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1

Yield and Chemical Composition of Rose-Scented Geranium (Pelargonium Species) Oil at Different Times of Harvesting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted for six months covering rainy, autumn and spring seasons, to investigate the influence of time of harvesting on yield and quality of the oil of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium sp.) cv. Bourbon, in the semi-arid tropical climate of south India. A diurnal fluctuation in oil yield was observed with a maximum at 12:00 noon (0.27%) and

Bhaskaruni Rajeswara Rao; Arun Bhattacharya; Pran Kaul; S. Ramesh

2001-01-01

2

Microbial and chemical sources of phosphorus supply modulate the yield and chemical composition of essential oil of rose-scented geranium ( Pelargonium species) in sodic soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium sp.) is a highly valued aromatic crop. Its growth is limited by soil salinity and sodicity stress. Arbuscular mycorrhizal\\u000a (AM) fungus, phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB), and P fertilizers may enhance the growth and secondary metabolism in geranium\\u000a plants. In this context, a pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of PSB, AM fungi (Glomus intraradices), and P

Arun Prasad; Sanjay Kumar; Ankit Pandey; Sukhmal Chand

3

Chemical composition and biological activities of polar extracts and essential oil of rose-scented geranium, Pelargonium graveolens.  

PubMed

Pelargonium graveolens (Geraniaceae) was characterized with respect to its chemical composition, antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activities. This is the first investigation focusing on the comparison of both essential oil and polar extracts from this species. The chemical composition of the essential oil of the aerial parts of P. graveolens was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The main constituents of the oil were found to be ?-citronellol (21.9%), citronellyl formate (13.2%), geraniol (11.1%), 10-epi-?-eudesmol (7.9%), geranyl formate (6.2%) and (l)-linalool (5.6%). Nine flavonoids were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-MS in leaf and flower extracts. Kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside-glucoside, isorhamnetin aglycone, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3,7-di-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-pentose and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-pentoside-glucoside, myrisetin 3-O-glucoside-rhamnoside flavonoids were detected in methanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. The total flavonoids ranged between 29.9 and 78.2 mg QE/g in flower water and methanol extracts, respectively, and 22.5 and 71.2 mg QE/g dry weight in leaf water and methanol extracts, respectively. The highest antioxidant activities using two methods of free radical scavenging capacities were obtained with the essential oil (9.16 mM of Trolox and 2.68 µg/ml). All P. graveolens essential oil and polar extracts were active against at least one bacterium. PMID:23027699

Boukhris, Maher; Simmonds, Monique S J; Sayadi, Sami; Bouaziz, Mohamed

2013-08-01

4

Impact of plant growth promoting Pseudomonas monteilii PsF84 and Pseudomonas plecoglossicida PsF610 on metal uptake and production of secondary metabolite (monoterpenes) by rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolenscv. bourbon) grown on tannery sludge amended soil.  

PubMed

Bacterial strains PsF84 and PsF610 were isolated from tannery sludge polluted soil, Jajmau, Kanpur, India. 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the taxonomic affiliation of PsF84 as Pseudomonas monteilii and PsF610 as Pseudomonas plecoglossicida. A greenhouse study was carried out with rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolenscv. bourbon) grown in soil treated with tannery sludge in different proportions viz. soil: sludge ratio of 100:0, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 0:100 to evaluate the effects of bacterial inoculation on the heavy metal uptake. The isolates solubilized inorganic phosphorus and were capable of producing indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore. The isolate PsF84 increased the dry biomass of shoot by 44%, root by 48%, essential oil yield 43% and chlorophyll by 31% respectively over uninoculated control. The corresponding increase with the isolate PsF610 were 38%, 40%, 39% and 28%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies reveal that the Cr(VI) accumulation resulted in breakdown of vascular bundles and sequesters Cr(VI) in roots. The glandular trichomes (GT) were investigated using SEM studies as these glands are probably the main site of essential oil synthesis. Owing to its wide action spectrum, these isolates could serve as an effective metal sequestering and bioinoculants due to the production of IAA, siderophore and solubilization of phosphate for geranium in metal-stressed soil. The present study has provided a new insight into the phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soil. PMID:25194330

Dharni, Seema; Srivastava, Atul Kumar; Samad, Abdul; Patra, Dharani Dhar

2014-12-01

5

Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of leaf essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L'H?r. in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér.), which is used in traditional Tunisian folk medicine for the treatment of hyperglycaemia, is widely known as one of the medicinal herbs with the highest antioxidant activity. The present paper is conducted to test the hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities of the leaf essential oil of P. graveolens. Methods The essential oil P. graveolens was administered daily and orally to the rats at two doses of 75?mg/kg and 150?mg/kg body weight (b.w.) for 30?days. The chemical composition of P. graveolens essential oil, body weight, serum glucose, hepatic glycogen, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), the components of hepatic, and renal and serum antioxidant systems were evaluated. The hypoglycemic effect of rose-scented geranium was compared to that of the known anti-diabetic drug glibenclamide (600??g/kg b.w.). Results After the administration of two doses of essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. together with glibenclamide which is known by its antidiabetic activities and used as reference (600??g/kg b.w.), for four weeks, the serum glucose significantly decreased and antioxidant perturbations were restored. The hypoglycemic effect of P. graveolens at the dose of 150?mg/kg b.w. was significantly (pgeranium oils were confirmed. Conclusions It suggests that administration of essential oil of P. graveolens may be helpful in the prevention of diabetic complications associated with oxidative stress. Our results, therefore, suggest that the rose-scented geranium could be used as a safe alternative antihyperglycemic drug for diabetic patients. PMID:22734822

2012-01-01

6

Analysis of 1,3 dimethylamylamine concentrations in Geraniaceae, geranium oil and dietary supplements.  

PubMed

1,3-Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) is a sympathomimetic compound currently incorporated into some dietary supplements. Significant controversy exists regarding the 'natural' origin of DMAA, as claimed by manufacturers of supplements. Manufacturers often refer to its presence by the name Geranamine® implying that DMAA is found in the plant species Geranium and Pelargonium known collectively as Geraniaceae. This study determined whether DMAA is present in the plant species, Geranium and Pelargonium. In addition, concentrations of DMAA in popular dietary supplements and commercial Geranium and Pelargonium oils were assessed. One Pelargonium cultivar, one Geranium cultivar, three essential oils from Pelargonium or Geranium, raw DMAA powder, and seven dietary supplements (DS) sold as finished products and labelled as containing DMAA, or one of its synonyms, were analyzed for the presence of DMAA by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). No measurable levels of DMAA in Geranium, Pelargonium or essential oils at a detection limit of 1-2 ng/g were present. UPLC/MS/MS analysis confirmed the presence of DMAA in spiked plant and oil samples, all seven DS products, and raw DMAA powder. Concentrations (weight%) of DMAA provided in DS ranged from 0.11% to 673%. This study indicates DMAA contained in DS is of a synthetic origin and is not present in the plant species Geranium and Pelargonium; thus the 'natural' origin and use of DMAA as an ingredient in DS is not substantiated. PMID:23704033

Austin, Krista G; Travis, John; Pace, Gerry; Lieberman, Harris R

2014-01-01

7

GERANIUM LEAF TISSUE NUTRIENT SUFFICIENCY RANGES BY CHRONOLOGICAL AGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cultivars of geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum) were grown under five different fertilizer regimes, 50, 100, 200, 300, or 400 mg·L nitrogen (N). The two cultivars were chosen to represent a dark-colored leaf cultivar, ‘Tango Dark Red’ and a light-colored leaf cultivar, ‘Rocky Mountain Dark Red’. Tissue samples were collected and analyzed for the content of 11 elemental nutrients every

Brian A. Krug; Brian E. Whipker; Ingram McCall; Brenda Cleveland

2010-01-01

8

Comparative phloem Mobility of nickel in nonsenescent plants. [Pisum sativa L. ; Pelargonium zonale L  

SciTech Connect

/sup 63/Ni was applied to nonsenescent source leaves and found to be transported to sink tissues in pea (Pisum saativum L.) and geranium plants (Pelargonium zonale L.). The comparative mobilities (percent tracer transported out of source leaf division % /sup 86/Rb transported) for /sup 63/Ni in peas was 2.12 and in geranium 0.25. The value for the phloem mobile /sup 86/Rb was 1.00. By contrast, the comparative mobility of /sup 45/Ca, which is relatively immobile in the phloem, was low (0.05 in peas, 0.00 in geranium). Interruption of the phloem pathway between source and sink leaves by steam girdling almost completely inhibited /sup 63/Ni accumulation in the sink leaves of both species. The authors conclude that Ni is transported from nonsenescent source leaves to sink tissues via the phloem of leguminous and nonleguminous plants.

Neumann, P.M.; Chamel, A.

1986-06-01

9

Water-Soluble Fertilizer Concentration and pH of a Peat-Based Substrate Affect Growth, Nutrient Uptake, and Chlorosis of Container-Grown Seed Geraniums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of water-soluble fertilizer concentration (WSF) and substrate-pH on growth, foliar nutrient content, and chlorosis of seed geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum) “Ringo Scarlet.” Geraniums were grown for 21 days in a 70% peat-30% perlite substrate. Experiment 1 included four pre-plant lime rates (pH 3.8, 4.3, 4.8, and 5.5), and plants were irrigated using 1X, 2X,

Brandon R. Smith; Paul R. Fisher; William R. Argo

2004-01-01

10

In vitro plantlet regeneration from cotyledon, hypocotyl and root explants of hybrid seed geranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro plantlet regeneration systems for the seed geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey) using cotyledon, hypocotyl and root explants were optimized by studying the influence of seedling age, growth regulators and excision orientation on organogenesis. Indole-3-acetic acid combined with zeatin yielded the highest rate of shoot production on cotyledon explants (0.2–2 shoots per explant). More shoots were produced on explants

Charlene Chang; Ben A. Moll; Kathleen B. Evenson; Mark J. Guiltinan

1996-01-01

11

Rare excitatory amino acid from flowers of zonal geranium responsible for paralyzing the Japanese beetle  

PubMed Central

The Japanese beetle (JB), Popillia japonica, exhibits rapid paralysis after consuming flower petals of zonal geranium, Pelargonium x hortorum. Activity-guided fractionations were conducted with polar flower petal extracts from P. x hortorum cv. Nittany Lion Red, which led to the isolation of a paralysis-inducing compound. High-resolution–MS and NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, heteronuclear sequential quantum correlation, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation) analysis identified the paralytic compound as quisqualic acid (C5H7N3O5), a known but rare agonist of excitatory amino acid receptors. Optical rotation measurements and chiral HPLC analysis determined an l-configuration. Geranium-derived and synthetic l-quisqualic acid demonstrated the same positive paralytic dose–response. Isolation of a neurotoxic, excitatory amino acid from zonal geranium establishes the phytochemical basis for induced paralysis of the JB, which had remained uncharacterized since the phenomenon was first described in 1920. PMID:21205899

Ranger, Christopher M.; Winter, Rudolph E.; Singh, Ajay P.; Reding, Michael E.; Frantz, Jonathan M.; Locke, James C.; Krause, Charles R.

2011-01-01

12

Hybridization experiments in Geranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybridization experiments were carried out with species of Geranium sect. Anemonifolia, sect. Lucida, sect. Pyrenaica and sect. Ruberta. All 9 species tested proved to be self-compatible. Of the 13 interspecific combinations tested only two were successful (G. brutium X G. molle and G. purpureum X G. robertianum) but both hybrids were completely sterile. It is concluded that at least the

J. Chr. Loon

1984-01-01

13

Behavior of Ralstonia solanacearum Race 3 Biovar 2 During Latent and Active Infection of Geranium.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Southern wilt of geraniums (Pelargonium hortorum), caused by the soilborne bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 (R3bv2), has inflicted significant economic losses when geranium cuttings latently infected with this quarantine pest were imported into the United States. Little is known about the interaction between R. solanacearum and this ornamental host. Using UW551, a virulent R3bv2 geranium isolate from a Kenyan geranium, we characterized development of Southern wilt disease and R3bv2 latent infection on geranium plants. Following soil inoculation, between 12 and 26% of plants became latently infected, carrying average bacterial populations of 4.8 x 10(8) CFU/g of crown tissue in the absence of visible symptoms. Such latently infected plants shed an average of 1.3 x 105 CFU/ml in soil run-off water, suggesting a non-destructive means of testing pools of asymptomatic plants. Similarly, symptomatic plants shed 2 x 10(6) CFU/ml of run-off water. A few hundred R. solanacearum cells introduced directly into geranium stems resulted in death of almost all inoculated plants. However, no disease transmission was detected after contact between wounded leaves. Increasing temperatures to 28 degrees C for 2 weeks did not convert all latently infected plants to active disease, although disease development was temperature dependent. Holding plants at 4 degrees C for 48 h, a routine practice during geranium cutting shipment, did not increase frequency of latent infections. R. solanacearum cells were distributed unevenly in the stems and leaves of both symptomatic and latently infected plants, meaning that random leaf sampling is an unreliable testing method. UW551 also caused potato brown rot and bacterial wilt of tomato, surpassing race 1 strain K60 in virulence on tomato at the relatively cool temperature of 24 degrees C. PMID:18943982

Swanson, Jill K; Yao, Jian; Tans-Kersten, Julie; Allen, Caitilyn

2005-02-01

14

Identification and Quantification of Dimethylamylamine in Geranium by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

A sensitive and reliable method of liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/ MS) was developed and validated for determining 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) and 1,4-dimethylamylamine (1,4-DMAA) in geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). The sample was extracted with 0.5 M HCl and purified by liquid-liquid partition with hexane. The parameters for reverse-phase (C18) LC and positive ESI/MS/MS were optimized. The matrix effect, specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy and reproducibility of the method were determined and evaluated. The method was linear over a range of 0.10–10.00 ng/mL examined, with R2 of 0.99 for both 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-DMAA. The recoveries from spiked concentrations between 5.00–40.00 ng/g were 85.1%–104.9% for 1,3-DMAA, with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.9%–11.0%, and 82.9%–101.8% for 1,4-DMAA, with RSD of 3.2%–11.7%. The instrument detection limit was 1–2 pg for both DMAAs. The quantification limit was estimated to be 1–2 ng/g for the plant sample. This method was successfully applied to the quantitative determination of 1,3- and 1,4-DMAA in both geranium plant and geranium oil. PMID:22915838

Li, J.S.; Chen, M.; Li, Z.C.

2012-01-01

15

Pigment chemistry and colour of Pelargonium flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major factors responsible for colour variation in a range of Pelargonium species and cultivars were shown to be the types and relative levels of pigments present. Variations in pH and copigment levels were not found to contribute significantly. Flowers with colours ranging from cream and pink through to deep purple, including salmon, orange and red, were studied. While either

Kevin A. Mitchell; Kenneth R. Markham; Murray R. Boase

1998-01-01

16

The chemotaxonomy of Geranium ( Geraniaceae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships amongGeranium species constituting sectt.Anemonifolia, Lucida (monotypic) andRuberta together with representatives of sect.Unguiculata were investigated by gas-chromatographic study of essential oils, electrophoretic comparison of seed proteins and chromatographic separation of nectar amino acids. — Essential oil study gave little information.G. macrorrhizum (sect.Unguiculata) had far greater quantities of essential oils in its foliage than other species and differed from them qualitatively.

Peter F. Yeo; Helen Widler-Kiefer

1990-01-01

17

Analysis and Confirmation of 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-DMAA in Geranium Plants Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry at ng/g Concentrations  

PubMed Central

1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) is a stimulant commercially sold in a variety of dietary supplements as a chemical species derived from geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). Whether 1,3-DMAA naturally occurs in geranium plants or other dietary ingredients, it has important regulatory and commercial ramifications. However, the analysis of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants is not trivial due to low concentrations and a complex environmental matrix, requiring high selectivity and sensitivity. An extraction method combined with high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry is used to determine 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-dimethylamylamine (1,4-DMAA) concentrations in geranium plants with both external calibration and standard addition method. Samples from the Changzhou, Kunming, and Guiyang regions of China during both winter and summer were analyzed for 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-DMAA. The diastereomer ratios of the 1,3-DMAA stereoisomers of a racemic standard and the extracted plant were also quantified. PMID:23225994

Fleming, Heather L.; Ranaivo, Patricia L.; Simone, Paul S.

2012-01-01

18

Apertural chambers in Geranium : Development and ultrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen grains ofGeranium robertianum andG. pratense are tricolpate. At the time of the vacuolated microspore stage intine protrusions are formed at each aperture. Each aperture becomes separated from the vegetative cytoplasm by a thick ectintine layer. Starch grains are enclosed in the protrusions and do not participate in pollen tube growth.

Martina Weber

1996-01-01

19

Determinants of seed production in Geranium maculatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We experimentally examined factors limiting seed production in two populations of the perennial woodland herb Geranium maculatum in central Illinois, USA. To test the pollinator-limitation hypothesis, we compared the seed production of plants whose flowers were supplementarily pollinated with outcross pollen to that of control plants receiving natural pollination only. To test if fruit production by early flowers suppresses fruit

Jon Ågren; Mary F. Willson

1992-01-01

20

Investigating contact toxicity of Geranium and Artemisia essential oils on Bemisia tabaci Gen.  

PubMed Central

Objective: Sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gen. (B. tabaci), is one of the most important pests of various greenhouse crops in Iran. Nowadays, chemical insecticides are broadly used for control of the pests that causes risk to consumer's health. For the first time, contact toxicity of Pelargonium roseum Andrews and Artemisia sieberi Besser essential oils on B. tabaci and its possible application against the whitefly was evaluated in 2012. Materials and Methods: Essential oil with concentrations of 2500, 1250, 125, and 12 ppm were used. Infested leaves of greenhouse cucumber were treated by mentioned concentrations. After 24 hours, mortality of B. tabaci was recorded and compared after correcting by Abbot's formula. Results: Results showed that all concentrations of the essential oil could significantly reduce population of B. tabaci compared with the control treatment. Phytotoxicity of the treated leaves were recorded after 24, 48, and 72 hours and compared with the control. Concentrations of 2500, 1250, and 125 ppm caused severe phytotoxicity on greenhouse cucumber leaves and therefore are not suitable for greenhouse application. Phytotoxicity of 12 ppm was relatively low. Conclusions: This data implicated suitable protective effects of the essential oils to the pest infestation. Therefore, essential oils distillated from Geranium and Artemisia could be applied to control B. tabaci in greenhouse cucumber at V/V 12 ppm. PMID:25050264

Yarahmadi, Fatemeh; Rajabpour, Ali; Zandi Sohani, Nooshin; Ramezani, Leila

2013-01-01

21

Volatiles of Geranium purpureum Vill. and Geranium phaeum L.: chemotaxonomy of balkan Geranium and Erodium species (Geraniaceae).  

PubMed

The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of Geranium purpureum and G. phaeum were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses (the former for the first time in general). In total, 154 constituents were identified, accounting for 89.0-95.8% of the detected GC peak areas. The investigated essential oils consisted mainly of fatty acids and fatty-acid-derived compounds (45.4-81.3%), with hexadecanoic acid and (E)-phytol as the major components. The chemotaxonomic significance of the variations in the essential-oil composition/production of the presently and previously investigated Geranium and highly related Erodium taxa from Serbia and Macedonia was assessed by multivariate statistical analyses. The main conclusions drawn from the high chemical similarity of the two genera, visible from the obtained dendrograms and biplots, confirm the close phylogenetic relationship between the investigated Geranium and Erodium taxa, i.e., that there is no great intergeneric oil-composition variability. Changes in the composition and production of essential oils of the herein investigated taxa and 60 other randomly chosen species belonging to different plant genera were also statistically analyzed. The results put forward pro arguments for the oil-yield-oil-composition correlation hypothesis. PMID:24243613

Radulovi?, Niko S; Deki?, Milan S

2013-11-01

22

A new acylated neohesperidoside from Geranium purpureum.  

PubMed

A new acylated neohesperoside derivative, 1-octyl-4'-isovaleroyl-neohesperoside (1), was isolated from Geranium purpureum Vill. (Geraniaceae) together with the known compounds quercetin-3-rutinoside and gallic acid. The identification of the isolated compounds was carried out by spectroscopic analysis including 1D- and 2D- NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC and HMBC) spectroscopy and ESI-TOF-MS. PMID:21941906

Söhreto?lu, Didem; Liptaj, Tibor; Sakar, M Koray; Sterner, Olov

2011-09-01

23

The Essential Oils of Pelargonium grossularioides and Erodium cicutarium (Geraniaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils of Pelargonium grossularioides and Erodium cicutarium (Geraniaceae) were examined by GC\\/MS and found to be very similar. The major components were isomenthone (12.8%, 11.2%), citronellol (11.6%, 15.4%), geraniol (15.9%, 16.7%) and methyl eugenol (11.2%, 10.6%) respectively.

Maria Lis-Balchin

1993-01-01

24

Metabolism of l-Threonic Acid in Rumex x acutus L. and Pelargonium crispum (L.) L'H?r 1  

PubMed Central

l-Threonic acid is a natural constituent in leaves of Pelargonium crispum (L.) L'Hér (lemon geranium) and Rumex x acutus L. (sorrel). In both species, l-[14C]threonate is formed after feeding l-[U-14C]ascorbic acid to detached leaves. R. acutus leaves labeled with l-[4-3H]- or l-[6-3H]ascorbic acid produce l-[3H]threonate, in the first case internally labeled and in the second case confined to the hydroxymethyl group. These results are consistent with the formation of l-threonate from carbons three through six of l-ascorbic acid. Detached leaves of P. crispum oxidize l-[U-14C] threonate to l-[14C]tartrate whereas leaves of R. acutus produce negligible tartrate and the bulk of the 14C appears in 14CO2, [14C]sucrose, and other products of carbohydrate metabolism. R. acutus leaves that are labeled with l-[U-14C]threonate release 14CO2 at linear rate until a limiting value of 25% of the total [U-14C]threonate is metabolized. A small quantity of [14C]glycerate is also produced which suggests a process involving decarboxylation of l-[U-14C]threonate. PMID:16662405

Helsper, Johannes P.; Loewus, Frank A.

1982-01-01

25

The effects of selected Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae on growth and water relation of geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum 'cherry glow')  

E-print Network

THE EFFECTS OF S~ VESICULAR ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE OW GROWTH AWD WATER RELATION OF GERAWIUM (P~IUM x HORTORUM 'CHERRY GLOW' ) A Thesis MICHAEL RAYMOND SWEATT Apprcnred as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Head o... partment) August 1982 ABSTRACT The Effects of Selected Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae on Growth and Water Relations 2 G 2 (~*P) 2 h t 'Gh*&Gl ') ldg t)P82) Michael Raymond 'Sweatt, B. S. , West Tezas State University Chairman of Advisory Committeeg...

Sweatt, Michael Raymond

2012-06-07

26

Scanning electron microscograph of vessel member from Pelargonium leaf with perforations and pits.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scanning electron microscograph of vessel member from Pelargonium leaf with perforations and pits. Micrograph, courtesy of Professor Peter B. Kaufman and Dr. P Dayanandan, Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Esau, Katherine

2004-03-09

27

Callus and suspension cultures from Geranium robertianum L (Geraniaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Frieble calli, obtained from petioles ofGeranium roberlianum were used for the production of cell suspension cultures in liquid MS modified medium supplemented with BAP and NAA. Casamino acids were shown to be necessary for suspension cultures establishment With a 15.9×104 cell. ml-1 concentration a td=38.2h was achieved.

