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Effect of seasonal climatic changes on biomass yield and terpenoid composition of rose-scented geranium ( Pelargonium species)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in biomass yield, essential oil yield and terpenoid composition in rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium species) in response to seasonal climatic changes were investigated under semiarid tropical climatic conditions. A large number of essential oil samples were collected during different seasonal months (once a month) and daily during the peak summer season months of May and June. They were analysed for

B. R. Rajeswara Rao; P. N. Kaul; G. R. Mallavarapu; S. Ramesh



Water soluble fractions of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium species) essential oil.  


The essential oil of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium species, family: Geraniaceae) obtained through steam or water plus steam distillation of shoot biomass is extensively used in the fragrance industry and in aromatherapy. During distillation, a part of the essential oil becomes dissolved in the distillation water (hydrosol) and is lost as this hydrosol is discarded. In this investigation, hydrosol was shaken for 30 min with hexane (10:1 proportion) and the hexane was distilled to yield 'secondary' or 'recovered' essential oil. The chemical composition of secondary oil was compared with that of 'primary' oil (obtained directly by distilling shoot biomass of the crop). Primary oil accounted for 93.0% and secondary oil 7.0% of the total oil yield (100.2 ml from 100 kg green shoot biomass). Fifty-two compounds making up 95.0-98.5% of the primary and the secondary oils were characterized through gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC--MS). Primary oil was richer in hydrocarbons (8.5-9.4%), citronellyl formate (6.2-7.5%), geranyl formate (4.1-4.7%), citronellyl propionate (1.0-1.2%), alpha-selinene (1.8-2.2%), citronellyl butyrate (1.4-1.7%), 10-epi-gamma-eudesmol (4.9-5.5%) and geranyl tiglate (1.8-2.1%). Recovered oil was richer in organoleptically important oxygenated compounds (88.9-93.9%), commercial rhodinol fraction (74.3-81.2%), sabinene (0.4-6.2%), cis-linool oxide (furanoid) (0.7-1.2%), linalool (14.7-19.6%), alpha-terpineol (3.3-4.8%) and geraniol (21.3-38.4%). Blending of recovered oil with primary oil is recommended to enhance the olfactory value of the primary oil of rose-scented geranium. Distillation water stripped of essential oil through hexane extraction can be recycled for distilling the next batch of rose-scented geranium. PMID:12118700

Rao, B R Rajeswara; Kaul, P N; Syamasundar, K V; Ramesh, S



A somaclonal variant of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp.) with moderately high content of isomenthone in its essential oil.  


Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp.), which is highly valued for its essential oil, is exclusively propagated vegetatively. Hence no genetic improvement work is possible through conventional breeding. Somaclonal variation was generated with and without in vitro mutagenesis using N-nitroso-N-methyl urea (NMU) in an Indian cultivar 'Bourbon', and a clone 'Narmada'. A somaclonal variant (N75) with a moderately high content of isomenthone in its essential oil was isolated from somaclones generated after treatment of internodal explants of clone, 'Narmada' with 0.25 mM NMU for 1 h. The contents of isomenthone in its essential oil were 26% and 35%, respectively, in SC2/VM2 and SC3/VM3 generations (second and third vegetative generations, respectively, after in vitro mutagen treatment) as compared with 0.7% and 0.3%, respectively, in the parental clone, 'Narmada'. The contents of alcohols and their esters (linalool, citronellol, geraniol, citronellyl formate and geranyl formate) in the essential oil of N75 in SC2/VM2 and SC3/VM3 generations were 49% and 35%, respectively, as compared with 69% and 63%, respectively, in the parental clone, 'Narmada'. This is the first report on a chemovariant of rose-scented geranium with a moderately high content of isomenthone. All earlier reported isomenthone-rich variants of rose-scented geranium had quite high contents of isomenthone (64-71%) in their essential oils. The probable modes of origin of this somaclonal variant, its parental clone 'Narmada' (with very low content of isomenthone) and four earlier reported isomenthone-rich variants of Indian cultivars of geranium are discussed. PMID:23074914

Kulkarni, Swaroop S; Ravindra, Nagawara S; Srinivas, Kalavagunta V N S; Kulkarni, Raghavendra N



Biomass yield, essential oil yield and essential oil composition of rose-scented geranium ( Pelargonium species) as influenced by row spacings and intercropping with cornmint ( Mentha arvensis L.f. piperascens Malinv. ex Holmes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium species, family, Geraniaceae) is a vegetatively propagated (through rooted stem cuttings), initially slow growing, high value aromatic crop. Cornmint (Mentha arvensis L. f. piperascens Malinvaud ex Holmes, family, Lamiaceae) is also a vegetatively propagated (through rhizomes, runners or stolons and terminal stem cuttings), high demand aromatic–cum–medicinal crop. Essential oils isolated through steam distillation of shoot biomass of

B. R. Rajeswara Rao



Chemical composition and biological activities of polar extracts and essential oil of rose-scented geranium, Pelargonium graveolens.  


Pelargonium graveolens (Geraniaceae) was characterized with respect to its chemical composition, antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activities. This is the first investigation focusing on the comparison of both essential oil and polar extracts from this species. The chemical composition of the essential oil of the aerial parts of P. graveolens was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The main constituents of the oil were found to be ?-citronellol (21.9%), citronellyl formate (13.2%), geraniol (11.1%), 10-epi-?-eudesmol (7.9%), geranyl formate (6.2%) and (l)-linalool (5.6%). Nine flavonoids were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-MS in leaf and flower extracts. Kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside-glucoside, isorhamnetin aglycone, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3,7-di-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-pentose and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-pentoside-glucoside, myrisetin 3-O-glucoside-rhamnoside flavonoids were detected in methanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. The total flavonoids ranged between 29.9 and 78.2 mg QE/g in flower water and methanol extracts, respectively, and 22.5 and 71.2 mg QE/g dry weight in leaf water and methanol extracts, respectively. The highest antioxidant activities using two methods of free radical scavenging capacities were obtained with the essential oil (9.16 mM of Trolox and 2.68 µg/ml). All P. graveolens essential oil and polar extracts were active against at least one bacterium. PMID:23027699

Boukhris, Maher; Simmonds, Monique S J; Sayadi, Sami; Bouaziz, Mohamed



Substrate Acidification by Geranium (Pelargonium x Hortorum) II: Light Effects and Phosphorus Uptake  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sudden pH decline (SPD) describes the situation where crops growing at an appropriate pH, suddenly (1-2 weeks) cause the substrate pH to shift downward one to two units. ‘Designer Dark Red’ geraniums (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey) were grown in three experiments to test the effects of light on SPD...


Susceptibility of Geranium Cultivars (Pelargonium spp.) to Ralstonia solanacearum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sixty-one cultivars of geraniums including zonal, regal, ivy, and scented were tested for susceptibility to three strains of Ralstonia solanacearum: a Race 1 Biovar 1 (R1B1) strain P597 isolated from tomato in Florida, a R1B1 strain P673 obtained from pothos originating in Costa Rica, and a Race 3 B...


Fragrant volatile oil composition of Nutmeg Geranium (Pelargonium?×?fragrans Willd.) from India.  


Hydrodistilled essential oil of 'Nutmeg Geranium' (Pelargonium?×?fragrans Willd.), grown in foothills of northern India was analysed by capillary gas chromatography (GC/flame ionisation detector (FID)) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 51 constituents, representing 90.2% of the total oil composition were identified. The oil was mainly dominated by monoterpenoids (58.4%), followed by sesquiterpenoids (19.4%), and phenyl propanoids (10.1%). Major constituents of the essential oil were fenchone (10.7%), methyl eugenol (9.9%), ?-pinene (9.4%), ?-thujene (7.6%), limonene (6.4%), spathulenol (4.7%), sabinene (4.3%), linalool (4.2%), (E)-caryophyllene (4.2%), terpinen-4-ol (3.2%), ?-pinene (2.9%), caryophyllene oxide (2.2%) and bicyclogermacrene (2.1%). This is the first report on essential oil composition of Nutmeg Geranium oil grown in India. PMID:22616953

Verma, Ram S; Padalia, Rajendra C; Chauhan, Amit



Biomass yield, essential oil yield and resource use efficiency in geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L. Her. ex. Ait), intercropped with fodder crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of intercropping of fodder crops on growth and yield attributes of the essential oil-yielding multi-harvest aromatic plant geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L. Her. ex. Ait) under field conditions during 2005–2007. In addition aggressivity, land equivalent ratio (LER), area time equivalent ratio (ATER) and land use efficiency % (LUE%) as an index

Rajesh Kumar Verma; Laiq ur Rahman; Ram Swaroop Verma; Ajai Yadav; Sunita Mishra; Amit Chauhan; Anand Singh; Alok Kalra; Arun Kumar Kukreja; Suman Preet Singh Khanuja



Antioxidative activity of geranium (Pelargonium inquinans Ait) and its active component, 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose.  


The antioxidative activity of geranium (Pelargonium inquinans Ait) and its active component was investigated under in vitro and cellular oxidative stress models. The MeOH extract, and n-hexane, EtOAc, BuOH and H(2)O fractions from geranium showed strong 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effects and protective potential from oxidative damage by the radical generator, 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) in renal epithelial LLC-PK(1) cells. In particular, the EtOAc fraction exerted the strongest antioxidative potential in not only the in vitro but also in the cellular system. It suggests that the antioxidative activity of geranium is attributed mainly to components from the EtOAc fraction. Furthermore, the active component, 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-d-glucose (PGG), was identified from the EtOAc fraction by the bioassay-linked fractionation method. It displayed a potent antioxidant effect against the DPPH radical, showing an IC(50) value of 1.14 microg/mL. Moreover, the compound recovered the cell viability declined by AAPH treatment significantly and dose-dependently, implying a protective role against cellular oxidative damage. The present study suggests that geranium has an excellent antioxidative potential and that PGG from geranium is considered to be the active component with an antioxidative effect. PMID:18386256

Piao, Xiangshu; Piao, Xiang-Lan; Kim, Hyun Young; Cho, Eun Ju



How Does Geranium (Pelargonium) Respond To Specific Nutrient Deficiencies? A Visual Primer For Grower Diagnosis And Correction  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genus Pelargonium, which is native to south Africa, is the most popular floriculture crop because of its use as a bedding plant, potted crop, or in hanging baskets (USDA Ag Statistics, 2004). In spite of their popularity and diversity, only the most general nutritional guidelines are available ...


Analysis of 1,3 dimethylamylamine concentrations in Geraniaceae, geranium oil and dietary supplements.  


1,3-Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) is a sympathomimetic compound currently incorporated into some dietary supplements. Significant controversy exists regarding the 'natural' origin of DMAA, as claimed by manufacturers of supplements. Manufacturers often refer to its presence by the name Geranamine® implying that DMAA is found in the plant species Geranium and Pelargonium known collectively as Geraniaceae. This study determined whether DMAA is present in the plant species, Geranium and Pelargonium. In addition, concentrations of DMAA in popular dietary supplements and commercial Geranium and Pelargonium oils were assessed. One Pelargonium cultivar, one Geranium cultivar, three essential oils from Pelargonium or Geranium, raw DMAA powder, and seven dietary supplements (DS) sold as finished products and labelled as containing DMAA, or one of its synonyms, were analyzed for the presence of DMAA by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). No measurable levels of DMAA in Geranium, Pelargonium or essential oils at a detection limit of 1-2?ng/g were present. UPLC/MS/MS analysis confirmed the presence of DMAA in spiked plant and oil samples, all seven DS products, and raw DMAA powder. Concentrations (weight%) of DMAA provided in DS ranged from 0.11% to 673%. This study indicates DMAA contained in DS is of a synthetic origin and is not present in the plant species Geranium and Pelargonium; thus the 'natural' origin and use of DMAA as an ingredient in DS is not substantiated. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23704033

Austin, Krista G; Travis, John; Pace, Gerry; Lieberman, Harris R



Bioactivity-Guided Investigation of Geranium Essential Oils as Natural Tick Repellents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The evaluation of 10 essential oils of geranium, Pelargonium graveolens (Geraniaceae), were all shown to have repellent activity against nymphs of the medically important lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.). The biological tests were carried out usi...

A. G. Chittiboyina C. Avonto J. F. Parcher M. Wang N. Tabanca



Can the Geranium Bronze, Cacyreus marshalli , become a threat for European biodiversity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cacyreus marshalli Butler is an invasive species in many parts of Europe and Mediterranean area. In Europe, its larvae normally feed on pelargoniums.\\u000a We investigated its potential to spread to native Geranium spp. and evaluated the conservation risks that such a shift would pose for both native geraniums and cohabitant butterflies.\\u000a The host plant preferences of the Geranium Bronze were

Ambra Quacchia; Chiara Ferracini; Simona Bonelli; Emilio Balletto; Alberto Alma



A Study of the Variation in the Essential Oil of Pelargonium capitatum (L.) L'Herit. (Geraniaceae). Part II. The Chemotypes of P capitatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pelargonium capitatum (L.) L'Hérit. is one of the parent species of the cultivar Rose grown on the Island of Reunion for the production of geranium oil. The aim of the project was to identify chemotypes which could be included in hybridization programs to ennoble the cultivar Rosé Forty populations were selected along the coast of South Africa to describe the

A. M. Viljoen; J. J. A. Van der Walt; J. P. J. Swart; F.-E. Demame



Influence of paclobutrazol and substrate on daily evapotranspiration of potted geranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of plant growth regulators and the use of different culture media are common practices in potted ornamental crops. We report the results of a study to evaluate the effect of two substrates (peat moss or coconut fiber) and spraying 30ppm paclobutrazol (PAC) on water resource management of zonal geranium (Pelargonium×hortorum L.H. Bailey) seedlings growing in a greenhouse during

Sebastián Bañón; Julián Miralles; Alejandra Navarro; María Jesús Sánchez-Blanco



Comparative phloem Mobility of nickel in nonsenescent plants. [Pisum sativa L. ; Pelargonium zonale L  

SciTech Connect

/sup 63/Ni was applied to nonsenescent source leaves and found to be transported to sink tissues in pea (Pisum saativum L.) and geranium plants (Pelargonium zonale L.). The comparative mobilities (percent tracer transported out of source leaf division % /sup 86/Rb transported) for /sup 63/Ni in peas was 2.12 and in geranium 0.25. The value for the phloem mobile /sup 86/Rb was 1.00. By contrast, the comparative mobility of /sup 45/Ca, which is relatively immobile in the phloem, was low (0.05 in peas, 0.00 in geranium). Interruption of the phloem pathway between source and sink leaves by steam girdling almost completely inhibited /sup 63/Ni accumulation in the sink leaves of both species. The authors conclude that Ni is transported from nonsenescent source leaves to sink tissues via the phloem of leguminous and nonleguminous plants.

Neumann, P.M.; Chamel, A.



Rare excitatory amino acid from flowers of zonal geranium responsible for paralyzing the Japanese beetle.  


The Japanese beetle (JB), Popillia japonica, exhibits rapid paralysis after consuming flower petals of zonal geranium, Pelargonium x hortorum. Activity-guided fractionations were conducted with polar flower petal extracts from P. x hortorum cv. Nittany Lion Red, which led to the isolation of a paralysis-inducing compound. High-resolution-MS and NMR ((1)H, (13)C, COSY, heteronuclear sequential quantum correlation, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation) analysis identified the paralytic compound as quisqualic acid (C(5)H(7)N(3)O(5)), a known but rare agonist of excitatory amino acid receptors. Optical rotation measurements and chiral HPLC analysis determined an L-configuration. Geranium-derived and synthetic L-quisqualic acid demonstrated the same positive paralytic dose-response. Isolation of a neurotoxic, excitatory amino acid from zonal geranium establishes the phytochemical basis for induced paralysis of the JB, which had remained uncharacterized since the phenomenon was first described in 1920. PMID:21205899

Ranger, Christopher M; Winter, Rudolph E; Singh, Ajay P; Reding, Michael E; Frantz, Jonathan M; Locke, James C; Krause, Charles R



Rare excitatory amino acid from flowers of zonal geranium responsible for paralyzing the Japanese beetle  

PubMed Central

The Japanese beetle (JB), Popillia japonica, exhibits rapid paralysis after consuming flower petals of zonal geranium, Pelargonium x hortorum. Activity-guided fractionations were conducted with polar flower petal extracts from P. x hortorum cv. Nittany Lion Red, which led to the isolation of a paralysis-inducing compound. High-resolution–MS and NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, heteronuclear sequential quantum correlation, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation) analysis identified the paralytic compound as quisqualic acid (C5H7N3O5), a known but rare agonist of excitatory amino acid receptors. Optical rotation measurements and chiral HPLC analysis determined an l-configuration. Geranium-derived and synthetic l-quisqualic acid demonstrated the same positive paralytic dose–response. Isolation of a neurotoxic, excitatory amino acid from zonal geranium establishes the phytochemical basis for induced paralysis of the JB, which had remained uncharacterized since the phenomenon was first described in 1920.

Ranger, Christopher M.; Winter, Rudolph E.; Singh, Ajay P.; Reding, Michael E.; Frantz, Jonathan M.; Locke, James C.; Krause, Charles R.



Identification and Quantification of Dimethylamylamine in Geranium by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

A sensitive and reliable method of liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/ MS) was developed and validated for determining 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) and 1,4-dimethylamylamine (1,4-DMAA) in geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). The sample was extracted with 0.5 M HCl and purified by liquid-liquid partition with hexane. The parameters for reverse-phase (C18) LC and positive ESI/MS/MS were optimized. The matrix effect, specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy and reproducibility of the method were determined and evaluated. The method was linear over a range of 0.10–10.00 ng/mL examined, with R2 of 0.99 for both 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-DMAA. The recoveries from spiked concentrations between 5.00–40.00 ng/g were 85.1%–104.9% for 1,3-DMAA, with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.9%–11.0%, and 82.9%–101.8% for 1,4-DMAA, with RSD of 3.2%–11.7%. The instrument detection limit was 1–2 pg for both DMAAs. The quantification limit was estimated to be 1–2 ng/g for the plant sample. This method was successfully applied to the quantitative determination of 1,3- and 1,4-DMAA in both geranium plant and geranium oil.

Li, J.S.; Chen, M.; Li, Z.C.



Unusual structure of geranium chloroplast DNA: A triple-sized inverted repeat, extensive gene duplications, multiple inversions, and two repeat families  

PubMed Central

Physical and gene mapping studies reveal that chloroplast DNA from geranium (Pelargonium hortorum) has sustained a number of extensive duplications and inversions, resulting in a genome arrangement radically unlike that of other plants. At 217 kilobases in size, the circular chromosome is about 50% larger than the typical land plant chloroplast genome and is by far the largest described to date, to our knowledge. Most of this extra size can be accounted for by a 76-kilobase inverted duplication, three times larger than the normal chloroplast DNA inverted repeat. This tripling has occurred primarily by spreading of the inverted repeat into regions that are single copy in all other chloroplast genomes. Consequently, 10 protein genes that are present only once in all other land plants are duplicated in geranium. At least six inversions, occurring in both the inverted repeat and large single-copy region, must be postulated to account for all of the gene order differences that distinguish the geranium genome from other chloroplast genomes. We report the existence in geranium of two families of short dispersed repeats and hypothesize that recombination between repeats may be the major cause of inversions in geranium chloroplast DNA. Images

Palmer, Jeffrey D.; Nugent, Jacqueline M.; Herbon, Laura A.



Analysis of the photosynthetic response induced by variation potential in geranium.  


Electrical signals (action and variation potentials) caused by environmental stimuli induce a number of physiological responses in plants including changes in photosynthesis; however, mechanisms of these changes remain unclear. We investigated the influence of the variation potential on photosynthesis in geranium (Pelargonium zonale) under different conditions (control, low external CO? concentration, and actinic light absence). The variation potential caused by lamina burning induced a reduction in photosynthesis (decreases in effective quantum yields of photosystem I and II, CO? assimilation rate, and stomatal conductance) in unstimulated leaves under control conditions. Changes in the majority of light-stage parameters (photosystem I and II quantum yields, coefficients of photochemical and non-photochemical quenching, quantum yield of non-photochemical energy dissipation in photosystem I due to donor-side limitation) were correlated with a decrease in CO? assimilation rate. The changes were similar to those caused by lowering [CO?]; their magnitudes decreased both under low external CO? concentration and without actinic light. These results support the hypothesis that Calvin cycle inactivation plays a key role in photosynthetic response induced by electrical signals. However, a decrease in electron transport through the PSI acceptor side also induced by variation potential was not correlated with a decrease in the CO? assimilation rate and did not depend on the external CO? concentration or actinic light intensity. Thus, we suggest that there are two different mechanisms of light-stage inactivation induced by the variation potential in geranium: one strongly dependent on dark-stage inactivation and one weakly dependent on dark-stage inactivation. PMID:22020752

Sukhov, Vladimir; Orlova, Lyubov; Mysyagin, Sergey; Sinitsina, Julia; Vodeneev, Vladimir



Smoke-saturated water promotes somatic embryogenesis in geranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of smoke saturated-water (SSW) on somatic embryogenesis was studied using geranium hypocotyl culture as a model system. Treatment of explants with 10% SSW or the inclusion of SSW with thidiazuron, a compound which induces somatic embryogenesis, enhanced the embryogenic potential of the geranium hypocotyl culture. Prolonged exposure to SSW was detrimental to embryogenesis. The SSW treatment also accelerated

Tissa Senaratna; Kingsley Dixon; Eric Bunn; Darren Touchell



Metabolism of l-Threonic Acid in Rumex x acutus L. and Pelargonium crispum (L.) L'H?r 1  

PubMed Central

l-Threonic acid is a natural constituent in leaves of Pelargonium crispum (L.) L'Hér (lemon geranium) and Rumex x acutus L. (sorrel). In both species, l-[14C]threonate is formed after feeding l-[U-14C]ascorbic acid to detached leaves. R. acutus leaves labeled with l-[4-3H]- or l-[6-3H]ascorbic acid produce l-[3H]threonate, in the first case internally labeled and in the second case confined to the hydroxymethyl group. These results are consistent with the formation of l-threonate from carbons three through six of l-ascorbic acid. Detached leaves of P. crispum oxidize l-[U-14C] threonate to l-[14C]tartrate whereas leaves of R. acutus produce negligible tartrate and the bulk of the 14C appears in 14CO2, [14C]sucrose, and other products of carbohydrate metabolism. R. acutus leaves that are labeled with l-[U-14C]threonate release 14CO2 at linear rate until a limiting value of 25% of the total [U-14C]threonate is metabolized. A small quantity of [14C]glycerate is also produced which suggests a process involving decarboxylation of l-[U-14C]threonate.

Helsper, Johannes P.; Loewus, Frank A.



Thidiazuron-induced morphogenetic response in petiole cultures of Pelargonium x hortorum and Pelargonium x domesticum and its histological analysis.  


The possibility of inducing somatic embryogenesis in petiole cultures of two cultivars of Pelargonium x hortorum and of one cultivar of Pelargonium x domesticum using thidiazuron (TDZ) was investigated. Petioles were cultivated on a modified Murashige and Skoog medium with different concentrations and application periods of TDZ. Regeneration was achieved with all TDZ treatments for all cultivars and was highly variable. Shoots of different shapes and somatic embryo-like structures were observed. Histological examination revealed that no somatic embryos were formed, and regenerants had to be classified as shoots and shoot-like or leaf-like structures. The importance of these results on the classification of regeneration induced by TDZ in these species and on the propagation of these pelargoniums is discussed. PMID:15300403

Haensch, K-T



Ellagitannins from Geranium potentillaefolium and G. bellum.  


