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Sample records for rose-scented geranium pelargonium

  1. Insecticidal and biting deterrent activity of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp.) essential oils and individual compounds against Stephanitis pyrioides and Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rose-scented geranium, Pelargonium spp., essential oils from the cultivars ‘Bourbon’, ‘China’, ‘Egypt’ and cultivars ‘Rober’s Lemon Rose’ and ‘Frensham’ from South Carolina were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. One-hundred and thirty six compounds were identified from five essential oils, which constit...

  2. Performance of rose scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) in heavy metal polluted soil vis-à-vis phytoaccumulation of metals.

    PubMed

    Chand, Sukhmal; Singh, Geetu; Patra, D D

    2016-08-01

    An investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of heavy metal toxicity on growth, herb, oil yield and quality and metal accumulation in rose scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) grown in heavy metal enriched soils. Four heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Cr, and Pb) each at two levels (10 and 20 mg kg-1 soil) were tested on geranium. Results indicated that Cr concentration in soil at 20 mg kg-1 reduced leaves, stem and root yield by 70, 83, and 45%, respectively, over control. Root growth was significantly affected in Cr stressed soil. Nickel, Cr, and Cd concentration and accumulation in plant increased with higher application of these metals. Chromium, nickel and cadmium uptake was observed to be higher in leaves than in stem and roots. Essential oil constituents were generally not significantly affected by heavy metals except Pb at 10 and 20 ppm, which significantly increased the content of citronellol and Ni at 20 ppm increased the content of geraniol. Looking in to the higher accumulation of toxic metals by geranium and the minimal impact of heavy metals on quality of essential oil, geranium can be commercially cultivated in heavy metal polluted soil for production of high value essential oil. PMID:26696243

  3. Impact of plant growth promoting Pseudomonas monteilii PsF84 and Pseudomonas plecoglossicida PsF610 on metal uptake and production of secondary metabolite (monoterpenes) by rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens cv. bourbon) grown on tannery sludge amended soil.

    PubMed

    Dharni, Seema; Srivastava, Atul Kumar; Samad, Abdul; Patra, Dharani Dhar

    2014-12-01

    Bacterial strains PsF84 and PsF610 were isolated from tannery sludge polluted soil, Jajmau, Kanpur, India. 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the taxonomic affiliation of PsF84 as Pseudomonas monteilii and PsF610 as Pseudomonas plecoglossicida. A greenhouse study was carried out with rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolenscv. bourbon) grown in soil treated with tannery sludge in different proportions viz. soil: sludge ratio of 100:0, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 0:100 to evaluate the effects of bacterial inoculation on the heavy metal uptake. The isolates solubilized inorganic phosphorus and were capable of producing indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore. The isolate PsF84 increased the dry biomass of shoot by 44%, root by 48%, essential oil yield 43% and chlorophyll by 31% respectively over uninoculated control. The corresponding increase with the isolate PsF610 were 38%, 40%, 39% and 28%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies reveal that the Cr(VI) accumulation resulted in breakdown of vascular bundles and sequesters Cr(VI) in roots. The glandular trichomes (GT) were investigated using SEM studies as these glands are probably the main site of essential oil synthesis. Owing to its wide action spectrum, these isolates could serve as an effective metal sequestering and bioinoculants due to the production of IAA, siderophore and solubilization of phosphate for geranium in metal-stressed soil. The present study has provided a new insight into the phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soil. PMID:25194330

  4. Substrate Acidification by Geranium (Pelargonium x Hortorum) II: Light Effects and Phosphorus Uptake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sudden pH decline (SPD) describes the situation where crops growing at an appropriate pH, suddenly (1-2 weeks) cause the substrate pH to shift downward one to two units. ‘Designer Dark Red’ geraniums (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey) were grown in three experiments to test the effects of light on SPD...

  5. Substrate Acidification by Geranium (Pelargonium x Hortorum) I: Temperature Effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sudden pH decline (SPD) describes the situation where crops growing at an appropriate pH, suddenly (1-2 weeks) cause the substrate pH to shift downward one to two units. ‘Designer Dark Red’ Geraniums were grown in three experiments to test the effects of temperature on SPD. The first experiment te...

  6. Susceptibility of Geranium Cultivars (Pelargonium spp.) to Ralstonia solanacearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty-one cultivars of geraniums including zonal, regal, ivy, and scented were tested for susceptibility to three strains of Ralstonia solanacearum: a Race 1 Biovar 1 (R1B1) strain P597 isolated from tomato in Florida, a R1B1 strain P673 obtained from pothos originating in Costa Rica, and a Race 3 B...

  7. Fungus gnat (Bradysia impatiens) feeding and mechanical wounding inhibit Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of laboratory tests were conducted to investigate potential effects of fungus gnat (Bradysia impatiens) feeding damage on susceptibility of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum) to infection by the root rot pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum. Effects were compared to those from similar t...

  8. IMPACT OF FLOWER REMOVAL AND LIGHT AND TEMPERATURE STRESSES ON ACIDIFICATION OF NUTRIENT SOLUTION BY GERANIUM (PELARGONIUM X HORTORUM BAILEY)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cause of sudden substrate pH decline by geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey) is unknown. Published reports indicate that this response can be influenced in other plants by temperature and light extremes. The first of five experiments compared plants with all flowers removed to plants that ...

  9. Effect of High Temperature on Extreme Substrate Acidification by Geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cause of sudden substrate pH decline by geranium is unknown and previous reports suggest it may be due to high temperature. The first of 2 experiments compared plants grown at 4 temperatures (14/10, 18/14, 22/18 and 26/22º C day/night). With increasing increments of temperature, substrate pH de...

  10. RANGE OF NUTRIENTS IN PELARGONIUM X HORTORUM AND PELARGONIUM SPP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zonal geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum) and scented geranium (Pelargonium spp) together are among of the top-selling floriculture plants in the US today, with several hundred cultivars and species available each year. With such diversity in appearances, growth habits, and developmental traits, we h...

  11. How Does Geranium (Pelargonium) Respond To Specific Nutrient Deficiencies? A Visual Primer For Grower Diagnosis And Correction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Pelargonium, which is native to south Africa, is the most popular floriculture crop because of its use as a bedding plant, potted crop, or in hanging baskets (USDA Ag Statistics, 2004). In spite of their popularity and diversity, only the most general nutritional guidelines are available ...

  12. Effect of Phosphorus Deficiency and High Temperature on Ammonium and Nitrate Uptake by Geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cause of sudden substrate pH decline by geranium is unknown and may be due to a shift in cation-anion balance. Nitrogen plays a very important role in cation-anion balance since it accounts for over 50% of the mineral ions that will cross the plasma membrane and is the only mineral nutrient tha...

  13. Methylhexanamine is not detectable in Pelargonium or Geranium species and their essential oils: A multi-centre investigation.

    PubMed

    ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Gul, Waseem; Tolbert, Candice; ElSohly, Kareem M; Murphy, Timothy P; Avula, Bharathi; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Wang, Mei; Khan, Ikhlas A; Yang, Min; Guo, Dean; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Su, Juan

    2015-07-01

    In an earlier study, we developed two sensitive and reliable procedures for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of methylhexaneamine (MHA) in P. graveolens plant materials and volatile oils. None of the analyzed plant materials or oils showed any detectable levels of MHA which was further substantiated by high resolution liquid chromatography-quantum time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) analysis with a limit of detection of 10 ppb. However, other laboratories (two studies) reported the presence of MHA in some samples of P. graveolens and pelargonium oil acquired by the investigators from China. Because of the controversy of whether Pelargonium species or pelargonium oil contains MHA, it was recommended that splits of multiple samples be analyzed by different laboratories. In this investigation, multiple plant materials and oil samples were collected from around the world. These samples were submitted to four different sites for analysis. All sites adopted a similar extraction method. All the analysis sites used LC-MS/MS or LC-QTOF-MS and detection limit was set close to the 10 ng/mL as previously reported. A total of 18 plant samples belonging to 6 different Pelargonium species and 9 oils from different locations around the world were split among 4 different analytical laboratories for analysis (each lab received the same samples). None of the laboratories detected MHA in any of the samples at or around the 10 ppb detection level of the procedure used. PMID:25346500

  14. Rose Scent

    PubMed Central

    Guterman, Inna; Shalit, Moshe; Menda, Naama; Piestun, Dan; Dafny-Yelin, Mery; Shalev, Gil; Bar, Einat; Davydov, Olga; Ovadis, Mariana; Emanuel, Michal; Wang, Jihong; Adam, Zach; Pichersky, Eran; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Zamir, Dani; Vainstein, Alexander; Weiss, David

    2002-01-01

    For centuries, rose has been the most important crop in the floriculture industry; its economic importance also lies in the use of its petals as a source of natural fragrances. Here, we used genomics approaches to identify novel scent-related genes, using rose flowers from tetraploid scented and nonscented cultivars. An annotated petal EST database of ∼2100 unique genes from both cultivars was created, and DNA chips were prepared and used for expression analyses of selected clones. Detailed chemical analysis of volatile composition in the two cultivars, together with the identification of secondary metabolism–related genes whose expression coincides with scent production, led to the discovery of several novel flower scent–related candidate genes. The function of some of these genes, including a germacrene D synthase, was biochemically determined using an Escherichia coli expression system. This work demonstrates the advantages of using the high-throughput approaches of genomics to detail traits of interest expressed in a cultivar-specific manner in nonmodel plants. PMID:12368489

  15. Fumigant antitermitic activity of plant essential oils and components from Ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ), Allspice ( Pimenta dioica ), caraway ( Carum carvi ), dill ( Anethum graveolens ), Geranium ( Pelargonium graveolens ), and Litsea ( Litsea cubeba ) oils against Japanese termite ( Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe).

    PubMed

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Chang-Hoon; Shin, Sang-Chul; Park, Il-Kwon

    2009-08-12

    Plant essential oils from 26 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against the Japanese termite, Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe, using a fumigation bioassay. Responses varied with source, exposure time, and concentration. Among the essential oils tested, strong insecticidal activity was observed with the essential oils of ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ), allspice ( Pimenta dioica ), caraway ( Carum carvi ), dill ( Anethum graveolens ), geranium ( Pelargonium graveolens ), and litsea ( Litsea cubeba ). The composition of six essential oils was identified by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The compounds thus identified were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against Japanese termites. Responses varied in a dose-dependent manner for each compound. Phenol compounds exhibited the strongest insecticidal activity among the test compounds; furthermore, alcohol and aldehyde groups were more toxic than hydrocarbons. The essential oils and compounds described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for termite control. PMID:19722567

  16. A Rare Excitatory Amino Acid from Flowers of Zonal Geranium responsible for Paralyzing the Japanese Beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    e Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) exhibits rapid paralysis after consuming flowers from zonal geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum). Activity-guided fractionations were conducted with polar flower petal extracts from Pelargonium × hortorum cv. Nittany Lion Red, which led to the isolation of a paraly...

  17. Using Leaf Temperature to Detect Pythium Root Rot Stress in Geranium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diagnosis of incipient disease based on visual symptoms of geraniums (Pelargonium × hortorum L. H. Bailey) exposed to water mold pathogens is often difficult, especially when the plants are maintained under optimum growing conditions. Such plants tend to be asymptomatic until late in the infection ...

  18. USE OF LEAF TEMPERATURE TO ASSESS THE RESPONSE OF GERANIUM PLANTS FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO SOIL PATHOGENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early response of geranium plants (Pelargonium x hortorum cv. "Maverick Red") exposed to soil pathogens was assessed by measuring changes in leaf temperature. Differences between air temperature and leaf temperature were noticed 7 days after exposure to pathogens. Differences were greatest between...

  19. Geranium leaf assisted biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shankar, S Shiv; Ahmad, Absar; Sastry, Murali

    2003-01-01

    Development of biologically inspired experimental processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles is evolving into an important branch of nanotechnology. In this paper, we report on the use of Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) leaf extract in the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles. On treating aqueous silver nitrate solution with geranium leaf extract, rapid reduction of the silver ions is observed leading to the formation of highly stable, crystalline silver nanoparticles in solution. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of the silver particles indicated that they ranged in size from 16 to 40 nm and were assembled in solution into quasilinear superstructures. The rate of reduction of the silver ions by the geranium leaf extract is faster than that observed by us in an earlier study using a fungus, Fusarium oxysporum, thus highlighting the possibility that nanoparticle biosynthesis methodologies will achieve rates of synthesis comparable to those of chemical methods. This study also represents an important advance in the use of plants over microorganisms in the biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles. PMID:14656132

  20. Rare excitatory amino acid from flowers of zonal geranium responsible for paralyzing the Japanese beetle.

    PubMed

    Ranger, Christopher M; Winter, Rudolph E; Singh, Ajay P; Reding, Michael E; Frantz, Jonathan M; Locke, James C; Krause, Charles R

    2011-01-25

    The Japanese beetle (JB), Popillia japonica, exhibits rapid paralysis after consuming flower petals of zonal geranium, Pelargonium x hortorum. Activity-guided fractionations were conducted with polar flower petal extracts from P. x hortorum cv. Nittany Lion Red, which led to the isolation of a paralysis-inducing compound. High-resolution-MS and NMR ((1)H, (13)C, COSY, heteronuclear sequential quantum correlation, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation) analysis identified the paralytic compound as quisqualic acid (C(5)H(7)N(3)O(5)), a known but rare agonist of excitatory amino acid receptors. Optical rotation measurements and chiral HPLC analysis determined an L-configuration. Geranium-derived and synthetic L-quisqualic acid demonstrated the same positive paralytic dose-response. Isolation of a neurotoxic, excitatory amino acid from zonal geranium establishes the phytochemical basis for induced paralysis of the JB, which had remained uncharacterized since the phenomenon was first described in 1920. PMID:21205899

  1. Rare excitatory amino acid from flowers of zonal geranium responsible for paralyzing the Japanese beetle

    PubMed Central

    Ranger, Christopher M.; Winter, Rudolph E.; Singh, Ajay P.; Reding, Michael E.; Frantz, Jonathan M.; Locke, James C.; Krause, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    The Japanese beetle (JB), Popillia japonica, exhibits rapid paralysis after consuming flower petals of zonal geranium, Pelargonium x hortorum. Activity-guided fractionations were conducted with polar flower petal extracts from P. x hortorum cv. Nittany Lion Red, which led to the isolation of a paralysis-inducing compound. High-resolution–MS and NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, heteronuclear sequential quantum correlation, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation) analysis identified the paralytic compound as quisqualic acid (C5H7N3O5), a known but rare agonist of excitatory amino acid receptors. Optical rotation measurements and chiral HPLC analysis determined an l-configuration. Geranium-derived and synthetic l-quisqualic acid demonstrated the same positive paralytic dose–response. Isolation of a neurotoxic, excitatory amino acid from zonal geranium establishes the phytochemical basis for induced paralysis of the JB, which had remained uncharacterized since the phenomenon was first described in 1920. PMID:21205899

  2. Antimicrobial activity of Pelargonium essential oils added to a quiche filling as a model food system.

    PubMed

    Lis-Balchin, M; Buchbauer, G; Hirtenlehner, T; Resch, M

    1998-10-01

    Eight essential oils obtained by steam distillation from the scented leaves of Pelargonium species and cultivars were added at 250, 500 and 1000 ppm to a quiche filling, inoculated with either Saccharomyces ludwigii or Zygosaccharomyces bailii (at 10(8) cfu g-1), Salmonella enteriditis or Listeria innocua (at 10(9) cfu g-1). The quiche fillings were then kept at 25 degrees C for 24 h and the residual number of micro-organisms determined using the pour plate technique. There was an effective antimicrobial activity by the Pelargonium essential oils at 250 ppm, comparable with that of commercial thyme oil, an excellent antimicrobial agent, against Saccharomyces ludwigii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii, and a lesser inhibition compared with commercial thyme against Salm, enteriditis. There was a greater diversity of activity against L. innocua, which was in some cases more effective than commercial thyme oil. At 500 ppm, there was a greatly increased inhibition of microbial growth using the Pelargonium essential oils, which was comparable with that of commercial thyme, clove, geranium and coriander oils. As there is no evidence for the toxicity of any of these novel Pelargonium oils, and their odour does not make the delicately flavoured quiche filling unpalatable, there is a strong potential for their use in food processing. PMID:9812396

  3. Methods for in vitro propagation of Pelargonium x Hortorum and others: from meristems to protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Dorion, Noëlle; Ben Jouira, Hatem; Gallard, Anthony; Hassanein, Anber; Nassour, Mazen; Grapin, Agnès

    2010-01-01

    Geraniums (Pelargonium spp.) are among the most popular bedding and pot plants (25% of the French domestic market). On one hand, as vegetatively propagated plants, Pelargonium are submitted to pathogen pressure. On the other hand, innovation via interspecific hybridisation faces some difficulties. In this chapter, the two first protocols (from seeds and meristems) explain how in vitro plants free of virus could be obtained. The development of this technique is the long-term preservation of genetic resources via meristem cryopreservation. The third protocol describes propagation of Pelargonium with limited risks of variation. This technique also allows the constitution and the maintenance of a plant-stock from which explants can be taken for other studies. The two last protocols describe plant regenerations from leaf discs and mesophyll protoplasts, used for gene transfer and somatic hybridisation. These protocols were established mainly with Pelargonium x hortorum cultivars, but we propose possible solutions for the other species: P. x peltatum, P. x domesticum, P. capitatum and P. graveolens. PMID:20099103

  4. Clinical evaluation of the essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens for the treatment of denture stomatitis

    PubMed Central

    Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Shirdare, Zahra; Ebadian, Behnaz; Aslani, Abolfazl; Ghannadi, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    Background: Natural products are proved to play a good role as an alternative to synthetic chemicals in clinical conditions. Previous studies showed that Pelargonium graveolens has anti-inflammatory and antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens in the treatment of denture stomatitis. Materials and Methods: In this double-blind randomized clinical trial conducted in Isfahan (Iran), 80 (51 females and 29 males) eligible wearers of complete denture were included. According to the patients profiles number, they randomly divided to 2 groups of 40 patients case and 40 patients control treated with Pelargonium 1% gel or placebo, respectively. They were recommended to apply the gel twice daily for a 14-day course. All data were analyzed using SPSS for windows (v.18). We have used the ?2 test for analyzing qualitative and Student t-test for quantitative data considering as P<0.05 as significant. Results: According to mycological data and clinical observation after treatment in the case group, 34% of patients had been improved completely, 56% partially and 10% had no improvement. In the control group, 5% of patients had complete recovery, 25% partial recovery, and 70% no improvement. A significant reduction in fungal growth was observed in case group rather than the control group (P value<0.0001). Conclusion: It seems that the application of a 1% Geranium oil topical gel formulation is more effective than placebo in the treatment of denture stomatitis. PMID:23372587

  5. Intercropping of aromatic crop Pelargonium graveolens with Solanum tuberosum for better productivity and soil health.

    PubMed

    Vermal, Rajesh Kumar; Yadav, Ajai; Verma, Ram Swaroop; Khan, Khushboo

    2014-11-01

    Farmers in hilly regions experience low production potential and resource use efficiency due to low valued crops and poorsoil health. Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.) is a vegetatively propagated initially slow growing, high value aromatic crop. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is also vegetatively propagated high demand cash crop. A field experiment was carried out in temperate climate to investigate the influence of geranium intercropping at different row strips (1:1 and 1:2) and plant density (60 x 45, 75 x 45 and 90 x 45 cm) with potato intercrop on biomass, oil yield, monetary advantage and soil quality parameters. The row spacing 60x45cm and row strip 1:1 was found to be superior and produced 92 t ha(-1) and 14 kg ha(-1) biomass and oil yield, respectively. The row strip 1:2 intercrop earned a maximum $2107, followed by $1862 with row strip 1:1 at 60 x 45 cm plant density. Significant variations were noticed in soil organic carbon (Corg), total N (Nt), available nutrients, soil microbial biomass (Cmic) and nitrogen (Nmic) content. Maximum improvement of Corg (41.0%) and Nt (27.5%)with row strip 1:1 at 75 x 45 cm plant density. While higher soil respiration rate, Cmic, Nmic, and qCO2 was found with 1:2 row strip at 60 x 45 plant density. The buildup of Corg and Cmic potato intercrop can promote long term sustainability on productivity and soil health. PMID:25522521

  6. Fertilization and Colors of Plastic Mulch Affect Biomass and Essential Oil of Sweet-Scented Geranium

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Anderson de Carvalho; dos Santos, Wallace Melo; Prata, Paloma Santana; Alves, Pricles Barreto

    2014-01-01

    Sweet-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L'Hr), a plant belonging to the Geraniaceae family, has medicinal and aromatic properties and is widely used in the cosmetic, soap, perfume, aromatherapy, and food industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fertilization and the use of different colors of plastic mulch on sweet-scented geranium biomass and essential oil. Three colors of plastic mulch (black, white, and silver-colored) and a control without plastic mulch were assessed along with three fertilizers (20,000?Lha?1 of cattle manure; 1,000?kgha?1 of NPK 3-12-6; and 20,000?Lha?1 of cattle manure + 1,000?kgha?1 of NPK 3-12-6 fertilizer) and a control without fertilizer. The absence of a soil cover negatively influenced the agronomical variables, while coverage with plastic mulch was associated with increased biomass. The use of fertilizer had no effect on the evaluated agronomic variables. When cattle manure and NPK 3-12-6 were used together, combined with white or black plastic mulch, the highest yields of essential oil were obtained. For the silver-colored plastic mulch, higher amounts of essential oil (6,9-guaiadien) were obtained with mineral fertilizer. PMID:24757440

  7. Fertilization and colors of plastic mulch affect biomass and essential oil of sweet-scented geranium.

    PubMed

    Silva, Anderson de Carvalho; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; dos Santos, Wallace Melo; Prata, Paloma Santana; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima

    2014-01-01

    Sweet-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér), a plant belonging to the Geraniaceae family, has medicinal and aromatic properties and is widely used in the cosmetic, soap, perfume, aromatherapy, and food industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fertilization and the use of different colors of plastic mulch on sweet-scented geranium biomass and essential oil. Three colors of plastic mulch (black, white, and silver-colored) and a control without plastic mulch were assessed along with three fertilizers (20,000 L · ha(-1) of cattle manure; 1,000 kg · ha(-1) of NPK 3-12-6; and 20,000 L · ha(-1) of cattle manure + 1,000 kg · ha(-1) of NPK 3-12-6 fertilizer) and a control without fertilizer. The absence of a soil cover negatively influenced the agronomical variables, while coverage with plastic mulch was associated with increased biomass. The use of fertilizer had no effect on the evaluated agronomic variables. When cattle manure and NPK 3-12-6 were used together, combined with white or black plastic mulch, the highest yields of essential oil were obtained. For the silver-colored plastic mulch, higher amounts of essential oil (6,9-guaiadien) were obtained with mineral fertilizer. PMID:24757440

  8. Identification and Quantification of Dimethylamylamine in Geranium by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Li, J.S.; Chen, M.; Li, Z.C.

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive and reliable method of liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/ MS) was developed and validated for determining 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) and 1,4-dimethylamylamine (1,4-DMAA) in geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). The sample was extracted with 0.5 M HCl and purified by liquid-liquid partition with hexane. The parameters for reverse-phase (C18) LC and positive ESI/MS/MS were optimized. The matrix effect, specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy and reproducibility of the method were determined and evaluated. The method was linear over a range of 0.10–10.00 ng/mL examined, with R2 of 0.99 for both 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-DMAA. The recoveries from spiked concentrations between 5.00–40.00 ng/g were 85.1%–104.9% for 1,3-DMAA, with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.9%–11.0%, and 82.9%–101.8% for 1,4-DMAA, with RSD of 3.2%–11.7%. The instrument detection limit was 1–2 pg for both DMAAs. The quantification limit was estimated to be 1–2 ng/g for the plant sample. This method was successfully applied to the quantitative determination of 1,3- and 1,4-DMAA in both geranium plant and geranium oil. PMID:22915838

  9. Antibacterial activity of extracts and constituents of Pelargonium sidoides and Pelargonium reniforme.

    PubMed

    Kayser, O; Kolodziej, H

    1997-12-01

    The antibacterial activity of extracts and isolated constituents (scopoletin, umckalin, 5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin, 6,8-dihydroxy-5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, (+)-catechin, gallic acid and its methyl ester) of Pelargonium sidoides and Pelargonium reniforme (Geraniaceae), plant species used in folk medicine by the Southern African native population, was evaluated against 8 microorganisms, including 3 Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and beta-hemolytic Streptococcus 1451) and 5 Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) varied with the preparation of the extracts and microorganisms tested, from about 0.6 mg/ml for aqueous phases to over 10 mg/ml for crude Pelargonium extracts. With the exception of the ineffective (+)-catechin, all the potentially active compounds exhibited antibacterial activities with MICs of 200-1000 micrograms/ml. The results provide for a rational basis of the traditional use of the titled Pelargonium species. PMID:9434601

  10. Essential oil analysis and field evaluation of the citrosa plant "Pelargonium citrosum" as a repellent against populations of Aedes mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, B M; Surgeoner, G A; Heal, J D; Tucker, A O; Maciarello, M J

    1996-03-01

    A plant recently introduced into North America as the citrosa, Pelargonium citrosum ('Van Leenii'), has been marketed as a biological repellent against mosquitoes. Citrosa is claimed to repel mosquitoes within a 10 ft.2 (0.93 m2) area due to a continuous fragrant release of citronella oil. The total essential oil yield was 0.2 +/- 0.1% from fresh plant material. Chemical analysis by the authors revealed that combined essential oils of fresh greenhouse- and field-grown citrosa have 35.4 +/- 6.2% geraniol, 10.4 +/- 1.6% citronellol, 8.9 +/- 2.0% isomenthone, and 6.8 +/- 3.8% linalool. Both the morphology and essential oil of citrosa fall within the Pelargonium x asperum hybrid complex and are similar to 'Rosé', the commercial rose geranium. No character of morphology or essential oil of a Cymbopogon species yielding commercial citronella oil could be detected in the citrosa. The effectiveness of the citrosa as a repellent against field populations of spring Aedes spp. mosquitoes was evaluated and compared with a 75% deet (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) formulation. Deet provided > 90% reduction in mosquitoes biting subjects for up to 8 h post-treatment. There was no significant difference between citrosa-treated and nontreated subjects. PMID:8723261

  11. Analysis and Confirmation of 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-DMAA in Geranium Plants Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry at ng/g Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Heather L.; Ranaivo, Patricia L.; Simone, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) is a stimulant commercially sold in a variety of dietary supplements as a chemical species derived from geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). Whether 1,3-DMAA naturally occurs in geranium plants or other dietary ingredients, it has important regulatory and commercial ramifications. However, the analysis of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants is not trivial due to low concentrations and a complex environmental matrix, requiring high selectivity and sensitivity. An extraction method combined with high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry is used to determine 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-dimethylamylamine (1,4-DMAA) concentrations in geranium plants with both external calibration and standard addition method. Samples from the Changzhou, Kunming, and Guiyang regions of China during both winter and summer were analyzed for 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-DMAA. The diastereomer ratios of the 1,3-DMAA stereoisomers of a racemic standard and the extracted plant were also quantified. PMID:23225994

  12. Volatiles of Geranium purpureum Vill. and Geranium phaeum L.: chemotaxonomy of balkan Geranium and Erodium species (Geraniaceae).

    PubMed

    Radulović, Niko S; Dekić, Milan S

    2013-11-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of Geranium purpureum and G. phaeum were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses (the former for the first time in general). In total, 154 constituents were identified, accounting for 89.0-95.8% of the detected GC peak areas. The investigated essential oils consisted mainly of fatty acids and fatty-acid-derived compounds (45.4-81.3%), with hexadecanoic acid and (E)-phytol as the major components. The chemotaxonomic significance of the variations in the essential-oil composition/production of the presently and previously investigated Geranium and highly related Erodium taxa from Serbia and Macedonia was assessed by multivariate statistical analyses. The main conclusions drawn from the high chemical similarity of the two genera, visible from the obtained dendrograms and biplots, confirm the close phylogenetic relationship between the investigated Geranium and Erodium taxa, i.e., that there is no great intergeneric oil-composition variability. Changes in the composition and production of essential oils of the herein investigated taxa and 60 other randomly chosen species belonging to different plant genera were also statistically analyzed. The results put forward pro arguments for the oil-yield-oil-composition correlation hypothesis. PMID:24243613

  13. Investigating contact toxicity of Geranium and Artemisia essential oils on Bemisia tabaci Gen.

    PubMed Central

    Yarahmadi, Fatemeh; Rajabpour, Ali; Zandi Sohani, Nooshin; Ramezani, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gen. (B. tabaci), is one of the most important pests of various greenhouse crops in Iran. Nowadays, chemical insecticides are broadly used for control of the pests that causes risk to consumer's health. For the first time, contact toxicity of Pelargonium roseum Andrews and Artemisia sieberi Besser essential oils on B. tabaci and its possible application against the whitefly was evaluated in 2012. Materials and Methods: Essential oil with concentrations of 2500, 1250, 125, and 12 ppm were used. Infested leaves of greenhouse cucumber were treated by mentioned concentrations. After 24 hours, mortality of B. tabaci was recorded and compared after correcting by Abbot's formula. Results: Results showed that all concentrations of the essential oil could significantly reduce population of B. tabaci compared with the control treatment. Phytotoxicity of the treated leaves were recorded after 24, 48, and 72 hours and compared with the control. Concentrations of 2500, 1250, and 125 ppm caused severe phytotoxicity on greenhouse cucumber leaves and therefore are not suitable for greenhouse application. Phytotoxicity of 12 ppm was relatively low. Conclusions: This data implicated suitable protective effects of the essential oils to the pest infestation. Therefore, essential oils distillated from Geranium and Artemisia could be applied to control B. tabaci in greenhouse cucumber at V/V 12 ppm. PMID:25050264

  14. Repellency of oils of lemon eucalyptus, geranium, and lavender and the mosquito repellent MyggA natural to Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the laboratory and field.

    PubMed

    Jaenson, Thomas G T; Garboui, Samira; Palsson, Katinka

    2006-07-01

    MyggA Natural (Bioglan, Lund, Sweden) is a commercially available repellent against blood-feeding arthropods. It contains 30% of lemon-scented eucalyptus, Corymbia citriodora (Hook.) K. D. Hill & L. A. S. Johnson (Myrtaceae), oil with a minimum of 50% p-menthane-3,8-diol. MyggA Natural also contains small amounts of the essential oils of lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (Lamiaceae), and geranium, Pelargonium graveolens L'Her. (Geraniaceae). In laboratory bioassays, MyggA Natural and C. citriodora oil exhibited 100% repellency against host-seeking nymphs of Ixodes ricinus (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae). Lavender oil and geranium oil, when diluted to 1% in 1,2-propanediol, had weak repellent activities on I. ricinus nymphs, but when diluted to 30% in 1,2-propanediol had 100% repellencies. 1,2-Propanediol (100%) had no significant repellent activity in comparison with that of the control. In field tests in tick-infested areas in central Sweden, tick repellency of MyggA Natural and C. citriodora oil was tested by the blanket-dragging technique for 4 d during a 6-d period. The repellencies (74 and 85%, respectively) on day 1 are similar (89%) to that of blankets treated in a similar manner with 19% diethyl-methyl-benzamide, based on previous work. Repellencies declined significantly from day 1 to day 6 (74 to 45% for MyggA Natural; 85 to 42% for C. citriodora oil). PMID:16892632

  15. Twospotted spider mite population level, distribution, and damage on ivy geranium in response to different nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization regimes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Opit, George P; Jonas, Valerie M; Williams, Kimberly A; Nechols, James R; Margolies, David C

    2007-12-01

    The influence of plant nutrition on arthropod pests has often been studied by comparing plants provided suboptimal nutrients with those provided sufficient or luxurious nutrients, but such results have limited applicability to commercially produced crops because nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are almost never limiting in greenhouse production. We conducted a series of experiments with ivy geranium, Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Hŕ. ex Aiton 'Amethyst 96' to determine the response of twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae), to six combinations of N (8 or 24 mM) and P (0.32, 0.64, or 1.28 mM) that reflected commercial production practices. All six combinations resulted in saleable plants when plants were free of spider mites, but tissue N and P concentrations among fertilizer combinations were different. On mite-infested plants, no difference in mite numbers or plant damage was found in response to N fertilization rates. Phosphorus had no effect on mite population level until week 8, at which time plants fertilized with 0.64 mM P had slightly more mites than plants fertilized with 0.32 mM. However, overall quality and dry weight of plants fertilized by 0.32 mM P was lower than that of 0.64 and 1.28 mM, which suggests that ivy geranium plants fertilized with the higher P rates may better compensate for mite feeding damage. Positive correlations were found between within-plant distribution of mites and the corresponding tissue N and P concentrations in three foliage strata, suggesting that tissue nutrient content may influence mite selection of feeding sites. PMID:18232399

  16. Effect of High Temperature on Extreme Substrate Acidification by Geranium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cause of sudden substrate pH decline by geranium is unknown and it may be due to high temperature and/or low P. ‘Designer Dark Red’ Geraniums were grown in two experiments and the first tested the effect of four temperatures (57/50, 64/57, 72/64 and 79/72º F day/night) on substrate acidificatio...

  17. Effect of fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) feeding on subsequent Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dark-winged fungus gnats in the genus Bradysia (Diptera: Sciaridae) and root rot pathogens in the genus Pythium (Oomycetes) are important pests of greenhouse floriculture. Observations have pointed to a possible correlation between Pythium root rot disease and fungus gnat infestations; however, inte...

  18. The complete nucleotide sequence of pelargonium leaf curl virus.

    PubMed

    McGavin, Wendy J; MacFarlane, Stuart A

    2016-05-01

    Investigation of a tombusvirus isolated from tulip plants in Scotland revealed that it was pelargonium leaf curl virus (PLCV) rather than the originally suggested tomato bushy stunt virus. The complete sequence of the PLCV genome was determined for the first time, revealing it to be 4789 nucleotides in size and to have an organization similar to that of the other, previously described tombusviruses. Primers derived from the sequence were used to construct a full-length infectious clone of PLCV that recapitulates the disease symptoms of leaf curling in systemically infected pelargonium plants. PMID:26906694

  19. Menthone and isomenthone biosynthesis in Pelargonium tomentosum Jacq.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, S; Montag, V; Mosandl, A

    2001-01-01

    Pelargonium tomentosum was fed with aqueous solutions of different deuterium labelled monoterpenoid precursors. After headspace extraction with solid phase microextraction (SPME) the essential oil was analyzed with enantioselective multidimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (enantio-MDGC/MS). Labelled piperitone with different enantiomeric distributions led to labelled (-)-isomenthone and labelled (+)-menthone in the same ratio as genuine (-)-isomenthone and (+)-menthone. Furthermore, labelled pulegone, piperitenone, piperitole and citronellyl glycopyranoside were investigated. PMID:11958337

  20. Target Region Amplification Polymorphism (TRAP) as a Tool for Detecting Genetic Variation in the Genus Pelargonium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pelargonium is one of the priority genera collected by the Ornamental Plant Germplasm Center (OPGC). In order to protect future breeders from a loss of genetic diversity, OPGC collects heirloom cultivars, breeding lines and wild species. The current Pelargonium collection at OPGC consists primaril...

  1. The biological activities of cinnamon, geranium and lavender essential oils.

    PubMed

    Sienkiewicz, Monika; Głowacka, Anna; Kowalczyk, Edward; Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Anna; Jóźwiak-Bębenista, Marta; Łysakowska, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Acinetobacter sp. represent an important cause of nosocomial infections. Their resistance to some antibiotics, their ability to survive on inanimate surfaces in the hospital environment and their ability to produce biofilms contributes to their virulence. The aim of the study was to determine the antibacterial properties of cinnamon, lavender and geranium essential oils against bacteria of the genus Acinetobacter isolated from several clinical materials and from the hospital environment. A comprehensive evaluation of the susceptibility of Acinetobacter sp. clinical strains to recommended antibiotics was performed. The constituents of cinnamon, lavender and geranium essential oils were identified by GC-FID-MS analysis, and their Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) against tested clinical strains were determined by the micro-dilution broth method. In addition, the effects of essential oils on the viability of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) and glioblastoma cell line (T98G) were evaluated. Cinnamon bark oil was the most active against clinical and environmental strains of Acinetobacter baumannii with MIC values ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 µL/mL. The MIC values for geranium oil were between 7.5 and 9.5 µL/mL, and between 10.5 and 13.0 µL/mL for lavender oil. These essential oils can be best employed in the fight against infections caused by bacteria from Acinetobacter genus as components of formulations for hygiene and disinfection of hospital environment. PMID:25514231

  2. RALSTONIA SOLANACEARUM BIOVAR 2, RACE 3 IN GERANIUM IMPORTED FROM GUATEMALA TO PENNSYLVANIA IN 1999

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The PA Department of Agriculture Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratory received geraniums infected with Ralstonia solanacearum Biovar 2, Race 3 (RsB2R3) from three greenhouses in Spring 1999 and two additional greenhouses in Spring 2000. The geranium cultivars originated from propagators in Guatemala ...

  3. Comparative antibacterial effects of novel Pelargonium essential oils and solvent extracts.

    PubMed

    Lis-Balchin, M; Buchbauer, G; Ribisch, K; Wenger, M T

    1998-09-01

    The scented leaves of a number of Pelargonium (Geraniaceae) species and cultivars were extracted using steam distillation, petroleum spirit and methanol. The extracts were assessed for their antibacterial activity in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cereus and Staph. epidermidis. The results indicated substantial antibacterial activity and suggested that Pelargonium essential oils could be used as novel antibacterial agents. The methanolic and petroleum spirit extracts were more potent antibacterial agents than the steam-distilled volatile samples. The results suggest that Pelargonium essential oils and solvent extracts could be used as novel food or cosmetic antimicrobial agents. PMID:9750316

  4. Influence of biochar, mycorrhizal inoculation, and fertilizer rate on growth and flowering of Pelargonium (Pelargonium zonale L.) plants

    PubMed Central

    Conversa, Giulia; Bonasia, Anna; Lazzizera, Corrado; Elia, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Peat is the most common substrate used in nurseries despite being a very expensive and a non-renewable material. Peat replacement with biochar could be a sound environmental practice, as it is produced from waste biomass, but evaluation of biochar as a potting substrate is needed. Ratios of peat:biochar of 100:0, 70:30, 30:70 (BC0, BC30, and BC70, respectively), two fertilizer rates (FERT1, FERT2), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation were tested on potted Pelargonium plants. Plant growth, flowering, bio-physiological and nutritional responses, and root mycorrhization were evaluated. The BC30 mixture did not affect plant growth compared with pure peat. However, BC30 in combination with FERT2 treatment was more effective in enhancing nitrogen (N) and chlorophyll (CHL) leaf concentrations, and leaf and flower numbers. The BC70 mixture depressed plant growth, flowering traits, and root mycorrhization. Leaf N concentration was below the sufficiency range reported for Pelargonium growth. Leaf concentration of phosphorous (P) was adequate in pure peat and in BC30 but it dropped close to sub-optimal values in BC70. The pH value of the mixtures lowered P availability, though in BC30 the mycorrhizal activity could have allowed adequate P plant uptake. In BC70 plants, the deficiency of both N and P might be a reason for the observed growth reduction. The inoculation of the substrate with selected AMF improved plant growth (higher dry biomass, greater floral clusters, larger and more abundant leaves) and quality resulting in unstressed (lower electrolyte leakage and higher relative water content values) and greener leaves (low L∗ and C∗, high CHL content) and in more intensely colored flowers. We conclude that biochar can be applied in nursery/potted plant production provided that the proportion in the peat mixture does not exceed 30%. Furthermore, AMF inoculation contributed to achieving the best plant performance in 30% biochar amended medium. PMID:26136757

  5. Production of engineered long-life and male sterile Pelargonium plants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pelargonium is one of the most popular garden plants in the world. Moreover, it has a considerable economic importance in the ornamental plant market. Conventional cross-breeding strategies have generated a range of cultivars with excellent traits. However, gene transfer via Agrobacterium tumefaciens could be a helpful tool to further improve Pelargonium by enabling the introduction of new genes/traits. We report a simple and reliable protocol for the genetic transformation of Pelargonium spp. and the production of engineered long-life and male sterile Pelargonium zonale plants, using the pSAG12::ipt and PsEND1::barnase chimaeric genes respectively. Results The pSAG12::ipt transgenic plants showed delayed leaf senescence, increased branching and reduced internodal length, as compared to control plants. Leaves and flowers of the pSAG12::ipt plants were reduced in size and displayed a more intense coloration. In the transgenic lines carrying the PsEND1::barnase construct no pollen grains were observed in the modified anther structures, which developed instead of normal anthers. The locules of sterile anthers collapsed 3–4 days prior to floral anthesis and, in most cases, the undeveloped anther tissues underwent necrosis. Conclusion The chimaeric construct pSAG12::ipt can be useful in Pelargonium spp. to delay the senescence process and to modify plant architecture. In addition, the use of engineered male sterile plants would be especially useful to produce environmentally friendly transgenic plants carrying new traits by preventing gene flow between the genetically modified ornamentals and related plant species. These characteristics could be of interest, from a commercial point of view, both for pelargonium producers and consumers. PMID:22935247

  6. Reproduction of the Medicinal Plant Pelargonium sidoides via Somatic Embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Duchow, Stefanie; Blaschek, Wolfgang; Classen, Birgit

    2015-08-01

    The medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides DC. (Geraniaceae) was traditionally used for the treatment of the common cold and cough in South Africa. Today an aequous-ethanolic root extract from this plant is approved for the treatment of acute bronchitis and is globally marketed also as an immunostimulant. The increasing demand of the plant material for the industrial production indicates the need of new effective methods for the propagation of P. sidoides. Here we report somatic embryogenesis and in vitro plantlet regeneration from somatic cells of inflorescence shoots and petioles of P. sidoides. A one-week cultivation of explants in media containing different concentrations of thidiazuron (1, 2.2, 3, and 4 mg/L) followed by a cultivation period without phytohormones resulted in the induction of somatic embryos within 2-4 weeks. After 2-4 months, the embryos generated roots and could be transferred into a greenhouse, where flower formation took place and the development of seeds occurred with high germination rates. The root umckalin concentration, determined by high-performance thin-layer chromatography, was comparable to that of seed-cultivated plants (100 ± 6 vs. 113 ± 10 µg umckalin/g dried roots). For the first time, direct somatic embryogenesis has been established as an appropriate cultivation method for P. sidoides plants used as raw material in the pharmaceutical industry. Moreover, genetically identical plants (chemical races) can be easily generated by this procedure. PMID:26287694

  7. The Sensitivity of Endodontic Enterococcus spp. Strains to Geranium Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Łysakowska, Monika E; Sienkiewicz, Monika; Banaszek, Katarzyna; Sokołowski, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Enterococci are able to survive endodontic procedures and contribute to the failure of endodontic therapy. Thus, it is essential to identify novel ways of eradicating them from infected root canals. One such approach may be the use of antimicrobials such as plant essential oils. Enterococcal strains were isolated from endodontically treated teeth by standard microbiological methods. Susceptibility to antibiotics was evaluated by the disc-diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of geranium essential oil was investigated by microdilution in 96-well microplates in Mueller Hinton Broth II. Biofilm eradication concentrations were checked in dentin tests. Geranium essential oil inhibited enterococcal strains at concentrations ranging from 1.8-4.5 mg/mL. No correlation was shown between resistance to antibiotics and the MICs of the test antimicrobials. The MICs of the test oil were lower than those found to show cytotoxic effects on the HMEC-1 cell line. Geranium essential oil eradicated enterococcal biofilm at concentrations of 150 mg/mL. Geranium essential oil inhibits the growth of endodontic enterococcal species at lower concentrations than those required to reach IC50 against the HMEC-1 cell line, and is effective against bacteria protected in biofilm at higher concentrations. In addition, bacteria do not develop resistance to essential oils. Hence, geranium essential oil represents a possible alternative to other antimicrobials during endodontic procedures. PMID:26703546

  8. Dynamic evolution of Geranium mitochondrial genomes through multiple horizontal and intracellular gene transfers.

    PubMed

    Park, Seongjun; Grewe, Felix; Zhu, Andan; Ruhlman, Tracey A; Sabir, Jamal; Mower, Jeffrey P; Jansen, Robert K

    2015-10-01

    The exchange of genetic material between cellular organelles through intracellular gene transfer (IGT) or between species by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has played an important role in plant mitochondrial genome evolution. The mitochondrial genomes of Geraniaceae display a number of unusual phenomena including highly accelerated rates of synonymous substitutions, extensive gene loss and reduction in RNA editing. Mitochondrial DNA sequences assembled for 17 species of Geranium revealed substantial reduction in gene and intron content relative to the ancestor of the Geranium lineage. Comparative analyses of nuclear transcriptome data suggest that a number of these sequences have been functionally relocated to the nucleus via IGT. Evidence for rampant HGT was detected in several Geranium species containing foreign organellar DNA from diverse eudicots, including many transfers from parasitic plants. One lineage has experienced multiple, independent HGT episodes, many of which occurred within the past 5.5 Myr. Both duplicative and recapture HGT were documented in Geranium lineages. The mitochondrial genome of Geranium brycei contains at least four independent HGT tracts that are absent in its nearest relative. Furthermore, G. brycei mitochondria carry two copies of the cox1 gene that differ in intron content, providing insight into contrasting hypotheses on cox1 intron evolution. PMID:25989702

  9. First report of Pelargonium zonate spot virus from tomato in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pelargonium zonate spot virus (PZSV) was first isolated from tomato in southern Italy in 1982, and later was also reported from Spain and France. Infected tomato plants showed stunting, malformation, yellow rings and line patterns on the leaves, and concentric chlorotic ringspots on the stems. In Ju...