L. Pedro; M. J. Sousa; J. M. Novais; M. Salomé S. Pais

1990-01-01

28

Production of engineered long-life and male sterile Pelargonium plants  

PubMed Central

Background Pelargonium is one of the most popular garden plants in the world. Moreover, it has a considerable economic importance in the ornamental plant market. Conventional cross-breeding strategies have generated a range of cultivars with excellent traits. However, gene transfer via Agrobacterium tumefaciens could be a helpful tool to further improve Pelargonium by enabling the introduction of new genes/traits. We report a simple and reliable protocol for the genetic transformation of Pelargonium spp. and the production of engineered long-life and male sterile Pelargonium zonale plants, using the pSAG12::ipt and PsEND1::barnase chimaeric genes respectively. Results The pSAG12::ipt transgenic plants showed delayed leaf senescence, increased branching and reduced internodal length, as compared to control plants. Leaves and flowers of the pSAG12::ipt plants were reduced in size and displayed a more intense coloration. In the transgenic lines carrying the PsEND1::barnase construct no pollen grains were observed in the modified anther structures, which developed instead of normal anthers. The locules of sterile anthers collapsed 3–4?days prior to floral anthesis and, in most cases, the undeveloped anther tissues underwent necrosis. Conclusion The chimaeric construct pSAG12::ipt can be useful in Pelargonium spp. to delay the senescence process and to modify plant architecture. In addition, the use of engineered male sterile plants would be especially useful to produce environmentally friendly transgenic plants carrying new traits by preventing gene flow between the genetically modified ornamentals and related plant species. These characteristics could be of interest, from a commercial point of view, both for pelargonium producers and consumers. PMID:22935247

2012-01-01

29

Timing of Seed Production and Dispersal Geranium Carolinianum: Effects on Fitness Author(s): Deborah Ann Roach  

E-print Network

Timing of Seed Production and Dispersal Geranium Carolinianum: Effects on Fitness Author TIMING OF SEED PRODUCTION AND DISPERSAL IN GERANIUM CAROLINIANUM: EFFECTS ON FITNESS' DEBORAH ANN ROACH2 of seed production and of seed dispersal to the fitness of an annual plant was examined using Geranium

Roach,. Deborah

30

A Pharmacological Appraisal of the Folk Medicinal Usage of Pelargonium grossularioides and Erodium cicutarium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pelargonium grossularioides and Erodium cicutarium, Geraniaceae family, have been used as folk medicines in South Africa, mainly to procure abortions. The pharmacological activity of extracts of the leaves of the 2 species was therefore investigated on in vitro preparations of smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle. Most extracts contracted or increased the tone of guinea pig ileum, rat uterus and rat

M. T. Lis-Balchin; S. L. Hart

1994-01-01

31

Insights into the Selective Pressures Restricting Pelargonium Flower Break Virus Genome Variability: Evidence for Host Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular diversity of Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV) was assessed using a collection of isolates from different geographical origins, hosts, and collecting times. The genomic region examined was 1,828 nucleotides (nt) long and comprised the coding sequences for the movement (p7 and p12) and the coat (CP) proteins, as well as flanking segments including the entire 3 untranslated region

Patricia Rico; Pilar Ivars; Santiago F. Elena; Carmen Hernandez

2006-01-01

32

Antioxidant activity of Tunisian Geranium robertianum L. (Geraniaceae).  

PubMed

The present investigation focuses on the methanolic extract obtained from Geranium robertianum L. (Geraniaceae) (Herb Robert), a herbal plant used in traditional medicine for the treatment of human and animal diseases. The antioxidant capacities of the extract were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, ?-carotene/linoleic acid and reducing power and metal chelating activity assays. The amount of total phenolic content, flavonoids and condensed tannins was very high, and the correlation between the antioxidant activity potential and total phenolic level of the extract was pointed out. PMID:23557033

Ben Jemia, Mariem; Aidi Wannes, Wissem; Ouchikh, Olfa; Bruno, Maurizio; Kchouk, Mohamed Elyes

2013-01-01

33

Overexpression of RoDELLA impacts the height, branching, and flowering behaviour of Pelargonium × domesticum transgenic plants.  

PubMed

KEY MESSAGE : We reported the cloning of a rose DELLA gene. We obtained transgenic Pelargonium lines overexpressing this gene which presented several phenotypes in plant growth, root growth, flowering time and number of inflorescences. Control of development is an important issue for production of ornamental plant. The plant growth regulator, gibberellins (GAs), plays a pivotal role in regulating plant growth and development. DELLA proteins are nuclear negative regulator of GA signalling. Our objective was to study the role of GA in the plant architecture and in the blooming of ornamentals. We cloned a rose DELLA homologous gene, RoDELLA, and studied its function by genetic transformation of pelargonium. Several transgenic pelargonium (Pelargonium × domesticum 'Autum Haze') lines were produced that ectopically expressed RoDELLA under the control of the 35S promoter. These transgenic plants exhibited a range of phenotypes which could be related to the reduction in GA response. Most of transgenic plants showed reduced growth associated to an increase of the node and branch number. Moreover, overexpression of RoDELLA blocked or delayed flowering in transgenic pelargonium and exhibited defects in the root formation. We demonstrated that pelargonium could be used to validate ornamental gene as the rose DELLA gene. RoDELLA overexpression modified many aspects of plant developmental pathways, as the plant growth, the transition of vegetative to floral stage and the ability of rooting. PMID:22898902

Hamama, L; Naouar, A; Gala, R; Voisine, L; Pierre, S; Jeauffre, J; Cesbron, D; Leplat, F; Foucher, F; Dorion, N; Hibrand-Saint Oyant, L

2012-11-01

34

Leaf shape linked to photosynthetic rates and temperature optima in South African Pelargonium species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal response of gas exchange varies among plant species and with growth conditions. Plants from hot dry climates generally\\u000a reach maximal photosynthetic rates at higher temperatures than species from temperate climates. Likewise, species in these\\u000a environments are predicted to have small leaves with more-dissected shapes. We compared eight species of Pelargonium (Geraniaceae) selected as phylogenetically independent contrasts on leaf

A. B. Nicotra; M. J. Cosgrove; A. Cowling; C. D. Schlichting; C. S. Jones

2008-01-01

35

Biparental inheritance of plastidial and mitochondrial DNA and hybrid variegation in Pelargonium.  

PubMed

Plastidial (pt) and mitochondrial (mt) genes usually show maternal inheritance. Non-Mendelian, biparental inheritance of plastids was first described by Baur (Z Indukt Abstamm Vererbungslehre 1:330-351, 1909) for crosses between Pelargonium cultivars. We have analyzed the inheritance of pt and mtDNA by examining the progeny from reciprocal crosses of Pelargonium zonale and P. inquinans using nucleotide sequence polymorphisms of selected pt and mt genes. Sequence analysis of the progeny revealed biparental inheritance of both pt and mtDNA. Hybrid plants exhibited variegation: our data demonstrate that the inquinans chloroplasts, but not the zonale chloroplasts bleach out, presumably due to incompatibility of the former with the hybrid nuclear genome. Different distribution of maternal and paternal sequences could be observed in different sectors of the same leaf, in different leaves of the same plant, and in different plants indicating random segregation and sorting-out of maternal and paternal plastids and mitochondria in the hybrids. The substantial transmission of both maternal and paternal mitochondria to the progeny turns Pelargonium into a particular interesting subject for studies on the inheritance, segregation and recombination of mt genes. PMID:19787375

Weihe, Andreas; Apitz, Janina; Pohlheim, Frank; Salinas-Hartwig, Annabel; Börner, Thomas

2009-12-01

36

PHOTOSYNTHESIS, CARBON ALLOCATION, AND GROWTH OF SULFUR DIOXIDE ECOTYPES OF 'GERANIUM CAROLINIANUM' L  

EPA Science Inventory

The study investigated ways in which genetically determined differences in SO2 susceptibility resulting from ecotypic differentiation in Geranium carolinianum were expressed physiologically. The SO2-resistant and SO2-sensitive ecotypes were exposed to a combination of short- and ...

37

Biological aspects of the geranium mites, Coptophylla caroliniani and Aceria mississippiensis (Prostigmata: Eriophyidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aceria mississippiensis andCoptophylla caroliniani (Prostigmata: Eriophyidiae) were found on wild geranium,Geranium carolinianum L., in northern Mississippi. About onehalf of the total developmental time was spent in the egg stage for each species. The developmental threshold forA. mississippiensis was 5.5±1.04°C and 7.3±0.93°C forC. caroliniani. The optimum temperature for each developmental stage was between 25 and 29°C.C. caroliniani failed to develop at

A. Chandrapatya; G. T. Baker

1986-01-01

38

Further antibacterial Geranium macrorrhizum L. metabolites and synthesis of epoxygermacrones.  

PubMed

4,5- and 1,10-Epoxygermacrones were isolated from the essential oil of aerial parts of Geranium macrorrhizum L. (Geraniaceae). The structures of the epoxy derivatives were deduced from their 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra, molecular modeling, and confirmed by synthesis starting from germacrone. The epoxy compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activities by a microdilution assay, which revealed high activities of both compounds against Bacillus subtilis (minimum inhibitory concentrations (M/Cs) determined were 4.3 and 43?nmol/ml for 1,10- and 4,5-epoxygermacrone, resp.) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.043 and 0.855??mol/ml for 1,10- and 4,5-epoxygermacrone, resp.). The discovery and observed activity of the two epoxides fills the gap in our knowledge of the active principles in this highly renowned ethnomedicinal plant species. PMID:24706624

Radulovi?, Niko S; Zlatkovi?, Dragan; Deki?, Milan; Stojanovi?-Radi?, Zorica

2014-04-01

39

Field demonstration of age dependent increase in lead phytoextraction by Pelargonium cultivar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unnecessary for living organisms, lead (Pb) is one of the major widespread toxic metals found in the environment with potential danger to human health and to ecosystems (Shahid et al. 2012). Lead is known to induce a broad range of toxic effects to living organism, including those that are morphological, physiological and biochemical in origin (Pourrut et al. 2011). A field study was carried out in the vicinity of Pb recycling plant near Toulouse-France, and contaminated by atmospheric fallouts to evaluate lead extraction and uptake efficiency of hyperaccumulater Attar of Roses Pelargonium cultivar. It was found that Attar of Roses has ability to accumulate (8644 mgPb/kg DW plant) and survive on highly contaminated acidic soil (39250 mg kg-1 of total Pb) without any morpho-phytotoxicity symptoms. Moreover Attar showed increased extraction of lead from bulk soil to rhizosphere through Pb mobilization and ultimately increased uptake by roots and translocation to shoots. The studied contaminated soil could be cleaned up in few years by planting hyperaccumulater Attar of Rose for longer time period. Under optimum fertlization, irrigation and use of natural or synthetic chelates (EDTA, LMOWA, humic substances etc.) along with old Attar of rose plants, time requires for complete remediation of contaminated site can be reduced to practically applicable time period. Moreover, the use of Pelargonium for remediation has several additional practical, esthetical and economic advantages. The extraction of value-added essential oils from harvested biomass could offset the cost of deploying phytoremediation and renders it as a viable approach for remediating highly contaminated soils, on large scale. Keywords: metal uptake, Pelargonium, phytoremediation, cultivar, soil-plant transfer and kinetic. References Pourrut, B., Shahid, M., Dumat, C., Winterton, P., Pinelli, E., 2011a. Lead uptake, toxicity and detoxification in plants. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 213, 113-136. Shahid, M., Arshad, M., Kaemmerer, M., Pinelli, E., Probst, A., Baque, D., Pradere, P., Dumat, C., 2012a. Long term field metal extraction by pelargonium: Phytoextraction efficiency in relation with plant maturity. Inter. J. Phytorem. 14, 493-505.

Shahid, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad; Pinelli, Eric; Alric, Alain; Kaemmerer, Michel; Pradere, Philippe; Dumat, Camille

2013-04-01

40

Chemical composition of the essential oil of Pelargonium quercetorum Agnew. of Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile constituents in the essential oil of Pelargonium quercetorum Agnew., growing wild in Kurdistan, Iran were investigated through GC and GC\\/MS technique. Twenty-six compounds, representing 21 (80.77%) of the total oil were identified. The main components were: ?-pinene (25.28%), ?-fenchyl acetate (20.63%), limonene (9.94%), ?-caryophyllene (8.20%), camphene (4.31%), ?-cadinene (3.32%), ?-pinene (3.21%), ?-amorphene (2.80%), valencene (2.73%), ledene (2.25%) and

Avat Taherpour; Hossein Maroofi; Khojasteh Kheradmand

2007-01-01

41

Antioxidant secondary metabolites from Geranium lasiopus Boiss. & Heldr.  

PubMed

Chromatographic studies on the EtOAc soluble portion of the MeOH extract of Geranium lasiopus led to the isolation of eight flavonoids (kaempferol (1), quercetin (2), quercetin 3-O-?-glucopyranoside (3), quercetin 3-O-?-galactopyranoside (4), kaempferol 3-O-?-rhamnopyranosyl-(1???6)-?-glucopyranoside (5), quercetin 3-O-?-rhamnopyranosyl-(1???6)-?-glucopyranoside (6), kaempferol 3-O-?-rhamnopyranosyl-(1???2)-?-glucopyranoside (7) and quercetin 3-O-?-rhamnopyranosyl-(1???2)-?-glucopyranoside (8)), two simple phenolic compounds (gallic acid (9) and its methyl ester (10)) and a hydrolysable tannin (pusilagin (11)). The structures of the compounds were elucidated by 1- and 2-dimensional NMR techniques ((1)H, (13)C, COSY, HMBC, HMQC) and ESI-TOF-MS spectrometry. Inhibitory effects on H(2)O(2)-induced lipid peroxidation in human red blood cells of the different extracts of G. lasiopus, as well as isolated compounds, were investigated. All tested compounds showed comparable or higher activity than that of ascorbic acid and trolox. PMID:21995426

Söhreto?lu, Didem; Sakar, Mahmut Koray; Sabuncuo?lu, Suna Atasayar; Ozgüne?, Hilal; Duman, Hayri; Sterner, Olov

2012-01-01

42

Antioxidant effects of secondary metabolites from Geranium psilostemon.  

PubMed

An investigation was made of the effects on endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities and H2O2-induced lipid peroxidation inhibition in human red blood cells of the crude MeOH extract and its EtOAc, n-BuOH, and H2O sub-extracts obtained from aerial parts of Geranium psilostemon Ledeb., as well as compounds isolated from the most active EtOAc extract. Gallic acid (1), methyl gallate (2), pusilagin (3), 1,3,6-tri-O-galloyl-beta-glucopyranoside (4), 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-glucopyranoside (5), kaempferol (6), quercetin (7), kaempferol 7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (8), and quercetin 7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (9) were isolated from the aerial parts of the title plant, and their structures identified from spectroscopic (UV, 1D- and 2D- NMR) and spectrometric (TOF-MS) data. All extracts and isolated compounds inhibited H2O2-induced lipid peroxidation and also enhanced the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). PMID:20614819

Söhreto?lu, Didem; Sabuncuo?lu, Suna Atasayar; Sakar, M Koray; Ozgüne?, Hilal; Sterner, Olov

2010-06-01

43

Sulfur Dioxide Flux into Leaves of Geranium carolinianum L. 1  

PubMed Central

The concurrent exchange of SO2 and H2O vapor between the atmosphere and foliage of Geranium carolinianum was investigated using a whole-plant gas exchange chamber. Total leaf flux of SO2 was partitioned into leaf surface and internal fractions. The emission rate of SO2-induced H2S was measured to develop a net leaf budget for atmospherically derived sulfur. Stomatal resistance to SO2 flux was estimated by two techniques: (a) RsSO2? from SO2 data using analog modeling techniques and (b) RsSO2 from analogy to H2O (i.e. 1.89 RsH2o). The emission of H2S was positively correlated with the rate of SO2 flux into the leaf interior. An accounting of the simultaneous, bidirectional flux of gaseous sulfur compounds during pollutant exposure showed that sulfur accumulation in the leaf interior of G. carolinianum was 7 to 15% lower than that estimated solely from mass-balance calculations of SO2 flux data (i.e. ignoring H2S emissions). The esimate of stomatal resistance to pollutant flux from the SO2 data (RsSO2?) was consistently less than the simultaneous estimate derived from analogy to H2O vapor (RsSO2). The resultant of RsSO2? — RsSO2, which was always negative, is indicative of a residual resistance to SO2 flux into the leaf interior. On a comparative basis, SO2 molecules experienced less pathway resistance to diffusion than effluxing H2O molecules. It is proposed that the SO2:H2O path length ratio is less than unity, as a consequence of the pollutant's high water solubility and unique chemical reactivity in solution. Thus, the diffusive paths for H2O and SO2 in G. carolinianum are not completely synonymous. PMID:16662968

Taylor, George E.; Tingey, David T.

1983-01-01

44

PHYSIOLOGY OF ECOTYPIC PLANT RESPONSE TO SULFUR DIOXIDE IN 'GERANIUM CAROLINIANUM' L  

EPA Science Inventory

Populations of Geranium carolinianum, winter annual plant common in disturbed habitats vary in their folair response to sulfur dioxide and pollution resistance is characteristic of populations sampled from areas in which SO2 has been a prominent stress. The physiological basis of...

45

SULFUR DIOXIDE FLUX INTO LEAVES OF 'GERANIUM CAROLINIANUM' L.: EVIDENCE FOR A NONSTOMATAL OR RESIDUAL RESISTANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The concurrent exchange of SO2 and H2O vapor between the atmosphere and foliage of Geranium carolinanum was investigated using a whole-plant gas exchange chamber. Total leaf flux of SO2 was partitioned into leaf surface and internal fractions. The emission rate of SO2-induced H2S...

46

Reproductive biology of Geranium sessiliflorum. II. The genetics and morph frequencies of the leaf colour polymorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In New Zealand three leaf colour morphs of Geranium sessiliflorum are found: brown, green, and intermediate olive. This polymorphism was investigated using controlled crosses between plants of the different colours, selfs, and harvesting of seeds produced after open pollination in the field and in cultivated plants. The leaf colour trimorphism is considered to be determined by one locus with two

M. Philipp

1987-01-01

47

RECOVERY OF VALUABLE PERFUMERY COMPOUNDS FROM A GERANIUM STEAM DISTILLATION CONDENSATE USING POLYMERIC ADSORBENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geranium steam-distillation condensate water contains a number of valuable perfumery components. This water was characterized and found to contain geraniol, nerol, citronellol, linalool, isomenthone and menthone. Recovery of these components from the condensate water by adsorption on polymeric adsorbents is described. Single solute and multisolute adsorption equilibria for a variety of polymeric adsorbents are reported. A rational explanation is given

Lekhraj P. Amin; Vishwas G. Pangarkar; Anthony A. C. M. Beenackers

2001-01-01

48

Some observations on the very rapid abscission of the petals of Geranium robertianum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The petals of young flowers ofGeranium robertianum L. start to be shed 2.25 hours after exposure to 20 ppm ethylene whilst controls kept in air take approximately 8 hours longer. The detachment of the petal takes place at its junction with the receptacle. The cells in the region show evidence of cell wall degradation and fracture takes place by

R. Sexton; W. A. Struthers; L. N. Lewis

1983-01-01

49

Effects of belowground grazing by collembola on growth, mycorrhizal infection, and P uptake of Geranium robertianum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesized that the grazing of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) hyphae by soil animals could be responsible for the lack of a direct relationship between mycorrhizal infection intensity and nutrient uptake under field conditions. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effect of a range of densities of the collembola, Folsomia candida, on growth, VAM infection, and P uptake in Geranium

Kathleen K. Harris; R. E. J. Boerner

1990-01-01

50

Determination of umckalin in commercial tincture and phytopreparations containing Pelargonium sidoides by HPLC: Comparison of sample preparation procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roots of Pelargonium sidoides D.C. are used for the production of phytomedicines. Current quality control of phytopreparations containing P. sidoides extracts has been made in terms of total phenolics content. In this work we describe the development and validation of an HPLC method for the analysis of P. sidoides tincture and commercial syrup phytopreparations using umckalin (7-hydroxy-5,6-dimethoxycoumarin) as chemical marker.

L. Franco; B. H. de Oliveira

2010-01-01

51

The influence of plant growth regulators and storage on root induction and growth in Pelargonium zonale cuttings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of post harvest application of ethylene, abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) treatments or dark storage\\u000a on root induction and continued growth of regenerated roots in Pelargonium cuttings were investigated using hydroponics in the greenhouse. Ethylene markedly increased rooting percentage in ‘Greco’\\u000a and ‘Surfing’, reduced the number of roots per cutting in ‘Surfing’ and had no effect on

Theophilus M. MutuiHeiko Mibus; Heiko Mibus; Margrethe Serek

2010-01-01

52

Photosynthesis, carbon allocation, and growth of sulfur dioxide ecotypes of Geranium carolinianum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study investigated ways in which genetically determined differences in SO2 susceptibility resulting from ecotypic differentiation inGeranium carolinianum were expressed physiologically. The SO2-resistant and SO2-sensitive ecotypes were exposed to a combination of short- and long-term SO2 exposures to evaluate the responses of photosynthesis, H2S efflux from foliage (sulfur detoxification), photoassimilate retention, leaf-diffusive resistance to CO2, and growth. When exposed

G. E. Taylor; D. T. Tingey; C. A. Gunderson

1986-01-01

53

Geranium sanguineum (Geraniaceae) seed oil: A new source of petroselinic and vernolic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrent of petroselinic acid (18?1?6cis) in seed oils was believed to be limited to the Umbelliferae or Apiaceae, and a few other members of the Umbelliflorae. A\\u000a major occurrence of petroselinic acid outside the Umbelliflorae must therefore be regarded as highly unusual and surprising.\\u000a The seed oil of Geranium sanguineum, a member of the family Geraniaceae, has now been

N. Tsevegsuren; K. Aitzetmuller; K. Vosmann

2004-01-01

54

Sulfur dioxide flux into leaves of Geranium carolinianum L. : evidence for a nonstomatal or residual resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concurrent exchange of SOâ and HâO vapor between the atmosphere and foliage of Geranium carolinianum was investigated using a whole-plant gas exchange chamber. Total leaf flux of SOâ was partitioned into leaf surface and internal fractions. The emission rate of SOâ-induced HâS was measured to develop a net leaf budget for atmospherically derived sulfur. Stomatal resistance to SOâ flux

G. E. Jr. Taylor; D. T. Tingey

1983-01-01

55

Physiology of ecotypic plant response to sulfur dioxide in Geranium carolinianum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of Geranium carolinianum, a winter annual plant common in disturbed habitats, vary in their foliar response to sulfur dioxide, and pollution resistance is characteristic of populations sampled from areas in which SO2 has been a prominent stress. The physiological basis of this ecotypic response was investigated using a whole-plant gaseous exchange system in which leaf resistance to H2O efflux

G. E. Taylor; D. T. Tingey

1981-01-01

56

Some eco-physiological aspects of seed dormancy in Geranium carolinianum L. from central tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

In central Tennessee Geranium carolinianum L. behaves as a winter annual. Seed germination occurs in autumn, and seed ripening and dispersal are completed in May. Freshly-matured seeds have hard coats and will not imbibe water unless scarified. Embryos of freshly-matured seeds are conditionally dormant; scarified seeds germinate better in darkness than in light at high temperatures. After a short after-ripening

Jerry M. Baskin; Carol C. Baskin

1974-01-01

57

Fertility relationships of Geranium ( Geraniaceae ): sectt. Ruberta, Anemonifolia, Lucida and Unguiculata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-pollinations were carried out among 11 briefly described species ofGeranium. Eight species pairs produced hybrids, of which five had not been reported before. The close relationship ofG. purpureum, G. robertianum andG. rubescens (sect.Ruberta) was confirmed; they form a polyploid series (diploid, tetraploid and octoploid on base x = 16). ForG. canariense (sect.Anemonifolia), another octoploid on base x = 16, the

Helen Widler-Kiefer; Peter F. Yeo

1987-01-01

58

The effects of UVB radiation on intumescence development and the characterization of lesions from physiological disorders on ornamental sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and interspecific geranium (Pelargonium spp.).  