The aerial parts of Geranium potentillaefoium afforded geraniin (1), corilagin (2), gallic acid (4), methyl gallate (6), methyl brevifolincarboxylate (7), quercetin, quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-beta-D-[6"-O-galloyl)glucopyranoside, kaempferol, beta-sitosterol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and beta-sitosterol, while the aerial parts of G. bellum gave the same compounds in addition to kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, isolated instead of kaempferol. The substances were identified by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy in comparison with published data. The water decoction preparations from air-dried plant materials (2.5 g) contain ca. 4.6 % of the ellagitannin 1, envisaging that when such decoction is ingested (250 mL), a therapeutic dose of ca. 36 mg of the antitumor ellagic acid (3) may be incorporated into the organism. PMID:20433066

Gayosso-De-Lucio, Juan A; Torres-Valencia, J Martín; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro



Complementary genes control biparental plastid inheritance in Pelargonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zonal pelargoniums exhibit biparental plastid inheritance. After G x W plastid crosses the progeny are a mixture of green, variegated and white embryos corresponding to a maternal, biparental or paternal inheritance of plastids, respectively. There are two patterns of segregation: type-I females have families in which the majority of embryos are green, variegated are of intermediate frequency and white are

R. A. E. Tilney-Bassett; A. B. Almouslem; H. M. Amoatey



Comparisons of hot water microclimate heating and conventional overhead heating on the development and nutritional status of seedling geraniums as well as fuel consumption of these heating regimes  

SciTech Connect

Two crops of seedling geraniums (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey) were grown for 16 weeks under the microclimate system using ''Gro-Mat'' ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) tubing and a 10/sup 0/C air -21.1/sup 0/ media temperature environment. Another crop was grown with conventional heating at 16.6/sup 0/ air temperature. Evaluations were made on growth, flowering, nutritional status, and energy consumed. The microclimate system sporadically produced a taller plant during the first eight weeks of the October crop compared to the conventional heated crop; and the December crop was affected only twice during the initial eight weeks. This time the microclimate heating system produced a shorter plant. After week eight there were fewer differences in height. One of the principal differences noted in this study was that the conventionally heated plants flowered seven to ten days earlier than the microclimate plants. By the end of the crop (week 16) few differences in elemental concentrations were detected between the two types of heating systems. The microclimate heating system used about 30% less natural gas than did the conventional system. It appears that microclimate heating systems are a possible alternative to conventional heating systems.

Schwartz, M.A.



Suppression of neutrophil recruitment in mice by geranium essential oil.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: In aromatherapy, essential oils are used as anti-inflammatory remedies, but experimental studies on their action mechanisms are very limited. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To assess their anti-inflammatory activities, the effects of essential oils on neutrophil recruitment in mice were examined in vivo. METHOD: The effect of essential oils on leukocyte and neutrophil recruitment induced 6 h after intraperitoneal injection of casein in mice was examined. RESULTS: Leukocyte recruitment into the peritoneal cavity in mice was suppressed by intraperitoneal injections of geranium, lemongrass and spearmint oils at the dose of 5 microl/mouse, but was not by tea tree oil. This recruitment was inhibited dose-dependently by geranium oil. The suppression of leukocyte recruitment resulted from inhibition of neutrophil accumulation. CONCLUSION: Some essential oils used as anti-inflammatory remedies suppress neutrophil recruitment into the peritoneal cavity in mice.

Abe, Shigeru; Maruyama, Naho; Hayama, Kazumi; Inouye, Shigeharu; Oshima, Haruyuki; Yamaguchi, Hideyo



Anxiety reduction by aromatherapy: Anxiolytic effects of inhalation of geranium and rosemary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some aromatherapists suggest that geranium oil is useful for reducing anxiety but do not recommend the use of rosemary oil. To examine these assertions, using a standard psychological instrument for measuring anxiety, three groups of twelve undergraduates filled out the Spielberger State-Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and then inhaled either just steam, steam plus geranium oil, or steam with rosemary oil added.

Neil Morris; Steven Birtwistle; Margaret Toms



Biparental inheritance of plastidial and mitochondrial DNA and hybrid variegation in Pelargonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastidial (pt) and mitochondrial (mt) genes usually show maternal inheritance. Non-Mendelian, biparental inheritance of plastids\\u000a was first described by Baur (Z Indukt Abstamm Vererbungslehre 1:330–351, 1909) for crosses between Pelargonium cultivars. We have analyzed the inheritance of pt and mtDNA by examining the progeny from reciprocal crosses of Pelargonium\\u000a zonale and P. inquinans using nucleotide sequence polymorphisms of selected pt

Andreas Weihe; Janina Apitz; Frank Pohlheim; Annabel Salinas-Hartwig; Thomas Börner



Antioxidant activity of Tunisian Geranium robertianum L. (Geraniaceae).  


The present investigation focuses on the methanolic extract obtained from Geranium robertianum L. (Geraniaceae) (Herb Robert), a herbal plant used in traditional medicine for the treatment of human and animal diseases. The antioxidant capacities of the extract were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, ?-carotene/linoleic acid and reducing power and metal chelating activity assays. The amount of total phenolic content, flavonoids and condensed tannins was very high, and the correlation between the antioxidant activity potential and total phenolic level of the extract was pointed out. PMID:23557033

Ben Jemia, Mariem; Aidi Wannes, Wissem; Ouchikh, Olfa; Bruno, Maurizio; Kchouk, Mohamed Elyes



Production of engineered long-life and male sterile Pelargonium plants  

PubMed Central

Background Pelargonium is one of the most popular garden plants in the world. Moreover, it has a considerable economic importance in the ornamental plant market. Conventional cross-breeding strategies have generated a range of cultivars with excellent traits. However, gene transfer via Agrobacterium tumefaciens could be a helpful tool to further improve Pelargonium by enabling the introduction of new genes/traits. We report a simple and reliable protocol for the genetic transformation of Pelargonium spp. and the production of engineered long-life and male sterile Pelargonium zonale plants, using the pSAG12::ipt and PsEND1::barnase chimaeric genes respectively. Results The pSAG12::ipt transgenic plants showed delayed leaf senescence, increased branching and reduced internodal length, as compared to control plants. Leaves and flowers of the pSAG12::ipt plants were reduced in size and displayed a more intense coloration. In the transgenic lines carrying the PsEND1::barnase construct no pollen grains were observed in the modified anther structures, which developed instead of normal anthers. The locules of sterile anthers collapsed 3–4?days prior to floral anthesis and, in most cases, the undeveloped anther tissues underwent necrosis. Conclusion The chimaeric construct pSAG12::ipt can be useful in Pelargonium spp. to delay the senescence process and to modify plant architecture. In addition, the use of engineered male sterile plants would be especially useful to produce environmentally friendly transgenic plants carrying new traits by preventing gene flow between the genetically modified ornamentals and related plant species. These characteristics could be of interest, from a commercial point of view, both for pelargonium producers and consumers.



Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds from Pelargonium reniforme.  


Flavonoids and hydrolyzable tannins isolated from Pelargonium reniforme were evaluated for their antioxidant ability using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical generating system and a luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay. In both assays, the polyphenols tested showed higher radical scavenging activities than the reference antioxidant, ascorbic acid (IC50 2.6-32.9 microM vs 40.9 microM in the DPPH test, and 2-25 times stronger effects in the chemiluminescence assay). A comparison of the flavonoids and the tannins showed that the latter have more potential than the former. Structural requirements for marked antioxidant activities of hydrolyzable tannins were the presence of galloyl and hexahydroxydiphenoyl groups, and apparently carbonyl (ester) functionalities in oxidatively modified dehydrohexa-hydroxydiphenoyl moieties. For flavonoids, it appeared that a catechol (3',4'-dihydroxy) element in the B-ring were important determinants and that O-glycosides were more effective than flavone-based C-glucosyls. Conspicuously, introduction of a galloyl group significantly enhanced their potentials. The demonstrated marked antioxidant effects of the polyphenols provide a clue for beneficial effects of P. reniforme in the treatment of liver disorders among several ethnic groups in areas of southern Africa. PMID:15264932

Latté, Klaus Peter; Kolodziej, Herbert



Insights into the Selective Pressures Restricting Pelargonium Flower Break Virus Genome Variability: Evidence for Host Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular diversity of Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV) was assessed using a collection of isolates from different geographical origins, hosts, and collecting times. The genomic region examined was 1,828 nucleotides (nt) long and comprised the coding sequences for the movement (p7 and p12) and the coat (CP) proteins, as well as flanking segments including the entire 3 untranslated region

Patricia Rico; Pilar Ivars; Santiago F. Elena; Carmen Hernandez



First report of Pelargonium zonate spot virus from tomato in the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pelargonium zonate spot virus (PZSV) was first isolated from tomato in southern Italy in 1982, and later was also reported from Spain and France. Infected tomato plants showed stunting, malformation, yellow rings and line patterns on the leaves, and concentric chlorotic ringspots on the stems. In Ju...


Morphological diversity among accessions of Pelargonium sidoides DC. in the Eastern Cape, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pelargonium sidoides is an indigenous medicinal plant of South Africa harvested for local use and international trade. Due to its high economic and medicinal importance, the rate and the number of its harvesters have increased in recent years. This has led to a drastic drop in the population of the species in the wild. In order to develop breeding and

F. B. Lewu; D. S. Grierson; A. J. Afolayan



1,3-Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) in supplements and geranium products: natural or synthetic?  


1,3-Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) is a stimulant existing in various pre-workout supplements and often labelled as part of geranium plants. The safety and origin of DMAA in these supplements is the subject of intense debate. In this study, the enantiomeric and diastereomeric ratios of two different known synthetic DMAA compounds, as well as the total concentrations of DMAA and its stereoisomeric ratios in 13 different supplements, were determined by gas chromatography. The stereoisomeric ratios of DMAA in the synthetic standards and in all the commercial supplements were indistinguishable. Eight different commercial geranium extracts of different geographical origins (China and the Middle East) were examined for the presence of DMAA by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). No DMAA was detected in any of the eight geranium products with a limit of detection of 10 parts per billion (w/w). PMID:22786761

Zhang, Ying; Woods, Ross M; Breitbach, Zachary S; Armstrong, Daniel W



Suppression of neutrophil accumulation in mice by cutaneous application of geranium essential oil.  


BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that essential oils suppressed the adherence response of human neutrophils in vitro and that intraperitoneal application of geranium oil suppressed the neutrophil accumulation into peritoneal cavity in vivo. Usually, essential oils are applied through skin in aromatherapy in inflammatory symptoms. The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of cutaneous application of essential oils on the accumulation of neutrophils in inflammatory sites in skin of mice. METHODS: Inflammation with accumulation of inflammatory cells was induced by injection of curdlan, a (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan in skin or peritoneal cavity of mice. Essential oils were applied cutaneously to the mice immediately and 3 hr after intradermal injection of curdlan. The skin with inflammatory lesion was cut off 6 hr after injection of curdlan, and the homogenates were used for myeloperoxidase (MPO: a marker enzyme of neutrophil granule) assay. RESULTS: The MPO activity of the skin lesion induced by curdlan was suppressed dose-dependently by cutaneous application of geranium oil. Other oils such as lavender, eucalyptus and tea tree oils also suppressed the activity, but their activities seemed weaker than geranium. Juniper oil didn't suppress the activity CONCLUSION: Cutaneous application of essential oils, especially geranium oil, can suppress the inflammatory symptoms with neutrophil accumulation and edema. PMID:15813994

Maruyama, Naho; Sekimoto, Yuka; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Inouye, Shigeharu; Oshima, Haruyuki; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru



Detecting Root Rot Stress in Geranium by Measuring Changes in Leaf Temperature  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our objective was to determine if changes in geranium leaf temperature, measured by infrared (IR) transducers aimed at the plant canopy or individual leaves, correlate with root infection by pathogenic water molds. This is the first report to our knowledge that addresses the use of environmental se...



EPA Science Inventory

Populations of Geranium carolinianum, winter annual plant common in disturbed habitats vary in their folair response to sulfur dioxide and pollution resistance is characteristic of populations sampled from areas in which SO2 has been a prominent stress. The physiological basis of...


Plant regeneration from protoplasts of micropropagated Pelargonium x hortorum ‘Alain’: effect of some environmental and medium factors on protoplast system efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to further develop somatic hybridisations within the genus Pelargonium, a procedure of protoplast isolation, culture, and plant regeneration from protoplast-derived calli was set up. Micropropagated plants of Pelargonium x hortorum ‘Alain’ were used as donor plants. Among the explants tested (leaf, petiole, stem, root), young leaves were the best source for protoplast isolation (2×107 protoplasts per g FW),

M Nassour; N Dorion



In vitro antioxidant activity of polyphenol extracts with antiviral properties from Geranium sanguineum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evidence shows that plant polyphenols exhibit antioxidant and radical scavenging properties. By three separate and complementary methods - DPPH assay, ?-carotene-linoleic acid assay and NBT-reduction assay it was established that a polyphenol-rich extract from the medicinal plant Geranium sanguineum L. with strong anti-influenza virus activity, possessed antioxidant and radical scavenging capacities. For comparative reasons caffeic acid and the synthetic

Munevver Sokmen; Maria Angelova; Ekaterina Krumova; Svetlana Pashova; Stefka Ivancheva; Atalay Sokmen; Julia Serkedjieva



Sulfur dioxide flux into leaves of Geranium carolinianum L. : evidence for a nonstomatal or residual resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concurrent exchange of SOâ and HâO vapor between the atmosphere and foliage of Geranium carolinianum was investigated using a whole-plant gas exchange chamber. Total leaf flux of SOâ was partitioned into leaf surface and internal fractions. The emission rate of SOâ-induced HâS was measured to develop a net leaf budget for atmospherically derived sulfur. Stomatal resistance to SOâ flux

G. E. Jr. Taylor; D. T. Tingey



Geranium sanguineum (Geraniaceae) seed oil: A new source of petroselinic and vernolic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrent of petroselinic acid (18?1?6cis) in seed oils was believed to be limited to the Umbelliferae or Apiaceae, and a few other members of the Umbelliflorae. A\\u000a major occurrence of petroselinic acid outside the Umbelliflorae must therefore be regarded as highly unusual and surprising.\\u000a The seed oil of Geranium sanguineum, a member of the family Geraniaceae, has now been

N. Tsevegsuren; K. Aitzetmuller; K. Vosmann



Chemical composition of the essential oil of Pelargonium quercetorum Agnew. of Iran.  


The volatile constituents in the essential oil of Pelargonium quercetorum Agnew., growing wild in Kurdistan, Iran were investigated through GC and GC/MS technique. Twenty-six compounds, representing 21 (80.77%) of the total oil were identified. The main components were: alpha-pinene (25.28%), alpha-fenchyl acetate (20.63%), limonene (9.94%), beta-caryophyllene (8.20%), camphene (4.31%), delta-cadinene (3.32%), beta-pinene (3.21%), alpha-amorphene (2.80%), valencene (2.73%), ledene (2.25%) and p-cymene (1.63%). PMID:17365684

Taherpour, Avat Arman; Maroofi, Hossein; Kheradmand, Khojasteh



[Analysis and identification of Geranium by two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy].  


Tri-step infrared spectroscopy (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with second derivative spectra and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-COS)) was employed to identify and analyze the main components of Heilongjiang (HLJG), Jilin (JLG), Liaoning (LNG) genuine Herba Geranium. The emergence of several characteristic absorption peaks of tannins including 1 730 and 1 337 cm(-1) and peaks around 1 618 and 1 318 cm(-1) belonging to calcium oxalate suggested that Herba Geranii contained tannins and calcium oxalate. Differences near 1 370 and 1 230 cm(-1) were found among the three Herba Geranii. In light of second derivative spectra, four more peaks of tannin components around 1 509, 1 204, 764 and 763 cm(-1) and evident differences around C=O stretching bands (1 750-1 600 cm(-1)) were observed. By 2D-COS spectra with further improved resolution, the three genuine Geraniums were visually distinguished due to their significant differences in auto-peak profile. HLJG has 7 auto peaks with a strongest peak around 1 621 cm(-1), while JLG and LNG both have only 4 auto peaks with a strongest peak around 1 580 and 1 659 cm(-1), respectively. It was demonstrated that the Tri-step infrared spectroscopy was successfully applied to fast analyze and identify genuine Geraniums from different geographical regions and subsequently would be applicable to the study of Chinese medicinal resources and quality standards. PMID:23586230

Sun, Ren-Shuang; Jin, Zhe-Xiong; Zhang, Zhe-Peng; Xu, Chang-Hua; Sun, Su-Qin



Morpho-histological study of somatic embryo-like structures in hypocotyl cultures of Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey.  


Somatic embryo-like structures were produced from the hypocotyls of ten cultivars of Pelargonium x hortorum using the protocols of Marsolais et al. (1991; Can J Bot 69:1188-1193) and Slimmon et al. (1991; Plant Cell Rep 10:587-589) and their embryonic natures evaluated. Nine cultivars responded, and 937 structures were formed. Regeneration corresponded well with published data. The somatic embryo-like structures were globular- to leaf-shaped or similar to shoots. A root pole was never visible. Histological examinations confirmed the lack of bipolarity and revealed vascular connections to the explant in the more developed structures. Therefore, these structures cannot be classified as somatic embryos. The importance of these results is discussed in terms of evaluating published protocols for the propagation of these pelargoniums by somatic embryogenesis from hypocotyls. PMID:14569413

Haensch, K-T




Microsoft Academic Search

A greenhouse pot study was conducted to evaluate the use of a slaughterhouse waste compost (SWC) as fertilizer for potted geranium plants. This SWC was mixed with agave bagasse compost (ABC) at rates of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90% and 100% by volume. The effects of the SWC on the germination and initial growth of

Gilberto ÍÑIGUEZ; David M. CROHN



The influence of plant growth regulators and storage on root induction and growth in Pelargonium zonale cuttings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of post harvest application of ethylene, abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) treatments or dark storage\\u000a on root induction and continued growth of regenerated roots in Pelargonium cuttings were investigated using hydroponics in the greenhouse. Ethylene markedly increased rooting percentage in ‘Greco’\\u000a and ‘Surfing’, reduced the number of roots per cutting in ‘Surfing’ and had no effect on

Theophilus M. MutuiHeiko Mibus; Heiko Mibus; Margrethe Serek



Transgenic regal pelargoniums that express the rol C gene from Agrobacterium rhizogenes exhibit a dwarf floral and vegetative phenotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The regal pelargonium, ev. Dubonnet, was transformed using the disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains LBA4404 or EHA105 containing the binary vector pLN70. This plasmid carries on its T-DNA the rolC gene from Agrobacterium rhizogenes under control of the CaMV 35S promoter and the npt II selectable marker gene under a NOS promoter. Six independent transformants were produced and grouped according to

M. R. Boase; C. S. Winefield; T. A. Lill; M. J. Bendall



Direct gene transfer study and transgenic plant regeneration after electroporation into mesophyll protoplasts of Pelargonium   ×   hortorum , ‘Panaché Sud’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct genetic transformation of mesophyll protoplasts was studied in Pelargonium × hortorum. Calcein and green-fluorescent protein (GFP) gene were used to set up the process. Electroporation (three electric pulses\\u000a from a 33-?F capacitor in a 250-V cm?1 electric field) was more efficient than PEG 6000 for membrane permeation, protoplast survival and cell division. Transient\\u000a expression of GFP was detected in 33–36% of electroporated

Anber Hassanein; Latifa Hamama; Karine Loridon; Noëlle Dorion



Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by extracts and constituents from Angelica archangelica and Geranium sylvaticum.  


The aim of this study was to explore the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition of several Icelandic medicinal herbs. Ethanolic extracts of Angelica archangelica seeds and the aerial parts of Geranium sylvaticum proved effective, with IC50 values of 2.20 mg/ml and 3.56 mg/ml, respectively. The activity of imperatorin and xanthotoxin from A. archangelica was measured. Xanthotoxin proved much more potent than imperatorin, with an IC50 value of 155 microg/ml (0.72 mM) but that for imperatorin was above 274 microg/ml (1.01 mM). However, furanocoumarins seem to have a minor part in the total activity of this extract. Synergistic interaction was observed between the extracts of A. archangelica and G. sylvaticum. Several medicinal herbs (Achillea millefolium, Filipendula ulmaria, Thymus praecox and Matricaria maritima) did not show AChE inhibitory activity. PMID:18069242

Sigurdsson, Steinthor; Gudbjarnason, Sigmundur


Antibacterial, Antifungal, Cytotoxic, Phytotoxic, Insecticidal, and Enzyme Inhibitory Activities of Geranium wallichianum  

PubMed Central

The present study describes the phytochemical investigations of the crude extracts of rhizomes and leaves of Geranium wallichianum. The crude extracts were fractionated to obtain n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol fractions, which were subjected to different biological activities and enzyme inhibition assays to explore the therapeutic potential of this medicinally important herb. The results indicated that the crude extracts and different fractions of rhizomes and leaves showed varied degree of antimicrobial activities and enzyme inhibitions in different assays. Overall, the rhizome extract and its different fractions showed comparatively better activities in various assays. Furthermore, the purified constituents from the repeated chromatographic separations were also subjected to enzyme inhibition studies against three different enzymes. The results of these studies showed that lipoxygenase enzyme was significantly inhibited as compared to urease. In case of chemical constituents, the sterols (2–4) showed no inhibition, while ursolic acid (1) and benzoic ester (6) showed significant inhibition of urease enzymes.

Ismail, Muhammad; Hussain, Javid; Khan, Arif-ullah; Khan, Abdul Latif; Ali, Liaqat; Khan, Farman-ullah; Khan, Amir Zada; Niaz, Uzma; Lee, In-Jung



Anti-inflammatory activities of fractions from Geranium nepalense and related polyphenols.  