  10. Role of Petal-Specific Orcinol O-Methyltransferases in the Evolution of Rose Scent1

    PubMed Central

    Scalliet, Gabriel; Lionnet, Claire; Le Bechec, Mickal; Dutron, Laurence; Magnard, Jean-Louis; Baudino, Sylvie; Bergougnoux, Vronique; Jullien, Frdric; Chambrier, Pierre; Vergne, Philippe; Dumas, Christian; Cock, J. Mark; Hugueney, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Orcinol O-methyltransferase (OOMT) 1 and 2 catalyze the last two steps of the biosynthetic pathway leading to the phenolic methyl ether 3,5-dimethoxytoluene (DMT), the major scent compound of many rose (Rosa x hybrida) varieties. Modern roses are descended from both European and Chinese species, the latter being producers of phenolic methyl ethers but not the former. Here we investigated why phenolic methyl ether production occurs in some but not all rose varieties. In DMT-producing varieties, OOMTs were shown to be localized specifically in the petal, predominanty in the adaxial epidermal cells. In these cells, OOMTs become increasingly associated with membranes during petal development, suggesting that the scent biosynthesis pathway catalyzed by these enzymes may be directly linked to the cells' secretory machinery. OOMT gene sequences were detected in two non-DMT-producing rose species of European origin, but no mRNA transcripts were detected, and these varieties lacked both OOMT protein and enzyme activity. These data indicate that up-regulation of OOMT gene expression may have been a critical step in the evolution of scent production in roses. PMID:16361520

  11. Phosphorus Deficiency in Pelargonium: Effects on Nitrate and Ammonium Uptake and Acidity Generation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cause of sudden substrate pH decline by geranium is unknown and may be due to a shift in cation-anion balance. Nitrogen plays a very important role in cation-anion balance since it accounts for over 50% of the mineral ions that will cross the plasma membrane and is the only mineral nutrient tha...

  12. Sulfur Dioxide Flux into Leaves of Geranium carolinianum L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, George E.; Tingey, David T.

    1983-01-01

    The concurrent exchange of SO2 and H2O vapor between the atmosphere and foliage of Geranium carolinianum was investigated using a whole-plant gas exchange chamber. Total leaf flux of SO2 was partitioned into leaf surface and internal fractions. The emission rate of SO2-induced H2S was measured to develop a net leaf budget for atmospherically derived sulfur. Stomatal resistance to SO2 flux was estimated by two techniques: (a) RsSO2′ from SO2 data using analog modeling techniques and (b) RsSO2 from analogy to H2O (i.e. 1.89 RsH2o). The emission of H2S was positively correlated with the rate of SO2 flux into the leaf interior. An accounting of the simultaneous, bidirectional flux of gaseous sulfur compounds during pollutant exposure showed that sulfur accumulation in the leaf interior of G. carolinianum was 7 to 15% lower than that estimated solely from mass-balance calculations of SO2 flux data (i.e. ignoring H2S emissions). The esimate of stomatal resistance to pollutant flux from the SO2 data (RsSO2′) was consistently less than the simultaneous estimate derived from analogy to H2O vapor (RsSO2). The resultant of RsSO2′ — RsSO2, which was always negative, is indicative of a residual resistance to SO2 flux into the leaf interior. On a comparative basis, SO2 molecules experienced less pathway resistance to diffusion than effluxing H2O molecules. It is proposed that the SO2:H2O path length ratio is less than unity, as a consequence of the pollutant's high water solubility and unique chemical reactivity in solution. Thus, the diffusive paths for H2O and SO2 in G. carolinianum are not completely synonymous. PMID:16662968

  13. The influence of phosphorus concentration on the development of Pythium root rot disease of seedling geranium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In greenhouse production systems, growers may increase nutrient supply to meet production demands or decrease nutrient supply due to cost or environmental concerns. Only a few floriculture crops’ response in different nutrient environments to a handful of diseases are well known. Seeding geraniums...

  14. Detecting Root Rot Stress in Geranium by Measuring Changes in Leaf Temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine if changes in geranium leaf temperature, measured by infrared (IR) transducers aimed at the plant canopy or individual leaves, correlate with root infection by pathogenic water molds. This is the first report to our knowledge that addresses the use of environmental se...

  15. PHYSIOLOGY OF ECOTYPIC PLANT RESPONSE TO SULFUR DIOXIDE IN 'GERANIUM CAROLINIANUM' L

    EPA Science Inventory

    Populations of Geranium carolinianum, winter annual plant common in disturbed habitats vary in their folair response to sulfur dioxide and pollution resistance is characteristic of populations sampled from areas in which SO2 has been a prominent stress. The physiological basis of...

  16. Population and phylogenomic decomposition via genotyping-by-sequencing in Australian Pelargonium.

    PubMed

    Nicotra, Adrienne B; Chong, Caroline; Bragg, Jason G; Ong, Chong Ren; Aitken, Nicola C; Chuah, Aaron; Lepschi, Brendan; Borevitz, Justin O

    2016-05-01

    Species delimitation has seen a paradigm shift as increasing accessibility of genomic-scale data enables separation of lineages with convergent morphological traits and the merging of recently diverged ecotypes that have distinguishing characteristics. We inferred the process of lineage formation among Australian species in the widespread and highly variable genus Pelargonium by combining phylogenomic and population genomic analyses along with breeding system studies and character analysis. Phylogenomic analysis and population genetic clustering supported seven of the eight currently described species but provided little evidence for differences in genetic structure within the most widely distributed group that containing P. australe. In contrast, morphometric analysis detected three deep lineages within Australian Pelargonium; with P. australe consisting of five previously unrecognized entities occupying separate geographic ranges. The genomic approach enabled elucidation of parallel evolution in some traits formerly used to delineate species, as well as identification of ecotypic morphological differentiation within recognized species. Highly variable morphology and trait convergence each contribute to the discordance between phylogenomic relationships and morphological taxonomy. Data suggest that genetic divergence among species within the Australian Pelargonium may result from allopatric speciation while morphological differentiation within and among species may be more strongly driven by environmental differences. PMID:26864117

  17. Biparental inheritance of plastidial and mitochondrial DNA and hybrid variegation in Pelargonium.

    PubMed

    Weihe, Andreas; Apitz, Janina; Pohlheim, Frank; Salinas-Hartwig, Annabel; Börner, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Plastidial (pt) and mitochondrial (mt) genes usually show maternal inheritance. Non-Mendelian, biparental inheritance of plastids was first described by Baur (Z Indukt Abstamm Vererbungslehre 1:330-351, 1909) for crosses between Pelargonium cultivars. We have analyzed the inheritance of pt and mtDNA by examining the progeny from reciprocal crosses of Pelargonium zonale and P. inquinans using nucleotide sequence polymorphisms of selected pt and mt genes. Sequence analysis of the progeny revealed biparental inheritance of both pt and mtDNA. Hybrid plants exhibited variegation: our data demonstrate that the inquinans chloroplasts, but not the zonale chloroplasts bleach out, presumably due to incompatibility of the former with the hybrid nuclear genome. Different distribution of maternal and paternal sequences could be observed in different sectors of the same leaf, in different leaves of the same plant, and in different plants indicating random segregation and sorting-out of maternal and paternal plastids and mitochondria in the hybrids. The substantial transmission of both maternal and paternal mitochondria to the progeny turns Pelargonium into a particular interesting subject for studies on the inheritance, segregation and recombination of mt genes. PMID:19787375

  18. Shifts in Climate Foster Exceptional Opportunities for Species Radiation: The Case of South African Geraniums

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Cabrera, Hugo I.; Peres-Neto, Pedro R.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is often assumed to be a major driver of biodiversity loss. However, it can also set the stage for novel diversification in lineages with the evolutionary ability to colonize new environments. Here we tested if the extraordinary evolutionary success of the genus Pelargonium was related to the ability of its species to capitalize on the climate niche variation produced by the historical changes in southern Africa. We evaluated the relationship between rates of climate niche evolution and diversification rates in the main Pelargonium lineages and disentangled the roles of deep and recent historical events in the modification of species niches. Pelargonium clades exhibiting higher ecological differentiation along summer precipitation (SPP) gradients also experienced higher diversification rates. Faster rates of niche differentiation in spatially structured variables, along with lower levels of niche overlap among closely related species, suggest recent modification in species niches (e.g. dispersal or range shift) and niche lability. We suggest that highly structured SPP gradients established during the aridification process within southern Africa, in concert with niche lability and low niche overlap, contributed to species divergence. These factors are likely to be responsible for the extensive diversification of other lineages in this diversity hot spot. PMID:24358250

  19. Shifts in climate foster exceptional opportunities for species radiation: the case of South african geraniums.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cabrera, Hugo I; Peres-Neto, Pedro R

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is often assumed to be a major driver of biodiversity loss. However, it can also set the stage for novel diversification in lineages with the evolutionary ability to colonize new environments. Here we tested if the extraordinary evolutionary success of the genus Pelargonium was related to the ability of its species to capitalize on the climate niche variation produced by the historical changes in southern Africa. We evaluated the relationship between rates of climate niche evolution and diversification rates in the main Pelargonium lineages and disentangled the roles of deep and recent historical events in the modification of species niches. Pelargonium clades exhibiting higher ecological differentiation along summer precipitation (SPP) gradients also experienced higher diversification rates. Faster rates of niche differentiation in spatially structured variables, along with lower levels of niche overlap among closely related species, suggest recent modification in species niches (e.g. dispersal or range shift) and niche lability. We suggest that highly structured SPP gradients established during the aridification process within southern Africa, in concert with niche lability and low niche overlap, contributed to species divergence. These factors are likely to be responsible for the extensive diversification of other lineages in this diversity hot spot. PMID:24358250

  20. Nitric oxide, induced by wounding, mediates redox regulation in pelargonium leaves.

    PubMed

    Arasimowicz, M; Floryszak-Wieczorek, J; Milczarek, G; Jelonek, T

    2009-09-01

    The subject of this study was the participation of nitric oxide (NO) in plant responses to wounding, promoted by nicking of pelargonium (Pelargonium peltatum L.) leaves. Bio-imaging with the fluorochrome 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA) and electrochemical in situ measurement of NO showed early (within minutes) and transient (2 h) NO generation after wounding restricted to the site of injury. In order to clarify the functional role of NO in relation to modulation of the redox balance during wounding, a pharmacological approach was used. A positive correlation was found between NO generation and regulation of the redox state. NO caused a slight restriction of post-wounded O(2) (-) production, in contrast to the periodic and marked increase in H(2)O(2) level. The observed changes were accompanied by time-dependent inhibition of catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity. The effect was specific to NO, since the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5 tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO) reversed the inhibition of CAT and APX, as well as temporarily enhancing H(2)O(2) synthesis. Finally, cooperation of NO/H(2)O(2) restricted the depletion of the low-molecular weight antioxidant pool (i.e. ascorbic acid and thiols) was positively correlated with sealing and reconstruction changes in injured pelargonium leaves (i.e. lignin formation and callose deposition). The above results clearly suggest that NO may promote restoration of wounded tissue through stabilisation of the cell redox state and stimulation of the wound scarring processes. PMID:19689772

  1. Field demonstration of age dependent increase in lead phytoextraction by Pelargonium cultivar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad; Pinelli, Eric; Alric, Alain; Kaemmerer, Michel; Pradere, Philippe; Dumat, Camille

    2013-04-01

    Unnecessary for living organisms, lead (Pb) is one of the major widespread toxic metals found in the environment with potential danger to human health and to ecosystems (Shahid et al. 2012). Lead is known to induce a broad range of toxic effects to living organism, including those that are morphological, physiological and biochemical in origin (Pourrut et al. 2011). A field study was carried out in the vicinity of Pb recycling plant near Toulouse-France, and contaminated by atmospheric fallouts to evaluate lead extraction and uptake efficiency of hyperaccumulater Attar of Roses Pelargonium cultivar. It was found that Attar of Roses has ability to accumulate (8644 mgPb/kg DW plant) and survive on highly contaminated acidic soil (39250 mg kg-1 of total Pb) without any morpho-phytotoxicity symptoms. Moreover Attar showed increased extraction of lead from bulk soil to rhizosphere through Pb mobilization and ultimately increased uptake by roots and translocation to shoots. The studied contaminated soil could be cleaned up in few years by planting hyperaccumulater Attar of Rose for longer time period. Under optimum fertlization, irrigation and use of natural or synthetic chelates (EDTA, LMOWA, humic substances etc.) along with old Attar of rose plants, time requires for complete remediation of contaminated site can be reduced to practically applicable time period. Moreover, the use of Pelargonium for remediation has several additional practical, esthetical and economic advantages. The extraction of value-added essential oils from harvested biomass could offset the cost of deploying phytoremediation and renders it as a viable approach for remediating highly contaminated soils, on large scale. Keywords: metal uptake, Pelargonium, phytoremediation, cultivar, soil-plant transfer and kinetic. References Pourrut, B., Shahid, M., Dumat, C., Winterton, P., Pinelli, E., 2011a. Lead uptake, toxicity and detoxification in plants. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 213, 113-136. Shahid, M., Arshad, M., Kaemmerer, M., Pinelli, E., Probst, A., Baque, D., Pradere, P., Dumat, C., 2012a. Long term field metal extraction by pelargonium: Phytoextraction efficiency in relation with plant maturity. Inter. J. Phytorem. 14, 493-505.

  2. PRODUCTION OF POLYCLONAL ANTIBODIES AGAINST PELARGONIUM ZONATE SPOT VIRUS COAT PROTEIN EXPRESSED IN ESCHERICHIA COLI AND APPLICATION FOR IMMUNODIAGNOSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pelargonium zonate spot virus (PZSV), a new emerging disease on tomato in the United States, has been classified as the first member of new proposed genus, Anulavirus, within the family Bromoviridae and characterized as having unstable virions with weakly immunogenic properties. To develop serologic...

  3. Chemical composition and hepatotoxic effect of Geranium schiedeanum in a thioacetamide-induced liver injury model.

    PubMed

    Gayosso-De-Lucio, Juan; Bautista, Mirandeli; Velazquez-González, C; De la O Arciniega, M; Morales-González, J A; Benedí, Juana

    2014-08-01

    One of the major components of some geraniums is geraniin, described by its discoverer as crystallizable tannin, well known as an excellent antioxidant, and also found in fruits such as pomegranate. Recently, natural antioxidants have attracted great attention from consumers over the world due to their lower toxicity than synthetics. But geraniin is not a stable compound, and also is difficult to obtain, that is why in the present study we obtained acetonylgeraniin from Geranium schideanum (Gs), a stable acetone condensate of geraniin. In the present study the effect of Gs acetone-water extract was studied in reference to postnecrotic liver regeneration induced by thioacetamide (TA) in rats. Two months male rats were pretreated with daily dose of Gs extract for 4 days (300 mg/kg) and the last day also were intraperitoneally injected with TA (6.6 mmol/kg). Samples of blood were obtained from rats at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h following TA intoxication. The pre-treatment with the crude extract in the model of thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats decreased and delayed liver injury by 66% at 24 h. This result suggests that Gs extract may be used as an alternative for reduction of liver damage. On the other hand, acute toxicity study revealed that the LD50 value of the Gs extract is more than the dose 5000 mg/kg in rats, according to the Lorke method. PMID:25298677

  4. Chemical composition and hepatotoxic effect of Geranium schiedeanum in a thioacetamide-induced liver injury model

    PubMed Central

    Gayosso-De-Lucio, Juan; Bautista, Mirandeli; Velazquez-González, C.; De la O Arciniega, M; Morales-González, J.A.; Benedí, Juana

    2014-01-01

    One of the major components of some geraniums is geraniin, described by its discoverer as crystallizable tannin, well known as an excellent antioxidant, and also found in fruits such as pomegranate. Recently, natural antioxidants have attracted great attention from consumers over the world due to their lower toxicity than synthetics. But geraniin is not a stable compound, and also is difficult to obtain, that is why in the present study we obtained acetonylgeraniin from Geranium schideanum (Gs), a stable acetone condensate of geraniin. In the present study the effect of Gs acetone-water extract was studied in reference to postnecrotic liver regeneration induced by thioacetamide (TA) in rats. Two months male rats were pretreated with daily dose of Gs extract for 4 days (300 mg/kg) and the last day also were intraperitoneally injected with TA (6.6 mmol/kg). Samples of blood were obtained from rats at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h following TA intoxication. The pre-treatment with the crude extract in the model of thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats decreased and delayed liver injury by 66% at 24 h. This result suggests that Gs extract may be used as an alternative for reduction of liver damage. On the other hand, acute toxicity study revealed that the LD50 value of the Gs extract is more than the dose 5000 mg/kg in rats, according to the Lorke method. PMID:25298677

  5. Fragrant volatile oil composition of Nutmeg Geranium (Pelargonium × fragrans Willd.) from India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ram S; Padalia, Rajendra C; Chauhan, Amit

    2013-04-01

    Hydrodistilled essential oil of 'Nutmeg Geranium' (Pelargonium × fragrans Willd.), grown in foothills of northern India was analysed by capillary gas chromatography (GC/flame ionisation detector (FID)) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 51 constituents, representing 90.2% of the total oil composition were identified. The oil was mainly dominated by monoterpenoids (58.4%), followed by sesquiterpenoids (19.4%), and phenyl propanoids (10.1%). Major constituents of the essential oil were fenchone (10.7%), methyl eugenol (9.9%), α-pinene (9.4%), α-thujene (7.6%), limonene (6.4%), spathulenol (4.7%), sabinene (4.3%), linalool (4.2%), (E)-caryophyllene (4.2%), terpinen-4-ol (3.2%), β-pinene (2.9%), caryophyllene oxide (2.2%) and bicyclogermacrene (2.1%). This is the first report on essential oil composition of Nutmeg Geranium oil grown in India. PMID:22616953

  6. Antioxidant properties of Pelargonium graveolens L’Her essential oil on the reproductive damage induced by deltamethrin in mice as compared to alpha-tocopherol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin has been demonstrated to exert a wide range of effects on non-targeted organisms. The beneficial effects of geranuim essential oil (EO) as an antioxidant has been assessed in deltamethrin (DL) orally administered mice by studying whether the reprotoxicity caused by deltamethrin can be effectively combated with the geranium oil and the effects were compared to vitamin E, as the standard reference drug. Result Sixty male albino mice were divided into six equal groups: a control group, a group of mice was given deltamethrin (5 mg/kg b.w.), two groups were administered deltamethrin after having given geranium essential oil (67 mg/kg b.w.) or vitamin E (Vit E) (100 mg/kg b.w.), and two groups received only EO of geranium or Vit E. When compared to control, a dose of deltamethrin 5 mg/kg/day causes a decrease in the epididymal sperm count motility and viability and an increase in the number of abnormal morphology in spermatozoa. DL-exposed mice showed a significant increase of lipid peroxidation (LPP) in the testis compared to control animals. Conclusion Essential oil of geranium prevented testicular oxidative damage explored by reduced LPP and improved total sperm motility, viability and morphology in mice spermatozoa. Our study showed a positive influence of geranium essential oil in the animal male reproductive system similar than that of Vit E. PMID:23496944

  7. Pelargonium zonate spot virus is transmitted vertically via seed and pollen in tomato.

    PubMed

    Lapidot, M; Guenoune-Gelbart, D; Leibman, D; Holdengreber, V; Davidovitz, M; Machbash, Z; Klieman-Shoval, S; Cohen, S; Gal-On, A

    2010-08-01

    In autumn 2007, a new disease with unknown etiology was observed in open-field tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in the Lachish region of Israel. The symptoms included mild mosaic, leaf malformation, and severe stunting of the plants. The causal agent was readily transmitted mechanically from the sap of infected plants to indicator plants. Viral particles were purified from infected plants and cDNA was synthesized from RNA isolated from the particles. Cloning and sequencing of the cDNA showed 95% identity to RNA 3 of Pelargonium zonate spot virus (PZSV). Using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, PZSV was detected in both seed and pollen grains of infected tomato plants. Attempts to disinfect seed by using hydrochloric acid and trisodium phosphate failed to eliminate this PZSV detection. Seed from infected tomato plants gave rise to infected seedlings with a seed-transmission rate of PZSV of 11 to 29%. Pollen grains collected from flowers of infected plants were used to hand pollinate healthy mother tomato plants. Although none of the pollinated mother plants became infected with PZSV, 29% of the seedlings produced from seed harvested from these plants were found to be infected. This is the first demonstration that PZSV is transmitted vertically via both pollen and seed in tomato plants. PMID:20626283

  8. Insights into the Selective Pressures Restricting Pelargonium Flower Break Virus Genome Variability: Evidence for Host Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Rico, Patricia; Ivars, Pilar; Elena, Santiago F.; Hernández, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    The molecular diversity of Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV) was assessed using a collection of isolates from different geographical origins, hosts, and collecting times. The genomic region examined was 1,828 nucleotides (nt) long and comprised the coding sequences for the movement (p7 and p12) and the coat (CP) proteins, as well as flanking segments including the entire 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR). Some constraints limiting viral heterogeneity could be inferred from sequence analyses, such as the conservation of the amino acid sequences of p7 and of the shell domain of the CP, the maintenance of a leucine zipper motif in p12, and the preservation of a particular folding in the 3′ UTR. A remarkable covariation, involving five specific amino acid sites, was found in the CP of isolates largely propagated in the local lesion host Chenopodium quinoa and in the progeny of a PFBV variant subjected to serial passages in this host. Concomitant with this covariation, up to 30 nucleotide substitutions in a 1,428-nt region of the viral RNA could be attributable to C. quinoa-specific adaptation, representing one of the most outstanding cases of host-driven genome variation for a plant virus. Globally, the results indicate that the selective pressures exerted by the host play a critical role in shaping PFBV populations and that these populations are likely being selected for at both protein and RNA levels. PMID:16873268

  9. The Root Extract of the Medicinal Plant Pelargonium sidoides Is a Potent HIV-1 Attachment Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Helfer, Markus; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Schneider, Martha; Rebensburg, Stephanie; Forcisi, Sara; Müller, Constanze; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Schindler, Michael; Brack-Werner, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Global HIV-1 treatment would benefit greatly from safe herbal medicines with scientifically validated novel anti-HIV-1 activities. The root extract from the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides (PS) is licensed in Germany as the herbal medicine EPs®7630, with numerous clinical trials supporting its safety in humans. Here we provide evidence from multiple cell culture experiments that PS extract displays potent anti-HIV-1 activity. We show that PS extract protects peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages from infection with various X4 and R5 tropic HIV-1 strains, including clinical isolates. Functional studies revealed that the extract from PS has a novel mode-of-action. It interferes directly with viral infectivity and blocks the attachment of HIV-1 particles to target cells, protecting them from virus entry. Analysis of the chemical footprint of anti-HIV activity indicates that HIV-1 inhibition is mediated by multiple polyphenolic compounds with low cytotoxicity and can be separated from other extract components with higher cytotoxicity. Based on our data and its excellent safety profile, we propose that PS extract represents a lead candidate for the development of a scientifically validated herbal medicine for anti-HIV-1 therapy with a mode-of-action different from and complementary to current single-molecule drugs. PMID:24489923

  10. Cell wall glycoproteins at interaction sites between parasitic giant dodder (Cuscuta reflexa) and its host Pelargonium zonale.

    PubMed

    Striberny, Bernd; Krause, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    The process of host plant penetration by parasitic dodder (genus Cuscuta) is accompanied by molecular and structural changes at the host/parasite interface. Recently, changes in pectin methyl esterification levels in the host cell walls abutting parasitic cells in established infection sites were reported. In addition to that, we show here that the composition of cell wall glycoproteins in Cuscuta-infected Pelargonium zonale undergoes substantial changes. While several arabinogalactan protein epitopes exhibit decreased abundances in the vicinity of the Cuscuta reflexa haustorium, extensins tend to increase in the infected areas. PMID:26367804

  11. Plant regeneration from cultured cell-derived protoplasts of Pelargonium aridum, P. x hortorum and P. peltatum.

    PubMed

    Yarrow, S A; Cocking, E C; Power, J B

    1987-04-01

    Cultured protoplasts from cell suspensions of Pelargonium aridum, P.x hortorum and P. peltatum divided and formed callus. On agar-solidified regenerative medium, such protoplast-derived calli (p-calli) underwent plant regeneration at frequencies approaching 100% for P. aridum and 10% for P.x hortorum. Under similar conditions shoot primordia arose in 5% of P. peltatum p-calli, but these never developed into normal shoots. However, following a liquid-shake culture regime, whole plants were induced in 20% of P. peltatum p-calli. This approach also improved regeneration of P.x hortorum to 60%. PMID:24248487

  12. Exploitation of the antioxidant potential of Geranium macrorrhizum (Geraniaceae): hepatoprotective and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Radulovi?, Niko S; Stojkovi?, Milan B; Miti?, Snezana S; Randjelovi?, Pavle J; Ili?, Ivan R; Stojanovi?, Nikola M; Stojanovi?-Radi?, Zorica Z

    2012-12-01

    In this study we evaluated in vitro (radical scavenging) and in vivo (hepatoprotective effect) antioxidant activities and antimicrobial properties of the extracts of the above- and underground parts of Geranium macrorrhizum L. (Geraniaceae), an ethnopharmacologically renowned plant species. The antioxidant activity and total phenol and flavonoid contents of four different solvent extracts were evaluated by seven different methods. The methanol extracts, administered i.p. to rats (120-480 mg/kg), were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity in a CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity model. The same extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against seven bacterial and two fungal species. The administered methanol extracts with the highest antioxidant potential showed a significant dose-dependent hepatoprotective action against CCl4-induced liver damage in both decreasing the levels of liver transaminases and bilirubin and in reducing the extent of morphological malformations of the liver. The leaf methanol extract displayed a very strong antibacterial activity, especially against Staphylococcus aureus, with low minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations. These results justify the frequent use of this plant species in folk medicine. Besides the known astringent effect, one can expect that the observed antimicrobial activity against several human pathogens contributes to the wound healing properties of this plant. PMID:23413565

  13. Mating system contributes only slightly to female maintenance in gynodioecious Geranium maculatum (Geraniaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Van Etten, M L; Deen, A C; Hamrick, J L; Chang, S-M

    2014-01-01

    Gynodioecy, the co-occurrence of female and hermaphroditic individuals within a population, is an important intermediate in the evolution of separate sexes. The first step, female maintenance, requires females to have higher seed fitness compared with hermaphrodites. A common mechanism thought to increase relative female fitness is inbreeding depression avoidance, the magnitude of which depends on hermaphroditic selfing rates and the strength of inbreeding depression. Less well studied is the effect of biparental inbreeding on female fitness. Biparental inbreeding can affect relative female fitness only if its consequence or frequency differs between sexes, which could occur if sex structure and genetic structure both occur within populations. To determine whether inbreeding avoidance and/or biparental inbreeding can account for female persistence in Geranium maculatum, we measured selfing and biparental inbreeding rates in four populations and the spatial genetic structure in six populations. Selfing rates of hermaphrodites were low and did not differ significantly from zero in any population, leading to females gaining at most a 1–14% increase in seed fitness from inbreeding avoidance. Additionally, although significant spatial genetic structure was found in all populations, biparental inbreeding rates were low and only differed between sexes in one population, thereby having little influence on female fitness. A review of the literature revealed few sexual differences in biparental inbreeding among other gynodioecious species. Our results show that mating system differences may not fully account for female maintenance in this species, suggesting other mechanisms may be involved. PMID:24824284

  14. Absence of sex differential plasticity to light availability during seed maturation in Geranium sylvaticum.

    PubMed

    Varga, Sandra; Laaksonen, Ester; Siikamäki, Pirkko; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

    2015-01-01

    Sex-differential plasticity (SDP) hypothesis suggests that since hermaphrodites gain fitness through both pollen and seed production they may have evolved a higher degree of plasticity in their reproductive strategy compared to females which achieve fitness only through seed production. SDP may explain the difference in seed production observed between sexes in gynodioecious species in response to resource (nutrients or water) availability. In harsh environments, hermaphrodites decrease seed production whereas females keep it relatively similar regardless of the environmental conditions. Light availability can be also a limiting resource and thus could theoretically affect differently female and hermaphrodite seed output even though this ecological factor has been largely overlooked. We tested whether the two sexes in the gynodioecious species Geranium sylvaticum differ in their tolerance to light limitation during seed maturation in the field. We used a fully factorial block experiment exposing female and hermaphrodite plants to two different light environments (control and shade) after their peak flowering period. Specifically, we measured fruit and seed production in response to decreased light availability and compared it between the sexes. Shading reduced the number of fruits and seeds produced, but the decrease was similar between the sexes. Furthermore, shading delayed seed production by three days in both sexes, but did not affect seed mass, seed P content, or the probability of re-flowering the following year. Our results give no evidence for reproductive SDP in response to light during seed maturation. PMID:25738943

  15. Sylvatiins, acetylglucosylated hydrolysable tannins from the petals of Geranium sylvaticum show co-pigment effect.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Anu; Sinkkonen, Jari; Karonen, Maarit; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

    2015-07-01

    Four hydrolysable tannins, named as sylvatiins A (1), B (2), C (3) and D (4), were isolated from the petals of Geranium sylvaticum. On the basis of spectrometric evidence of NMR analysis ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, DQF-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HSQC and HMBC), circular dichroism (CD) and ESI-MS/MS, sylvatiins A, B and C were characterized as galloyl glucoses containing one or two acetylglucoses attached to the 3-OH of the galloyl group, whereas sylvatiin D was found to have a chebulinic acid core containing acetylglucose attached in a similar way. The potential of these compounds to act as defensive compounds against herbivores was evaluated using the radial diffusion assay that measures the protein precipitation capacity. In addition, the capacity of sylvatiins to act as co-pigments with anthocyanins of G. sylvaticum petals was measured in vitro at different pH values. Sylvatiins A and D maintained efficiently the purple flower color near the natural pH of petal cells. The amount of sylvatiins was changed according to the flower color; deep purple petals with higher amount of anthocyanin contained more sylvatiins A and C than whiter petals. It was concluded that G. sylvaticum petal cells may accumulate sylvatiins for intermolecular co-pigmentation purposes. PMID:25669991

  16. Rose geranium essential oil as a source of new and safe anti-inflammatory drugs

    PubMed Central

    Boukhatem, Mohamed Nadjib; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Ferhat, Mohamed Amine; Saidi, Fairouz; Mekarnia, Maamar

    2013-01-01

    Background Since the available anti-inflammatory drugs exert an extensive variety of side effects, the search for new anti-inflammatory agents has been a priority of pharmaceutical industries. Aims The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oil of rose geranium (RGEO). Methods The chemical composition of the RGEO was investigated by gas chromatography. The major components were citronellol (29.13%), geraniol (12.62%), and citronellyl formate (8.06%). In the carrageenan-induced paw edema, five different groups were established and RGEO was administered orally in three different doses. Results RGEO (100 mg/kg) was able to significantly reduce the paw edema with a comparable effect to that observed with diclofenac, the positive control. In addition, RGEO showed a potent anti-inflammatory activity by topical treatment in the method of croton oil-induced ear edema. When the dose was 5 or 10 µl of RGEO per ear, the inflammation was reduced by 73 and 88%, respectively. This is the first report to demonstrate a significant anti-inflammatory activity of Algerian RGEO. In addition, histological analysis confirmed that RGEO inhibited the inflammatory responses in the skin. Conclusion Our results indicate that RGEO may have significant potential for the development of novel anti-inflammatory drugs with improved safety profile. PMID:24103319

  17. Nectar Sugar Production across Floral Phases in the Gynodioecious Protandrous Plant Geranium sylvaticum

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Sandra; Nuortila, Carolin; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

    2013-01-01

    Many zoophilous plants attract their pollinators by offering nectar as a reward. In gynodioecious plants (i.e. populations are composed of female and hermaphrodite individuals) nectar production has been repeatedly reported to be larger in hermaphrodite compared to female flowers even though nectar production across the different floral phases in dichogamous plants (i.e. plants with time separation of pollen dispersal and stigma receptivity) has rarely been examined. In this study, sugar production in nectar standing crop and secretion rate were investigated in Geranium sylvaticum, a gynodioecious plant species with protandry (i.e. with hermaphrodite flowers releasing their pollen before the stigma is receptive). We found that flowers from hermaphrodites produced more nectar than female flowers in terms of total nectar sugar content. In addition, differences in nectar production among floral phases were found in hermaphrodite flowers but not in female flowers. In hermaphrodite flowers, maximum sugar content coincided with pollen presentation and declined slightly towards the female phase, indicating nectar reabsorption, whereas in female flowers sugar content did not differ between the floral phases. These differences in floral reward are discussed in relation to visitation patterns by pollinators and seed production in this species. PMID:23614053

  18. Casparian bands occur in the periderm of Pelargonium hortorum stem and root

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Chris J.; Peterson, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Casparian bands are characteristic of the endodermis and exodermis of roots, but also occur infrequently in other plant organs, for example stems and leaves. To date, these structures have not been detected in phellem cells of a periderm. The aim of this study was to determine whether Casparian bands occur in phellem cells using tests that are known to detect Casparian bands in cells that also contain suberin lamellae. Both natural periderm and wound-induced structures were examined in shoots and roots. Methods Using Pelargonium hortorum as a candidate species, the following tests were conducted: (1) staining with berberine and counterstaining with aniline blue, (2) mounting sections in concentrated sulphuric acid and (3) investigating the permeability of the walls with berberine as an apoplastic, fluorescent tracer. Key Results (1) Berberine–aniline blue staining revealed a modification in the radial and transverse walls of mature phellem cells in both stems and roots. Three days after wounding through to the cortex of stems, the boundary zone cells (pre-existing, living cells nearest the wound) had developed vividly stained primary walls. By 17 d, staining of mature phellem cells of wound-induced periderm was similar to that of natural periderm. (2) Mature native phellem cells of stems resisted acid digestion. (3) Berberine was excluded from the anticlinal (radial and transverse) walls of mature phellem cells in stems and roots, and from the wound-induced boundary zone. Conclusions Casparian bands are present in mature phellem cells in both stems and roots of P. hortorum. It is proposed that Casparian bands act to retard water loss and pathogen entry through the primary cell walls of the phellem cells, thus contributing to the main functions of the periderm. PMID:21239408

  19. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and two levels of compost supply on nutrient uptake and flowering of pelargonium plants.