E-print Network

??Intumescences are a physiological disorder characterized by hypertrophy and possibly hyperplasia of plant cells. Many plant species are susceptible to intumescence development, but the specific… (more)

Craver, Joshua Ken

2014-01-01

59

Casparian bands occur in the periderm of Pelargonium hortorum stem and root  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Casparian bands are characteristic of the endodermis and exodermis of roots, but also occur infrequently in other plant organs, for example stems and leaves. To date, these structures have not been detected in phellem cells of a periderm. The aim of this study was to determine whether Casparian bands occur in phellem cells using tests that are known to detect Casparian bands in cells that also contain suberin lamellae. Both natural periderm and wound-induced structures were examined in shoots and roots. Methods Using Pelargonium hortorum as a candidate species, the following tests were conducted: (1) staining with berberine and counterstaining with aniline blue, (2) mounting sections in concentrated sulphuric acid and (3) investigating the permeability of the walls with berberine as an apoplastic, fluorescent tracer. Key Results (1) Berberine–aniline blue staining revealed a modification in the radial and transverse walls of mature phellem cells in both stems and roots. Three days after wounding through to the cortex of stems, the boundary zone cells (pre-existing, living cells nearest the wound) had developed vividly stained primary walls. By 17 d, staining of mature phellem cells of wound-induced periderm was similar to that of natural periderm. (2) Mature native phellem cells of stems resisted acid digestion. (3) Berberine was excluded from the anticlinal (radial and transverse) walls of mature phellem cells in stems and roots, and from the wound-induced boundary zone. Conclusions Casparian bands are present in mature phellem cells in both stems and roots of P. hortorum. It is proposed that Casparian bands act to retard water loss and pathogen entry through the primary cell walls of the phellem cells, thus contributing to the main functions of the periderm. PMID:21239408

Meyer, Chris J.; Peterson, Carol A.

2011-01-01

60

Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and two levels of compost supply on nutrient uptake and flowering of pelargonium plants.  

PubMed

Two challenges frequently encountered in the production of ornamental plants in organic horticulture are: (1) the rate of mineralization of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) from organic fertilizers can be too slow to meet the high nutrient demand of young plants, and (2) the exclusive use of peat as a substrate for pot-based plant culture is discouraged in organic production systems. In this situation, the use of beneficial soil microorganisms in combination with high quality compost substrates can contribute to adequate plant growth and flower development. In this study, we examined possible alternatives to highly soluble fertilizers and pure peat substrates using pelargonium (Pelargonium peltatum L'Her.) as a test plant. Plants were grown on a peat-based substrate with two rates of compost addition and with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Inoculation with three different commercial AM inocula resulted in colonization rates of up to 36% of the total root length, whereas non-inoculated plants remained free of root colonization. Increasing the rate of compost addition increased shoot dry weight and shoot nutrient concentrations, but the supply of compost did not always completely meet plant nutrient demand. Mycorrhizal colonization increased the number of buds and flowers, as well as shoot P and potassium (K) concentrations, but did not significantly affect shoot dry matter or shoot N concentration. We conclude that addition of compost in combination with mycorrhizal inoculation can improve nutrient status and flower development of plants grown on peat-based substrates. PMID:17318595

Perner, Henrike; Schwarz, Dietmar; Bruns, Christian; Mäder, Paul; George, Eckhard

2007-07-01

61

Chemical composition and hepatotoxic effect of Geranium schiedeanum in a thioacetamide-induced liver injury model  

PubMed Central

One of the major components of some geraniums is geraniin, described by its discoverer as crystallizable tannin, well known as an excellent antioxidant, and also found in fruits such as pomegranate. Recently, natural antioxidants have attracted great attention from consumers over the world due to their lower toxicity than synthetics. But geraniin is not a stable compound, and also is difficult to obtain, that is why in the present study we obtained acetonylgeraniin from Geranium schideanum (Gs), a stable acetone condensate of geraniin. In the present study the effect of Gs acetone-water extract was studied in reference to postnecrotic liver regeneration induced by thioacetamide (TA) in rats. Two months male rats were pretreated with daily dose of Gs extract for 4 days (300 mg/kg) and the last day also were intraperitoneally injected with TA (6.6 mmol/kg). Samples of blood were obtained from rats at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h following TA intoxication. The pre-treatment with the crude extract in the model of thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats decreased and delayed liver injury by 66% at 24 h. This result suggests that Gs extract may be used as an alternative for reduction of liver damage. On the other hand, acute toxicity study revealed that the LD50 value of the Gs extract is more than the dose 5000 mg/kg in rats, according to the Lorke method.

Gayosso-De-Lucio, Juan; Bautista, Mirandeli; Velazquez-Gonzalez, C.; De la O Arciniega, M; Morales-Gonzalez, J.A.; Benedi, Juana

2014-01-01

62

Herbivore pressure by weevils associated with flower color polymorphism in Geranium thunbergii (Geraniaceae).  

PubMed

Although floral herbivory has recently received increased attention as an important factor influencing plant reproduction, relatively little is known about how its frequency and intensity vary depending on traits of host plants. Here we report that herbivore pressure by a weevil, Zacladus geranii, is associated with a flower color polymorphism of Geranium thunbergii (Geraniaceae). Pink and white flower color morphs have been reported in G. thunbergii, and we found in a three-year field survey in multiple populations that, generally, adult weevils more preferentially visited white flowers than pink flowers. Consistently, we found more severe damage by weevil larvae in white flowers. Overall herbivore pressure for G. thunbergii varied strongly between populations, and the difference seems to be partly explained by the co-occurrence of a related plant species, Geranium yezoense, in a population, as weevils preferred it to both color morphs of G. thunbergii, thereby relaxing overall herbivore pressure for G. thunbergii. Nonetheless, despite such high variability, the preference of weevils for white morphs over pink morphs of G. thunbergii was found across multiple populations. We discuss possible mechanisms causing the association between flower color and herbivore preference as well as its evolutionary consequences. PMID:24253757

Tsuchimatsu, Takashi; Yoshitake, Hiraku; Ito, Motomi

2014-03-01

63

Predicting the outcome of competition along a nitrogen gradient – a case study with Erodium cicutarium and Geranium pusillum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand the effect of a nitrogen gradient on the intraspecific and interspecific competition between plants, the two species Erodium cicutarium and Geranium pusillum were grown in a response-surface competion experiment at three different densities along a nitrogen gradient consisting of four different nitrogen levels. Seed set data were estimated from biomass measurements and fitted to a generalized

Signe Søndergaard; Lea B Petersen; Christian Damgaard

2005-01-01

64

Antibacterial, Antifungal, Cytotoxic, Phytotoxic, Insecticidal, and Enzyme Inhibitory Activities of Geranium wallichianum  

PubMed Central

The present study describes the phytochemical investigations of the crude extracts of rhizomes and leaves of Geranium wallichianum. The crude extracts were fractionated to obtain n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol fractions, which were subjected to different biological activities and enzyme inhibition assays to explore the therapeutic potential of this medicinally important herb. The results indicated that the crude extracts and different fractions of rhizomes and leaves showed varied degree of antimicrobial activities and enzyme inhibitions in different assays. Overall, the rhizome extract and its different fractions showed comparatively better activities in various assays. Furthermore, the purified constituents from the repeated chromatographic separations were also subjected to enzyme inhibition studies against three different enzymes. The results of these studies showed that lipoxygenase enzyme was significantly inhibited as compared to urease. In case of chemical constituents, the sterols (2–4) showed no inhibition, while ursolic acid (1) and benzoic ester (6) showed significant inhibition of urease enzymes. PMID:23049606

Ismail, Muhammad; Hussain, Javid; Khan, Arif-ullah; Khan, Abdul Latif; Ali, Liaqat; Khan, Farman-ullah; Khan, Amir Zada; Niaz, Uzma; Lee, In-Jung

2012-01-01

65

In vitro and in vivo anti-hepatitis B virus activities of a plant extract from Geranium carolinianum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural products provide a large reservoir of potentially active agents with anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) activity. We examined the effect of the polyphenolic extract from Geranium carolinianum L. (PPGC) on HBV replication both in vitro and in vivo. In the human HBV-transfected liver cell line HepG2 2.2.15, PPGC effectively suppressed the secretion of the HBV antigens in a dose-dependent manner

Jiyang Li; Hai Huang; Meiqing Feng; Wei Zhou; Xunlong Shi; Pei Zhou

2008-01-01

66

Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the volatile oils of Geranium sanguineum L. and G . robertianum L. (Geraniaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract  Volatile compounds of Geranium sanguineum and G. robertianum were isolated by hydrodistillation, analyzed in detail by GC and GC\\/MS and screened for their in vitro antibacterial and\\u000a antifungal activity in a microdilution assay. In total, 304 constituents were identified, representing more than 90% of the\\u000a isolated oils. The volatiles of G. sanguineum have been studied for the first time in

Niko Radulovi?; Milan Deki?; Zorica Stojanovi?-Radi?

67

Combinations of Fungicides with Phylloplane Yeasts for Improved Control of Botrytis cinerea on Geranium Seedlings.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Control of Botrytis cinerea on geranium seedlings was evaluated in treatments with phylloplane yeasts in combination with 10 fungicides used to manage Botrytis blight of ornamental plants. Rhodotorula glutinis PM4 significantly reduced the development of lesions caused by B. cinerea on geranium cotyledons; however, yeast biocontrol efficacy was highly variable between trials. Treatment with the yeast in combination with azoxystrobin or trifloxystrobin at one tenth the labeled rate (7.5 mug a.i. ml(-1)) or the full labeled rate (7.5 mug a.i. ml(-1)) reduced lesion development, compared to treatment with the yeast or the fungicide alone. Vinclozolin at half the labeled rate or the full labeled rate (250 or 500 mug a.i. ml(-1)), in combination with R. glutinis PM4, significantly reduced the development of lesions caused by an isolate of B. cinerea resistant to vinclozolin. Copper hydroxide and iprodione at one-tenth the labeled rates, with or without yeast, were highly effective in limiting lesion development. Mancozeb did not increase the biocontrol efficacy of the yeast, and thiophanate-methyl negatively affected the yeast efficacy. Improved disease control was observed in treatments with vinclozolin at the labeled rate and R. glutinis PM4 at cell densities of 5 x 10(5) and 1 x 10(6) cells ml(-1), but not 1 x 10(5) cells ml(-1), on seedlings co-inoculated with B. cinerea in a suspension containing 1 x 10(5) conidia ml(-1). Disease control improved in treatments with combinations of vinclozolin and eight other isolates of R. glutinis, two isolates of R. graminis, and two isolates of R. mucilaginosa. Biocontrol was not observed in treatments with two isolates of R. minuta. The combination of yeast and vinclozolin significantly reduced the germination of conidia of B. cinerea and the growth of R. glutinis PM4 in vitro. All combinations of R. glutinis PM4 with azoxystrobin, trifloxystrobin, or vinclozolin provided highly effective and consistent disease control not observed in treatments with the fungicides alone or the yeast alone. PMID:18943543

Buck, J W

2004-02-01

68

Interspecific variation in SOâ flux: leaf surface versus internal flux, and components of leaf conductance. [Pisum sativum L. , Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Flacca, Geranium carolinianum L. , Diplacus aurantiacus (Curtis) Jeps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to clarify the relationships among stomatal, residual, and epidermal conductances in determining the flux of SOâ air pollution to leaves. Variations in leaf SOâ and HâO vapor fluxes were determined using four plant species: Pisum sativum L. (garden pea), Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. flacca (mutant of tomato), Geranium carolinianum L. (wild geranium), and Diplacus aurantiacus

D. M. Olszyk; D. T. Tingey

1985-01-01

69

Multivariate adaptation but no increase in competitive ability in invasive Geranium carolinianum L. (Geraniaceae).  

PubMed

Adaptive evolution can affect the successful establishment of invasive species, but changes in selective pressures, loss of genetic variation in relevant traits, and/or altered trait correlations can make adaptation difficult to predict. We used a common-garden experiment to assess trait correlations and patterns of adaptation in the invasive plant, Geranium carolinianum, sampled across 20 populations in its native (United States) and invasive (China) ranges. We used multivariate QST - FST tests to determine if phenotypic differences between countries are attributable to adaptation. We also compared population-level variation within each country to assess whether local adaptation resulted in similar multivariate phenotypes in the United States and China. Between countries, most phenotypic differences are indistinguishable from genetic drift, although we detected a signature of adaptation to the colder, drier winters in China. There was no evidence for increases in invasive traits in China. Within countries, strong multivariate adaptation appears to be driven by latitudinal climatic variation in the United States, but not in China. Additionally, adaptive trait combinations as well as their underlying correlations differ between the two countries, indicating that adaptation in invasive populations does not parallel patterns in native populations due to differences in selection pressures, genetic constraints, or both. PMID:24931621

Shirk, Rebecca Y; Hamrick, James L

2014-10-01

70

Rose geranium essential oil as a source of new and safe anti-inflammatory drugs  

PubMed Central

Background Since the available anti-inflammatory drugs exert an extensive variety of side effects, the search for new anti-inflammatory agents has been a priority of pharmaceutical industries. Aims The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oil of rose geranium (RGEO). Methods The chemical composition of the RGEO was investigated by gas chromatography. The major components were citronellol (29.13%), geraniol (12.62%), and citronellyl formate (8.06%). In the carrageenan-induced paw edema, five different groups were established and RGEO was administered orally in three different doses. Results RGEO (100 mg/kg) was able to significantly reduce the paw edema with a comparable effect to that observed with diclofenac, the positive control. In addition, RGEO showed a potent anti-inflammatory activity by topical treatment in the method of croton oil-induced ear edema. When the dose was 5 or 10 µl of RGEO per ear, the inflammation was reduced by 73 and 88%, respectively. This is the first report to demonstrate a significant anti-inflammatory activity of Algerian RGEO. In addition, histological analysis confirmed that RGEO inhibited the inflammatory responses in the skin. Conclusion Our results indicate that RGEO may have significant potential for the development of novel anti-inflammatory drugs with improved safety profile. PMID:24103319

Boukhatem, Mohamed Nadjib; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Ferhat, Mohamed Amine; Saidi, Fairouz; Mekarnia, Maamar

2013-01-01

71

Mating system contributes only slightly to female maintenance in gynodioecious Geranium maculatum (Geraniaceae).  

PubMed

Gynodioecy, the co-occurrence of female and hermaphroditic individuals within a population, is an important intermediate in the evolution of separate sexes. The first step, female maintenance, requires females to have higher seed fitness compared with hermaphrodites. A common mechanism thought to increase relative female fitness is inbreeding depression avoidance, the magnitude of which depends on hermaphroditic selfing rates and the strength of inbreeding depression. Less well studied is the effect of biparental inbreeding on female fitness. Biparental inbreeding can affect relative female fitness only if its consequence or frequency differs between sexes, which could occur if sex structure and genetic structure both occur within populations. To determine whether inbreeding avoidance and/or biparental inbreeding can account for female persistence in Geranium maculatum, we measured selfing and biparental inbreeding rates in four populations and the spatial genetic structure in six populations. Selfing rates of hermaphrodites were low and did not differ significantly from zero in any population, leading to females gaining at most a 1-14% increase in seed fitness from inbreeding avoidance. Additionally, although significant spatial genetic structure was found in all populations, biparental inbreeding rates were low and only differed between sexes in one population, thereby having little influence on female fitness. A review of the literature revealed few sexual differences in biparental inbreeding among other gynodioecious species. Our results show that mating system differences may not fully account for female maintenance in this species, suggesting other mechanisms may be involved. PMID:24824284

Van Etten, M L; Deen, A C; Hamrick, J L; Chang, S-M

2014-11-01

72

Preliminary HPLC study on some polyphenols of Geranium robertianum L. (Geraniaceae).  

PubMed

In order to continue our previous studies concerning Geranium robertianum L., herb Robert (Geraniaceae), we have realised a HPLC study of some polyphenols using an original method created by a group of young researchers from the University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Cluj-Napoca. We have identified and measured in the dried Geranii robertiani herba (harvested from Valea Runcului, district of Alba-Iulia) the following compounds: hyperoside (3.64 microg/100 mg), ellagic acid (7599.76 microg/100 mg), isoquercitrin (49.49 microg/100 mg), quercetrin (83.92 microg/100 mg), kaempferols (143.43 microg/100 mg), caftaric acid (166.92 microg/100 mg), rutoside (72.23 microg/100 mg). We have also analysed a hydrolysed sample of the same drug in which we have identified and measured: caffeic acid (6.62 microg/100 mg), ellagic acid (10550.65 microg/100 mg), quercetrin (203.44 microg/100 mg), kaempferols (231.80 microg/100 mg), caftaric acid (47.41 microg/100 mg). We have indirectly proved the presence of ellagic tannins (the amount of ellagic acid increases after acid hydrolise) and the existence of bi- or polycaffeoil derivatives (the caffeic acid is present only in the hydrolysed sample). The flavonoid aglycones exist in both forms: as free compounds and as part of the flavonoid molecules. PMID:16607850

Fodorea, Cristina-Stefania; Vlase, L; Suciu, Simona; T?ma?, M; Leucu?a, S E

2005-01-01

73

A combined physical and physiological dormancy controls seasonal seedling emergence of Geranium robertianum.  

PubMed

Temperate forest herbs with seeds exhibiting both a physical and a physiological dormancy mechanism are rare, and knowledge on the factors regulating germination of these species is fragmentary. The biennial Geranium robertianum L. grows mainly in temperate woodlands, but can also be found in exposed habitats. Seedlings of G. robertianum are known to emerge from spring until autumn, but little is known about the environmental factors regulating germination. In this study, phenology of seedling emergence and of physical dormancy loss was examined for seeds buried at shaded or sunny exposed locations. The role of temperature in regulating dormancy and germination was analysed by incubating seeds in temperature sequences simulating temperatures that seeds experience in nature. The results indicate that most seeds of G. robertianum buried in sunny conditions germinate immediately after physical dormancy loss in summer. Seeds buried in shaded conditions also lose physical dormancy mainly during summer, but remain physiologically dormant and do not germinate until late winter or early spring. Besides physical dormancy, seeds of G. robertianum also initially have a high level of physiological dormancy, which is reduced during dry storage. Physiological dormancy is reduced through chilling in winter, thus enabling the seeds to germinate at low temperatures. We conclude that a complex combination of physical and physiological dormancy ensures that G. robertianum seeds germinate in summer at exposed sites and in early spring at shaded sites. PMID:20701699

Vandelook, F; Van Assche, J A

2010-09-01

74

Nectar Sugar Production across Floral Phases in the Gynodioecious Protandrous Plant Geranium sylvaticum  

PubMed Central

Many zoophilous plants attract their pollinators by offering nectar as a reward. In gynodioecious plants (i.e. populations are composed of female and hermaphrodite individuals) nectar production has been repeatedly reported to be larger in hermaphrodite compared to female flowers even though nectar production across the different floral phases in dichogamous plants (i.e. plants with time separation of pollen dispersal and stigma receptivity) has rarely been examined. In this study, sugar production in nectar standing crop and secretion rate were investigated in Geranium sylvaticum, a gynodioecious plant species with protandry (i.e. with hermaphrodite flowers releasing their pollen before the stigma is receptive). We found that flowers from hermaphrodites produced more nectar than female flowers in terms of total nectar sugar content. In addition, differences in nectar production among floral phases were found in hermaphrodite flowers but not in female flowers. In hermaphrodite flowers, maximum sugar content coincided with pollen presentation and declined slightly towards the female phase, indicating nectar reabsorption, whereas in female flowers sugar content did not differ between the floral phases. These differences in floral reward are discussed in relation to visitation patterns by pollinators and seed production in this species. PMID:23614053

Varga, Sandra; Nuortila, Carolin; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

2013-01-01

75

Sex Allocation of Females and Hermaphrodites in the Gynodioecious Geranium sylvaticum  

PubMed Central

Seed production and patterns of sex allocation were studied in female and hermaphroditic plants in two gynodioecious populations of Geranium sylvaticum (Geraniaceae). Females produced more flower buds and seeds than hermaphrodites in one of the two study populations. The other female traits measured (pistil biomass, seed number per fruit, individual seed mass) did not differ between the gender morphs. The relative seed fitness of hermaphrodites differed between the study populations, with hermaphrodites gaining less of their fitness through female function in the population with a high frequency of females. However, the amount and size of pollen produced by hermaphrodites did not differ between populations. The number of flower buds was positively correlated with seed production in females, whereas in hermaphrodites a positive correlation between number of buds and seed production was found in only one of the two study populations. These results suggest that fitness gain through female function is labile in hermaphrodites of this species, and is probably affected by environmental factors such as the sex ratio of the population. PMID:12814954

RAMULA, SATU; MUTIKAINEN, PIA

2003-01-01

76

Sulfur Dioxide Flux into Leaves of Geranium carolinianum L. : Evidence for a Nonstomatal or Residual Resistance.  

PubMed

The concurrent exchange of SO(2) and H(2)O vapor between the atmosphere and foliage of Geranium carolinianum was investigated using a whole-plant gas exchange chamber. Total leaf flux of SO(2) was partitioned into leaf surface and internal fractions. The emission rate of SO(2)-induced H(2)S was measured to develop a net leaf budget for atmospherically derived sulfur. Stomatal resistance to SO(2) flux was estimated by two techniques: (a) R(s) (SO(2)') from SO(2) data using analog modeling techniques and (b) R(s) (SO(2) ) from analogy to H(2)O (i.e. 1.89 R(s) (H(2)o)).The emission of H(2)S was positively correlated with the rate of SO(2) flux into the leaf interior. An accounting of the simultaneous, bidirectional flux of gaseous sulfur compounds during pollutant exposure showed that sulfur accumulation in the leaf interior of G. carolinianum was 7 to 15% lower than that estimated solely from mass-balance calculations of SO(2) flux data (i.e. ignoring H(2)S emissions).The esimate of stomatal resistance to pollutant flux from the SO(2) data (R(s) (SO(2)')) was consistently less than the simultaneous estimate derived from analogy to H(2)O vapor (R(s) (SO(2) )). The resultant of R(s) (SO(2)') - R(s) (SO(2) ), which was always negative, is indicative of a residual resistance to SO(2) flux into the leaf interior. On a comparative basis, SO(2) molecules experienced less pathway resistance to diffusion than effluxing H(2)O molecules. It is proposed that the SO(2):H(2)O path length ratio is less than unity, as a consequence of the pollutant's high water solubility and unique chemical reactivity in solution. Thus, the diffusive paths for H(2)O and SO(2) in G. carolinianum are not completely synonymous. PMID:16662968

Taylor, G E; Tingey, D T

1983-05-01

77

Floral dimorphism, pollination, and self-fertilization in gynodioecious GERANIUM RICHARDSONII (Geraniaceae).  

PubMed

The selective maintenance of gynodioecy depends on the relative fitness of the male-sterile (female) and hermaphroditic morphs. Females may compensate for their loss of male fitness by reallocating resources from male function (pollen production and pollinator attraction) to female function (seeds and fruits), thus increasing seed production. Females may also benefit from their inability to self-fertilize if selfing and inbreeding depression reduce seed quality in hermaphrodites. We investigated how differences in floral resource allocation (flower size) between female and hermaphroditic plants affect two measures of female reproductive success, pollinator visitation and pollen receipt, in gynodioecious populations of Geranium richardsonii in Colorado. Using emasculation treatments in natural populations, we further examined whether selfing by autogamy and geitonogamy comprises a significant proportion of pollen receipt by hermaphrodites. Flowers of female plants are significantly smaller than those of hermaphrodites. The reduction in allocation to pollinator-attracting structures (petals) is correlated with a significant reduction in pollinator visitation to female flowers in artificial arrays. The reduction in attractiveness is further manifested in significantly less pollen being deposited on the stigmas of female flowers in natural populations. Autogamy is rare in these protandrous flowers, and geitonogamy accounts for most of the difference in pollen receipt between hermaphrodites and females. Female success at receiving pollen was negatively frequency dependent on the relative frequency of females in populations. Thus, two of the prerequisites for the maintenance of females in gynodioecious populations, differences in resource allocation between floral morphs and high selfing rates in hermaphrodites, occur in G. richardsonii. PMID:10811790

Williams, C F; Kuchenreuther, M A; Drew, A

2000-05-01

78

Uptake of cadmium by the invasive perennial weeds Ranunculus repens and Geranium robertianum under laboratory conditions.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the accumulation and partitioning of cadmium (Cd) in a fibrous versus a tap root weed, Ranunculus repens and Geranium robertianum respectively. To meet this objective, we compared the accumulation by and the partitioning of Cd in R repens versus G. robertianum grown in soils spiked with 0.015 grams of Cd for a period of three weeks. The rate of Cd uptake was also compared by following the fate of 109Cd within the root, stem and leaf of the two weeds. Prior to Cd exposure, leaf and stem of control R. repens contained significantly greater amounts of Cd as compared to G. robertianum, whereas Cd concentrations in roots of the control plants for the two species were not significantly different (p > 0.05, student's t-test). Post Cd exposure the two species contained similar amounts of Cd in leaf and stem, however, roots of R. repens contained almost two-fold the amounts of Cd as compared to G. robertianum. Comparison of k (h(-1), rate of 109Cd uptake) for stem, leaf and root of the two species indicated that G. robertianum accumulated 109Cd over the first 24-48 h at a faster rate as compared to R. repens. For both species and all three organs, maximum accumulation of 109Cd occurred within the first 24-48 h. Our findings indicate that the fate of Cd within these two species is quite different with the fibrous root of R. repens serving to accumulate and store Cd whereas in G. robertianum, Cd is rapidly taken up and tends to be accumulated within its leaf. PMID:12094937

O'Keeffe, Juliette; Bendell-Young, L I

2002-06-01

79

Insecticidal activity of individual and mixed monoterpenoids of geranium essential oil against Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).  