Geranium nepalense Sweet is a common Chinese herbal medicine and has been used as influenza, dysentery, antiphlogistic and analgesic tonic, hemostatic, stomachic, and antidiabetic drugs. The anti-inflammatory effects of G. nepalense on tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA)-induced mouse ear edema were studied in this work. The results showed that ethyl acetate fraction of the water extract of G. nepalense possessed significant activity at 2.5 g/kg (p < 0.01) with aspirin as a positive control (0.6 g/kg). Six polyphenolic compounds, including three flavonoids, i.e. kaempferol, kaempferol-7-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, and quercetin-7-O-?-rhamnopyranoside, and two tannins, i.e. pyrogallol and gallic acid, and one lignin, i.e. epipinoresinol, were isolated and characterized from ethyl acetate fraction. The isolation of polyphenols provides a clue for beneficial effects of G. nepalense in the demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:23006989

Lu, C H; Li, Y Y; Li, L J; Liang, L Y; Shen, Y M



In vitro antiprotozoal activity from the roots of Geranium mexicanum and its constituents on Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the antiprotozoal activity of the dichloromethane–MeOH extract, fractions and pure compounds from the roots of Geranium mexicanum on Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia. The result indicated that the extract, organic fraction and a pure flavonoid were active against both protozoa with IC50 values ranging from 1.9 to 79.2?g\\/ml for Entamoeba histolytica and from 1.6 to 100.4?g\\/ml in

Fernando Calzada; J. Antonio Cervantes-Martínez; Lilian Yépez-Mulia



Study of Histometric and Histopathological Effects of Essential Oil of Pelargonium roseum in Comparison with Phenytoin after Surgical Trauma on Rat's Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Pelargonium roseum belongs to the family of Geraniales. Recent reports indicate that the essential oil of this plant can inhibit the experimentally induced paw and ear edema in laboratory animals. On the other hand? in some countries phenytoin is formulated as an accelerator of wound healing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of essential oil


Casparian bands occur in the periderm of Pelargonium hortorum stem and root  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Casparian bands are characteristic of the endodermis and exodermis of roots, but also occur infrequently in other plant organs, for example stems and leaves. To date, these structures have not been detected in phellem cells of a periderm. The aim of this study was to determine whether Casparian bands occur in phellem cells using tests that are known to detect Casparian bands in cells that also contain suberin lamellae. Both natural periderm and wound-induced structures were examined in shoots and roots. Methods Using Pelargonium hortorum as a candidate species, the following tests were conducted: (1) staining with berberine and counterstaining with aniline blue, (2) mounting sections in concentrated sulphuric acid and (3) investigating the permeability of the walls with berberine as an apoplastic, fluorescent tracer. Key Results (1) Berberine–aniline blue staining revealed a modification in the radial and transverse walls of mature phellem cells in both stems and roots. Three days after wounding through to the cortex of stems, the boundary zone cells (pre-existing, living cells nearest the wound) had developed vividly stained primary walls. By 17 d, staining of mature phellem cells of wound-induced periderm was similar to that of natural periderm. (2) Mature native phellem cells of stems resisted acid digestion. (3) Berberine was excluded from the anticlinal (radial and transverse) walls of mature phellem cells in stems and roots, and from the wound-induced boundary zone. Conclusions Casparian bands are present in mature phellem cells in both stems and roots of P. hortorum. It is proposed that Casparian bands act to retard water loss and pathogen entry through the primary cell walls of the phellem cells, thus contributing to the main functions of the periderm.

Meyer, Chris J.; Peterson, Carol A.



Rose geranium essential oil as a source of new and safe anti-inflammatory drugs.  


Background: Since the available anti-inflammatory drugs exert an extensive variety of side effects, the search for new anti-inflammatory agents has been a priority of pharmaceutical industries. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oil of rose geranium (RGEO). Methods: The chemical composition of the RGEO was investigated by gas chromatography. The major components were citronellol (29.13%), geraniol (12.62%), and citronellyl formate (8.06%). In the carrageenan-induced paw edema, five different groups were established and RGEO was administered orally in three different doses. Results: RGEO (100 mg/kg) was able to significantly reduce the paw edema with a comparable effect to that observed with diclofenac, the positive control. In addition, RGEO showed a potent anti-inflammatory activity by topical treatment in the method of croton oil-induced ear edema. When the dose was 5 or 10 µl of RGEO per ear, the inflammation was reduced by 73 and 88%, respectively. This is the first report to demonstrate a significant anti-inflammatory activity of Algerian RGEO. In addition, histological analysis confirmed that RGEO inhibited the inflammatory responses in the skin. Conclusion: Our results indicate that RGEO may have significant potential for the development of novel anti-inflammatory drugs with improved safety profile. PMID:24103319

Boukhatem, Mohamed Nadjib; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Ferhat, Mohamed Amine; Saidi, Fairouz; Mekarnia, Maamar



[Effect of inoculation time on the survival of spores of Gliocladium roseum on geranium leaves.].  


Gliocladium roseumis a successful antagonist of Botrytis cinerea and is considered to have the major potential for biocontrol of the pathogen in cropping systems. In order to elucidate the optimal moment of the day to apply the biological control agent, geranium plants were inoculated until run off with a suspension containing 10 e7 conidia of G. roseum + Tritón 100X. The inoculation times were 9 am, 12 am, 3 pm and 6 pm. The number cfu per cm(2) of leaves at inoculation time (time 0) and at 3, 6 y 9 h after inoculation were estimated. Then, the inoculated plants were kept in a Plexiglas, humidity chamber for 24 h. Discs of 8 mm in diameter were cut off from the inoculated leaves and put then into a paraquat medium to examine the development of G. roseum. According to the results dry period length after inoculation time, shows a significant decrease in number of cfu by cm(2) of leaf. No difference was observed between 3, 6 y 9 h after inoculation time. PMID:18473563

Mónaco, C; Yu, H; Sutton, J



In Vitro BACE1 Inhibitory Activity of Geraniin and Corilagin from Geranium thunbergii.  


Generation of amyloid ? peptide through the proteolytic process of amyloid precursor protein by ?-secretase and ?-secretase is a main casual factor of Alzheimer's disease, since amyloid ? peptide is a major and crucial component of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease brains. In the process of searching for ?-secretase inhibitors from natural resources, the EtOAc soluble fraction of Geranium thunbergii exhibited significant ?-secretase inhibitory activity. Two compounds, geraniin and corilagin, isolated from the most active EtOAc fraction of G. thunbergii, exhibited predominant inhibition against ?-secretase with IC50 values of 4.0 × 10-6 M and 3.4 × 10-5 M, respectively. Dixon plot of geraniin and corilagin demonstrated that the ?-secretase inhibition was noncompetitive with the substrate, thus clearly suggesting that these compounds might bind either to the ?-secretase subsites or to another regulatory domain with Ki values of 2.8 × 10-6 M and 7.9 × 10-5 M, respectively. Both compounds exhibited no significant inhibition against ?-secretase and other serine proteases including trypsin and chymotrypsin, showing that they were relatively specific and selective inhibitors of ?-secretase. These novel findings suggest that geraniin and corilagin from G. thunbergii may be effective therapeutic agents for further drug development in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23877922

Youn, Kumju; Jun, Mira



Exploitation of the antioxidant potential of Geranium macrorrhizum (Geraniaceae): hepatoprotective and antimicrobial activities.  


In this study we evaluated in vitro (radical scavenging) and in vivo (hepatoprotective effect) antioxidant activities and antimicrobial properties of the extracts of the above- and underground parts of Geranium macrorrhizum L. (Geraniaceae), an ethnopharmacologically renowned plant species. The antioxidant activity and total phenol and flavonoid contents of four different solvent extracts were evaluated by seven different methods. The methanol extracts, administered i.p. to rats (120-480 mg/kg), were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity in a CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity model. The same extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against seven bacterial and two fungal species. The administered methanol extracts with the highest antioxidant potential showed a significant dose-dependent hepatoprotective action against CCl4-induced liver damage in both decreasing the levels of liver transaminases and bilirubin and in reducing the extent of morphological malformations of the liver. The leaf methanol extract displayed a very strong antibacterial activity, especially against Staphylococcus aureus, with low minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations. These results justify the frequent use of this plant species in folk medicine. Besides the known astringent effect, one can expect that the observed antimicrobial activity against several human pathogens contributes to the wound healing properties of this plant. PMID:23413565

Radulovi?, Niko S; Stojkovi?, Milan B; Miti?, Snezana S; Randjelovi?, Pavle J; Ili?, Ivan R; Stojanovi?, Nikola M; Stojanovi?-Radi?, Zorica Z



Rose geranium essential oil as a source of new and safe anti-inflammatory drugs  

PubMed Central

Background Since the available anti-inflammatory drugs exert an extensive variety of side effects, the search for new anti-inflammatory agents has been a priority of pharmaceutical industries. Aims The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oil of rose geranium (RGEO). Methods The chemical composition of the RGEO was investigated by gas chromatography. The major components were citronellol (29.13%), geraniol (12.62%), and citronellyl formate (8.06%). In the carrageenan-induced paw edema, five different groups were established and RGEO was administered orally in three different doses. Results RGEO (100 mg/kg) was able to significantly reduce the paw edema with a comparable effect to that observed with diclofenac, the positive control. In addition, RGEO showed a potent anti-inflammatory activity by topical treatment in the method of croton oil-induced ear edema. When the dose was 5 or 10 µl of RGEO per ear, the inflammation was reduced by 73 and 88%, respectively. This is the first report to demonstrate a significant anti-inflammatory activity of Algerian RGEO. In addition, histological analysis confirmed that RGEO inhibited the inflammatory responses in the skin. Conclusion Our results indicate that RGEO may have significant potential for the development of novel anti-inflammatory drugs with improved safety profile.

Boukhatem, Mohamed Nadjib; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Ferhat, Mohamed Amine; Saidi, Fairouz; Mekarnia, Maamar



Effect of Variable Solvents on Particle Size of Geranium Oil-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticle (Ge-SLN) For Mosquito Repellent Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new delivery system for insect repellent is proposed by the incorporation of geranium oil into solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN). A variety of solvents which act as co-surfactants, were introduced to increase the particle size of GE-SLN. Ethanol, which has a high boiling point and a long chain alcohol produced larger particle than dichloromethane. The structure of SLN was not stable when methanol and acetone were used as co-solvents. Concentration of solvents can also influence the size of SLN. In vitro release experiments showed that SLN was able to reduce the rapid evaporation of geranium oil.

Asnawi, Syalwati; Aziz, Azila A.; Aziz, Ramlan A.



Identification and characterization of cDNAs encoding ethylene biosynthetic enzymes from Pelargonium x hortorum cv Snow Mass leaves.  

PubMed Central

Two Pelargonium 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase cDNAs (GAC-1 and GAC-2) were identified and characterized. GAC-1 is 1934 bp long with a 1446-bp open reading frame encoding a 54.1-kD polypeptide. GAC-2 is a 1170-bp-long ACC synthase polymerase chain reaction fragment encoding 390 amino acids. Expression of GAC-1 and GAC-2 together with a previously identified ACC oxidase (GEFE-1) was examined in different Pelargonium plant parts, and leaves were subjected to osmotic stress (sorbitol), metal ion stress (CuCl2), auxin (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid [2,4-D]), and ethylene. GAC-1 expression was not detectable in any of the plant parts tested, whereas high levels of GAC-2 were expressed in the leaf bud, young leaf, young floret, fully open floret, and senescing floret. GAC-2 was expressed to a lesser degree in fully expanded leaves or roots and was undetectable in old leaves and floret buds. GEFE-1 was detectable at all leaf ages tested, in young and fully open florets, and in the roots; however, the highest degree of expression was in the senescing florets. GAC-1 was induced by sorbitol. Both GAC-1 and GAC-2 were only slightly affected by CuCl2 and induced indirectly by 2,4-D. GEFE-1 was highly induced by sorbitol, CuCl2, and 2,4-D. GAC-1, GAC-2, and GEFE-1 were unaffected by ethylene treatment. These results suggest that GAC-1 is only induced by stress and that GAC-2 may be developmentally regulated, whereas GEFE-1 is influenced by both stress and development.

Wang, T W; Arteca, R N



Defensive strategies in Geranium sylvaticum. Part 1: Organ-specific distribution of water-soluble tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids.  


A combination of high-resolution mass spectrometry and modern HPLC column technology, assisted by diode array detection, was used for accurate characterization of water-soluble polyphenolic compounds in the pistils, stamens, petals, sepals, stems, leaves, roots and seeds of Geranium sylvaticum. The organs contained a large variety of polyphenols, five types of tannins (ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, gallotannins, galloyl glucoses and galloyl quinic acids) as well as flavonoids and simple phenolic acids. In all, 59 compounds were identified. Geraniin and other ellagitannins dominated in all the green photosynthetic organs. The other organs seem to produce distinctive polyphenol groups: pistils accumulated gallotannins; petals acetylglucose derivatives of galloylglucoses; stamens kaempferol glycosides, and seeds and roots accumulated proanthocyanidins. The intra-plant distribution of the different polyphenol groups may reflect the different functions and importance of various types of tannins as the defensive chemicals against herbivory. PMID:23790750

Tuominen, Anu; Toivonen, Eija; Mutikainen, Pia; Salminen, Juha-Pekka



Evaluation of anti-Candida potential of geranium oil constituents against clinical isolates of Candida albicans differentially sensitive to fluconazole: inhibition of growth, dimorphism and sensitization.  


Fluconazole (FLC) susceptibility of isolates of Candida spp., (n = 42) and efficacy as well as mechanism of anti-Candida activity of three constituents of geranium oil is evaluated in this study. No fluconazole resistance was observed among the clinical isolates tested, however 22% were susceptible-dose-dependent (S-DD) [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ? 16 ?g ml(-1)] and a standard strain of C. albicans ATCC 10231 was resistant (? 64 ?g ml(-1)). Geraniol and geranyl acetate were equally effective, fungicidal at 0.064% v/v concentrations i.e. MICs (561 ?g ml(-1) and 584 ?g ml(-1) respectively) and killed 99.9% inoculum within 15 and 30 min of exposures respectively. Citronellol was least effective and fungistatic. C. albicans dimorphism (Y ? H) was highly sensitive to geranium oil constituents tested (IC50 approximately 0.008% v/v). Geraniol, geranyl acetate and citronellol brought down MICs of FLC by 16-, 32- and 64-fold respectively in a FLC-resistant strain. Citronellol and geraniol arrested cells in G1 phase while geranyl acetate in G2-M phase of cell cycle at MIC(50). In vitro cytotoxicity study revealed that geraniol, geranyl acetate and citronellol were non-toxic to HeLa cells at MICs of the C. albicans growth. Our results indicate that two of the three geranium oil constituents tested exhibit excellent anti-Candida activity and significant synergistic activity with fluconazole. PMID:20337938

Zore, Gajanan B; Thakre, Archana D; Rathod, V; Karuppayil, S Mohan



Acaricidal effect of Pelargonium roseum and Eucalyptus globulus essential oils against adult stage of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus in vitro.  


In a laboratory trial, in west-central Iran, the acaricidal effects of the essential oils (EOs) prepared from two medicinal plants, i.e. Pelargonium roseum and Eucalyptus globulus on the adult stage of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus were evaluated. For this purpose, the engorged females of R. (B) annulatus were exposed to two-fold serial dilutions of oils (0.31-5.0%) using a "dipping method" in vitro. The engorged ticks were immersed in different plant dilutions (eight per dilution) for 1min then each replicate was incubated in separate petri dishes at 26 degrees C and 80% relative humidity. The mortality rate for adult ticks exposed to different dilutions of P. roseum and E. globulus EO's showed a dose-dependent decrease. It was however significant only for the 2.5% and 5.0% dilutions of P. roseum EO, when compared to the non-treated control (P<0.05). The mass of produced eggs in adult female ticks exposed to both P. roseum and E. globulus EOs had decreased dose-dependently. It was significant for only 2.5% and 5.0% dilutions of P. roseum EO, comparing the non-treated control (P<0.05). The highest decrease in egg laying was reported for ticks treated with 5% dilutions of P. roseum (87.5%) and E. globosus (25%) (P<0.05). This is the first report that details the acaricidal activity of EO's obtained from P. roseum and E. globosus against R. (B) annulatus. The results show that both plants, particularly P. Roseum can be considered as potential candidates for biocontrol of R. (B) annulatus in the field. PMID:19356854

Pirali-Kheirabadi, Khodadad; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi; Halajian, Ali



Anti-hepatitis B virus activities of Geranium carolinianum L. extracts and identification of the active components.  


The ethanol extract of Geranium carolinianum L., a domestic plant grown in China, was subjected to sequential extractions with different organic solvents. The extracts were assayed for anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) activities. The ethyl acetate fraction was found to contain the highest level of anti-HBV activity. In order to identify the active ingredients, the ethyl acetate fraction was further fractionated by column chromatography. Seven compounds were identified including ellagic acid, geraniin, quercitrin, hyperin, hirsutrin, quercetin, and kaempferol, whose structures were determined by NMR. The presence of the anti-HBV compounds geraniin, ellagic acid and hyperin in G. carolinianum L. may account for the effectiveness of this folk medicine in the treatment of HBV infections. Geraniin inhibited hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) secretion by more than 85.8% and 63.7%, respectively, at the non-cytotoxic concentration of 200 microg/ml. The inhibitions of HBsAg and HBeAg secretion by geraniin were higher than the inhibition by the positive control Lamivudine, 33.5% and 32.2% respectively, at the same concentration. Since HBeAg is involved in immune tolerance during HBV infection, the newly identified anti-HBV compound geraniin might be a candidate agent to overcome the immune tolerance in HBV-infected individuals. This is the first report of the anti-HBV effects of geraniin and hyperin, the active substances derived from G. carolinianum L. PMID:18379075

Li, Jiyang; Huang, Hai; Zhou, Wei; Feng, Meiqing; Zhou, Pei



Antioxidant activities and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects of extracts and main polyphenolic compounds obtained from Geranium sibiricum L.  


The antioxidant capacity and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects of extracts and main polyphenolic compounds of Geranium sibiricum were studied in the present work. The antioxidant capacity was evaluated by ferric reducing antioxidant power, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, beta-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching, and reducing power assays. Among the extracts and four fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest phenolic content (425.36 +/- 9.70 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g extracts) and the best antioxidant activity. The IC(50) values of the ethyl acetate fraction were 0.93, 3.32, 2.06, 2.66, and 1.64 microg/mL in the DPPH radical scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, beta-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching, and reducing power assays, respectively. Of the polyphenolic compounds separated from the ethyl acetate fraction, geraniin showed a higher activity than corilagin and gallic acid. The IC(50) values ranged from 0.87 to 2.53 microM, which were even lower than the positive control (except for allopurinol). All test samples except for the petroleum ether fraction showed xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects. We conclude that G. sibiricum represents a valuable natural antioxidant source and is potentially applicable in the healthy food industry. PMID:20205393

Wu, Nan; Zu, Yuangang; Fu, Yujie; Kong, Yu; Zhao, Jintong; Li, Xiaojuan; Li, Ji; Wink, Michael; Efferth, Thomas



Evaluation of Geranium spp., Helleborus spp. and Hyssopus spp. polyphenolic extracts inhibitory activity against urease and ?-chymotrypsin.  


Abstract This study was meant to determine the inhibitory activity of tannins and flavonoid compounds from Geranium robertianum, Helleborus purpurascens and Hyssopus officinale plant polyphenol rich extracts against urease and ?-chymotrypsin. The G. robertianum, H. purpurascens and H. officinale extracts were purified and concentrated by microfiltration and ultrafiltration. Phenolic compounds including flavonoids and tannins have been linked to many pharmacological activities. Thus, the polyphenolic content of the extracts was assessed by UV-Vis spectroscopy and HPLC. The concentrated extracts enriched in polyphenolic compounds (flavonoids, tannins and phenolic acids) showed a significant inhibition against urease from jack bean (over 90%), whereas in case of the ?-chymotrypsin, they proved to have an inhibition below 54%. The results of this support the use of G. robertianum, H. purpurascens and H. officinale polyphenolic extracts as potential sources of urease inhibitors. Among the three plant extracts tested, H. officinale polyphenolic extracts exhibited a high inhibitory activity (92.67%) against urease and low inhibition (19.6%) against ?-chymotrypsin and could be considered as possible remedy in ulcer treatment. PMID:23317419

Paun, Gabriela; Litescu, Simona Carmen; Neagu, Elena; Tache, Andreia; Lucian Radu, Gabriel



Defensive strategies in Geranium sylvaticum, Part 2: Roles of water-soluble tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids against natural enemies.  


Geranium sylvaticum is a common herbaceous plant in Fennoscandia, which has a unique phenolic composition. Ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, galloylglucoses, gallotannins, galloyl quinic acids and flavonoids possess variable distribution in its different organs. These phenolic compounds are thought to have an important role in plant-herbivore interactions. The aim of this study was to quantify these different water-soluble phenolic compounds and measure the biological activity of the eight organs of G. sylvaticum. Compounds were characterized and quantified using HPLC-DAD/MS, in addition, total proanthocyanidins were determined by BuOH-HCl assay and total phenolics by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Two in vitro biological activity measurements were used: the prooxidant activity was measured by the browning assay and antioxidant activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Organ extracts were fractionated using column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and the activities of fractions was similarly measured to evaluate which polyphenol groups contributed the most to the biological activity of each organ. The data on the activity of fractions were examined by multivariate data analysis. The water-soluble extracts of leaves and pistils, which contained over 30% of the dry weight as ellagitannins, showed the highest pro-oxidant activity among the organ extracts. Fraction analysis revealed that flavonoids and galloyl quinic acids also exhibited high pro-oxidant activity. In contrast, the most antioxidant active organ extracts were those of the main roots and hairy roots that contained high amounts of proanthocyanidins in addition to ellagitannins. Analysis of the fractions showed that especially ellagitannins and galloyl quinic acids have high antioxidant activity. We conclude that G. sylvaticum allocates a significant amount of tannins in those plant parts that are important to the fitness of the plant and susceptible to natural enemies, i.e. pistil and leaf tannins protect against insect herbivores and root tannins against soil pathogens. PMID:24050514

Tuominen, Anu



One-step separation and purification of hydrolysable tannins from Geranium wilfordii Maxim by adsorption chromatography on cross-linked 12% agarose gel.  


The hydrolysable tannins corilagin and geraniin, the major active components of the traditional Chinese medicine Geranium wilfordii Maxim, have been separated and purified from crude extracts in one step by adsorption chromatography on cross-linked 12% agarose gel (Superose 12 10/300 GL). The separation was achieved by gradient elution using mobile phase A composed of 5% ethanol and 5% acetic acid and mobile phase B composed of 30% ethanol and 30% acetic acid. The gradients were composed as follows: 0-240?mL, 0-25% B; 240-480?mL, 25-40% B; after 480?mL, 100% B. The purities of the collected corilagin and geraniin were 92.4 and 87.2%, and the corresponding yields were 88.0 and 76.8%, respectively. PMID:21442751

Liu, Dan; Ma, Yan; Wang, Ye; Su, Zhiguo; Gu, Ming; Janson, Jan-Christer



Liquid-liquid/solid three-phase high-speed counter-current chromatography, a new technique for separation of polyphenols from Geranium wilfordii Maxim.  


High-speed counter-current chromatography using a new liquid-liquid/solid three-phase system was used for the separation of the polyphenols corilagin and geraniin from a crude extract of Geranium wilfordii Maxim in one step. The optimized three-phase system was composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/acetic acid/water and to which was added 10-?m average diameter microspheres of cross-linked 12% agarose at the ratio of 0.2:10:2:1:5 and 0.1 g/mL, respectively. The purities of geraniin and corilagin were 82 and 90%, which were determined by HPLC at 280 nm. A 14.5 and 7 mg of geraniin and corilagin were purified from 160 mg crude extract with the yields of 70 and 78%, respectively. PMID:22815257

Liu, Dan; Ma, Yan; Gu, Ming; Janson, Jan-Christer; Wang, Changhai; Xiao, Hongbin



Chemical characterization (GC/MS and NMR Fingerprinting) and bioactivities of South-African Pelargonium capitatum (L.) L'?Her. (Geraniaceae) essential oil.  