    PubMed

    Perner, Henrike; Schwarz, Dietmar; Bruns, Christian; Mäder, Paul; George, Eckhard

    2007-07-01

    Two challenges frequently encountered in the production of ornamental plants in organic horticulture are: (1) the rate of mineralization of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) from organic fertilizers can be too slow to meet the high nutrient demand of young plants, and (2) the exclusive use of peat as a substrate for pot-based plant culture is discouraged in organic production systems. In this situation, the use of beneficial soil microorganisms in combination with high quality compost substrates can contribute to adequate plant growth and flower development. In this study, we examined possible alternatives to highly soluble fertilizers and pure peat substrates using pelargonium (Pelargonium peltatum L'Her.) as a test plant. Plants were grown on a peat-based substrate with two rates of compost addition and with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Inoculation with three different commercial AM inocula resulted in colonization rates of up to 36% of the total root length, whereas non-inoculated plants remained free of root colonization. Increasing the rate of compost addition increased shoot dry weight and shoot nutrient concentrations, but the supply of compost did not always completely meet plant nutrient demand. Mycorrhizal colonization increased the number of buds and flowers, as well as shoot P and potassium (K) concentrations, but did not significantly affect shoot dry matter or shoot N concentration. We conclude that addition of compost in combination with mycorrhizal inoculation can improve nutrient status and flower development of plants grown on peat-based substrates. PMID:17318595

  20. Changes in leaf water relations, gas exchange, growth and flowering quality in potted geranium plants irrigated with different water regimes.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Blanco, Ma Jesús; Alvarez, Sara; Navarro, Alejandra; Bañón, Sebastián

    2009-03-15

    Geranium plants are an important part of urban green areas but suffer from drought, especially when grown in containers with a limited volume of medium. In this experiment, we examined the response of potted geraniums to different irrigation levels. Geranium (Pelargoniumxhortorum L.) seedlings were grown in a growth chamber and exposed to three irrigation treatments, whereby the plants were irrigated to container capacity (control), 60% of the control (moderate deficit irrigation, MDI), or 40% of the control (severe deficit irrigation, SDI). Deficit irrigation was maintained for 2 months, and then all the plants were exposed to a recovery period of 112 month. Exposure to drought induced a decrease in shoot dry weight and leaf area and an increase in the root/shoot ratio. Height and plant width were significantly inhibited by the SDI, while flower color parameters were not affected by deficit treatment. The number of wilting and yellow leaves increased, coinciding with the increase in the number of inflorescences and open flowers. Deficit irrigation led to a leaf water potential of about -0.8MPa at midday, which could have caused an important decrease in stomatal conductance, affecting the photosynthetic rate (Pn). Chlorophyll fluorescence (Fvm) values of 0.80 in all treatments throughout the experiment demonstrate the lack of drought-induced damage to PSII photochemistry. Pressure-volume analysis revealed low osmotic adjustment values of 0.2MPa in the SDI treatment, accompanied by increases in the bulk tissue elastic modulus (epsilon, wall rigidity) and resulting in turgor loss at lower leaf water potential values (-1.38MPa compared with -1.0MPa for the control). Leaf water potential values throughout the experiment below those for Psitlp were not found at any sampling time. By the end of the recovery period, the leaf water potential, stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis had recovered. We infer from these results that moderate deficit irrigation in geranium reduced the consumption of water, while maintaining the good overall quality of plants. However, when SDI was applied, a reduction in the number of flowers per plant was observed. PMID:18778872

  1. Hepatoprotective effect of Geranium schiedeanum against ethanol toxicity during liver regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Bautista, Mirandeli; Gayosso-De-Lucio, Juan A; Reyes-Rosales, Yadira; Posadas-Mondragón, Araceli; Morales-González, Ángel; Soriano-Ursúa, Marvin A; García-Machorro, Jazmín; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Álvarez-González, Isela; Morales-González, José A

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of an extract of Geranium schiedeanum (Gs) as a hepatoprotective agent against ethanol (EtOH)-induced toxicity in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats weighing 200-230 g were subjected to a 70% partial hepatectomy (PH); they were then divided into three groups (groups 1-3). During the experiment, animals in group 1 drank only water. The other two groups (2-3) drank an aqueous solution of EtOH (40%, v/v). Additionally, rats in group 3 received a Gs extract daily at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight intragastically. Subsequently, to identify markers of liver damage in serum, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin and bilirubin were measured by colorimetric methods. Glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations were also determined. In addition, oxidative damage was estimated by measuring lipid peroxidation [using thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances (TBARS)] in both plasma and the liver and by measuring the total concentration of antioxidants in serum and the total antioxidant capacity in the liver. In addition, a liver mass gain assessment, total DNA analysis and a morpho-histological analysis of the liver from animals in all three groups were performed and compared. Finally, the number of deaths observed in the three groups was analyzed. RESULTS: Administration of the Geranium shiedeanum extract significantly reduced the unfavorable effect of ethanol on liver regeneration (restitution liver mass: PH-EtOH group 60.68% vs PH-Gs-EtOH group 69.22%). This finding was congruent with the reduced levels of hepatic enzymes and the sustained or increased levels of albumin and decreased bilirubin in serum. The extract also modified the metabolic processes that regulate glucose and lipid levels, as observed from the serum measurements. Lower antioxidant levels and the liver damage induced by EtOH administration appeared to be mitigated by the extract, as observed from the TBARs (PH-EtOH group 200.14 mmol/mg vs PH-Gs-EtOH group 54.20 mmol/mg; P < 0.05), total status of antioxidants (PH-EtOH group 1.43 mmol/L vs PH-Gs-EtOH group 1.99 mmol/L; P < 0.05), total antioxidant capacity values, liver mass gain and total DNA determination (PH-EtOH group 4.80 mg/g vs PH-Gs-EtOH 9.10 mg/g; P < 0.05). Overall, these processes could be related to decreased mortality in these treated animals. CONCLUSION: The administered extract showed a hepatoprotective effect, limiting the EtOH-induced hepatotoxic effects. This effect can be related to modulating oxido-reduction processes. PMID:26167072

  2. Frequency-dependent pollinator discrimination acts against female plants in the gynodioecious Geranium maculatum

    PubMed Central

    Van Etten, Megan L.; Chang, Shu-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Gynodioecy, the co-occurrence of female and hermaphroditic individuals, is thought to be an intermediate step between hermaphroditism and separate sexes, a major transition in flowering plants. Because retaining females in a population requires that they have increased seed fitness (to compensate for the lack of pollen fitness), factors that affect seed fitness are of great importance to the evolution of this mating system and have often been studied. However, factors negatively affecting female fitness are equally important and have been largely neglected. One such factor stems from female flowers being less attractive to insects than hermaphrodite flowers, thereby decreasing their relative fitness. Methods To test the severity and consequences of this type of pollinator discrimination in Geranium maculatum, experimental populations with the range of sex ratios observed in nature were created, ranging from 13 % to 42 % females. Pollinators were observed in order to measure the strength of discrimination, and pollen deposition and seed production of both sexes were measured to determine the fitness consequences of this discrimination. Additionally a comparison was made across the sex ratios to determine whether discrimination was frequency-dependent. Key Results It was found that female flowers, on average, were visited at half of the rate of hermaphrodite flowers, which decreased their pollen receipt and seed production. Additionally, females were most discriminated against when rare, due to both changes in the pollinators' behaviour and a shift in pollinator composition. Conclusions The results suggest that pollinator discrimination negatively affects females' relative fitness when they are rare. Thus, the initial spread of females in a population, the first step in the evolution of gynodioecy, may be made more difficult due to pollinator discrimination. PMID:25326647

  3. Effect of Inhalation of Aroma of Geranium Essence on Anxiety and Physiological Parameters during First Stage of Labor in Nulliparous Women: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi Fakari, Fahimeh; Tabatabaeichehr, Mahbubeh; Kamali, Hossian; Rashidi Fakari, Farzaneh; Naseri, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Anxiety increases significantly during labor, especially among nulliparous women. Such anxiety may affect the progress of labor and physiological parameters. The use of essential oils of aromatic plants, or aromatherapy, is a non-invasive procedure that can decrease childbirth anxiety. This study examined the effect of inhalation of the aroma of geranium essential oil on the level of anxiety and physiological parameters of nulliparous women in the first stage of labor. Methods: In study, was carried out on 100 nulliparous women admitted to Bent al-Hoda Hospital in the city of Bojnord in North Khorasan province of Iran during 2012-2013. The women were randomly assigned to two groups of equal size, one experimental group (geranium essential oil) and one control (placebo) group. Anxiety levels were measured using Spielberger' questionnaire before and after intervention. Physiological parameters (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, pulse rate) were also measured before and after intervention in both groups. Data analysis was conducted using the x2 test, paired t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Wilcox on test on SPSS 11.5. Results: The mean anxiety score decreased significantly after inhalation of the aroma of geranium essential oil. There was also a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion: Aroma of essential oil of geraniums can effectively reduce anxiety during labor and can be recommended as a non-invasive anti-anxiety aid during childbirth. PMID:26161367

  4. Insecticidal activity of individual and mixed monoterpenoids of geranium essential oil against Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Gallardo, A; Picollo, M I; González-Audino, P; Mougabure-Cueto, G

    2012-03-01

    The major components of geranium (Geranium maculatum L.) oil and their mixtures were tested against female Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae). Chemical analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry revealed four major constituents: citronellol (38%), geraniol (16%), citronellyl formate (10.4%), and linalool (6.45%) (concentration expressed as percentage of total). Topical application demonstrated that the most potent component was citronellol and geraniol, with LD50 values 9.7 and 12.7 microg/insect, respectively. Linalool and Citronellyl formate were less toxic with LD50 values 24.7 and 38.5 microg/insect, respectively. Toxicity of these four major constituents in the same proportion as the natural oil, was greater than whole oil and each individual component. Removal of any four constituents produced a decreased in effectiveness. The absence of citronellol caused the greatest decrease in toxicity (DL50 from 2.2 to 10.9 microg/insect), leading us to conclude that this constituent is the major contributor to oil toxicity. The knowledge of the role of each constituent in the toxicity of the whole oil gives the possibility to create artificial blends of different constituents for the development of more effective control agents. PMID:22493851

  5. Synorganisation without organ fusion in the flowers of Geranium robertianum (Geraniaceae) and its not so trivial obdiplostemony

    PubMed Central

    Endress, Peter K.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Synorganisation of floral organs, an important means in angiosperm flower evolution, is mostly realized by congenital or post-genital organ fusion. Intimate synorganisation of many floral organs without fusion, as present in Geranium robertianum, is poorly known and needs to be studied. Obdiplostemony, the seemingly reversed position of two stamen whorls, widely distributed in core eudicots, has been the subject of much attention, but there is confusion in the literature. Obdiplostemony occurs in Geranium and whether and how it is involved in this synorganisation is explored here. Methods Floral development and architecture were studied with light microscopy based on microtome section series and with scanning electron microscopy. Key Results Intimate synorganisation of floral organs is effected by the formation of five separate nectar canals for the proboscis of pollinators. Each nectar canal is formed by six adjacent organs from four organ whorls. In addition, the sepals are hooked together by the formation of longitudinal ribs and grooves, and provide a firm scaffold for the canals. Obdiplostemony provides a guide rail within each canal formed by the flanks of the antepetalous stamen filaments. Conclusions Intimate synorganisation in flowers can be realized without any fusion, and obdiplostemony may play a role in this synorganisation. PMID:20802050

  6. The Pelargonium sidoides Extract EPs 7630 Drives the Innate Immune Defense by Activating Selected MAP Kinase Pathways in Human Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Witte, Katrin; Koch, Egon; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Wolk, Kerstin; Sabat, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Pelargonium sidoides is a medical herb and respective extracts are used very frequently for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. However, the effects of Pelargonium sidoides and a special extract prepared from its roots (EPs 7630) on human immune cells are not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that EPs 7630 induced a rapid and dose-dependent production of TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-10 by human blood immune cells. This EPs 7630-induced cytokine profile was more pro-inflammatory in comparison with the profile induced by viral or bacterial infection-mimicking agents. The search for EPs 7630 target cells revealed that T-cells did not respond to EPs 7630 stimulation by production of TNF-?, IL-6, or IL-10. Furthermore, pretreatment of T-cells with EPs 7630 did not modulate their TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-10 secretion during subsequent activation. In contrast to lymphocytes, monocytes showed clear intracellular TNF-? staining after EPs 7630 treatment. Accordingly, EPs 7630 predominantly provoked activation of MAP kinases and inhibition of p38 strongly reduced the monocyte TNF-? production. The pretreatment of blood immune cells with EPs 7630 lowered their secretion of TNF-? and IL-10 and caused an IL-6 dominant response during second stimulation with viral or bacterial infection-mimicking agents. In summary, we demonstrate that EPs 7630 activates human monocytes, induces MAP kinase-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokines in these cells, and specifically modulates their production capacity of mediators known to lead to an increase of acute phase protein production in the liver, neutrophil generation in the bone marrow, and the generation of adaptive Th17 and Th22 cells. PMID:26406906

  7. Only an early nitric oxide burst and the following wave of secondary nitric oxide generation enhanced effective defence responses of pelargonium to a necrotrophic pathogen.

    PubMed

    Floryszak-Wieczorek, Jolanta; Arasimowicz, Magdalena; Milczarek, Grzegorz; Jelen, Henryk; Jackowiak, Hanna

    2007-01-01

    Participation of nitric oxide (NO) in cross-talk between ivy pelargonium (Pelargonium peltatum) leaves and Botrytis cinerea was investigated using electrochemical and biochemical approaches. In response to the necrotroph, leaves initiated a near-immediate NO burst, but the specificity of its generation was dependent on the genetic makeup of the host plant. In the resistant cultivar, a strong NO burst was followed by a wave of secondary NO generation, shown by bio-imaging with DAF-2DA. The epicentre of NO synthesis was located in targeted cells, which exhibited a TUNEL-positive reaction. Soon after the challenge, an elevated concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was correlated with a reversible inhibition of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and suppression of ethylene synthesis. The induced NO generation initially expanded and then gradually disappeared on successive days, provoking noncell-death-associated resistance with an enhanced pool of antioxidants, which finally favoured the maintenance of homeostasis of surrounding cells. By contrast, in the susceptible pelargonium, a weak NO burst was recorded and further NO generation increased only as the disease progressed, which was accompanied by very intensive H(2)O(2) and ethylene synthesis. The pathogen colonizing susceptible cells also acquired the ability to produce considerable amounts of NO and enhanced nitrosative and oxidative stress in host tissues. PMID:17688587

  8. Chemical characterization and bioactive properties of Geranium molle L.: from the plant to the most active extract and its phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Graça, V C; Barros, Lillian; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Dias, Maria Inês; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Santos, P F

    2016-05-18

    After a period of indifference, in which synthetic compounds were favored, there is an increasing interest in the study of the biological properties of plants and the active principles responsible for their therapeutic properties. Geranium molle L. has been used in the Portuguese folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments including cancer but, unlike many of the species from the Geranium genus, its phytochemical characterization and biological activity are virtually unexplored. In this study a G. molle sample from Trás-os-Montes, north-eastern Portugal, was chemically characterized regarding nutritional value, free sugars, organic acids, fatty acids and tocopherols, and several aqueous (decoction, infusion) and organic (n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol) extracts of the plant were assessed for their bioactive properties. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by means of the free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The cytotoxicity of the different extracts was assessed in vitro against several human cancer cell lines (breast, lung, cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas) and, additionally, their hepatotoxicity was evaluated using a porcine liver primary cell culture. G. molle was shown to be rich in carbohydrates and proteins, providing tocopherols and essential fatty acids. Amongst the various extracts, the acetone extract was found to have the highest content of phenolic compounds (mainly ellagitannins, but also some flavone and flavonol glycosides) as well as the highest antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the chemical composition and bioactive properties of G. molle. PMID:27094513

  9. Phytochemical composition and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils and organic extracts from pelargonium graveolens growing in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pelargonium graveolens (P. graveolens) L. is an aromatic and medicinal plant belonging to the geraniacea family. Results The chemical compositions of the essential oil as well as the in vitro antimicrobial activities were investigated. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil revealed 42 compounds. Linallol L, Citronellol, Geraniol, 6-Octen-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl, formate and Selinene were identified as the major components. The tested oil and organic extracts exhibited a promising antimicrobial effect against a panel of microorganisms with diameter inhibition zones ranging from 12 to 34 mm and MICs values from 0.039 to10 mg/ml. The investigation of the phenolic content showed that EtOAc, MeOH and water extracts had the highest phenolic contents. Conclusion Overall, results presented here suggest that the essential oil and organic extracts of P. graveolens possesses antimicrobial and properties, and is therefore a potential source of active ingredients for food and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:23216669

  10. Inhibitory effects of geranium essential oil and its major component, citronellol, on degranulation and cytokine production by mast cells.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuko; Sato, Harumi; Yorita, Mika; Nakayama, Hiroto; Miyazato, Hironari; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Jippo, Tomoko

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the effects of geranium essential oil (GEO) on anaphylaxis. GEO can exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, but its roles in allergic reactions are incompletely understood. Here, we used mouse cells to show that GEO inhibited the degranulation of cultured mast cells (CMCs). Citronellol is the major component of GEO and inhibited CMC degranulation. The l-enantiomer of citronellol more effectively suppressed CMC degranulation than did d-citronellol. We also examined whether citronellol could inhibit the immunoglobulin (Ig) E-induced production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Treatment with various concentrations of citronellol before CMC activation with IgE significantly inhibited the induction of TNF-α in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistically, citronellol suppressed the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK), which is critical for ERK activation and the production of inflammatory cytokines in mast cells. These findings suggest that citronellol may represent a candidate compound for the effective treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:26927807

  11. Evaluation of Geranium spp., Helleborus spp. and Hyssopus spp. polyphenolic extracts inhibitory activity against urease and α-chymotrypsin.

    PubMed

    Paun, Gabriela; Litescu, Simona Carmen; Neagu, Elena; Tache, Andreia; Lucian Radu, Gabriel

    2014-02-01

    This study was meant to determine the inhibitory activity of tannins and flavonoid compounds from Geranium robertianum, Helleborus purpurascens and Hyssopus officinale plant polyphenol rich extracts against urease and α-chymotrypsin. The G. robertianum, H. purpurascens and H. officinale extracts were purified and concentrated by microfiltration and ultrafiltration. Phenolic compounds including flavonoids and tannins have been linked to many pharmacological activities. Thus, the polyphenolic content of the extracts was assessed by UV-Vis spectroscopy and HPLC. The concentrated extracts enriched in polyphenolic compounds (flavonoids, tannins and phenolic acids) showed a significant inhibition against urease from jack bean (over 90%), whereas in case of the α-chymotrypsin, they proved to have an inhibition below 54%. The results of this support the use of G. robertianum, H. purpurascens and H. officinale polyphenolic extracts as potential sources of urease inhibitors. Among the three plant extracts tested, H. officinale polyphenolic extracts exhibited a high inhibitory activity (92.67%) against urease and low inhibition (19.6%) against α-chymotrypsin and could be considered as possible remedy in ulcer treatment. PMID:23317419

  12. The comparative effect of novel Pelargonium essential oils and their corresponding hydrosols as antimicrobial agents in a model food system.

    PubMed

    Lis-Balchin, M; Steyrl, H; Krenn, E

    2003-01-01

    Essential oils and their corresponding hydrosols, obtained after distillation of various scented Pelargonium (Geraniaceae) leaves were assessed for their antimicrobial activity in a model food system. Both the essential oils and hydrosols were used at 1000 ppm in broccoli soup, previously inoculated with Enterobacter aerogenes (at 10(5) cfu g(-1)) and Staphylococcus aureus (at 10(4) cfu g(-1)). The results showed a complete inhibition of S. aureus in the broccoli soup by the essential oils of 'Sweet Mimosa', 'Mabel Grey', P. graveolens, 'Atomic Snowflake', 'Royal Oak', 'Attar of Roses' and a lesser effect by 'Chocolate Peppermint' and 'Clorinda'; the hydrosols, however, had a potentiating effect on the bacterial population in the food. Both extracts showed a complete inhibition of S. aureus in the Maximum Recovery Diluent (MRD). Antibacterial activity against E. aerogenes in the broccoli soup was generally very much reduced: only the essential oil of 'Mabel Grey' showed complete inhibition and virtually no reductions in colonies were seen with the other essential oils; the hydrosols again caused an increase in bacterial colonies. All the essential oils, bar Chocolate Peppermint showed complete inhibition of E. aerogenes in MRD, but the hydrosols showed no effect. The results strongly suggest that the residual hydrosols from distillation of these plant essential oils have no potential as antibacterial agents in foods, in contrast to most of the essential oils, which show potential against some micro-organisms, but only in some food systems. The problem of food component interference and its possible management is discussed. PMID:12557249

  13. Antimicrobial, Antiviral and Immunomodulatory Activity Studies of Pelargonium sidoides (EPs® 7630) in the Context of Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Kolodziej, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Pelargonium species contribute significantly to the health care of a large population in the Southern African region, as part of a long-standing medical system intimately linked to traditional healing practices. Most notably, extracts of the roots of P. sidoides have commonly been applied for the treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea but only occasionally for respiratory complaints. Clinical trials have shown that a modern aqueous-ethanolic formulation of P. sidoides extracts (EPs® 7630) is an efficacious treatment for disorders of the respiratory tract, for example bronchitis and sinusitis. It should be noted that EPs® 7630 is the most widely investigated extract and therefore is the focus of this review. In order to provide a rationale for its therapeutic activity extracts have been evaluated for antibacterial activity and for their effects on non-specific immune functions. Only moderate direct antibacterial capabilities against a spectrum of bacteria, including Mycobacteria strains, have been noted. In contrast, a large body of in vitro studies has provided convincing evidence for an anti-infective principle associated with activation of the non-specific immune system. Interestingly, significant inhibition of interaction between bacteria and host cells, a key to the pathogenesis of respiratory tract infections, has emerged from recent studies. In addition, antiviral effects have been demonstrated, including inhibition of the replication of respiratory viruses and the enzymes haemagglutinin and neuraminidase. Besides, an increase of cilliary beat frequency of respiratory cells may contribute to the beneficial effects of P. sidoides extracts. This example provides a compelling argument for continuing the exploration of Nature and traditional medical systems as a source of therapeutically useful herbal medicines.

  14. Acquisition of physical dormancy and ontogeny of the micropyle–water-gap complex in developing seeds of Geranium carolinianum (Geraniaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Gama-Arachchige, N. S.; Baskin, J. M.; Geneve, R. L.; Baskin, C. C.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The ‘hinged valve gap’ has been previously identified as the initial site of water entry (i.e. water gap) in physically dormant (PY) seeds of Geranium carolinianum (Geraniaceae). However, neither the ontogeny of the hinged valve gap nor acquisition of PY by seeds of Geraniaceae has been studied previously. The aims of the present study were to investigate the physiological events related to acquisition of PY and the ontogeny of the hinged valve gap and seed coat of G. carolinianum. Methods Seeds of G. carolinianum were studied from the ovule stage until dispersal. The developmental stages of acquisition of germinability, physiological maturity and PY were determined by seed measurement, germination and imbibition experiments using intact seeds and isolated embryos of both fresh and slow-dried seeds. Ontogeny of the seed coat and water gap was studied using light microscopy. Key Results Developing seeds achieved germinability, physiological maturity and PY on days 9, 14 and 20 after pollination (DAP), respectively. The critical moisture content of seeds on acquisition of PY was 11 %. Slow-drying caused the stage of acquisition of PY to shift from 20 to 13 DAP. Greater extent of cell division and differentiation at the micropyle, water gap and chalaza than at the rest of the seed coat resulted in particular anatomical features. Palisade and subpalisade cells of varying forms developed in these sites. A clear demarcation between the water gap and micropyle is not evident due to their close proximity. Conclusions Acquisition of PY in seeds of G. carolinianum occurs after physiological maturity and is triggered by maturation drying. The micropyle and water gap cannot be considered as two separate entities, and thus it is more appropriate to consider them together as a ‘micropyle–water-gap complex’. PMID:21546433

  15. Defensive strategies in Geranium sylvaticum, Part 2: Roles of water-soluble tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids against natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Anu

    2013-11-01

    Geranium sylvaticum is a common herbaceous plant in Fennoscandia, which has a unique phenolic composition. Ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, galloylglucoses, gallotannins, galloyl quinic acids and flavonoids possess variable distribution in its different organs. These phenolic compounds are thought to have an important role in plant-herbivore interactions. The aim of this study was to quantify these different water-soluble phenolic compounds and measure the biological activity of the eight organs of G. sylvaticum. Compounds were characterized and quantified using HPLC-DAD/MS, in addition, total proanthocyanidins were determined by BuOH-HCl assay and total phenolics by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Two in vitro biological activity measurements were used: the prooxidant activity was measured by the browning assay and antioxidant activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Organ extracts were fractionated using column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and the activities of fractions was similarly measured to evaluate which polyphenol groups contributed the most to the biological activity of each organ. The data on the activity of fractions were examined by multivariate data analysis. The water-soluble extracts of leaves and pistils, which contained over 30% of the dry weight as ellagitannins, showed the highest pro-oxidant activity among the organ extracts. Fraction analysis revealed that flavonoids and galloyl quinic acids also exhibited high pro-oxidant activity. In contrast, the most antioxidant active organ extracts were those of the main roots and hairy roots that contained high amounts of proanthocyanidins in addition to ellagitannins. Analysis of the fractions showed that especially ellagitannins and galloyl quinic acids have high antioxidant activity. We conclude that G. sylvaticum allocates a significant amount of tannins in those plant parts that are important to the fitness of the plant and susceptible to natural enemies, i.e. pistil and leaf tannins protect against insect herbivores and root tannins against soil pathogens. PMID:24050514

  16. Chemical characterization (GC/MS and NMR Fingerprinting) and bioactivities of South-African Pelargonium capitatum (L.) L' Her. (Geraniaceae) essential oil.

    PubMed

    Guerrini, Alessandra; Rossi, Damiano; Paganetto, Guglielmo; Tognolini, Massimiliano; Muzzoli, Mariavittoria; Romagnoli, Carlo; Antognoni, Fabiana; Vertuani, Silvia; Medici, Alessandro; Bruni, Alessandro; Useli, Chiara; Tamburini, Elena; Bruni, Renato; Sacchetti, Gianni

    2011-04-01

    Chemical fingerprinting of commercial Pelargonium capitatum (Geraniaceae) essential oil samples of south African origin was performed by GC, GC/MS, and (13) C- and (1) H-NMR. Thirty-seven compounds were identified, among which citronellol (32.71%) and geraniol (19.58%) were the most abundant. NMR Spectra of characteristic chemicals were provided. Broad-spectrum bioactivity properties of the oil were evaluated and compared with those of commercial Thymus vulgaris essential oil with the aim to obtain a functional profile in terms of efficacy and safety. P. capitatum essential oil provides a good performance as antimicrobial, with particular efficacy against Candida albicans strains. Antifungal activity performed against dermatophyte and phytopathogen strains revealed the latter as more sensitive, while antibacterial activity was not remarkable against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. P. capitatum oil provided a lower antioxidant activity (IC(50) ) than that expressed by thyme essential oil, both in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and β-carotene bleaching tests. Results in photochemiluminescence (PCL) assay were negligible. To test the safety aspects of P. capitatum essential oil, mutagenic and toxicity properties were assayed by Ames test, with and without metabolic activation. Possible efficacy of P. capitatum essential oil as mutagenic protective agent against NaN(3) , 2-nitrofluorene, and 2-aminoanthracene was also assayed, providing interesting and significant antigenotoxic properties. PMID:21480508

  17. The inhibitory effects of Geranium thunbergii on interferon-γ- and LPS-induced inflammatory responses are mediated by Nrf2 activation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hee-Jin; Choi, Hee-Jung; Park, Mi-Ju; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Jeong, Seung-Il; Lee, Seongoo; Kim, Kyun Ha; Joo, Myungsoo; Jeong, Han-Sol; Kim, Jai-Eun; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2015-05-01

    Geranium thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc. (GT; which belongs to the Geraniaceae family) has been used as a traditional medicine in East Asia for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, including arthritis and diarrhea. However, the underlying mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects of GT remain poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of GT in macrophages. The results revealed that GT significantly inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-induced expression of pro-inflammatory genes, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β, as shown by RT-PCR. However, the inhibitory effects of GT on LPS- and IFN-γ-induced inflammation were associated with an enhanced nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activity, but not with the suppression of nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity, as shown by western blot analysis. In addition, in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) isolated from Nrf2 knockout mice, GT did not exert any inhibitory effect on the LPS- and IFN-γ-induced inflammation. Taken together, our findings indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of GT may be associated with the activation of Nrf2, an anti-inflammatory transcription factor. PMID:25761198

  18. Patterns of genetic diversity reveal multiple introductions and recurrent founder effects during range expansion in invasive populations of Geranium carolinianum (Geraniaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Shirk, R Y; Hamrick, J L; Zhang, C; Qiang, S

    2014-01-01

    Genetic diversity, and thus the adaptive potential of invasive populations, is largely based on three factors: patterns of genetic diversity in the species' native range, the number and location of introductions and the number of founding individuals per introduction. Specifically, reductions in genetic diversity (‘founder effects') should be stronger for species with low within-population diversity in their native range and few introductions of few individuals to the invasive range. We test these predictions with Geranium carolinianum, a winter annual herb native to North America and invasive in China. We measure the extent of founder effects using allozymes and microsatellites, and ask whether this is consistent with its colonization history and patterns of diversity in the native range. In the native range, genetic diversity is higher and structure is lower than expected based on life history traits. In China, our results provide evidence for multiple introductions near Nanjing, Jiangsu province, with subsequent range expansion to the west and south. Patterns of genetic diversity across China reveal weak founder effects that are driven largely by low-diversity populations at the expansion front, away from the introduction location. This suggests that reduced diversity in China has resulted from successive founder events during range expansion, and that the loss of genetic diversity in the Nanjing area was mitigated by multiple introductions from diverse source populations. This has implications for the future of G. carolinianum in China, as continued gene flow among populations should eventually increase genetic diversity within the more recently founded populations. PMID:24346497

  19. Chromosome number and secondary chromosomal associations in wild populations of Geranium pratense L. from the cold deserts of Lahaul-Spiti (India).

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Singhal, V K

    2013-01-01

    In this work we studied the meiotic chromosome number and details of secondary chromosomal associations recorded for the first time in Geranium pratense L. from the alpine environments in the cold deserts of Lahaul-Spiti (India). All the presently studied individuals of the species existed at 4x level (x = 14). The present chromosome count of n = 28 in the species adds a new cytotype to the already existing diploid chromosome count of 2n = 28 from the Eastern Himalayas and outside of India. Out of the six accessions scored presently four showed normal meiotic course. However, two accessions investigated from Mud, 3800 m and Koksar, 3140 m depicted abnormal meiotic course due to the presence of multivalents and univalents, and secondary associations of bivalents/chromosomes. The secondary chromosomal associations in the species existed among bivalents/chromosomes were noticed in the PMCs at prophase-1 (diakinesis) and persisted till the separation of sister chromatids at M-II. The variation in the number of bivalents/chromosomes involved in the secondary associations at M-I (2-8) and A-I/M-II (2-12) has also been recorded. The occurrence of such secondary associations of bivalents/chromosomes in G. pratense which existed at 4x level indicated the secondary polyploid nature of the species. PMID:23745363

  20. The inhibitory effects of Geranium thunbergii on interferon-γ- and LPS-induced inflammatory responses are mediated by Nrf2 activation

    PubMed Central

    CHOI, HEE-JIN; CHOI, HEE-JUNG; PARK, MI-JU; LEE, JI-YEON; JEONG, SEUNG-IL; LEE, SEONGOO; KIM, KYUN HA; JOO, MYUNGSOO; JEONG, HAN-SOL; KIM, JAI-EUN; HA, KI-TAE

    2015-01-01

    Geranium thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc. (GT; which belongs to the Geraniaceae family) has been used as a traditional medicine in East Asia for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, including arthritis and diarrhea. However, the underlying mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects of GT remain poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of GT in macrophages. The results revealed that GT significantly inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-induced expression of pro-inflammatory genes, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β, as shown by RT-PCR. However, the inhibitory effects of GT on LPS- and IFN-γ-induced inflammation were associated with an enhanced nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activity, but not with the suppression of nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity, as shown by western blot analysis. In addition, in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) isolated from Nrf2 knockout mice, GT did not exert any inhibitory effect on the LPS- and IFN-γ-induced inflammation. Taken together, our findings indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of GT may be associated with the activation of Nrf2, an anti-inflammatory transcription factor. PMID:25761198

  1. An Internal Ribosome Entry Site Directs Translation of the 3′-Gene from Pelargonium Flower Break Virus Genomic RNA: Implications for Infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Miragall, Olga; Hernández, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV, genus Carmovirus) has a single-stranded positive-sense genomic RNA (gRNA) which contains five ORFs. The two 5′-proximal ORFs encode the replicases, two internal ORFs encode movement proteins, and the 3′-proximal ORF encodes a polypeptide (p37) which plays a dual role as capsid protein and as suppressor of RNA silencing. Like other members of family Tombusviridae, carmoviruses express ORFs that are not 5′-proximal from subgenomic RNAs. However, in one case, corresponding to Hisbiscus chlorotic ringspot virus, it has been reported that the 3′-proximal gene can be translated from the gRNA through an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Here we show that PFBV also holds an IRES that mediates production of p37 from the gRNA, raising the question of whether this translation strategy may be conserved in the genus. The PFBV IRES was functional both in vitro and in vivo and either in the viral context or when inserted into synthetic bicistronic constructs. Through deletion and mutagenesis studies we have found that the IRES is contained within a 80 nt segment and have identified some structural traits that influence IRES function. Interestingly, mutations that diminish IRES activity strongly reduced the infectivity of the virus while the progress of the infection was favoured by mutations potentiating such activity. These results support the biological significance of the IRES-driven p37 translation and suggest that production of the silencing suppressor from the gRNA might allow the virus to early counteract the defence response of the host, thus facilitating pathogen multiplication and spread. PMID:21818349

  2. Stomatal closure of Pelargonium × hortorum in response to soil water deficit is associated with decreased leaf water potential only under rapid soil drying.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Richard K A; McAinsh, Martin; Dodd, Ian C

    2016-01-01

    Soil water deficits applied at different rates and for different durations can decrease both stomatal conductance (gs ) and leaf water potential (Ψleaf ). Understanding the physiological mechanisms regulating these responses is important in sustainable irrigation scheduling. Glasshouse-grown, containerized Pelargonium × hortorum BullsEye plants were irrigated either daily at various fractions of plant evapotranspiration (100, 75 and 50% ET) for 20 days or irrigation was withheld for 4 days. Xylem sap was collected and gs and Ψleaf were measured on days 15 and 20, and on days 16-19 for the respective treatments. Xylem sap pH and NO3 (-) and Ca(2+) concentrations did not differ between irrigation treatments. Xylem abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations ([ABA]xyl ) increased within 24 h of irrigation being withheld whilst gs and Ψleaf decreased. Supplying irrigation at a fraction of daily ET produced a similar relationship between [ABA]xyl and gs , but did not change Ψleaf . Treatment differences occurred independently of whether Ψleaf was measured in whole leaves with a pressure chamber, or in the lamina with a thermocouple psychrometer. Plants that were irrigated daily showed lower [ABA]xyl than plants from which irrigation was withheld, even at comparable soil moisture content. This implies that regular re-watering attenuates ABA signaling due to maintenance of soil moisture in the upper soil levels. Crucially, detached leaves supplied with synthetic ABA showed a similar relationship between [ABA]xyl and gs as intact plants, suggesting that stomatal closure of P. hortorum in response to soil water deficit is primarily an ABA-induced response, independent of changes in Ψleaf . PMID:25974219

  3. Carbon allocation from source to sink leaf tissue in relation to flavonoid biosynthesis in variegated Pelargonium zonale under UV-B radiation and high PAR intensity.

    PubMed

    Vidović, Marija; Morina, Filis; Milić, Sonja; Albert, Andreas; Zechmann, Bernd; Tosti, Tomislav; Winkler, Jana Barbro; Jovanović, Sonja Veljović

    2015-08-01

    We studied the specific effects of high photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) and ecologically relevant UV-B radiation (0.90 W m(-2)) on antioxidative and phenolic metabolism by exploiting the green-white leaf variegation of Pelargonium zonale plants. This is a suitable model system for examining "source-sink" interactions within the same leaf. High PAR intensity (1350 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) and UV-B radiation induced different responses in green and white leaf sectors. High PAR intensity had a greater influence on green tissue, triggering the accumulation of phenylpropanoids and flavonoids with strong antioxidative function. Induced phenolics, together with ascorbate, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) provided efficient defense against potential oxidative pressure. UV-B-induced up-regulation of non-phenolic H2O2 scavengers in green leaf sectors was greater than high PAR-induced changes, indicating a UV-B role in antioxidative defense under light excess; on the contrary, minimal effects were observed in white tissue. However, UV-B radiation had greater influence on phenolics in white leaf sections compared to green ones, inducing accumulation of phenolic glycosides whose function was UV-B screening rather than antioxidative. By stimulation of starch and sucrose breakdown and carbon allocation in the form of soluble sugars from "source" (green) tissue to "sink" (white) tissue, UV-B radiation compensated the absence of photosynthetic activity and phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis in white sectors. PMID:25661975

  4. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Pelargonium xhortorum: Or ganization and evolution of the largest and most highlyrearranged chloroplast genome of land plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chumley, Timothy W.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.; Mower, Jeffrey P.; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Calie, Patrick J.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Jansen,Robert K.

    2006-01-20

    The chloroplast genome of Pelargonium e hortorum has beencompletely sequenced. It maps as a circular molecule of 217,942 bp, andis both the largest and most rearranged land plant chloroplast genome yetsequenced. It features two copies of a greatly expanded inverted repeat(IR) of 75,741 bp each, and consequently diminished single copy regionsof 59,710 bp and 6,750 bp. It also contains two different associations ofrepeated elements that contribute about 10 percent to the overall sizeand account for the majority of repeats found in the genome. Theyrepresent hotspots for rearrangements and gene duplications and include alarge number of pseudogenes. We propose simple models that account forthe major rearrangements with a minimum of eight IR boundary changes and12 inversions in addition to a several insertions of duplicated sequence.The major processes at work (duplication, IR expansion, and inversion)have disrupted at least one and possibly two or three transcriptionaloperons, and the genes involved in these disruptions form the core of thetwo major repeat associations. Despite the vast increase in size andcomplexity of the genome, the gene content is similar to that of otherangiosperms, with the exceptions of a large number of pseudogenes as partof the repeat associations, the recognition of two open reading frames(ORF56 and ORF42) in the trnA intron with similarities to previouslyidentified mitochondrial products (ACRS and pvs-trnA), the loss of accDand trnT-GGU, and in particular, the lack of a recognizably functionalrpoA. One or all of three similar open reading frames may possibly encodethe latter, however.

  5. Quantitative analysis of the thermal requirements for stepwise physical dormancy-break in seeds of the winter annual Geranium carolinianum (Geraniaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Gama-Arachchige, N. S.; Baskin, J. M.; Geneve, R. L.; Baskin, C. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Physical dormancy (PY)-break in some annual plant species is a two-step process controlled by two different temperature and/or moisture regimes. The thermal time model has been used to quantify PY-break in several species of Fabaceae, but not to describe stepwise PY-break. The primary aims of this study were to quantify the thermal requirement for sensitivity induction by developing a thermal time model and to propose a mechanism for stepwise PY-breaking in the winter annual Geranium carolinianum. Methods Seeds of G. carolinianum were stored under dry conditions at different constant and alternating temperatures to induce sensitivity (step I). Sensitivity induction was analysed based on the thermal time approach using the Gompertz function. The effect of temperature on step II was studied by incubating sensitive seeds at low temperatures. Scanning electron microscopy, penetrometer techniques, and different humidity levels and temperatures were used to explain the mechanism of stepwise PY-break. Key Results The base temperature (Tb) for sensitivity induction was 172 C and constant for all seed fractions of the population. Thermal time for sensitivity induction during step I in the PY-breaking process agreed with the three-parameter Gompertz model. Step II (PY-break) did not agree with the thermal time concept. Q10 values for the rate of sensitivity induction and PY-break were between 20 and 35 and between 002 and 01, respectively. The force required to separate the water gap palisade layer from the sub-palisade layer was significantly reduced after sensitivity induction. Conclusions Step I and step II in PY-breaking of G. carolinianum are controlled by chemical and physical processes, respectively. This study indicates the feasibility of applying the developed thermal time model to predict or manipulate sensitivity induction in seeds with two-step PY-breaking processes. The model is the first and most detailed one yet developed for sensitivity induction in PY-break. PMID:23456728

  6. Interspecific variation in SO/sub 2/ flux: leaf surface versus internal flux, and components of leaf conductance. [Pisum sativum L. , Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Flacca, Geranium carolinianum L. , Diplacus aurantiacus (Curtis) Jeps

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyk, D.M.; Tingey, D.T.

    1985-12-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the relationships among stomatal, residual, and epidermal conductances in determining the flux of SO/sub 2/ air pollution to leaves. Variations in leaf SO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O vapor fluxes were determined using four plant species: Pisum sativum L. (garden pea), Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. flacca (mutant of tomato), Geranium carolinianum L. (wild geranium), and Diplacus aurantiacus (Curtis) Jeps. (a native California shrub). Fluxes were measured using the mass-balance approach during exposure to 4.56 micromoles per cubic meter (0.11 microliters per liter) SO/sub 2/ for 2 hours in a controlled environmental chamber. Flux through adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces with closed stomata ranged from 1.9 to 9.4 nanomoles per square meter per second for SO/sub 2/, and 0.3 to 1.3 millimoles per square meter per second for H/sub 2/O vapor. Flux of SO/sub 2/ into leaves through stomata ranged from approx.0 to 8.5 (dark) and 3.8 to 16.0 (light) millimoles per square meter per second. Flux of H/sub 2/O vapor from leaves through stomata ranged from approx.0 to 0.6 (dark) to 0.4 to 0.9 (light) millimole per square meter per second. Lycopersicon had internal flux rates for both SO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O vapor over twice as high as for the other species. Stomatal conductance based on H/sub 2/O vapor flux averaged from 0.07 to 0.13 mole per square meter per second among the four species. Internal conductance of SO/sub 2/ as calculated from SO/sub 2/ flux was from 0.04 mole per square meter per second lower to 0.06 mole per square meter per second higher than stomatal conductance. For Pisum, Geranium, and Diplacus stomatal conductance was the same or slightly higher than internal conductance, indicating that, in general, SO/sub 2/ flux could be predicted from stomatal conductance for H/sub 2/O vapor.

  7. Evaluation of gypsum rates on greenhouse crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was to determine the potential of an added value distribution channel for gypsum waste by evaluating various greenhouse crops with captious pH and calcium needs. Three studies consisting of: Zonal geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum) and petunia (Petunia x hybrida); tomato (Solanum lycoper...

  8. Micronutrient availability from steel slag amendment in peatmoss substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to determine the suitability of a steel slag product for supplying micronutrients to container-grown floriculture crops. Geranium (Pelargonium xhortorum 'Maverick Red') and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon 'Megabite') were grown in 11.4 cm containers with a substrate ...

  9. Nitrogen Availability in Fresh and Aged Douglas Fir Bark

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if there are growth differences in geranium (Pelargonium ×hortorum Bailey 'Maverick Red') produced in either fresh or aged Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco] bark (DFB). A second objective was to document nitrogen immobilization and deco...

  10. Elevated CO2 affects plant responses to variation in boron availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of elevated CO2 on N relations are well studied, but effects on other nutrients, especially micronutrients, are not. We investigated effects of elevated CO2 on response to variation in boron (B) availability in three unrelated species: geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum), barley (Hordeum vulga...