PubMed

The major components of geranium (Geranium maculatum L.) oil and their mixtures were tested against female Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae). Chemical analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry revealed four major constituents: citronellol (38%), geraniol (16%), citronellyl formate (10.4%), and linalool (6.45%) (concentration expressed as percentage of total). Topical application demonstrated that the most potent component was citronellol and geraniol, with LD50 values 9.7 and 12.7 microg/insect, respectively. Linalool and Citronellyl formate were less toxic with LD50 values 24.7 and 38.5 microg/insect, respectively. Toxicity of these four major constituents in the same proportion as the natural oil, was greater than whole oil and each individual component. Removal of any four constituents produced a decreased in effectiveness. The absence of citronellol caused the greatest decrease in toxicity (DL50 from 2.2 to 10.9 microg/insect), leading us to conclude that this constituent is the major contributor to oil toxicity. The knowledge of the role of each constituent in the toxicity of the whole oil gives the possibility to create artificial blends of different constituents for the development of more effective control agents. PMID:22493851

Gallardo, A; Picollo, M I; González-Audino, P; Mougabure-Cueto, G

2012-03-01

80

Synorganisation without organ fusion in the flowers of Geranium robertianum (Geraniaceae) and its not so trivial obdiplostemony  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Synorganisation of floral organs, an important means in angiosperm flower evolution, is mostly realized by congenital or post-genital organ fusion. Intimate synorganisation of many floral organs without fusion, as present in Geranium robertianum, is poorly known and needs to be studied. Obdiplostemony, the seemingly reversed position of two stamen whorls, widely distributed in core eudicots, has been the subject of much attention, but there is confusion in the literature. Obdiplostemony occurs in Geranium and whether and how it is involved in this synorganisation is explored here. Methods Floral development and architecture were studied with light microscopy based on microtome section series and with scanning electron microscopy. Key Results Intimate synorganisation of floral organs is effected by the formation of five separate nectar canals for the proboscis of pollinators. Each nectar canal is formed by six adjacent organs from four organ whorls. In addition, the sepals are hooked together by the formation of longitudinal ribs and grooves, and provide a firm scaffold for the canals. Obdiplostemony provides a guide rail within each canal formed by the flanks of the antepetalous stamen filaments. Conclusions Intimate synorganisation in flowers can be realized without any fusion, and obdiplostemony may play a role in this synorganisation. PMID:20802050

Endress, Peter K.

2010-01-01

81

Sulfur dioxide flux into leaves of Geranium carolinianum L. : evidence for a nonstomatal or residual resistance  

SciTech Connect

The concurrent exchange of SO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O vapor between the atmosphere and foliage of Geranium carolinianum was investigated using a whole-plant gas exchange chamber. Total leaf flux of SO/sub 2/ was partitioned into leaf surface and internal fractions. The emission rate of SO/sub 2/-induced H/sub 2/S was measured to develop a net leaf budget for atmospherically derived sulfur. Stomatal resistance to SO/sub 2/ flux was estimated by two techniques: (a) R/sub s//sup SO/sub 2// from SO/sub 2/ data using analog modeling techniques and (b) R/sub s//sup SO/sub 2// from analogy to H/sub 2/O (i.e. 1.89 R/sub s//sup H/sub 2/O/). The emission of H/sub 2/S was positively correlated with the rate of SO/sub 2/ flux into the leaf interior. An accounting of the simultaneous, bidirectional flux of gaseous sulfur compounds during pollutant exposure showed that sulfur accumulation in the leaf interior of G. carolinianum was 7 to 15% lower than that estimated solely from mass-balance calculations of SO/sub 2/ flux data (i.e. ignoring H/sub 2/S emissions). The estimate of stomatal resistance to pollutant flux from the SO/sub 2/ data (R/sub s//sup SO/sub 2/'/) was consistently less than the simultaneous estimate derived from analogy to H/sub 2/O vapor (R/sub s//sup SO/sub 2//). The resultant of R/sub s//sup SO/sub 2/ - R/sub s//sup SO/sub 2//, which was always negative, is indicative of a residual resistance to SO/sub 2/ flux into the leaf interior. On a comparative basis, SO/sub 2/ molecules experienced less pathway resistance to diffusion than effluxing H/sub 2/O molecules. It is proposed that the SO/sub 2/:H/sub 2/O path length ratio is less than unity, as a consequence of the pollutant's high water solubility and unique chemical reactivity in solution. Thus, the diffusive paths for H/sub 2/O and SO/sub 2/ in G. carolinianum are not completely synonymous. 47 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

Taylor, G.E. Jr.; Tingey, D.T.

1983-01-01

82

Potential interaction between the volatile and non-volatile fractions on the in vitro antimicrobial activity of three South African Pelargonium (Geraniaceae) species.  

PubMed

Previous studies have reported promising antimicrobial efficacy for the essential oils and solvent extracts of several indigenous Pelargonium species. This study aimed to determine if any pharmacological interaction (e.g. synergism or antagonism) exists between the volatile and non-volatile components when the different fractions were investigated. The antimicrobial activity of the following fractions were tested; the essential oil prepared by hydrodistillation (EO), non-volatile fraction (NV), prepared by extraction of plant material remaining in the distilling apparatus (having no or negligible volatile constituents) and solvent extracts prepared from fresh (FC) and dried (DC) plant material containing both volatile and non-volatile constituents. Pelargonium quercifolium oil was dominated by p-cymene (42.1%) and viridiflorol (16.9%), while P. graveolens and P. tomentosum oil had high levels of isomenthone (84.0 and 58.8%, respectively). Menthone was noted as a major constituent in the P. tomentosum EO sample. It was evident from the results that the presence of volatile constituents in the three species; P. graveolens, P. quercifolium and P. tomentosum is generally not a pre-requisite for antimicrobial activity. The most significant variations of antimicrobial activity were noted for P. tomentosum where poorer activity was noted for the FC and EO fractions against Bacillus cereus and Candida albicans. Studies on Staphylococcus aureus, however, showed the converse, where best activity was noted for the FC fraction (3.0 mg/mL). For P. quercifolium, the DC fraction indicated a notable increase in anti-staphylococcal activity (2.0 mg/mL) when compared with the FC (8.0 mg/mL) and EO (16.0 mg/mL) fractions. For P. tomentosum, the FC fraction indicated much lower antimicrobial activity (against both B. cereus and C. albicans) when compared with all other fractions, suggesting that the essential oils may impact negatively on the antimicrobial activity when tested against these two pathogens. PMID:20922997

Lalli, Jacqueline Y; Viljoen, Alvaro M; Van Vuuren, Sandy F

2010-09-01

83

Nitrogen- and Storage-affected Carbohydrate Partitioning in High-light-adapted Pelargonium Cuttings in Relation to Survival and Adventitious Root Formation under Low Light  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims The aim of this study was to determine the role of nitrogen- and storage-affected carbohydrate availability in rooting of pelargonium cuttings, focusing on the environmental conditions of stock plant cultivation at low latitudes, transport of cuttings, and rooting under the low light that prevails during the winter rooting period in Central European greenhouses. • Methods Carbohydrate partitioning in high-light-adapted cuttings of the cultivar ‘Isabell’ was studied in relation to survival and adventitious root formation under low light. Effects of a graduated supply of mineral nitrogen to stock plants and of cutting storage were examined. • Key Results Nitrogen deficiency raised starch levels in excised cuttings, whereas the concentrations of glucose and total sugars in leaves and the basal stem were positively correlated with internal total nitrogen (Nt). Storage reduced starch to trace levels in all leaves, but sugar levels were only reduced in tissues of non-nitrogen deficient cuttings. Sugars accumulated in the leaf lamina of stored cuttings during the rooting period, whereas carbohydrates were simultaneously exhausted in all other cutting parts including the petioles, thereby promoting leaf senescence. The positive correlation between initial Nt and root number disappeared after storage. Irrespectively of storage, higher pre-rooting leaf glucose promoted subsequent sugar accumulation in the basal stem and final root number. The positive relationships between initial sugar levels in the stems with cutting survival and in leaves with root formation under low light were confirmed in a sample survey with 21 cultivars provided from different sources at low latitudes. • Conclusions The results indicate that adventitious rooting of pelargonium cuttings can be limited by the initial amount of nitrogen reserves. However, this relationship reveals only small plasticity and is superimposed by a predominant effect of carbohydrate availability that depends on the initial leaf sugar levels, when high-light adaptation and low current light conditions impair net carbon assimilation. PMID:15509634

DRUEGE, U.; ZERCHE, S.; KADNER, R.

2004-01-01

84

n-Octyl ?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-D-glucopyranoside derivatives from the glandular trichome exudate of Geranium carolinianum.  

PubMed

Chemical investigation of the glandular trichome exudate from Geranium carolinianum L. (Geraniaceae) led to the characterization of unique disaccharide derivatives, n-octyl 4-O-isobutyryl-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-6-O-isobutyryl-?-D-glucopyranoside (1), n-octyl 4-O-isobutyryl-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-6-O-(2-methylbutyryl)-?-D-glucopyranoside (2) and n-octyl 4-O-(2-methylbutyryl)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-6-O-isobutyryl-?-D-glucopyranoside (3), named caroliniasides A-C, respectively. These structures were determined by spectral means. n-Alkyl glycoside derivatives have been isolated from the glandular trichome exudates for the first time. This rare type of secondary metabolites could be applicable to chemotaxonomic perspective because they are found in glandular trichome exudates of plants belonging to the genus Geranium, according to our studies. PMID:21628912

Asai, Teigo; Sakai, Takaomi; Ohyama, Kiyoshi; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

2011-01-01

85

arboretum.psu.edu Seasonal Display Plant List Fall 2012  

E-print Network

- Chrysanthemum `Amiko Violet' (Belgian Mum® ) 011 - Zinnia marylandica 'Zahara Fire' (zinnia) 012 ­ Rudbeckia hirta 'Maya' (black-eyed-Susan) 013 - Pelargonium x hortorum 'Wilhelm Langguth' (fish geranium) 014

Yener, Aylin

86

Anti-hepatitis B virus activities of Geranium carolinianum L. extracts and identification of the active components.  

PubMed

The ethanol extract of Geranium carolinianum L., a domestic plant grown in China, was subjected to sequential extractions with different organic solvents. The extracts were assayed for anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) activities. The ethyl acetate fraction was found to contain the highest level of anti-HBV activity. In order to identify the active ingredients, the ethyl acetate fraction was further fractionated by column chromatography. Seven compounds were identified including ellagic acid, geraniin, quercitrin, hyperin, hirsutrin, quercetin, and kaempferol, whose structures were determined by NMR. The presence of the anti-HBV compounds geraniin, ellagic acid and hyperin in G. carolinianum L. may account for the effectiveness of this folk medicine in the treatment of HBV infections. Geraniin inhibited hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) secretion by more than 85.8% and 63.7%, respectively, at the non-cytotoxic concentration of 200 microg/ml. The inhibitions of HBsAg and HBeAg secretion by geraniin were higher than the inhibition by the positive control Lamivudine, 33.5% and 32.2% respectively, at the same concentration. Since HBeAg is involved in immune tolerance during HBV infection, the newly identified anti-HBV compound geraniin might be a candidate agent to overcome the immune tolerance in HBV-infected individuals. This is the first report of the anti-HBV effects of geraniin and hyperin, the active substances derived from G. carolinianum L. PMID:18379075

Li, Jiyang; Huang, Hai; Zhou, Wei; Feng, Meiqing; Zhou, Pei

2008-04-01

87

In vitro and in vivo anti-hepatitis B virus activities of a plant extract from Geranium carolinianum L.  

PubMed

Natural products provide a large reservoir of potentially active agents with anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) activity. We examined the effect of the polyphenolic extract from Geranium carolinianum L. (PPGC) on HBV replication both in vitro and in vivo. In the human HBV-transfected liver cell line HepG(2) 2.2.15, PPGC effectively suppressed the secretion of the HBV antigens in a dose-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 46.85 microg/ml for HBsAg and 65.60 microg/ml for HBeAg at day 9. Consistent with the HBV antigen reduction, PPGC (100 microg/ml) also reduced HBV DNA level by 35.9%. In the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infected ducks, after PPGC was dosed intragastricly (i.g.) once a day for 10 days, the plasma DHBV DNA level was reduced, with an ED(50) value of 47.54 mg/kg. In addition, Southern blot analysis confirmed the in vivo anti-HBV effect of PPGC in ducks and PPGC also reduced the plasma and the liver DHBV DNA level in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, significant improvement of the liver was observed after PPGC treatment, as evaluated by the histopathological analysis. PMID:18423640

Li, Jiyang; Huang, Hai; Feng, Meiqing; Zhou, Wei; Shi, Xunlong; Zhou, Pei

2008-08-01

88

"MitoTea": Geranium robertianum L. decoctions decrease blood glucose levels and improve liver mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats.  

PubMed

Several chemical compounds found in plant products have proven to possess beneficial properties, being currently pointed out due to their pharmacological potential in type 2 diabetes mellitus complications. In this context, we studied the effect of Geranium robertianum L. (herb Robert) leaf decoctions in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a model of type 2 diabetes. Our results showed that oral administration of G. robertianum leaf decoctions over a period of four weeks lowered the plasma glucose levels in diabetic rats. Furthermore, the treatment with G. robertianum extracts improved liver mitochondrial respiratory parameters (state 3, state 4 and FCCP-stimulated respiration) and increased oxidative phosphorylation efficiency. PMID:21046015

Ferreira, Fernanda M; Peixoto, Francisco; Nunes, Elsa; Sena, Cristina; Seiça, Raquel; Santos, Maria Sancha

2010-01-01

89

Acquisition of physical dormancy and ontogeny of the micropyle–water-gap complex in developing seeds of Geranium carolinianum (Geraniaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The ‘hinged valve gap’ has been previously identified as the initial site of water entry (i.e. water gap) in physically dormant (PY) seeds of Geranium carolinianum (Geraniaceae). However, neither the ontogeny of the hinged valve gap nor acquisition of PY by seeds of Geraniaceae has been studied previously. The aims of the present study were to investigate the physiological events related to acquisition of PY and the ontogeny of the hinged valve gap and seed coat of G. carolinianum. Methods Seeds of G. carolinianum were studied from the ovule stage until dispersal. The developmental stages of acquisition of germinability, physiological maturity and PY were determined by seed measurement, germination and imbibition experiments using intact seeds and isolated embryos of both fresh and slow-dried seeds. Ontogeny of the seed coat and water gap was studied using light microscopy. Key Results Developing seeds achieved germinability, physiological maturity and PY on days 9, 14 and 20 after pollination (DAP), respectively. The critical moisture content of seeds on acquisition of PY was 11 %. Slow-drying caused the stage of acquisition of PY to shift from 20 to 13 DAP. Greater extent of cell division and differentiation at the micropyle, water gap and chalaza than at the rest of the seed coat resulted in particular anatomical features. Palisade and subpalisade cells of varying forms developed in these sites. A clear demarcation between the water gap and micropyle is not evident due to their close proximity. Conclusions Acquisition of PY in seeds of G. carolinianum occurs after physiological maturity and is triggered by maturation drying. The micropyle and water gap cannot be considered as two separate entities, and thus it is more appropriate to consider them together as a ‘micropyle–water-gap complex’. PMID:21546433

Gama-Arachchige, N. S.; Baskin, J. M.; Geneve, R. L.; Baskin, C. C.

2011-01-01

90

The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Pelargonium xhortorum: Or ganization and evolution of the largest and most highlyrearranged chloroplast genome of land plants  

SciTech Connect

The chloroplast genome of Pelargonium e hortorum has beencompletely sequenced. It maps as a circular molecule of 217,942 bp, andis both the largest and most rearranged land plant chloroplast genome yetsequenced. It features two copies of a greatly expanded inverted repeat(IR) of 75,741 bp each, and consequently diminished single copy regionsof 59,710 bp and 6,750 bp. It also contains two different associations ofrepeated elements that contribute about 10 percent to the overall sizeand account for the majority of repeats found in the genome. Theyrepresent hotspots for rearrangements and gene duplications and include alarge number of pseudogenes. We propose simple models that account forthe major rearrangements with a minimum of eight IR boundary changes and12 inversions in addition to a several insertions of duplicated sequence.The major processes at work (duplication, IR expansion, and inversion)have disrupted at least one and possibly two or three transcriptionaloperons, and the genes involved in these disruptions form the core of thetwo major repeat associations. Despite the vast increase in size andcomplexity of the genome, the gene content is similar to that of otherangiosperms, with the exceptions of a large number of pseudogenes as partof the repeat associations, the recognition of two open reading frames(ORF56 and ORF42) in the trnA intron with similarities to previouslyidentified mitochondrial products (ACRS and pvs-trnA), the loss of accDand trnT-GGU, and in particular, the lack of a recognizably functionalrpoA. One or all of three similar open reading frames may possibly encodethe latter, however.

Chumley, Timothy W.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.; Mower, Jeffrey P.; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Calie, Patrick J.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Jansen,Robert K.

2006-01-20

91

Liquid-liquid/solid three-phase high-speed counter-current chromatography, a new technique for separation of polyphenols from Geranium wilfordii Maxim.  

PubMed

High-speed counter-current chromatography using a new liquid-liquid/solid three-phase system was used for the separation of the polyphenols corilagin and geraniin from a crude extract of Geranium wilfordii Maxim in one step. The optimized three-phase system was composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/acetic acid/water and to which was added 10-?m average diameter microspheres of cross-linked 12% agarose at the ratio of 0.2:10:2:1:5 and 0.1 g/mL, respectively. The purities of geraniin and corilagin were 82 and 90%, which were determined by HPLC at 280 nm. A 14.5 and 7 mg of geraniin and corilagin were purified from 160 mg crude extract with the yields of 70 and 78%, respectively. PMID:22815257

Liu, Dan; Ma, Yan; Gu, Ming; Janson, Jan-Christer; Wang, Changhai; Xiao, Hongbin

2012-08-01

92

Moderate Temperature Fluctuations Rapidly Reduce the Viability of Ralstonia solanacearum Race 3, Biovar 2, in Infected Geranium, Tomato, and Potato Plants?  

PubMed Central

Most Ralstonia solanacearum strains are tropical plant pathogens, but race 3, biovar 2 (R3bv2), strains can cause bacterial wilt in temperate zones or tropical highlands where other strains cannot. R3bv2 is a quarantine pathogen in North America and Europe because of its potential to damage the potato industry in cooler climates. However, R3bv2 will not become established if it cannot survive temperate winters. Previous experiments showed that in water at 4°C, R3bv2 does not survive as long as native U.S. strains, but R3bv2 remains viable longer than U.S. strains in potato tubers at 4°C. To further investigate the effects of temperature on this high-concern pathogen, we assessed the ability of R3bv2 and a native U.S. strain to survive typical temperate winter temperature cycles of 2 days at 5°C followed by 2 days at ?10°C. We measured pathogen survival in infected tomato and geranium plants, in infected potato tubers, and in sterile water. The population sizes of both strains declined rapidly under these conditions in all three plant hosts and in sterile water, and no culturable R. solanacearum cells were detected after five to seven temperature cycles in plant tissue. The fluctuations played a critical role in loss of bacterial viability, since at a constant temperature of ?20°C, both strains could survive in infected geranium tissue for at least 6 months. These results suggest that even when sheltered in infected plant tissue, R3bv2 is unlikely to survive the temperature fluctuations typical of a northern temperate winter. PMID:20851983

Scherf, Jacob M.; Milling, Annett; Allen, Caitilyn

2010-01-01

93

Patterns of genetic diversity reveal multiple introductions and recurrent founder effects during range expansion in invasive populations of Geranium carolinianum (Geraniaceae).  