Chemical fingerprinting of commercial Pelargonium capitatum (Geraniaceae) essential oil samples of south African origin was performed by GC, GC/MS, and (13) C- and (1) H-NMR. Thirty-seven compounds were identified, among which citronellol (32.71%) and geraniol (19.58%) were the most abundant. NMR Spectra of characteristic chemicals were provided. Broad-spectrum bioactivity properties of the oil were evaluated and compared with those of commercial Thymus vulgaris essential oil with the aim to obtain a functional profile in terms of efficacy and safety. P. capitatum essential oil provides a good performance as antimicrobial, with particular efficacy against Candida albicans strains. Antifungal activity performed against dermatophyte and phytopathogen strains revealed the latter as more sensitive, while antibacterial activity was not remarkable against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. P. capitatum oil provided a lower antioxidant activity (IC(50) ) than that expressed by thyme essential oil, both in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ?-carotene bleaching tests. Results in photochemiluminescence (PCL) assay were negligible. To test the safety aspects of P. capitatum essential oil, mutagenic and toxicity properties were assayed by Ames test, with and without metabolic activation. Possible efficacy of P. capitatum essential oil as mutagenic protective agent against NaN(3) , 2-nitrofluorene, and 2-aminoanthracene was also assayed, providing interesting and significant antigenotoxic properties. PMID:21480508

Guerrini, Alessandra; Rossi, Damiano; Paganetto, Guglielmo; Tognolini, Massimiliano; Muzzoli, Mariavittoria; Romagnoli, Carlo; Antognoni, Fabiana; Vertuani, Silvia; Medici, Alessandro; Bruni, Alessandro; Useli, Chiara; Tamburini, Elena; Bruni, Renato; Sacchetti, Gianni



Anti-obesity effects of Geranium thunbergii extract via improvement of lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.  


This study investigated the anti-obesity properties of an extract of Geranium thunbergii (GTE) in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. GTE treatment significantly reduced body weight, adipose tissue mass, adipocyte size, as well as serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in obese mice compared to high-fat diet-fed mice. It also decreased serum leptin levels and increased adiponectin levels. The serum levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were not significantly changed in GTE-treated mice compared to serum levels in normal diet and high-fat diet-fed mice. Furthermore, GTE suppressed the mRNA levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein and fatty acid synthase in the adipose tissues of obese mice. These results suggest that GTE ameliorated high-fat diet-induced obesity by altering the adipokine levels and downregulating the expression of transcription factors and lipogenic enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. PMID:21874243

Sung, Yoon-Young; Yoon, Taesook; Yang, Won-Kyung; Kim, Seung Ju; Kim, Ho Kyoung



Chromatographic fingerprint and the simultaneous determination of five bioactive components of geranium carolinianum L. water extract by high performance liquid chromatography.  


A simple and sensitive HPLC method has been developed in combination with fingerprint analysis and simultaneous determination of five markers, namely gallic acid, corilagin, methyl brevifolincarboxylate, ellagic acid and rutin for evaluation and quality control of Geranium carolinianum L. water extract. Extraction methods were optimized by comparing the hydrolysis efficiency of geraniin, a major tannin of the herb, resulting in the method of extraction with water under reflux. Water extracts were analyzed by HPLC, with a mobile phase of 0.1% aqueous phosphoric acid (v/v) and acetonitrile in a gradient program within 65 min. Compounds were detected at 274 nm UV wavelength. For fingerprint analysis, 17 peaks were selected as the characteristic peaks to evaluate the similarities of different samples collected from the suburb of Nanjing. The correlation coefficients of similarity were greater than 0.993. In quantitative analysis, the five selected markers showed good regression (R > 0.9991) within test ranges, and the average recoveries were between 97.2-101.7% and their RSD values were less than 4.50%. The total contents of the five markers varied from 44.28 to 71.84 mg/g. The method can be very useful for further development of G. carolinianum L. extracts and preparations. PMID:22272101

Wu, Qiu-Yue; Zhou, Yang; Jin, Xin; Guan, Yue; Xu, Min; Liu, Li-Fang



Chromatographic Fingerprint and the Simultaneous Determination of Five Bioactive Components of Geranium carolinianum L. Water Extract by High Performance Liquid Chromatography  

PubMed Central

A simple and sensitive HPLC method has been developed in combination with fingerprint analysis and simultaneous determination of five markers, namely gallic acid, corilagin, methyl brevifolincarboxylate, ellagic acid and rutin for evaluation and quality control of Geranium carolinianum L. water extract. Extraction methods were optimized by comparing the hydrolysis efficiency of geraniin, a major tannin of the herb, resulting in the method of extraction with water under reflux. Water extracts were analyzed by HPLC, with a mobile phase of 0.1% aqueous phosphoric acid (v/v) and acetonitrile in a gradient program within 65 min. Compounds were detected at 274 nm UV wavelength. For fingerprint analysis, 17 peaks were selected as the characteristic peaks to evaluate the similarities of different samples collected from the suburb of Nanjing. The correlation coefficients of similarity were greater than 0.993. In quantitative analysis, the five selected markers showed good regression (R > 0.9991) within test ranges, and the average recoveries were between 97.2–101.7% and their RSD values were less than 4.50%. The total contents of the five markers varied from 44.28 to 71.84 mg/g. The method can be very useful for further development of G. carolinianum L. extracts and preparations.

Wu, Qiu-Yue; Zhou, Yang; Jin, Xin; Guan, Yue; Xu, Min; Liu, Li-Fang



Separation and purification of hydrolyzable tannin from Geranium wilfordii Maxim by reversed-phase and normal-phase high-speed counter-current chromatography.  


Three hydrolyzable tannins, geraniin, corilagin and gallic acid, main active components of Geranium wilfordii Maxim, have been separated and purified in one-step by both reversed-phase and normal-phase high-speed counter-current chromatography. Gallic acid, corilagin and geraniin were purified from 70% aqueous acetone extract of G. wilfordii Maxim with solvent system n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-acetic acid-water (1:10:0.2:0.2:20) by reversed-phase high-speed counter-current chromatography at purities of 94.2, 91.0 and 91.3%, at yields of 89.3, 82.9 and 91.7%, respectively. Gallic acid, corilagin and geraniin were purified with solvent system n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-acetic acid-water (0.2:10:2:1:5) by normal-phase high-speed counter-current chromatography at purities of 85.9, 92.2 and 87.6%, at yields of 87.4, 94.6 and 94.3%, respectively. It was successful for both reversed-phase and normal-phase high-speed counter-current chromatography to separate high-polarity of low-molecular-weight substances. PMID:20549664

Liu, Dan; Su, Zhiguo; Wang, Changhai; Gu, Ming; Xing, Siliang



RNA isolation from recalcitrant plant tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isolation of high-quality RNA from various tissues (leaves, pedicels, glandular trichomes) of garden geranium (Pelargonium xhortorum) using various published methods is difficult due to numerous oxidizing compounds. A new RNA extraction method was developed\\u000a through the combination and modification of two separate procedures (Rochester et al., 1986; Manning 1991). In addition to\\u000a geranium tissues, this method is successful when

David J. Schultz; Richard Craig; Diana L. Cox-Foster; Ralph O. Mumma; June I. Medford



Investigation of the effectiveness of Syzygium aromaticum, Lavandula angustifolia and Geranium robertianum essential oils in the treatment of acute external otitis: A comparative trial with ciprofloxacin.  


BACKGROUND: Antibiotics and anti-inflammatory agents are the mainstay of acute external otitis (AEO) treatment. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a combination herbal drop (Lamigex) composed of essential oils from Syzygium aromaticum, Lavandula angustifolia, and Geranium robertianum in the alleviation of AEO symptoms and compared its effects to those of ciprofloxacin 0.3% drop. METHODS: Seventy patients were randomly assigned to receive ciprofloxacin 0.3% (n = 35) or Lamigex (n = 35) drop. Each group was administered with three drops every 12 hours for a week. Patients were examined for AEO symptoms and ear discharge cultures at baseline as well as at the end of trial. Pain severity was also recorded using a visual analogue scale at baseline, the 3(rd) day, and the 7(th) day of the trial. RESULTS: All assessed symptoms (tenderness, itching, erythema, edema and discharge) were equally improved in the ciprofloxacin and Lamigex groups by the end of trial (p > 0.05). There were remarkable reductions in the visual analogue scale score by the end of trial in both groups (p < 0.001). However, the rate of pain improvement was not found to be significantly different between the groups, either at the 3(rd) or 7(th) day of trial (p > 0.05). The numbers of positive cultures for all tested microorganisms were clearly reduced by the end of the trial in both groups but were not significantly different between the groups (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The herbal combination drop that was investigated in the present study exhibited good efficacy in reducing the burden of infection as well as AEO symptoms. PMID:23274083

Panahi, Yunes; Akhavan, Asghar; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Hosseini, Seied Mohammad; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Akbari, Hossein; Sharif, Mohammad Reza; Imani, Saber



Recent loss of plastid-encoded ndh genes within Erodium (Geraniaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastid genomes in the flowering plant family Geraniaceae are known to be highly rearranged based on complete sequences representing\\u000a the four major genera Erodium, Geranium, Monsonia, and Pelargonium. In this paper we report on the genome sequence of a second species of Erodium, E. carvifolium, representing the second major clade (clade II) in the phylogeny of this genus. Comparison of

J. Chris Blazier; Mary M. Guisinger; Robert K. Jansen



Light absorption by isolated chloroplasts and leaves: effects of scattering and ‘packing’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light absorption was quantified in the following systems: isolated chloroplasts and leaves of spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.), a mutant of geranium (Pelargonium zonale L.) widely differing in pigment content, and coleus (Coleus blumei Benth.) at different stages of leaf ontogenesis. For these species and pea (Pisum sativum L.), scattering-compensated absorption spectra of chloroplast suspensions are presented. Comparison of leaf and

Mark N. Merzlyak; Olga B. Chivkunova; Tatiana V. Zhigalova; K. Razi Naqvi



What limits production of unusual monoenoic fatty acids in transgenic plants?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unusual monounsaturated fatty acids are major constituents (greater than 80%) in seeds of Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander) and Thunbergia alata Bojer, as well as in glandular trichomes (greater than 80% derived products) of Pelargonium 2hortorum (geranium). These diverged fatty acid structures are produced via distinct plastidial acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturases. When expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. under strong

Mi Chung Suh; David J. Schultz; John B. Ohlrogge



Salinity effects on annual bedding plants in a peat?perlite medium and solution culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annual vinca (Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don ‘Pink Carpet'), geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum L. H. Bailey ‘Jackpot'), and marigold (Tagetes erecta L. ‘First Lady') were grown in a sphagnum peat moss and perlite medium. Plants were irrigated with solutions of different salinity by the addition of 0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 g\\/1 of a NaCl and CaCl2 mixture resulting

Zong T. Huang; Douglas A. Cox



Antibacterial effect of some essential oils administered alone or in combination with Norfloxacin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was that of verifying a possible synergistic antibacterial effect between Pelargonium graveolens [Lis-Balchin, M., Deans, S.G., Hart, S., 1996. Bioactive Geranium oils from different commercial sources. J. Essential Oil Res. 8, 281–290.] essential oil (and its main components) and Norfloxacin antibiotic.As a first step growth inhibition by some types of essential oils was assessed

Antonio Rosato; Cesare Vitali; Nicolino De Laurentis; Domenico Armenise; Maria Antonietta Milillo



Foliar biofilms of Burkholderia pyrrocinia FP62 on geraniums  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biofilm formation on foliar surfaces is commonly associated with plants in water-saturated environments (e.g. tropics or modified environments). On most leaf surfaces bacteria are thought to reside in aggregates with limited production of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) matrix. However, the biocontrol ag...


Could 1,3 dimethylamylamine (DMAA) in food supplements have a natural origin?  


1,3 dimethylamylamine or methylexaneamine (DMAA) is a synthetic pharmaceutical patented in the 1940s as a nasal decongestant which can be used as a recreational stimulant. Alleged to occur in nature, DMAA has become a widely used ingredient in sports food supplements, despite its status as a doping agent and concerns over its safety. There is now some doubt as to whether it can be sourced naturally or whether it actually occurs naturally at all. The presence of DMAA was investigated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in extracts of the leaves and stems of four geranium species and of three well-known cultivars. The amounts of DMAA in commercial geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) oil and the leading sports supplement which uses the ingredient were also measured. DMAA was not found in any of the leaves or stems or in the commercial geranium oil included in this study. Approximately 30 mg per daily dose was found in the food supplement. Therefore, the amount of DMAA found in the supplement is most unlikely to have been sourced in nature, and it must be concluded that synthetic DMAA, known to be capable of causing severe adverse physiological effects, has been added. PMID:22941904

Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Moro, Enzo; Dos Santos, Ariana; Uberti, Francesca; Restani, Patrizia



Fragrance heritability in Hybrid Tea roses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the Hybrid Tea roses that are sold as cut flowers are non-scented, despite the long-standing interest of the perfume industry to rose scent. In the absence of comprehensive knowledge on the genetic and biochemistry of volatile biosynthesis in roses, we decided to characterize a Hybrid Tea progeny obtained from parents that emit very different scents. First, we identified

Magali Cherri-Martin; Frédéric Jullien; Philippe Heizmann; Sylvie Baudino



Boron Stress and Boron Tissue Distribution in Arbidopsis thaliana and Pelargonium X Hortorum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The micronutrient boron is essential for plant growth and development. Deficient or excessive levels of this micronutrient result in the formation of growth defects that reduce yield in crop plants and result in discarding of horticultural plants. To study the responses of plants to altered boron ...


Gender Differences in Reproductive and Physiological Traits in a Gynodioecious Species, Geranium maculatum (Geraniaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant species with separate genders often exhibit gender differences in traits related to reproductive allocation. In gynodioecious species, females often produce more seeds than do hermaphrodites, leading to a higher reproductive cost. The mechanisms that allow females to meet the high costs of reproduction are currently under debate. In this study, we test the hypothesis that there are genetically based

Megan L. Van Etten; Luanna B. Prevost; A. Cecile Deen; Brenda V. Ortiz; Lisa A. Donovan



Screening, isolation and evaluation of antioxidative compounds from Geranium macrorrhizum, Potentilla fruticosa and Rhaponticum carthamoides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food molecules (lipids, proteins, carbohydrates) can be widely involved in oxidation reactions. These reactions, caused by so called reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a major cause of food deterioration. In the case of lipid containing foods this process is defined as rancidity. Significant changes can occur in product colour, texture and nutritive value. Eventually the oxidation can result in complete

G. Miliauskas



Treatment of the common cold in children and adults.  


The common cold, or upper respiratory tract infection, is one of the leading reasons for physician visits. Generally caused by viruses, the common cold is treated symptomatically. Antibiotics are not effective in children or adults. In children, there is a potential for harm and no benefits with over-the-counter cough and cold medications; therefore, they should not be used in children younger than four years. Other commonly used medications, such as inhaled corticosteroids, oral prednisolone, and Echinacea, also are ineffective in children. Products that improve symptoms in children include vapor rub, zinc sulfate, Pelargonium sidoides (geranium) extract, and buckwheat honey. Prophylactic probiotics, zinc sulfate, nasal saline irrigation, and the herbal preparation Chizukit reduce the incidence of colds in children. For adults, antihistamines, intranasal corticosteroids, codeine, nasal saline irrigation, Echinacea angustifolia preparations, and steam inhalation are ineffective at relieving cold symptoms. Pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, inhaled ipratropium, and zinc (acetate or gluconate) modestly reduce the severity and duration of symptoms for adults. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and some herbal preparations, including Echinacea purpurea, improve symptoms in adults. Prophylactic use of garlic may decrease the frequency of colds in adults, but has no effect on duration of symptoms. Hand hygiene reduces the spread of viruses that cause cold illnesses. Prophylactic vitamin C modestly reduces cold symptom duration in adults and children. PMID:22962927

Fashner, Julia; Ericson, Kevin; Werner, Sarah



Laboratory evaluation of aromatic essential oils from thirteen plant species as candidate repellents against Leptotrombidium chiggers (Acari: Trombiculidae), the vector of scrub typhus.  


Scrub typhus, a rickettsial disease transmitted by several species of Leptotrombidium chiggers (larvae), is endemic in many areas of Asia. The disease is best prevented by the use of personal protective measures, including repellents. In this study commercially produced aromatic, essential oils of 13 plant species and ethanol (control) were tested in the laboratory for repellency against host-seeking chiggers of Leptotrombidium imphalum Vercammen-Grandjean and Langston (Acari: Trombiculidae). A rapid, simple and economic in vitro test method was used by exposing the chigger for up to 5 min. Repellency was based on relative percentages of chiggers attracted to test and control substances. Four of the 13 essential oils showed promise as effective repellent against L. imphalum chiggers. Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oil exhibited 100% repellency at 5% concentration (dilution with absolute ethanol), whereas Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil exhibited 100% repellency at 40% concentration. Undiluted oils of Zingiber cassamunar (plai) and Eucalyptus globules (blue gum) exhibited 100% repellency. Of the remaining nine essential oils, only 100% Pelargonium graveolens (geranium) exhibited >50% repellency (viz. 57%). Styrax torkinensis (benzoin) oil did not exhibit any repellency. These findings show that several aromatic, essential oils of plants may be useful as chigger repellent for the prevention of scrub typhus. Syzygium aromaticum oil may be safer and more economical to prevent chigger attacks than commercially available synthetic chemicals, such as DEET that may have harmful side effects. PMID:19009361

Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yoolek, Adisak; Kongkaew, Wittaya; Lerdthusnee, Kriangkrai; Khlaimanee, Nittaya; Parsartvit, Anchana; Malainual, Nat; Yong, Hoi-Sen



Updates on chemical and biological research on botanical ingredients in dietary supplements.  


Increased use of dietary supplements is a phenomenon observed worldwide. In the USA, more than 40% of the population recently reported using complementary and alternative medicines, including botanical dietary supplements. Perceptions that such dietary supplements are natural and safe, may prevent disease, may replace prescription medicines, or may make up for a poor diet, play important roles in their increased use. Toxicity of botanical dietary supplements may result from the presence of naturally occurring toxic constituents or from contamination or adulteration with pharmaceutical agents, heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, or bacteria, misidentification of a plant species in a product, formation of electrophilic metabolites, organ-specific reactions, or botanical-drug interactions. The topics discussed in this review illustrate several issues in recent research on botanical ingredients in dietary supplements. These include (1) whether 1,3-dimethylamylamine is a natural constituent of rose geranium (Pelargonium graveolens), (2) how analysis of the components of dietary supplements containing bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is essential to understanding their potential biological effects, and (3) how evolving methods for in vitro studies on botanical ingredients can contribute to safety evaluations. The virtual explosion in the use of botanical ingredients in hundreds of products presents a considerable challenge to the analytical community, and the need for appropriate methods cannot be overstated. We review recent developments and use of newer and increasingly sensitive methods that can contribute to increasing the safety and quality of botanical ingredients in dietary supplements. PMID:23322353

Pawar, Rahul S; Tamta, Hemlata; Ma, Jun; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Grundel, Erich; Wamer, Wayne G; Rader, Jeanne I



[Campaign against allergenic moulds in dwellings. Inhibitor properties of essential oil of Geranium 'Bourbon', citronellol, geraniol and citral].  


Many fungal airborne spora show allergenic effects. Indoor (dwelling, work rooms, hospital chambers) can be disinfected by elimination of living particles. We have undertaken experiments in more and more spacious bulks for evaluation of the antifungal effects of vapours of essential oils and some volatiles compounds. Results show that the Mucorales and Geotrichum resist strongly. On the contrary, the Cladosporium strains, some Aspergillus and Penicillium, Trichothecium roseum are the most sensitive, specially towards the citral vapours. Experiments in hospital can be undertaken. PMID:1290385

Chaumont, J P; Léger, D



Identification and characterization of the water gap in physically dormant seeds of Geraniaceae, with special reference to Geranium carolinianum  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Physical dormancy in seeds of species of Geraniaceae is caused by a water-impermeable palisade layer in the outer integument of the seed coat and a closed chalaza. The chalazal cleft has been reported to be the water gap (i.e. location of initial water entry) in innately permeable seeds of Geraniaceae. The primary aim of this study was to re-evaluate the location of the water gap and to characterize its morphology and anatomy in physically dormant seeds of Geraniaceae, with particular reference to G. carolinianum. Methods Length, width, mass, anatomy and germination of two seed types (light brown and dark brown) of G. carolinianum were compared. Location, anatomy and morphology of the water gap were characterized using free-hand and microtome tissue sectioning, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dye tracking, blocking and seed-burial experiments. Key Results Treatment with dry heat caused a colour change in the palisade cells adjacent to the micropyle. When placed in water, the ‘hinged valve’ (blister) erupted at the site of the colour change, exposing the water gap. The morphology and anatomy in the water-gap region differs from those of the rest of the seed coat. The morphology of the seed coat of the water-gap region is similar in G. carolinianum, G. columbinum, G. molle and G. pusillum and differs from that of the closely related species Erodium cicutarium. Conclusions Dislodgment of swollen ‘hinged valve’ palisade cells adjacent to the micropyle caused the water gap to open in physically dormant seeds of G. carolinianum, and it was clear that initial water uptake takes place through this gap and not via the chalazal opening as previously reported. This water gap (‘hinged valve gap’) differs from water gaps previously described for other families in morphology, anatomy and location in the seed coat.

Gama-Arachchige, N. S.; Baskin, J. M.; Geneve, R. L.; Baskin, C. C.



The vapor activity of oregano, perilla, tea tree, lavender, clove, and geranium oils against a Trichophyton mentagrophytes in a closed box  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vapor activity of six essential oils against a Trichophyton mentagrophytes was examined using a closed box. The antifungal activity was determined from colony size, which was correlated with the inoculum\\u000a size. As judged from the minimum inhibitory dose and the minimum fungicidal dose determined after vapor exposure for 24 h,\\u000a the vapor activity of the six essential oils was

Shigeharu Inouye; Yayoi Nishiyama; Katsuhisa Uchida; Yayoi Hasumi; Hideyo Yamaguchi; Shigeru Abe



Patent literature on mosquito repellent inventions which contain plant essential oils--a review.  


Bites Bites of mosquitoes belonging to the genera Anopheles Meigen, Aedes Meigen, Culex L. and Haemagogus L. are a general nuisance and are responsible for the transmission of important tropical diseases such as malaria, hemorrhagic dengue and yellow fevers and filariasis (elephantiasis). Plants are traditional sources of mosquito repelling essential oils (EOs), glyceridic oils and repellent and synergistic chemicals. A Chemical Abstracts search on mosquito repellent inventions containing plant-derived EOs revealed 144 active patents mostly from Asia. Chinese, Japanese and Korean language patents and those of India (in English) accounted for roughly 3/4 of all patents. Since 1998 patents on EO-containing mosquito repellent inventions have almost doubled about every 4 years. In general, these patents describe repellent compositions for use in topical agents, cosmetic products, incense, fumigants, indoor and outdoor sprays, fibers, textiles among other applications. 67 EOs and 9 glyceridic oils were individually cited in at least 2 patents. Over 1/2 of all patents named just one EO. Citronella [Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle, C.winterianus Jowitt ex Bor] and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus L?Hér. spp.) EOs were each cited in approximately 1/3 of all patents. Camphor [Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl], cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume), clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry], geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L?Hér.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), lemon [Citrus × limon (L.) Osbeck], lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf] and peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) EOs were each cited in > 10% of patents. Repellent chemicals present in EO compositions or added as pure “natural” ingredients such as geraniol, limonene, p-menthane-3,8-diol, nepetalactone and vanillin were described in approximately 40% of all patents. About 25% of EO-containing inventions included or were made to be used with synthetic insect control agents having mosquito repellent properties such as pyrethroids, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), (±)-p-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD) and dialkyl phthalates. Synergistic effects involving one or more EOs and synthetic and/or natural components were claimed in about 10% of all patents. Scientific literature sources provide evidence for the mosquito repellency of many of the EOs and individual chemical components found in EOs used in patented repellent inventions. PMID:21328177

Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Gama, Renata Antonaci; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Neto, Valter Ferreira de Andrade



7 CFR 201.56-12 - Miscellaneous plant families.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Carrot family, Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)âcarrot, celery, celeriac, dill, parsley, parsnip; Hemp family, Cannabaceaeâhemp; Dichondra family, Dichondraceaeâdichondra; Geranium family, Geraniaceaeâalfilaria; Mint...