  11. Efficient Translation of Pelargonium line pattern virus RNAs Relies on a TED-Like 3´-Translational Enhancer that Communicates with the Corresponding 5´-Region through a Long-Distance RNA-RNA Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Pérez, Marta; Pérez-Cañamás, Miryam; Ruiz, Leticia; Hernández, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Cap-independent translational enhancers (CITEs) have been identified at the 3´-terminal regions of distinct plant positive-strand RNA viruses belonging to families Tombusviridae and Luteoviridae. On the bases of their structural and/or functional requirements, at least six classes of CITEs have been defined whose distribution does not correlate with taxonomy. The so-called TED class has been relatively under-studied and its functionality only confirmed in the case of Satellite tobacco necrosis virus, a parasitic subviral agent. The 3´-untranslated region of the monopartite genome of Pelargonium line pattern virus (PLPV), the recommended type member of a tentative new genus (Pelarspovirus) in the family Tombusviridae, was predicted to contain a TED-like CITE. Similar CITEs can be anticipated in some other related viruses though none has been experimentally verified. Here, in the first place, we have performed a reassessment of the structure of the putative PLPV-TED through in silico predictions and in vitro SHAPE analysis with the full-length PLPV genome, which has indicated that the presumed TED element is larger than previously proposed. The extended conformation of the TED is strongly supported by the pattern of natural sequence variation, thus providing comparative structural evidence in support of the structural data obtained by in silico and in vitro approaches. Next, we have obtained experimental evidence demonstrating the in vivo activity of the PLPV-TED in the genomic (g) RNA, and also in the subgenomic (sg) RNA that the virus produces to express 3´-proximal genes. Besides other structural features, the results have highlighted the key role of long-distance kissing-loop interactions between the 3´-CITE and 5´-proximal hairpins for gRNA and sgRNA translation. Bioassays of CITE mutants have confirmed the importance of the identified 5´-3´ RNA communication for viral infectivity and, moreover, have underlined the strong evolutionary constraints that may operate on genome stretches with both regulatory and coding functions. PMID:27043436

  12. Efficient Translation of Pelargonium line pattern virus RNAs Relies on a TED-Like 3´-Translational Enhancer that Communicates with the Corresponding 5´-Region through a Long-Distance RNA-RNA Interaction.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Pérez, Marta; Pérez-Cañamás, Miryam; Ruiz, Leticia; Hernández, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Cap-independent translational enhancers (CITEs) have been identified at the 3´-terminal regions of distinct plant positive-strand RNA viruses belonging to families Tombusviridae and Luteoviridae. On the bases of their structural and/or functional requirements, at least six classes of CITEs have been defined whose distribution does not correlate with taxonomy. The so-called TED class has been relatively under-studied and its functionality only confirmed in the case of Satellite tobacco necrosis virus, a parasitic subviral agent. The 3´-untranslated region of the monopartite genome of Pelargonium line pattern virus (PLPV), the recommended type member of a tentative new genus (Pelarspovirus) in the family Tombusviridae, was predicted to contain a TED-like CITE. Similar CITEs can be anticipated in some other related viruses though none has been experimentally verified. Here, in the first place, we have performed a reassessment of the structure of the putative PLPV-TED through in silico predictions and in vitro SHAPE analysis with the full-length PLPV genome, which has indicated that the presumed TED element is larger than previously proposed. The extended conformation of the TED is strongly supported by the pattern of natural sequence variation, thus providing comparative structural evidence in support of the structural data obtained by in silico and in vitro approaches. Next, we have obtained experimental evidence demonstrating the in vivo activity of the PLPV-TED in the genomic (g) RNA, and also in the subgenomic (sg) RNA that the virus produces to express 3´-proximal genes. Besides other structural features, the results have highlighted the key role of long-distance kissing-loop interactions between the 3´-CITE and 5´-proximal hairpins for gRNA and sgRNA translation. Bioassays of CITE mutants have confirmed the importance of the identified 5´-3´ RNA communication for viral infectivity and, moreover, have underlined the strong evolutionary constraints that may operate on genome stretches with both regulatory and coding functions. PMID:27043436

  13. Graded Index Silicon Geranium on Lattice Matched Silicon Geranium Semiconductor Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R., Jr. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A lattice matched silicon germanium (SiGe) semiconductive alloy is formed when a {111} crystal plane of a cubic diamond structure SiGe is grown on the {0001} C-plane of a single crystalline Al2O3 substrate such that a <110> orientation of the cubic diamond structure SiGe is aligned with a <1,0,-1,0> orientation of the {0001} C-plane. A lattice match between the substrate and the SiGe is achieved by using a SiGe composition that is 0.7223 atomic percent silicon and 0.2777 atomic percent germanium. A layer of Si(1-x), ,Ge(x) is formed on the cubic diamond structure SiGe. The value of X (i) defines an atomic percent of germanium satisfying 0.2277

  14. Photosynthesis is an Early Target of Boron Deficiency in Geranium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apart from an essential role in cell-wall structure, specific functions for boron (B) in plants are unclear; hence, early responses to B stress are debated, and adaptations to B stress are incompletely understood. We tested hypotheses that (1) photosynthesis is an early target of B deficiency, and ...

  15. Solution Sythesis Of Geranium Nanocrystals: Success And Open Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Casula, M; Galli, G; Saw, C; Zaitseva, N; Gerion, D; van Buuren, T; Fakra, S

    2003-12-15

    We present a two-steps synthesis route that yields nanometer size crystalline germanium in the form of a black powder. It relies on high temperature decomposition of tetraethylgermane (TEG) in organic solvents. The presence of pure germanium with diamond structure is unambiguously attested by powder XRD measurements. Low resolution TEM indicates that the particles are between {approx}5 to 30 nm in size depending on the synthesis conditions. The as-synthesized Ge powders can be stored in air for months and no oxidation occurs. The Ge powders are sparingly soluble in conventional solvents because Ge nanocrystals are likely embedded in a matrix, composed mainly of C=C, C-C, and C-H bonds. The presence of residual organic by-products impedes probing of the optical properties of the dots. Also, we discuss drawbacks and open challenges in high temperature solution synthesis of Ge nanocrystals that could also be faced in the synthesis of Si nanocrystals. Overall, our results call for a cautious interpretation of reported optical properties of Ge and Si nanocrystals obtained by high temperature solution methods.

  16. Foliar biofilms of Burkholderia pyrrocinia FP62 on geraniums

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofilm formation on foliar surfaces is commonly associated with plants in water-saturated environments (e.g. tropics or modified environments). On most leaf surfaces bacteria are thought to reside in aggregates with limited production of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) matrix. However, the biocontrol ag...

  17. Laser Monitoring Of Phytoextraction Enhancement Of Lead Contaminated Soil Adopting EDTA And EDDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, M.; Abdelhamied, M.; Hanafy, A. H.; Fantoni, R.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    Removal of heavy metals (HMs) such as Pb from soil, wastewater, and air is essential for environment and human health. Phytoremediation is a well established technology based on the use of certain green plants for contaminants removal from soil, wastewater as well as air. Scented geranium, Pelargonium zonal, is a flowering plant recently used in HMs removal from contaminated soil. In the present work, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and EDDS (S, S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid) were used as chemical assistants providing higher Pb availability for extraction by plant roots. Lead was artificially added to the planting media, peatmoss, at different concentrations. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to follow up Pb relative concentrations in peatmoss as well as plant shoots, at different sampling times during the experiment period. Laser induced chlorophyll fluorescence (LICF), has been also used to evaluate chlorophyll formation and photosynthetic apparatus status in geranium plants. Such measurements were performed on geranium plants grown under various Pb levels, as well as EDTA and EDDS combinations. The combined effect of EDTA and EDDS was found to enhance Pb extraction with time. Good correlation was found between LICF results and chlorophyll (a) (Chl.a) concentrations in plant tissues extracted by chemical analysis.

  18. Light absorption by isolated chloroplasts and leaves: effects of scattering and 'packing'.

    PubMed

    Merzlyak, Mark N; Chivkunova, Olga B; Zhigalova, Tatiana V; Naqvi, K Razi

    2009-10-01

    Light absorption was quantified in the following systems: isolated chloroplasts and leaves of spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.), a mutant of geranium (Pelargonium zonale L.) widely differing in pigment content, and coleus (Coleus blumei Benth.) at different stages of leaf ontogenesis. For these species and pea (Pisum sativum L.), scattering-compensated absorption spectra of chloroplast suspensions are presented. Comparison of leaf and chloroplast spectra showed considerable changes in the extent of the 'package' effect and the lengthening of the effective optical path in a leaf. The difference between leaf and isolated chloroplast absorption could be quantitatively described by adapting Duysens's treatment of flattening. It was found that the accumulation of chlorophyll in leaves is accompanied by a monotonous enhancement of the package effect. The results are discussed with special reference to the role of light scattering in leaf optics, light utilization in photosynthesis and wavelength-dependent light gradients in a leaf. PMID:19672688

  19. Evaluating companion planting and non-host masking odors for protecting roses from the Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Held, D W; Gonsiska, P; Potter, D A

    2003-02-01

    Effectiveness of companion planting, and use of nonhost masking odors were evaluated under field conditions for protecting roses against the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman. Three reputedly effective companion species, rue (Ruta graveolens L.), zonal geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey), and garlic chives (Allium scheonparum L.) were interplanted with roses in replicated garden plots. Numbers of beetles on these roses were compared with rose-only control plots on 6 d during beetle flight. The masking odor hypothesis was tested by hanging mesh bags of aromatic herbs or other sources of reputedly repellent nonhost volatiles around potted roses in the field. Treatments included crushed red pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.), fennel seeds (Foeniculm vulgare Miller), crushed spearmint (Mentha picata L.), cedar shavings (Juniperus sp.), osage orange fruits (Maclura pomifera (Raif) Schneid.), and fleshy gingko seeds (Gingko biloba L.). No treatment significantly reduced numbers of beetles relative to the controls. Interplanting with geraniums significantly increased numbers of Japanese beetles on roses. Similarly, roses surrounded by sachets with fennel seeds, cedar shavings, crushed red pepper, or osage orange fruits had significantly more beetles than the control plants on two or more sample dates. Our results suggest that the use of companion or reputedly repellent plants or plant odors probably will be ineffective for protecting roses or other highly-susceptible ornamentals from P. japonica. Use of such tactics in an effort to discourage other garden pests might even increase Japanese beetle damage in those plantings. PMID:12650348

  20. Testing for non-target effects of spinosad on twospotted spider mites and their predator Phytoseiulus persimilis under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Holt, Kiffnie M; Opit, George P; Nechols, James R; Margolies, David C

    2006-01-01

    The compatibility of the selective insecticide spinosad (Conserve SC), at rates recommended for thrips control in greenhouses, with release of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to control spider mites, was investigated in a crop of ivy geranium Pelargonium peltatum, cultivar 'Amethyst 96.' Plants were inoculated with twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), 2 weeks before treatments were applied. There were three treatment variables, each at two levels: predators (released or not), spray application (water or Conserve SC at 2 ml/3.79 l), and timing of spray (1 day before or after predators were released). Twospotted spider mite populations then were sampled twice each week over a three-week period. The application or timing of spinosad had no effect on the ability of the predator to reduce the population of spider mites. Spider mite populations in the no-predator treatment continued to expand over the course of the experiment, while those in the predator-release treatment declined. We conclude that P. persimilis can be used in conjunction with spinosad on ivy geraniums without causing obvious detrimental effects to this predator or leading to a reduction in biological control. PMID:16596348

  1. Boron Stress and Boron Tissue Distribution in Arbidopsis thaliana and Pelargonium X Hortorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The micronutrient boron is essential for plant growth and development. Deficient or excessive levels of this micronutrient result in the formation of growth defects that reduce yield in crop plants and result in discarding of horticultural plants. To study the responses of plants to altered boron ...

  2. Biomonitoring of Boron Micronutrient Stress in Arbidopsis thaliana and Pelargonium X Hortorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horticultural growers typically rely on visual symptoms of nutrient deficiencies to guide them in spot treating their plants with appropriate fertilizers. Often, visible symptoms of nutrient deficiencies occur after it is too late to remedy the situation. There exists a period of nutrient stress b...

  3. Effect of clove oil on plant pathogenic bacteria and bacterial wilt of tomato and geranium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the antibacterial activity of clove oil against seven different genera of plant pathogenic bacteria including Gram-negative Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Erwinia carotovora pv. carotovora, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. pelargonii...

  4. Seedling geranium response to nitrogen deprivation and subsequent recovery in hydroponic culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization recommendations to achieve optimum growth are well established for most floricultural crops. While it has been shown that plant functions can recover from N-deficiency in other crops, little research has investigated the threshold beyond which a bedding plant crop is reco...

  5. Create four new unassigned species in the family Tombusviridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The proposed genus Pelarspovirus contains six viral species with similar biological, morphological, physicochemical, and ultrastructural properties. These viruses are Elderberry latent virus, Pelargonium chlorotic ring pattern virus, Pelargonium line pattern virus, Pelargonium ringspot virus, and R...

  6. Studying the enhanced phytoremediation of lead contaminated soils via laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, M.; Sighicelli, M.; Lai, A.; Colao, F.; Ahmed, A. H. Hanafy; Fantoni, R.; Harith, M. A.

    2008-10-01

    Phytoremediation popularly known as 'green clean technology' is a new promising technology used for toxic contaminants removal from the environment such as heavy metals (HMs), adopting suitable plants. This concept is increasingly being adopted as it is a cost effective and environmentally friendly alternative to traditional methods of treatment. This study was focused on using scented geranium, Pelargonium zonale, as accumulator or hyperaccumulator plant for natural lead extraction from artificially contaminated soil with different Pb concentrations (0, 2000, 5000, 7000 ppm). Utilization of EDTA as a chelator, that would permit higher metal availability and uptake by the tested plants roots, was also tested. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to follow up Pb concentrations in both soil and plant green harvestable parts known as shoots, before, during and after lead addition in soil. LIBS measurements were conducted in a microdestructive way by focusing a high energy Nd:YAG laser, emitting at 1064 nm, on plant and soil samples previously dried, homogenized and pressed in pellets. The emitted LIBS spectra were acquired by a gated CCD after dispersion on a monochromator and analyzed to retrieve relative concentrations of the selected HM both in the soil and on plants as a function of the time after doping and eventual chelator addition. EDTA was found to enhance Pb uptake from the soil which increased with time, good correlation was found between LIBS and ICP-OES results of plant tissues spectrochemical analysis.

  7. Updates on chemical and biological research on botanical ingredients in dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Rahul S; Tamta, Hemlata; Ma, Jun; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Grundel, Erich; Wamer, Wayne G; Rader, Jeanne I

    2013-05-01

    Increased use of dietary supplements is a phenomenon observed worldwide. In the USA, more than 40% of the population recently reported using complementary and alternative medicines, including botanical dietary supplements. Perceptions that such dietary supplements are natural and safe, may prevent disease, may replace prescription medicines, or may make up for a poor diet, play important roles in their increased use. Toxicity of botanical dietary supplements may result from the presence of naturally occurring toxic constituents or from contamination or adulteration with pharmaceutical agents, heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, or bacteria, misidentification of a plant species in a product, formation of electrophilic metabolites, organ-specific reactions, or botanical-drug interactions. The topics discussed in this review illustrate several issues in recent research on botanical ingredients in dietary supplements. These include (1) whether 1,3-dimethylamylamine is a natural constituent of rose geranium (Pelargonium graveolens), (2) how analysis of the components of dietary supplements containing bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is essential to understanding their potential biological effects, and (3) how evolving methods for in vitro studies on botanical ingredients can contribute to safety evaluations. The virtual explosion in the use of botanical ingredients in hundreds of products presents a considerable challenge to the analytical community, and the need for appropriate methods cannot be overstated. We review recent developments and use of newer and increasingly sensitive methods that can contribute to increasing the safety and quality of botanical ingredients in dietary supplements. PMID:23322353

  8. Identification and characterization of the water gap in physically dormant seeds of Geraniaceae, with special reference to Geranium carolinianum

    PubMed Central

    Gama-Arachchige, N. S.; Baskin, J. M.; Geneve, R. L.; Baskin, C. C.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Physical dormancy in seeds of species of Geraniaceae is caused by a water-impermeable palisade layer in the outer integument of the seed coat and a closed chalaza. The chalazal cleft has been reported to be the water gap (i.e. location of initial water entry) in innately permeable seeds of Geraniaceae. The primary aim of this study was to re-evaluate the location of the water gap and to characterize its morphology and anatomy in physically dormant seeds of Geraniaceae, with particular reference to G. carolinianum. Methods Length, width, mass, anatomy and germination of two seed types (light brown and dark brown) of G. carolinianum were compared. Location, anatomy and morphology of the water gap were characterized using free-hand and microtome tissue sectioning, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dye tracking, blocking and seed-burial experiments. Key Results Treatment with dry heat caused a colour change in the palisade cells adjacent to the micropyle. When placed in water, the ‘hinged valve’ (blister) erupted at the site of the colour change, exposing the water gap. The morphology and anatomy in the water-gap region differs from those of the rest of the seed coat. The morphology of the seed coat of the water-gap region is similar in G. carolinianum, G. columbinum, G. molle and G. pusillum and differs from that of the closely related species Erodium cicutarium. Conclusions Dislodgment of swollen ‘hinged valve’ palisade cells adjacent to the micropyle caused the water gap to open in physically dormant seeds of G. carolinianum, and it was clear that initial water uptake takes place through this gap and not via the chalazal opening as previously reported. This water gap (‘hinged valve gap’) differs from water gaps previously described for other families in morphology, anatomy and location in the seed coat. PMID:20400757

  9. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  10. Comparing chemical and biological control strategies for twospotted spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) in commercial greenhouse production of bedding plants.

    PubMed

    Opit, George P; Perret, Jamis; Holt, Kiffnie; Nechols, James R; Margolies, David C; Williams, Kimberly A

    2009-02-01

    Efficacy, costs, and impact on crop salability of various biological and chemical control strategies for Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) were evaluated on mixed plantings of impatiens, Impatiens wallerana Hook.f (Ericales: Balsaminaceae), and ivy geranium, Pelargonium peltatum (1.) L'Hér. Ex Aiton (Geraniales: Geraniaceae), cultivars in commercial greenhouses. Chemical control consisting of the miticide bifenazate (Floramite) was compared with two biological control strategies using the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Treatments were 1) a single, early application of bifenazate; 2) a single, early release of predatory mites at a 1:4 predator:pest ratio based on leaf samples to estimate pest density; 3) a weekly release of predatory mites at numbers based on the area covered by the crop; and 4) an untreated control. T. urticae populations were monitored for 3 wk after the earliest treatment. When plants were ready for market, their salability was estimated. Bifenazate and density-based P. persimilis treatments effectively reduced T. urticae numbers starting 1 wk after plants had been treated, whereas the scheduled, area-based P. persimilis treatment had little or no effect. The percentage of flats that could be sold at the highest market wholesale price ranged from 15 to 33%, 44 to 86%, 84 to 95%, and 92 to 100%, in the control, weekly area-based P. persimilis, bifenazate, and single density-based P. persimilis treatments, respectively. We have shown that in commercial greenhouse production of herbaceous ornamental bedding plants, estimating pest density to determine the appropriate number of predators to release is as effective and offers nearly the same economic benefit as prophylactic use of pesticides. PMID:19253653

  11. Patent literature on mosquito repellent inventions which contain plant essential oils--a review.

    PubMed

    Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Gama, Renata Antonaci; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Neto, Valter Ferreira de Andrade

    2011-04-01

    Bites Bites of mosquitoes belonging to the genera Anopheles Meigen, Aedes Meigen, Culex L. and Haemagogus L. are a general nuisance and are responsible for the transmission of important tropical diseases such as malaria, hemorrhagic dengue and yellow fevers and filariasis (elephantiasis). Plants are traditional sources of mosquito repelling essential oils (EOs), glyceridic oils and repellent and synergistic chemicals. A Chemical Abstracts search on mosquito repellent inventions containing plant-derived EOs revealed 144 active patents mostly from Asia. Chinese, Japanese and Korean language patents and those of India (in English) accounted for roughly 3/4 of all patents. Since 1998 patents on EO-containing mosquito repellent inventions have almost doubled about every 4 years. In general, these patents describe repellent compositions for use in topical agents, cosmetic products, incense, fumigants, indoor and outdoor sprays, fibers, textiles among other applications. 67 EOs and 9 glyceridic oils were individually cited in at least 2 patents. Over 1/2 of all patents named just one EO. Citronella [Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle, C.winterianus Jowitt ex Bor] and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus LʼHér. spp.) EOs were each cited in approximately 1/3 of all patents. Camphor [Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl], cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume), clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry], geranium (Pelargonium graveolens LʼHér.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), lemon [Citrus × limon (L.) Osbeck], lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf] and peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) EOs were each cited in > 10% of patents. Repellent chemicals present in EO compositions or added as pure “natural” ingredients such as geraniol, limonene, p-menthane-3,8-diol, nepetalactone and vanillin were described in approximately 40% of all patents. About 25% of EO-containing inventions included or were made to be used with synthetic insect control agents having mosquito repellent properties such as pyrethroids, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), (±)-p-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD) and dialkyl phthalates. Synergistic effects involving one or more EOs and synthetic and/or natural components were claimed in about 10% of all patents. Scientific literature sources provide evidence for the mosquito repellency of many of the EOs and individual chemical components found in EOs used in patented repellent inventions. PMID:21328177

  12. Comparative analyses of two Geraniaceae transcriptomes using next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Organelle genomes of Geraniaceae exhibit several unusual evolutionary phenomena compared to other angiosperm families including accelerated nucleotide substitution rates, widespread gene loss, reduced RNA editing, and extensive genomic rearrangements. Since most organelle-encoded proteins function in multi-subunit complexes that also contain nuclear-encoded proteins, it is likely that the atypical organellar phenomena affect the evolution of nuclear genes encoding organellar proteins. To begin to unravel the complex co-evolutionary interplay between organellar and nuclear genomes in this family, we sequenced nuclear transcriptomes of two species, Geranium maderense and Pelargonium x hortorum. Results Normalized cDNA libraries of G. maderense and P. x hortorum were used for transcriptome sequencing. Five assemblers (MIRA, Newbler, SOAPdenovo, SOAPdenovo-trans [SOAPtrans], Trinity) and two next-generation technologies (454 and Illumina) were compared to determine the optimal transcriptome sequencing approach. Trinity provided the highest quality assembly of Illumina data with the deepest transcriptome coverage. An analysis to determine the amount of sequencing needed for de novo assembly revealed diminishing returns of coverage and quality with data sets larger than sixty million Illumina paired end reads for both species. The G. maderense and P. x hortorum transcriptomes contained fewer transcripts encoding the PLS subclass of PPR proteins relative to other angiosperms, consistent with reduced mitochondrial RNA editing activity in Geraniaceae. In addition, transcripts for all six plastid targeted sigma factors were identified in both transcriptomes, suggesting that one of the highly divergent rpoA-like ORFs in the P. x hortorum plastid genome is functional. Conclusions The findings support the use of the Illumina platform and assemblers optimized for transcriptome assembly, such as Trinity or SOAPtrans, to generate high-quality de novo transcriptomes with broad coverage. In addition, results indicated no major improvements in breadth of coverage with data sets larger than six billion nucleotides or when sampling RNA from four tissue types rather than from a single tissue. Finally, this work demonstrates the power of cross-compartmental genomic analyses to deepen our understanding of the correlated evolution of the nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial genomes in plants. PMID:24373163

  13. 78 FR 7738 - Notice of Request for Revision to and Extension of Approval of an Information Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Solanum spp. to Prevent the Introduction of Potato Brown Rot AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... Pelargonium spp. and Solanum spp. to prevent the introduction of potato brown rot into the United States... Pelargonium spp. and Solanum spp. to prevent introduction of potato brown rot, contact Dr. Vedpal...

  14. BACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF PLANT ESSENTIAL OILS AND THEIR COMPONENTS AGAINST ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7 AND SALMONELLA ENTERICA IN APPLE JUICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated several plant essential oils (cinnamon bark, cinnamon Cassia, cinnamon leaf, clove bud, lemon, lemon grass, orange bitter, orange Mandarin, oregano Spanish, palmarosa, rose Geranium, and thyme) and their major components (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, citral, eugenol, geraniol, limonene, a...

  15. Visually induced motion sickness can be alleviated by pleasant odors.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, Behrang; Stelzmann, Daniela; Paillard, Aurore; Hecht, Heiko

    2015-05-01

    Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a common side effect in virtual environments and simulators. Several countermeasures against VIMS exist, but a reliable method to prevent or ease VIMS is unfortunately still missing. In the present study, we tested whether olfactory cues can alleviate VIMS. Sixty-two participants were exposed to a 15-min-long video showing a first-person-view bicycle ride that had successfully induced VIMS in previous studies. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups; the first group was exposed to a pleasant odor (rose) while watching the video, the second group was exposed to an unpleasant odor (leather), and the third group was not exposed to any odor. VIMS was measured using a verbal rating scale (0-20) and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. Results showed that only half of the participants who were exposed to the odor did notice it (n = 21), whereas the other half failed to detect the odor. However, among those participants who did notice the odor, the rose scent significantly reduced the severity of VIMS compared to the group that did not notice the odor. A moderate positive correlation between odor sensitivity and VIMS showed that participants with higher odor sensitivity also reported stronger VIMS. Our results demonstrate that olfaction can modulate VIMS and that a pleasant odor can potentially reduce VIMS. The relationship between olfactory perception, olfactory sensibility, and VIMS is discussed. PMID:25633319

  16. Enhancing shelf life of litchi (Litchi chinensis) fruit through integrated approach of surface coating and gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Neha; Joshi, Sanjay Kumar; Singh, C. P.; Kumar, Surendra; Rajput, Sanjay; Khandal, R. K.

    2013-04-01

    India and China account for 91% of the world's litchi (Litchi chinensis) production. Although India is the second largest producer of litchi, its contribution to export is insignificant. Litchi being non-climacteric fruit possesses poor shelf life and fruit quality declines rapidly after harvest. Present investigation was an attempt to enhance shelf life of litchi fruit var. rose scented with integrated treatments of 1% NaCl solution, 2% wax solution and gamma radiation. Out of all, 1% NaCl coated+irradiated samples, proved out to be the best with enhanced shelf life of 24 days at 4 °C (shelf life at ambient temperature without any treatment being 3-4 days). Various biochemical parameters were tested and organoleptic evaluation was done to judge the acceptability of the stored litchi samples. TSS, vitamin C, total & reducing sugar content was found in range of 14.17-15.42°Bx; 35.67-57.88 mg/100 gm pulp weight, 12.44-14.06% and 9.41-11.91%. Organoleptic evaluation for different parameters ranged from 5.92 to 7.72 (fair-good) at 24th day of storage. Radiation dose of 1 kGy was found to be the only effective dose in which enhanced shelf life was achieved without any deterioration of various quality attributes.

  17. Isolation and identification of a putative scent-related gene RhMYB1 from rose.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huijun; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Qigang; Jian, Hongying; Qiu, Xianqin; Wang, Jihua; Tang, Kaixue

    2011-10-01

    Rose fragrances play an important role in attracting pollinators and commercial value. However, some genes involved in rose floral scent metabolism are less well understood. Here, wild-type scented rose (WR) and its spontaneous non-scented mutant rose (MR) were analyzed. SPME-GC/MS analysis showed that relative content of 1-ethenyl-4-methoxy-benzene represented was significantly different between WR and MR. We have isolated an EST encoding a MYB family of transcription factor from SSH libraries of the two roses in the previous studies, and designated RhMYB1. In the study, the full-length cDNA of RhMYB1 was identified and characterized by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The RhMYB1 full-length cDNA was 1,125 bp containing an 882 bp open reading frame, which encodes a precursor protein of 294 amino acids. Sequence alignments revealed that RhMYB1 shared high similarity with other plants R-type MYB, and RhMYB1 contained a DNA binding domain. Northern blot analysis revealed that RhMYB1 was expressed specifically in flower petal, moreover, the expression level of RhMYB1 in WR increased along with scent emission, and decreased when the scent emission decreased. It is suggested that RhMYB1 might be a putative identification of gene involved in the biosynthesis of rose scent. PMID:21132535

  18. [Herbal medicines against respiratory diseases--traditional empiricism or pharmacological evidence?].

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    Sinusitis and bronchitis belong to the most frequent respiratory infections. The relevant guidelines mention the therapy with herbal substances and assign a good activity to cineole and Myrtol as well as to combination preparations with cowslip. There is no final statement of the guidelines' authors concerning the extract of Pelargonium sidoides. Further studies will be necessary to give reliable therapeutic recommendations. PMID:25632601

  19. MICROSCOPIC EVALUATION OF PHYLLOSPHERE COLONIZATION BY A BIOFILM-FORMING BIOCONTROL AGENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofilms of the biocontrol agent, Burkholderia sp. strain FP62, in the phyllosphere of geranium leaves were viewed using both fluorescence compound light microscopy (FCLM) and conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Initial work was done by staining with acridine orange and viewed using FC...

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE BIOFILM PHENOTYPE OF BURKHOLDERIA SP., FP62 AND ITS ROLE IN BIOCONTROL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofilm formation of Burkholderia sp. (FP62) on plant leaves and its role in the biocontrol of Botrytis cinerea(Bc) was examined on geranium. A library of mini-Tn5 lacZ1 transposon mutants was screened for biofilm formation in a polystyrene microtiter plate assay. Mutants deficient in biofilm form...

  1. Evaporation Time and Spread Area of Adjuvant-amended Droplets on Waxy and Hairy Leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the evaporation of pesticide droplets and wetting of leaf surfaces can increase foliar application efficiency and reduce pesticide use. Evaporation time and wetted area of single pesticide droplets on hairy and waxy geranium leaf surfaces were measured under the controlled conditions f...

  2. Spring Flowers: Harvest of a Sensitive Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Eloise; Levin, Ted

    1978-01-01

    Defining and describing a number of spring flowers, this article includes illustrations and explanations that demonstrate "art and science are born of the same parents". The flowers discussed are skunk cabbage, bellwort, spring beauty, jack-in-the-pulpit, Solomon's seal, wild geranium, showy orchids, moccasin flower, bluets, apple, and Indian

  3. Robotic Gripper With Force Control And Optical Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, James L.

    1992-01-01

    Robotic gripper locates, measures, recognizes and manipulates objects in assembly-line setting. Fiber-optic sensors in fingertips help locate and identify object. Gripper grasps object and determines size from finger-position feedback, while grasped under force control. Prototype handles geranium cuttings in commercial greenhouse, basic concept and design modified for other objects (rods or nuts), including sorting to size.

  4. Evaporation and Coverage Area of Pesticide Droplets on Hairy and Waxy Leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fate of pesticide droplets on leaves is significantly influenced by the fine structures found on leaf surfaces. Evaporation times and the maximum coverage areas of single droplets (246, 343, 575, 762, and 886 µm) on hairy and smooth waxy geranium leaf surfaces were determined under controlled co...

  5. Spring Flowers: Harvest of a Sensitive Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Eloise; Levin, Ted

    1978-01-01

    Defining and describing a number of spring flowers, this article includes illustrations and explanations that demonstrate "art and science are born of the same parents". The flowers discussed are skunk cabbage, bellwort, spring beauty, jack-in-the-pulpit, Solomon's seal, wild geranium, showy orchids, moccasin flower, bluets, apple, and Indian…

  6. Influence of Spray Formulation and Leaf Surface Structure on Droplet Evaporation and Wetted Area

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fate of pesticide droplets on leaves is seriously influenced by spray formulations and fine structures on leaf surfaces. Evaporation times and wetted areas of droplets on hairy and waxy geranium leaf surfaces were determined under controlled conditions. Droplet evaporation processes were taken w...

  7. ROLE OF BIOFILMS IN BIOCONTROL OF BOTRYTIS CINEREA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microorganisms often inhabit the leaf surface in organized structures termed biofilms. Burkholderia sp., FP62 is a biocontrol agent of B. cinerea in geranium and forms extensive biofilms in the phyllosphere. Scanning electron micrographs demonstrate extensive phyllosphere colonization (60-70% of t...

  8. Chemical composition, olfactory evaluation and antimicrobial activity of selected essential oils and absolutes from Morocco.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Juergen; Schmidt, Erich; Bail, Stefanie; Jirovetz, Leopold; Buchbauer, Gerhard; Gochev, Velizar; Girova, Tanya; Atanasova, Teodora; Stoyanova, Albena

    2010-09-01

    The chemical compositions of selected essential oils from North Africa, especially Morocco, of geranium, wild Moroccan chamomile and rosemary as well as absolutes of rose and geranium were determined using GC/FID and GC/MS. These oils and absolutes were tested concerning their antimicrobial activity against some food spoilage strains obtained from fresh milk and minced meat products, like sausages and pork fillet, in accordance with ISO testing procedures. Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Salmonella abony and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) strains were used, as well as the yeast Candida albicans. Using a serial broth dilution method, all samples demonstrated weak antimicrobial activity against the Gram-negative bacteria and the yeast, compared with the activity towards the Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:20922989

  9. Laboratory evaluation of four commercial repellents against larval Leptotrombidium deliense (Acari: Trombiculidae).

    PubMed

    Hanifah, Azima Laili; Ismail, Siti Hazar Awang; Ming, Ho Tze

    2010-09-01

    Four commercial repellents were evaluated in the laboratory against Leptotrombidium deliense chiggers. Both in vitro and in vivo methods were used to determine repellency of the compounds. The repellents were Kellis (containing citronella oil, jojoba oil and tea tree oil), Kaps (containing citronella oil), BioZ (containing citronella oil, geranium oil and lemon grass oil) and Off (containing DEET). The combination of three active ingredients: citronella oil, geranium oil, lemon grass oil gave the highest repellency (87%) followed by DEET (84%). In vitro repellencies ranged from 73% to 87%. There was no significant difference between the four products. All the repellents had 100% in vivo repellency compared to 41-57% for the controls. PMID:21073028

  10. FARMS: The Flexible Agricultural Robotics Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.

    1991-01-01

    A technology utilization project was established with the Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Georgia to develop an Earth-based, robotic end effector to process live plant (geranium) material which will improve productivity and efficiency in agricultural systems such as commercial nurseries and greenhouse systems. The aim is to apply this technology to NASA's presence in space, including permanently manned space stations and manned planetary communities requiring large scale food production needs.

  11. An In Vitro System Comprising Immortalized Hypothalamic Neuronal Cells (GT1-7 Cells) for Evaluation of the Neuroendocrine Effects of Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Dai; Konoha-Mizuno, Keiko; Mori, Miwako; Yamazaki, Kentaro; Haneda, Toshihiro; Koyama, Hironari; Kawahara, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Aromatherapy and plant-based essential oils are widely used as complementary and alternative therapies for symptoms including anxiety. Furthermore, it was reportedly effective for the care of several diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and depressive illness. To investigate the pharmacological effects of essential oils, we developed an in vitro assay system using immortalized hypothalamic neuronal cells (GT1-7 cells). In this study, we evaluated the effects of essential oils on neuronal death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), aluminum, zinc, or the antagonist of estrogen receptor (tamoxifen). Among tests of various essential oils, we found that H2O2-induced neuronal death was attenuated by the essential oils of damask rose, eucalyptus, fennel, geranium, ginger, kabosu, mandarin, myrrh, and neroli. Damask rose oil had protective effects against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity, while geranium and rosemary oil showed protective activity against zinc-induced neurotoxicity. In contrast, geranium oil and ginger oil enhanced the neurotoxicity of tamoxifen. Our in vitro assay system could be useful for the neuropharmacological and endocrine pharmacological studies of essential oils. PMID:26576190

  12. Repellent effectiveness of seven plant essential oils, sunflower oil and natural insecticides against horn flies on pastured dairy cows and heifers.

    PubMed

    Lachance, S; Grange, G

    2014-06-01

    Plant essential oils (basil, geranium, balsam fir, lavender, lemongrass, peppermint, pine and tea tree), mixed with either sunflower oil or ethyl alcohol, were applied at 5% concentrations to the sides of Holstein cattle. Pastured cattle treated with essential oils diluted in sunflower oil had less flies than the untreated control for a 24-h period. However, the essential oil treatments were not significantly different than the carrier oil alone. Barn-held heifers treated with essential oils and sunflower oil alone had significantly less flies than the untreated control for up to 8 h after treatment. Basil, geranium, lavender, lemongrass and peppermint repelled more flies than sunflower oil alone for a period ranging from 1.5 to 4 h after treatments applied to heifers. All essential oils repelled > 75% of the flies on the treated area for 6 and 8 h on pastured cows and indoor heifers, respectively. Geranium, lemongrass and peppermint stayed effective for a longer duration. Essential oils mixed with ethyl alcohol demonstrated less repellence than when mixed with the carrier oil. Safer's soap, natural pyrethrins without piperonyl butoxide and ethyl alcohol alone were not efficient at repelling flies. Essential oils could be formulated for use as fly repellents in livestock production. PMID:24382265

  13. An In Vitro System Comprising Immortalized Hypothalamic Neuronal Cells (GT1–7 Cells) for Evaluation of the Neuroendocrine Effects of Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Dai; Konoha-Mizuno, Keiko; Mori, Miwako; Yamazaki, Kentaro; Haneda, Toshihiro; Koyama, Hironari; Kawahara, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Aromatherapy and plant-based essential oils are widely used as complementary and alternative therapies for symptoms including anxiety. Furthermore, it was reportedly effective for the care of several diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and depressive illness. To investigate the pharmacological effects of essential oils, we developed an in vitro assay system using immortalized hypothalamic neuronal cells (GT1–7 cells). In this study, we evaluated the effects of essential oils on neuronal death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), aluminum, zinc, or the antagonist of estrogen receptor (tamoxifen). Among tests of various essential oils, we found that H2O2-induced neuronal death was attenuated by the essential oils of damask rose, eucalyptus, fennel, geranium, ginger, kabosu, mandarin, myrrh, and neroli. Damask rose oil had protective effects against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity, while geranium and rosemary oil showed protective activity against zinc-induced neurotoxicity. In contrast, geranium oil and ginger oil enhanced the neurotoxicity of tamoxifen. Our in vitro assay system could be useful for the neuropharmacological and endocrine pharmacological studies of essential oils. PMID:26576190

  14. Virulence and in planta movement of Xanthomonas hortorum pv. pelargonii are affected by the diffusible signal factor (DSF)-dependent quorum sensing system.