PubMed

Genetic diversity, and thus the adaptive potential of invasive populations, is largely based on three factors: patterns of genetic diversity in the species' native range, the number and location of introductions and the number of founding individuals per introduction. Specifically, reductions in genetic diversity ('founder effects') should be stronger for species with low within-population diversity in their native range and few introductions of few individuals to the invasive range. We test these predictions with Geranium carolinianum, a winter annual herb native to North America and invasive in China. We measure the extent of founder effects using allozymes and microsatellites, and ask whether this is consistent with its colonization history and patterns of diversity in the native range. In the native range, genetic diversity is higher and structure is lower than expected based on life history traits. In China, our results provide evidence for multiple introductions near Nanjing, Jiangsu province, with subsequent range expansion to the west and south. Patterns of genetic diversity across China reveal weak founder effects that are driven largely by low-diversity populations at the expansion front, away from the introduction location. This suggests that reduced diversity in China has resulted from successive founder events during range expansion, and that the loss of genetic diversity in the Nanjing area was mitigated by multiple introductions from diverse source populations. This has implications for the future of G. carolinianum in China, as continued gene flow among populations should eventually increase genetic diversity within the more recently founded populations. PMID:24346497

Shirk, R Y; Hamrick, J L; Zhang, C; Qiang, S

2014-05-01

94

Chromatographic Fingerprint and the Simultaneous Determination of Five Bioactive Components of Geranium carolinianum L. Water Extract by High Performance Liquid Chromatography  

PubMed Central

A simple and sensitive HPLC method has been developed in combination with fingerprint analysis and simultaneous determination of five markers, namely gallic acid, corilagin, methyl brevifolincarboxylate, ellagic acid and rutin for evaluation and quality control of Geranium carolinianum L. water extract. Extraction methods were optimized by comparing the hydrolysis efficiency of geraniin, a major tannin of the herb, resulting in the method of extraction with water under reflux. Water extracts were analyzed by HPLC, with a mobile phase of 0.1% aqueous phosphoric acid (v/v) and acetonitrile in a gradient program within 65 min. Compounds were detected at 274 nm UV wavelength. For fingerprint analysis, 17 peaks were selected as the characteristic peaks to evaluate the similarities of different samples collected from the suburb of Nanjing. The correlation coefficients of similarity were greater than 0.993. In quantitative analysis, the five selected markers showed good regression (R > 0.9991) within test ranges, and the average recoveries were between 97.2–101.7% and their RSD values were less than 4.50%. The total contents of the five markers varied from 44.28 to 71.84 mg/g. The method can be very useful for further development of G. carolinianum L. extracts and preparations. PMID:22272101

Wu, Qiu-Yue; Zhou, Yang; Jin, Xin; Guan, Yue; Xu, Min; Liu, Li-Fang

2011-01-01

95

Chromatographic Fingerprint and the Simultaneous Determination of Five Bioactive Components of Geranium carolinianum L. Water Extract by High Performance Liquid Chromatography  

E-print Network

Abstract: A simple and sensitive HPLC method has been developed in combination with fingerprint analysis and simultaneous determination of five markers, namely gallic acid, corilagin, methyl brevifolincarboxylate, ellagic acid and rutin for evaluation and quality control of Geranium carolinianum L. water extract. Extraction methods were optimized by comparing the hydrolysis efficiency of geraniin, a major tannin of the herb, resulting in the method of extraction with water under reflux. Water extracts were analyzed by HPLC, with a mobile phase of 0.1 % aqueous phosphoric acid (v/v) and acetonitrile in a gradient program within 65 min. Compounds were detected at 274 nm UV wavelength. For fingerprint analysis, 17 peaks were selected as the characteristic peaks to evaluate the similarities of different samples collected from the suburb of Nanjing. The correlation coefficients of similarity were greater than 0.993. In quantitative analysis, the five selected markers showed good regression (R> 0.9991) within test ranges, and the average recoveries were between 97.2–101.7 % and their RSD values were less than 4.50%. The total contents of the five markers varied from 44.28 to 71.84 mg/g. The method can be very useful for further development of G. carolinianum L. extracts and preparations. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12 8741

unknown authors

2011-01-01

96

Chromatographic fingerprint and the simultaneous determination of five bioactive components of geranium carolinianum L. water extract by high performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

A simple and sensitive HPLC method has been developed in combination with fingerprint analysis and simultaneous determination of five markers, namely gallic acid, corilagin, methyl brevifolincarboxylate, ellagic acid and rutin for evaluation and quality control of Geranium carolinianum L. water extract. Extraction methods were optimized by comparing the hydrolysis efficiency of geraniin, a major tannin of the herb, resulting in the method of extraction with water under reflux. Water extracts were analyzed by HPLC, with a mobile phase of 0.1% aqueous phosphoric acid (v/v) and acetonitrile in a gradient program within 65 min. Compounds were detected at 274 nm UV wavelength. For fingerprint analysis, 17 peaks were selected as the characteristic peaks to evaluate the similarities of different samples collected from the suburb of Nanjing. The correlation coefficients of similarity were greater than 0.993. In quantitative analysis, the five selected markers showed good regression (R > 0.9991) within test ranges, and the average recoveries were between 97.2-101.7% and their RSD values were less than 4.50%. The total contents of the five markers varied from 44.28 to 71.84 mg/g. The method can be very useful for further development of G. carolinianum L. extracts and preparations. PMID:22272101

Wu, Qiu-Yue; Zhou, Yang; Jin, Xin; Guan, Yue; Xu, Min; Liu, Li-Fang

2011-01-01

97

Quantitative analysis of the thermal requirements for stepwise physical dormancy-break in seeds of the winter annual Geranium carolinianum (Geraniaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Physical dormancy (PY)-break in some annual plant species is a two-step process controlled by two different temperature and/or moisture regimes. The thermal time model has been used to quantify PY-break in several species of Fabaceae, but not to describe stepwise PY-break. The primary aims of this study were to quantify the thermal requirement for sensitivity induction by developing a thermal time model and to propose a mechanism for stepwise PY-breaking in the winter annual Geranium carolinianum. Methods Seeds of G. carolinianum were stored under dry conditions at different constant and alternating temperatures to induce sensitivity (step I). Sensitivity induction was analysed based on the thermal time approach using the Gompertz function. The effect of temperature on step II was studied by incubating sensitive seeds at low temperatures. Scanning electron microscopy, penetrometer techniques, and different humidity levels and temperatures were used to explain the mechanism of stepwise PY-break. Key Results The base temperature (Tb) for sensitivity induction was 17·2 °C and constant for all seed fractions of the population. Thermal time for sensitivity induction during step I in the PY-breaking process agreed with the three-parameter Gompertz model. Step II (PY-break) did not agree with the thermal time concept. Q10 values for the rate of sensitivity induction and PY-break were between 2·0 and 3·5 and between 0·02 and 0·1, respectively. The force required to separate the water gap palisade layer from the sub-palisade layer was significantly reduced after sensitivity induction. Conclusions Step I and step II in PY-breaking of G. carolinianum are controlled by chemical and physical processes, respectively. This study indicates the feasibility of applying the developed thermal time model to predict or manipulate sensitivity induction in seeds with two-step PY-breaking processes. The model is the first and most detailed one yet developed for sensitivity induction in PY-break. PMID:23456728

Gama-Arachchige, N. S.; Baskin, J. M.; Geneve, R. L.; Baskin, C. C.

2013-01-01

98

Interspecific variation in SO/sub 2/ flux: leaf surface versus internal flux, and components of leaf conductance. [Pisum sativum L. , Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Flacca, Geranium carolinianum L. , Diplacus aurantiacus (Curtis) Jeps  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to clarify the relationships among stomatal, residual, and epidermal conductances in determining the flux of SO/sub 2/ air pollution to leaves. Variations in leaf SO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O vapor fluxes were determined using four plant species: Pisum sativum L. (garden pea), Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. flacca (mutant of tomato), Geranium carolinianum L. (wild geranium), and Diplacus aurantiacus (Curtis) Jeps. (a native California shrub). Fluxes were measured using the mass-balance approach during exposure to 4.56 micromoles per cubic meter (0.11 microliters per liter) SO/sub 2/ for 2 hours in a controlled environmental chamber. Flux through adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces with closed stomata ranged from 1.9 to 9.4 nanomoles per square meter per second for SO/sub 2/, and 0.3 to 1.3 millimoles per square meter per second for H/sub 2/O vapor. Flux of SO/sub 2/ into leaves through stomata ranged from approx.0 to 8.5 (dark) and 3.8 to 16.0 (light) millimoles per square meter per second. Flux of H/sub 2/O vapor from leaves through stomata ranged from approx.0 to 0.6 (dark) to 0.4 to 0.9 (light) millimole per square meter per second. Lycopersicon had internal flux rates for both SO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O vapor over twice as high as for the other species. Stomatal conductance based on H/sub 2/O vapor flux averaged from 0.07 to 0.13 mole per square meter per second among the four species. Internal conductance of SO/sub 2/ as calculated from SO/sub 2/ flux was from 0.04 mole per square meter per second lower to 0.06 mole per square meter per second higher than stomatal conductance. For Pisum, Geranium, and Diplacus stomatal conductance was the same or slightly higher than internal conductance, indicating that, in general, SO/sub 2/ flux could be predicted from stomatal conductance for H/sub 2/O vapor.

Olszyk, D.M.; Tingey, D.T.

1985-12-01

99

Light absorption by isolated chloroplasts and leaves: effects of scattering and ‘packing’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light absorption was quantified in the following systems: isolated chloroplasts and leaves of spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.), a mutant of geranium (Pelargonium zonale L.) widely differing in pigment content, and coleus (Coleus blumei Benth.) at different stages of leaf ontogenesis. For these species and pea (Pisum sativum L.), scattering-compensated absorption spectra of chloroplast suspensions are presented. Comparison of leaf and

Mark N. Merzlyak; Olga B. Chivkunova; Tatiana V. Zhigalova; K. Razi Naqvi

2009-01-01

100

The role of plastome-genome incompatibility and biparental plastid inheritance in interspecific hybridization in the genus Zantedeschia (Araceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mosquito plant (Pelargonium × citrosum Vanleenii) is a genetically engineered hybrid possessing the characteristics of geranium coupled with a sweet lemony citronella scent. As such, this hybrid has become much more popular as an ornamental plant with the added benefit of mosquito-repelling capability. We report a novel protocol for shoot organogenesis from young leaf and petiole explants sourced from both

R. C. Snijder; F. Santiago Brown; Tuyl van J. M

2007-01-01

101

Short-term Temperature Change Affects the Carbon Exchange Characteristics and Growth of Four Bedding Plant Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bedding plants are exposed to a wide range of environmental conditions, both during production and in the landscape. This research compared the effect of short-term temperature changes on the CO2 exchange rates of four popular bedding plants species. Net photosynthesis (Pnet) and dark respiration (Rdark) of geranium (Pelargonium ×hortorum L.H. Bail.), marigold (Tagetes patula L.), pansy (Viola ×wittrockiana Gams.), and

Marc W. van Iersel

2003-01-01

102

Container Medium pH in a Pine Tree Substrate Amended with Peatmoss and Dolomitic Limestone Affects Plant Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was conducted to evaluate the effect of limestone additions to pine tree substrate (PTS) and PTS amended with peatmoss on pH and plant growth. 'Inca Gold' marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) and 'Rocky Mountain White' geranium (Pelargonium ·hortorum L.H. Bailey) were grown in three PTSs—100% PTS, PTS plus 25% peatmoss (v\\/v), and PTS plus 50% peatmoss (v\\/v)—made from freshly

Brian E. Jackson

103

FIRE EFFECTS ON MONTANA FLORA  

E-print Network

Geranium; Geranium richardsonii Honeysuckle Family (Caprifoliaceaa) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .10-eyed Mary; Collinsia parviflora Geranium Family(Geraniaceae)........................ ... .. ... ...9

Montana, University of

104

A Rapid Method for Isolating Glandular Trichomes  

PubMed Central

A physical method is described for the rapid isolation of plant trichomes, with emphasis on stalked glandular types. The technique involved breaking frozen trichomes with powdered dry ice and collection of glandular heads by sieving from larger tissue fragments. This method was applied to several plants that bear similar stalked trichomes: geranium (Pelargonium), potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), squash (Cucurbita pepo), and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti). The tissue preparation was of sufficient quality without further purification for biochemical and molecular studies. The preparation maintained the biochemical integrity of the trichomes for active enzymes and usable nucleic acids. A large quantity of tissue can be harvested; for example, 351 milligrams dry weight of glandular trichomes were harvested from geranium pedicels in 12 hours. The utility of the technique was demonstrated by examining the fatty acid composition of tall glandular trichomes of geraniums, Pelargonium ×hortorum L.H. Bailey. These purified cells contained high concentrations of unusual ?5-unsaturated fatty acids, proportionally 23.4% of total fatty acids in the trichomes. When the trichomes were removed, the supporting tissue contained no ?5-fatty acids, thereby unequivocally localizing ?5-fatty acids to the trichomes. Because ?5-fatty acids are unique precursors for the biosynthesis of ?5-anacardic acids, we conclude that anacardic acid synthesis must occur in the glandular trichomes. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:16668834

Yerger, Ellen H.; Grazzini, Richard A.; Hesk, David; Cox-Foster, Diana L.; Craig, Richard; Mumma, Ralph O.

1992-01-01

105

A rapid method for isolating glandular trichomes.  

PubMed

A physical method is described for the rapid isolation of plant trichomes, with emphasis on stalked glandular types. The technique involved breaking frozen trichomes with powdered dry ice and collection of glandular heads by sieving from larger tissue fragments. This method was applied to several plants that bear similar stalked trichomes: geranium (Pelargonium), potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), squash (Cucurbita pepo), and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti). The tissue preparation was of sufficient quality without further purification for biochemical and molecular studies. The preparation maintained the biochemical integrity of the trichomes for active enzymes and usable nucleic acids. A large quantity of tissue can be harvested; for example, 351 milligrams dry weight of glandular trichomes were harvested from geranium pedicels in 12 hours. The utility of the technique was demonstrated by examining the fatty acid composition of tall glandular trichomes of geraniums, Pelargonium xhortorum L.H. Bailey. These purified cells contained high concentrations of unusual omega5-unsaturated fatty acids, proportionally 23.4% of total fatty acids in the trichomes. When the trichomes were removed, the supporting tissue contained no omega5-fatty acids, thereby unequivocally localizing omega5-fatty acids to the trichomes. Because omega5-fatty acids are unique precursors for the biosynthesis of omega5-anacardic acids, we conclude that anacardic acid synthesis must occur in the glandular trichomes. PMID:16668834

Yerger, E H; Grazzini, R A; Hesk, D; Cox-Foster, D L; Craig, R; Mumma, R O

1992-05-01

106

Elevated CO 2 affects plant responses to variation in boron availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  Effects of elevated CO2 on N relations are well studied, but effects on other nutrients, especially micronutrients, are not. We investigated effects\\u000a of elevated CO2 on response to variation in boron (B) availability in three unrelated species: seed geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and water fern (Azolla caroliniana).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Plants were grown at two levels of CO2 (370, 700 ppm)

Sasmita Mishra; Scott A. Heckathorn; Jonathan M. Frantz

107

'Buchu' -Agathosma betulina and Agathosma crenulata (Rutaceae): a review.  

PubMed

South Africa has offered the world two indigenous aromatic plants from which commercially important natural products have been developed: Pelargonium graveolens (and its hybrids) the source of geranium oil and Agathosma betulina, from which 'Buchu' oil is produced. Despite the historical use of 'Buchu' and the commercial interest developed around this coveted indigenous resource the (limited) research has not been coherently assembled. This overview aims to unite aspects on the botany, traditional and modern day uses, chemistry and pharmacological data on 'Buchu' which is undeniably one of South Africa's most renowned botanical assets. PMID:18725278

Moolla, A; Viljoen, A M

2008-10-28

108

BIOLOGY  

E-print Network

nightshade) (NPAG, 2001b), S. dulcamara (bittersweet or climbing nightshade) (PLANTS Database), and Datura stramonium (NPAG, 2001b). Other non-solanaceous hosts include: Brassica spp. (Janse et al., 2002), Cerastium glomeratum (Pradhanang et al., 2000), Chenopodium album (Janse et al., 2002), Drymaria cordata (Pradhanang et al., 2000), Melampodium perfoliatum (NPAG, 2001b), Pelargonium hortorum (geranium) (NPAG, 2001b), Polygonum capitatum (Pradhanang et al., 2000), Portulaca oleracea (NPAG, 2001b), Stellaria media (Pradhanang et al., 2000), Tropaeolum majus (Janse et al., 2002), Urtica dioica (PLANTS Database; Wenneker et al., 1999).

Andrea Lemay; Plant Pathologist; Scott Redlin; Plant Pathologist; Glenn Fowler Entomologist; Order Burkholderiales; Family Burkholderiaceae

2003-01-01

109

Determination of Phenolic Compounds from Geranium sanguineum by HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed for simultaneous determination of seventeen phenolic compounds (one phenolic acid, seven cinnamic acid derivatives, four quercetin glycosides, five flavonol, and flavone aglycones) from plant material. Separation of all examined compounds was carried out in 35 minutes on a Zorbax SB?C18 analytical column (100×3.0 mm, 3.5 µm) with methanol?KH2PO4 buffer (40 mM, pH 2.3) as

S. Leucuta; L. Vlase; S. Gocan; L. Radu; C. Fodorea

2005-01-01

110

Laser Monitoring Of Phytoextraction Enhancement Of Lead Contaminated Soil Adopting EDTA And EDDS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Removal of heavy metals (HMs) such as Pb from soil, wastewater, and air is essential for environment and human health. Phytoremediation is a well established technology based on the use of certain green plants for contaminants removal from soil, wastewater as well as air. Scented geranium, Pelargonium zonal, is a flowering plant recently used in HMs removal from contaminated soil. In the present work, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and EDDS (S, S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid) were used as chemical assistants providing higher Pb availability for extraction by plant roots. Lead was artificially added to the planting media, peatmoss, at different concentrations. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to follow up Pb relative concentrations in peatmoss as well as plant shoots, at different sampling times during the experiment period. Laser induced chlorophyll fluorescence (LICF), has been also used to evaluate chlorophyll formation and photosynthetic apparatus status in geranium plants. Such measurements were performed on geranium plants grown under various Pb levels, as well as EDTA and EDDS combinations. The combined effect of EDTA and EDDS was found to enhance Pb extraction with time. Good correlation was found between LICF results and chlorophyll (a) (Chl.a) concentrations in plant tissues extracted by chemical analysis.

Hassan, M.; Abdelhamied, M.; Hanafy, A. H.; Fantoni, R.; Harith, M. A.

2011-09-01

111

Light absorption by isolated chloroplasts and leaves: effects of scattering and 'packing'.  

PubMed

Light absorption was quantified in the following systems: isolated chloroplasts and leaves of spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.), a mutant of geranium (Pelargonium zonale L.) widely differing in pigment content, and coleus (Coleus blumei Benth.) at different stages of leaf ontogenesis. For these species and pea (Pisum sativum L.), scattering-compensated absorption spectra of chloroplast suspensions are presented. Comparison of leaf and chloroplast spectra showed considerable changes in the extent of the 'package' effect and the lengthening of the effective optical path in a leaf. The difference between leaf and isolated chloroplast absorption could be quantitatively described by adapting Duysens's treatment of flattening. It was found that the accumulation of chlorophyll in leaves is accompanied by a monotonous enhancement of the package effect. The results are discussed with special reference to the role of light scattering in leaf optics, light utilization in photosynthesis and wavelength-dependent light gradients in a leaf. PMID:19672688

Merzlyak, Mark N; Chivkunova, Olga B; Zhigalova, Tatiana V; Naqvi, K Razi

2009-10-01

112

Floral Dimorphism, Pollination, and Self-Fertilization in Gynodioecious Geranium richardsonii (Geraniaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selective maintenance of gynodioecy depends on the relative fitness of the male-sterile (female) and hermaphroditic morphs. Females may compensate for their loss of male fitness by reallocating resources from male function (pollen pro- duction and pollinator attraction) to female function (seeds and fruits), thus increasing seed production. Females may also benefit from their inability to self-fertilize if selfing and

Charles F. Williams; Margaret A. Kuchenreuther; Allison Drew

2000-01-01

113

American Journal of Botany 87(5): 661669. 2000. FLORAL DIMORPHISM, POLLINATION, AND  

E-print Network

-FERTILIZATION IN GYNODIOECIOUS GERANIUM RICHARDSONII (GERANIACEAE)1 CHARLES F. WILLIAMS,2,5,6 MARGARET A. KUCHENREUTHER,3: floral dimorphism; frequency-dependent selection; geitonogamy; Geraniaceae; Geranium richardsonii reproductive success, pollinator visitation and pollen receipt, in gynodioecious populations of Geranium

Williams, Charles F. "Rick"

114

Treatment of the common cold in children and adults.  

PubMed

The common cold, or upper respiratory tract infection, is one of the leading reasons for physician visits. Generally caused by viruses, the common cold is treated symptomatically. Antibiotics are not effective in children or adults. In children, there is a potential for harm and no benefits with over-the-counter cough and cold medications; therefore, they should not be used in children younger than four years. Other commonly used medications, such as inhaled corticosteroids, oral prednisolone, and Echinacea, also are ineffective in children. Products that improve symptoms in children include vapor rub, zinc sulfate, Pelargonium sidoides (geranium) extract, and buckwheat honey. Prophylactic probiotics, zinc sulfate, nasal saline irrigation, and the herbal preparation Chizukit reduce the incidence of colds in children. For adults, antihistamines, intranasal corticosteroids, codeine, nasal saline irrigation, Echinacea angustifolia preparations, and steam inhalation are ineffective at relieving cold symptoms. Pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, inhaled ipratropium, and zinc (acetate or gluconate) modestly reduce the severity and duration of symptoms for adults. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and some herbal preparations, including Echinacea purpurea, improve symptoms in adults. Prophylactic use of garlic may decrease the frequency of colds in adults, but has no effect on duration of symptoms. Hand hygiene reduces the spread of viruses that cause cold illnesses. Prophylactic vitamin C modestly reduces cold symptom duration in adults and children. PMID:22962927

Fashner, Julia; Ericson, Kevin; Werner, Sarah

2012-07-15

115

Laboratory evaluation of aromatic essential oils from thirteen plant species as candidate repellents against Leptotrombidium chiggers (Acari: Trombiculidae), the vector of scrub typhus.  

PubMed

Scrub typhus, a rickettsial disease transmitted by several species of Leptotrombidium chiggers (larvae), is endemic in many areas of Asia. The disease is best prevented by the use of personal protective measures, including repellents. In this study commercially produced aromatic, essential oils of 13 plant species and ethanol (control) were tested in the laboratory for repellency against host-seeking chiggers of Leptotrombidium imphalum Vercammen-Grandjean and Langston (Acari: Trombiculidae). A rapid, simple and economic in vitro test method was used by exposing the chigger for up to 5 min. Repellency was based on relative percentages of chiggers attracted to test and control substances. Four of the 13 essential oils showed promise as effective repellent against L. imphalum chiggers. Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oil exhibited 100% repellency at 5% concentration (dilution with absolute ethanol), whereas Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil exhibited 100% repellency at 40% concentration. Undiluted oils of Zingiber cassamunar (plai) and Eucalyptus globules (blue gum) exhibited 100% repellency. Of the remaining nine essential oils, only 100% Pelargonium graveolens (geranium) exhibited >50% repellency (viz. 57%). Styrax torkinensis (benzoin) oil did not exhibit any repellency. These findings show that several aromatic, essential oils of plants may be useful as chigger repellent for the prevention of scrub typhus. Syzygium aromaticum oil may be safer and more economical to prevent chigger attacks than commercially available synthetic chemicals, such as DEET that may have harmful side effects. PMID:19009361

Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yoolek, Adisak; Kongkaew, Wittaya; Lerdthusnee, Kriangkrai; Khlaimanee, Nittaya; Parsartvit, Anchana; Malainual, Nat; Yong, Hoi-Sen

2009-03-01

116

February 22, 2001 1 "Iron-Out": A nutritional program for geraniums and other crops prone to iron  

E-print Network

................................................................. 2 A.3 Understand the conditions (low pH and high fertilizer concentration with sensitive cultivars of necrotic spots and marginal burn, the affected leaves do not completely heal, and the only option iron/ manganese toxicity (and low pH) from occurring. The Iron-Out program is based on pre

New Hampshire, University of

117

Identification and characterization of the water gap in physically dormant seeds of Geraniaceae, with special reference to Geranium carolinianum  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Physical dormancy in seeds of species of Geraniaceae is caused by a water-impermeable palisade layer in the outer integument of the seed coat and a closed chalaza. The chalazal cleft has been reported to be the water gap (i.e. location of initial water entry) in innately permeable seeds of Geraniaceae. The primary aim of this study was to re-evaluate the location of the water gap and to characterize its morphology and anatomy in physically dormant seeds of Geraniaceae, with particular reference to G. carolinianum. Methods Length, width, mass, anatomy and germination of two seed types (light brown and dark brown) of G. carolinianum were compared. Location, anatomy and morphology of the water gap were characterized using free-hand and microtome tissue sectioning, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dye tracking, blocking and seed-burial experiments. Key Results Treatment with dry heat caused a colour change in the palisade cells adjacent to the micropyle. When placed in water, the ‘hinged valve’ (blister) erupted at the site of the colour change, exposing the water gap. The morphology and anatomy in the water-gap region differs from those of the rest of the seed coat. The morphology of the seed coat of the water-gap region is similar in G. carolinianum, G. columbinum, G. molle and G. pusillum and differs from that of the closely related species Erodium cicutarium. Conclusions Dislodgment of swollen ‘hinged valve’ palisade cells adjacent to the micropyle caused the water gap to open in physically dormant seeds of G. carolinianum, and it was clear that initial water uptake takes place through this gap and not via the chalazal opening as previously reported. This water gap (‘hinged valve gap’) differs from water gaps previously described for other families in morphology, anatomy and location in the seed coat. PMID:20400757

Gama-Arachchige, N. S.; Baskin, J. M.; Geneve, R. L.; Baskin, C. C.

2010-01-01

118

Geomorphic and Geochemical Characteristics of Five Alpine Fens in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado  

E-print Network

coerulea), fireweed (Chamerion angustifolium), bluebell (Mertensia spp.), buttercup (Ranunculus spp.), geranium (Geranium spp.), senecio (Senecio spp.), queen?s crown (Clementsia rhodantha), aster (Erigeron spp.), and cow parsnip (Heracleum sphondilium... coerulea), fireweed (Chamerion angustifolium), bluebell (Mertensia spp.), buttercup (Ranunculus spp.), geranium (Geranium spp.), senecio (Senecio spp.), queen?s crown (Clementsia rhodantha), aster (Erigeron spp.), and cow parsnip (Heracleum sphondilium...

McClenning, Bree Kathleen 1985-

2012-11-26

119

Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

Schurer, Kees

1994-01-01

120

Soil Seed Banks in Coniferous, Fire-Adapted, and Southwestern U.S. Ecosystems: An Annotated Bibliography  

E-print Network

seeds of Geranium bicknellii on jack pine sites in northern lower Michigan. The Michigan Botanist 23:81-88. Geranium bicknellii dominates vegetative cover the first year after fire on many jack pine sites were initiated. Germination of buried geranium seed only occurred in heated treatments from 3- and 35

Abella, Scott R.