7 CFR 201.56-12 - Miscellaneous plant families.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Carrot family, Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)âcarrot, celery, celeriac, dill, parsley, parsnip; Hemp family, Cannabaceaeâhemp; Dichondra family, Dichondraceaeâdichondra; Geranium family, Geraniaceaeâalfilaria; Mint...




Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Chloroplast($#$#$#CommaToBeChlamydomonas reinhardtii (Boynton et al., 1972, 1973; Goodenough and Levine, 1971) appear to be dispensable. In addition, variegated plastome mutants of barley, cotton, and Pelargonium have,been,described,in which,the

Elizabeth H. Harris; John E. Boynton; Nicholas W. Gillham


Genetic dissection of scent metabolic profiles in diploid rose populations.  


The scent of flowers is a very important trait in ornamental roses in terms of both quantity and quality. In cut roses, scented varieties are a rare exception. Although metabolic profiling has identified more than 500 scent volatiles from rose flowers so far, nothing is known about the inheritance of scent in roses. Therefore, we analysed scent volatiles and molecular markers in diploid segregating populations. We resolved the patterns of inheritance of three volatiles (nerol, neryl acetate and geranyl acetate) into single Mendelian traits, and we mapped these as single or oligogenic traits in the rose genome. Three other volatiles (geraniol, beta-citronellol and 2-phenylethanol) displayed quantitative variation in the progeny, and we mapped a total of six QTLs influencing the amounts of these volatiles onto the rose marker map. Because we included known scent related genes and newly generated ESTs for scent volatiles as markers, we were able to link scent related QTLs with putative candidate genes. Our results serve as a starting point for both more detailed analyses of complex scent biosynthetic pathways and the development of markers for marker-assisted breeding of scented rose varieties. PMID:20084491

Spiller, M; Berger, R G; Debener, Thomas



Optical Properties and Nondestructive Estimation of Anthocyanin Content in Plant Leaves¶  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absorption and reflectance spectra of maple ( Acer pla- tanoides), cotoneaster (Cotoneaster alaunica), dogwood (Cornus alba) and pelargonium (Pelargonium zonale) leaves with a wide range of pigment content and com- position were studied in visible and near-infrared spectra in order to reveal specific anthocyanin (Anth) spectral features in leaves. Comparing absorption spectra of Anth-containing and Anth-free leaves with the same

Anatoly A. Gitelson; Mark N. Merzlyak; Olga B. Chivkunova




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We evaluated several plant essential oils (cinnamon bark, cinnamon Cassia, cinnamon leaf, clove bud, lemon, lemon grass, orange bitter, orange Mandarin, oregano Spanish, palmarosa, rose Geranium, and thyme) and their major components (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, citral, eugenol, geraniol, limonene, a...


Farms: The Flexible Agricultural Robotics Manipulator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technology utilization project was established with the Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Georgia to develop an Earth-based, robotic end effector to process live plant (geranium) material which will improve productivity and efficiency i...

P. S. Gill



Interspecfic variation in SO/sub 2/ flux - leaf surface versus internal flux, and components of leaf conductance  

SciTech Connect

The object of the study was to clarify the relationships among stomatal, residual, and epidermal conductances in determining the flux of SO/sub 2/ air pollution to leaves. Variations in leaf SO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O vapor fluxes were determined using four plant species: Pisum sativum L. (garden pea), Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. flacca (mutant of tomato), Geranium carolinianum L. (wild geranium), and Diplacus aurantiacus (Curtis) Jeps. (a native California shrub).

Olszyk, D.M.; Tingey, D.T.



Incorporation of 18O into oxalic, l-threonic and l-tartaric acids during cleavage of l-ascorbic and 5-keto- d-gluconic acids in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

l-[1,6-14C]Ascorbic acid was administered to young leaves of Pelargonium. 5-Keto-d-[1-14C]gluconic acid, a metabolic product of l-[1-14C]ascorbic acid in grape, was supplied to young leaves of Pelargonium, parsley, bean and grape in the presence of 18O2 or H218O. From the 18O incorporated into oxalic and l-threonic acids, which were C2\\/C3 cleavage products of l-ascorbic acid, and into l-tartaric acid, which was

Kazumi Saito; Junko Ohmoto; Norio Kuriha



Structure and evolution of the largest chloroplast gene (ORF2280): internal plasticity and multiple gene loss during angiosperm evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined the nucleotide sequence of the Pelargonium x hortorum ORF2280 homolog, the largest gene in the plastid genome of most land plants, and compared it to published homologs from Nicotiana tabacum, Epifagus virginiana, Spinacia oleracea, and Marchantia polymorpha. Multiple alignment of protein sequences requires an extraordinary number of gaps, indicating a very high frequency of insertion\\/deletion events during

Stephen R. Downie; Deborah S. Katz-Downie; Kenneth H. Wolfe; Patrick J. Calie; Jeffrey D. Palmer



[The protective action of a natural preparation of anthocyan (pelargonidin-3,5-diglucoside)].  


The effect of an anthocyan preparation isolated from flower petals of Pelargonium roseum and Rosa canina was studied in the Chinese hamster fibroblasts and Vicia faba seedlings in respect of cytogenetic damage and mouse survival. The pronounced radioprotective effect and the absence of the toxic effect were observed. PMID:8332723

Akhmadieva, A Kh; Zaichkina, S I; Ruzieva, R Kh; Ganassi, E E


Changes in carotenoid content and distribution in living plant tissue can be observed and mapped in situ using NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-infrared (NIR) excited Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy has been applied for in situ analysis of carotenoids in living plant samples. Pelargonium x hortorum leaf has been mapped using a Raman mapping technique to illustrate heterogeneous distribution of carotenoids. Mapping has also been employed for visualization of carotenoid changes induced by abiotic and biotic stress. In a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum

Rafal Baranski; Malgorzata Baranska; Hartwig Schulz



New Records of fungous diseases on plants in New Zealand, 1962–64  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following fungi are recorded in New Zealand for the first time: Elsinoe parthenocissi Jenkins and Bitancourt on Parthenocissus tricuspidata (Sieb, and Zucc.) Planch (Virginia creeper), Venturia circinans (Fr.) Sacc. on Geranium molle L. (crane’s-bill); V. enteleae n. sp. on Entelea arborescens R. Br.; Griphosphaeria corticola (Fckl.) Hoehnel on Rosa sp., on Rosa rubiginosa L. (sweet briar), on R. idaeus

Joan M. Dingley




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biofilm formation of Burkholderia sp. (FP62) on plant leaves and its role in the biocontrol of Botrytis cinerea(Bc) was examined on geranium. A library of mini-Tn5 lacZ1 transposon mutants was screened for biofilm formation in a polystyrene microtiter plate assay. Mutants deficient in biofilm form...


Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of 12 medicinal and aromatic plants were investigated for their radical scavenging activity using DPPH and ABTS assays: Salvia sclarea, Salvia glutinosa, Salvia pratensis, Lavandula angustifolia, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Echinacea purpurea, Rhaponticum carthamoides, Juglans regia, Melilotus officinalis, Geranium macrorrhizum and Potentilla fruticosa. Salvia officinalis was used as a reference plant with well documented antioxidant activity. G. macrorrhizum and

G. Miliauskas; P. R. Venskutonis; T. A. van Beek



Laboratory Techniques for Determining Ploidy in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

ADDITIONAL INDEX WORDS. pollen grains, pollen mother cells, root tip squashes, stomata size, stomata density SUMMARY. Determination of ploidy is an essential plant breeding technique. Laboratory exercises for teaching students how to determine ploidy in plant tissues using various tech- niques are described for geranium and onion. The different methods include root tip squashes, pollen mother cell squashes, pollen grain

Christopher S. Cramer



Antimicrobial and antiplasmid activities of essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial and antiplasmid activities of essential oils (orange oil, eucalyptus oil, fennel oil, geranium oil, juniper oil, peppermint oil, rosemary oil, purified turpentine oil, thyme oil, Australian tea tree oil) and of menthol, the main component of peppermint oil, were investigated. The antimicrobial activities were determined on the Gram (+) Staphylococcus epidermidis and the Gram (?) Escherichia coli F'lac

Zsuzsanna Schelz; Joseph Molnar; Judit Hohmann



Effects of geraniin on morphology and function of macrophages.  


The effects of geraniin, a tannin, isolated from Geranium thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc. on the morphology and function of macrophages were studied. Geraniin caused a marked retardation of the recovery from fully spread surface membrane and a highly reorganized cytoskeleton of macrophages, whereas endocytotic activity, phagocytosis and pinocytosis in the cells were significantly inhibited. PMID:1804795

Ushio, Y; Okuda, T; Abe, H



Studies on use of lignocellulosic residues of palma rosa grass after steam distillation for the production of chemical grade pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aims at using of lignocellulosic residues of Cymbopogon martini to develop value added quality papers by eco-friendly pulping and bleaching techniques. C. martini grass is exclusively used to extract important geranium oil by distillation in crude direct-fired stills. Anatomical, morphological and chemical studies indicate its similarities with hardwoods and its suitability for the production of chemical grade pulp.

Dharm Dutta; A P Garg


The effect of essential oils on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using a dressing model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patchouli, tea tree, geranium, lavender essential oils and Citricidal™ (grapefruit seed extract) were used singly and in combination to assess their anti-bacterial activity against three strains of Staphylococcus aureus: Oxford S. aureus NCTC 6571 (Oxford strain), Epidemic methicillin-resistant S. aureus (EMRSA 15) and MRSA (untypable). The individual essential oils, extracts and combinations were impregnated into filter paper discs and placed

V. Edwards-Jones; R. Buck; S. G. Shawcross; M. M. Dawson; K. Dunn



Spring Flowers: Harvest of a Sensitive Eye  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Defining and describing a number of spring flowers, this article includes illustrations and explanations that demonstrate "art and science are born of the same parents". The flowers discussed are skunk cabbage, bellwort, spring beauty, jack-in-the-pulpit, Solomon's seal, wild geranium, showy orchids, moccasin flower, bluets, apple, and Indian…

Clark, Eloise; Levin, Ted



Struktur und Funktion der genetischen Information in den Plastiden  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The variety ‘Mrs. Parker’ of Pelargonium zonale (fig. 1) is a periclinal chimera of the constitution white-over-green (LI and L II: white, L III: green). Reciprocal crosses with the green variety ‘Trautlieb’ demonstrate a biparental, extranuclear inheritance of the character green.- white. The F1 consists of green, green-white variegated and white seedlings (table 1).2.In green-white variegated F1-plants “mixed cells” (fig.

Thomas Börner; Rolf Knoth; Falko Herrmann; Rudolf Hagemann



Natural killer cell activity and lymphocyte activation: Investigating the effects of a selection of essential oils and components in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

A selection of essential oils and components were tested in vitro for potential immunomodulating effects on natural killer cell activity (NKCA) and lymphocyte activation through CD69 expression.\\u000aMatricaria recutita, Boswellia carteri, Pelargonium graveolens, Lavandula angustifolia, Citrus limon, Melaleuca alternifolia, Melaleuca viridiflora, Santalum spicatum, Cedrus atlantica, and Thymus vulgaris ct. linalool essential oils were solubilised with ethanol and methylated â-cyclodextrin 1:5:25

M. D. Standen; Paul A Connellan; David N Leach



New isolates of carnation Italian ringspot virus differ from the original one by having replication-associated proteins with a typical tombusvirus-like N-terminus and by inducing peroxisome rather than mitochondrion-derived multivesicular bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five new isolates of carnation Italian ringspot virus (CIRV) from cherry trees, Gypsophila and surface water differ from the original carnation isolate (CIRV-car) and also from Pelargonium necrotic spot virus (PelNSV)\\u000a by having an ORF 1\\/ORF1-RT with a typical tombusvirus-like 5?end and by inducing the formation of peroxisome- rather than\\u000a mitochondrion-derived multivesicular bodies (MVBs). This supports with natural isolates earlier

Renate Koenig; Dietrich-Eckhardt Lesemann; Ernst Pfeilstetter



Laboratory evaluation of four commercial repellents against larval Leptotrombidium deliense (Acari: Trombiculidae).  


Four commercial repellents were evaluated in the laboratory against Leptotrombidium deliense chiggers. Both in vitro and in vivo methods were used to determine repellency of the compounds. The repellents were Kellis (containing citronella oil, jojoba oil and tea tree oil), Kaps (containing citronella oil), BioZ (containing citronella oil, geranium oil and lemon grass oil) and Off (containing DEET). The combination of three active ingredients: citronella oil, geranium oil, lemon grass oil gave the highest repellency (87%) followed by DEET (84%). In vitro repellencies ranged from 73% to 87%. There was no significant difference between the four products. All the repellents had 100% in vivo repellency compared to 41-57% for the controls. PMID:21073028

Hanifah, Azima Laili; Ismail, Siti Hazar Awang; Ming, Ho Tze



Studies of mitochondrial morphology and DNA amount in the rice egg cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

In plant vegetative cells, mitochondria are usually small and grain-shaped. In contrast, unusually shaped giant mitochondria\\u000a (large cup-shaped or long stretched-rod-shaped) appear in the egg cells of geranium, maize, Ipomoea nil, and bracken. In this study, to characterize egg cell mitochondria in rice, we used nonenzymatic manual dissection to isolate\\u000a unfertilized egg cells of rice and observed the egg cell

Hideki Takanashi; Takayuki Ohnishi; Mirai Mogi; Takashi Okamoto; Shin-ichi Arimura; Nobuhiro Tsutsumi



Nuclear polyhedrosis virus as biological control agent of Spodoptera exigua  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several aspects of the control of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera<\\/u>exigua<\\/u> (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in greenhouse crops with nuclear polyhedrosis viruses (NPVs) (Baculoviridae, subgroup A) were studied.Beet armyworm behaviour was observed in various crops. The distribution of egg batches (Chapter 2) was found to be similar in chrysanthemum, tomato, gerbera and geranium. Most eggs were laid on the underside of leaves

P. H. Smits



Morphological analysis of alpine communities of the north-western Caucasus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The species composition of four alpine communities in the north-western Caucasus was subjected to a morphological analysis.\\u000a The communities are an alpine lichen heath type (ALH), aFestuca varia grassland type (FVG), aGeranium-Hedysarum meadow type (GHM) and a snowbed community (SBC). Eighty-two species were studied, using the following morphological parameters:\\u000a vegetative mobility, presence of rosettes, architectural model, life form according toRaunkiaer

Galina A. Pokarzhevskaya



Response of Selected Greenhouse Ornamental Plants to Alkalinity in Irrigation Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tolerance to alkalinity was evaluated in rose ‘Pink Cupido,’ ivy geranium ‘Peppermint Candy,’ vinca ‘Apricot Delight,’ chrysanthemum ‘Miramar,’ hibiscus ‘Bimini Breeze’ and ‘Mango Breeze’ plants irrigated with solutions containing 0 to 10 mM sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). The minimum toxic threshold of NaHCO3 was established as a 10% decrease from the control in chlorophyll concentration (as determined by the SPAD index)

Luis Alonso Valdez-Aguilar; David Wm. Reed



Emerging Plant Pathogenic Bacteria and Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several bacteria, previously classified as non-fluorescent, oxidase positive pseudomonads, Ralstonia, Acidovorax, and Burkholderia have emerged as serious problems worldwide. Perhaps the most destructive is R. solanacearum (RS), a soilborne pathogen with a very wide host range. RS race 3, biovar 2 infects potato and geranium during cooler weather\\u000a making it an additional threat. Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae has emerged as

Norman W. Schaad


Tannins and related compounds induce nitric oxide synthase and cytokines gene expressions in Leishmania major-infected macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells.  


Some polyphenol-containing extracts (Pelargonium sidoides, Phyllanthus amarus) and representatives of simple phenols (shikimic acid 3- and 5-O-gallate), flavan-3-ols (epigallocatechin 3-gallate), proanthocyanidins (a hexamer) and hydrolysable tannins (corilagin, casuariin, geraniin) were studied for gene expressions (iNOS, IL-1, IL-10, IL-12, IL-18, TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha/gamma) by RT-PCR. All extracts and compounds were capable of enhancing the iNOS and cytokine mRNA levels in parasitised cells when compared with those in non-infected conditions. PMID:16143535

Kolodziej, Herbert; Burmeister, Anne; Trun, Weronika; Radtke, Oliver A; Kiderlen, Albrecht F; Ito, Hideyuki; Hatano, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Takashi; Foo, Lai Yeap



Phytophthora tropicalis on Hedera helix and Epipremnum aureum in Polish greenhouses.  


Phytophthora tropicalis was isolated from Hedera helix and Epipremnum aureum showing discoloration of leaves, necrosis of shoot base, spread upwards and on roots. The species was detected from 7/8 plants of Hedera and 3/4 of Epipremnum. Additionally Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium avenaceum and Rhizoctonia solani were recovered from some of diseased plants. P. tropicalis caused leaf necrosis of 13 plant species and tomato seedlings. The quickest spread of necrosis was observed on leaves of Peperomia magnoliaefolia, Pelargonium zonale and Phalaenopsis x hybridum. The disease developed at temperature ranged from 10 degrees to 32.5 degrees C with optimum 30 degrees C. PMID:17390874

Orlikowski, L B; Trzewik, A; Wiejacha, K



The effect of essential oils on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using a dressing model.  


Patchouli, tea tree, geranium, lavender essential oils and Citricidal (grapefruit seed extract) were used singly and in combination to assess their anti-bacterial activity against three strains of Staphylococcus aureus: Oxford S. aureus NCTC 6571 (Oxford strain), Epidemic methicillin-resistant S. aureus (EMRSA 15) and MRSA (untypable). The individual essential oils, extracts and combinations were impregnated into filter paper discs and placed on the surface of agar plates, pre-seeded with the appropriate strain of Staphylococcus. The effects of the vapours of the oils and oil combinations were also assessed using impregnated filter paper discs that were placed on the underside of the Petri dish lid at a distance of 8mm from the bacteria. The most inhibitory combinations of oils for each strain were used in a dressing model constructed using a four layers of dressings: the primary layer consisted of either Jelonet or TelfaClear with or without Flamazine; the second was a layer of gauze, the third a layer of Gamgee and the final layer was Crepe bandage. The oil combinations were placed in either the gauze or the Gamgee layer. This four-layered dressing was placed over the seeded agar plate, incubated for 24h at 37 degrees C and the zones of inhibition measured. All experiments were repeated on three separate occasions. No anti-bacterial effects were observed when Flamazine was smeared on the gauze in the dressing model. When Telfaclear was used as the primary layer in the dressing model compared to Jelonet, greater zones of inhibition were observed. A combination of Citricidal and geranium oil showed the greatest-anti-bacterial effects against MRSA, whilst a combination of geranium and tea tree oil was most active against the methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (Oxford strain). This study demonstrates the potential of essential oils and essential oil vapours as antibacterial agents and for use in the treatment of MRSA infection. PMID:15555788

Edwards-Jones, V; Buck, R; Shawcross, S G; Dawson, M M; Dunn, K



Erwin Baur or Carl Correns: who really created the theory of plastid inheritance?  


Historical reviews of the field of non-Mendelian genetics and many other publications credit Erwin Baur and Carl Correns equally for the development of the theory of plastid inheritance. However, a study of the original literature indicates that this conclusion is not correct. Analysis of the relevant articles leads to the conclusion that Baur alone deserves credit for the theory of plastid inheritance. In his classic article on the inheritance properties of white-margined Pelargonium plants, Baur (1909) stated: (1) The plastids are carriers of hereditary factors which are able to mutate. (2) In variegated plants, random sorting-out of plastids is taking place. (3) The genetic results indicate a biparental inheritance of plastids by egg cells and sperm cells in Pelargonium. By contrast, Correns held the view that in variegated plants there is a maternally transmitted labile state of the cytoplasm which switches either to a permanently "healthy" state (allowing the "indifferent" plastids to become green chloroplasts) or to a permanently "diseased, ill" cytoplasmic state (causing white plastids and cells). Otto Renner supported Baur's theory and worked out important characteristics of plastid inheritance in the genus Oenothera. In the 1930s Renner reported many more observations, which established plastid inheritance as a widely accepted genetic theory. PMID:11218080

Hagemann, R


[Viability of buried plant seeds from alpine plant communities (Northwest Caucasus): results of a five year experiment].  


The experiment with seeds buried in soil has been carried out for 63 alpine plant species from the Northwest Caucasus. Seeds were mixed with native soils and placed in soil at the depth of 8-10 cm for five years. After excavation, seeds of 45 species did not germinate at all. Viability of eight species, four Carex species among them, exceeded 10%. These species are typical of Geranium-Hedysarum meadows and alpine snowbeds and form the main part of soil seed banks in these communities. PMID:23330400

Adzhiev, R K; Onipchenko, V G; Tekeev, D K


Electroculture for crop enhancement by air anions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electroculture, the practice of applying strong electric fields or other sources of small air ions to growing plants, has potential to markedly increase crop production and to speed crop growth. The considerable evidence for its effectiveness, and the studies of the mechanisms for its actions are discussed. A mild current of air anions (4 pA/cm2) stimulates bean crop growth and also earlier blossoming and increased growth in the annual, Exacum affine (Persian violet), as well as in seedling geraniums. The present results would indicate that the growing period required until the plants reach a saleable stage of maturity can be shortened by about two weeks under greenhouse conditions.

Pohl, H. A.; Todd, G. W.



[Changes in eco-morphological parameters of alpine plants' leaves as an effect of fertilization].  


Plants growing on rich soil usually have thin leaves with large specific leaf area. On the other hand, at intraspecific level; soil fertilization results in leaves size increasing which, in turn, can lead to reduction in specific leaf area. To what extent soil fertilization implies only leaves increasing in size and does not affect other eco-morphological characteristics is a question that is still open. To assess coherence between plants intraspecific reactions to changes in soil richness and general tendencies in changes of leaves parameters in communities with different productivity, an experiment has been conducted in alpine plant communities of the north-western Caucasus. Changes in leaf traits are studied in four types of alpine plant communities after long term application of mineral nutrients (NP and lime treatment). It is shown that in all species, except legume Hedysarum caucasicum, fertilization results in size leaf characteristics (leaf area, wet and dry mass) increase. Specific leaf area appears to decrease in plants inhabiting alpine heathlands and increase in plants inhabiting alpine snow beds and in dominant species of Geranium-Hedysarum meadows, Geranium gymnocaulon. After correction of specific leaf area that accounts for changes in leaf size, it becomes discernable that in most species the increase in leaf area per se results in specific leaf area reduction while changes in leaf structure under influence of fertilization leads to this trait increasing. Those species demonstrating the increase in specific leaf area as an effect of fertilization, also gain more in terms of biomass. PMID:22121576

Akhmetzhanova, A A; Onipchenko, V G; Él'kanova, M Kh; Stogova, A V; Tekeev, D K


Studies of mitochondrial morphology and DNA amount in the rice egg cell.  