    PubMed

    Barel, Victoria; Chalupowicz, Laura; Barash, Isaac; Sharabani, Galit; Reuven, Michal; Dror, Orit; Burdman, Saul; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit

    2015-09-01

    Xanthomonas hortorum pv. pelargonii (Xhp), the causal agent of bacterial blight in pelargonium, is the most threatening bacterial disease of this ornamental worldwide. To gain an insight into the regulation of virulence in Xhp, we have disrupted the quorum sensing (QS) genes, which mediate the biosynthesis and sensing of the diffusible signal factor (DSF). Mutations in rpfF (encoding the DSF synthase) and rpfC (encoding the histidine sensor kinase of the two-component system RfpC/RpfG) and overexpression of rpfF showed a significant reduction in incidence and severity of the disease on pelargonium. Confocal laser scanning microscopy images of inoculated plants with a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled wild-type strain showed that the pathogen is homogeneously dispersed in the lumen of xylem vessels, reaching the apex and invading the intercellular spaces of the leaf mesophyll tissue within 21 days. In contrast, the rpfF and rpfC knockout mutants, as well as the rpfF-overexpressing strain, remained confined to the vicinity of the inoculation site. The rpfF and rpfC mutants formed large incoherent aggregates in the xylem vessels that might interfere with upward movement of the bacterium within the plant. Both mutants also formed extended aggregates under in vitro conditions, whereas the wild-type strain formed microcolonies. Expression levels of putative virulence genes in planta were substantially reduced within 48 h after inoculation with the QS mutants when compared with the wild-type. The results presented indicate that an optimal DSF concentration is crucial for successful colonization and virulence of Xhp in pelargonium. PMID:25530086

  15. Are nitric oxide donors a valuable tool to study the functional role of nitric oxide in plant metabolism?

    PubMed

    Arasimowicz-Jelonek, M; Floryszak-Wieczorek, J; Kosmala, A

    2011-09-01

    In the present work, we tested known nitric oxide (NO) modulators generating the NO+ (sodium nitroprusside, SNP) and NO˙ forms (S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D-penicillamine, SNAP and nitrosoglutathione, GSNO). This allowed us to compare downstream NO-related physiological effects on proteins found in leaves of pelargonium (Pelargonium peltatum L.). Protein modification via NO donors generally affects plant metabolism in a distinct manner, manifested by a lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) content and lipoxygenase (LOX) activity in response to SNAP and GSNO. This is in contrast to the response observed for SNP treatment. Most changes in enzyme activity (GR, glutathione reductase; GST, glutathione-S-transferase; GPX, glutathione peroxidase) are most spectacular and repeatable during the first 8 h of incubation, which is explained by the half-life of the applied donors. In particular, a close dependence was found between the time-course of NO emission from the applied donors and the temporary inhibition of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). The observed changes were accompanied by time-dependent alterations in protein accumulation as analysed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) in pelargonium leaves treated with NO donors (SNP, SNAP and GSNO). Using proteomics, different proteins were found to be down- and up-regulated. However, no new protein spots characteristic of all three donors were found. These results indicate that the form of NO emitted from the donor structure plays a key role in switching on appropriate metabolic modifications. It has been noted that several NO-affected metabolomic changes induced by the used donors were not comparable, which confirms the need to maintain caution when interpreting results obtained using the pharmacological approach with different NO modulator compounds. PMID:21815979

  16. The effect of essential oils on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using a dressing model.

    PubMed

    Edwards-Jones, V; Buck, R; Shawcross, S G; Dawson, M M; Dunn, K

    2004-12-01

    Patchouli, tea tree, geranium, lavender essential oils and Citricidal (grapefruit seed extract) were used singly and in combination to assess their anti-bacterial activity against three strains of Staphylococcus aureus: Oxford S. aureus NCTC 6571 (Oxford strain), Epidemic methicillin-resistant S. aureus (EMRSA 15) and MRSA (untypable). The individual essential oils, extracts and combinations were impregnated into filter paper discs and placed on the surface of agar plates, pre-seeded with the appropriate strain of Staphylococcus. The effects of the vapours of the oils and oil combinations were also assessed using impregnated filter paper discs that were placed on the underside of the Petri dish lid at a distance of 8mm from the bacteria. The most inhibitory combinations of oils for each strain were used in a dressing model constructed using a four layers of dressings: the primary layer consisted of either Jelonet or TelfaClear with or without Flamazine; the second was a layer of gauze, the third a layer of Gamgee and the final layer was Crepe bandage. The oil combinations were placed in either the gauze or the Gamgee layer. This four-layered dressing was placed over the seeded agar plate, incubated for 24h at 37 degrees C and the zones of inhibition measured. All experiments were repeated on three separate occasions. No anti-bacterial effects were observed when Flamazine was smeared on the gauze in the dressing model. When Telfaclear was used as the primary layer in the dressing model compared to Jelonet, greater zones of inhibition were observed. A combination of Citricidal and geranium oil showed the greatest-anti-bacterial effects against MRSA, whilst a combination of geranium and tea tree oil was most active against the methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (Oxford strain). This study demonstrates the potential of essential oils and essential oil vapours as antibacterial agents and for use in the treatment of MRSA infection. PMID:15555788

  17. A TaqMan-based multiplex qPCR assay and DNA extraction method for phylotype IIB sequevars 1&2 (select agent) strains of Ralstonia solanacearum

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stulberg, Michael J.; Huang, Qi

    2015-10-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 strains belonging to phylotype IIB, sequevars 1 and 2 (IIB-1&2) cause brown rot of potato in temperate climates, and are quarantined pathogens in Canada and Europe. Since these strains are not established in the U.S. and because of their potential risk to the potato industry, the U.S. government has listed them as select agents. Cultivated geraniums are also a host and have the potential to spread the pathogen through trade, and its extracts strongly inhibits DNA-based detection methods. We designed four primer and probe sets for an improved qPCR method that targets stable regionsmore »of DNA. RsSA1 and RsSA2 recognize IIB-1&2 strains, RsII recognizes the current phylotype II (the newly proposed R. solanacearum species) strains (and a non-plant associated R. mannitolilytica), and Cox1 recognizes eight plant species including major hosts of R. solanacearum such as potato, tomato and cultivated geranium as an internal plant control. We multiplexed the RsSA2 with the RsII and Cox1 sets to provide two layers of detection of a positive IIB-1&2 sample, and to validate plant extracts and qPCR reactions. The TaqMan-based uniplex and multiplex qPCR assays correctly identified 34 IIB-1&2 and 52 phylotype II strains out of 90 R. solanacearum species complex strains. Additionally, the multiplex qPCR assay was validated successfully using 169 artificially inoculated symptomatic and asymptomatic plant samples from multiple plant hosts including geranium. Moreover, we developed an extraction buffer that allowed for a quick and easy DNA extraction from infected plants including geranium for detection of R. solanacearum by qPCR. Our multiplex qPCR assay, especially when coupled with the quick extraction buffer method, allows for quick, easy and reliable detection and differentiation of the IIB-1&2 strains of R. solanacearum.« less

  18. A TaqMan-based multiplex qPCR assay and DNA extraction method for phylotype IIB sequevars 1&2 (select agent) strains of Ralstonia solanacearum

    SciTech Connect

    Stulberg, Michael J.; Huang, Qi

    2015-10-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 strains belonging to phylotype IIB, sequevars 1 and 2 (IIB-1&2) cause brown rot of potato in temperate climates, and are quarantined pathogens in Canada and Europe. Since these strains are not established in the U.S. and because of their potential risk to the potato industry, the U.S. government has listed them as select agents. Cultivated geraniums are also a host and have the potential to spread the pathogen through trade, and its extracts strongly inhibits DNA-based detection methods. We designed four primer and probe sets for an improved qPCR method that targets stable regions of DNA. RsSA1 and RsSA2 recognize IIB-1&2 strains, RsII recognizes the current phylotype II (the newly proposed R. solanacearum species) strains (and a non-plant associated R. mannitolilytica), and Cox1 recognizes eight plant species including major hosts of R. solanacearum such as potato, tomato and cultivated geranium as an internal plant control. We multiplexed the RsSA2 with the RsII and Cox1 sets to provide two layers of detection of a positive IIB-1&2 sample, and to validate plant extracts and qPCR reactions. The TaqMan-based uniplex and multiplex qPCR assays correctly identified 34 IIB-1&2 and 52 phylotype II strains out of 90 R. solanacearum species complex strains. Additionally, the multiplex qPCR assay was validated successfully using 169 artificially inoculated symptomatic and asymptomatic plant samples from multiple plant hosts including geranium. Moreover, we developed an extraction buffer that allowed for a quick and easy DNA extraction from infected plants including geranium for detection of R. solanacearum by qPCR. Our multiplex qPCR assay, especially when coupled with the quick extraction buffer method, allows for quick, easy and reliable detection and differentiation of the IIB-1&2 strains of R. solanacearum.

  19. A TaqMan-based multiplex qPCR assay and DNA extraction method for phylotype IIB sequevars 1&2 (select agent) strains of Ralstonia solanacearum

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stulberg, Michael J.; Huang, Qi

    2015-10-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 strains belonging to phylotype IIB, sequevars 1 and 2 (IIB-1&2) cause brown rot of potato in temperate climates, and are quarantined pathogens in Canada and Europe. Since these strains are not established in the U.S. and because of their potential risk to the potato industry, the U.S. government has listed them as select agents. Cultivated geraniums are also a host and have the potential to spread the pathogen through trade, and its extracts strongly inhibits DNA-based detection methods. We designed four primer and probe sets for an improved qPCR method that targets stable regionsmore » of DNA. RsSA1 and RsSA2 recognize IIB-1&2 strains, RsII recognizes the current phylotype II (the newly proposed R. solanacearum species) strains (and a non-plant associated R. mannitolilytica), and Cox1 recognizes eight plant species including major hosts of R. solanacearum such as potato, tomato and cultivated geranium as an internal plant control. We multiplexed the RsSA2 with the RsII and Cox1 sets to provide two layers of detection of a positive IIB-1&2 sample, and to validate plant extracts and qPCR reactions. The TaqMan-based uniplex and multiplex qPCR assays correctly identified 34 IIB-1&2 and 52 phylotype II strains out of 90 R. solanacearum species complex strains. Additionally, the multiplex qPCR assay was validated successfully using 169 artificially inoculated symptomatic and asymptomatic plant samples from multiple plant hosts including geranium. Moreover, we developed an extraction buffer that allowed for a quick and easy DNA extraction from infected plants including geranium for detection of R. solanacearum by qPCR. Our multiplex qPCR assay, especially when coupled with the quick extraction buffer method, allows for quick, easy and reliable detection and differentiation of the IIB-1&2 strains of R. solanacearum.« less

  20. A TaqMan-Based Multiplex qPCR Assay and DNA Extraction Method for Phylotype IIB Sequevars 1&2 (Select Agent) Strains of Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Stulberg, Michael J; Huang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 strains belonging to phylotype IIB, sequevars 1 and 2 (IIB-1&2) cause brown rot of potato in temperate climates, and are quarantined pathogens in Canada and Europe. Since these strains are not established in the U.S. and because of their potential risk to the potato industry, the U.S. government has listed them as select agents. Cultivated geraniums are also a host and have the potential to spread the pathogen through trade, and its extracts strongly inhibits DNA-based detection methods. We designed four primer and probe sets for an improved qPCR method that targets stable regions of DNA. RsSA1 and RsSA2 recognize IIB-1&2 strains, RsII recognizes the current phylotype II (the newly proposed R. solanacearum species) strains (and a non-plant associated R. mannitolilytica), and Cox1 recognizes eight plant species including major hosts of R. solanacearum such as potato, tomato and cultivated geranium as an internal plant control. We multiplexed the RsSA2 with the RsII and Cox1 sets to provide two layers of detection of a positive IIB-1&2 sample, and to validate plant extracts and qPCR reactions. The TaqMan-based uniplex and multiplex qPCR assays correctly identified 34 IIB-1&2 and 52 phylotype II strains out of 90 R. solanacearum species complex strains. Additionally, the multiplex qPCR assay was validated successfully using 169 artificially inoculated symptomatic and asymptomatic plant samples from multiple plant hosts including geranium. Furthermore, we developed an extraction buffer that allowed for a quick and easy DNA extraction from infected plants including geranium for detection of R. solanacearum by qPCR. Our multiplex qPCR assay, especially when coupled with the quick extraction buffer method, allows for quick, easy and reliable detection and differentiation of the IIB-1&2 strains of R. solanacearum. PMID:26426354

  1. A TaqMan-Based Multiplex qPCR Assay and DNA Extraction Method for Phylotype IIB Sequevars 1&2 (Select Agent) Strains of Ralstonia solanacearum

    PubMed Central

    Stulberg, Michael J.; Huang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 strains belonging to phylotype IIB, sequevars 1 and 2 (IIB-1&2) cause brown rot of potato in temperate climates, and are quarantined pathogens in Canada and Europe. Since these strains are not established in the U.S. and because of their potential risk to the potato industry, the U.S. government has listed them as select agents. Cultivated geraniums are also a host and have the potential to spread the pathogen through trade, and its extracts strongly inhibits DNA-based detection methods. We designed four primer and probe sets for an improved qPCR method that targets stable regions of DNA. RsSA1 and RsSA2 recognize IIB-1&2 strains, RsII recognizes the current phylotype II (the newly proposed R. solanacearum species) strains (and a non-plant associated R. mannitolilytica), and Cox1 recognizes eight plant species including major hosts of R. solanacearum such as potato, tomato and cultivated geranium as an internal plant control. We multiplexed the RsSA2 with the RsII and Cox1 sets to provide two layers of detection of a positive IIB-1&2 sample, and to validate plant extracts and qPCR reactions. The TaqMan-based uniplex and multiplex qPCR assays correctly identified 34 IIB-1&2 and 52 phylotype II strains out of 90 R. solanacearum species complex strains. Additionally, the multiplex qPCR assay was validated successfully using 169 artificially inoculated symptomatic and asymptomatic plant samples from multiple plant hosts including geranium. Furthermore, we developed an extraction buffer that allowed for a quick and easy DNA extraction from infected plants including geranium for detection of R. solanacearum by qPCR. Our multiplex qPCR assay, especially when coupled with the quick extraction buffer method, allows for quick, easy and reliable detection and differentiation of the IIB-1&2 strains of R. solanacearum. PMID:26426354

  2. Evolutionary dynamics of the plastid inverted repeat: the effects of expansion, contraction, and loss on substitution rates.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Andan; Guo, Wenhu; Gupta, Sakshi; Fan, Weishu; Mower, Jeffrey P

    2016-03-01

    Rates of nucleotide substitution were previously shown to be several times slower in the plastid inverted repeat (IR) compared with single-copy (SC) regions, suggesting that the IR provides enhanced copy-correction activity. To examine the generality of this synonymous rate dependence on the IR, we compared plastomes from 69 pairs of closely related species representing 52 families of angiosperms, gymnosperms, and ferns. We explored the breadth of IR boundary shifts in land plants and demonstrate that synonymous substitution rates are, on average, 3.7 times slower in IR genes than in SC genes. In addition, genes moved from the SC into the IR exhibit lower synonymous rates consistent with other IR genes, while genes moved from the IR into the SC exhibit higher rates consistent with other SC genes. Surprisingly, however, several plastid genes from Pelargonium, Plantago, and Silene have highly accelerated synonymous rates despite their IR localization. Together, these results provide strong evidence that the duplicative nature of the IR reduces the substitution rate within this region. The anomalously fast-evolving genes in Pelargonium, Plantago, and Silene indicate localized hypermutation, potentially induced by a higher level of error-prone double-strand break repair in these regions, which generates substitutional rate variation. PMID:26574731

  3. Herb-Induced Liver Injury in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Douros, Antonios; Bronder, Elisabeth; Andersohn, Frank; Klimpel, Andreas; Kreutz, Reinhold; Garbe, Edeltraut; Bolbrinker, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Herb-induced liver injury (HILI) has recently attracted attention due to increasing reports of hepatotoxicity associated with use of phytotherapeutics. Here, we present data on HILI from the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. The study was initiated in 2000 to investigate the serious toxicity of drugs including herbal medicines. Potential cases of liver injury were ascertained in more than 180 Departments of all 51 Berlin hospitals from October 2002 to December 2011. Drug or herb intake was assessed through a standardized face-to-face interview. Drug or herbal aetiology was assessed based on the updated Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale. In ten of all 198 cases of hepatotoxicity included in the study, herbal aetiology was assessed as probable (once ayurvedic herb) or possible (Valeriana five times, Mentha piperita once, Pelargonium sidoides once, Hypericum perforatum once, Eucalyptus globulus once). Mean age was 56.4 ± 9.7 years, and the predominant pattern of liver injury was hepatocellular. No cases of acute liver failure or death were observed. This case series corroborates known risks for ayurvedic herbs, supports the suspected association between Valeriana use and liver injury, and indicates a hepatotoxic potential for herbs such as Pelargonium sidoides, Hypericum perforatum or Mentha piperita that were rarely associated with liver injury before. However, given that possible causality does not prove clinical significance, further studies in this field are needed. PMID:26784183

  4. Herb-Induced Liver Injury in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study.

    PubMed

    Douros, Antonios; Bronder, Elisabeth; Andersohn, Frank; Klimpel, Andreas; Kreutz, Reinhold; Garbe, Edeltraut; Bolbrinker, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Herb-induced liver injury (HILI) has recently attracted attention due to increasing reports of hepatotoxicity associated with use of phytotherapeutics. Here, we present data on HILI from the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. The study was initiated in 2000 to investigate the serious toxicity of drugs including herbal medicines. Potential cases of liver injury were ascertained in more than 180 Departments of all 51 Berlin hospitals from October 2002 to December 2011. Drug or herb intake was assessed through a standardized face-to-face interview. Drug or herbal aetiology was assessed based on the updated Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale. In ten of all 198 cases of hepatotoxicity included in the study, herbal aetiology was assessed as probable (once ayurvedic herb) or possible (Valeriana five times, Mentha piperita once, Pelargonium sidoides once, Hypericum perforatum once, Eucalyptus globulus once). Mean age was 56.4 ± 9.7 years, and the predominant pattern of liver injury was hepatocellular. No cases of acute liver failure or death were observed. This case series corroborates known risks for ayurvedic herbs, supports the suspected association between Valeriana use and liver injury, and indicates a hepatotoxic potential for herbs such as Pelargonium sidoides, Hypericum perforatum or Mentha piperita that were rarely associated with liver injury before. However, given that possible causality does not prove clinical significance, further studies in this field are needed. PMID:26784183

  5. Self-burial mechanics of hygroscopically responsive awns.

    PubMed

    Jung, Wonjong; Kim, Wonjung; Kim, Ho-Young

    2014-12-01

    We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the mechanics of self-burial of some plant seeds whose morphologies respond to environmental changes in humidity. The seeds of Erodium and Pelargonium have hygroscopically responsive awns that play a critical role in their self-burial into soil. The awn, coiled in a dry state, uncoils to stretch linearly under highly humid condition because of a tilted arrangement of cellulose microfibrils in one of the layers of the awn's bilayered structure. By measuring the mechanical characteristics of the awns of Pelargonium carnosum, we find that the extensional force of the awn can be aptly modeled by the theory of elasticity for a coiled spring. We further show that although the resistance to the seed-head penetrating relatively coarse soils without spinning is large enough to block the digging seed, the rotation of the seed greatly reduces the soil's resistance down to a level the awn can easily overcome. Our mechanical analysis reveals that the self-burial of the seed is a sophisticated outcome of the helically coiled configuration of the awn. PMID:24760793

  6. Investigation of the dermal sensitization potential of various essential oils in the local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Lalko, J; Api, A M

    2006-05-01

    Essential oils are commonly used fragrance ingredients. The oils themselves are complex mixtures, which may contain naturally occurring contact sensitizers. The local lymph node assay was used to evaluate the dermal sensitization potential of basil, citronella, clove leaf, geranium, litsea cubeba, lemongrass, and palmarosa oils. Three of the major components--citral, eugenol, and geraniol--were included to investigate any difference in sensitization potential arising from their exposure in a mixture. Each fragrance material was tested at five concentration ranging from 2.5% to 50% w/v in 1:3 ethanol:diethyl phthalate. The stimulation index (SI) values were calculated for each dose level, an SI > or = 3 was considered a positive response. The estimated concentration (EC3) required to elicit a positive was calculated and taken as a measure of relative potency. The EC3 values and potency classification for basil, clove leaf, litsea cubeba, lemongrass and palmarosa oils were calculated to be <2.5% (> or = moderate), 7.1% (weak), 8.4% (weak), 6.5% (weak) and 9.6% (weak), respectively. Citronella and geranium oils were negative. The individual components citral, eugenol and geraniol resulted in EC3 values of 6.3%, 5.4% and 11.4%, respectively. In general, the potency of each essential oil did not differ significantly from that observed for its main individual component. PMID:16324777

  7. Interspecific Variation in SO2 Flux 1

    PubMed Central

    Olszyk, David M.; Tingey, David T.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the relationships among stomatal, residual, and epidermal conductances in determining the flux of SO2 air pollution to leaves. Variations in leaf SO2 and H2O vapor fluxes were determined using four plant species: Pisum sativum L. (garden pea), Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. flacca (mutant of tomato), Geranium carolinianum L. (wild geranium), and Diplacus aurantiacus (Curtis) Jeps. (a native California shrub). Fluxes were measured using the mass-balance approach during exposure to 4.56 micromoles per cubic meter (0.11 microliters per liter) SO2 for 2 hours in a controlled environmental chamber. Flux through adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces with closed stomata ranged from 1.9 to 9.4 nanomoles per square meter per second for SO2, and 0.3 to 1.3 millimoles per square meter per second for H2O vapor. Flux of SO2 into leaves through stomata ranged from ∼0 to 8.5 (dark) and 3.8 to 16.0 (light) millimoles per square meter per second. Flux of H2O vapor from leaves through stomata ranged from ∼0 to 0.6 (dark) to 0.4 to 0.9 (light) millimole per square meter per second. Lycopersicon had internal flux rates for both SO2 and H2O vapor over twice as high as for the other species. Stomatal conductance based on H2O vapor flux averaged from 0.07 to 0.13 mole per square meter per second among the four species. Internal conductance of SO2 as calculated from SO2 flux was from 0.04 mole per square meter per second lower to 0.06 mole per square meter per second higher than stomatal conductance. For Pisum, Geranium, and Diplacus stomatal conductance was the same or slightly higher than internal conductance, indicating that, in general, SO2 flux could be predicted from stomatal conductance for H2O vapor. However, for the Lycopersicon mutant, internal leaf conductance was much higher than stomatal conductance, indicating that factors inside leaves can play a significant role in determining SO2 flux. PMID:16664551

  8. Massage with aromatherapy: effectiveness on anxiety of users with personality disorders in psychiatric hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Thiago da Silva; Braga, Eliana Mara

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the effectiveness of aromatherapy massage using the essential oils (0.5%) of Lavandula angustifolia and Pelargonium graveolens for anxiety reduction in patients with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization. METHOD Uncontrolled clinical trial with 50 subjects submitted to six massages with aromatherapy, performed on alternate days, on the cervical and the posterior thoracic regions. Vital data (heart and respiratory rate) were collected before and after each session and an anxiety scale (Trait Anxiety Inventory-State) was applied at the beginning and end of the intervention. The results were statistically analyzed with the chi square test and paired t test. RESULTS There was a statistically significant decrease (p < 0.001) of the heart and respiratory mean rates after each intervention session, as well as in the inventory score. CONCLUSION Aromatherapy has demonstrated effectiveness in anxiety relief, considering the decrease of heart and respiratory rates in patients diagnosed with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization. PMID:26107706

  9. Immediate skin and mucosal symptoms from pot plants and vegetables in gardeners and greenhouse workers.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, E; Skov, P S; Andersen, K E

    1998-10-01

    Short-lived occupational skin symptoms of irritant or urticarial nature were commonly reported among 253 attendants in a clinical study on occupational dermatitis in Danish gardeners and greenhouse workers. Aimed prick or scratch-patch testing for immediate skin and mucosal symptoms was performed in 105 persons with plants as is. 35 persons (33%) had at least 1 positive reaction and a family history of, or personal, atopy was significantly more prevalent among these compared to attendants with negative reactions. Positive histamine release tests made immunologic etiology probable in Schlumbergera cacti, Stephanotis floribunda, Euphorbia pulcherrima and Gerbera reactions. Other new species implicated in immediate-type reactions included Ficus pumila, Gardenia jasminoides, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Campanula, Columnea, Epipremnum aureum, Pelargonium and Primula vulgaris. Because of the high prevalence of short-lived skin symptoms and because contact urticaria may present itself as a dermatitis, it is recommended that one supplement patch tests with tests for immediate reactions. PMID:9817221

  10. Mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) and distinguish them from other MLOs.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, K; Kato, S; Iwanami, S; Murata, N

    1993-04-01

    DNA of 10 lines of rice yellow dwarf (RYD) mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) from Japan, the Phillippines, and Thailand hybridized with four probes containing chromosomal and six probes containing extrachromosomal DNA of a Tochigi (Japan) line of RYD MLO. One chromosomal probe (RYD9) and all six extrachromosomal probes hybridized with various other MLOs (sugarcane white leaf, onion yellows, cineraria witches'-broom, Japanese hornwort witches'-broom, water dropwort wiches'-broom, gentian witches'-broom, udo dwarf, tsuwabuki witches'-broom, pelargonium witches's-broom, peach western-X, and pear decline). DNA from the culturable mollicutes Spiroplasma kunkelii, Spiroplasma citri, Mycoplasma hominis, and Mycoplasma orale did not hybridize with RYD MLO probes. The extrachromosomal DNAs hybridizing with the probes showed variations in electrophoretic behavior. PMID:8489230

  11. Key Importance of Small RNA Binding for the Activity of a Glycine-Tryptophan (GW) Motif-containing Viral Suppressor of RNA Silencing*

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Cañamás, Miryam; Hernández, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Viruses express viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) to counteract RNA silencing-based host defenses. Although virtually all stages of the antiviral silencing pathway can be inhibited by VSRs, small RNAs (sRNAs) and Argonaute (AGO) proteins seem to be the most frequent targets. Recently, GW/WG motifs of some VSRs have been proposed to dictate their suppressor function by mediating interaction with AGO(s). Here we have studied the VSR encoded by Pelargonium line pattern virus (family Tombusviridae). The results show that p37, the viral coat protein, blocks RNA silencing. Site-directed mutagenesis of some p37 sequence traits, including a conserved GW motif, allowed generation of suppressor-competent and -incompetent molecules and uncoupling of the VSR and particle assembly capacities. The engineered mutants were used to assess the importance of p37 functions for viral infection and the relative contribution of diverse molecular interactions to suppressor activity. Two main conclusions can be drawn: (i) the silencing suppression and encapsidation functions of p37 are both required for systemic Pelargonium line pattern virus infection, and (ii) the suppressor activity of p37 relies on the ability to bind sRNAs rather than on interaction with AGOs. The data also caution against potential misinterpretations of results due to overlap of sequence signals related to distinct protein properties. This is well illustrated by mutation of the GW motif in p37 that concurrently affects nucleolar localization, efficient interaction with AGO1, and sRNA binding capability. These concomitant effects could have been overlooked in other GW motif-containing suppressors, as we exemplify with the orthologous p38 of turnip crinkle virus. PMID:25505185

  12. Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at the Oakley Southern Sky Observatory: 2009 October thru 2010 April

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, Kenda; Kragh, Katherine; Monnier, Adam; Pligge, Zachary; Stolze, Kellen; West, Josh; Yim, Arnold; Ditteon, Richard

    2010-10-01

    Photometric data for 44 asteroids were collected over 54 nights of observing during 2009 October thru 2010 April at the Oakley Southern Sky Observatory. The asteroids were: 826 Henrika, 918 Itha, 983 Gunila, 1049 Gotho, 1167 Dubiago, 1181 Lilith, 1227 Geranium, 1604 Tombaugh, 1636 Porter, 1826 Miller, 1977 Shura, 2004 Lexell, 2196 Ellicott, 2303 Retsina, 2307 Garuda, 2601 Bologna, 2609 Kiril-Metodi, 2851 Harbin, 2881 Meiden, 3118 Claytonsmith, 3324 Avsyuk, 3640 Gostin, 4207 Chernova, 4536 Drewpinsky, 4838 Billmclaughlin, 5235 Jean-Loup, 5274 Degewij, 5240 Kwasan, (6019) 1991 RO6, 6091 Mitsuru, 6961 Ashitaka, (7111) 1985 QA1, (8228) 1996 YB2, 11017 Billputnam, (13023) 1988 XT1, (14741) 2000 EQ49, 15938 Bohnenblust, 16463 Nayoro, (17633) 1996 JU, (21023) 1989 DK, 21558 Alisonliu, (21594) 1998 VP31, (34459) 2000 SC91, and (189099) 2001 RO.

  13. Enantiomeric composition of (3R)-(-)- and (3S)-(+)-linalool in various essential oils of Indian origin by enantioselective capillary gas chromatography-flame ionization and mass spectrometry detection methods.

    PubMed

    Chanotiya, Chandan S; Yadav, Anju

    2009-04-01

    Enantiomeric ratios of linalool have been determined in various authentic essential oils of Indian origin using 10% heptakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-beta-cyclodextrin as a chiral stationary phase. A complete enantiomeric excess (ee) for (3S)-(+)-linalool was characteristic of Lippia alba and Cinnamomum tamala leaf oils while less than 90% excess was noticed in Zanthoxylum armatum leaf, Zingiber roseum root/rhizome and Citrus sinensis leaf oils. On the contrary, an enantiomeric excess of (3R)-(-)-linalool characterizes essential oils of basil (100% for Ocimum basilicum) and bergamot mint (72 to 75% for Mentha citrata). Notably, some essential oils containing both enantiomers in equal ratios or in racemic forms are rose, geranium, lemongrass and Origanum. The enantiomeric composition studies are discussed as indicators of origin authenticity and quality of essential oil of Indian origin. PMID:19476006

  14. Antibacterial properties of some plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Alanís, A D; Calzada, F; Cervantes, J A; Torres, J; Ceballos, G M

    2005-08-22

    Antibacterial properties of aqueous and methanolic extracts of 26 medicinal plants used in Mexico to treat gastrointestinal disorders were tested against eight different species of enteropathogens: two Escherichia coli species; two Shigella sonnei species; two Shigella flexneri species; and two Salmonella sp. species. The results showed that all crude extracts exhibited antibacterial activity, at least against one of the microorganisms tested, at concentrations of 8 mg/mL or lower. The extracts from Caesalpinia pulcherria, Chiranthodendron pentadactylon, Cocos nucifera, Geranium mexicanum (aerial parts and roots), Hippocratea excelsa, and Punica granatum possessed strong antibacterial activity against most of the pathogens tested. In general, methanolic extracts were more active than aqueous extracts. Their activity was higher than chloramphenicol but did not exceed that of trimethoprim. Shigella sonnei species showed the highest susceptibility to both extracts. This is the first evaluation of these plants against bacterial pathogen isolates, which cause diarrhea and dysentery in Mexican population. PMID:16005589

  15. Staining paraffin extracted, alcohol rinsed and air dried plant tissue with an aqueous mixture of three dyes.

    PubMed

    Graham, E T; Trentham, W R

    1998-07-01

    A staining solution containing alcian blue 8GX, Bismarck brown Y and safranin O was prepared with 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer, pH 5.0. Paraffin was extracted with MicroClear solvent from 10 microm tissue sections mounted on slides. Paraffin solvent was removed by rinsing with isopropanol, and tissues were air dried. Slides with bare dry tissue sections were immersed in the triple stain and structures could be distinguished within 30 min as follows: nonlignified cell walls, blue; lignified cell walls, nuclei and chloroplasts, red; and cuticle, brown or yellow-brown. Excess staining solution was removed by rinsing with tap water, and the tissues were air dried again. Coverslips were affixed with resin over the stained dry tissues. This novel procedure was tested with immature tomato fruit, mature apple fruit, and various leaf and stem specimens of dogwood, laurel, pawpaw, poinsettia and zonal geranium. PMID:9735876

  16. Portable Radiation Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from Kennedy Space Center, General Pneumatics Corporation's Western Research Center satisfied a NASA need for a non-clogging Joule-Thomson cryostat to provide very low temperature cooling for various sensors. This NASA-supported cryostat development played a key part in the development of more portable high-purity geranium gamma-ray detectors. Such are necessary to discern between the radionuclides in medical, fuel, weapon, and waste materials. The outcome of the SBIR project is a cryostat that can cool gamma-ray detectors, without vibration, using compressed gas that can be stored compactly and indefinitely in a standby mode. General Pneumatics also produces custom J-T cryostats for other government, commercial and medical applications.

  17. Satellite material contaminant optical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, B. E.; Bertrand, W. T.; Seiber, B. L.; Kiech, E. L.; Falco, P. M.; Holt, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    The Air Force Wright Research and Development Center and the Arnold Engineering Development Center are continuing a program for measuring optical effects of satellite material outgassing products on cryo-optic surfaces. Presented here are infrared (4000 to 700 cm(-1)) transmittance data for contaminant films condensed on a 77 K geranium window. From the transmittance data, the contaminant film refractive and absorptive indices (n, k) were derived using an analytical thin-film interference model with a nonlinear least-squares algorithm. To date 19 materials have been studied with the optical contents determined for 13 of those. The materials include adhesives, paints, composites, films, and lubricants. This program is continuing and properties for other materials will be available in the future.

  18. Behavioral Response of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to 20 Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Emilie, Deletre; Mallent, Maelle; Menut, Chantal; Chandre, Fabrice; Martin, Thibaud

    2015-08-01

    In the Mediterranean region, the use of small-mesh netting to protect horticultural crops is an effective sustainable tool against pests. But in tropical regions, because of high humidity under the net favoring fungal development, netting with a larger mesh size has to be used, protecting crops against lepidopteran pests but not against small pests such as hemipterans, thrips, and phytophagous mites. A combination of netting with a repellent or irritant product is one possible solution, but the desire to reduce the use of synthetic chemicals and mitigate resistance issues calls for a natural alternative. The objective of this study was to evaluate the repellent, irritant, and toxic effects of nets dipped in 20 different plant extracts on Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) adults. The repellent effect of volatile compounds was evaluated using a still-air olfactometer. The irritant effect and toxicity were evaluated with a no-choice test in tubes separated into two parts by an impregnated net. Our results showed the seven most irritant and toxic products against B. tabaci were aframomum, cinnamon, geranium, dill, citronella, litsea, and savory. The most repellent were aframomum and lemongrass, although cinnamon, geranium, and savory were also repellent at higher doses. Effects varied with the plant extract and the concentration, and effects were independent of one another, i.e., an essential oil can be irritant but not repellent, suggesting that the repellent mechanism and that behind the irritant or toxic effects is not the same. The use of repellent compounds in combination with netting as new pest control strategy is discussed. PMID:26470332

  19. Traditional medicine in Sakarya province (Turkey) and antimicrobial activities of selected species.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Ergin; Sariyar, Günay; Adsersen, Anne; Karakoc, Berna; Otük, Gülten; Oktayoglu, Ercan; Pirildar, Sevda

    2004-12-01

    Traditional medicine in North-West of Turkey (Sakarya province) were studied during a 2 months field study by interviewing local informants from several villages. Plant species used to treat infections were tested for antimicrobial activity. Information was collected for 46 plant species from 30 families and for 5 animal species. Twenty four of the plant species were cultivated. Most used families were Asteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Lamiaceae and Rosaceae and the most used plants were Artemisia absinthium, Equisetum telmateia, Lavandula stoechas, Melissa officinalis, Tussilago farfara and Urtica dioica. A total of 139 medicinal uses were obtained. Plants are used mainly for infectious diseases (18%), for neurological and psychological disorders (13.7%), cardiovascular disorders (13%), skin disorders (12.2%) and respiratory disorders (10.1%). Extracts were tested in vitro for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 65538, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Klebsiella pneumonia ATCC 4352, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 1539, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, Proteus mirabilis and Candida albicans ATCC 10231, using microbroth dilution technique according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). This research showed that Arum maculatum, Datura stramonium, Geranium asphodeloides and Equisetum telmateia petroleum ether extracts had MIC values of 39.1 microg/ml, 78.1 microg/ml, 78.1 microg/ml and 39.1 microg/ml, respectively against Staphylococcus epidermidis. Datura stramonium petroleum ether extract had a MIC value of 39.1 microg/ml against Escherichia coli and Trachystemon orientalis ethanol extract had a MIC value of 39.1 microg/ml against Escherichia coli. The antimicrobial activity of Arum maculatum, Equisetum telmateia, Geranium asphodeloides, Plantago intermedia, Senecio vulgaris and Trachystemon orientalis has been reported here for the first time. PMID:15507351

  20. Apparent Resistivity and Estimated Interaction Potential of Surface Water and Groundwater along Selected Canals and Streams in the Elkhorn-Loup Model Study Area, North-Central Nebraska, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teeple, Andrew P.; Vrabel, Joseph; Kress, Wade H.; Cannia, James C.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the State of Nebraska adopted new legislation that in part requires local Natural Resources Districts to include the effect of groundwater use on surface-water systems in their groundwater management plan. In response the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Upper Elkhorn, Lower Elkhorn, Upper Loup, Lower Loup, Middle Niobrara, Lower Niobrara, Lewis and Clark, and Lower Platte North Natural Resources Districts, did a study during 2006-07 to investigate the surface-water and groundwater interaction within a 79,800-square-kilometer area in north-central Nebraska. To determine how streambed materials affect surface-water and groundwater interaction, surface geophysical and lithologic data were integrated at four sites to characterize the hydrogeologic conditions within the study area. Frequency-domain electromagnetic and waterborne direct- current resistivity profiles were collected to map the near-surface hydrogeologic conditions along sections of Ainsworth Canal near Ainsworth, Nebraska; Mirdan and Geranium Canals near Ord, Nebraska; North Loup River near Ord, Nebraska; and Middle Loup River near Thedford, Nebraska. Lithologic data were collected from test holes at each site to aid interpretation of the geophysical data. Geostatistical analysis incorporating the spatial variability of resistivity was used to account for the effect of lithologic heterogeneity on effective hydraulic permeability. The geostatistical analysis and lithologic data descriptions were used to make an interpretation of the hydrogeologic system and derive estimates of surface-water/groundwater interaction potential within the canals and streambeds. The estimated interaction potential at the Ainsworth Canal site and the Mirdan and Geranium Canal site is generally low to moderately low. The sediment textures at nearby test holes typically were silt and clay and fine-to-medium sand. The apparent resistivity values for these sites ranged from 2 to 120 ohm-meters. The vertical and horizontal variability of the apparent resistivity data were consistently low. Low resistive variability indicates little lithologic heterogeneity for either canal site. The surface-water/groundwater interaction-potential estimates are in agreement with the narrow frequency distribution of resistivity, low apparent resistivities, low spatial heterogeneity, and test-hole grain-size ranges. The estimated surface-water/groundwater interaction potential at the North Loup and Middle Loup River sites is moderate to moderately high. The sediment textures at nearby test holes were predominantly fine, medium, and coarse sand with some silt and silty to sandy clay. The apparent resistivity values for these sites ranged from 34 to 1,338 ohm-meters. The vertical variability of the resistivity data was moderately high. The horizontal variability at these sites is low to moderately low. The higher resistive variability at these sites indicates generally greater lithologic heterogeneity than at either the Ainsworth Canal site or the Mirdan and Geranium Canal site. The surface-water/groundwater interaction-potential estimates are in agreement with the generally moderate to high apparent resistivity, the greater spatial heterogeneity, and the variable lithologic texture. A higher interaction potential as compared to the canal sites is expected because of the higher subsurface resistivity and greater lithologic heterogeneity.

  1. Peril in the market-classification and dosage of species used as anti-diabetics in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Peru is what Peruvian anthropologist Lupe Camino calls the “health axis” of the old Central Andean culture area stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. In particular in the North of the country the traditional use of medicinal dates back as far as the first millennium B.C. Both healers, and the wider population, often buy their medicinal plants in local markets, but there is very little comparative information available about which plants are sold under which vernacular name at any given time, for which indication, and which dosage information and information about side effects is given by vendors. For this study we used two traditionally used species groups “Hercampuri” Gentianella spec. (Gentianaceae) and “Pasuchaca” Geranium spec. (Geraniaceae.), found in the Mercado Aviación in Lima, as small, clearly circumscribed plant group frequently used to treat symptoms of diabetes as a test case to study the taxonomy, indications, dosage, indicated side effects, and additional species used as admixtures and hypothesized that: 1. A wide variety of different species is sold under the same common name, and often several common names exist for one species. 2. There is no consistency in the dosage, or a relationship between dosage and species marketed under one name. 3. However, there is consistency in the knowledge about usage and side effects. Methods Surveys focusing on medicinal plants sold and their properties were conducted at the Mercado Aviación in Lima in December 2012. Vouchers of all specimens were deposited at the National Herbarium of Peru. Results and conclusions Our surveys in Mercado Aviación in Lima yielded four species of Gentianella, two of Geranium, and three additional species from three genera used as common additives that were sold as anti-diabetic. These results indicate that even in case of only a few plant species, used for a very clearly circumscribed application, patients run a considerable risk when purchasing their remedies in the market. The possible side effects in this case are the more serious because diabetes has to be treated long term, and as such the patients are ingesting possible toxic remedies over a long period of time. Much more control, and a much more stringent identification of the material sold in public markets, and entering the global supply chain via internet sales, would be needed. PMID:23718140

  2. Cell wall composition profiling of parasitic giant dodder (Cuscuta reflexa) and its hosts: a priori differences and induced changes.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Hanne R; Striberny, Bernd; Olsen, Stian; Vidal-Melgosa, Silvia; Fangel, Jonatan U; Willats, William G T; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Krause, Kirsten

    2015-08-01

    Host plant penetration is the gateway to survival for holoparasitic Cuscuta and requires host cell wall degradation. Compositional differences of cell walls may explain why some hosts are amenable to such degradation while others can resist infection. Antibody-based techniques for comprehensive profiling of cell wall epitopes and cell wall-modifying enzymes were applied to several susceptible hosts and a resistant host of Cuscuta reflexa and to the parasite itself. Infected tissue of Pelargonium zonale contained high concentrations of de-esterified homogalacturonans in the cell walls, particularly adjacent to the parasite's haustoria. High pectinolytic activity in haustorial extracts and high expression levels of pectate lyase genes suggest that the parasite contributes directly to wall remodeling. Mannan and xylan concentrations were low in P. zonale and in five susceptible tomato introgression lines, but high in the resistant Solanum lycopersicum cv M82, and in C. reflexa itself. Knowledge of the composition of resistant host cell walls and the parasite's own cell walls is useful in developing strategies to prevent infection by parasitic plants. PMID:25808919

  3. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extracts as reducing agents

    PubMed Central

    Elia, Paz; Zach, Raya; Hazan, Sharon; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Porat, Ze’ev; Zeiri, Yehuda

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared using four different plant extracts as reducing and stabilizing agents. The extracts were obtained from the following plants: Salvia officinalis, Lippia citriodora, Pelargonium graveolens and Punica granatum. The size distributions of the GNPs were measured using three different methods: dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle-tracking analysis and analysis of scanning electron microscopy images. The three methods yielded similar size distributions. Biocompatibility was examined by correlation of L-cell growth in the presence of different amounts of GNPs. All GNPs showed good biocompatibility and good stability for over 3 weeks. Therefore, they can be used for imaging and drug-delivery applications in the human body. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to view the shapes of the larger GNPs, while infrared spectroscopy was employed to characterize the various functional groups in the organic layer that stabilize the particles. Finally, active ingredients in the plant extract that might be involved in the formation of GNPs are proposed, based on experiments with pure antioxidants that are known to exist in that plant. PMID:25187704

  4. In Vitro Activity of Twenty Commercially Available, Plant-Derived Essential Oils against Selected Dermatophyte Species.

    PubMed

    Nardoni, Simona; Giovanelli, Silvia; Pistelli, Luisa; Mugnaini, Linda; Profili, Greta; Pisseri, Francesca; Mancianti, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    The in vitro activity of twenty chemically defined essential oils (EOs) obtained from Boswellia sacra, Citrus bergamia, C. limon, C. medica, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Eucalyptus globulus, Foeniculum vulgare, Helichrysum italicum, Illicium verum, Litsea cubeba, Mentha spicata, Myrtus communis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, O. vulgare, Pelargonium graveolens, Rosmarinus officinalis, Santalum album, Satureja montana, and Thymus serpyllum was assayed against clinical animal isolates of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. erinacei, T. terrestre and Microsporum gypseum, main causative agents of zoonotic and/or environmental dermatophytoses in humans. Single main components present in high amounts in such EOs were also tested. Different dermatophyte species showed remarkable differences in sensitivity. In general, more effective EOs were T. serpyllum (MIC range 0.025%-0.25%), O. vulgare (MIC range 0.025%-0.5%) and L. cubeba (MIC range 0.025%-1.5%). F. vulgare showed a moderate efficacy against geophilic species such as M gypseum and T terrestre. Among single main components tested, neral was the most active (MIC and MFC values 5 0.25%). The results of the present study seem to be promising for an in vivo use of some assayed EOs. PMID:26434145

  5. Self-burial mechanics of hygroscopically active awns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Wonjong; Kim, Wonjung; Kim, Ho-Young

    2013-11-01

    We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the mechanics of self-burial of some plant seeds whose morphologies respond to humidity change of the surroundings. The seeds of Pelargonium species have hygroscopically active awns that play a critical role in the dispersal from the parent plant and burial in soil. While the awn uncoils to a linear shape in a highly humid condition, it recoils to a helical shape when dry. The rotation is driven by the structure of the cell walls that are comprised of cellulose microfibers aligned in a tilted helix. During uncoiling of the awn, the revolving tail generates thrust to burrow into soil, so that the seed is self-buried. We present the direct observation of the self-burial of the seed with the thrust into a soft substrate being measured at the same time. The elastica theory allows us to rationalize this botanical digging mechanics using the structural deformations of the hygroexpansive tissues. This work was supported by the Sogang University Research Grant of 2013 (201310009.01) and the National Research Foundation of Korea (grant no. 2012-008023).