121

Resources limit the fecundity of three woodland herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of supplemental hand pollination on fruit set, seed number, and seed weight were examined for 3 perennial, woodland herbs, Uvularia sessilifolia, Geranium maculatum, and Maianthemum canadense. We found no evidence for pollen limitation of any measure of fecundity. Low light probably limited fecundity in Geranium, while soil nitrogen limited the number of sseds\\/fruit in Maianthemum. For Geranium and Maianthemum

C. McCall; R. B. Primack

1987-01-01

122

Comparative analyses of two Geraniaceae transcriptomes using next-generation sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Organelle genomes of Geraniaceae exhibit several unusual evolutionary phenomena compared to other angiosperm families including accelerated nucleotide substitution rates, widespread gene loss, reduced RNA editing, and extensive genomic rearrangements. Since most organelle-encoded proteins function in multi-subunit complexes that also contain nuclear-encoded proteins, it is likely that the atypical organellar phenomena affect the evolution of nuclear genes encoding organellar proteins. To begin to unravel the complex co-evolutionary interplay between organellar and nuclear genomes in this family, we sequenced nuclear transcriptomes of two species, Geranium maderense and Pelargonium x hortorum. Results Normalized cDNA libraries of G. maderense and P. x hortorum were used for transcriptome sequencing. Five assemblers (MIRA, Newbler, SOAPdenovo, SOAPdenovo-trans [SOAPtrans], Trinity) and two next-generation technologies (454 and Illumina) were compared to determine the optimal transcriptome sequencing approach. Trinity provided the highest quality assembly of Illumina data with the deepest transcriptome coverage. An analysis to determine the amount of sequencing needed for de novo assembly revealed diminishing returns of coverage and quality with data sets larger than sixty million Illumina paired end reads for both species. The G. maderense and P. x hortorum transcriptomes contained fewer transcripts encoding the PLS subclass of PPR proteins relative to other angiosperms, consistent with reduced mitochondrial RNA editing activity in Geraniaceae. In addition, transcripts for all six plastid targeted sigma factors were identified in both transcriptomes, suggesting that one of the highly divergent rpoA-like ORFs in the P. x hortorum plastid genome is functional. Conclusions The findings support the use of the Illumina platform and assemblers optimized for transcriptome assembly, such as Trinity or SOAPtrans, to generate high-quality de novo transcriptomes with broad coverage. In addition, results indicated no major improvements in breadth of coverage with data sets larger than six billion nucleotides or when sampling RNA from four tissue types rather than from a single tissue. Finally, this work demonstrates the power of cross-compartmental genomic analyses to deepen our understanding of the correlated evolution of the nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial genomes in plants. PMID:24373163

2013-01-01

123

Anacardic acid inhibits estrogen receptor alpha-DNA binding and reduces target gene transcription and breast cancer cell proliferation.  

PubMed

Anacardic acid (AnAc; 2-hydroxy-6-alkylbenzoic acid) is a dietary and medicinal phytochemical with established anticancer activity in cell and animal models. The mechanisms by which AnAc inhibits cancer cell proliferation remain undefined. AnAc 24:1(omega5) was purified from geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum) and shown to inhibit the proliferation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha)-positive MCF-7 and endocrine-resistant LCC9 and LY2 breast cancer cells with greater efficacy than ERalpha-negative primary human breast epithelial cells, MCF-10A normal breast epithelial cells, and MDA-MB-231 basal-like breast cancer cells. AnAc 24:1(omega5) inhibited cell cycle progression and induced apoptosis in a cell-specific manner. AnAc 24:1(omega5) inhibited estradiol (E(2))-induced estrogen response element (ERE) reporter activity and transcription of the endogenous E(2) target genes pS2, cyclin D1, and cathepsin D in MCF-7 cells. AnAc 24:1(omega5) did not compete with E(2) for ERalpha or ERbeta binding, nor did AnAc 24:1(omega5) reduce ERalpha or ERbeta steady-state protein levels in MCF-7 cells; rather, AnAc 24:1(omega5) inhibited ER-ERE binding in vitro. Virtual screening with the molecular docking software Surflex evaluated AnAc 24:1(omega5) interaction with ERalpha ligand binding (LBD) and DNA binding (DBD) domains in conjunction with experimental validation. Molecular modeling revealed AnAc 24:1(omega5) interaction with the ERalpha DBD but not the LBD. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that AnAc 24:1(omega5) inhibited E(2)-ERalpha interaction with the endogenous pS2 gene promoter region containing an ERE. These data indicate that AnAc 24:1(omega5) inhibits cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis in an ER-dependent manner by reducing ER-DNA interaction and inhibiting ER-mediated transcriptional responses. PMID:20197399

Schultz, David J; Wickramasinghe, Nalinie S; Ivanova, Margarita M; Isaacs, Susan M; Dougherty, Susan M; Imbert-Fernandez, Yoannis; Cunningham, Albert R; Chen, Chunyuan; Klinge, Carolyn M

2010-03-01

124

Anacardic acid inhibits estrogen receptor alpha-DNA binding and reduces target gene transcription and breast cancer cell proliferation  

PubMed Central

Anacardic acid (2-hydroxy-6-alkylbenzoic acid) is a dietary and medicinal phytochemical with established anticancer activity in cell and animal models. The mechanisms by which anacardic acid inhibits cancer cell proliferation remain undefined. Anacardic acid 24:1?5 (AnAc 24:1?5) was purified from geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum) and shown to inhibit the proliferation of estrogen receptor ? (ER?)-positive MCF-7 and endocrine-resistant LCC9 and LY2 breast cancer cells with greater efficacy than ER?-negative primary human breast epithelial cells, MCF-10A normal breast epithelial cells, and MDA-MB-231 basal-like breast cancer cells. AnAc 24:1?5 inhibited cell cycle progression and induced apoptosis in a cell-specific manner. AnAc 24:1?5 inhibited estradiol (E2)-induced estrogen response element (ERE) reporter activity and transcription of the endogenous E2-target genes: pS2, cyclin D1, and cathepsin D in MCF-7 cells. AnAc 24:1?5 did not compete with E2 for ER? or ER? binding, nor did AnAc 24:1?5 reduce ER? or ER? steady state protein levels in MCF-7 cells; rather, AnAc 24:1?5 inhibited ER-ERE binding in vitro. Virtual Screening with the molecular docking software Surflex evaluated AnAc 24:1?5 interaction with ER? ligand binding and DNA binding domains (LBD and DBD) in conjunction with experimental validation. Molecular modeling revealed AnAc 24:1?5 interaction with the ER? DBD but not the LBD. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments revealed that AnAc 24:1?5 inhibited E2-ER? interaction with the endogenous pS2 gene promoter region containing an ERE. These data indicate that AnAc 24:1?5 inhibits cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis in an ER-dependent manner by reducing ER-DNA interaction and inhibiting ER-mediated transcriptional responses. PMID:20197399

Schultz, David J.; Wickramasinghe, Nalinie S.; Ivanova, Margarita M.; Isaacs, Susan M.; Dougherty, Susan M.; Imbert-Fernandez, Yoannis; Cunningham, Albert R.; Chen, Chunyuan; Klinge, Carolyn M.

2010-01-01

125

Precessional Cycles and Their Influence on the North Pacific and North Atlantic Summer Anticyclones  

E-print Network

Most parts of Africa. Southern or Mediterranean Europe: Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal, Spain. Middle, cotton, cucurbits, eggplants, figs, geraniums, grapes, lettuce, oaks, okra, onions, peas, peanuts, pears

Broccoli, Anthony J.

126

Applied Vegetation Science && (2012) Salt application as an effective measure to control  

E-print Network

-treat- ment with seawater. The ruderal study species were: Asphodelus fistulosus, Avena barbata, Geranium molle, Hypochoeris achyrophorus, Oryzopsis miliacea, Plantago coronopus, Reichardia picroides, Sonchus

Traveset, Anna

127

Technische Universitat Munchen Institut fur Informatik  

E-print Network

= Geraniums | Roses | Marigolds | Lilies | Gardenias datatype drink = Tea | Milk | Coffee | Juice | Water datatype color = red | green | yellow | ivory | blue datatype nationality = English | Spaniard | Ukrainian

Cengarle, María Victoria

128

Interspecfic variation in SOâ flux - leaf surface versus internal flux, and components of leaf conductance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The object of the study was to clarify the relationships among stomatal, residual, and epidermal conductances in determining the flux of SOâ air pollution to leaves. Variations in leaf SOâ and HâO vapor fluxes were determined using four plant species: Pisum sativum L. (garden pea), Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. flacca (mutant of tomato), Geranium carolinianum L. (wild geranium), and Diplacus aurantiacus

D. M. Olszyk; D. T. Tingey

1985-01-01

129

Ecology 2007 21, 11461153  

E-print Network

plants (neighbour shade) on a small annual plant, Geranium carolinianum. Plants were grown in two field to neighbours suggests that the current shade avoidance response is adaptive. Key-words: allometry, Geranium carolinianum, neighbour shade, petiole, phenotypic plasticity Functional Ecology (2007) 21, 1146­1153 doi: 10

Galloway, Laura F.

130

Response of Pan American Balsamscale, Soil, and Livestock to Prescribed Burning.  

E-print Network

bristle grass , Comb's paspalum, yellow Indiangrass, and common sandbur. Common forbs include Texas bull nettle, Euphorbia spp., sensitivebrier, Texas geranium, annual ragweed, and perennial ragweed. Burn Installation and Experimental Design Half... bristle grass , Comb's paspalum, yellow Indiangrass, and common sandbur. Common forbs include Texas bull nettle, Euphorbia spp., sensitivebrier, Texas geranium, annual ragweed, and perennial ragweed. Burn Installation and Experimental Design Half...

Mutz, J.L.; Greene, T.G.; Scifres, C.J.; Koerth, B.H.

1985-01-01

131

Latin Name Common Name Achillea millefolium 'Summer Pastels' Yarrow  

E-print Network

' Butterfly Flower Geranium maculatum Wild Geranium Gypsophila paniculata 'Perfecta' Baby's Breath MSU Gardens Plant Sale 2013 Perennials Inventory #12;Latin Name Common Name Gypsophila repens White Prostrate Baby Penstemon x hybrida Dark Towers Beardstongue Persicaria polymorpha Giant Fleeceflower Phlox paniculata 'Nora

132

Composition and Utilization of Range Vegetation in Sutton and Edwards Counties.  

E-print Network

, Whitlow u art preen parts cf flowering plcnts.. ............................... Echinochlca colonum, jungle rice fruitirppl~nts .............................................. Elymus I,rachystzchys, wild rye plants in he29..... ............................................ budding plants. Gsura parviflora ........................................... fruiticg plants.. Geranium car~linianum, geranium ................................................ green parts Grasses, mixed (Carex, Stipa, Elymus, ctc...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1940-01-01

133

Specialty Vegetables in Texas.  

E-print Network

, harvest the seeds and grind them for use. Edible Rowers Description. Calendulas (pot-marigolds), carna tions (pinks), chamomile, chrysanthemums, dande lions, daylilies, gardenias, geraniums, gladiolus, lavenders, lilies, nasturtiums, pansies, peonies..., harvest the seeds and grind them for use. Edible Rowers Description. Calendulas (pot-marigolds), carna tions (pinks), chamomile, chrysanthemums, dande lions, daylilies, gardenias, geraniums, gladiolus, lavenders, lilies, nasturtiums, pansies, peonies...

Longbrake, Thomas D.; Baker, Marvin L.; Cotner, Sam; Parsons, Jerry; Roberts, Roland; Stein, Larry

1988-01-01

134

Optimization of production quality and post-production longevity for miniature pot roses  

E-print Network

abscission in seedling geraniums and calceolaria. CHAPTER III EFFECT OF UNICONAZOLE ON MORPHOLOGICAL QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF POT MINIATURE ROSES INTRODUCTION Plant growth regulator use in the floriculture industry has increased tremendously over... abscission in seedling geraniums and calceolaria. CHAPTER III EFFECT OF UNICONAZOLE ON MORPHOLOGICAL QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF POT MINIATURE ROSES INTRODUCTION Plant growth regulator use in the floriculture industry has increased tremendously over...

Kyalo, Titus Mulwa

2012-06-07

135

Foster, Page 1 Vision Research Author manuscript  

E-print Network

.visres.2010.09.006 Color Constancy David H. Foster School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University an example of the effect of an extreme change in daylight spectrum: a pelargonium illuminated by reddish

Foster, David H.

136

To link to this article: DOI:10.1007/s11240-011-0045-1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11240-011-0045-1  

E-print Network

crop plants, being used as a source of essential oils in aroma- therapy, perfumery and cosmetics, as insect repellents, anti-inflammatory agents and as bedding or potted plants. Improvement of Pelargonium

Mailhes, Corinne

137

Antibacterial activity of plant extracts from the families Fabaceae, Oleaceae, Philadelphaceae, Rosaceae and Staphyleaceae.  

PubMed

The selected plant extracts exhibited antibacterial activity. The strongest effect was manifested by extracts prepared from Gymnocladus dioicus, Amelanchier ovalis, Exochorda racemosa, Holodiscus discolor, Philadelphus microphyllus, Philadelphus coronarius and Pelargonium tabulare. The percentage inhibition of bacterial growth was 0-41.8%. In addition it was found that extracts isolated from Amelanchier ovalis, Exochorda racemosa and Pelargonium tabulare were specifically effective only against the bacterial strains tested. PMID:11113995

Jantová, S; Nagy, M; Ruzeková, L; Grancai, D

2000-12-01

138

Allergy-Friendly Gardening  

MedlinePLUS

... gardening may also help reduce symptoms. Certain flowers, trees and grasses are better suited for the gardens ... people with outdoor allergies. These include: • Cactus • Cherry tree • Dahlia • Daisy • Geranium • Hibiscus • Iris • Magnolia • Roses • Snapdragon • ...

139

40 CFR 152.25 - Exemptions for pesticides of a character not requiring FIFRA regulation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...equivalent) Cedar oil Cinnamon and cinnamon oil Citric acid Citronella and citronella oil Cloves and clove oil Corn gluten meal Corn oil Cottonseed oil Dried blood Eugenol Garlic and garlic oil Geraniol Geranium oil Lauryl...

2010-07-01

140

40 CFR 152.25 - Exemptions for pesticides of a character not requiring FIFRA regulation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...equivalent) Cedar oil Cinnamon and cinnamon oil Citric acid Citronella and citronella oil Cloves and clove oil Corn gluten meal Corn oil Cottonseed oil Dried blood Eugenol Garlic and garlic oil Geraniol Geranium oil Lauryl...

2012-07-01

141

40 CFR 152.25 - Exemptions for pesticides of a character not requiring FIFRA regulation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...equivalent) Cedar oil Cinnamon and cinnamon oil Citric acid Citronella and citronella oil Cloves and clove oil Corn gluten meal Corn oil Cottonseed oil Dried blood Eugenol Garlic and garlic oil Geraniol Geranium oil Lauryl...

2013-07-01

142

40 CFR 152.25 - Exemptions for pesticides of a character not requiring FIFRA regulation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...equivalent) Cedar oil Cinnamon and cinnamon oil Citric acid Citronella and citronella oil Cloves and clove oil Corn gluten meal Corn oil Cottonseed oil Dried blood Eugenol Garlic and garlic oil Geraniol Geranium oil Lauryl...

2011-07-01

143

183USDAForestServiceGen.Tech.Rep.PSW-GTR-160.1997. Understory-Canopy Relationships in  

E-print Network

, Lolium multiflorum, Cynosurus echinatus, Anagalis arvensis, Daucus pusillus, Geranium molle, Madia spp., and Trifolium spp. The understory was primarily Brachypodium distachyon, Bromus diandrus, Lolium multiflorum, Taeniatherum asperum, Vulpia megalura (sic), and Lolium multiflorum, while the denser woodlands were Cynosurus

Standiford, Richard B.

144

BEE AND POLLINATION FESTIVAL NURSERIES Botanic Garden Guides are often asked where visitors can buy the Jurassic giants in  

E-print Network

the largest selection of tree ferns in the UK, and 30+ different types of virus free Cannas. The nursery, Epimedium, hardy ferns, hardy geraniums, hellebores, snowdrops, Viola Odorata and Hepatica amongst many

Bristol, University of

145

The influence of cultivar, price, and longevity on consumer preferences for potted chrysanthemums (chrysanthemum x morifolium L. Ramat.)  

E-print Network

) found that consumer preferences for geraniums were different than gro wer and retailer preferences. W bile retailers have traditionally been considered the best sources of identifying consumer preferences, discrepancies between retailer and consumer... preferences have been previously reported (48). It is not surprising to find that grower, retailer and consumer preferences for floricultural products would differ. Despite a consumer preference for pink-colored geraniums, growers followed their own...

Shafer, Barbara Susan

2012-06-07

146

In vitro multiplication of Cucumis sativus, L. through tissue culture  

E-print Network

(12) to maintain clonal types for extended periods of time without change in genetic make-up of the plant cells (3). Skirvin and Janick (23) did find that in scented geraniums "variation in leaf, flower, oil constituents, fasciation, pubescence... (12) to maintain clonal types for extended periods of time without change in genetic make-up of the plant cells (3). Skirvin and Janick (23) did find that in scented geraniums "variation in leaf, flower, oil constituents, fasciation, pubescence...

LeRoy, Thomas Russell

2012-06-07

147

Interspecfic variation in SO/sub 2/ flux - leaf surface versus internal flux, and components of leaf conductance  

SciTech Connect

The object of the study was to clarify the relationships among stomatal, residual, and epidermal conductances in determining the flux of SO/sub 2/ air pollution to leaves. Variations in leaf SO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O vapor fluxes were determined using four plant species: Pisum sativum L. (garden pea), Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. flacca (mutant of tomato), Geranium carolinianum L. (wild geranium), and Diplacus aurantiacus (Curtis) Jeps. (a native California shrub).

Olszyk, D.M.; Tingey, D.T.

1985-01-01

148

An internship in two market research studies: a Southwest Region Greenhouse Market Study and a local garden center market study  

E-print Network

the questionnaire cover letter and mailing out the questionnaire. Analysis of data using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and follow-up of Texas respondents were also part of this internship. The W. R. Grace Company was the sponsor of the study... center, Geranium Junction, wished to investigate the demographics of their customers and their customer's awareness of Geranium Junction's empioyment of people with disabilities. A questionnaire was developed to investigate these objectives...

Whisenant, Donna Kay

2012-06-07

149

Cassava Ivorian bacilliform virus is a member of the genus Anulavirus.  

PubMed

The complete genomic sequence of Cassava Ivorian bacilliform virus (CIBV) is described. The virus has a genomic organization similar to that of pelargonium zonate spot virus (PZSV), the type member of the genus Anulavirus, but it is most closely related to a second, recently described, anulavirus, Amazon lily mild mottle virus (ALiMMV). PMID:24838850

Scott, Simon W; MacFarlane, Stuart A; McGavin, Wendy J; Fargette, Denis

2014-10-01

150

Inhibition of photosynthesis, acidification and stimulation of zeaxanthin formation in leaves by sulfur dioxide and reversal of these effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves of Pelargonium zonale L. and Spinacia oleracea L. were fumigated with high concentrations of SO2 for very short periods of time with the aim of first producing acute symptoms of damage and then observing repair. The response of different photosynthetic parameters to SO2 was monitored during and after fumigation. The following results were obtained: (1) Inhibition of CO2 assimilation

Sonja Veljovic-Jovanovic; Wolfgang Bilger; Ulrich Heber

1993-01-01

151

Production Methods and New Markets for Texas Florist Crops.  

E-print Network

. COST OF PRODUCTION: 15 weeks at 56 = 754. 754 s 5 = 15c per plant. Add cost of dry rhizomes and pot. MARKET ACCEPTANCE: Excellent. Yellow Calla Lily. Ornaments/ Pepper. Geranium. NAME OF CROP: Ornamental Pepper (Capsicum frote- scens... Considerations: Do not allow plants to dry out. Grow in full sunlight. VARIETIES: Fangs. Christmas Candle. COST OF PRODUCTION: 10 weeks at 5Q = 50C. 506 + 4 = 12.5Q per plant. Add cost of seedling and pot. MARKET ACCEPTANCE: Good. NAME OF CROP: Geranium...

Sorensen, H. B.; DeWerth, A.F.; Jensen, E. R.

1958-01-01

152

Predation and hyperparasitism: two mortality factors affecting primary parasites of the greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Homoptera: Aphididae)  

E-print Network

electron microscopy and concluded that meconial characteristics are a promising tool for distinguishing some species groups of A~h tis. Meconia of three parasites attacking the geranium aphid )~Mi h 111 Pot h) d tb d by Gt to o1d (1929). 1h 19 same g... electron microscopy and concluded that meconial characteristics are a promising tool for distinguishing some species groups of A~h tis. Meconia of three parasites attacking the geranium aphid )~Mi h 111 Pot h) d tb d by Gt to o1d (1929). 1h 19 same g...

McKinnon, L. K

2012-06-07

153

RESEARCH ARTICLE The mechanics of explosive dispersal and self-burial in the seeds of the filaree, Erodium cicutarium (Geraniaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The filaree (Erodium cicutarium), a small, flowering plant related to geraniums, possesses a unique seed dispersal mechanism: the plant can fling its seeds up to half a meter away; and the seeds can bury themselves by drilling into the ground, twisting and untwisting in response to changes in humidity. These feats are accomplished using awns, helical bristles of dead

Dennis Evangelista; Scott Hotton; Jacques Dumais

2011-01-01

154

Influence of relative humidity on direct sulfur dioxide damage to plant sexual reproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of in vivo experiments with Geranium carolinianum L. showed that sulfur dioxide (SOâ) damaged sexual reproduction (in terms of decreased seed set) when relative humdity (RH) was 80% or above but not when RH was 70% or below. Relative humidity alone, if 80% or higher, damaged sexual reproduction; the addition of SOâ increased the damage. A high SOâ dosage

William H. Murdy; Harvey L. Ragsdale

1980-01-01

155

The effect of essential oils on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using a dressing model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patchouli, tea tree, geranium, lavender essential oils and Citricidal™ (grapefruit seed extract) were used singly and in combination to assess their anti-bacterial activity against three strains of Staphylococcus aureus: Oxford S. aureus NCTC 6571 (Oxford strain), Epidemic methicillin-resistant S. aureus (EMRSA 15) and MRSA (untypable). The individual essential oils, extracts and combinations were impregnated into filter paper discs and placed

V. Edwards-Jones; R. Buck; S. G. Shawcross; M. M. Dawson; K. Dunn

2004-01-01

156

Repelling properties of some plant materials on the tick Ixodes ricinus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The repellent effects on nymphal stages of Ixodes ricinus L. of some plant materials have been studied in the laboratory. The plant material consisted of an ethanolic extract from Achillea millefolium L., and volatile oils of birch and\\/or pine tar, citronella, cloves, eucalyptus, geranium, lavender, lily of the valley and peppermint. The most pronounced effects were observed for the oils

W. Thorsell; A. Mikiver; H. Tunón

2006-01-01

157

New and Corrected Floristic Records for Nebraska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen species (including eight Eurasian ones) are newly recorded for Nebraska: Alopecurus arundinaceus, Amaranthus californicus, Asclepias asperula, A purpurascens, Cardamine {lexuosa*, Centaurea diffusa, Dipsacus laciniatus, Eriochloa villosa, Euclidium syriacum, Gentiana alba, Geranium viscosissimum, Geum vernum, Goodyera oblongifolia, Haplopappus multicaulis, Heterotheca latifolia, Lathyrus tuberosus, Polygonum douglasii, Scirpus saximontanus, Veronica biloba. Twenty-one others are shown to be more widespread in Nebraska than

Steven B. Rolfsmeier; Robert B. Kaul; David M. Sutherland

1991-01-01

158

Contributions to the Flora and Plant Ecology of Campbell Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Native plant species newly recorded for Campbell Island are: Lycopodium cf. australianum, Rumex flexuosus, R. negleclus, Cotula dispersa subsp. dispersa, Acianthus viridis, and possibly Puccinellia macquariensis hitherto regarded as an endemic grass of Macquarie Island. Additions to the exotic flora include cultivars, garden escapes, and otner largely ephemeral introductions. These are: the weeds Cardamine hirsuta, Polygonum convolvulus, Geranium pusillum, Hypericum

Colin D. Meurk

1975-01-01

159

Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of 12 medicinal and aromatic plants were investigated for their radical scavenging activity using DPPH and ABTS assays: Salvia sclarea, Salvia glutinosa, Salvia pratensis, Lavandula angustifolia, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Echinacea purpurea, Rhaponticum carthamoides, Juglans regia, Melilotus officinalis, Geranium macrorrhizum and Potentilla fruticosa. Salvia officinalis was used as a reference plant with well documented antioxidant activity. G. macrorrhizum and

G. Miliauskas; P. R. Venskutonis; T. A. van Beek

2004-01-01

160

Investigation of the dermal sensitization potential of various essential oils in the local lymph node assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils are commonly used fragrance ingredients. The oils themselves are complex mixtures, which may contain naturally occurring contact sensitizers. The local lymph node assay was used to evaluate the dermal sensitization potential of basil, citronella, clove leaf, geranium, litsea cubeba, lemongrass, and palmarosa oils. Three of the major components—citral, eugenol, and geraniol—were included to investigate any difference in sensitization

J. Lalko; A. M. Api

2006-01-01

161

[Treatment with acyclovir combined with a new Romanian product from plants].  

