptogens, claimed but negligibly validated adaptogens and some other plant extracts affecting neuroendocrine and immune systems but never considered as adaptogens was measured using high throughput ELISA techniques. We demonstrated that adaptogens, e.g. R. rosea, S. chinensis and E. senticosus stimulate both NPY and Hsp70 release from neuroblastoma cells, while tonics and stimulants have no significant effect on NPY in this in vitro test. In the groups of partly validated adaptogens the effect of Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera was not statistically significant both on NPY and Hsp70 release, while the activating effect of Bryonia alba and Rhaponticum cartamoides was significant only on Hsp70. In contrast, all tested non-adaptogens, such as antiinflammatoty plant extracts Matricaria recutita, Pelargonium sidoides, Hedera helix and Vitis vinifera significantly inhibit Hsp70 release and have no influence on NPY release from neuroblastoma cells. These experiments were further validated using primary human neurons and confirmed that adaptogens activate the release of both NPY and Hsp70, while tested non adaptogens were inactive in NPY assay and inhibit the release of Hsp70. Taken together, our data demonstrates for the first time that neuropeptide Y and heat shock protein Hsp70 can be used as molecular biomarkers for adaptogenic activity. PMID:23920279

Asea, Alexzander; Kaur, Punit; Panossian, Alexander; Wikman, Karl Georg



Mercury in wild mushrooms and underlying soil substrate from Koszalin, North-central Poland.  


Concentrations of total mercury were determined by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS) in 221 caps and 221 stalks of 15 species of wild growing higher fungi/mushrooms and 221 samples of corresponding soil substrate collected in 1997-98 in Manowo County, near the city of Koszalin in North-central Poland. Mean mercury concentrations in caps and stalks of the mushroom species examined and soils varied between 30+/-31 and 920+/-280, 17+/-11 and 560+/-220, and 10+/-9 and 170+/-110 ng/g dry matter, respectively. Cap to stalk mercury concentration quotients were from 1.0+/-0.4 in poison pax (Paxillus involutus) to 2.8+/-0.7 in slippery jack (Suillus luteus). Brown cort (Cortinarius malicorius), fly agaric (Amanita muscaria), orange-brown ringless amanita (A. fulva), red-aspen bolete (Leccinum rufum) and mutagen milk cap (Lactarius necator) contained the highest concentrations of mercury both in caps and stalks, and mean concentrations varied between 600+/-750 and 920+/-280 and 370+/-470 and 560+/-220 ng/g dry matter, respectively. An estimate of daily intake of mercury from mushroom consumption indicated that the flesh of edible species of mushrooms may not pose hazards to human health even at a maximum consumption rate of 28 g/day. However, it should be noted that mercury intake from other foods will augment the daily intake rates. Species such as the sickener (Russula emetica), Geranium-scented russula (R. fellea) and poison pax (P. involutus) did not concentrate mercury as evidenced from the bioconcentration factors (BCFs: concentrations in mushroom/concentration in soil substrate), which were less than 1. Similarly, red-hot milk cap (L. rufus), rickstone funnel cap (Clitocybe geotropa) and European cow bolete (S. bovinus) were observed to be weak accumulators of mercury. Fly agaric (A. muscaria) accumulated great concentrations of mercury with BCFs reaching 73+/-42 and 38+/-22 in caps and stalks, respectively. Mercury BCFs of between 4.0+/-2.3 and 23+/-25 (caps) and 2.6+/-1.9 and 14+/-12 (stalks) were noted for the other mushroom species. Relatively great concentrations of mercury in fly agaric (A. muscaria) were due to preferential uptake of this element by this species. PMID:14581048

Falandysz, Jerzy; Jedrusiak, Aneta; Lipka, Krzysztof; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Kawano, Masahide; Gucia, Magdalena; Brzostowski, Andrzej; Dadej, Monika



NTP Carcinogenesis Studies of Food Grade Geranyl Acetate (71% Geranyl Acetate, 29% Citronellyl Acetate) (CAS No. 105-87-3) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Study).  