In plant vegetative cells, mitochondria are usually small and grain-shaped. In contrast, unusually shaped giant mitochondria (large cup-shaped or long stretched-rod-shaped) appear in the egg cells of geranium, maize, Ipomoea nil, and bracken. In this study, to characterize egg cell mitochondria in rice, we used nonenzymatic manual dissection to isolate unfertilized egg cells of rice and observed the egg cell mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) simultaneously. These observations showed that the mitochondria in the rice egg cell are small and grain-shaped, unlike the mitochondria in geranium, maize, I. nil, and bracken. Double staining of mitochondria by MitoTracker and mtDNA by SYBR Green I showed that mitochondria in the rice egg cell have a large amount of mtDNA compared with the rice root protoplast. We also used real-time PCR analysis to quantify the mtDNA amount in the rice egg cell. We quantified the copy numbers of four mitochondrial genes per single rice egg cell and rice leaf protoplast. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the egg cell has more than ten times more copy numbers of all of four genes encoded in the mitochondrial genome compared with the leaf protoplast. PMID:19967377

Takanashi, Hideki; Ohnishi, Takayuki; Mogi, Mirai; Okamoto, Takashi; Arimura, Shin-ichi; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro



Immediate skin and mucosal symptoms from pot plants and vegetables in gardeners and greenhouse workers.  


Short-lived occupational skin symptoms of irritant or urticarial nature were commonly reported among 253 attendants in a clinical study on occupational dermatitis in Danish gardeners and greenhouse workers. Aimed prick or scratch-patch testing for immediate skin and mucosal symptoms was performed in 105 persons with plants as is. 35 persons (33%) had at least 1 positive reaction and a family history of, or personal, atopy was significantly more prevalent among these compared to attendants with negative reactions. Positive histamine release tests made immunologic etiology probable in Schlumbergera cacti, Stephanotis floribunda, Euphorbia pulcherrima and Gerbera reactions. Other new species implicated in immediate-type reactions included Ficus pumila, Gardenia jasminoides, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Campanula, Columnea, Epipremnum aureum, Pelargonium and Primula vulgaris. Because of the high prevalence of short-lived skin symptoms and because contact urticaria may present itself as a dermatitis, it is recommended that one supplement patch tests with tests for immediate reactions. PMID:9817221

Paulsen, E; Skov, P S; Andersen, K E



[Study on transformation mechanism of SOA from biogenic VOC under UV-B condition].  


A laboratory study was carried out to investigate the biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) in a lab-made glass chamber. The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) products can be detected under the UV photooxidation of BVOC. Pelargonium x Citrenella was chosen as the target plant in this research because it can release a large amount of BVOCs. The predominant 7 alkene and ketol compounds were detected by using solid phase microextraction (SPME) sampling and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. The photochemical experiment indicated that these BVOC can be rapidly oxidized into SOA under UV-B irradiation. A tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) was used to measure the size distribution and the hygroscopicity of the SOA. The particle diameter was in the range of 50 nm to 320 nm. The high hygroscopicity of SOA was also obtained and the size increased from 1.05 to 1.11 during the wet experiment. PMID:22468523

Li, Ying-Ying; Li, Xiang; Chen, Jian-Min



Interspecific Variation in SO2 Flux 1  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to clarify the relationships among stomatal, residual, and epidermal conductances in determining the flux of SO2 air pollution to leaves. Variations in leaf SO2 and H2O vapor fluxes were determined using four plant species: Pisum sativum L. (garden pea), Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. flacca (mutant of tomato), Geranium carolinianum L. (wild geranium), and Diplacus aurantiacus (Curtis) Jeps. (a native California shrub). Fluxes were measured using the mass-balance approach during exposure to 4.56 micromoles per cubic meter (0.11 microliters per liter) SO2 for 2 hours in a controlled environmental chamber. Flux through adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces with closed stomata ranged from 1.9 to 9.4 nanomoles per square meter per second for SO2, and 0.3 to 1.3 millimoles per square meter per second for H2O vapor. Flux of SO2 into leaves through stomata ranged from ?0 to 8.5 (dark) and 3.8 to 16.0 (light) millimoles per square meter per second. Flux of H2O vapor from leaves through stomata ranged from ?0 to 0.6 (dark) to 0.4 to 0.9 (light) millimole per square meter per second. Lycopersicon had internal flux rates for both SO2 and H2O vapor over twice as high as for the other species. Stomatal conductance based on H2O vapor flux averaged from 0.07 to 0.13 mole per square meter per second among the four species. Internal conductance of SO2 as calculated from SO2 flux was from 0.04 mole per square meter per second lower to 0.06 mole per square meter per second higher than stomatal conductance. For Pisum, Geranium, and Diplacus stomatal conductance was the same or slightly higher than internal conductance, indicating that, in general, SO2 flux could be predicted from stomatal conductance for H2O vapor. However, for the Lycopersicon mutant, internal leaf conductance was much higher than stomatal conductance, indicating that factors inside leaves can play a significant role in determining SO2 flux.

Olszyk, David M.; Tingey, David T.



Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at the Oakley Southern Sky Observatory: 2009 October thru 2010 April  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photometric data for 44 asteroids were collected over 54 nights of observing during 2009 October thru 2010 April at the Oakley Southern Sky Observatory. The asteroids were: 826 Henrika, 918 Itha, 983 Gunila, 1049 Gotho, 1167 Dubiago, 1181 Lilith, 1227 Geranium, 1604 Tombaugh, 1636 Porter, 1826 Miller, 1977 Shura, 2004 Lexell, 2196 Ellicott, 2303 Retsina, 2307 Garuda, 2601 Bologna, 2609 Kiril-Metodi, 2851 Harbin, 2881 Meiden, 3118 Claytonsmith, 3324 Avsyuk, 3640 Gostin, 4207 Chernova, 4536 Drewpinsky, 4838 Billmclaughlin, 5235 Jean-Loup, 5274 Degewij, 5240 Kwasan, (6019) 1991 RO6, 6091 Mitsuru, 6961 Ashitaka, (7111) 1985 QA1, (8228) 1996 YB2, 11017 Billputnam, (13023) 1988 XT1, (14741) 2000 EQ49, 15938 Bohnenblust, 16463 Nayoro, (17633) 1996 JU, (21023) 1989 DK, 21558 Alisonliu, (21594) 1998 VP31, (34459) 2000 SC91, and (189099) 2001 RO.

Albers, Kenda; Kragh, Katherine; Monnier, Adam; Pligge, Zachary; Stolze, Kellen; West, Josh; Yim, Arnold; Ditteon, Richard



[The synergism of antifungals and essential oils against Candida spp. evaluated by a modified gradient-diffusion method].  


The usefulness of modified method of MIC Test Strip, for determining the synergistic effect of essential oils in the liquid or volatile phase with fluconazole and voriconazole, was evaluated. Geranium oil used against C. albicans in agar dilution test, at a concentration of 1/2 MIC caused a drop in the value of fluconazole MIC from 12.0 mg/l to 0.064 mg/l and voriconazole from 0.125 mg/l to 0.006 mg/l. A similar effect of drug combinations with essential oils was obtained in the case of C. glabrata study. Volatile Clove oil and cytronelal, applied in subMIC concentrations, also caused a reduction offluconazole and voriconazole MICs. Thus, utility of this simple methods developed by us for testing the effectiveness of combinations of known drugs and new compounds with antifungal activity, has been confirmed. PMID:22184911

Rózalska, Barbara; Sadowska, Beata; Wieckowska-Szakiel, Marzena; Budzy?ska, Aleksandra



Enantiomeric composition of (3R)-(-)- and (3S)-(+)-linalool in various essential oils of Indian origin by enantioselective capillary gas chromatography-flame ionization and mass spectrometry detection methods.  


Enantiomeric ratios of linalool have been determined in various authentic essential oils of Indian origin using 10% heptakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-beta-cyclodextrin as a chiral stationary phase. A complete enantiomeric excess (ee) for (3S)-(+)-linalool was characteristic of Lippia alba and Cinnamomum tamala leaf oils while less than 90% excess was noticed in Zanthoxylum armatum leaf, Zingiber roseum root/rhizome and Citrus sinensis leaf oils. On the contrary, an enantiomeric excess of (3R)-(-)-linalool characterizes essential oils of basil (100% for Ocimum basilicum) and bergamot mint (72 to 75% for Mentha citrata). Notably, some essential oils containing both enantiomers in equal ratios or in racemic forms are rose, geranium, lemongrass and Origanum. The enantiomeric composition studies are discussed as indicators of origin authenticity and quality of essential oil of Indian origin. PMID:19476006

Chanotiya, Chandan S; Yadav, Anju



[Evaluation of antifungal effects of a traditional medicine containing 17 components on Trichophyton verrucosum and Malassezia pachydermatis by microdilution].  


The minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC)of a traditional medicine containing 17 components against 9 strains of Trichophyton verrucosum and 13 strains of Malassezia pachydermatis was determined using a method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute(CLSI). We also measured the MIC of each of the 17 components using the same method, and identified the main antifungal components.In order to evaluate MIC as a parameter of the antifungal effects using the microdilution method, we prepared 10% working solutions from 10% (w/v)medicines. The geometric mean MIC of the medicinal extract against T. verrucosum was 2.51%, and that against M. pachydermatis was 2.25%. The components that exhibited antifungal effects were Rheum palmatum, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Magnolia obovata, Phellodendron amurense, and Geranium thunbergii. PMID:21891983

Nishikata, Naoko; Nakamori, Kentaro; Sueyoshi, Masuo; Takahashi, Hideo; Yuji, Hiroyuki; Sano, Ayako



Modificational changes in function and morphology of cultured macrophages by geraniin.  


Treatment of peritoneal macrophages with geraniin, isolated from Geranium funbergii, markedly induced the phagocytosis of living yeasts. Marked increases in phagocytosis and acid phosphatase activity in macrophage lysates were observed 24 hr after the beginning of geraniin treatment. As observed by electron microscopy, macrophages that had been treated for 24 hr with geraniin had a markedly thickened surface layer which was positive to ruthenium red, compared to the control cells. In addition, geraniin treatment of macrophages appeared to induce remarkably large mitochondria, more coated pits and prominent lysosomal granules. In conclusion, the stimulation of phagocytosis and acid phosphatase activity of macrophages by geraniin treatment may involve alterations of the plasma membrane and cytoplasmic reorganization. PMID:1725887

Ushio, Y; Fang, T; Okuda, T; Abe, H



Effects of sewage sludge and toxic metals upon vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal symbionts  

SciTech Connect

Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAMF) are common plant symbionts that increase the uptake of water, phosphate and other nutrients into their host plants. Enhanced uptake of ions could be detrimental to plants in sludge-amended soils. This study examined the role and response of VAMF in the uptake of toxic metals (Cu, Cd and Zn) common in sewage sludge. Examination of field-grown plants (after 5 years of sludge amendment) revealed that mycorrhizal colonization of Cirsium arvense and Barbarea vulgaris was not depressed. Greenhouse bioassays of VAMF colonization potential with corn and geranium produced similar results. Enumeration of VAMF spores revealed similar values in sludge-amended and unamended control plots. Colonization (both field and greenhouse observations) and spore numbers were lower in the urea-phosphate-amended plots compared to sludge-amended and control plots.

Arnold, P.T.



[Study of antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds from some species of georgian flora].  


The antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from different parts of Georgian flora species Hamamelis virginiana L., Astragalus caucasicus Pall., Astragalus microcephalus Willd., Vitis vinifera L., Rhododendron ponticum L., Rhododendron Ungernii Trautv., Ginkgo biloba L., Salvia officinalis L., Querqus iberica Stev., Maclura aurantiaca Nutt., Cotinus coggygria Ledeb., Fraxinus ornus L., Urtica dioica L., Rhododendron caucasicum Pall., Pueraria hirsuta Matsum., Geranium pusillum L., Astragalus Tanae Sosn., Pinus silvestris L. has been studied. Comparison with ethylentetraacetate and ?-tocopherole revealed high efficacy of all extracts studied. 45 individual phenolic compounds were isolated and described by chemical examination of biologically active objects. Common sage (Salvia officinalis) extract turned out as the most active (200 %). The chemical study revealed the dominant content of condensed tannins and low molecular phenolic compounds, which may be attributed to the high antioxidant activity. Biologically active antiatherosclerotic food additive "Salbin" was developed on the basis of Common sage - Salvia officinalis L. phenolic compounds. PMID:24099817

Alania, M; Shalashvili, K; Sagareishvili, T; Kavtaradze, N; Sutiashvili, M



Comparative toxicity of oxygenated monoterpenoids in experimental hydroalcoholic lotions to permethrin-resistant adult head lice.  


The use of botanical compounds such as essential oils has recently become the subject of great interest as a natural means of pest control because of their ovicidal, larvicidal, or adulticidal activity against various insect species including head lice. We tested and compared the efficacy of pure oxygenated monoterpenoids that are main ingredients of essential oils of good biological activity. We used pulegone and citral, components of Aloysia citrodora, and geraniol, citronellol, and linalool, components of Geranium sp. oil. We found that citronellol and geraniol showed the highest knockdown and mortality effect (>60%) on adults of both sexes (50:50%) and third-stage nymphs. Pulegone, linalool, and citral showed knockdown percentages between 42 and 55%, and mortality percentages between 47 and 53%. A simple linear regression analysis showed statistically significant relationships between the studied toxic effects and viscosity of the monoterpenoids (p < 0.05), but not with their partition coefficient (log P). PMID:21174108

Gonzalez-Audino, Paola; Picollo, María Inés; Gallardo, Anabella; Toloza, Ariel; Vassena, Claudia; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón



Antisecretory activity of plants used to treat gastrointestinal disorders in Mexico.  


Aqueous and methanolic extracts from 26 medicinal plants used in Mexico to treat gastrointestinal disorders were screened to evaluate their antisecretory activity on cholera toxin-induced intestinal secretion in rat jejunal loops model. Extracts were tested at a dose of 300 mg/kg. From 56 samples tested, both extracts from Chiranthodendron pentadactylon, Hippocratea excelsa and Ocimum basilicum were the most potent with inhibition values ranging from 68.0 to 87.6%. On the other hand, the methanolic extract of Geranium mexicanum (aerial parts) and the aqueous extract of Bocconia frutescens showed the highest activity with inhibition values of 93.4 and 86.0%, respectively. The results obtained in this study give some scientific support to the use of the Mexican medicinal plants employed for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea. PMID:16174555

Velázquez, Claudia; Calzada, Fernando; Torres, Javier; González, Felipe; Ceballos, Guillermo



Temperature-dependent alterations in host use drive rapid range expansion in a butterfly.  


Responses of species to climate change are extremely variable, perhaps because of climate-related changes to interactions among species. We show that temperature-related changes in the dependence of the butterfly Aricia agestis on different larval host plants have facilitated rapid range expansion. Historically, the butterfly was largely restricted to a single plant species, Helianthemum nummularium, but recent warmer conditions have enabled the butterfly to increasingly use the more widespread plant species Geranium molle. This has resulted in a substantial increase in available habitat and rapid range expansion by the butterfly (79 kilometers northward in Britain in 20 years). Interactions among species are often seen as constraints on species' responses to climate change, but we show that temperature-dependent changes to interspecific interactions can also facilitate change. PMID:22628653

Pateman, Rachel M; Hill, Jane K; Roy, David B; Fox, Richard; Thomas, Chris D



In vivo antigiardial activity of three flavonoids isolated of some medicinal plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of diarrhea.  


Mexican traditional medicine uses a great variety of plants in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea. In order to understand the properties of some of their chemical constituents, three flavonoids (kaempferol, tiliroside and (-)-epicatechin) isolated from Geranium mexicanum, Cuphea pinetorum, Helianthemum glomeratum, and Rubus coriifolius, were assayed to demonstrate their in vivo antiprotozoal activity; using an experimental infection of Giardia lamblia in suckling female CD-1 mice. Compounds tested showed antigiardial activity with values of ED(50) (micromol/kg) 0.072 for (-)-epicatechin, 2.057 for kaempferol and 1.429 for tiliroside. The most active flavonoid was the (-)-epicatechin, its activity was higher than metronidazole and emetine, drugs used as positive controls. In the case of kaempferol and tiliroside their potency was close to that of the metronidazole, but far less than emetine. PMID:17052875

Barbosa, Elizabeth; Calzada, Fernando; Campos, Rafael



Apparent Resistivity and Estimated Interaction Potential of Surface Water and Groundwater along Selected Canals and Streams in the Elkhorn-Loup Model Study Area, North-Central Nebraska, 2006-07  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2005, the State of Nebraska adopted new legislation that in part requires local Natural Resources Districts to include the effect of groundwater use on surface-water systems in their groundwater management plan. In response the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Upper Elkhorn, Lower Elkhorn, Upper Loup, Lower Loup, Middle Niobrara, Lower Niobrara, Lewis and Clark, and Lower Platte North Natural Resources Districts, did a study during 2006-07 to investigate the surface-water and groundwater interaction within a 79,800-square-kilometer area in north-central Nebraska. To determine how streambed materials affect surface-water and groundwater interaction, surface geophysical and lithologic data were integrated at four sites to characterize the hydrogeologic conditions within the study area. Frequency-domain electromagnetic and waterborne direct- current resistivity profiles were collected to map the near-surface hydrogeologic conditions along sections of Ainsworth Canal near Ainsworth, Nebraska; Mirdan and Geranium Canals near Ord, Nebraska; North Loup River near Ord, Nebraska; and Middle Loup River near Thedford, Nebraska. Lithologic data were collected from test holes at each site to aid interpretation of the geophysical data. Geostatistical analysis incorporating the spatial variability of resistivity was used to account for the effect of lithologic heterogeneity on effective hydraulic permeability. The geostatistical analysis and lithologic data descriptions were used to make an interpretation of the hydrogeologic system and derive estimates of surface-water/groundwater interaction potential within the canals and streambeds. The estimated interaction potential at the Ainsworth Canal site and the Mirdan and Geranium Canal site is generally low to moderately low. The sediment textures at nearby test holes typically were silt and clay and fine-to-medium sand. The apparent resistivity values for these sites ranged from 2 to 120 ohm-meters. The vertical and horizontal variability of the apparent resistivity data were consistently low. Low resistive variability indicates little lithologic heterogeneity for either canal site. The surface-water/groundwater interaction-potential estimates are in agreement with the narrow frequency distribution of resistivity, low apparent resistivities, low spatial heterogeneity, and test-hole grain-size ranges. The estimated surface-water/groundwater interaction potential at the North Loup and Middle Loup River sites is moderate to moderately high. The sediment textures at nearby test holes were predominantly fine, medium, and coarse sand with some silt and silty to sandy clay. The apparent resistivity values for these sites ranged from 34 to 1,338 ohm-meters. The vertical variability of the resistivity data was moderately high. The horizontal variability at these sites is low to moderately low. The higher resistive variability at these sites indicates generally greater lithologic heterogeneity than at either the Ainsworth Canal site or the Mirdan and Geranium Canal site. The surface-water/groundwater interaction-potential estimates are in agreement with the generally moderate to high apparent resistivity, the greater spatial heterogeneity, and the variable lithologic texture. A higher interaction potential as compared to the canal sites is expected because of the higher subsurface resistivity and greater lithologic heterogeneity.

Teeple, Andrew P.; Vrabel, Joseph; Kress, Wade H.; Cannia, James C.



Brevipalpus mites Donnadieu (Prostigmata: Tenuipalpidae) associated with ornamental plants in Distrito Federal, Brazil.  


Brevipalpus mites colonize a great number of fruit and ornamental plants. Mite species belonging to this genus have been associated with many plant viruses. Citrus leprosis (CiLV) is the most economically important virus transmitted by B. phoenicis mites. It has recently been shown that ornamental plant species can be alternative hosts of this virus. The high volume of trade and frequent movement of live ornamental plants make them efficient pest disseminators. Because of this, it is desirable to expand knowledge of potential pests aiming to guide the adoption of quarantine measures. This work reports ornamental plant hosts of Brevipalpus mites in the Distrito Federal (DF), as well the occurrence of symptoms consistent with Brevipalpus-borne plant viruses in these same hosts. Between July and September of 2005, five surveys were carried out in 14 localities within DF. Leaves and branches of fifty-five ornamental plant species were sampled. The species Pithecellobium avaremotemo Mart. is for the first time reported as a host for B. phoenicis (Geijskes), B. californicus Banks and B. obovatus Donnadieu species. Additionally, seven new species are reported as hosts for Brevipalpus within South America. New hosts are also listed for individual mite species. Typical symptoms of Brevipalpus-borne viruses were observed in Ligustrum sinense Lour., Pelargonium hortorum L.H. Bailey, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. and orchids (Dendrobium and Oncidium). The results of this work emphasize the potential role of the ornamental plants as vehicles for dissemination of Brevipalpus mites. PMID:17934626

Miranda, Letícia C; Návia, Denise; Rodrigues, José C V


Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils from five selected herbs.  


Eucalyptus bridgesiana, Cymbopogon martinii, Thymus vulgaris, Lindernia anagallis, and Pelargonium fragrans are five species of herbs used in Asia. Their essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS, and a total of 36 components were detected. The results of our study indicated that, except for the essential oil of P. fragrans, all of the essential oils demonstrated obvious antimicrobial activity against a broad range of microorganisms. The C. martinii essential oil, which is rich in geraniol, was the most effective antimicrobial additive. All of the essential oils demonstrated antioxidant activities on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, ?-carotene/linoleic acid assay, and nitric oxide radical scavenging assay. Furthermore, the T. vulgaris essential oil, which possesses plentiful thymol, exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. For P. acnes-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the essential oils of P. aeruginosa, C. martinii, and T. vulgaris reduced the TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-8 secretion levels of THP-1 cells. PMID:21979069

Tsai, Mei-Lin; Lin, Chih-Chien; Lin, Wei-Chao; Yang, Chao-Hsun



Changes in carotenoid content and distribution in living plant tissue can be observed and mapped in situ using NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy.  


Near-infrared (NIR) excited Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy has been applied for in situ analysis of carotenoids in living plant samples. Pelargonium x hortorum leaf has been mapped using a Raman mapping technique to illustrate heterogeneous distribution of carotenoids. Mapping has also been employed for visualization of carotenoid changes induced by abiotic and biotic stress. In a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit, inhibition of lycopene biosynthesis and accumulation of beta-carotene are demonstrated in tissue affected by sunscald physiological disorder. Raman map of diseased sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaf shows a local carotenoid decline at infection site while the carotenoid accumulation is evident in parsley (Petroselinum crispum Mill. Nym.) as a response to Septoria petroselini infestation. Additionally, occurrence of lutein, beta-carotene and capsanthin, and changes in their relative content during bell pepper (Capsicum annum L.) fruit ripening are described by single Raman spectra. Based on these examples, the potential application of NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy for a non-destructive analysis of carotenoids in various living plant tissues of the size ranging from about 0.01 mm(2) to 35 cm(2) is discussed. PMID:16007452

Baranski, Rafal; Baranska, Malgorzata; Schulz, Hartwig



The Levels of Male Gametic Mitochondrial DNA Are Highly Regulated in Angiosperms with Regard to Mitochondrial Inheritance[W  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms that regulate mitochondrial inheritance are not yet clear, even though it is 100 years since the first description of non-Mendelian genetics. Here, we quantified the copy numbers of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the gametic cells of angiosperm species. We demonstrate that each egg cell from Arabidopsis thaliana, Antirrhinum majus, and Nicotiana tabacum possesses 59.0, 42.7, and 73.0 copies of mtDNA on average, respectively. These values are equivalent to those in Arabidopsis mesophyll cells, at 61.7 copies per cell. On the other hand, sperm or generative cells from Arabidopsis, A. majus, and N. tabacum possess minor amounts of mtDNA, at 0.083, 0.47, and 1 copy on average, respectively. We further reveal a 50-fold degradation of mtDNA during pollen development in A. majus. In contrast, markedly high levels of mtDNA are found in the male gametic cells of Cucumis melo and Pelargonium zonale (1296.3 and 256.7 copies, respectively). Our results provide direct evidence for mitochondrial genomic insufficiency in the eggs and somatic cells and indicate that a male gamete of an angiosperm may possess mtDNA at concentrations as high as 21-fold (C. melo) or as low as 0.1% (Arabidopsis) of the levels in somatic cells. These observations reveal the existence of a strong regulatory system for the male gametic mtDNA levels in angiosperms with regard to mitochondrial inheritance.