PubMed

The paper presents a study of the associated effect of acyclovir and a plant extract from Calendula officinalis, Actium lappa and Geranium robertianum. We studied a number of 52 patients suffering of herpetic keratitis. Better results in resolving complains and faster healing of ulceration were obtained using the associated treatment then the usual acyclovir treatment only. PMID:10641087

Corina, P; Dimitris, S; Emanuil, T; Nora, R

1999-01-01

162

Plant extracts with anti-inflammatory properties—A new approach for characterization of their bioactive compounds and establishment of structure–antioxidant activity relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geranium robertianum L. (Geraniacea) and Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. (Rubiaceae) plant extracts, frequently used in traditional medicine for treatment of inflammatory and cancer diseases, were studied to identify potential bioactive compounds that may justify their therapeutic use and their underlying mechanisms of action. Since some of the pharmacological properties of these plant extracts may be linked to their antioxidant potential,

Sónia Amaral; Lurdes Mira; J. M. F. Nogueira; Alda Pereira da Silva; M. Helena Florêncio

2009-01-01

163

New Records of fungous diseases on plants in New Zealand, 1962–64  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following fungi are recorded in New Zealand for the first time: Elsinoe parthenocissi Jenkins and Bitancourt on Parthenocissus tricuspidata (Sieb, and Zucc.) Planch (Virginia creeper), Venturia circinans (Fr.) Sacc. on Geranium molle L. (crane’s-bill); V. enteleae n. sp. on Entelea arborescens R. Br.; Griphosphaeria corticola (Fckl.) Hoehnel on Rosa sp., on Rosa rubiginosa L. (sweet briar), on R. idaeus

Joan M. Dingley

1965-01-01

164

Species richness and identity affect the use of aboveground space in experimental grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complementary resource use is regarded as a mechanism that contributes to positive relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here, we used a biodiversity experiment composed of nine potentially dominant species (grasses: Alopecurus pratensis, Arrhenatherum elatius, Dactylis glomerata, Phleum pratense, Poa trivialis; legumes: Trifolium pratense, T. repens; non-legume herbs: Anthriscus sylvestris, Geranium pratense) to test for differences among monocultures and mixtures

Sönke Lorentzen; Christiane Roscher; Jens Schumacher; Ernst-Detlef Schulze; Bernhard Schmid

2008-01-01

165

Light-induced sensory and chemical changes in aquavit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquavit in clear bottles was stored in sunlight, in fluorescent light and in the dark under conditions relevant for the retail trade. Every 2 wk over a 6 mo period, the odour and taste of the aquavit were characterized by descriptive sensory analysis and concentrations of volatile compounds were determined together with tristimulus colour analysis. Formation of geranium-leaf odour and

Hanne H. F. Refsgaard; Per M. Brockhoff; Leif Poll; Carl Erik Olsen; Mariann Rasmussen; Leif H. Skibsted

1995-01-01

166

Oxfordshire Flowers and the Plot Memorial Windows  

Microsoft Academic Search

In NATURE of May 28, 1927, p. 798, in the excellent account of the unveiling of the Wren-Ashmole-Plot Memorial Windows at Oxford, it is said that ``the surrounding wreath is of two Oxfordshire flowers which Plot was the first to recognise as new to the British flora''-Viola palustris and Geranium dissectum.

G. Claridge Druce

1928-01-01

167

Spring Flowers: Harvest of a Sensitive Eye  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defining and describing a number of spring flowers, this article includes illustrations and explanations that demonstrate "art and science are born of the same parents". The flowers discussed are skunk cabbage, bellwort, spring beauty, jack-in-the-pulpit, Solomon's seal, wild geranium, showy orchids, moccasin flower, bluets, apple, and Indian…

Clark, Eloise; Levin, Ted

1978-01-01

168

Molecular Structure of Methyl benzoate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Methyl benzoate is used mainly as a perfume; it has a very pleasant smell and mixes well with scents of ylang ylang, musk, rose, and geranium. Methyl benzoate also acts as a solvent for cellulose esters, as a dying carrier, disinfectant additive, penetrating agent, and as a pesticide.

2002-10-11

169

Formation of l-ascorbic acid and oxalic acid from d-glucosone in Lemna minor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conversion of d-[1-14C]glucosone to l-ascorbate and oxalate occurs in Lemna minor L. to the same extent as reported earlier in spinach and Pelargonium. A significant amount of l-[1-14C]ascorbate is converted to oxalate, but virtually none to either glycine or serine. On the other hand, little [2-14C]glycolate is converted to oxalate but a significant amount to glycine and serine. A

Kazumi Saito

1996-01-01

170

Influence des caractristiques physiques du substrat sur les systmes racinaires de plantes ornementales  

E-print Network

connues : tourbe blonde, sable, perlite, vermiculite, avec des boutures de Pelargonium x hortorum. La (sable, perlite); ce qui s'explique par une résistance à la pénétration plus élevée. Une orientation du sable et de la perlite, qui empê- chent l'action du géotropisme de se manifester comme dans la

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

171

Additional Hosts for the Ring Nematode, Criconemella xenoplax.  

PubMed

Some common legumes and weeds indigenous to peach orchards in South Carolina were tested in greenhouse experiments to determine their host suitability for Criconemella xenoplax. Legumes that were hosts for the nematode were dwarf English trefoil (Lotus corniculatus var. arvensis), big trefoil (L. uliginosis), birdsfoot trefoil (L. corniculatus), narrowleaf birdsfoot trefoil (L. tenuis), ball clover (Trifolium nigrescens), rose clover (T. hirtum), subterranean clover (T. subterraneum), striate lespedeza (Lespedeza striata), and partridge pea (Cassiafasciculata). Most nonleguminous plants tested did not support population increases, but small increases were observed on orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata), broadleaf signalgrass (Brachiaria platyphylla), purslane (Portulaca oleracea), and Carolina geranium (Geranium carolinianum). Results indicate that leguminous plants probably should not be used as ground cover or rotation crops for plants that are injured by C. xenopax. PMID:19287692

Zehr, E I; Aitken, J B; Scott, J M; Meyer, J R

1990-01-01

172

Additional Hosts for the Ring Nematode, Criconemella xenoplax  

PubMed Central

Some common legumes and weeds indigenous to peach orchards in South Carolina were tested in greenhouse experiments to determine their host suitability for Criconemella xenoplax. Legumes that were hosts for the nematode were dwarf English trefoil (Lotus corniculatus var. arvensis), big trefoil (L. uliginosis), birdsfoot trefoil (L. corniculatus), narrowleaf birdsfoot trefoil (L. tenuis), ball clover (Trifolium nigrescens), rose clover (T. hirtum), subterranean clover (T. subterraneum), striate lespedeza (Lespedeza striata), and partridge pea (Cassiafasciculata). Most nonleguminous plants tested did not support population increases, but small increases were observed on orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata), broadleaf signalgrass (Brachiaria platyphylla), purslane (Portulaca oleracea), and Carolina geranium (Geranium carolinianum). Results indicate that leguminous plants probably should not be used as ground cover or rotation crops for plants that are injured by C. xenopax. PMID:19287692

Zehr, E. I.; Aitken, J. B.; Scott, J. M.; Meyer, J. R.

1990-01-01

173

Keimungsphysiologische Untersuchungen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Für die von mir untersuchten Samen konnten folgende Tatsachen festgestellt werden:1.Folgenden Samen kommt eine Ruheperiode zu:Aethusa cynapium, Acer platanoides, Geranium pyrenaicum, Ranunculus acer, Oenothera biennis undSilene acaulis.2.Weder auf die Keimung von Samen mit noch auf die Keimung von Samen ohne Ruheperiode haben, unter meinen Versuchsbedingungen, bei den von mir untersuchten Arten, Schnee, Eis, Wasser und Luft von 0 °

Edmond Heilpern

1914-01-01

174

New hosts of Potato virus Y (PVY) among common wild plants in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The infection capacity of Potato virus Y (PVY, genus Potyvirus) for wild-living plants, commonly occurring as arable weeds in Europe and native to or naturalised in other continents, was\\u000a evaluated. In total, 3,712 and 802 seedlings representing 21 weed species were aphid and sap-inoculated with PVY, respectively.\\u000a Experimentally-inoculated plants of Erodium cicutarium, Geranium pusillum, Lactuca serriola and Lamium purpureum tested

Agnieszka Kaliciak; Jerzy Syller

2009-01-01

175

Morphological analysis of alpine communities of the north-western Caucasus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The species composition of four alpine communities in the north-western Caucasus was subjected to a morphological analysis.\\u000a The communities are an alpine lichen heath type (ALH), aFestuca varia grassland type (FVG), aGeranium-Hedysarum meadow type (GHM) and a snowbed community (SBC). Eighty-two species were studied, using the following morphological parameters:\\u000a vegetative mobility, presence of rosettes, architectural model, life form according toRaunkiaer

Galina A. Pokarzhevskaya

1995-01-01

176

Evaluation of Vetiver Oil and Seven Insect-Active Essential Oils Against the Formosan Subterranean Termite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repellency and toxicity of 8 essential oils (vetiver grass, cassia leaf, clove bud, cedarwood, Eucalyptus globules,Eucalyptus citrodora, lemongrass and geranium) were evaluated against the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Vetiver oil proved the most effective repellent because of its long-lasting activity. Clove bud was the most toxic, killing 100% of termites in 2 days at 50 µg\\/cm2. The tunneling

Betty C. R. Zhu; Gregg Henderson; Feng Chen; Huixin Fei; Roger A. Laine

2001-01-01

177

Entwicklung, Samenbildung und Biomasseproduktion ausgewählter Problemunkrautarten in Rapshalbzwerghybriden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  Seit einigen Jahren befinden sich Rapshalbzwerghybride auch im praktischen Anbau. Zu deren Verhalten gegenüber Unkräutern\\u000a gibt es bisher nur wenige Studien. Seit einigen Jahren sind zudem zunehmend schwer zu bekämpfende Problemunkräuter in Rapsbeständen\\u000a zu beobachten. Daher wurden Anchusa arvensis (L.) M.??Bieb., Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop. und drei verschiedene Geranium-Arten ausgewählt, um deren Entwicklung, Samenbildung und Biomasse zu untersuchen und mögliche

Kristian Peters; Stefan Porembski; Bärbel Gerowitt

2009-01-01

178

Pollination ecology of five species in a limestone community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen was examined on the stigmatic surfaces of five species- Campanula rotundifolia L., Euphrasia con.fusa Pugsl.,GeraniumrobertianumL.,Potentillaerecta(L.) Rausch. andVeronicachamaedrys L.-sampledfroma locality in North Yorkshire. Competition with blossoms of other species was found to adversely affect pollination in Campanula rotundifolia but enhance il in Geranium robertianum. Proportions of foreign pollen grains, observed on the stigmas of each species. correlate with the breeding

D. J. GOYDER

179

A promising strain of Streptomyces sp. with agricultural traits for growth promotion and disease management.  

PubMed

A bacterial strain, Streptomyces sp. CIMAP- A1 was isolated from Geranium rhizosphere and identified by morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular characters (16S rDNA gene sequence). Phylogenetically, it was found most closely related to S. vinacendrappus, strain NRRL-2363 with 99% sequence similarity. The strain had potential antagonistic activity (in vitro) against wide range of phytopathogenic fungi like Stemphylium sp., Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Colletotrichum spp., Curvularia spp., Corynespora cassicola and Thielavia basicola. The extracellular secondary metabolites produced by the strain in the culture filtrates significantly inhibited the spore germination, growth of germ tube of the germinated spores and radial growth of Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum acutatum, Curvularia andropogonis and Fusarium moniliforme. The extraction of culture filtrate with solvents and purification by following VLC and PTLC methods always yielded a 10th fraction antifungal compound showing activity against wide range of phytopathogenic fungi. The strain was able to produce siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid. The strain was found to enhance the growth and biomass production of Geranium. It increased 11.3% fresh shoot biomass of Geranium and 21.7% essential oil yield. PMID:23016493

Alam, Mansoor; Dharni, Seema; Abdul-Khaliq; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar; Samad, Abdul; Gupta, Mahesh Kumar

2012-08-01

180

Phytophthora tropicalis on Hedera helix and Epipremnum aureum in Polish greenhouses.  

PubMed

Phytophthora tropicalis was isolated from Hedera helix and Epipremnum aureum showing discoloration of leaves, necrosis of shoot base, spread upwards and on roots. The species was detected from 7/8 plants of Hedera and 3/4 of Epipremnum. Additionally Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium avenaceum and Rhizoctonia solani were recovered from some of diseased plants. P. tropicalis caused leaf necrosis of 13 plant species and tomato seedlings. The quickest spread of necrosis was observed on leaves of Peperomia magnoliaefolia, Pelargonium zonale and Phalaenopsis x hybridum. The disease developed at temperature ranged from 10 degrees to 32.5 degrees C with optimum 30 degrees C. PMID:17390874

Orlikowski, L B; Trzewik, A; Wiejacha, K

2006-01-01

181

Reconstruction of the ancestral plastid genome in Geraniaceae reveals a correlation between genome rearrangements, repeats, and nucleotide substitution rates.  

PubMed

Geraniaceae plastid genomes are highly rearranged, and each of the four genera already sequenced in the family has a distinct genome organization. This study reports plastid genome sequences of six additional species, Francoa sonchifolia, Melianthus villosus, and Viviania marifolia from Geraniales, and Pelargonium alternans, California macrophylla, and Hypseocharis bilobata from Geraniaceae. These genome sequences, combined with previously published species, provide sufficient taxon sampling to reconstruct the ancestral plastid genome organization of Geraniaceae and the rearrangements unique to each genus. The ancestral plastid genome of Geraniaceae has a 4 kb inversion and a reduced, Pelargonium-like small single copy region. Our ancestral genome reconstruction suggests that a few minor rearrangements occurred in the stem branch of Geraniaceae followed by independent rearrangements in each genus. The genomic comparison demonstrates that a series of inverted repeat boundary shifts and inversions played a major role in shaping genome organization in the family. The distribution of repeats is strongly associated with breakpoints in the rearranged genomes, and the proportion and the number of large repeats (>20 bp and >60 bp) are significantly correlated with the degree of genome rearrangements. Increases in the degree of plastid genome rearrangements are correlated with the acceleration in nonsynonymous substitution rates (dN) but not with synonymous substitution rates (dS). Possible mechanisms that might contribute to this correlation, including DNA repair system and selection, are discussed. PMID:24336877

Weng, Mao-Lun; Blazier, John C; Govindu, Madhumita; Jansen, Robert K

2014-03-01

182

Effects of gaseous ammonia on intracellular pH values in leaves of C 3- and C 4-plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Responses of cytosolic and vacuolar pH to different concentrations (1.3-5.4 ?mol NH 3 mol -1 gas or 0.940-3.825 mg NH 3 m -3 gas) of gaseous NH 3 were studied in experiments of 3 h duration by recording changes in fluorescence of pyranine and esculin in leaves of C 3 and C 4 plants. After a lag phase of 0.5-4 min, the uptake of NH 3 at 50-200 nmol m -2 leaf area s -1 increased pyranine fluorescence, indicating cytosolic alkalinization in leaves of Pelargonium zonale L. (C 3) and Amaranthus caudatus L. (C 4). A smaller increase in esculin fluorescence induced by NH 3 indicated some vacuolar alkalization in a Spinacia oleracea L. leaf. Photosynthesis and transpiration remained unchanged during exposure of illuminated leaves to NH 3 for up to 30 min (the maximum tested). CO 2 concentrations influenced the extent of cytosolic alkalinization. 500 ?mol CO 2 mol -1 gas suppressed the NH 3-induced cytosolic alkalinization relative to that found in 16 ?mol CO 2 mol -1 gas. The suppressing effect of CO 2 on NH 3-induced alkalization was larger in illuminated leaves of the C 4Amaranthus than the C 3Pelargonium. These results indicate that the alkaline pH shift caused by solution and protonation of NH 3 in aqueous leaf compartments is affected by assimilation of NH 3.

Yin, Zu-Hua; Kaiser, Werner; Heber, Ulrich; Raven, John A.

183

Optical properties and nondestructive estimation of anthocyanin content in plant leaves.  

PubMed

Absorption and reflectance spectra of maple (Acer platanoides), cotoneaster (Cotoneaster alaunica), dogwood (Cornus alba) and pelargonium (Pelargonium zonale) leaves with a wide range of pigment content and composition were studied in visible and near-infrared spectra in order to reveal specific anthocyanin (Anth) spectral features in leaves. Comparing absorption spectra of Anth-containing and Anth-free leaves with the same chlorophyll (Chl) content, absorption spectra of Anth in leaves were derived. The main spectral feature of Anth absorption in vivo was a peak around 550 nm; the peak magnitude was closely related to Anth content. A quantitative nondestructive technique was developed to subtract Chl contribution to reflectance in this spectral region and retrieve Anth content from reflectance over a wide range of pigment content and composition. Anth reflectance index in the form ARI = (R550)-1 - (R700)-1, where (R550)-1 and (R700)-1 are inverse reflectances at 550 and 700 nm, respectively, allowed an accurate estimation of Anth accumulation, even in minute amounts, in intact senescing and stressed leaves. PMID:11460535

Gitelson, A A; Merzlyak, M N; Chivkunova, O B

2001-07-01

184

Results from a Search for Light-Mass Dark Matter with a P-type Point Contact Germanium Detector  

SciTech Connect

We report on several features present in the energy spectrum from an ultra low-noise geranium detector operated at 2,100 m.w.e. By implementing a new technique able to reject surface events, a number of cosmogenic peaks can be observed for the first time. We discuss several possible causes for an irreducible excess of bulk-like events below 3 keVee, including a dark matter candidate common to the DAMA/LIBRA annual modulation effect, the hint of a signal in CDMS, and phenomenological predictions. Improved constraints are placed on a cosmological origin for the DAMA/LIBRA effect.

Aalseth, Craig E.; Barbeau, Phil; Bowden, N. S.; Cabrera-Palmer, B.; Colaresi, J.; Collar, J. I.; Dazeley, S.; de Lurgio, P.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Greenberg, C.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Marino, Michael G.; Miley, Harry S.; Miller, M. L.; Orrell, John L.; Radford, D. C.; Reyna, D.; Tench, O.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Wilkerson, J.; Yocum, K. M.

2011-04-01

185

Shared Recklessness  

E-print Network

this, in the past two weeks, I’ve had entanglements with men named Jon (awkward first-date conversation at a Thursday night punk show), Jesse (a man in an open marriage who I am tentatively meeting for adventures) and Jeff (an NPR announcer with a... to pronounce my name would not protect me when he left almost exactly two years later, and allowed Goat his dreams, maybe of Fanya, maybe of Danielle, but not of me at all. 12 Jungle For Owen it started very simply with a Geranium plant sent...

Goodman, Danya Laura

2012-05-31

186

Electroculture for crop enhancement by air anions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electroculture, the practice of applying strong electric fields or other sources of small air ions to growing plants, has potential to markedly increase crop production and to speed crop growth. The considerable evidence for its effectiveness, and the studies of the mechanisms for its actions are discussed. A mild current of air anions (4 pA/cm2) stimulates bean crop growth and also earlier blossoming and increased growth in the annual, Exacum affine (Persian violet), as well as in seedling geraniums. The present results would indicate that the growing period required until the plants reach a saleable stage of maturity can be shortened by about two weeks under greenhouse conditions.

Pohl, H. A.; Todd, G. W.

1981-12-01

187

Photosynthetic Pictures Are Worth More Than a Thousand Words  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity provides an opportunity for learners to observe and examine how carbon dioxide, water, and light produce glucose/starch through a process called photosynthesis. This process is validated through the production of starch picture images produced on a geranium leaf. The fundamental question answered by this activity is: "What actually occurs in plant leaves as a result of photosynthesis?" Learners construct a hypothesis, set up and run the experiment, record observations, and answer reflection questions. This resource guide includes assessment and extension suggestions. When executing this lab, safety precautions involving boiling alcohol should be strictly followed.

Morishita, C. F.

2009-01-01

188

[Changes in eco-morphological parameters of alpine plants' leaves as an effect of fertilization].  

PubMed

Plants growing on rich soil usually have thin leaves with large specific leaf area. On the other hand, at intraspecific level; soil fertilization results in leaves size increasing which, in turn, can lead to reduction in specific leaf area. To what extent soil fertilization implies only leaves increasing in size and does not affect other eco-morphological characteristics is a question that is still open. To assess coherence between plants intraspecific reactions to changes in soil richness and general tendencies in changes of leaves parameters in communities with different productivity, an experiment has been conducted in alpine plant communities of the north-western Caucasus. Changes in leaf traits are studied in four types of alpine plant communities after long term application of mineral nutrients (NP and lime treatment). It is shown that in all species, except legume Hedysarum caucasicum, fertilization results in size leaf characteristics (leaf area, wet and dry mass) increase. Specific leaf area appears to decrease in plants inhabiting alpine heathlands and increase in plants inhabiting alpine snow beds and in dominant species of Geranium-Hedysarum meadows, Geranium gymnocaulon. After correction of specific leaf area that accounts for changes in leaf size, it becomes discernable that in most species the increase in leaf area per se results in specific leaf area reduction while changes in leaf structure under influence of fertilization leads to this trait increasing. Those species demonstrating the increase in specific leaf area as an effect of fertilization, also gain more in terms of biomass. PMID:22121576

Akhmetzhanova, A A; Onipchenko, V G; Él'kanova, M Kh; Stogova, A V; Tekeev, D K

2011-01-01

189

BLENDS OF COMPOSTED BIOSOLIDS AND BOlTOM ASH AS POTTING MEDIA TO GROW ORNAMENTALS  

E-print Network

The experimental data con"ed that blending and class A biosolids and bottom ash fiom power plants produces material that meets the EPA's definition for an exceptional quality product and has properties suitable to grow ornamental plants. The tested blends had sufficient concentrations of major nutrients (NPK), low soluble salts content (EC), pH in range of 6.0 to 7.0, and the level of regulated metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) well below current environmental limits. These blends were successfbl in supporting growth of petunias, geraniums, marigolds in a research greenhouse as well as poinsettias under normal production conditions in a commercial greenhouse. Comparing to control plants geraniums, petunias, and marigolds grown in biosoliddash mixtures had darker leaves and showed no symptoms of nutrient deficiency. Besides looking healthier, marigolds grown in the tested blends produced much bigger biomass than the control. The poinsettia plants looked healthy, visually attractive, and were not significantly different fiom the plants grown in commercial mixes. Therefore, biosoliddash blends are at least as effective as commercial mixes in supporting plant growth. Cost estimates reveled that the bottom ashhiosolids blends are cheaper than the commercial potting mixes and they can offer extra savings to a greenhouse (nursery) operators by decreasing fertilizer requirements.