  6. Divergence of RNA polymerase α subunits in angiosperm plastid genomes is mediated by genomic rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Blazier, J Chris; Ruhlman, Tracey A; Weng, Mao-Lun; Rehman, Sumaiyah K; Sabir, Jamal S M; Jansen, Robert K

    2016-01-01

    Genes for the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) persist in the plastid genomes of all photosynthetic angiosperms. However, three unrelated lineages (Annonaceae, Passifloraceae and Geraniaceae) have been identified with unusually divergent open reading frames (ORFs) in the conserved region of rpoA, the gene encoding the PEP α subunit. We used sequence-based approaches to evaluate whether these genes retain function. Both gene sequences and complete plastid genome sequences were assembled and analyzed from each of the three angiosperm families. Multiple lines of evidence indicated that the rpoA sequences are likely functional despite retaining as low as 30% nucleotide sequence identity with rpoA genes from outgroups in the same angiosperm order. The ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions indicated that these genes are under purifying selection, and bioinformatic prediction of conserved domains indicated that functional domains are preserved. One of the lineages (Pelargonium, Geraniaceae) contains species with multiple rpoA-like ORFs that show evidence of ongoing inter-paralog gene conversion. The plastid genomes containing these divergent rpoA genes have experienced extensive structural rearrangement, including large expansions of the inverted repeat. We propose that illegitimate recombination, not positive selection, has driven the divergence of rpoA. PMID:27087667

  7. The levels of male gametic mitochondrial DNA are highly regulated in angiosperms with regard to mitochondrial inheritance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan-Yang; Zhang, Quan; Liu, Yang; Lin, Zhi-Fu; Zhang, Shao-Xiang; Sun, Meng-Xiang; Sodmergen

    2010-07-01

    The mechanisms that regulate mitochondrial inheritance are not yet clear, even though it is 100 years since the first description of non-Mendelian genetics. Here, we quantified the copy numbers of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the gametic cells of angiosperm species. We demonstrate that each egg cell from Arabidopsis thaliana, Antirrhinum majus, and Nicotiana tabacum possesses 59.0, 42.7, and 73.0 copies of mtDNA on average, respectively. These values are equivalent to those in Arabidopsis mesophyll cells, at 61.7 copies per cell. On the other hand, sperm or generative cells from Arabidopsis, A. majus, and N. tabacum possess minor amounts of mtDNA, at 0.083, 0.47, and 1 copy on average, respectively. We further reveal a 50-fold degradation of mtDNA during pollen development in A. majus. In contrast, markedly high levels of mtDNA are found in the male gametic cells of Cucumis melo and Pelargonium zonale (1296.3 and 256.7 copies, respectively). Our results provide direct evidence for mitochondrial genomic insufficiency in the eggs and somatic cells and indicate that a male gamete of an angiosperm may possess mtDNA at concentrations as high as 21-fold (C. melo) or as low as 0.1% (Arabidopsis) of the levels in somatic cells. These observations reveal the existence of a strong regulatory system for the male gametic mtDNA levels in angiosperms with regard to mitochondrial inheritance. PMID:20605854

  8. Anti-Proteus activity of some South African medicinal plants: their potential for the prevention of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cock, I E; van Vuuren, S F

    2014-02-01

    A wide variety of herbal remedies are used in traditional African medicine to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammation. Thirty-four extracts from 13 South African plant species with a history of ethnobotanical usage in the treatment of inflammation were investigated for their ability to control two microbial triggers for RA (Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris). Twenty-nine of the extracts (85.3 %) inhibited the growth of P. mirabilis and 23 of them tested (67.7 %) inhibited the growth of P. vulgaris. Methanol and water extracts of Carpobrotus edulis, Lippia javanica, Pelargonium viridflorum, Ptaeroxylon obliquum, Syzygium cordatum leaf and bark, Terminalia pruinoides, Terminalia sericea, Warburgia salutaris bark and an aqueous extract of W. salutaris leaf were effective Proteus inhibitors, with MIC values <2,000 μg/ml. The most potent extracts were examined by Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography and UV-Vis spectroscopy for the presence of resveratrol. Only extracts from T. pruinoides and T. sericea contained resveratrol, indicating that it was not responsible for the anti-Proteus properties reported here. All extracts with Proteus inhibitory activity were also either non-toxic, or of low toxicity in the Artemia nauplii bioassay. The low toxicity of these extracts and their inhibitory bioactivity against Proteus spp. indicate their potential for blocking the onset of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:23877712

  9. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extracts as reducing agents.

    PubMed

    Elia, Paz; Zach, Raya; Hazan, Sharon; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Porat, Ze'ev; Zeiri, Yehuda

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared using four different plant extracts as reducing and stabilizing agents. The extracts were obtained from the following plants: Salvia officinalis, Lippia citriodora, Pelargonium graveolens and Punica granatum. The size distributions of the GNPs were measured using three different methods: dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle-tracking analysis and analysis of scanning electron microscopy images. The three methods yielded similar size distributions. Biocompatibility was examined by correlation of L-cell growth in the presence of different amounts of GNPs. All GNPs showed good biocompatibility and good stability for over 3 weeks. Therefore, they can be used for imaging and drug-delivery applications in the human body. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to view the shapes of the larger GNPs, while infrared spectroscopy was employed to characterize the various functional groups in the organic layer that stabilize the particles. Finally, active ingredients in the plant extract that might be involved in the formation of GNPs are proposed, based on experiments with pure antioxidants that are known to exist in that plant. PMID:25187704

  10. Adverse effects of herbal medicines: an overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala K; Ernst, Edzard

    2013-02-01

    This overview of systematic reviews (SRs) aims to evaluate critically the evidence regarding the adverse effects of herbal medicines (HMs). Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant SRs, with 50 SRs of 50 different HMs meeting our inclusion criteria. Most had only minor weaknesses in methods. Serious adverse effects were noted only for four HMs: Herbae pulvis standardisatus, Larrea tridentate, Piper methysticum and Cassia senna. The most severe adverse effects were liver or kidney damage, colon perforation, carcinoma, coma and death. Moderately severe adverse effects were noted for 15 HMs: Pelargonium sidoides, Perna canaliculus, Aloe vera, Mentha piperita, Medicago sativa, Cimicifuga racemosa, Caulophyllum thalictroides, Serenoa repens, Taraxacum officinale, Camellia sinensis, Commifora mukul, Hoodia gordonii, Viscum album, Trifolium pratense and Stevia rebaudiana. Minor adverse effects were noted for 31 HMs: Thymus vulgaris, Lavandula angustifolia Miller, Boswellia serrata, Calendula officinalis, Harpagophytum procumbens, Panax ginseng, Vitex agnus-castus, Crataegus spp., Cinnamomum spp., Petasites hybridus, Agave americana, Hypericum perforatum, Echinacea spp., Silybum marianum, Capsicum spp., Genus phyllanthus, Ginkgo biloba, Valeriana officinalis, Hippocastanaceae, Melissa officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Cnicus benedictus, Salvia hispanica, Vaccinium myrtillus, Mentha spicata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Crocus sativus, Gymnema sylvestre, Morinda citrifolia and Curcuma longa. Most of the HMs evaluated in SRs were associated with only moderately severe or minor adverse effects. PMID:23472485

  11. Remediation and reclamation of soils heavily contaminated with toxic metals as a substrate for greening with ornamental plants and grasses.

    PubMed

    Jelusic, Masa; Lestan, Domen

    2015-11-01

    Soils highly contaminated with toxic metals are currently treated as waste despite their potential inherent fertility. We applied EDTA washing technology featuring chelant and process water recovery for remediation of soil with 4037, 2527, and 26 mg kg(-1) of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively in a pilot scale. A high EDTA dose (120 mmol kg(-1) of soil) removed 70%, 15%, and 58% of Pb, Zn, and Cd, respectively, and reduced human oral bioaccessibility of Pb below the limit of quantification and that of Zn and Cd 3.4 and 3.2 times. In a lysimeters experiment, the contaminated and remediated soils were laid into two garden beds (4×1×0.15 m) equipped with lysimeters, and subjected to cultivation of ornamental plants: Impatiens walleriana, Tagetes erecta, Pelargonium×peltatum, and Verbena×hybrida and grasses: Dactylis glomerata, Lolium multiflorum, and Festuca pratensis. Plants grown on remediated soil demonstrated the same or greater biomass yield and reduced the uptake of Pb, Zn and Cd up to 10, 2.5 and 9.5 times, respectively, compared to plants cultivated on the original soil. The results suggest that EDTA remediation produced soil suitable for greening. PMID:25577699

  12. The Levels of Male Gametic Mitochondrial DNA Are Highly Regulated in Angiosperms with Regard to Mitochondrial Inheritance[W

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan-Yang; Zhang, Quan; Liu, Yang; Lin, Zhi-Fu; Zhang, Shao-Xiang; Sun, Meng-Xiang; Sodmergen

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms that regulate mitochondrial inheritance are not yet clear, even though it is 100 years since the first description of non-Mendelian genetics. Here, we quantified the copy numbers of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the gametic cells of angiosperm species. We demonstrate that each egg cell from Arabidopsis thaliana, Antirrhinum majus, and Nicotiana tabacum possesses 59.0, 42.7, and 73.0 copies of mtDNA on average, respectively. These values are equivalent to those in Arabidopsis mesophyll cells, at 61.7 copies per cell. On the other hand, sperm or generative cells from Arabidopsis, A. majus, and N. tabacum possess minor amounts of mtDNA, at 0.083, 0.47, and 1 copy on average, respectively. We further reveal a 50-fold degradation of mtDNA during pollen development in A. majus. In contrast, markedly high levels of mtDNA are found in the male gametic cells of Cucumis melo and Pelargonium zonale (1296.3 and 256.7 copies, respectively). Our results provide direct evidence for mitochondrial genomic insufficiency in the eggs and somatic cells and indicate that a male gamete of an angiosperm may possess mtDNA at concentrations as high as 21-fold (C. melo) or as low as 0.1% (Arabidopsis) of the levels in somatic cells. These observations reveal the existence of a strong regulatory system for the male gametic mtDNA levels in angiosperms with regard to mitochondrial inheritance. PMID:20605854

  13. Linalool Affects the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna; Tambor, Krzysztof; Herman, Andrzej

    2016-02-01

    The high concentrations of essential oils are generally required to receive microbial purity of the products (cosmetics, medicine). On the other hand, their application due to the high concentration of essential oils may be limited by changes in organoleptic and textural quality of the products, as well as they cause irritation and allergies in users. Addition of linalool to essential oil may significantly enhance its antimicrobial effectiveness and reduce their concentrations in products, taking advantage of their synergistic and additive effects. The aim of the study was to compare antimicrobial activity of essential oil alone and in combination with linalool. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris, Juniperus communis, Pelargonium graveolens, Citrus bergamia, Citrus grandis, Lavandula angustifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Melaleuca alternifolia, Syzygium aromaticum, linalool and their combination was investigated against bacteria and fungi using the disc diffusion method. The addition of linalool to S. aromaticum oil in a synergistic manner enhanced its antimicrobial efficacy against P. aeruginosa and A. brasiliensis. Moreover, the additive interaction between this oil and linalool was observed against S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans. It was also found that linalool in an additive manner increased the antimicrobial effectiveness of T. vulgaris oil against P. aeruginosa. The antimicrobial properties of mixture of essential oils with their active constituents may be used for creating new strategies to maintain microbiological purity of products. PMID:26553262

  14. The efficacy of essential oils as natural preservatives in vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Kazempour, Nastaran; Mahboubi, Atefeh

    2014-12-01

    The efforts for finding the natural preservatives with nontoxicity and nonirritancy have encouraged the scientists to research among the medicinal plants. The preservative efficacy of Daucus carota, Ferula gummosa, Eugenium caryophyllata, Oliveria decumbens, Pelargonium graveolens, Ziziphora tenuir, Acorus calamus, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils on challenge test's pathogens and on pathogen's inoculated vegetable oil was evaluated by antimicrobial effectiveness test. Carotol (46%), β-pinene (62.7%), eugenol (78.4%), thymol (50.6%), cis-asarone (27.5%), thymol (50.1%), and α-terpineol (19.5%) were the primary main components of D. carota, F. gummosa, E. caryophyllata, T. ammi, A. calamus, O. decumbens, and Z. tenuir essential oils, respectively. A. niger was more sensitive microorganism to oils. The antimicrobial activity of O. decumbens oil was the highest. Different concentrations of essential oils were added to the vegetable oil. The results of test on the vegetable oil showed that the combination of O. decumbens and P. graveolens oils (0.5:0.5%) had enough efficacies as natural preservative in vegetable oil. PMID:24552253

  15. Functional Traits in Parallel Evolutionary Radiations and Trait-Environment Associations in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Nora; Moore, Timothy E; Mollmann, Hayley Kilroy; Carlson, Jane E; Mocko, Kerri; Martinez-Cabrera, Hugo; Adams, Christopher; Silander, John A; Jones, Cynthia S; Schlichting, Carl D; Holsinger, Kent E

    2015-04-01

    Evolutionary radiations with extreme levels of diversity present a unique opportunity to study the role of the environment in plant evolution. If environmental adaptation played an important role in such radiations, we expect to find associations between functional traits and key climatic variables. Similar trait-environment associations across clades may reflect common responses, while contradictory associations may suggest lineage-specific adaptations. Here, we explore trait-environment relationships in two evolutionary radiations in the fynbos biome of the highly biodiverse Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa. Protea and Pelargonium are morphologically and evolutionarily diverse genera that typify the CFR yet are substantially different in growth form and morphology. Our analytical approach employs a Bayesian multiple-response generalized linear mixed-effects model, taking into account covariation among traits and controlling for phylogenetic relationships. Of the pairwise trait-environment associations tested, 6 out of 24 were in the same direction and 2 out of 24 were in opposite directions, with the latter apparently reflecting alternative life-history strategies. These findings demonstrate that trait diversity within two plant lineages may reflect both parallel and idiosyncratic responses to the environment, rather than all taxa conforming to a global-scale pattern. Such insights are essential for understanding how trait-environment associations arise and how they influence species diversification. PMID:25811086

  16. Divergence of RNA polymerase α subunits in angiosperm plastid genomes is mediated by genomic rearrangement

    PubMed Central

    Blazier, J. Chris; Ruhlman, Tracey A.; Weng, Mao-Lun; Rehman, Sumaiyah K.; Sabir, Jamal S. M.; Jansen, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Genes for the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) persist in the plastid genomes of all photosynthetic angiosperms. However, three unrelated lineages (Annonaceae, Passifloraceae and Geraniaceae) have been identified with unusually divergent open reading frames (ORFs) in the conserved region of rpoA, the gene encoding the PEP α subunit. We used sequence-based approaches to evaluate whether these genes retain function. Both gene sequences and complete plastid genome sequences were assembled and analyzed from each of the three angiosperm families. Multiple lines of evidence indicated that the rpoA sequences are likely functional despite retaining as low as 30% nucleotide sequence identity with rpoA genes from outgroups in the same angiosperm order. The ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions indicated that these genes are under purifying selection, and bioinformatic prediction of conserved domains indicated that functional domains are preserved. One of the lineages (Pelargonium, Geraniaceae) contains species with multiple rpoA-like ORFs that show evidence of ongoing inter-paralog gene conversion. The plastid genomes containing these divergent rpoA genes have experienced extensive structural rearrangement, including large expansions of the inverted repeat. We propose that illegitimate recombination, not positive selection, has driven the divergence of rpoA. PMID:27087667

  17. The potential of selected South African plants with anti-Klebsiella activity for the treatment and prevention of ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Cock, I E; van Vuuren, S F

    2015-02-01

    A wide variety of herbal remedies are used in traditional African medicine to treat inflammatory disorders, including some autoimmune diseases. Thirty-four extracts from 13 South African plant species traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation were investigated for their ability to control a microbial trigger for ankylosing spondylitis (Klebsiella pneumoniae). Twenty-six of the extracts (76.5%) inhibited the growth of K. pneumoniae. Methanol and water extracts of Ballota africana, Carpobrotus edulis leaves, Kigellia africana, Lippia javanica, Pelargonium fasiculata, Syzygium cordatum (including bark), Terminalia pruinoides and Terminalia sericea were effective K. pneumoniae inhibitors, with MIC values <1000 µg/ml. The roots of Tulbaghia violaceae and bark from Warburgia salutaris also demonstrated efficacy. The most potent extracts were examined by RP-HPLC and UV-Vis spectroscopy for the presence of resveratrol. Methanolic extracts of B. africana, C. edulis leaves, L. javanica, T. pruinoides and T. sericea, as well as aqueous B. africana, T. pruinoides and T. sericea extracts, displayed peaks with retention times and UV-Vis spectra consistent with the presence of resveratrol. Resveratrol was generally a minor component, indicating that resveratrol was not solely responsible for the anti-Klebsiella growth inhibitory properties. Plant extracts with K. pneumoniae inhibitory activity were either non-toxic, or of low toxicity in the Artemia (brine shrimp) nauplii bioassay. Their low toxicity and antibiotic bioactivity against K. pneumoniae indicate their potential for both preventing the onset of ankylosing spondylitis and minimising its symptoms once the disease is established. PMID:25412961

  18. Effects of elemental sulphur on heavy metal uptake by plants growing on municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Dede, Gulgun; Ozdemir, Saim

    2016-01-15

    In this study experiment was carried out to determine the phytoextraction potential of six plant species (Conium maculatum, Brassica oleraceae var. oleraceae, Brassica juncea, Datura stramonium, Pelargonium hortorum and Conyza canadensis) grown in a sewage sludge medium amended with metal uptake promoters. The solubility of Cu, Cd and Pb was significantly increased with the application of elemental S due to decrease of pH. Faecal coliform number was markedly decreased by addition of elemental sulphur. The extraction of Cu, Cr and Pb from sewage sludge by using B. juncea plant was observed as 65%, 65% and 54% respectively that is statistically similar to EDTA as sulphur. The bioaccumulation factors were found higher (>1) in the plants tested for Cu and Pb like B. juncea. Translocation index (TI) calculated values for Cd and Pb were greater than one (>1) in both C. maculatum and B. oleraceae var. oleraceae. The results cleared that the amendment of sludge with elemental sulphur showed potential to solubilize heavy metals in phytoremediation as much as EDTA. PMID:26496839

  19. The foundation of extranuclear inheritance: plastid and mitochondrial genetics.

    PubMed

    Hagemann, Rudolf

    2010-03-01

    In 1909 two papers by Correns and by Baur published in volume 1 of Zeitschrift für induktive Abstammungs- und Vererbungslehre (now Molecular Genetics and Genomics) reported on the non-Mendelian inheritance of chlorophyll deficiencies. These papers, reporting the very first cases of extranuclear inheritance, laid the foundation for a new field: non-Mendelian or extranuclear genetics. Correns observed a purely maternal inheritance (in Mirabilis), whereas Baur found a biparental inheritance (in Pelargonium). Correns suspected the non-Mendelian factors in the cytoplasm, while Baur believed that the plastids carry these extranuclear factors. In the following years, Baur's hypothesis was proved to be correct. Baur subsequently developed the theory of plastid inheritance. In many genera the plastids are transmitted only uniparentally by the mother, while in a few genera there is a biparental plastid inheritance. Commonly there is random sorting of plastids during ontogenetic development. Renner and Schwemmle as well as geneticists in other countries added additional details to this theory. Pioneering studies on mitochondrial inheritance in yeast started in 1949 in the group of Ephrussi and Slonimski; respiration-deficient cells (petites in yeast, poky in Neurospora) were demonstrated to be due to mitochondrial mutations. Electron microscopical and biochemical studies (1962-1964) showed that plastids and mitochondria contain organelle-specific DNA molecules. These findings laid the molecular basis for the two branches of extranuclear inheritance: plastid and mitochondrial genetics. PMID:20140454

  20. Efficacy and tolerability of EPs 7630 in patients (aged 6–18 years old) with acute bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    Kamin, W; Maydannik, VG; Malek, FA; Kieser, M

    2010-01-01

    Aim: For EPs-7630, a herbal drug preparation from Pelargonium sidoides roots, therapeutic effects in respiratory tract infections outside the strict indication for antibiotics have already been demonstrated in adults. Now, a dose-finding study for EPs-7630 was performed in children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 400 patients (aged 6–18 years) were randomized to receive either 30 mg, 60 mg or 90 mg EPs-7630 or placebo daily. Primary outcome criterion was the change in the Bronchitis Severity Score (BSS) from day 0 to day 7. Results: After 7 days of treatment, the change in the BSS total score was significantly better in the 60 mg and 90 mg groups compared with placebo that of the without relevant differences between these two dosages. Especially ‘coughing’, ‘sputum’ and ‘rales at auscultation’ improved under EPs-7630. Onset of effect was faster, time of bed rest shorter and treatment outcome and satisfaction with treatment were rated better. Tolerability was comparable with placebo in all treatment groups. Conclusion: EPs-7630 is effective in acute bronchitis outside the strict indication for antibiotics in 6–18 years old patients, with a dose of 60 mg or 90 mg daily offering the best benefit/risk ratio. EPs-7630 significantly reduces the severity of symptoms, leads to a more favourable course of the disease and a faster recovery from acute bronchitis compared with the placebo, and is well tolerated. PMID:20070280

  1. Large molecules as anti-adhesive compounds against pathogens.

    PubMed

    Wittschier, N; Lengsfeld, C; Vorthems, S; Stratmann, U; Ernst, J F; Verspohl, E J; Hensel, A

    2007-06-01

    Anti-adhesive compounds are potential prophylactic tools in alternative treatment regimes against bacterial infection, as bacterial adhesion is commonly mediated by carbohydrate-protein interactions between surface adhesions of microorganisms and the host cell. The use of exogenous polyvalent, high-molecular carbohydrates and tannin-like plant-derived compounds should antagonize the adhesive interaction. A range of carbohydrates and carbohydrate- and proanthocyanidin-enriched plant extracts were screened for potential anti-adhesive effects against Helicobacter pylori, Campylobacter jejuni, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Candida albicans in different in-situ assays on primary tissue. The adhesion of H. pylori on human stomach tissue was effectively blocked by glucuronic acid-enriched polysaccharides from immature okra fruits (Abelmoschus esculentus). These compounds also had strong in-vitro effects against C. jejuni (inhibition up to 80%), but were ineffective in an in-vivo study in infected chicken broilers due to metabolism in the gastrointestinal system. Polysaccharides from Glycyrrhizia glabra, also enriched with glucuronic acid, showed strong anti-adhesive properties against H. pylori and P. gingivalis (inhibition 60-70%). Pelargonium sidoides extract, containing mainly polymeric proanthocyanidins, was effective against H. pylori in a dose-dependent manner. Due to the multifunctional adhesive strategy of C. albicans, no effective compounds were detected against this yeast. Structure-activity relationships are presented and the potential in-vivo use of carbohydrate-based anti-adhesives is discussed. PMID:17637170

  2. Identification of plant viruses using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Luo, H; Wylie, S J; Jones, M G K

    2010-05-01

    A generic assay to detect and partially characterize unknown viruses from plants was developed. Proteins extracted from virus-infected and uninfected plants were separated in one dimension by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Differentially expressed protein bands were eluted after trypsin digestion and resulting peptide fragments separated according to their mass by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Resulting peptide mass fingerprints (PMF) were compared with those in protein databases. The assay was used to identify three known viruses: the potyviruses Zucchini yellow mosaic virus and Turnip mosaic virus, and an alfamovirus Alfalfa mosaic virus. It was also used to identify a virus that manifested symptoms in wild Cakile maritima plants, tentatively identified as Pelargonium zonate spot virus (PZSV) (genus Anulavirus) by its PMF, and then confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. The detection of PZSV constitutes a first record of this virus in Australia and in this host. It is proposed that this rapid and simple assay is a useful approach for analysis of plant samples known to harbor viruses that could not be identified using antisera or nucleic acid-based assays. PMID:20170682

  3. Development of Cuscuta species on a partially incompatible host: induction of xylem transfer cells.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Nynne M; Dörr, Inge; Hansen, M; van der Kooij, T A W; Schulz, A

    2003-03-01

    The growth of dodders, Cuscuta reflexa and Cuscuta japonica, on the partially incompatible host poinsettia ( Euphorbia pulcherrima) is studied. Poinsettia responds by bark growths to the formation of the dodder haustoria and prevents dodder from obtaining normal growth. The growth instead becomes extremely branched, coral-like, and dodder lacks the ability to form haustoria. After a period of coral-like growth, long shoots sprout, resembling the normal growth. These long shoots mark an ending phase for dodder, which dies shortly after without having flowered. During the coral-like growth phase, dodder develops transfer cells in the parenchyma cells bordering the vessels of the xylem in the shoot. The transfer cells have not been observed when dodder is grown on the compatible host Pelargonium zonale. A coral-like growth phase has also been observed at the establishing phase when dodder is grown in vitro on agar; later a more normal growth form takes over. In this coral phase, xylem transfer cells are also developed. The fluorochromes carboxyfluorescein and Texas Red were loaded into the host in the phloem and xylem, respectively, and detection of these fluorochromes in the dodder stem indicated that a functional haustorial contact developed for both vascular systems. The results show that Cuscutaspp. have the genetic ability to develop xylem transfer cells and use this in response to developmental stress. PMID:12664277

  4. Involvement of liver in diabetes mellitus: herbal remedies.

    PubMed

    Thent, Z C; Das, S

    2014-01-01

    Liver disease is considered as one of the major complications in oxidative stress disorders like diabetes mellitus (DM). DM presents with deterioration in carbohydrate metabolism which is characterized with chronic hyperglycemia. The organ which involves in glucose or carbohydrate metabolism and is most likely to be affected is the liver. Deterioration in liver architecture and metabolism in DM, are considered as common findings. In the present review both biochemical and histological changes occurring in diabetic liver are conferred in detail. To counteract the oxidative stress disorders and its untoward complications, antioxidant or herbs have emerged as alternative medicine. The present review focuses on several herbs with antioxidant properties towards diabetic liver disease such as Liquorice, Pelargonium gravenolens, Momordica charantia, Propolis from bee hives, Dihar, Curcuma Longa, Tinospora cordifolia, Kangen-karyu, Parsley, Chard, Green tea Catechins and Piper sarmentosum (P.s). The herbs or the compounds present in herbs have potential to improve the liver metabolism and maintain the integrity of liver tissue in DM. The review also opens the door for effective use of herbal products for complications involved in the diabetic liver disease. PMID:25203338

  5. Brevipalpus mites Donnadieu (Prostigmata: Tenuipalpidae) associated with ornamental plants in Distrito Federal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Letícia C; Návia, Denise; Rodrigues, José C V

    2007-01-01

    Brevipalpus mites colonize a great number of fruit and ornamental plants. Mite species belonging to this genus have been associated with many plant viruses. Citrus leprosis (CiLV) is the most economically important virus transmitted by B. phoenicis mites. It has recently been shown that ornamental plant species can be alternative hosts of this virus. The high volume of trade and frequent movement of live ornamental plants make them efficient pest disseminators. Because of this, it is desirable to expand knowledge of potential pests aiming to guide the adoption of quarantine measures. This work reports ornamental plant hosts of Brevipalpus mites in the Distrito Federal (DF), as well the occurrence of symptoms consistent with Brevipalpus-borne plant viruses in these same hosts. Between July and September of 2005, five surveys were carried out in 14 localities within DF. Leaves and branches of fifty-five ornamental plant species were sampled. The species Pithecellobium avaremotemo Mart. is for the first time reported as a host for B. phoenicis (Geijskes), B. californicus Banks and B. obovatus Donnadieu species. Additionally, seven new species are reported as hosts for Brevipalpus within South America. New hosts are also listed for individual mite species. Typical symptoms of Brevipalpus-borne viruses were observed in Ligustrum sinense Lour., Pelargonium hortorum L.H. Bailey, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. and orchids (Dendrobium and Oncidium). The results of this work emphasize the potential role of the ornamental plants as vehicles for dissemination of Brevipalpus mites. PMID:17934626

  6. New uses for calcium chloride solution as a mounting medium.

    PubMed

    Herr, J M

    1992-01-01

    Fresh cross sections of stems (Psilotum nudum, Coleus blumei, and Pelargonium peltatum) and roots (Setcreasea purpurea) 120 microns thick were fixed in FPA50 (formalin: propionic acid: 50% ethanol, 5:5:90, v/v) for 24 hr and stored in 70% ethanol. The sections were transferred to water and then to 1% phloroglucin in 20% calcium chloride solution plus either hydrochloric, nitric, or lactic acid in the following ratios of phloroglucin-CaCl2 solution:acid: 25:4, 20:2, or 15:5. The sections were mounted on slides either in one of the three mixtures or in fresh 20% calcium chloride solution. A rapid reaction of the acid-phloroglucin with lignin produced a deep red color in tracheary elements and an orange-red color in sclerenchyma. Fixed and stored leaf pieces from Nymphaea odorata were autoclaved in lactic acid, washed in two changes of 95% ethanol, transferred to water, and treated with the three acid-phloroglucin-calcium chloride mixtures. The abundant astrosclereids stained an orange-red color similar to that of sclerenchyma in the sections. In addition, a new method is reported for specifically staining lignified tissues. When sections or leaf pieces are stained in aqueous 0.05% toluidine blue O, then placed in 20% calcium chloride solution, all tissues destain except those with lignified or partially lignified cell walls. Thus, toluidine blue O applied as described becomes a reliable specific test for lignin comparable to the acid-phloroglucin test. PMID:1377501

  7. A preliminary investigation of anticholinesterase activity of some Iranian medicinal plants commonly used in traditional medicine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some commonly used herbal medicine in Iran to introduce a new source for management of Alzheimer’s disease. A total of 18 aqueous-methanolic extract (1:1; v/v) from the following plants: Brassica alba, Brassica nigra, Camellia sinensis, Cinchona officinalis, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus x aurantium, Ferula assafoetida, Humulus lupulus, Juglans regia, Juniperus sabina, Myristica fragrans, Pelargonium graveolens, Pistacia vera, Punica granatum, Rheum officinale, Rosa damascena, Salix alba, and Zizyphus vulgaris were prepared and screened for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity using in vitro Ellman spectrophotometric method. Results According to the obtained results, the order of inhibitory activity (IC50 values, μg /ml) of extracts from highest to the lowest was: C. sinensis (5.96), C. aurantifolia (19.57), Z. vulgaris (24.37), B. nigra (84.30) and R. damascena (93.1). Conclusions The results indicated and confirmed the traditional use of these herbs for management of central nervous system disorders. C. sinensis showed the highest activity in inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. However, further investigations on identification of active components in the extracts are needed. PMID:24401532

  8. A DNA Barcoding Approach to Characterize Pollen Collected by Honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Bruni, Ilaria; Scaccabarozzi, Daniela; Sandionigi, Anna; Barbuto, Michela; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Labra, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated DNA barcoding effectiveness to characterize honeybee pollen pellets, a food supplement largely used for human nutrition due to its therapeutic properties. We collected pollen pellets using modified beehives placed in three zones within an alpine protected area (Grigna Settentrionale Regional Park, Italy). A DNA barcoding reference database, including rbcL and trnH-psbA sequences from 693 plant species (104 sequenced in this study) was assembled. The database was used to identify pollen collected from the hives. Fifty-two plant species were identified at the molecular level. Results suggested rbcL alone could not distinguish among congeneric plants; however, psbA-trnH identified most of the pollen samples at the species level. Substantial variability in pollen composition was observed between the highest elevation locality (Alpe Moconodeno), characterized by arid grasslands and a rocky substrate, and the other two sites (Cornisella and Ortanella) at lower altitudes. Pollen from Ortanella and Cornisella showed the presence of typical deciduous forest species; however in samples collected at Ortanella, pollen of the invasive Lonicera japonica, and the ornamental Pelargonium x hortorum were observed. Our results indicated pollen composition was largely influenced by floristic local biodiversity, plant phenology, and the presence of alien flowering species. Therefore, pollen molecular characterization based on DNA barcoding might serve useful to beekeepers in obtaining honeybee products with specific nutritional or therapeutic characteristics desired by food market demands. PMID:25296114

  9. Plant extracts with anti-inflammatory properties--a new approach for characterization of their bioactive compounds and establishment of structure-antioxidant activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Sónia; Mira, Lurdes; Nogueira, J M F; da Silva, Alda Pereira; Helena Florêncio, M

    2009-03-01

    Geranium robertianum L. (Geraniacea) and Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. (Rubiaceae) plant extracts, frequently used in traditional medicine for treatment of inflammatory and cancer diseases, were studied to identify potential bioactive compounds that may justify their therapeutic use and their underlying mechanisms of action. Since some of the pharmacological properties of these plant extracts may be linked to their antioxidant potential, the antioxidant activity, in relation to free radical scavenging, was measured by the ABTS/HRP and DPPH() assays, presenting U. tomentosa the higher activity. The antioxidant activity was also evaluated by scavenging of HOCl, the major strong oxidant produced by neutrophils and a potent pro-inflammatory agent. U. tomentosa was found to be a better protector against HOCl, which may justify its effectiveness against inflammatory diseases. SPE/LC-DAD was used for separation/purification purposes and ESI-MS/MS for identification/characterization of the major non-volatile components, mainly flavonoids and phenolic acids. The ESI-MS/MS methodology proposed can be used as a model procedure for identification/characterization of unknowns without the prerequisite for standard compounds analysis. The ESI-MS/MS data obtained were consistent with the antioxidant activity results and structure-activity relationships for the compounds identified were discussed. PMID:19201196

  10. In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils

    PubMed Central

    Prabuseenivasan, Seenivasan; Jayakumar, Manickkam; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2006-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of 21 plant essential oils against six bacterial species. Methods: The selected essential oils were screened against four gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris) and two gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus at four different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20) using disc diffusion method. The MIC of the active essential oils were tested using two fold agar dilution method at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 25.6 mg/ml. Results: Out of 21 essential oils tested, 19 oils showed antibacterial activity against one or more strains. Cinnamon, clove, geranium, lemon, lime, orange and rosemary oils exhibited significant inhibitory effect. Cinnamon oil showed promising inhibitory activity even at low concentration, whereas aniseed, eucalyptus and camphor oils were least active against the tested bacteria. In general, B. subtilis was the most susceptible. On the other hand, K. pneumoniae exhibited low degree of sensitivity. Conclusion: Majority of the oils showed antibacterial activity against the tested strains. However Cinnamon, clove and lime oils were found to be inhibiting both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Cinnamon oil can be a good source of antibacterial agents. PMID:17134518

  11. A comprehensive review of vaginitis phytotherapy.

    PubMed

    Azimi, Hanieh; Fallah-Tafti, Mehrnaz; Karimi-Darmiyan, Maliheh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2011-11-01

    To overview phytotherapy of vaginitis in order to identify new approaches for new pharmacological treatments. All related literature databases were searched for herbal medicinal treatment in vaginitis. The search terms were plant, herb, herbal therapy, phytotherapy, vaginitis, vaginal, anti-candida, anti-bacterial and anti-trichomonas. All of the human, animal and in vitro studies were included. Anti-candida, anti-bacterial and anti-trichomonas effects were the key outcomes. The plants including carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, menthol, terpinen-4-ol and thymol exhibited anti-candida effects. A very low concentration of geranium oil and geraniol blocked mycelial growth, but not yeast. Tea tree oil including terpinen-4-ol, alpha-terpinene, gamma-terpinene and alpha-terpineol showed anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-protozoal properties against trichomonas. Allium hirtifolium (persian shallot) comparable to metronidazole exhibited anti-trichomonas activity due to its components such as allicin, ajoene and other organosulfides. The plants having beneficial effects on vaginitis encompass essential oils that clear the pathway that future studies should be focused to standardize theses herbs. PMID:22514885

  12. Influence of relative humidity on direct sulfur dioxide damage to plant sexual reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Murdy, W.H.; Ragsdale, H.L.

    1980-07-01

    Results of in vivo experiments with Geranium carolinianum L. showed that sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) damaged sexual reproduction (in terms of decreased seed set) when relative humdity (RH) was 80% or above but not when RH was 70% or below. Relative humidity alone, if 80% or higher, damaged sexual reproduction; the addition of SO/sub 2/ increased the damage. A high SO/sub 2/ dosage of 1.5 ppM/7 hours at 50% RH caused leaf injury, but decreased percent seed set <5%, whereas a low SO/sub 2/ dosage of 0.2 ppM/7 hours at 90% RH decreased percent seed set by 32% without visible leaf injury. At an SO/sub 2/ dosage of 0.4 ppM/7 hours administered during anthesis, percent seed set was virtually identical with the control at 70% RH, 35% below the control at 80% RH, and 68% below the control at 90% RH.

  13. Interspecific differences in the effects of sulfur dioxide on angiosperm sexual reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    DuBay, D.T.

    1981-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to test the potential direct effects of SO/sub 2/ on sexual reproduction in several plant species with different reproductive structures and processes. In marked contrast to the sensitivity to SO/sub 2/ reported by other investigators for pollen germination and pollen tube growth in vitro, and recorded for Lepidium virginicum in this study, 4 of 5 species tested were tolerant with respect to fruit and seed set after exposure to 0.6 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 8 hours during flowering. Seed set in the one sensitive species, Geranium carolinianum, was reduced 40% from the control after exposure to SO/sub 2/, but only when relative humidity (RH) was at or above 90%. The effect of SO/sub 2/ on Lepidium pollen germination in vitro was greater than the effect of SO/sub 2/ on sexual reproduction in vivo. Sulfur dioxide reduced pollen germination in vitro 94% from the control. The same concentration of SO/sub 2/, at 90% Rh, reduced pollen germination in vivo 50% from the control, but had no effect on seed set. Predictions of effects of SO/sub 2/ on reproduction in vivo based on effects of SO/sub 2/ on pollen germination and pollen tube growth in vitro are not valid.

  14. Repellency of Cinnamomum cassia bark compounds and cream containing cassia oil to Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory and indoor conditions.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kyu-Sik; Tak, Jun-Hyung; Kim, Soon-Il; Lee, Won-Ja; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2006-11-01

    Patch and skin bioassays were used in laboratory and indoor tests to evaluate the repellency of (E)-cinnamaldehyde, identified in Cinnamomum cassia Blume bark and essential oil, and a cream containing 5% (w/w) cassia oil against Aedes aegypti (L.) females. Results were compared with those of a known C. cassia compound cinnamyl alcohol, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) and two commercial repellents: MeiMei cream containing citronella and geranium oils and Repellan S aerosol containing 19% DEET. In patch bioassay tests with A. aegypti females, (E)-cinnamaldehyde at 0.153 mg cm(-2) and DEET at 0.051 mg cm(-2) provided 93 and 89% protection at 40 min after exposure. In skin bioassay tests, (E)-cinnamaldehyde at 0.051 mg cm(-2) and DEET at 0.025 mg cm(-2) provided 87 and 95% protection at 30 min after application. (E)-Cinnamaldehyde was significantly more effective than cinnamyl alcohol in both bioassays. In indoor tests with four human volunteers, 5% cassia oil cream provided 94, 83 and 61% protection against A. aegypti females exposed for 30, 50 and 70 min after application respectively. Cassia oil cream was a slightly less effective repellent than MeiMei cream. Repellan S aerosol provided 91% repellency at 120 min after application. Products containing cassia oil merit further study as potential repellents for the protection of humans and domestic animals from blood-feeding vectors and the diseases they transmit. PMID:16894642

  15. Aroma profile of Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines by chromatographic and sensorial analyses.

    PubMed

    Noguerol-Pato, R; González-Álvarez, M; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2012-10-15

    The aroma profiles obtained of three Garnacha Tintorera-based wines were studied: a base wine, a naturally sweet wine, and a mixture of naturally sweet wine with other sweet wine obtained by fortification with spirits. The aroma fingerprint was traced by GC-MS analysis of volatile compounds and by sensorial analysis of odours and tastes. Within the volatiles compounds, sotolon (73 μg/L) and acetoin (122 μg/L) were the two main compounds found in naturally sweet wine. With regards to the odorant series, those most dominant for Garnacha Tintorera base wine were floral, fruity and spicy. Instead, the most marked odorant series affected by off-vine drying of the grapes were floral, caramelized and vegetal-wood. Finally, odorant series affected by the switch-off of alcoholic fermentation with ethanol 96% (v/v) fit for human consumption followed by oak barrel aging were caramelized and vegetal-wood. A partial least square test (PLS-2) was used to detect correlations between sets of sensory data (those obtained with mouth and nose) with the ultimate aim of improving our current understanding of the flavour of Garnacha Tintorera red wines, both base and sweet. Based on the sensory dataset analysis, the descriptors with the highest weight for separating base and sweet wines from Garnacha Tintorera were sweetness, dried fruit and caramel (for sweet wines) vs. bitterness, astringency and geranium (for base wines). PMID:23442690

  16. Laser-assisted biosynthesis for noble nanoparticles production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukhtarev, Tatiana; Edwards, Vernessa; Kukhtareva, Nickolai; Moses, Sherita

    2014-08-01

    Extracellular Biosynthesis technique (EBS) for nanoparticles production has attracted a lot of attention as an environmentally friendly and an inexpensive methodology. Our recent research was focused on the rapid approach of the green synthesis method and the reduction of the homogeneous size distribution of nanoparticles using pulse laser application. Noble nanoparticles (NNPs) were produced using various ethanol and water plant extracts. The plants were chosen based on their biomedical applications. The plants we used were Magnolia grandiflora, Geranium, Aloe `tingtinkie', Aloe barbadensis (Aloe Vera), Eucalyptus angophoroides, Sansevieria trifasciata, Impatiens scapiflora. Water and ethanol extract, were used as reducing agents to produce the nanoparticles. The reaction process was monitored using a UV-Visible spectroscopy. NNPs were characterized by Fourier Transfer Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and the Dynamic Light Scattering technique (DLS). During the pulse laser Nd-YAG illumination (λ=1064nm, 532nm, PE= 450mJ, 200mJ, 10 min) the blue shift of the surface plasmon resonance absorption peak was observed from ~424nm to 403nm for silver NP; and from ~530nm to 520 nm for gold NPs. In addition, NNPs solution after Nd-YAG illumination was characterized by the narrowing of the surface plasmon absorption resonance band, which corresponds to monodispersed NNPS distribution. FTIR, TEM, DLS, Zeta potential results demonstrated that NNPs were surrounded by biological molecules, which naturally stabilized nanosolutions for months. Cytotoxicity investigation of biosynthesized NNPs is in progress.