Wang, Dan-Yang; Zhang, Quan; Liu, Yang; Lin, Zhi-Fu; Zhang, Shao-Xiang; Sun, Meng-Xiang; Sodmergen



Synergistic Antimycobacterial Actions of Knowltonia vesicatoria (L.f) Sims  

PubMed Central

Euclea natalensis A.DC., Knowltonia vesicatoria (L.f) Sims, and Pelargonium sidoides DC. are South African plants traditionally used to treat tuberculosis. Extracts from these plants were used in combination with isoniazid (INH) to investigate the possibility of synergy with respect to antimycobacterial activity. The ethanol extract of K. vesicatoria was subjected to fractionation to identify the active compounds. The activity of the Knowltonia extract remained superior to the fractions with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 625.0??g/mL against Mycobacterium smegmatis and an MIC of 50.00??g/mL against M. tuberculosis. The K. vesicatoria extract was tested against two different drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis, which resulted in an MIC of 50.00??g/mL on both strains. The combination of K. vesicatoria with INH exhibited the best synergistic antimycobacterial activity with a fractional inhibitory concentration index of 0.25 (a combined concentration of 6.28??g/mL). A fifty percent inhibitory concentration of this combination against U937 cells was 121.0??g/mL. Two compounds, stigmasta-5,23-dien-3-ol (1) and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furan-2(5H)-one (2), were isolated from K. vesicatoria as the first report of isolation for both compounds from this plant and the first report of antimycobacterial activity. Compound (1) was active against drug-sensitive M. tuberculosis with an MIC of 50.00??g/mL.

Labuschagne, Antoinette; Hussein, Ahmed A.; Rodriguez, Benjamin; Lall, Namrita



Efficacy and tolerability of EPs 7630 in patients (aged 6-18 years old) with acute bronchitis  

PubMed Central

Aim: For EPs-7630, a herbal drug preparation from Pelargonium sidoides roots, therapeutic effects in respiratory tract infections outside the strict indication for antibiotics have already been demonstrated in adults. Now, a dose-finding study for EPs-7630 was performed in children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 400 patients (aged 6–18 years) were randomized to receive either 30 mg, 60 mg or 90 mg EPs-7630 or placebo daily. Primary outcome criterion was the change in the Bronchitis Severity Score (BSS) from day 0 to day 7. Results: After 7 days of treatment, the change in the BSS total score was significantly better in the 60 mg and 90 mg groups compared with placebo that of the without relevant differences between these two dosages. Especially ‘coughing’, ‘sputum’ and ‘rales at auscultation’ improved under EPs-7630. Onset of effect was faster, time of bed rest shorter and treatment outcome and satisfaction with treatment were rated better. Tolerability was comparable with placebo in all treatment groups. Conclusion: EPs-7630 is effective in acute bronchitis outside the strict indication for antibiotics in 6–18 years old patients, with a dose of 60 mg or 90 mg daily offering the best benefit/risk ratio. EPs-7630 significantly reduces the severity of symptoms, leads to a more favourable course of the disease and a faster recovery from acute bronchitis compared with the placebo, and is well tolerated.

Kamin, W; Maydannik, VG; Malek, FA; Kieser, M



[Methods for determining boron compounds in the air of a work area].  


The studies performed with the chinalizarin method the for determination of the concentration of boric compounds in the air of the working area, proved to be impracticable in the presence of geranium and beryllium compounds. A spectrometric method for analysis of boric compounds was developed, based on their interaction with fluoric and ferric ions in the presence of sulfo-salicylic acid, and a complex compound was received of light orange colour to red, depending on the boric concentration. The maximum of absorption was at wave length of 577 mm. The sensitivity of the method was 0.001 mg boric in the analyzed sample -2 cm3. There is a linear dependence between the boric concentration and the optic density of the developed samples of interval 0.001-0.15 mg borium. The accuracy of the method expressed by coefficient of variation in % is in interval 12.4-6.3% for borium concentrations of 0.001-0.1 mg. The field where the method could be applied is defined in the presence of titanium, copper and lead compounds. PMID:7845985

G?l?bova, V



Metabolites of the ellagitannin geraniin and their antioxidant activities.  


Different types of ellagitannins are reported to have various biological activities, such as antioxidant, antiviral, and antitumor activities. However, there are few definitive studies on the absorption and metabolism of ellagitannins. This review compares the absorption and metabolism of ellagitannins, and the antioxidant properties of their metabolites in rats, with those of intact ellagitannins by means of IN VITRO and IN VIVO assays. We isolated 7 urinary and intestinal microbial metabolites in rats after the ingestion of geraniin, which is a typical ellagitannin isolated from GERANIUM THUNBERGII, an antidiarrheic remedy in Japan. The structures of these metabolites were determined to be dibenzopyran derivatives ( 1- 7), using NMR and mass spectroscopic data. Four major metabolites ( 1- 4) prepared by chemical synthesis were evaluated for their antioxidant activities by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) methods. The metabolites exhibited more potent antioxidant activities in the ORAC assay than intact ellagitannins, such as geraniin and corilagin. Furthermore, plasma ORAC scores increased with increases in the plasma concentration of the metabolites after the oral administration of geraniin to rats. These findings suggest that these metabolites may contribute to the health benefits of ellagitannins as antioxidants in the body. PMID:21294073

Ito, Hideyuki



Effect of tannin on oxidative damage of ocular lens.  


The protective effect of geraniin (tannin from Geranium thunbergii) against oxidative damage was examined in the mouse ocular lens. Oxidative damage in the lens was induced by diamide, diazene dicarboxylic acid bis (N,N-dimethylamide); diamide oxidized the sulfhydryl groups in both the membrane and cytoplasm but did not increase lipid peroxide. Geraniin showed protective effects on the changes in the Na+/K+ ratio, GSH level, Na,K-ATPase activity, GSH reductase activity and the sulfhydryl level of the membranous protein in the diamide-treated lens, but such protective effects of geraniin were not observed in the cell-free system of the lens. In addition, geraniin itself was unable to reduce GSSG to GSH and also unable to inhibit the oxidative reaction of the sulfhydryl group to diamide. These results suggest that in the intact lens geraniin would act primarily on the lens cell membrane surface to inhibit an influx of diamide into the inner part of the plasma membrane and the cytoplasm, and consequently that geraniin may protect sulfhydryl groups in the cell membrane and cytoplasm from their oxidation by diamide and keep the redox system of the lens in a normal state. PMID:3184550

Fukaya, Y; Nakazawa, K; Okuda, T; Iwata, S



Evaluation of the effects of plant-derived essential oils on central nervous system function using discrete shuttle-type conditioned avoidance response in mice.  


Although plant-derived essential oils (EOs) have been used to treat various mental disorders, their central nervous system (CNS) acting effects have not been clarified. The present study compared the effects of 20 kinds of EOs with the effects of already-known CNS acting drugs to examine whether the EOs exhibited CNS stimulant-like effects, CNS depressant-like effects, or neither. All agents were tested using a discrete shuttle-type conditioned avoidance task in mice. Essential oils of peppermint and chamomile exhibited CNS stimulant-like effects; that is, they increased the response rate (number of shuttlings/min) of the avoidance response. Linden also increased the response rate, however, the effect was not dose-dependent. In contrast, EOs of orange, grapefruit, and cypress exhibited CNS depressant-like effects; that is, they decreased the response rate of the avoidance response. Essential oils of eucalyptus and rose decreased the avoidance rate (number of avoidance responses/number of avoidance trials) without affecting the response rate, indicating that they may exhibit some CNS acting effects. Essential oils of 12 other plants, including juniper, patchouli, geranium, jasmine, clary sage, neroli, lavender, lemon, ylang-ylang, niaouli, vetivert and frankincense had no effect on the avoidance response in mice. PMID:22086772

Umezu, Toyoshi



In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils  

PubMed Central

Background: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of 21 plant essential oils against six bacterial species. Methods: The selected essential oils were screened against four gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris) and two gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus at four different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20) using disc diffusion method. The MIC of the active essential oils were tested using two fold agar dilution method at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 25.6 mg/ml. Results: Out of 21 essential oils tested, 19 oils showed antibacterial activity against one or more strains. Cinnamon, clove, geranium, lemon, lime, orange and rosemary oils exhibited significant inhibitory effect. Cinnamon oil showed promising inhibitory activity even at low concentration, whereas aniseed, eucalyptus and camphor oils were least active against the tested bacteria. In general, B. subtilis was the most susceptible. On the other hand, K. pneumoniae exhibited low degree of sensitivity. Conclusion: Majority of the oils showed antibacterial activity against the tested strains. However Cinnamon, clove and lime oils were found to be inhibiting both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Cinnamon oil can be a good source of antibacterial agents.

Prabuseenivasan, Seenivasan; Jayakumar, Manickkam; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu



Phytotoxic effect, uptake, and transformation of biochanin A in selected weed species.  


Certain isoflavones are plant growth inhibitors, and biochanin A is a major isoflavone in clover species used for weed management. The effect of biochanin A on the monocot weed species Echinochloa crus-galli L. and Lolium perenne L. and dicot species Silene noctiflora L., Geranium molle L., and Amaranthus caudatus L. was evaluated in agar medium bioassays. S. noctiflora and G. molle root growth was progressively inhibited with increasing concentrations of biochanin A, whereas the monocot species were unaffected. With regard to the dicot species, S. noctiflora (EC(50) = 35.80 ?M and EC(25) = 5.20 ?M) was more susceptible than G. molle (EC(50), EC(25) > 400 ?M). S. noctiflora, G. molle, and E. crus-galli root and shoot samples, representing a susceptible, a less susceptible, and a nonsusceptible species, respectively, were analyzed by LC-MS to quantify biochanin A and its transformation products. Biochanin A and its known transformation products genistein, dihydrobiochanin A, pratensein, and p-coumaric acid were quantified. Sissotrin was identified and quantified while assigning unknown peaks. The treated root samples contained more biochanin A, genistein, pratensein, and dihydrobiochanin A than shoot samples. PMID:23030687

Shajib, Md Tariqul Islam; Pedersen, Hans Albert; Mortensen, Anne Garfield; Kudsk, Per; Fomsgaard, Inge S



Management of Meloidogyne hapla in Herbaceous Perennial Ornamentals by Sanitation and Resistance  

PubMed Central

Meloidogyne hapla can be spread in bare-root herbaceous perennial propagation material and may be difficult to control once established in new fields or in the landscape. Root pruning of bare-root plants was investigated as a means of reducing spread and establishment of M. hapla. Plants previously inoculated with 10,000 eggs/plant were root-pruned to remove either a portion or most of the fibrous root system without removing underground stems, buds, tubers, or tuberous roots. Root pruning of Aconitum, Ajuga, Anemone, Geranium, and Trollius significantly reduced or eliminated M. hapla galls and egg production in plants 1 to 4 months after propagation. Planting M. hapla-resistant plants such as Rudbeckia and Aster into pots infested with 10,000 eggs/pot eliminated M. hapla populations after 2 to 6 months of growth. Tomato plants grown after Rudbeckia and Aster were free of galls and eggs, while bioassay tomatoes grown after susceptible plants such as Coreopsis, Primula, and Lobelia were heavily galled with a large number of egg masses. These results demonstrate the potential of sanitation and resistance for management of M. hapla in perennials.

LaMondia, J. A.



Management of Meloidogyne hapla in Herbaceous Perennial Ornamentals by Sanitation and Resistance.  


Meloidogyne hapla can be spread in bare-root herbaceous perennial propagation material and may be difficult to control once established in new fields or in the landscape. Root pruning of bare-root plants was investigated as a means of reducing spread and establishment of M. hapla. Plants previously inoculated with 10,000 eggs/plant were root-pruned to remove either a portion or most of the fibrous root system without removing underground stems, buds, tubers, or tuberous roots. Root pruning of Aconitum, Ajuga, Anemone, Geranium, and Trollius significantly reduced or eliminated M. hapla galls and egg production in plants 1 to 4 months after propagation. Planting M. hapla-resistant plants such as Rudbeckia and Aster into pots infested with 10,000 eggs/pot eliminated M. hapla populations after 2 to 6 months of growth. Tomato plants grown after Rudbeckia and Aster were free of galls and eggs, while bioassay tomatoes grown after susceptible plants such as Coreopsis, Primula, and Lobelia were heavily galled with a large number of egg masses. These results demonstrate the potential of sanitation and resistance for management of M. hapla in perennials. PMID:19274274

Lamondia, J A



Evaporation and wetted area of single droplets on waxy and hairy leaf surfaces.  


Understanding the evaporation of pesticide droplets and wetting of Leaf surfaces can increase foliar application efficiency and reduce pesticide use. Evaporation time and wetted area of single pesticide droplets on hairy and waxy geranium leaf surfaces were measured under the controlled conditions for five droplet sizes and three relative humidities. The sprays used to form droplets included water, a nonionic colloidal polymer drift retardant, an alkyl polyoxyethylene surfactant, and an insecticide. Adding the surfactant into spray mixtures greatly increased droplet wetted area on the surfaces while droplet evaporation time was greatly reduced. Adding the drift retardant into spray mixture slightly increased the droplet evaporation time and the wetted area. Also, droplets had Longer evaporation times on waxy leaves than on hairy leaves for all droplet diameters and all relative humidity conditions. Increasing relative humidity could increase the droplet evaporation time greatly but did not change the the wetted area. The droplet evaporation time and wetted area increased exponentially as the droplet size increased. Therefore, droplet size, surface characteristics of the target, relative humidity, and chemical composition of the spray mixtures (water alone, pesticide, additives) should be included as important factors that affect the efficacy and efficiency of pesticide applications. PMID:19226818

Zhu, H; Yu, Y; Ozkan, H E; Derksen, R C; Krause, C R



Aromatherapy Massage Affects Menopausal Symptoms in Korean Climacteric Women: A Pilot-Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight times in total). The experimental group reported a significantly lower total menopausal index than wait-listed controls (P < 0.05). There were also significant intergroup differences in subcategories such as vasomotor, melancholia, arthralgia and myalgia (all P < 0.05). These findings suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, depression and pain in climacteric women. However, it could not be verified whether the positive effects were from the aromatherapy, the massage or both. Further rigorous studies should be done with more objective measures.

Hur, Myung-Haeng; Yang, Yun Seok



Screening of Crude Plant Extracts with Anti-Obesity Activity  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a global health problem. It is also known to be a risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders, type 2 diabetes, systemic hypertension, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis. In this study, we screened crude extracts from 400 plants to test their anti-obesity activity using porcine pancreatic lipase assay (PPL; triacylglycerol lipase, EC in vitro activity. Among the 400 plants species examined, 44 extracts from plants, showed high anti-lipase activity using 2,4-dinitrophenylbutyrate as a substrate in porcine pancreatic lipase assay. Furthermore, 44 plant extracts were investigated for their inhibition of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Among these 44 extracts examined, crude extracts from 4 natural plant species were active. Salicis Radicis Cortex had the highest fat inhibitory activity, whereas Rubi Fructus, Corni Fructus, and Geranium nepalense exhibited fat inhibitory capacity higher than 30% at 100 ?g/mL in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting anti-obesity activity. These results suggest that four potent plant extracts might be of therapeutic interest with respect to the treatment of obesity.

Roh, Changhyun; Jung, Uhee



An investigation of bidirectional translocation in the Phloem.  


Patterns of (14) CO(2) , assimilate movement in Vicia jaba plants having 7 nodes were studied. Bidirectional translocation occurred throughout most of the stem length when tracer was applied to leaves of various ages. To determine whether this bidirectional translocation occurs within single sieve tubes, a O.1 % solution of the fluorescent dye K-fluorescein was applied to a lightly scraped area on the stem in the middle of a young internode. After one hour the dye was present short distances above and below the treated area. Free-hand sections of the internode showed the dye to be localized in the traces of the larger leaves below tbe treated area and in the traces of the younger leaves above the treated area. The dye was never present in the same bundle both above and below the treated area, indicating that each bundle and sieve tube translocated the dye in only one direction. These results were confirmed using Phaseolus vulgaris, Vinca rosea, and Pelargonium hortum. A similar study in which petioles of young Ecballium elaterium leaves were treated showed that usually the phloem of one bundle translocated the dye in only one direction but in some cases the external phloem of the bicollateral bundles carried the dye toward the stem while the internal phloem carried the dye toward the blade. When longer time intervals were used in all these experiments, the dye sometimes appeared in the same phloem areas both above and below the treated area. This is explained by a lateral transfer of tracer within the phloem, either through secondary phloem or through bundle anastomoses at the nodes. PMID:20925674

Peterson, C; Currier, H B



Biosynthesis of geraniol and nerol and their ?-d-glucosides in Perlargonium graveolens and Rosa dilecta  

PubMed Central

1. 3R-[2-14C]Mevalonate was incorporated into geranyl and neryl ?-d-glucosides in petals of Rosa dilecta in up to 10.6% yield, and the terpenoid part was specifically and equivalently labelled in the moieties derived from isopentenyl pyrophosphate and 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate. A similar labelling pattern, with incorporations of 0.06–0.1% was found for geraniol or nerol formed in leaves of Pelargonium graveolens The former results provide the best available evidence for the mevalonoid route to regular monoterpenes in higher plants. 2. Incorporation studies with 3RS-[2-14C,(4R)-4-3H1]-mevalonate and its (4S)-isomer showed that the pro-4R hydrogen atom of the precursor was retained and the pro-4S hydrogen atom was eliminated in both alcohols and both glucosides. These results suggest that the correlation of retention of the pro-4S hydrogen atom of mevalonate with formation of a cis-substituted double bond, such as has been found in certain higher terpenoids, does not apply to the biosynthesis of monoterpenes. It is proposed that either nerol is derived from isomerization of geraniol or the two alcohols are directly formed by different prenyltransferases. Possible mechanisms for these processes are discussed. 3. The experiments with [14C,3H]mevalonate also show that in these higher plants, as has been previously found in animal tissue and yeast, the pro-4S hydrogen atom of mevalonate was lost in the conversion of isopentenyl pyrophosphate into 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate.

Banthorpe, Derek V.; Le Patourel, Geoffrey N. J.; Francis, Martin J. O.



Patterns of nucleotide substitution in angiosperm cpDNA trnL (UAA)-trnF (GAA) regions.  


Patterns of substitution in chloroplast encoded trnL_F regions were compared between species of Actaea (Ranunculales), Digitalis (Scrophulariales), Drosera (Caryophyllales), Panicoideae (Poales), the small chromosome species clade of Pelargonium (Geraniales), each representing a different order of flowering plants, and Huperzia (Lycopodiales). In total, the study included 265 taxa, each with > 900-bp sequences, totaling 0.24 Mb. Both pairwise and phylogeny-based comparisons were used to assess nucleotide substitution patterns. In all six groups, we found that transition/transversion ratios, as estimated by maximum likelihood on most-parsimonious trees, ranged between 0.8 and 1.0 for ingroups. These values occurred both at low sequence divergences, where substitutional saturation, i.e., multiple substitutions having occurred at the same (homologous) nucleotide position, was not expected, and at higher levels of divergence. This suggests that the angiosperm trnL-F regions evolve in a pattern different from that generally observed for nuclear and animal mtDNA (transitional/transversion ratio > or = 2). Transition/transversion ratios in the intron and the spacer region differed in all alignments compared, yet base compositions between the regions were highly similar in all six groups. A>-C transversions were significantly less frequent than the other four substitution types. This correlates with results from studies on fidelity mechanisms in DNA replication that predict A<->T and G<->C transversions to be least likely to occur. It therefore strengthens confidence in the link between mutation bias at the polymerase level and the actual fixation of substitutions as recorded on evolutionary trees, and concomitantly, in the neutrality of nucleotide substitutions as phylogenetic markers. PMID:10991703

Bakker, F T; Culham, A; Gomez-Martinez, R; Carvalho, J; Compton, J; Dawtrey, R; Gibby, M



Relationships in the Caryophyllales as suggested by phylogenetic analyses of partial chloroplast DNA ORF2280 homolog sequences.  


Phylogenetic relationships within the angiosperm order Caryophyllales were investigated by comparative sequencing of two portions of the highly conserved inverted repeat (totaling some 1100 base pairs) coinciding with the region occupied by ORF2280 in Nicotiana, the largest gene in the plastid genomes of most land plants. Data were obtained for 33 species in 11 families within the order and for one species each of Plumbaginaceae, Polygonaceae, and Nepenthaceae. These data, when analyzed along with previously published ORF (open reading frame) sequences from Nicotiana. Spinacia. Epifagus, and Pelargonium using parsimony, neighbor-joining, and maximum likelihood methods, reveal that: (1) Amaranthus, Celosia, and Froelichia (all Amaranthaceae) do not comprise a monophyletic group; (2) Amaranthus may be nested within a paraphyletic Chenopodiaceae; (3) Sarcobatus (Chenopodiaceae) is allied with Nyctaginaceae + Phytolaccaceae (the latter family excluding Stegnosperma but including Petiveria); and (4) Caryophyllaceae (with Corrigiola basal within the clade) are sister group to Chenopodiaceae + Amaranthaceae. Basal relations within the order remain obscure. Sequence divergence values in pairwise comparisons across all Caryophyllales taxa ranged from 0.1 to 5% of nucleotides. However, despite these low values, 23 insertion and deletion events were apparent, of which five were informative phylogenetically and bolstered several of the relationships listed above. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) survey for ORF homolog length variants in representatives from 70 additional angiosperm families revealed major deletions, of 100 to 1400 base pairs, in 19 of these families. Although the ORF is located within the mutationally retarded inverted repeat region of most angiosperm chloroplast DNAs, this gene appears particularly prone to length mutation. PMID:21712205

Downie, S; Katz-Downie, D; Cho, K



Applicability of leachates originating from solid-waste landfills for irrigation in landfill restoration projects.  