Geranyl acetate (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadiene-1-ol acetate) is a colorless liquid prepared by fractional distillation of selected essential oils or by acetylation of geraniol. It is a natural constituent of more than 60 essential oils, including Ceylon citronella, palmarosa, lemon grass, petit grain, neroli bigarade, geranium, coriander, carrot, and sassafras. Geranyl acetate is used primarily as a component of perfumes for creams and soaps and as a flavoring ingredient. On the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's list of substances "generally recognized as safe," the Food Chemicals Codex (1972) specifies that geranyl acetate must contain at least 90% total esters. Carcinogenesis studies of food-grade geranyl acetate (containing approximately 29% citronellyl acetate) were conducted by administering the test chemical in corn oil by gavage to groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats at doses of 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg body weight and to groups of 50 male and 50 female B6C3F1 mice at doses of 500 or 1,000 mg/kg. Doses were administered five times per week for 103 weeks. Groups of 50 rats and 50 mice of each sex received corn oil by gavage on the same dosing schedule and served as vehicle controls. The cumulative toxicity of geranyl acetate in the 2-year study was indicated by the significantly shorter survival of high dose male rats (control, 34/50; low dose, 29/50; high dose, 18/50) and of high dose male mice (control, 31/50; low dose, 32/50; high dose, 0/50) and of dosed female mice (38/50; 15/50; 0/50) when compared with controls. Throughout most of the 2-year study, mean body weights of high dose rats and mice of each sex were lower than those of the controls. The occurrence of retinopathy or cataracts in the high dose male rats and low dose female rats as compared with the controls does not appear to be related to the administration of geranyl acetate but rather the proximity of the rats to fluorescent light. The incidence of retinopathy or cataracts (combined) was: males: control, 0/50, 0%; low dose, 1/50, 2%; high dose, 11/50, 22%; females: control, 1/50, 2%; low dose, 13/50, 26%; high dose, 2/50, 4%. Kidney tubular cell adenomas, an uncommon tumor type, were found in 2/50 (4%) low dose male rats. The historical incidence of male corn oil gavage control F344/N rats with kidney tumors is 1/250 (0.4%) at this laboratory and 4/998 (0.4%) in the program. Squamous cell papillomas in the skin were increased marginally in low dose male rats (control, 0/50; low dose, 4/50, 8%; high dose, 1/50, 2%). In addition, one low dose male rat had a squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. The incidence of low dose male rats with either squamous cell papillomas or carcinomas was greater (P<0.05) in comparison with the controls. The historical incidence of squamous cell papillomas or carcinomas (combined) in gavage control male F344/N rats is 3.6% (9/250) at this laboratory and 2.5% (25/999) throughout the program. The incidence of all epidermal tumors was not significantly elevated in dosed male rats relative to controls (control, 3/50, 6%; low dose, 6/50, 12%; high dose, 1/50, 2%). All high dose (1,000 mg/kg) male and female mice were dead by week 91 as a result of accidentally being administered 2,800 mg/kg for 3 days during week 91; survival of low dose and control male mice was comparable. Survival of high dose male and dosed female mice may have been inadequate for the detection of late-appearing tumors. No evidence of any carcinogenic effect was found in either low or high dose mice of either sex. An infection of the genital tract was probably responsible for the deaths of 14/22 control and 8/32 low dose female mice before the end of the study. Cytoplasmic vacuolization was increased in the liver and in the kidney of male and female mice and was considered to be compound related (liver-- male: control, 1/50, 2%; low dose, 7/50, 14%; high dose, 47/50, 94%; female: 1/50, 2%; 27/50, 54%; 46/50, 92%; kidney or kidney tubule--male: 0/50; 0/50; 41/50, 82%; female: 0/50; 24/49, 49%; 37/50, 74%). Under the conditions of these studi