  17. Identification of potent odorants formed during the preparation of extruded potato snacks.

    PubMed

    Majcher, Ma?gorzata A; Jele?, Henryk H

    2005-08-10

    Extrusion cooking processing followed by air-drying has been applied to obtain low-fat potato snacks. Optimal parameters were developed for a dough recipe. Dough contained apart from potato granules 7% of canola oil, 1% of salt, 1% of baking powder, 5% of maltodextrin, and 15% of wheat flour. After the extrusion process, snacks were dried at 85 degrees C for 15 min followed by 130 degrees C for 45 min. The potent odorants of extruded potato snacks were identified using aroma extract dilution analysis and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Among the characteristic compounds, methional with boiled potato flavor, benzenemethanethiol with pepper-seed flavor, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline with popcorn flavor, benzacetaldehyde with strong flowery flavor, butanal with rancid flavor, and 2-acetylpyrazine with roasty flavor were considered to be the main contributors to the aroma of extruded potato snacks. Several compounds were concluded to be developed during extrusion cooking, such as ethanol, 3-methylbutanal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one with geranium flavor, and unknown ones with the flavor of boiled potato, cumin, candy, or parsley root. Compounds such as methanethiol, 2,3-pentanedione, limonene, 2-acetylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, 2-methyl-3,5-diethylpyrazine, 5-methyl-2,3-diethylpyrazine, and (E)-beta-damascenone were probably developed during air-drying of the potato extrudate. PMID:16076130

  18. Inhibition of quorum-sensing signals by essential oils.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Mira Agnes; Varga, Gábor Zoltán; Hohmann, Judit; Schelz, Zsuzsanna; Szegedi, Erno; Amaral, Leonard; Molnár, József

    2010-05-01

    The role of quorum sensing (QS) is well known in microbial pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance. QS is responsible for motility, swarming, and biofilm production based on the signal molecules, e.g., acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) produced by micro-organisms above certain population density. The inhibition of QS may reduce pathogenicity, antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation in systemic and local infections. The homoserine lactones and other transmitters contribute to antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity of several bacteria; consequently the inhibition of QS signals reduces the problem of resistance and virulence. Due to the increasing number of persistent non-treatable infections, there is an urgent need to develop new strategies to combat infections that destabilize bacterial communities in the host. The effect of essential oils on bacterial growth and QS were evaluated using the sensor strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) producing Escherichia coli ATTC 31298 and the grapevine colonizing Ezf 10-17 strains. Of the tested oils, rose, geranium, lavender and rosemary oils were the most potent QS inhibitors. Eucalyptus and citrus oils moderately reduced pigment production by CV026, whereas the chamomile, orange and juniper oils were ineffective. PMID:19827025

  19. Effect of Inhalation of Aromatherapy Oil on Patients with Perennial Allergic Rhinitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seo Yeon; Park, Kyungsook

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of aromatherapy oil inhalation on symptoms, quality of life, sleep quality, and fatigue level among adults with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR). Fifty-four men and women aged between 20 and 60 were randomized to inhale aromatherapy oil containing essential oil from sandalwood, geranium, and Ravensara or almond oil (the placebo) for 5 minutes twice daily for 7 days. PAR symptoms determined by Total Nasal Symptom Score (TNSS), the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ), sleep quality by Verran Synder-Halpern (VSH) scale, and fatigue level by Chalder Fatigue Scale (CFS) were assessed before and after intervention period. Compared with the placebo, the experimental group showed significant improvement in TNSS, especially in nasal obstruction. The aromatherapy group also showed significantly higher improvements in total score of RQLQ and CFS. These findings indicate that inhalation of certain aromatherapy oil helps relieve PAR symptoms, improve rhinitis-specific quality of life, and reduce fatigue in patients with PAR. In conclusion, inhalation of aromatherapy essential oil may have potential as an effective intervention to alleviate PAR. PMID:27034695

  20. Preliminary study on antifungal effect of commercial essential oils against white rot fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, Nurul Izzaty; Baharum, Azizah; Daud, Fauzi

    2015-09-01

    Protecting and preserving wood plastic composite from deterioration caused by fungal attack is a high challenge issue to cater nowadays. The objective of this study was to carry out a screening test towards antifungal effect of essential oil and to investigate the potential of raw materials that will be used as basic material for manufacturing wood plastic composite against white rot fungi. Essential oils from four types of natural products comprising cinnamon, lemongrass, lavender and geranium have been screened for their ability to inhibit five types of white rot fungi species which are Lentinus squarrosulus, Pleuorotus pulmonarius, Lentinus sp., Pleuorotus sajor-caju and Lignosus rhinocerus. The antifungal evaluation showed that no inhibitory effect against tested white rot fungi since the mycelia completely filled the plates. From the observation, mycelia of L. squarrosulus, P. pulmonarius and Lentinus sp. were found to filled the surface of falcon tubes with rubber sawdust after 15 days. Mycelia of L. squarrosulus and P. pulmonarius also were found to completely covered the surface of media that contain polypropylene and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene on it. Therefore, this report proved that the main materials that will be applicable in manufacturing of wood plastic composite had potential to be degraded by this type of fungal attack.

  1. New, rare and remarkable records of microfungi from the Slovakian Republic.

    PubMed

    Feige, G B; Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Brassmann, M; Christiaans, B; Kricke, R

    2005-01-01

    During an excursion to the Slovakian Republic (lower and upper Tatra) of the Botanical Institute of the University of Essen in 2004 we were able to collect about 150 species of microfungi as parasites or saprophytes on cultivated crops and wild plants. Some of them are new for the entire world and a few of them are new for the Slovakian Republic, e.g: Ramularia liliicola N. Ale-Agha, U. Braun & G.B. Feige on Lilium martagon L.; Septoria aegopodii DESM. Ex Kickx. F. on Aegopodium podagaria L.; Puccinia asarina Kunze on Asarum europaeum L.; Puccinia polygoni ALB. & SCHW. and Puccinia polygoni-amphibii PERS. on Bilderdykia convolvulus (L.) Du Mont.; Ramularia chamaenerii Rostr. and Mycosphaerella chamaenerii Saville on Epilobium angustifolium L.; Plasmopara pusilla (de By.) Schroet on Geranium sylvaticum L.; Cercosporidium depressum (Berk. & Br.) Deighta on Angelica sylvestris L. All specimens are located in the Herbarium ESS, Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige & N. Ale-Agha. PMID:16637188

  2. Demonstration of beneficial uses of warm water from condensers of electric-generating plants

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, L.L.; Ashley, G.C.; Hietala, J.S.; Stansfield, R.V.; Tonkinson, T.R.C.

    1980-05-01

    The report gives results of a project to demonstrate that warmed cooling water from condensers of electric generating plants can effectively and economically heat greenhouses. The 0.2-hectare demonstration greenhouse, at Northern States Power Co.'s Sherburne County (Sherco) Generating Plant, used 29.4 C water to heat both air and soil: finned-tube commercial heat exchangers were used to heat the air; and buried plastic pipes, the soil. Warm water from the Sherco 1 cooling tower was piped over 0.8 km to the greenhouse where it was cooled from 2.7 to 5.6 C before returning to the cooling tower basin. Roses and tomatoes were the principal crops in the 3-year test, although other flowers and vegetables, and conifer seedlings were also grown. The warm water heating system supplied all the greenhouse heating requirements, even at ambient temperatures as low as -40 C. Roses, snapdragons, geraniums, tomatoes, lettuce, and evergreen seedlings were grown successfully. The demonstration proved the concept to be both technically and economically feasible at Sherco, with an apparent saving of $4500/hectare in 1978 dollars over fuel oil heating, plus an annual oil savings of about 500 cu m/hectare. Privately financed commercial greenhouses heated with warm water were built at Sherco in 1977. The commercial greenhouses will expand from 0.48 to almost 1 hectare by late 1980.

  3. Demonstration of beneficial uses of warm water from condensers of electric generating plants. Final report, May 1975-April 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, L.L.; Ashley, G.C.; Hietala, J.S.; Stansfield, R.V.; Tonkinson, T.R.C.

    1980-05-01

    The report gives results of a project to demonstrate that warmed cooling water from condensers of electric generating plants can effectively and economically heat greenhouses. The 0.2-hectare demonstration greenhouse, at Northern States Power Co.'s Sherburne County (Sherco) Generating Plant, used 29.4 C water to heat both air and soil: finned-tube commercial heat exchangers were used to heat the air; and buried plastic pipes, the soil. Warm water from the Sherco 1 cooling tower was piped over 0.8 km to the greenhouse where it was cooled from 2.7 to 5.6 C before returning to the cooling tower basin. Roses and tomatoes were the principal crops in the 3-year test, although other flowers and vegetables, and conifer seedlings were also grown. The warm water heating system supplied all the greenhouse heating requirements, even at ambient temperatures as low as -40 C. Roses, snapdragons, geraniums, tomatoes, lettuce, and evergreen seedlings were grown successfully.

  4. Glycosidically bound aroma compounds and impact odorants of four strawberry varieties.

    PubMed

    Ubeda, Cristina; San-Juan, Felipe; Concejero, Beln; Callejn, Raquel M; Troncoso, Ana M; Morales, M Lourdes; Ferreira, Vicente; Hernndez-Orte, Purificacin

    2012-06-20

    This paper reports the determination of glycosidically bound aroma compounds and the olfactometric analysis in four strawberry varieties (Fuentepina, Camarosa, Candonga and Sabrina). Different hydrolytic strategies were also studied. The results showed significant differences between acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. In general terms, the greater the duration of acid hydrolysis, the higher was the content of norisoprenoids, volatile phenols, benzenes, lactones, Furaneol, and mesifurane. A total of 51 aglycones were identified, 38 of them unreported in strawberry. Olfactometric analyses revealed that the odorants with higher modified frequencies were Furaneol, ?-decalactone, ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, diacetyl, hexanoic acid, and (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one. This last compound, described as geranium/green/pepper/lettuce (linear retention index = 1378), was identified for the first time. Differences with regard to fruity, sweet, floral, and green aroma characters were observed among varieties. In Candonga and Fuentepina, the green character overpowered the sweet. In the other two strawberry varieties sweet attributes were stronger than the rest. PMID:22646744

  5. Geraniin suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and ameliorates wear particle-induced osteolysis in mouse model.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fei; Zhai, Zanjing; Jiang, Chuan; Liu, Xuqiang; Li, Haowei; Qu, Xinhua; Ouyang, Zhengxiao; Fan, Qiming; Tang, Tingting; Qin, An; Gu, Dongyun

    2015-01-01

    Wear particle-induced osteolysis and subsequent aseptic loosening remains the most common complication that limits the longevity of prostheses. Wear particle-induced osteoclastogenesis is known to be responsible for extensive bone erosion that leads to prosthesis failure. Thus, inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption may serve as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of wear particle induced osteolysis. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that geraniin, an active natural compound derived from Geranium thunbergii, ameliorated particle-induced osteolysis in a Ti particle-induced mouse calvaria model in vivo. We also investigated the mechanism by which geraniin exerts inhibitory effects on osteoclasts. Geraniin inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in a dose-dependent manner, evidenced by reduced osteoclast formation and suppressed osteoclast specific gene expression. Specially, geraniin inhibited actin ring formation and bone resorption in vitro. Further molecular investigation demonstrated geraniin impaired osteoclast differentiation via the inhibition of the RANKL-induced NF-κB and ERK signaling pathways, as well as suppressed the expression of key osteoclast transcriptional factors NFATc1 and c-Fos. Collectively, our data suggested that geraniin exerts inhibitory effects on osteoclast differentiation in vitro and suppresses Ti particle-induced osteolysis in vivo. Geraniin is therefore a potential natural compound for the treatment of wear particle induced osteolysis in prostheses failure. PMID:25016282

  6. Genetic diversity and host range variation of Ralstonia solanacearum strains entering North America.

    PubMed

    Norman, David J; Zapata, Mildred; Gabriel, Dean W; Duan, Y P; Yuen, Jeanne M F; Mangravita-Novo, Arianna; Donahoo, Ryan S

    2009-09-01

    Each year, large volumes of ornamental and food plant propagative stock are imported into the North America; occasionally, Ralstonia solanacearum is found systemically infecting this plant material. In this study, 107 new R. solanacearum strains were collected over a 10-year period from imported propagative stock and compared with 32 previously characterized R. solanacearum strains using repetitive polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) element (BOX, ERIC, and REP) primers. Additional strain comparisons were made by sequencing the endoglucanase and the cytochrome b561 genes. Using rep-PCR primers, populations could be distinguished by biovar and, to a limited extent, country of origin and original host. Similarity coefficients among rep-PCR clusters within biovars were relatively low in many cases, indicating that disease outbreaks over time may have been caused by different clonal populations. Similar population differentiations of R. solanacearum were obtained when comparing strain sequences using either the endoglucanase or cytochrome b561 genes. We found that most of the new biovar 1 strains of R. solanacearum entering the United States were genetically distinct from the biovar 1 strains currently found infecting vegetable production. These introduced biovar 1 strains also had a broader host range and could infect not only tomato, tobacco, and potato but also anthurium and pothos and cause symptoms on banana. All introductions into North America of race 3, biovar 2 strains in the last few years have been linked to geranium production and appeared to be clonal. PMID:19671009

  7. Effect of Inhalation of Aromatherapy Oil on Patients with Perennial Allergic Rhinitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seo Yeon

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of aromatherapy oil inhalation on symptoms, quality of life, sleep quality, and fatigue level among adults with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR). Fifty-four men and women aged between 20 and 60 were randomized to inhale aromatherapy oil containing essential oil from sandalwood, geranium, and Ravensara or almond oil (the placebo) for 5 minutes twice daily for 7 days. PAR symptoms determined by Total Nasal Symptom Score (TNSS), the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ), sleep quality by Verran Synder-Halpern (VSH) scale, and fatigue level by Chalder Fatigue Scale (CFS) were assessed before and after intervention period. Compared with the placebo, the experimental group showed significant improvement in TNSS, especially in nasal obstruction. The aromatherapy group also showed significantly higher improvements in total score of RQLQ and CFS. These findings indicate that inhalation of certain aromatherapy oil helps relieve PAR symptoms, improve rhinitis-specific quality of life, and reduce fatigue in patients with PAR. In conclusion, inhalation of aromatherapy essential oil may have potential as an effective intervention to alleviate PAR. PMID:27034695

  8. Susceptibility of Microsporum canis arthrospores to a mixture of chemically defined essential oils: a perspective for environmental decontamination.

    PubMed

    Nardoni, Simona; Tortorano, Annamaria; Mugnaini, Linda; Profili, Greta; Pistelli, Luisa; Giovanelli, Silvia; Pisseri, Francesca; Papini, Roberto; Mancianti, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The zoophilic dermatophyte Microsporum canis has cats as natural reservoir, but it is able to infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, where different clinical features of the so-called ringworm dermatophytosis have been described. Human infections are increasingly been reported in Mediterranean countries. A reliable control program against M. canis infection in cats should include an antifungal treatment of both the infected animals and their living environment. In this article, a herbal mixture composed of chemically defined essential oils (EOs) of Litsea cubeba (1%), Illicium verum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Pelargonium graveolens (0.5% each) was formulated and its antifungal activity assessed against M. canis arthrospores which represent the infective environmental stage of M. canis. Single compounds present in higher amounts in the mixture were also separately tested in vitro. Litsea cubeba and P. graveolens EOs were most effective (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.5%), followed by EOs of I. verum (MIC 2%) and F. vulgare (MIC 2.5%). Minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) values were 0.75% (L. cubeba), 1.5% (P. graveolens), 2.5% (I. verum) and 3% (F. vulgare). MIC and MFC values of the mixture were 0.25% and 0.5%, respectively. The daily spray of the mixture (200 μL) directly onto infected hairs inhibited fungal growth from the fourth day onwards. The compounds present in higher amounts exhibited variable antimycotic activity, with MIC values ranging from >10% (limonene) to 0.1% (geranial and neral). Thus, the mixture showed a good antifungal activity against arthrospores present in infected hairs. These results are promising for a further application of the mixture as an alternative tool or as an adjuvant in the environmental control of feline microsporosis. PMID:25854840

  9. A new leafminer on grapevine and Rhoicissus (Vitaceae) in South Africa within an expanded generic concept of Holocacista (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Heliozelidae)

    PubMed Central

    van Nieukerken, Erik J.; Geertsema, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A grapevine leafminer found recently in table grape orchards and vineyards in the Paarl region (Western Cape, South Africa) is described as Holocacista capensis sp. n. It has also been found on native Rhoicissus digitata and bred on that species in the laboratory. It is closely related to Holocacista salutans (Meyrick, 1921), comb. n. (from Antispila), described from Durban in KwaZulu-Natal, but widespread in southern Africa and a native leafminer of various Vitaceae: Rhoicissus tomentosa, Rhoicissus digitata, Rhoicissus tridentata and Cissus cornifolia. Holocacista capensis has been found on Vitis vinifera both in Gauteng and Western Cape, the earliest record being from 1950 in Pretoria. The initial host shift from native Vitaceae to Vitis must have occurred much earlier. The species is sometimes present in high densities, but hitherto no sizeable damage to the crops has been noted. The genus Holocacista Walsingham & Durrant, 1909, previously known from the single European grapevine leafminer Holocacista rivillei (Stainton, 1855), is expanded and redescribed and for the first time reported from Africa, East and South-East Asia and Australia. It comprises seven named species and at least 15 unnamed species. The following species are also recombined with Holocacista: transferred from Antispilina: South-African Holocacista varii (Mey, 2011), comb. n., feeding on Pelargonium, transferred from Antispila: the Indian species Holocacista micrarcha (Meyrick, 1926), comb. n. and Holocacista pariodelta (Meyrick, 1929), comb. n., both feeding on Lannea coromandelica, and Holocacista selastis (Meyrick, 1926), comb. n. on Psychotria dalzelii. We also remove the following from Antispila: Heliozela anna (Fletcher, 1920), comb. n. and Heliozela argyrozona (Meyrick, 1918), comb. n., whereas the following Indian Vitaceae feeding species are confirmed to belong in Antispila s. str.: Antispila argostoma Meyrick, 1916 and Antispila aristarcha Meyrick, 1916. Holocacista salutans and Holocacista varii are redescribed and diagnosed against Holocacista capensis and other South African Heliozelidae. DNA barcodes are provided for 13 species of Holocacista. PMID:26155071

  10. Synergistic Antimycobacterial Actions of Knowltonia vesicatoria (L.f) Sims

    PubMed Central

    Labuschagné, Antoinette; Hussein, Ahmed A.; Rodríguez, Benjamín; Lall, Namrita

    2012-01-01

    Euclea natalensis A.DC., Knowltonia vesicatoria (L.f) Sims, and Pelargonium sidoides DC. are South African plants traditionally used to treat tuberculosis. Extracts from these plants were used in combination with isoniazid (INH) to investigate the possibility of synergy with respect to antimycobacterial activity. The ethanol extract of K. vesicatoria was subjected to fractionation to identify the active compounds. The activity of the Knowltonia extract remained superior to the fractions with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 625.0 μg/mL against Mycobacterium smegmatis and an MIC of 50.00 μg/mL against M. tuberculosis. The K. vesicatoria extract was tested against two different drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis, which resulted in an MIC of 50.00 μg/mL on both strains. The combination of K. vesicatoria with INH exhibited the best synergistic antimycobacterial activity with a fractional inhibitory concentration index of 0.25 (a combined concentration of 6.28 μg/mL). A fifty percent inhibitory concentration of this combination against U937 cells was 121.0 μg/mL. Two compounds, stigmasta-5,23-dien-3-ol (1) and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furan-2(5H)-one (2), were isolated from K. vesicatoria as the first report of isolation for both compounds from this plant and the first report of antimycobacterial activity. Compound (1) was active against drug-sensitive M. tuberculosis with an MIC of 50.00 μg/mL. PMID:22611433

  11. Lethal and Inhibitory Activities of Plant-Derived Essential Oils Against Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Biotype B in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Fanela, T L M; Baldin, E L L; Pannuti, L E R; Cruz, P L; Crotti, A E M; Takeara, R; Kato, M J

    2016-04-01

    The silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is one of the most severe tomato pests in the world. The damage caused by this insect may compromise up to 100% of crop production, and management of this pest has relied on spraying of synthetic insecticides. However, due to the environmental issues associated with this practice, alternative methods such as the use of botanical pesticides are now used as a strategy of integrated pest management (IPM). We evaluated the effects of essential oils of five plant species on B. tabaci biotype B in tomato and demonstrate that the essential oils (0.5%) of Piper callosum (PC-EO), Adenocalymma alliaceum (AA-EO), Pelargonium graveolens (PG-EO), and Plectranthus neochilus (PN-EO) inhibit the settlement and oviposition of B. tabaci biotype B adults in tomato plants. In fumigation tests, A. alliaceum (AA-EO) at 0.4 μL/L of air after 72 h and 0.1 μL/L of air after 6 h was the most effective against nymphs and adults of B. tabaci biotype B, respectively. The major chemical constituents of PC-EO were identified as being safrole (29.3%), α-pinene (19.2%), and β-pinene (14.3%), whereas diallyl trisulfide (66.9%) and diallyl disulfide (23.3%) were the major compounds identified in AA-EO. This is the first report on the reduction of oviposition by the use of P. callosum (PC-EO) and A. alliaceum (AA-EO). In addition, the fumigant effect of A. alliaceum (AA-EO) on nymphs and adults has also been reported here for the first time. PMID:26712319

  12. Fungal Planet description sheets: 281-319.

    PubMed

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Schumacher, R K; Summerell, B A; Giraldo, A; Gené, J; Guarro, J; Wanasinghe, D N; Hyde, K D; Camporesi, E; Gareth Jones, E B; Thambugala, K M; Malysheva, E F; Malysheva, V F; Acharya, K; Álvarez, J; Alvarado, P; Assefa, A; Barnes, C W; Bartlett, J S; Blanchette, R A; Burgess, T I; Carlavilla, J R; Coetzee, M P A; Damm, U; Decock, C A; den Breeÿen, A; de Vries, B; Dutta, A K; Holdom, D G; Rooney-Latham, S; Manjón, J L; Marincowitz, S; Mirabolfathy, M; Moreno, G; Nakashima, C; Papizadeh, M; Shahzadeh Fazeli, S A; Amoozegar, M A; Romberg, M K; Shivas, R G; Stalpers, J A; Stielow, B; Stukely, M J C; Swart, W J; Tan, Y P; van der Bank, M; Wood, A R; Zhang, Y; Groenewald, J Z

    2014-12-01

    Novel species of fungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Alanphillipsia aloeicola from Aloe sp., Arxiella dolichandrae from Dolichandra unguiscati, Ganoderma austroafricanum from Jacaranda mimosifolia, Phacidiella podocarpi and Phaeosphaeria podocarpi from Podocarpus latifolius, Phyllosticta mimusopisicola from Mimusops zeyheri and Sphaerulina pelargonii from Pelargonium sp. Furthermore, Barssia maroccana is described from Cedrus atlantica (Morocco), Codinaea pini from Pinus patula (Uganda), Crucellisporiopsis marquesiae from Marquesia acuminata (Zambia), Dinemasporium ipomoeae from Ipomoea pes-caprae (Vietnam), Diaporthe phragmitis from Phragmites australis (China), Marasmius vladimirii from leaf litter (India), Melanconium hedericola from Hedera helix (Spain), Pluteus albotomentosus and Pluteus extremiorientalis from a mixed forest (Russia), Rachicladosporium eucalypti from Eucalyptus globulus (Ethiopia), Sistotrema epiphyllum from dead leaves of Fagus sylvatica in a forest (The Netherlands), Stagonospora chrysopyla from Scirpus microcarpus (USA) and Trichomerium dioscoreae from Dioscorea sp. (Japan). Novel species from Australia include: Corynespora endiandrae from Endiandra introrsa, Gonatophragmium triuniae from Triunia youngiana, Penicillium coccotrypicola from Archontophoenix cunninghamiana and Phytophthora moyootj from soil. Novelties from Iran include Neocamarosporium chichastianum from soil and Seimatosporium pistaciae from Pistacia vera. Xenosonderhenia eucalypti and Zasmidium eucalyptigenum are newly described from Eucalyptus urophylla in Indonesia. Diaporthe acaciarum and Roussoella acacia are newly described from Acacia tortilis in Tanzania. New species from Italy include Comoclathris spartii from Spartium junceum and Phoma tamaricicola from Tamarix gallica. Novel genera include (Ascomycetes): Acremoniopsis from forest soil and Collarina from water sediments (Spain), Phellinocrescentia from a Phellinus sp. (French Guiana), Neobambusicola from Strelitzia nicolai (South Africa), Neocladophialophora from Quercus robur (Germany), Neophysalospora from Corymbia henryi (Mozambique) and Xenophaeosphaeria from Grewia sp. (Tanzania). Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa. PMID:25737601

  13. Biological and molecular characterization of a novel carmovirus isolated from angelonia.

    PubMed

    Adkins, Scott; Hammond, John; Gera, Abed; Maroon-Lango, Clarissa J; Sobolev, Irena; Harness, Andrea; Zeidan, Mohammad; Spiegel, Sara

    2006-05-01

    ABSTRACT A new carmovirus was isolated from Angelonia plants (Angelonia angustifolia), with flower break and mild foliar symptoms, grown in the United States and Israel. The virus, for which the name Angelonia flower break virus (AnFBV) is proposed, has isometric particles, approximately 30 nm in diameter. The experimental host range was limited to Nicotiana species, Schizanthus pinnatus, Myosotis sylvatica, Phlox drummondii, and Digitalis purpurea. Virions were isolated from systemically infected N. benthamiana leaves, and directly from naturally infected Angelonia leaves, using typical carmovirus protocols. Koch's postulates were completed by mechanical inoculation of uninfected Angelonia seedlings with purified virions. Isometric particles were observed in leaf dips and virion preparations from both Angelonia and N. benthamiana, and in thin sections of Angelonia flower tissue by electron microscopy. In sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of dissociated purified virus preparations, a major protein component with a molecular mass of 38 kDa was observed. Virion preparations were used to produce virus-specific polyclonal antisera in both Israel and the United States. The antisera did not react with Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV), Carnation mottle virus (CarMV), or Saguaro cactus virus (SgCV) by either enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or immunoblotting. In reciprocal tests, antisera against PFBV, CarMV, and SgCV reacted only with the homologous viruses. The complete nucleotide sequence of a Florida isolate of AnFBV and the coat protein (CP) gene sequences of Israeli and Maryland isolates were determined. The genomic RNA is 3,964 nucleotides and contains four open reading frames arranged in a manner typical of carmoviruses. The AnFBV CP is most closely related to PFBV, whereas the AnFBV replicase is most closely related to PFBV, CarMV, and SgCV. Particle morphology, serological properties, genome organization, and phylogenetic analysis are all consistent with assignment of AnFBV to the genus Carmovirus. PMID:18944305

  14. Activated charcoal-mediated RNA extraction method for Azadirachta indica and plants highly rich in polyphenolics, polysaccharides and other complex secondary compounds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High quality RNA is a primary requisite for numerous molecular biological applications but is difficult to isolate from several plants rich in polysaccharides, polyphenolics and other secondary metabolites. These compounds either bind with nucleic acids or often co-precipitate at the final step and many times cannot be removed by conventional methods and kits. Addition of vinyl-pyrollidone polymers in extraction buffer efficiently removes polyphenolics to some extent, but, it failed in case of Azadirachta indica and several other medicinal and aromatic plants. Findings Here we report the use of adsorption property of activated charcoal (0.03%–0.1%) in RNA isolation procedures to remove complex secondary metabolites and polyphenolics to yield good quality RNA from Azadirachta indica. We tested and validated our modified RNA isolation method across 21 different plants including Andrographis paniculata, Aloe vera, Rosa damascena, Pelargonium graveolens, Phyllanthus amarus etc. from 13 other different families, many of which are considered as tough system for isolating RNA. The A260/280 ratio of the extracted RNA ranged between 1.8-2.0 and distinct 28S and 18S ribosomal RNA bands were observed in denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis. Analysis using Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer revealed intact total RNA yield with very good RNA Integrity Number. Conclusions The RNA isolated by our modified method was found to be of high quality and amenable for sensitive downstream molecular applications like subtractive library construction and RT-PCR. This modified RNA isolation procedure would aid and accelerate the biotechnological studies in complex medicinal and aromatic plants which are extremely rich in secondary metabolic compounds. PMID:23537338

  15. Allergic sensitization to ornamental plants in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ömür; Erkekol, Ferda Öner; Misirloigil, Zeynep; Demirel, Yavuz Selim; Mungan, Dilşad

    2014-01-01

    Ornamental plants (OPs) can lead to immediate-type sensitization and even asthma and rhinitis symptoms in some cases. This study aimed to evaluate sensitization to OPs in patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and to determine the factors affecting the rate of sensitization to OPs. A total of 150 patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Demographics and disease characteristics were recorded. Skin-prick tests were performed with a standardized inhalant allergen panel. Skin tests by "prick-to-prick" method with the leaves of 15 Ops, which are known to lead to allergenic sensitization, were performed. Skin tests with OPs were positive in 80 patients (47.1%). There was no significant difference between OP sensitized and nonsensitized patients in terms of gender, age, number of exposed OPs, and duration of exposure. Skin test positivity rate for OPs was significantly high in atopic subjects, patients with allergic rhinitis, food sensitivity, and indoor OP exposure, but not in patients with pollen and latex allergy. Most sensitizing OPs were Yucca elephantipes (52.5%), Dieffenbachia picta (50.8%), and Euphorbia pulcherrima (47.5%). There was significant correlation between having Saintpaulia ionantha, Croton, Pelargonium, Y. elephantipes, and positive skin test to these plants. Sensitivity to OPs was significantly higher in atopic subjects and patients with allergic rhinitis, food allergy, and indoor OP exposure. Furthermore, atopy and food sensitivity were found as risk factors for developing sensitization to indoor plants. Additional trials on the relationship between sensitization to OPs and allergic symptoms are needed. PMID:24717779

  16. Genome-wide analyses of Geraniaceae plastid DNA reveal unprecedented patterns of increased nucleotide substitutions

    PubMed Central

    Guisinger, Mary M.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Jansen, Robert K.

    2008-01-01

    Angiosperm plastid genomes are generally conserved in gene content and order with rates of nucleotide substitutions for protein-coding genes lower than for nuclear protein-coding genes. A few groups have experienced genomic change, and extreme changes in gene content and order are found within the flowering plant family Geraniaceae. The complete plastid genome sequence of Pelargonium X hortorum (Geraniaceae) reveals the largest and most rearranged plastid genome identified to date. Highly elevated rates of sequence evolution in Geraniaceae mitochondrial genomes have been reported, but rates in Geraniaceae plastid genomes have not been characterized. Analysis of nucleotide substitution rates for 72 plastid genes for 47 angiosperm taxa, including nine Geraniaceae, show that values of dN are highly accelerated in ribosomal protein and RNA polymerase genes throughout the family. Furthermore, dN/dS is significantly elevated in the same two classes of plastid genes as well as in ATPase genes. A relatively high dN/dS ratio could be interpreted as evidence of two phenomena, namely positive or relaxed selection, neither of which is consistent with our current understanding of plastid genome evolution in photosynthetic plants. These analyses are the first to use protein-coding sequences from complete plastid genomes to characterize rates and patterns of sequence evolution for a broad sampling of photosynthetic angiosperms, and they reveal unprecedented accumulation of nucleotide substitutions in Geraniaceae. To explain these remarkable substitution patterns in the highly rearranged Geraniaceae plastid genomes, we propose a model of aberrant DNA repair coupled with altered gene expression. PMID:19011103

  17. Applicability of leachates originating from solid-waste landfills for irrigation in landfill restoration projects.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Reyhan; Zaimoglu, Zeynep; Sucu, M Yavuz; Budak, Fuat; Kekec, Secil

    2008-09-01

    Since, landfill areas are still the most widely used solid waste disposal method across the world, leachate generated from landfills should be given importance. Leachate of landfills exerts environmental risks mostly on surface and groundwater with its high pollutant content, which may cause unbearable water quality. This leads to the obligation for decontamination and remediation program to be taken into progress for the landfill area. Among a number of alternatives to cope with leachate, one is to employ the technology of phytoremediation. The main objective of this study was to determine the N accumulation ratios and the effects of landfill leachate in diluted proportions of chosen ratios (as 1/1, 1/2, 1/4, 0), on the growth and development of Cynodon dactylon, Stenotaphrum secundatum, Paspalum notatum, Pennisetum clandestinum, Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Nerium oleander, Pelargonium peltatum and Kochia scoparia species. In order to simulate the actual conditions of the landfill, soil covering the landfill is taken and used as medium for the trials. The study showed that S. secundatum, K. scoparia and N. oleander species had an impressive survival rate of 100%, being irrigated with pure leachate, while the others' survival rates were between 0 to 35% under the same conditions. As expected, application of leachate to the plants caused an increase in the accumulation of N, in the upper parts of all plants except P. peltatum. The highest N content increase was observed at S. Secundatum set, accumulating 3.70 times higher than its control set, whereas P. clandestinum value was 3.41 times of its control set. PMID:19295082

  18. Differential costs of reproduction in females and hermaphrodites in a gynodioecious plant

    PubMed Central

    Toivonen, Eija; Mutikainen, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Plants exhibit a variety of reproductive systems where unisexual (females or males) morphs coexist with hermaphrodites. The maintenance of dimorphic and polymorphic reproductive systems may be problematic. For example, to coexist with hermaphrodites the females of gynodioecious species have to compensate for the lack of male function. In our study species, Geranium sylvaticum, a perennial gynodioecious herb, the relative seed fitness advantage of females varies significantly between years within populations as well as among populations. Differences in reproductive investment between females and hermaphrodites may lead to differences in future survival, growth and reproductive success, i.e. to differential costs of reproduction. Since females of this species produce more seeds, higher costs of reproduction in females than in hermaphrodites were expected. Due to the higher costs of reproduction, the yearly variation in reproductive output of females might be more pronounced than that of hermaphrodites. Methods Using supplemental hand-pollination of females and hermaphrodites of G. sylvaticum we examined if increased reproductive output leads to differential costs of reproduction in terms of survival, probability of flowering, and seed production in the following year. Key Results Experimentally increased reproductive output had differential effects on the reproduction of females and hermaphrodites. In hermaphrodites, the probability of flowering decreased significantly in the following year, whereas in females the costs were expressed in terms of decreased future seed production. Conclusions When combining the probability of flowering and seed production per plant to estimate the multiplicative change in fitness, female plants showed a 56 % and hermaphrodites showed a 39 % decrease in fitness due to experimentally increased reproduction. Therefore, in total, female plants seem to be more sensitive to the cost of reproduction in terms of seed fitness than hermaphrodites. PMID:22419762

  19. Application of Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing To Discriminate Ralstonia solanacearum Strains Associated with English Watercourses and Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Ruth; Bew, Janice; Conyers, Christine; Stones, Robert; Alcock, Michael; Elphinstone, John

    2013-01-01

    Variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis was used for high-resolution discrimination among Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype IIB sequevar 1 (PIIB-1) isolates and further evaluated for use in source tracing. Five tandem-repeat-containing loci (comprising six tandem repeats) discriminated 17 different VNTR profiles among 75 isolates from potato, geranium, bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara), tomato, and the environment. R. solanacearum isolates from crops at three unrelated outbreak sites where river water had been used for irrigation had distinct VNTR profiles that were shared with PIIB-1 isolates from infected bittersweet growing upriver of each site. The VNTR profiling results supported the implication that the source of R. solanacearum at each outbreak was contaminated river water. Analysis of 51 isolates from bittersweet growing in river water at different locations provided a means to evaluate the technique for studying the epidemiology of the pathogen in the environment. Ten different VNTR profiles were identified among bittersweet PIIB-1 isolates from the River Thames. Repeated findings of contiguous river stretches that produced isolates that shared single VNTR profiles supported the hypothesis that the pathogen had disseminated from infected bittersweet plants located upriver. VNTR profiles shared between bittersweet isolates from two widely separated Thames tributaries (River Ray and River Colne) suggested they were independently contaminated with the same clonal type. Some bittersweet isolates had VNTR profiles that were shared with potato isolates collected outside the United Kingdom. It was concluded that VNTR profiling could contribute to further understanding of R. solanacearum epidemiology and assist in control of future disease outbreaks. PMID:23892739

  20. Where are you sucking from? Using Stable Isotopes to understand Host Specificity in two Hemiparasitic plants above the tree line in Northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macias Sevde, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    By Alejandro Macias, Erik Hobbie, Ruth Varner, Kaitlyn Steele Hemiparasites are known to suck nutrients from nearby plants but their host specificity is not well understood. Hemiparasites are ecosystem engineers, limiting surrounding plant's growth, and decreasing local biodiversity. To better understand this phenomenon, the host specificities of two hemiparasitic angiosperms, Bartsia alpina , and Pedicularis lapponica were studied above the tree line along an elevational gradient in Sweden. B. alpina specialized in wetter environments, as indicated by their higher δ13C signature, and their growth among Salixsp.Betula nana, Bistorta vivipara, Viola biflora, Geranium sp., and Trollious europaeus. P. lapponica was common in drier, less species rich environments, known as heaths, where B. nana, Empetrum negrum, Phyllodoce coeruela, Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea are the most common species. P. lapponica had higher foliage δ13C due to its better water-use efficiency in a dry environment. Field survey data and δN15 values of both the foliage of the parasitic plants and their potential hosts were used to determine host specificity. Since the δN15 value of the hemiparasitic plant and its host are similar due to parasitism, it was determined that P. lapponica had a preference for plants with an ericoid mycorrhizal association, such as Vaccinium sp, and E. negrum, but not for the common P. coeruela. This does not support the idea found in the literature that P. lapponica has a preference for grasses. B. alpina was less host specific, associating with non-mycorrhizal, ericoid, and ectomycorhizal plants, such as Carex sp, Vaccinium sp., and S. lapponum. The ectomycorrhizal species, Salix sp., and B. nana, were both potential hosts for B. alpina and P. lapponica due to their presence among them. However, the isotopic data revealed that B. alpina had a preference for Salix sp., and P. lapponica had a preference for B. nana.

  1. Impact of Fertilizing Pattern on the Biodiversity of a Weed Community and Wheat Growth

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Leilei; Cheng, Chuanpeng; Wan, Kaiyuan; Li, Ruhai; Wang, Daozhong; Tao, Yong; Pan, Junfeng; Xie, Juan; Chen, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Weeding and fertilization are important farming practices. Integrated weed management should protect or improve the biodiversity of farmland weed communities for a better ecological environment with not only increased crop yield, but also reduced use of herbicides. This study hypothesized that appropriate fertilization would benefit both crop growth and the biodiversity of farmland weed communities. To study the effects of different fertilizing patterns on the biodiversity of a farmland weed community and their adaptive mechanisms, indices of species diversity and responses of weed species and wheat were investigated in a 17-year field trial with a winter wheat-soybean rotation. This long term field trial includes six fertilizing treatments with different N, P and K application rates. The results indicated that wheat and the four prevalent weed species (Galium aparine, Vicia sativa, Veronica persica and Geranium carolinianum) showed different responses to fertilizer treatment in terms of density, plant height, shoot biomass, and nutrient accumulations. Each individual weed population exhibited its own adaptive mechanisms, such as increased internode length for growth advantages and increased light interception. The PK treatment had higher density, shoot biomass, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou Indices of weed community than N plus P fertilizer treatments. The N1/2PK treatment showed the same weed species number as the PK treatment. It also showed higher Shannon-Wiener and Pielou Indices of the weed community, although it had a lower wheat yield than the NPK treatment. The negative effects of the N1/2PK treatment on wheat yield could be balanced by the simultaneous positive effects on weed communities, which are intermediate in terms of the effects on wheat and weeds. PMID:24416223

  2. Phytosociological study of the dwarf shrub heath of Simeonof Wilderness, Shumagin Islands, Southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniels, F.J.A.; Talbot, S. S.; Looman, Talbot S.; Schofield, W.B.