Since, landfill areas are still the most widely used solid waste disposal method across the world, leachate generated from landfills should be given importance. Leachate of landfills exerts environmental risks mostly on surface and groundwater with its high pollutant content, which may cause unbearable water quality. This leads to the obligation for decontamination and remediation program to be taken into progress for the landfill area. Among a number of alternatives to cope with leachate, one is to employ the technology of phytoremediation. The main objective of this study was to determine the N accumulation ratios and the effects of landfill leachate in diluted proportions of chosen ratios (as 1/1, 1/2, 1/4, 0), on the growth and development of Cynodon dactylon, Stenotaphrum secundatum, Paspalum notatum, Pennisetum clandestinum, Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Nerium oleander, Pelargonium peltatum and Kochia scoparia species. In order to simulate the actual conditions of the landfill, soil covering the landfill is taken and used as medium for the trials. The study showed that S. secundatum, K. scoparia and N. oleander species had an impressive survival rate of 100%, being irrigated with pure leachate, while the others' survival rates were between 0 to 35% under the same conditions. As expected, application of leachate to the plants caused an increase in the accumulation of N, in the upper parts of all plants except P. peltatum. The highest N content increase was observed at S. Secundatum set, accumulating 3.70 times higher than its control set, whereas P. clandestinum value was 3.41 times of its control set. PMID:19295082

Erdogan, Reyhan; Zaimoglu, Zeynep; Sucu, M Yavuz; Budak, Fuat; Kekec, Secil



Evaluation of commercial products for personal protection against mosquitoes.  


Human landing catch studies were conducted in a semi-field setting to determine the efficacy of seven commercial products used for personal protection against mosquitoes. Experiments were conducted in two empty, insecticide free, mesh-enclosed greenhouses, in Israel, with either 1500 Aedes albopictus or 1500 Culex pipiens released on consecutive study nights. The products tested in this study were the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ Mosquito Repellent (Metofluthrin 31.2%) and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick Mosquito Repeller (Cinnamon oil 10.5%; Eugenol 13%; Geranium oil 21%; Peppermint 5.3%; Lemongrass oil 2.6%), which are personal diffusers; Super Band™ Wristband (22% Citronella oil) and the PIC(®) Citronella Plus Wristband (Geraniol 15%; Lemongrass oil 5%, Citronella oil 1%); the Sonic Insect Repeller Keychain; the Mosquito Guard Patch (Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus 80mg), an adhesive-backed sticker for use on textiles; and the Mosquito Patch (vitamin B1 300mg), a transdermal patch. It was determined that the sticker, transdermal patch, wristbands and sonic device did not provide significant protection to volunteers compared with the mosquito attack rate on control volunteers who were not wearing a repellent device. The personal diffusers: - OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick - provided superior protection compared with all other devices in this study. These diffusers reduced biting on the arms of volunteers by 96.28% and 95.26% respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 94.94% and 92.15% respectively, for Cx. pipiens. In a second trial conducted to compare these devices directly, biting was reduced by the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) by 87.55% and 92.83%, respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 97.22% and 94.14%, respectively, for Cx. pipiens. There was no significant difference between the performances of the two diffusers for each species. PMID:23092689

Revay, Edita E; Junnila, Amy; Xue, Rui-De; Kline, Daniel L; Bernier, Ulrich R; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Qualls, Whitney A; Ghattas, Nina; Müller, Günter C



Field evaluation of essential oils for reducing attraction by the Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).  


Forty-one plant essential oils were tested under field conditions for the ability to reduce the attraction of adult Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), to attractant-baited or nonbaited traps. Treatments applied to a yellow and green Japanese beetle trap included a nonbaited trap, essential oil alone, a Japanese beetle commercial attractant (phenethyl proprionate:eugenol:geraniol, 3:7:3 by volume) (PEG), and an essential oil plus PEG attractant. Eight of the 41 oils reduced attractiveness of the PEG attractant to the Japanese beetle. When tested singly, wintergreen and peppermint oils were the two most effective essential oils at reducing attractiveness of the PEG attractant by 4.2x and 3.5x, respectively. Anise, bergamont mint, cedarleaf, dalmation sage, tarragon, and wormwood oils also reduced attraction of the Japanese beetle to the PEG attractant. The combination of wintergreen oil with ginger, peppermint, or ginger and citronella oils reduced attractiveness of the PEG attractant by 4.7x to 3.1x. Seventeen of the 41 essential oils also reduced attraction to the nonbaited yellow and green traps, resulting in 2.0x to 11.0x reductions in trap counts relative to nonbaited traps. Camphor, coffee, geranium, grapefruit, elemi, and citronella oils increased attractiveness of nonbaited traps by 2.1x to 7.9x when tested singly, but none were more attractive than the PEG attractant. Results from this study identified several plant essential oils that act as semiochemical disruptants against the Japanese beetle. PMID:19736768

Youssef, Nadeer N; Oliver, Jason B; Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Moyseenko, James J; Klein, Michael G; Pappas, Robert S



Combined effect of heat, essential oils and salt on fungicidal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes in a foot bath.  


This work was originally undertaken to determine the effective conditions of essential oils against Trichophyton mentagrophytes in vitro for the treatment of tinea pedis in a foot bath. Agar blocks implanted with T. mentagrophytes were immersed in 0.1% aqueous agar containing two-fold dilutions of essential oils with or without sodium chloride at 27 degrees C, 37 degrees C and 42 degrees C for 10 and 20 min. The number of surviving mycelia on the agar blocks was determined from the standard curves of the colony diameter and original inocula of the conidia. At the same time, the thermal effect on the cellular morphology was examined using SEM. Most fungal mycelia (99.7%) were killed after treatment at 42 degrees C for 20 min without essential oil. The fungicidal activity of essential oils was markedly enhanced by treating at 42 degrees C for 20 min as compared with that at 27 degrees C, showing 1/4 - 1/32-fold reduction of minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC to kill 99.99%). The order of the fungicidal activity of 11 essential oils was oregano, thyme thymol, cinnamon bark > lemongrass > clove, palmarose, peppermint, lavender > geranium Bourbon, tea tree > thyme geraniol oils. MFCs were further reduced to 1/2 - 1/8 by the addition of 10% sodium chloride. The salt effect was explained, at least partly, by an increase in mycelial adsorption of antifungal constituents in the presence of sodium chloride. Considerable hyphal damage was done at 27 degrees C by the essential oils, but no further alteration in morphology of the hyphae treated at 42 degrees C with or without oil was observed by SEM. The inhibitory effect of heat and oils was also observed against mycelia of T. rubrum and conidia of T. mentagrophytes. Thermotherapy combined with essential oils and salt would be promising to treat tinea pedis in a foot bath. PMID:17287720

Inouye, Shigeharu; Uchida, Katsuhisa; Nishiyama, Yayoi; Hasumi, Yayoi; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru



New TNF-alpha releasing inhibitors as cancer preventive agents from traditional herbal medicine and combination cancer prevention study with EGCG and sulindac or tamoxifen.  


Herbal medicines are now attracting attention as potential sources of cancer preventive agents. Using inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) release assay, we studied Acer nikoense, Megusurino-ki in Japanese. Inhibitory potential was found in the leaf extract, and the main active principles were identified as geraniin and corilagin. The IC(50) values for TNF-alpha release inhibition were 43 microM for geraniin and 76 microM for corilagin, whereas that for (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the green tea polyphenol, as control was 26 microM. Furthermore, treatment with geraniin inhibited okadaic acid tumor promotion in a two-stage carcinogenesis experiment on mouse skin. Geraniin and corilagin are present in another well-known Japanese traditional herb, Geranium thunbergii, Genno-shoko in Japanese. Considering seasonal variations of the agents and sites of cultivation of herbs, this paper reviews the significance of geraniin as a new cancer preventive agent. In addition, based on accumulated results of green tea as a cancer preventive, we review two important results with EGCG: the synergistic effects of EGCG with sulindac or tamoxifen on cancer preventive activity in PC-9 cells, and cancer prevention of intestinal tumor development in multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mice by cotreatment using EGCG with sulindac. We report here new findings on additional gene expression resulting from cotreatment with EGCG and sulindac in PC-9 cells compared with gene expression by EGCG alone or sulindac alone. Overall, our results indicate that, with the continuing spread of cancer chemoprevention as a fundamental medical strategy, both clinicians and researchers should take a closer look at herbal medicine. PMID:12628509

Fujiki, Hirota; Suganuma, Masami; Kurusu, Miki; Okabe, Sachiko; Imayoshi, Yoko; Taniguchi, Shoko; Yoshida, Takashi


Geraniin-mediated apoptosis by cleavage of focal adhesion kinase through up-regulation of Fas ligand expression in human melanoma cells.  


Geraniin, a form of tannin separated from geranium, causes cell death through induction of apoptosis; however, cell death characteristics for geraniin have not yet been elucidated. Here, we investigated the mechanism of geraniin-induced apoptosis in human melanoma cells and demonstrated that geraniin was able to induce cell apoptosis in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. We also examined the signaling pathway related to geraniin-induced apoptosis. To clarify the relationship between focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and geraniin-induced apoptosis, we treated human melanoma cells with geraniin and found that this resulted dose- and time-dependent degradation in FAK. However, FAK cleavage was significantly inhibited when cells were pretreated with a selective inhibitor of caspase-3 (Ac-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-CHO). Here, we demonstrated for the first time that geraniin triggered cell death by caspase-3-mediated cleavage of FAK. There were two possible mechanisms for activating caspase-3, mitochondria-mediated and receptor-mediated apoptosis. To confirm the geraniin-relevant signaling pathway, using immunoblot analysis we found that geraniin-induced apoptosis was associated with the up-regulation of Fas ligand expression, the activation of caspase-8, the cleavage of Bid, and the induction of cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytosol. Treatment with geraniin caused induction of caspase-3 activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner followed by proteolytic cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and DNA fragmentation factor 45. The geraniin-induced apoptosis may provide a pivotal mechanism for its cancer-chemopreventive action. PMID:18435487

Lee, Jang-Chang; Tsai, Chih-Yen; Kao, Jung-Yie; Kao, Ming-Ching; Tsai, Shih-Chang; Chang, Chih-Shiang; Huang, Li-Jiau; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Lin, Jen-Kun; Way, Tzong-Der



New TNF-alpha releasing inhibitors, geraniin and corilagin, in leaves of Acer nikoense, Megusurino-ki.  


The success of green tea as a cancer preventive is based on evidence that green tea contains tannins and antioxidants, does not show toxicity in humans and has long traditional use in Asia. In the light of this, herbal medicines are now also attracting attention as potential sources of cancer preventive agents. Using the inhibition of TNF-alpha release assay, we studied Acer nikoense (Megusurino-ki in Japanese), one of the herbal medicines. The inhibitory activity of TNF-alpha release was found in the leaf extract rather than the bark extract, and the main active constituents were identified as geraniin and corilagin, which are present in another Japanese traditional herb, Geranium thunbergii (Genno-shoko). The IC50 values of TNF-alpha release inhibition were 43 microM for geraniin and 76 microM for corilagin, whereas that for (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was 26 microM. Treatment with geraniin prior to application of okadaic acid, a tumor promoter on mouse skin initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, reduced the percentage of tumor-bearing mice from 80.0 to 40.0% and the average numbers of tumor per mouse from 3.8 to 1.1 in week 20. Thus, geraniin has slightly weaker inhibitory activity than EGCG. Since geraniin and corilagin have been well investigated as representative tannins, we discuss here the new possibility of classical herbal medicine in the development of preventive agents for cancer and other life-style related diseases. PMID:11642320

Okabe, S; Suganuma, M; Imayoshi, Y; Taniguchi, S; Yoshida, T; Fujiki, H



Differential costs of reproduction in females and hermaphrodites in a gynodioecious plant  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Plants exhibit a variety of reproductive systems where unisexual (females or males) morphs coexist with hermaphrodites. The maintenance of dimorphic and polymorphic reproductive systems may be problematic. For example, to coexist with hermaphrodites the females of gynodioecious species have to compensate for the lack of male function. In our study species, Geranium sylvaticum, a perennial gynodioecious herb, the relative seed fitness advantage of females varies significantly between years within populations as well as among populations. Differences in reproductive investment between females and hermaphrodites may lead to differences in future survival, growth and reproductive success, i.e. to differential costs of reproduction. Since females of this species produce more seeds, higher costs of reproduction in females than in hermaphrodites were expected. Due to the higher costs of reproduction, the yearly variation in reproductive output of females might be more pronounced than that of hermaphrodites. Methods Using supplemental hand-pollination of females and hermaphrodites of G. sylvaticum we examined if increased reproductive output leads to differential costs of reproduction in terms of survival, probability of flowering, and seed production in the following year. Key Results Experimentally increased reproductive output had differential effects on the reproduction of females and hermaphrodites. In hermaphrodites, the probability of flowering decreased significantly in the following year, whereas in females the costs were expressed in terms of decreased future seed production. Conclusions When combining the probability of flowering and seed production per plant to estimate the multiplicative change in fitness, female plants showed a 56 % and hermaphrodites showed a 39 % decrease in fitness due to experimentally increased reproduction. Therefore, in total, female plants seem to be more sensitive to the cost of reproduction in terms of seed fitness than hermaphrodites.

Toivonen, Eija; Mutikainen, Pia



Repellency to Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) of plant essential oils alone or in combination with Calophyllum inophyllum nut oil.  


The repellency to female Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) of 21 essential oils (EOs) alone or in combination with Calophyllum inophyllum L. (Clusiaceae) nut oil (tamanu oil) was examined using an exposed human hand bioassay. Results were compared with those of commonly used repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). In tests with six human male volunteers at a dose of 0.5 mg/cm2, patchouli (protection time [PT], 3.67 h) was the most effective EO but less active than DEET (4.47 h), as judged by the PT to first bite. Very strong repellency also was produced by clove bud, lovage root, and clove leaf EOs (PT, 3.50-3.25 h), whereas strong repellency was obtained from thyme white EO (2.12 h). Thyme red, oregano, and geranium EOs exhibited moderate repellency (PT, 1.24-1.11 h). At 0.25 mg/cm2, protection time of clove bud, clove leaf, and lovage root EOs (PT, approximately equal to 1 h) was shorter than that of DEET (2.17 h). An increase in the protection time was produced by binary mixtures (PT, 2.68-2.04 h) of five EOs (clove bud, clove leaf, thyme white, patchouli, and savory) and tamanu oil (0.25:2.0 mg/cm2) compared with that of either the constituted essential oil or tamanu oil alone (PT, 0.56 h). The protection time of these binary mixtures was comparable with that of DEET. With the exception of savory EO, the other EOs, tamanu oil, and binary mixtures did not induce any adverse effects on the human volunteers at 0.5 mg/cm2. Thus, binary mixtures of essential oils and tamanu oil described merit further study as potential repellents for protection from humans and domestic animals from biting and nuisance caused by S. calcitrans. PMID:20695272

Hieu, Tran Trung; Kim, Soon-Il; Lee, Sang-Guei; Ahn, Young-Joon



Evaluation of molecular chaperons Hsp72 and neuropeptide Y as characteristic markers of adaptogenic activity of plant extracts.  


We have previously demonstrated that ADAPT-232, a fixed combination of adaptogenic substances derived from Eleutherococcus senticosus root extract, Schisandra chinensis berry extract, Rhodiola rosea root extract stimulated the expression and release of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and molecular chaperone Hsp72 from isolated human neurolgia cells. Both of these mediators of stress response are known to play an important role in regulation of neuroendocrine system and immune response. We further demonstrated that ADAPT-232 induced release of Hsp70 is mediated by NPY, suggesting an existence of NPY-mediated pathway of activation of Hsp72 release into the blood circulation system. The objective of this study was to determine whether this pathway is common for adaptogens and whether NPY and/or Hsp72 can be considered as necessary specific biomarkers for adaptogenic activity. The release of NPY and Hsp72 from neuroglia cells in response to treatment with various plant extracts (n=23) including selected validated adaptogens, partly validated adaptogens, claimed but negligibly validated adaptogens and some other plant extracts affecting neuroendocrine and immune systems but never considered as adaptogens was measured using high throughput ELISA techniques. We demonstrated that adaptogens, e.g. R. rosea, S. chinensis and E. senticosus stimulate both NPY and Hsp70 release from neuroblastoma cells, while tonics and stimulants have no significant effect on NPY in this in vitro test. In the groups of partly validated adaptogens the effect of Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera was not statistically significant both on NPY and Hsp70 release, while the activating effect of Bryonia alba and Rhaponticum cartamoides was significant only on Hsp70. In contrast, all tested non-adaptogens, such as antiinflammatoty plant extracts Matricaria recutita, Pelargonium sidoides, Hedera helix and Vitis vinifera significantly inhibit Hsp70 release and have no influence on NPY release from neuroblastoma cells. These experiments were further validated using primary human neurons and confirmed that adaptogens activate the release of both NPY and Hsp70, while tested non adaptogens were inactive in NPY assay and inhibit the release of Hsp70. Taken together, our data demonstrates for the first time that neuropeptide Y and heat shock protein Hsp70 can be used as molecular biomarkers for adaptogenic activity. PMID:23920279

Asea, Alexzander; Kaur, Punit; Panossian, Alexander; Wikman, Karl Georg



[A phytosociological interpretation of vegetation from sandy hills of the Peruvian desert].  


The vegetation of the sandy hills ("lomas") constitutes the main originality of the Peruvian and Chilean desert with a high number of endemics that shapes the vicarious associations. In this work, a phytosociological view of sandy environments of the Peruvian coastal desert is presented. According to the Braun-Blanquet method, we have made up 32 phytosociological inventories and added 138 ones from others authors. In each inventory, we have analyzed its floristic composition and ecological parameters, as altitude, soil and geomorphology. All releves were synthesized in a table to deduce the different associations, higher phytosociological units, and the distribu tion of its flora along the Peruvian coast and the Andean Cordillera. Using the Shannon-Wiener diversity index, the diversity of this flora is discussed making a comparison with historical data about the use of the territory with livestock during pre-Inca and Inca cultures, and Spanish invasion. As a result, two associations from Southern Peru -Nolanetum scaposo-spathulatae and Palauetum camanensis-weberbaueri-, two alliances -Nolanion humifusae from central Peru, and Nolanion spathulatae from the Southern Peru- and a new order -Tetragonio crystallinae-Plantaginetalia limensis- are described. In Nolanetum scaposo-spathulatae, Dictyophragnus englerianus, Leptoglossis lomana, Nolana scaposa, N. spathulata, Palaua velutina and Tetragonia vestita are the main characteristics, while in Palauetum camanensis-weberbaueri association N. scaposa and P. velutina are replaced by Palaua camanensis and P. weberbaueri. Nolanion humifusae alliance integrates species as Geranium limae, Hymenocallis amancaes, Nolana humifusa, N. latipes, Palaua rhombifolia or Villanova oppositifolia. Likewise, Cistanthe weberbaueri, Cryptantha parviflora, Hoffmannseggia miranda, Lupinus mollendoensis, Nolana confinis, N. pallidula, N. scaposa, N. spathulata, Palaua camanensis, P. velutina, P. weberbaueri, Tetragonia vestita and Weberbauerella brongniartioides are the characteristic species of Nolanion spathulatae alliance. The Tetragonio crystallinae-Plantaginetalia limensis order presents characteristic plants don't linked with eutrophic soils, as Calandrinia alba, Cryptantha limensis, Dyschoriste repens, Monnina macrostachya, Oxalis lomana, Palaua malvifolia, Pectocarya lateriflora, Plantago limensis or Tetragonia crystallina, with a distribution that claps the geographical area of the new alliances. On the other hand, the vegetation of the desert ravines is discussed in the context of the coastal river plant communities and its disturbance by the dunes. After the application of the Shannon-Wiener diversity index on the synthetic table columns, we can deduce that an increase in Andean and European ruderal species is linked to an intensive livestock activity. The transhumance between the Andes and the coast from pre-Inca times until now, produces the plant dispersion of high Andean plants toward the coast; the Spanish colonization was the origin of the presence of European plants in the "lomas" vegetation of Peru. PMID:21721240

Galán de Mera, Antonio; Linares Perea, Eliana; Campos de la Cruz, José; Vicente Orellana, José Alfredo



NTP Carcinogenesis Studies of Food Grade Geranyl Acetate (71% Geranyl Acetate, 29% Citronellyl Acetate) (CAS No. 105-87-3) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Study).  


Geranyl acetate (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadiene-1-ol acetate) is a colorless liquid prepared by fractional distillation of selected essential oils or by acetylation of geraniol. It is a natural constituent of more than 60 essential oils, including Ceylon citronella, palmarosa, lemon grass, petit grain, neroli bigarade, geranium, coriander, carrot, and sassafras. Geranyl acetate is used primarily as a component of perfumes for creams and soaps and as a flavoring ingredient. On the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's list of substances "generally recognized as safe," the Food Chemicals Codex (1972) specifies that geranyl acetate must contain at least 90% total esters. Carcinogenesis studies of food-grade geranyl acetate (containing approximately 29% citronellyl acetate) were conducted by administering the test chemical in corn oil by gavage to groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats at doses of 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg body weight and to groups of 50 male and 50 female B6C3F1 mice at doses of 500 or 1,000 mg/kg. Doses were administered five times per week for 103 weeks. Groups of 50 rats and 50 mice of each sex received corn oil by gavage on the same dosing schedule and served as vehicle controls. The cumulative toxicity of geranyl acetate in the 2-year study was indicated by the significantly shorter survival of high dose male rats (control, 34/50; low dose, 29/50; high dose, 18/50) and of high dose male mice (control, 31/50; low dose, 32/50; high dose, 0/50) and of dosed female mice (38/50; 15/50; 0/50) when compared with controls. Throughout most of the 2-year study, mean body weights of high dose rats and mice of each sex were lower than those of the controls. The occurrence of retinopathy or cataracts in the high dose male rats and low dose female rats as compared with the controls does not appear to be related to the administration of geranyl acetate but rather the proximity of the rats to fluorescent light. The incidence of retinopathy or cataracts (combined) was: males: control, 0/50, 0%; low dose, 1/50, 2%; high dose, 11/50, 22%; females: control, 1/50, 2%; low dose, 13/50, 26%; high dose, 2/50, 4%. Kidney tubular cell adenomas, an uncommon tumor type, were found in 2/50 (4%) low dose male rats. The historical incidence of male corn oil gavage control F344/N rats with kidney tumors is 1/250 (0.4%) at this laboratory and 4/998 (0.4%) in the program. Squamous cell papillomas in the skin were increased marginally in low dose male rats (control, 0/50; low dose, 4/50, 8%; high dose, 1/50, 2%). In addition, one low dose male rat had a squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. The incidence of low dose male rats with either squamous cell papillomas or carcinomas was greater (P<0.05) in comparison with the controls. The historical incidence of squamous cell papillomas or carcinomas (combined) in gavage control male F344/N rats is 3.6% (9/250) at this laboratory and 2.5% (25/999) throughout the program. The incidence of all epidermal tumors was not significantly elevated in dosed male rats relative to controls (control, 3/50, 6%; low dose, 6/50, 12%; high dose, 1/50, 2%). All high dose (1,000 mg/kg) male and female mice were dead by week 91 as a result of accidentally being administered 2,800 mg/kg for 3 days during week 91; survival of low dose and control male mice was comparable. Survival of high dose male and dosed female mice may have been inadequate for the detection of late-appearing tumors. No evidence of any carcinogenic effect was found in either low or high dose mice of either sex. An infection of the genital tract was probably responsible for the deaths of 14/22 control and 8/32 low dose female mice before the end of the study. Cytoplasmic vacuolization was increased in the liver and in the kidney of male and female mice and was considered to be compound related (liver-- male: control, 1/50, 2%; low dose, 7/50, 14%; high dose, 47/50, 94%; female: 1/50, 2%; 27/50, 54%; 46/50, 92%; kidney or kidney tubule--male: 0/50; 0/50; 41/50, 82%; female: 0/50; 24/49, 49%; 37/50, 74%). Under the conditions of these studi