    2004-01-01

    The maritime dwarf shrub heath vegetation of the Northern Pacific, Simeonof Island, Shumagin Islands, Southwestern Alaska, was studied according to the Braun-Blanquet approach. Based on 30 releve??s of 16 m2 that include vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens, two new associations could be described belonging to the class Loiseleurio-Vaccinietea (order Rhododendro-Vaccinietalia): Rubo-Empetretum nigri and Carici-Empetretum nigri. The wind-sheltered Rubo-Empetretum nigri (alliance Phyllodoco-Vaccinion) mainly occurs in the lowlands on level terrain or sloping sites at lower foot slopes of mountains on deeper, mesic soil; this association is the zonal vegetation of the lowlands. Boreal, widespread and amphi-Beringian species are prominent in the distribution-type spectrum of the vascular plants. Two variants of Rubo-Empetretum nigri are described. A Geranium erianthum variant occurs on south-facing slopes and is rich in vascular plants species. A Plagiothecium undulatum variant is restricted to northern exposures and is rich in bryophytes and lichens. A Carici-Empetretum nigri (alliance Loiseleurio-Diapension) occurs on shallow soil on wind exposed sites at higher elevations in the mountains. It is very rich in lichen species of arctic-alpine distribution. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) suggests that altitude, nutrient content of the soil and exposition are the most important differential ecological factors. Soil depth, total carbon and nitrogen content, plant available phosphorus and all other measured cation contents are higher in Rubo-Empetretum than in Carici-Empetretum. Literature comparisons confirm the occurrence of both associations in other areas on the Southwest Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands. Presumably both associations have an amphi-Beringian distribution. The syntaxonomy of boreal-montane dwarf shrub heaths and synecological aspects are briefly discussed. ?? 2004 Gebru??der Borntraeger.

  3. Subsurface Examination of a Foliar Biofilm Using Scanning Electron- and Focused-Ion-Beam Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, Patricia K.; Arey, Bruce W.; Mahaffee, Walt F.

    2011-08-01

    The dual beam scanning electron microscope, equipped with both a focused ion- and scanning electron- beam (FIB SEM) is a novel tool for the exploration of the subsurface structure of biological tissues. The FIB can remove a predetermined amount of material from a selected site to allow for subsurface exploration and when coupled with SEM or scanning ion- beam microscopy (SIM) could be suitable to examine the subsurface structure of bacterial biofilms on the leaf surface. The suitability of chemical and cryofixation was examined for use with the FIB SEM to examine bacterial biofilms on leaf surfaces. The biological control agent, Burkholderia pyroccinia FP62, that rapidly colonizes the leaf surface and forms biofilms, was inoculated onto geranium leaves and incubated in a greenhouse for 7 or 14 days. Cryofixation was not suitable for examination of leaf biofilms because it created a frozen layer over the leaf surface that cracked when exposed to the electron beam and the protective cap required for FIB milling could not be accurately deposited. With chemically fixed samples, it was possible to precisely FIB mill a single cross section (5 µm) or sequential cross sections from a single site without any damage to the surrounding surface. Biofilms, 7 days post-inoculation (DPI), were composed of 2 to 5 bacterial cell layers while biofilms 14 DPI ranged from 5 to greater than 30 cell layers. Empty spaces between bacteria cells in the subsurface structure were observed in biofilms 7- and 14-DPI. Sequential cross sections inferred that the empty spaces were often continuous between FP62 cells and could possibly make up a network of channels throughout the biofilm. FIB SEM was a useful tool to observe the subsurface composition of a foliar biofilm.

  4. Subsurface examination of a foliar biofilm using scanning electron- and focused-ion-beam microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Patricia Kay; Arey, Bruce; Mahaffee, Walter F

    2011-08-01

    The dual beam scanning electron microscope, equipped with both a focused ion- and scanning electron-beam (FIB SEM) is a novel tool for the exploration of the subsurface structure of biological tissues. The FIB can remove a predetermined amount of material from a selected site to allow for subsurface exploration and when coupled with SEM or scanning ion-beam microscopy (SIM) could be suitable to examine the subsurface structure of bacterial biofilms on the leaf surface. The suitability of chemical and cryofixation was examined for use with the FIB SEM to examine bacterial biofilms on leaf surfaces. The biological control agent, Burkholderia pyroccinia FP62, that rapidly colonizes the leaf surface and forms biofilms, was inoculated onto geranium leaves and incubated in a greenhouse for 7 or 14 days. Cryofixation was not suitable for examination of leaf biofilms because it created a frozen layer over the leaf surface that cracked when exposed to the electron beam and the protective cap required for FIB milling could not be accurately deposited. With chemically fixed samples, it was possible to precisely FIB mill a single cross section (5μm) or sequential cross sections from a single site without any damage to the surrounding surface. Biofilms, 7 days post-inoculation (DPI), were composed of 2-5 bacterial cell layers while biofilms 14 DPI ranged from 5 to greater than 30 cell layers. Empty spaces between bacteria cells in the subsurface structure were observed in biofilms 7- and 14-DPI. Sequential cross sections inferred that the empty spaces were often continuous between FP62 cells and could possibly make up a network of channels throughout the biofilm. FIB SEM was a useful tool to observe the subsurface composition of a foliar biofilm. PMID:21482121

  5. [Rate of microsuccessions: Structure and floristic richness recovery after sod transplantation in alpine plant communities].

    PubMed

    Kipkeev, A M; Cherednichenko, O V; Tekeev, D K; Onipchenko, V G

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal transplantations of sod pieces have been conducted in alpine plant communities of the northwestern Caucasus. During 25 years, the changes in floristic richness and successional rates have been registered. Study objects were chosen to be. plant communities located along the toposequence from ridges to hollows with gradient of snow. cover thickness increase and vegetation period decrease, namely alpine lichen heath (ALH), Festuca varia grasslands (FVG), Geranium-Hedysarum meadows (GHM), and snow bed communities (SBC). The results of the study confirm the hypothesis about floristic richness of transplanted pieces to come closer to that of a background acceptor community. It is shown that during succession the variability reduces if sod pieces from different communities are transplanted into a common one. In particular, this is evident in case of SBC, where floristic richness of sod pieces transplanted from ALH and GHM has reduced noticeably. Also, it is evident from the results that the more different are donor and acceptor communities the higher is the rate of their changing. However, the assumption of higher succession rate in more productive communities has not been affirmed. On the opposite, communities with initially low productivity turned out to change faster than those with high productivity. It is found out that sod pieces transplanted to upper areas of the toposequence have had higher rate of alteration in comparison with those transplanted to lower areas. The reason behind this, as it may be suggested, is a longer growth season, which means a more prolonged period of high functional activity, and, accordingly, more time for the effects of competition, bringing seeds over, etc. In whole, the rate of succession decreases as the time from the moment of transplantation.increases, especially in communities with low productivity. PMID:26852571

  6. Studies on the Occurrence, Identification and Control of House Dust Mites at Rural Houses of Shebin El-Kom Locality, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Heikal, H M

    2015-04-01

    The present study was conducted at Elkom Elakhdar village, Shebin El-Kom, Menoufia Governorate along 2012 year seasons, to calculate and identify the species composition and the occurrence frequency of the extracted dust mites collected from three building ages at rural houses, as well as to determine the toxicity limits of different concentrations of three plant essential oils against two species of the family Pyroglyphidae the main causal of allergy to humans. The obtained results revealed that there were eleven mite species belong to five families (Pyroglyphidae, Chortoglyphidae, Glycyphagidae, Acaridae and Cheyletidae). Of the total collected mites (5276) the highest dominant percentage species was the dust mites: Dermatophagoides farinae (66.1%), followed by D. pteronyssinus (23.3%), while the percentages of the rest species: Chortoglyphus arcuatus, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Glycyphagus domesticus, Gohieria fusca, Tyrophagusputrescentiae, Caloglyphus sp, Cheyletus malaccensis, Blomia sp. and Acarus siro were ranged between 0.16-2.0%. Regarding to the effect of temperature degrees on mite population, high degrees more than 25 degrees C at summer season, decreased the numbers of D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus. Toxicological tests of the three plant essential oils against adult stages of D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus showed that lemon grass oil gave the highest toxicity effect, in comparison with geranium and thyme oils, where mortality percentages were approximately around 100% at 800 ppm concentration on both species. The LC50 of lemon grass were 228.992 and 293.615 ppm against the two species, respectively. From the results of the research, it could be recommend that it is preferable to apply control operation during summer season where the mite population density is the least, moreover, the botanical oil extracts effectively controlled the parasitic dust mites, D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus and can be used in the biological control programs, as well as, it can play effective role in the integrated management programs. PMID:26506648

  7. The acceptability of meadow plants to the slug Deroceras reticulatum and implications for grassland restoration

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Sarah E.; Close, Andrew J.; Port, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite the selective pressure slugs may exert on seedling recruitment there is a lack of information in this context within grassland restoration studies. Selective grazing is influenced by interspecific differences in acceptability. As part of a larger study of how slug–seedling interactions may influence upland hay meadow restoration, an assessment of relative acceptability is made for seedlings of meadow plants to the slug, Deroceras reticulatum. Methods Slug feeding damage to seedling monocultures of 23 meadow species and Brassica napus was assessed in microcosms over 14 d. The severity and rate of damage incurred by each plant species was analysed with a generalized additive mixed model. Plant species were then ranked for their relative acceptability. Key Results Interspecific variation in relative acceptability suggested seedlings of meadow species form a hierarchy of acceptability to D. reticulatum. The four most acceptable species were Achillea millefolium and the grasses Holcus lanatus, Poa trivialis and Festuca rubra. Trifolium pratense was acceptable to D. reticulatum and was the second highest ranking forb species. The most unacceptable species were mainly forbs associated with the target grassland, and included Geranium sylvaticum, Rumex acetosa, Leontodon hispidus and the grass Anthoxanthum odoratum. A strong positive correlation was found for mean cumulative feeding damage and cumulative seedling mortality at day 14. Conclusions Highly unacceptable species to D. reticulatum are unlikely to be selectively grazed by slugs during the seedling recruitment phase, and were predominantly target restoration species. Seedlings of highly acceptable species may be less likely to survive slug herbivory and contribute to seedling recruitment at restoration sites. Selective slug herbivory, influenced by acceptability, may influence community-level processes if seedling recruitment and establishment of key functional species, such as T. pratense is reduced. PMID:23632124

  8. Solar-heated commercial-greenhouse demonstration. Final performance report

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    Poly Solar Company was formed to design and fabricate a demonstration of a solar heating system for commercial greenhouses in moderate climates. This system is built of readily available materials, and can be constructed using conventional techniques available to most builders and farmers. Construction began on the demonstration project in August 1981 and the system was placed into operation that winter. Energy savings were calculated by monitoring the running time on an oil furnace in a duplicate greenhouse with the same crop as the solar heated greenhouse with an oil backup furnace. The first monitoring period was before the Christmas season with poinsettias used as the comparison crop with 60/sup 0/ to 64/sup 0/F. During this period the 126 ton mass storage and waste heat recovery sections of the system were used. These trials showed energy savings over the 100% oil heated structure to be 23.4%. After the crops were removed from the greenhouse trials were ran which showed this portion of the system could maintain night time temperatures as high as 56/sup 0/F with no other heat source and an outside temperature of 26/sup 0/F. The 1860 sq ft solar collector/storage system was monitored with a winter-spring crop of geraniums at a night time temperature of 60/sup 0/ to 64/sup 0/F. In April 1982 a severe storm with wind gusts in excess of 50 mph destroyed a section of duct that feeds heated air from the collector to the rock storage bed and caused light damage to the collector itself.

  9. Application of variable-number tandem-repeat typing to discriminate Ralstonia solanacearum strains associated with English watercourses and disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Neil; Bryant, Ruth; Bew, Janice; Conyers, Christine; Stones, Robert; Alcock, Michael; Elphinstone, John

    2013-10-01

    Variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis was used for high-resolution discrimination among Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype IIB sequevar 1 (PIIB-1) isolates and further evaluated for use in source tracing. Five tandem-repeat-containing loci (comprising six tandem repeats) discriminated 17 different VNTR profiles among 75 isolates from potato, geranium, bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara), tomato, and the environment. R. solanacearum isolates from crops at three unrelated outbreak sites where river water had been used for irrigation had distinct VNTR profiles that were shared with PIIB-1 isolates from infected bittersweet growing upriver of each site. The VNTR profiling results supported the implication that the source of R. solanacearum at each outbreak was contaminated river water. Analysis of 51 isolates from bittersweet growing in river water at different locations provided a means to evaluate the technique for studying the epidemiology of the pathogen in the environment. Ten different VNTR profiles were identified among bittersweet PIIB-1 isolates from the River Thames. Repeated findings of contiguous river stretches that produced isolates that shared single VNTR profiles supported the hypothesis that the pathogen had disseminated from infected bittersweet plants located upriver. VNTR profiles shared between bittersweet isolates from two widely separated Thames tributaries (River Ray and River Colne) suggested they were independently contaminated with the same clonal type. Some bittersweet isolates had VNTR profiles that were shared with potato isolates collected outside the United Kingdom. It was concluded that VNTR profiling could contribute to further understanding of R. solanacearum epidemiology and assist in control of future disease outbreaks. PMID:23892739

  10. Essential Oils, Silver Nanoparticles and Propolis as Alternative Agents Against Fluconazole Resistant Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei Clinical Isolates.

    PubMed

    Szweda, Piotr; Gucwa, Katarzyna; Kurzyk, Ewelina; Romanowska, Ewa; Dzierżanowska-Fangrat, Katarzyna; Zielińska Jurek, Anna; Kuś, Piotr Marek; Milewski, Sławomir

    2015-06-01

    Development of effective and safe therapeutic treatment of fungal infections remains one of the major challenge for modern medicine. The aim of presented investigation was to analyze the in vitro antifungal activity of selected essential oils, ethanolic extracts of propolis and silver nanoparticles dropped on TiO2 against azole-resistant C. albicans (n = 20), C. glabrata (n = 14) and C. krusei (n = 10) clinical isolates. Among tested essential oils, the highest activity has definitely been found in the case of the oil isolated from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia, with MIC and MFC values for all tested strains in the range of 0.0006-0.0097 % (v/v) and 0.0012-0.019 % (v/v), respectively. High activity was also observed for the Lemon, Basil, Thyme, Geranium and Clove (from buds) essential oils. Significant differences in fungicidal activity have been observed in the case of four tested propolis samples. Only one of them revealed high activity, with MFC values in the range from 0.156 to 1.25 % (v/v). Satisfactory fungicidal activity, against C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates, was also observed in the case of silver nanoparticles, however C. krusei isolates were mostly resistant. We also revealed that constituents of most of essential oils and propolis as well as silver nanoparticles are not substrates for drug transporters, which belong to the most important factors affecting resistance of Candida spp. clinical isolates to many of conventional antimycotics. To conclude, the results of our investigation revealed that essential oils, propolis and silver nanoparticles represent high potential for controlling and prevention candidiasis. PMID:25805904

  11. An Ethnobotanical study of Medicinal Plants in high mountainous region of Chail valley (District Swat- Pakistan)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper represents the first ethnobotanical study in Chail valley of district Swat-Pakistan and provides significant information on medicinal plants use among the tribal people of the area. The aim of this study was to document the medicinal uses of local plants and to develop an ethnobotanical inventory of the species diversity. Methods In present study, semi-structured interviews with 142 inhabitants (age range between 31–75 years) were conducted. Ethnobotanical data was analyzed using relative frequency of citation (RFC) to determine the well-known and most useful species in the area. Results Current research work reports total of 50 plant species belonging to 48 genera of 35 families from Chail valley. Origanum vulgare, Geranium wallichianum and Skimmia laureola have the highest values of relative frequency of citation (RFC) and are widely known by the inhabitants of the valley. The majority of the documented plants were herbs (58%) followed by shrubs (28%), trees (12%) and then climbers (2%). The part of the plant most frequently used was the leaves (33%) followed by roots (17%), fruits (14%), whole plant (12%), rhizomes (9%), stems (6%), barks (5%) and seeds (4%). Decoction was the most common preparation method use in herbal recipes. The most frequently treated diseases in the valley were urinary disorders, skin infections, digestive disorders, asthma, jaundice, angina, chronic dysentery and diarrhea. Conclusion This study contributes an ethnobotanical inventory of medicinal plants with their frequency of citations together with the part used, disease treated and methods of application among the tribal communities of Chail valley. The present survey has documented from this valley considerable indigenous knowledge about the local medicinal plants for treating number of common diseases that is ready to be further investigated for biological, pharmacological and toxicological screening. This study also provides some socio-economic aspects which are associated to the local tribal communities. PMID:24739524

  12. Evaluation of commercial products for personal protection against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Revay, Edita E; Junnila, Amy; Xue, Rui-De; Kline, Daniel L; Bernier, Ulrich R; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Qualls, Whitney A; Ghattas, Nina; Müller, Günter C

    2013-02-01

    Human landing catch studies were conducted in a semi-field setting to determine the efficacy of seven commercial products used for personal protection against mosquitoes. Experiments were conducted in two empty, insecticide free, mesh-enclosed greenhouses, in Israel, with either 1500 Aedes albopictus or 1500 Culex pipiens released on consecutive study nights. The products tested in this study were the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ Mosquito Repellent (Metofluthrin 31.2%) and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick Mosquito Repeller (Cinnamon oil 10.5%; Eugenol 13%; Geranium oil 21%; Peppermint 5.3%; Lemongrass oil 2.6%), which are personal diffusers; Super Band™ Wristband (22% Citronella oil) and the PIC(®) Citronella Plus Wristband (Geraniol 15%; Lemongrass oil 5%, Citronella oil 1%); the Sonic Insect Repeller Keychain; the Mosquito Guard Patch (Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus 80mg), an adhesive-backed sticker for use on textiles; and the Mosquito Patch (vitamin B1 300mg), a transdermal patch. It was determined that the sticker, transdermal patch, wristbands and sonic device did not provide significant protection to volunteers compared with the mosquito attack rate on control volunteers who were not wearing a repellent device. The personal diffusers: - OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick - provided superior protection compared with all other devices in this study. These diffusers reduced biting on the arms of volunteers by 96.28% and 95.26% respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 94.94% and 92.15% respectively, for Cx. pipiens. In a second trial conducted to compare these devices directly, biting was reduced by the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) by 87.55% and 92.83%, respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 97.22% and 94.14%, respectively, for Cx. pipiens. There was no significant difference between the performances of the two diffusers for each species. PMID:23092689

  13. Geraniin suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and ameliorates wear particle-induced osteolysis in mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Fei; Zhai, Zanjing; Jiang, Chuan; Liu, Xuqiang; Li, Haowei; Qu, Xinhua; Ouyang, Zhengxiao; Fan, Qiming; Tang, Tingting; Qin, An; Gu, Dongyun

    2015-01-01

    Wear particle-induced osteolysis and subsequent aseptic loosening remains the most common complication that limits the longevity of prostheses. Wear particle-induced osteoclastogenesis is known to be responsible for extensive bone erosion that leads to prosthesis failure. Thus, inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption may serve as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of wear particle induced osteolysis. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that geraniin, an active natural compound derived from Geranium thunbergii, ameliorated particle-induced osteolysis in a Ti particle-induced mouse calvaria model in vivo. We also investigated the mechanism by which geraniin exerts inhibitory effects on osteoclasts. Geraniin inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in a dose-dependent manner, evidenced by reduced osteoclast formation and suppressed osteoclast specific gene expression. Specially, geraniin inhibited actin ring formation and bone resorption in vitro. Further molecular investigation demonstrated geraniin impaired osteoclast differentiation via the inhibition of the RANKL-induced NF-κB and ERK signaling pathways, as well as suppressed the expression of key osteoclast transcriptional factors NFATc1 and c-Fos. Collectively, our data suggested that geraniin exerts inhibitory effects on osteoclast differentiation in vitro and suppresses Ti particle-induced osteolysis in vivo. Geraniin is therefore a potential natural compound for the treatment of wear particle induced osteolysis in prostheses failure. - Highlights: • Geraniin suppresses osteoclasts formation and function in vitro. • Geraniin impairs RANKL-induced nuclear factor-κB and ERK signaling pathway. • Geraniin suppresses osteolysis in vivo. • Geraniin may be used for treating osteoclast related diseases.

  14. Screening of anti-dengue activity in methanolic extracts of medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue fever regardless of its serotypes has been the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral diseases among the world population. The development of a dengue vaccine is complicated by the antibody-dependent enhancement effect. Thus, the development of a plant-based antiviral preparation promises a more potential alternative in combating dengue disease. Methods Present studies investigated the antiviral effects of standardised methanolic extracts of Andrographis paniculata, Citrus limon, Cymbopogon citratus, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum and Pelargonium citrosum on dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1). Results O. sanctum contained 88.6% of total flavonoids content, an amount that was the highest among all the six plants tested while the least was detected in M. charantia. In this study, the maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD) of the six medicinal plants was determined by testing the methanolic extracts against Vero E6 cells in vitro. Studies also determined that the MNTD of methanolic extract was in the decreasing order of M. charantia >C. limon >P. citrosum, O. sanctum >A. paniculata >C. citratus. Antiviral assay based on cytopathic effects (CPE) denoted by degree of inhibition upon treating DENV1-infected Vero E6 cells with MNTD of six medicinal plants showed that A. paniculata has the most antiviral inhibitory effects followed by M. charantia. These results were further verified with an in vitro inhibition assay using MTT, in which 113.0% and 98.0% of cell viability were recorded as opposed to 44.6% in DENV-1 infected cells. Although methanolic extracts of O. sanctum and C. citratus showed slight inhibition effect based on CPE, a significant inhibition was not reflected in MTT assay. Methanolic extracts of C. limon and P. citrosum did not prevent cytopathic effects or cell death from DENV-1. Conclusions The methanol extracts of A. paniculata and M. charantia possess the ability of inhibiting the activity of DENV-1 in in vitro assays. Both of these plants are worth to be further investigated and might be advantageous as an alternative for dengue treatment. PMID:22244370

  15. Phenotypical differences among B. cinerea isolates from ornamental plants.

    PubMed

    Martínez, J A; Valdés, R; Vicente, M J; Bañón, S

    2008-01-01

    B. cinerea is a common pathogenic fungus which causes Botrytis blight (Grey mould) in most ornamental plants. It may be responsible for serious preharvest diseases and postharvest losses in fruits, vegetables and flowers. In this work, several B. cinerea isolates from ornamental plants (Chamelaucium uncinatum, Pelargonium x hortorum, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Lantana camara, Lonicera japonica, Hydrangea macrophylla, and Cyclamen persicum) affected by Botrytis blight in the south of Spain were studied. All the isolates were confirmed as B. cinerea by PCR using a specific 750-bp molecular marker, which is present in all strains of this species but absent from other species of Botrytis. The isolates were evaluated by reference to mature conidia length, sclerotia production, and growth rate. Conidia, conidiophores and hyphae were described by light microscopy and some by cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM). Conidium length was measured by using an eyepiece micrometer at 400x power, whereas the growth rate was assessed from differences in colony diameter between the third and fourth day of growth in potato-dextrose agar culture medium at 26 degrees C. B. cinerea showed a high degree of phenotypical variability among isolates, not only as regards visual aspects of the colonies but also in some morphological structures such as conidium length, conidiophores, sclerotia production, and hyphae. Differences were also observed in the growth rates. Conidiation was insignificant in the isolates from H. macrophylla, and P. x hortorum, where the overall appearance was white in all the growing stages, whereas isolates from L. camara, C. persicum and C. uncinatum were mainly grey or brown in mature stages. The longest conidia were obtained in isolates from H. macrophylla and C. persicum (17-18 microm) and the lowest in C. uncinatum (9 microm). All the isolates, except L. camara, developed mature sclerotia after approximately 16 days in the conditions used. H. macrophylla had around 72 sclerotia per colony, whereas C. persicum had only nine after 28 days. The growth rate of isolates from L. camara was the highest (1.64 cm/day). Such phenotypical variability may result in a differential response to plant growth regulators if plants are infected by Botrytis in the early stages of growth. In this way, we confirm, as we have done in other published studies, that isolates show different responses to some plant hormones and inhibitors. PMID:19226749

  16. Temperature-dependent growth of Botrytis cinerea isolates from potted plants.

    PubMed

    Martnez, J A; Gmez-Bellot, M J; Ban, S

    2009-01-01

    Botrytis cinereo is a common aggressive saprophyte fungus which also invades injured plant tissues, causing Botrytis blight (Grey mould) in many ornamental plants, including potted flowering plants. Several B. cinerea isolates from potted plants (Pelargonium x hortorum, Lantana camara, Lonicera japonica, Hydrangea macrophylla, and Cyclamen persicum) affected by Botrytis blight in the south of Spain were studied and identified by PCR. The isolates showed phenotypic differences between them, as previously reported by the authors. In this work we demonstrate that these isolates show different temperature-dependent growth phenomena, expressed as mycelial growth rates, conidiation (measured as the number of conidia per colony and time of appearance), mass of both aerial and submerged mycelia, and sclerotia production. Growth rates were assessed from differences in colony area and mass of both aerial and submerged mycelium growing in potato dextrose agar culture medium (PDA). Three temperatures were used to measure these variables (6, 16, and 26 degrees C) and to establish the differences among isolates by modelling the effects of temperature on the growth variables. B. cinerea showed a high degree of phenotypic variability and differences in its growth kinetics, depending on temperature and isolate in question. The isolate from P. x hortorum showed the greatest conidiation although this process did not depend on the temperatures assayed. The growth rate of the isolates from P. x hortorum was the highest. The growth rates in all the isolates were determined and the growth kinetics could be fitted to a typical equation of fungi growing on solid culture medium. The isolate from P. x hortorum was the most vigorous, while the least vigorous was the isolate from L. japonica. A relationship between mycelial growth rate, conidiation and aerial mycelium could be established. A temperature of 26 degrees C accelerated sclerotia production, but only in the isolate from C. persicum. Such phenotypical variability and differences in growth rates may result in a differential response in plant-pathogen interactions when isolates attack hosts at different temperatures, meaning that a variety of plant protection strategies should be considered when B. cinerea attacks these potted plants. PMID:20222557

  17. Plants and hypotensive, antiatheromatous and coronarodilatating action.

    PubMed

    Petkov, V

    1979-01-01

    However great the success in the therapy of hypertension, atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease has been gained today by recent efficient drugs, the definite healing of patients is not yet attained. The late discovery of reserpine, such an efficient drug of plant origin against hypertension, convinced so far reluctant scientists to consider the chemical compounds of the plant world. With respect to this traditional medical knowledge, it seems necessary to define more accurately the specificity of these healings-sometimes recommended unspecifically for a whole branch of medicine. This experimental verification should not use inconsiderately the present-day classification of diseases; there should be an awareness that conventional experimental methods in pharmacology are often unsuitable for revealing the real biological activity of one or another medicinal plant. The interest in the millennial empirical field of health care is acknowledged by the World Health Organization which promotes research and development of traditional medicine, along with investigations into its psychosocial and ethnographic aspects. These studies cover a number of plants growing in Bulgaria that have a healing effect in hypertension, atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease according to the data of traditional medicine. Using screening methods, extracts and chemically pure substances were investigated; extraction was done with solvents such as water, ether, chloroform, dichloretan, ethanol, methanol, and acetone. Most of the experiments were carried out on anesthetized cats, rabbits and dogs. The substances tested were applied mainly intravenously, and in some experiments orally. Chronic experiments were also carried out on wakeful dogs with induced hypertension, on animals fed on an atherogenic diet, and on animals with induced arrhythmia and coronary spasm. Data are presented of clinical examination of some plants or of active substances isolated from them. Major results of these studies are presented for the following plants: Garlic, Geranium; Hellebore; Mistletoe; Olive; Valerian; Hawthorn; Pseucedanum arenarium; Periwinkle; Fumitory. For another 50 plants growing in Bulgaria and in other countries the author presents his and other investigators' experimental and clinical data about hypotensive, antiatheromatous and coronarodilatating action. PMID:574353

  18. [A phytosociological interpretation of vegetation from sandy hills of the Peruvian desert].

    PubMed

    Galán de Mera, Antonio; Linares Perea, Eliana; Campos de la Cruz, José; Vicente Orellana, José Alfredo

    2011-06-01

    The vegetation of the sandy hills ("lomas") constitutes the main originality of the Peruvian and Chilean desert with a high number of endemics that shapes the vicarious associations. In this work, a phytosociological view of sandy environments of the Peruvian coastal desert is presented. According to the Braun-Blanquet method, we have made up 32 phytosociological inventories and added 138 ones from others authors. In each inventory, we have analyzed its floristic composition and ecological parameters, as altitude, soil and geomorphology. All releves were synthesized in a table to deduce the different associations, higher phytosociological units, and the distribu tion of its flora along the Peruvian coast and the Andean Cordillera. Using the Shannon-Wiener diversity index, the diversity of this flora is discussed making a comparison with historical data about the use of the territory with livestock during pre-Inca and Inca cultures, and Spanish invasion. As a result, two associations from Southern Peru -Nolanetum scaposo-spathulatae and Palauetum camanensis-weberbaueri-, two alliances -Nolanion humifusae from central Peru, and Nolanion spathulatae from the Southern Peru- and a new order -Tetragonio crystallinae-Plantaginetalia limensis- are described. In Nolanetum scaposo-spathulatae, Dictyophragnus englerianus, Leptoglossis lomana, Nolana scaposa, N. spathulata, Palaua velutina and Tetragonia vestita are the main characteristics, while in Palauetum camanensis-weberbaueri association N. scaposa and P. velutina are replaced by Palaua camanensis and P. weberbaueri. Nolanion humifusae alliance integrates species as Geranium limae, Hymenocallis amancaes, Nolana humifusa, N. latipes, Palaua rhombifolia or Villanova oppositifolia. Likewise, Cistanthe weberbaueri, Cryptantha parviflora, Hoffmannseggia miranda, Lupinus mollendoensis, Nolana confinis, N. pallidula, N. scaposa, N. spathulata, Palaua camanensis, P. velutina, P. weberbaueri, Tetragonia vestita and Weberbauerella brongniartioides are the characteristic species of Nolanion spathulatae alliance. The Tetragonio crystallinae-Plantaginetalia limensis order presents characteristic plants don't linked with eutrophic soils, as Calandrinia alba, Cryptantha limensis, Dyschoriste repens, Monnina macrostachya, Oxalis lomana, Palaua malvifolia, Pectocarya lateriflora, Plantago limensis or Tetragonia crystallina, with a distribution that claps the geographical area of the new alliances. On the other hand, the vegetation of the desert ravines is discussed in the context of the coastal river plant communities and its disturbance by the dunes. After the application of the Shannon-Wiener diversity index on the synthetic table columns, we can deduce that an increase in Andean and European ruderal species is linked to an intensive livestock activity. The transhumance between the Andes and the coast from pre-Inca times until now, produces the plant dispersion of high Andean plants toward the coast; the Spanish colonization was the origin of the presence of European plants in the "lomas" vegetation of Peru. PMID:21721240

  19. Mercury in wild mushrooms and underlying soil substrate from Koszalin, North-central Poland.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Jedrusiak, Aneta; Lipka, Krzysztof; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Kawano, Masahide; Gucia, Magdalena; Brzostowski, Andrzej; Dadej, Monika

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of total mercury were determined by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS) in 221 caps and 221 stalks of 15 species of wild growing higher fungi/mushrooms and 221 samples of corresponding soil substrate collected in 1997-98 in Manowo County, near the city of Koszalin in North-central Poland. Mean mercury concentrations in caps and stalks of the mushroom species examined and soils varied between 30+/-31 and 920+/-280, 17+/-11 and 560+/-220, and 10+/-9 and 170+/-110 ng/g dry matter, respectively. Cap to stalk mercury concentration quotients were from 1.0+/-0.4 in poison pax (Paxillus involutus) to 2.8+/-0.7 in slippery jack (Suillus luteus). Brown cort (Cortinarius malicorius), fly agaric (Amanita muscaria), orange-brown ringless amanita (A. fulva), red-aspen bolete (Leccinum rufum) and mutagen milk cap (Lactarius necator) contained the highest concentrations of mercury both in caps and stalks, and mean concentrations varied between 600+/-750 and 920+/-280 and 370+/-470 and 560+/-220 ng/g dry matter, respectively. An estimate of daily intake of mercury from mushroom consumption indicated that the flesh of edible species of mushrooms may not pose hazards to human health even at a maximum consumption rate of 28 g/day. However, it should be noted that mercury intake from other foods will augment the daily intake rates. Species such as the sickener (Russula emetica), Geranium-scented russula (R. fellea) and poison pax (P. involutus) did not concentrate mercury as evidenced from the bioconcentration factors (BCFs: concentrations in mushroom/concentration in soil substrate), which were less than 1. Similarly, red-hot milk cap (L. rufus), rickstone funnel cap (Clitocybe geotropa) and European cow bolete (S. bovinus) were observed to be weak accumulators of mercury. Fly agaric (A. muscaria) accumulated great concentrations of mercury with BCFs reaching 73+/-42 and 38+/-22 in caps and stalks, respectively. Mercury BCFs of between 4.0+/-2.3 and 23+/-25 (caps) and 2.6+/-1.9 and 14+/-12 (stalks) were noted for the other mushroom species. Relatively great concentrations of mercury in fly agaric (A. muscaria) were due to preferential uptake of this element by this species. PMID:14581048

  20. Determining solute inputs to soil and stream waters in a seasonally snow-covered mountain catchment in northern New Mexico using Ge/Si, 87Sr/86Sr and ion chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, C. M.; McIntosh, J. C.; Derry, L. A.; Meixner, T.; Chorover, J.; Brooks, P. D.; Rasmussen, C.; Perdrial, J. N.

    2012-12-01

    The process of mineral weathering releases lithogenic elements to soil and stream waters, which influences the health of catchment ecosystems. Variations in hydrologic conditions between years and climatic seasons may change subsurface flowpaths, modifying the influence of weathering on stream water composition. This two-year study aims to determine the changes in solute sources to stream and soil waters in a seasonally snow-covered headwater catchment in the Jemez Mountains in northern New Mexico by using a multi-tracer approach including major cations, strontium (Sr) isotopes, geranium (Ge)/silica (Si) ratios and trace metals. Climatic forcing was different for the two years studied; 2010 had ample snow accumulation resulting in an increase in stream flow during melt, whereas little snow fall in 2011 caused minimal response in the hydrograph. Stream water base cations display relatively constant concentrations with variations in the hydrograph, suggesting that the rate of solute transport out of the system is directly related to fluxes in the water supply. Strontium isotope ratios of stream waters during 2010 and 2011 snowmelt periods (0.70753) were very similar to the spring Sr-isotope ratio (0.70751) indicating deep soilwater as a single dominant source of major cations to stream waters. However, Ge/Si ratios, Fe, Al, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations increase during the 2010 snowmelt. Iron, Al and DOC form complexes with organic material and are therefore enriched in the shallow soils. Ge is enriched in secondary, relative to primary, minerals during incongruent weathering, so it is also enriched in soils relative to parent rock. The Ge/Si ratio peak of 3.11 μmol/mol, in combination with an increase in Al, Fe, and DOC concentrations represents a flushing of shallow soils during the 2010 snow melt. Preceding the snow melt Ge/Si ratios decrease to a minimum ratio of 0.72 μmol/mol in 2010 and continue to decrease into 2011 to a minimum of 0.07 μmol/mol. Aluminum, Fe, and DOC concentrations also decrease after the peak in snow melt and remain stable and low for the remainder of the study period. The lack of an increase in Ge/Si ratios and Al, Fe, and DOC concentrations during the summer rains shows that deeper soil water dominates stream water composition from June-March, following the snowmelt period.

  1. Laboratory evaluation of products to reduce settling of sweetpotato whitefly adults.

    PubMed

    Schuster, D J; Thompson, S; Ortega, L D; Polston, J E

    2009-08-01

    The impact of trademarked and commercial products on settling of adults of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), was studied in the laboratory. A no-choice bioassay using leaf disks of tomato, Solanum esculentum L., was developed to evaluate the impact of concentration series of products on settling of B. tabaci adults. The concentration of each product that would reduce settling by 50% (SC50) was estimated for each product using standard probit analyses, and the values were compared with that of Ultra-Fine Oil, a paraffinic oil product that is known to reduce settling of whitefly adults. Twenty-two trademarked products and 42 other products were evaluated in the laboratory bioassay. Based upon comparisons of fiducial limits of the respective SC50 values, Dawn detergent and E-RASE jojoba oil were the only trademarked products that were as effective as Ultra-Fine Oil in reducing settling of B. tabaci adults. Of the nontrademarked products, 25 were similar to Ultra-Fine Oil, although cedar, geranium, ginger, Hamlin (citrus), patchouli, olive and wintergreen oils, as well as citronellal and limonene, had ratios of respective SC50 values with that of Ultra-Fine Oil of approximately 1.5 or less. Combinations of limonene and citronellal with either olive oil or Ultra-Fine Oil were 15 and 30 times, respectively, more effective than Ultra-Fine Oil alone. Candidate products and combinations of products were further evaluated on tomato seedlings in no-choice screenhouse trials for effects on oviposition and on transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (family Geminiviridae, genus Begomovirus, TYLCV) by B. tabaci. Ultra-Fine Oil and olive oil reduced oviposition and transmission of TYLCV in the screenhouse trials. Ginger oil and limonene reduced oviposition in at least one screenhouse trial but did reduce transmission of TYLCV. The laboratory bioassay provided a rapid and relatively easy method to compare products for reducing settling of B. tabaci adults. Even though the reduced settling indicated in the laboratory bioassays was not always reflected in reduced oviposition or TYLCV transmission in the screenhouse trials, the bioassay was useful in rapidly identifying products that reduce settling and that could be investigated further. PMID:19736760

  2. NTP Carcinogenesis Studies of Food Grade Geranyl Acetate (71% Geranyl Acetate, 29% Citronellyl Acetate) (CAS No. 105-87-3) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Study).

    PubMed

    1987-10-01

    Geranyl acetate (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadiene-1-ol acetate) is a colorless liquid prepared by fractional distillation of selected essential oils or by acetylation of geraniol. It is a natural constituent of more than 60 essential oils, including Ceylon citronella, palmarosa, lemon grass, petit grain, neroli bigarade, geranium, coriander, carrot, and sassafras. Geranyl acetate is used primarily as a component of perfumes for creams and soaps and as a flavoring ingredient. On the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's list of substances "generally recognized as safe," the Food Chemicals Codex (1972) specifies that geranyl acetate must contain at least 90% total esters. Carcinogenesis studies of food-grade geranyl acetate (containing approximately 29% citronellyl acetate) were conducted by administering the test chemical in corn oil by gavage to groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats at doses of 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg body weight and to groups of 50 male and 50 female B6C3F1 mice at doses of 500 or 1,000 mg/kg. Doses were administered five times per week for 103 weeks. Groups of 50 rats and 50 mice of each sex received corn oil by gavage on the same dosing schedule and served as vehicle controls. The cumulative toxicity of geranyl acetate in the 2-year study was indicated by the significantly shorter survival of high dose male rats (control, 34/50; low dose, 29/50; high dose, 18/50) and of high dose male mice (control, 31/50; low dose, 32/50; high dose, 0/50) and of dosed female mice (38/50; 15/50; 0/50) when compared with controls. Throughout most of the 2-year study, mean body weights of high dose rats and mice of each sex were lower than those of the controls. The occurrence of retinopathy or cataracts in the high dose male rats and low dose female rats as compared with the controls does not appear to be related to the administration of geranyl acetate but rather the proximity of the rats to fluorescent light. The incidence of retinopathy or cataracts (combined) was: males: control, 0/50, 0%; low dose, 1/50, 2%; high dose, 11/50, 22%; females: control, 1/50, 2%; low dose, 13/50, 26%; high dose, 2/50, 4%. Kidney tubular cell adenomas, an uncommon tumor type, were found in 2/50 (4%) low dose male rats. The historical incidence of male corn oil gavage control F344/N rats with kidney tumors is 1/250 (0.4%) at this laboratory and 4/998 (0.4%) in the program. Squamous cell papillomas in the skin were increased marginally in low dose male rats (control, 0/50; low dose, 4/50, 8%; high dose, 1/50, 2%). In addition, one low dose male rat had a squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. The incidence of low dose male rats with either squamous cell papillomas or carcinomas was greater (P<0.05) in comparison with the controls. The historical incidence of squamous cell papillomas or carcinomas (combined) in gavage control male F344/N rats is 3.6% (9/250) at this laboratory and 2.5% (25/999) throughout the program. The incidence of all epidermal tumors was not significantly elevated in dosed male rats relative to controls (control, 3/50, 6%; low dose, 6/50, 12%; high dose, 1/50, 2%). All high dose (1,000 mg/kg) male and female mice were dead by week 91 as a result of accidentally being administered 2,800 mg/kg for 3 days during week 91; survival of low dose and control male mice was comparable. Survival of high dose male and dosed female mice may have been inadequate for the detection of late-appearing tumors. No evidence of any carcinogenic effect was found in either low or high dose mice of either sex. An infection of the genital tract was probably responsible for the deaths of 14/22 control and 8/32 low dose female mice before the end of the study. Cytoplasmic vacuolization was increased in the liver and in the kidney of male and female mice and was considered to be compound related (liver-- male: control, 1/50, 2%; low dose, 7/50, 14%; high dose, 47/50, 94%; female: 1/50, 2%; 27/50, 54%; 46/50, 92%; kidney or kidney tubule--male: 0/50; 0/50; 41/50, 82%; female: 0/50; 24/49, 49%; 37/50, 74%). Under the conditions of these studies, geranyl 4%; 46/50, 92%; kidney or kidney tubule--male: 0/50; 0/50; 41/50, 82%; female: 0/50; 24/49, 49%; 37/50, 74%). Under the conditions of these studies, geranyl acetate was not carcinogenic for F344/N rats or B6C3F1 mice of either sex; however, the reduced survival observed in high dose male rats, high dose male mice, and high and low dose female mice lowered the sensitivity of these studies for detecting neoplastic responses in these groups. In male rats the marginal increases of squamous cell papillomas of the skin and tubular cell adenomas of the kidney may have been related to administration of geranyl acetate. Levels of Evidence of Carcinogenicity: Male Rats: Negative Female Rats: Negative Male Mice: Negative Female Mice: Negative PMID:12748693