Dudka S; Das K. C; Miller W. P

190

Highly Specific Detection of Five Exotic Quarantine Plant Viruses using RT-PCR  

PubMed Central

To detect five plant viruses (Beet black scorch virus, Beet necrotic yellow vein virus, Eggplant mottled dwarf virus, Pelargonium zonate spot virus, and Rice yellow mottle virus) for quarantine purposes, we designed 15 RT-PCR primer sets. Primer design was based on the nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene, which is highly conserved within species. All but one primer set successfully amplified the targets, and gradient PCRs indicated that the optimal temperature for the 14 useful primer sets was 51.9°C. Some primer sets worked well regardless of annealing temperature while others required a very specific annealing temperature. A primer specificity test using plant total RNAs and cDNAs of other plant virus-infected samples demonstrated that the designed primer sets were highly specific and generated reproducible results. The newly developed RT-PCR primer sets would be useful for quarantine inspections aimed at preventing the entry of exotic plant viruses into Korea.

Choi, Hoseong; Cho, Won Kyong; Yu, Jisuk; Lee, Jong-Seung; Kim, Kook-Hyung

2013-01-01

191

Interspecific Variation in SO2 Flux 1  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to clarify the relationships among stomatal, residual, and epidermal conductances in determining the flux of SO2 air pollution to leaves. Variations in leaf SO2 and H2O vapor fluxes were determined using four plant species: Pisum sativum L. (garden pea), Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. flacca (mutant of tomato), Geranium carolinianum L. (wild geranium), and Diplacus aurantiacus (Curtis) Jeps. (a native California shrub). Fluxes were measured using the mass-balance approach during exposure to 4.56 micromoles per cubic meter (0.11 microliters per liter) SO2 for 2 hours in a controlled environmental chamber. Flux through adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces with closed stomata ranged from 1.9 to 9.4 nanomoles per square meter per second for SO2, and 0.3 to 1.3 millimoles per square meter per second for H2O vapor. Flux of SO2 into leaves through stomata ranged from ?0 to 8.5 (dark) and 3.8 to 16.0 (light) millimoles per square meter per second. Flux of H2O vapor from leaves through stomata ranged from ?0 to 0.6 (dark) to 0.4 to 0.9 (light) millimole per square meter per second. Lycopersicon had internal flux rates for both SO2 and H2O vapor over twice as high as for the other species. Stomatal conductance based on H2O vapor flux averaged from 0.07 to 0.13 mole per square meter per second among the four species. Internal conductance of SO2 as calculated from SO2 flux was from 0.04 mole per square meter per second lower to 0.06 mole per square meter per second higher than stomatal conductance. For Pisum, Geranium, and Diplacus stomatal conductance was the same or slightly higher than internal conductance, indicating that, in general, SO2 flux could be predicted from stomatal conductance for H2O vapor. However, for the Lycopersicon mutant, internal leaf conductance was much higher than stomatal conductance, indicating that factors inside leaves can play a significant role in determining SO2 flux. PMID:16664551

Olszyk, David M.; Tingey, David T.

1985-01-01

192

Interspecific Variation in SO(2) Flux : Leaf Surface versus Internal Flux, and Components of Leaf Conductance.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to clarify the relationships among stomatal, residual, and epidermal conductances in determining the flux of SO(2) air pollution to leaves. Variations in leaf SO(2) and H(2)O vapor fluxes were determined using four plant species: Pisum sativum L. (garden pea), Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. flacca (mutant of tomato), Geranium carolinianum L. (wild geranium), and Diplacus aurantiacus (Curtis) Jeps. (a native California shrub). Fluxes were measured using the mass-balance approach during exposure to 4.56 micromoles per cubic meter (0.11 microliters per liter) SO(2) for 2 hours in a controlled environmental chamber. Flux through adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces with closed stomata ranged from 1.9 to 9.4 nanomoles per square meter per second for SO(2), and 0.3 to 1.3 millimoles per square meter per second for H(2)O vapor. Flux of SO(2) into leaves through stomata ranged from approximately 0 to 8.5 (dark) and 3.8 to 16.0 (light) millimoles per square meter per second. Flux of H(2)O vapor from leaves through stomata ranged from approximately 0 to 0.6 (dark) to 0.4 to 0.9 (light) millimole per square meter per second. Lycopersicon had internal flux rates for both SO(2) and H(2)O vapor over twice as high as for the other species. Stomatal conductance based on H(2)O vapor flux averaged from 0.07 to 0.13 mole per square meter per second among the four species. Internal conductance of SO(2) as calculated from SO(2) flux was from 0.04 mole per square meter per second lower to 0.06 mole per square meter per second higher than stomatal conductance. For Pisum, Geranium, and Diplacus stomatal conductance was the same or slightly higher than internal conductance, indicating that, in general, SO(2) flux could be predicted from stomatal conductance for H(2)O vapor. However, for the Lycopersicon mutant, internal leaf conductance was much higher than stomatal conductance, indicating that factors inside leaves can play a significant role in determining SO(2) flux. PMID:16664551

Olszyk, D M; Tingey, D T

1985-12-01

193

Repelling properties of some plant materials on the tick Ixodes ricinus L.  

PubMed

The repellent effects on nymphal stages of Ixodes ricinus L. of some plant materials have been studied in the laboratory. The plant material consisted of an ethanolic extract from Achillea millefolium L., and volatile oils of birch and/or pine tar, citronella, cloves, eucalyptus, geranium, lavender, lily of the valley and peppermint. The most pronounced effects were observed for the oils of citronella, cloves and lily of the valley. They possessed repelling activities of the same magnitude as the reference repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide). Some major constituents of these oils, e.g. citronellol and geraniol (oil of citronella and lily of the valley) and eugenol (oil of cloves) showed pronounced repelling effects. This was also the case for phenethyl alcohol, a minor component in the oil from lily of the valley. PMID:16360943

Thorsell, W; Mikiver, A; Tunón, H

2006-01-01

194

Plant Information Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the University of Minnesota Libraries, Plant Information Online is intended for just about anyone with a green thumb, or those who want to get their thumbs a bit greener. Visitors to this fine database will find details on over 134,000 wild and cultivated plants, along with information on over 2200 North American retail and wholesale seed and nursery firms. From the homepage, visitors can search the plant database by scientific or common name, and they can also take a look at the search tips for a bit more guidance. Additionally, the site also contains links to selected websites that feature both images and more detailed regional data on thousands of plants. After locating plants of interest, some visitors may wish to browse through the nursery database for tips on locating the closest place for geraniums, hydrangeas, and other such forms of vegetation.

2007-01-01

195

Effect of oral imperatorin on memory in mice.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the effect of the acetylcholinesterase inhibiting mixture of extracts of Angelica archangelica fruit and Geranium sylvaticum on memory. Furthermore the effect of the main compound, the furanocoumarin imperatorin, which has been shown to affect several neurotransmitters, was studied. Passive avoidance was measured by step-down latency and step-through latency of 10 months old mice receiving 0.79 mg/kg of imperatorin daily, pure or as part of the extracts, for 14 days or longer. Step-down latency was significantly higher in both groups receiving imperatorin than in the control group. In contrast, no difference was found between treatment groups regarding step-through latency. The results indicate that the imperatorin is the main active component of the extract mixture. PMID:24140410

Sigurdsson, Steinthor; Gudbjarnason, Sigmundur

2013-11-15

196

Effects of sewage sludge and toxic metals upon vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal symbionts  

SciTech Connect

Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAMF) are common plant symbionts that increase the uptake of water, phosphate and other nutrients into their host plants. Enhanced uptake of ions could be detrimental to plants in sludge-amended soils. This study examined the role and response of VAMF in the uptake of toxic metals (Cu, Cd and Zn) common in sewage sludge. Examination of field-grown plants (after 5 years of sludge amendment) revealed that mycorrhizal colonization of Cirsium arvense and Barbarea vulgaris was not depressed. Greenhouse bioassays of VAMF colonization potential with corn and geranium produced similar results. Enumeration of VAMF spores revealed similar values in sludge-amended and unamended control plots. Colonization (both field and greenhouse observations) and spore numbers were lower in the urea-phosphate-amended plots compared to sludge-amended and control plots.

Arnold, P.T.

1987-01-01

197

Field evaluation of commercial repellents against the floodwater mosquito Psorophora columbiae (Diptera: Culicidae) in St. Johns County, Florida.  

PubMed

Three plant-based repellents-REPEL LEMON Eucalyptus Insect Repellent Lotion (active ingredient [AI] 30% oil of eucalyptus), Bite Blocker Xtreme Sportsman Organic Insect Repellent ([AI] 3% soybean oil, 6% geranium oil, and 8% castor oil), and Bite Blocker BioUD Insect Repellent ([AI] 7.75% 2-undecanone)--were evaluated against OFF! ([AI] 15% N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide or N,N-diethyl-3-methyl-benzamide, also called DEET) at a field site in Elkton, FL, to determine the mean protection time provided against Psorophora columbiae (Dyar & Knab). These products provided different protection times against biting Ps. columbiae. REPEL provided the longest protection time (330 min) followed by Bite Blocker Xtreme Sportsman (163 min), Bite Blocker BioUD (140 min), and OFF! (130 min). This study provides the first information about plant-based insect repellent protection times against Ps. columbiae. PMID:22238886

Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui-De; Holt, J Adam; Smith, Mike L; Moeller, Jeanne J

2011-11-01

198

Temperature-dependent alterations in host use drive rapid range expansion in a butterfly.  

PubMed

Responses of species to climate change are extremely variable, perhaps because of climate-related changes to interactions among species. We show that temperature-related changes in the dependence of the butterfly Aricia agestis on different larval host plants have facilitated rapid range expansion. Historically, the butterfly was largely restricted to a single plant species, Helianthemum nummularium, but recent warmer conditions have enabled the butterfly to increasingly use the more widespread plant species Geranium molle. This has resulted in a substantial increase in available habitat and rapid range expansion by the butterfly (79 kilometers northward in Britain in 20 years). Interactions among species are often seen as constraints on species' responses to climate change, but we show that temperature-dependent changes to interspecific interactions can also facilitate change. PMID:22628653

Pateman, Rachel M; Hill, Jane K; Roy, David B; Fox, Richard; Thomas, Chris D

2012-05-25

199

[Study of antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds from some species of Georgian flora].  

PubMed

The antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from different parts of Georgian flora species Hamamelis virginiana L., Astragalus caucasicus Pall., Astragalus microcephalus Willd., Vitis vinifera L., Rhododendron ponticum L., Rhododendron Ungernii Trautv., Ginkgo biloba L., Salvia officinalis L., Querqus iberica Stev., Maclura aurantiaca Nutt., Cotinus coggygria Ledeb., Fraxinus ornus L., Urtica dioica L., Rhododendron caucasicum Pall., Pueraria hirsuta Matsum., Geranium pusillum L., Astragalus Tanae Sosn., Pinus silvestris L. has been studied. Comparison with ethylentetraacetate and ?-tocopherole revealed high efficacy of all extracts studied. 45 individual phenolic compounds were isolated and described by chemical examination of biologically active objects. Common sage (Salvia officinalis) extract turned out as the most active (200 %). The chemical study revealed the dominant content of condensed tannins and low molecular phenolic compounds, which may be attributed to the high antioxidant activity. Biologically active antiatherosclerotic food additive "Salbin" was developed on the basis of Common sage - Salvia officinalis L. phenolic compounds. PMID:24099817

Alaniia, M; Shalashvili, K; Sagareishvili, T; Kavtaradze, N; Sutiashvili, M

2013-09-01

200

The foundation of extranuclear inheritance: plastid and mitochondrial genetics.  

PubMed

In 1909 two papers by Correns and by Baur published in volume 1 of Zeitschrift für induktive Abstammungs- und Vererbungslehre (now Molecular Genetics and Genomics) reported on the non-Mendelian inheritance of chlorophyll deficiencies. These papers, reporting the very first cases of extranuclear inheritance, laid the foundation for a new field: non-Mendelian or extranuclear genetics. Correns observed a purely maternal inheritance (in Mirabilis), whereas Baur found a biparental inheritance (in Pelargonium). Correns suspected the non-Mendelian factors in the cytoplasm, while Baur believed that the plastids carry these extranuclear factors. In the following years, Baur's hypothesis was proved to be correct. Baur subsequently developed the theory of plastid inheritance. In many genera the plastids are transmitted only uniparentally by the mother, while in a few genera there is a biparental plastid inheritance. Commonly there is random sorting of plastids during ontogenetic development. Renner and Schwemmle as well as geneticists in other countries added additional details to this theory. Pioneering studies on mitochondrial inheritance in yeast started in 1949 in the group of Ephrussi and Slonimski; respiration-deficient cells (petites in yeast, poky in Neurospora) were demonstrated to be due to mitochondrial mutations. Electron microscopical and biochemical studies (1962-1964) showed that plastids and mitochondria contain organelle-specific DNA molecules. These findings laid the molecular basis for the two branches of extranuclear inheritance: plastid and mitochondrial genetics. PMID:20140454

Hagemann, Rudolf

2010-03-01

201

Involvement of liver in diabetes mellitus: herbal remedies.  

PubMed

Liver disease is considered as one of the major complications in oxidative stress disorders like diabetes mellitus (DM). DM presents with deterioration in carbohydrate metabolism which is characterized with chronic hyperglycemia. The organ which involves in glucose or carbohydrate metabolism and is most likely to be affected is the liver. Deterioration in liver architecture and metabolism in DM, are considered as common findings. In the present review both biochemical and histological changes occurring in diabetic liver are conferred in detail. To counteract the oxidative stress disorders and its untoward complications, antioxidant or herbs have emerged as alternative medicine. The present review focuses on several herbs with antioxidant properties towards diabetic liver disease such as Liquorice, Pelargonium gravenolens, Momordica charantia, Propolis from bee hives, Dihar, Curcuma Longa, Tinospora cordifolia, Kangen-karyu, Parsley, Chard, Green tea Catechins and Piper sarmentosum (P.s). The herbs or the compounds present in herbs have potential to improve the liver metabolism and maintain the integrity of liver tissue in DM. The review also opens the door for effective use of herbal products for complications involved in the diabetic liver disease. PMID:25203338

Thent, Z C; Das, S

2014-01-01

202

A DNA Barcoding Approach to Characterize Pollen Collected by Honeybees  

PubMed Central

In the present study, we investigated DNA barcoding effectiveness to characterize honeybee pollen pellets, a food supplement largely used for human nutrition due to its therapeutic properties. We collected pollen pellets using modified beehives placed in three zones within an alpine protected area (Grigna Settentrionale Regional Park, Italy). A DNA barcoding reference database, including rbcL and trnH-psbA sequences from 693 plant species (104 sequenced in this study) was assembled. The database was used to identify pollen collected from the hives. Fifty-two plant species were identified at the molecular level. Results suggested rbcL alone could not distinguish among congeneric plants; however, psbA-trnH identified most of the pollen samples at the species level. Substantial variability in pollen composition was observed between the highest elevation locality (Alpe Moconodeno), characterized by arid grasslands and a rocky substrate, and the other two sites (Cornisella and Ortanella) at lower altitudes. Pollen from Ortanella and Cornisella showed the presence of typical deciduous forest species; however in samples collected at Ortanella, pollen of the invasive Lonicera japonica, and the ornamental Pelargonium x hortorum were observed. Our results indicated pollen composition was largely influenced by floristic local biodiversity, plant phenology, and the presence of alien flowering species. Therefore, pollen molecular characterization based on DNA barcoding might serve useful to beekeepers in obtaining honeybee products with specific nutritional or therapeutic characteristics desired by food market demands. PMID:25296114

Bruni, Ilaria; Scaccabarozzi, Daniela; Sandionigi, Anna; Barbuto, Michela; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Labra, Massimo

2014-01-01

203

Anti-Proteus activity of some South African medicinal plants: their potential for the prevention of rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

A wide variety of herbal remedies are used in traditional African medicine to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammation. Thirty-four extracts from 13 South African plant species with a history of ethnobotanical usage in the treatment of inflammation were investigated for their ability to control two microbial triggers for RA (Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris). Twenty-nine of the extracts (85.3 %) inhibited the growth of P. mirabilis and 23 of them tested (67.7 %) inhibited the growth of P. vulgaris. Methanol and water extracts of Carpobrotus edulis, Lippia javanica, Pelargonium viridflorum, Ptaeroxylon obliquum, Syzygium cordatum leaf and bark, Terminalia pruinoides, Terminalia sericea, Warburgia salutaris bark and an aqueous extract of W. salutaris leaf were effective Proteus inhibitors, with MIC values <2,000 ?g/ml. The most potent extracts were examined by Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography and UV-Vis spectroscopy for the presence of resveratrol. Only extracts from T. pruinoides and T. sericea contained resveratrol, indicating that it was not responsible for the anti-Proteus properties reported here. All extracts with Proteus inhibitory activity were also either non-toxic, or of low toxicity in the Artemia nauplii bioassay. The low toxicity of these extracts and their inhibitory bioactivity against Proteus spp. indicate their potential for blocking the onset of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:23877712

Cock, I E; van Vuuren, S F

2014-02-01

204

Adverse effects of herbal medicines: an overview of systematic reviews.  

PubMed

This overview of systematic reviews (SRs) aims to evaluate critically the evidence regarding the adverse effects of herbal medicines (HMs). Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant SRs, with 50 SRs of 50 different HMs meeting our inclusion criteria. Most had only minor weaknesses in methods. Serious adverse effects were noted only for four HMs: Herbae pulvis standardisatus, Larrea tridentate, Piper methysticum and Cassia senna. The most severe adverse effects were liver or kidney damage, colon perforation, carcinoma, coma and death. Moderately severe adverse effects were noted for 15 HMs: Pelargonium sidoides, Perna canaliculus, Aloe vera, Mentha piperita, Medicago sativa, Cimicifuga racemosa, Caulophyllum thalictroides, Serenoa repens, Taraxacum officinale, Camellia sinensis, Commifora mukul, Hoodia gordonii, Viscum album, Trifolium pratense and Stevia rebaudiana. Minor adverse effects were noted for 31 HMs: Thymus vulgaris, Lavandula angustifolia Miller, Boswellia serrata, Calendula officinalis, Harpagophytum procumbens, Panax ginseng, Vitex agnus-castus, Crataegus spp., Cinnamomum spp., Petasites hybridus, Agave americana, Hypericum perforatum, Echinacea spp., Silybum marianum, Capsicum spp., Genus phyllanthus, Ginkgo biloba, Valeriana officinalis, Hippocastanaceae, Melissa officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Cnicus benedictus, Salvia hispanica, Vaccinium myrtillus, Mentha spicata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Crocus sativus, Gymnema sylvestre, Morinda citrifolia and Curcuma longa. Most of the HMs evaluated in SRs were associated with only moderately severe or minor adverse effects. PMID:23472485

Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala K; Ernst, Edzard

2013-02-01

205

New uses for calcium chloride solution as a mounting medium.  

PubMed

Fresh cross sections of stems (Psilotum nudum, Coleus blumei, and Pelargonium peltatum) and roots (Setcreasea purpurea) 120 microns thick were fixed in FPA50 (formalin: propionic acid: 50% ethanol, 5:5:90, v/v) for 24 hr and stored in 70% ethanol. The sections were transferred to water and then to 1% phloroglucin in 20% calcium chloride solution plus either hydrochloric, nitric, or lactic acid in the following ratios of phloroglucin-CaCl2 solution:acid: 25:4, 20:2, or 15:5. The sections were mounted on slides either in one of the three mixtures or in fresh 20% calcium chloride solution. A rapid reaction of the acid-phloroglucin with lignin produced a deep red color in tracheary elements and an orange-red color in sclerenchyma. Fixed and stored leaf pieces from Nymphaea odorata were autoclaved in lactic acid, washed in two changes of 95% ethanol, transferred to water, and treated with the three acid-phloroglucin-calcium chloride mixtures. The abundant astrosclereids stained an orange-red color similar to that of sclerenchyma in the sections. In addition, a new method is reported for specifically staining lignified tissues. When sections or leaf pieces are stained in aqueous 0.05% toluidine blue O, then placed in 20% calcium chloride solution, all tissues destain except those with lignified or partially lignified cell walls. Thus, toluidine blue O applied as described becomes a reliable specific test for lignin comparable to the acid-phloroglucin test. PMID:1377501

Herr, J M

1992-01-01

206

The Levels of Male Gametic Mitochondrial DNA Are Highly Regulated in Angiosperms with Regard to Mitochondrial Inheritance[W  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms that regulate mitochondrial inheritance are not yet clear, even though it is 100 years since the first description of non-Mendelian genetics. Here, we quantified the copy numbers of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the gametic cells of angiosperm species. We demonstrate that each egg cell from Arabidopsis thaliana, Antirrhinum majus, and Nicotiana tabacum possesses 59.0, 42.7, and 73.0 copies of mtDNA on average, respectively. These values are equivalent to those in Arabidopsis mesophyll cells, at 61.7 copies per cell. On the other hand, sperm or generative cells from Arabidopsis, A. majus, and N. tabacum possess minor amounts of mtDNA, at 0.083, 0.47, and 1 copy on average, respectively. We further reveal a 50-fold degradation of mtDNA during pollen development in A. majus. In contrast, markedly high levels of mtDNA are found in the male gametic cells of Cucumis melo and Pelargonium zonale (1296.3 and 256.7 copies, respectively). Our results provide direct evidence for mitochondrial genomic insufficiency in the eggs and somatic cells and indicate that a male gamete of an angiosperm may possess mtDNA at concentrations as high as 21-fold (C. melo) or as low as 0.1% (Arabidopsis) of the levels in somatic cells. These observations reveal the existence of a strong regulatory system for the male gametic mtDNA levels in angiosperms with regard to mitochondrial inheritance. PMID:20605854

Wang, Dan-Yang; Zhang, Quan; Liu, Yang; Lin, Zhi-Fu; Zhang, Shao-Xiang; Sun, Meng-Xiang; Sodmergen

2010-01-01

207

Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extracts as reducing agents.  

PubMed

Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared using four different plant extracts as reducing and stabilizing agents. The extracts were obtained from the following plants: Salvia officinalis, Lippia citriodora, Pelargonium graveolens and Punica granatum. The size distributions of the GNPs were measured using three different methods: dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle-tracking analysis and analysis of scanning electron microscopy images. The three methods yielded similar size distributions. Biocompatibility was examined by correlation of L-cell growth in the presence of different amounts of GNPs. All GNPs showed good biocompatibility and good stability for over 3 weeks. Therefore, they can be used for imaging and drug-delivery applications in the human body. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to view the shapes of the larger GNPs, while infrared spectroscopy was employed to characterize the various functional groups in the organic layer that stabilize the particles. Finally, active ingredients in the plant extract that might be involved in the formation of GNPs are proposed, based on experiments with pure antioxidants that are known to exist in that plant. PMID:25187704

Elia, Paz; Zach, Raya; Hazan, Sharon; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Porat, Ze'ev; Zeiri, Yehuda

2014-01-01

208

The efficacy of essential oils as natural preservatives in vegetable oil.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The efforts for finding the natural preservatives with nontoxicity and nonirritancy have encouraged the scientists to research among the medicinal plants. The preservative efficacy of Daucus carota, Ferula gummosa, Eugenium caryophyllata, Oliveria decumbens, Pelargonium graveolens, Ziziphora tenuir, Acorus calamus, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils on challenge test's pathogens and on pathogen's inoculated vegetable oil was evaluated by antimicrobial effectiveness test. Carotol (46%), ?-pinene (62.7%), eugenol (78.4%), thymol (50.6%), cis-asarone (27.5%), thymol (50.1%), and ?-terpineol (19.5%) were the primary main components of D. carota, F. gummosa, E. caryophyllata, T. ammi, A. calamus, O. decumbens, and Z. tenuir essential oils, respectively. A. niger was more sensitive microorganism to oils. The antimicrobial activity of O. decumbens oil was the highest. Different concentrations of essential oils were added to the vegetable oil. The results of test on the vegetable oil showed that the combination of O. decumbens and P. graveolens oils (0.5:0.5%) had enough efficacies as natural preservative in vegetable oil. PMID:24552253

Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Kazempour, Nastaran; Mahboubi, Atefeh

2014-12-01

209

A preliminary investigation of anticholinesterase activity of some Iranian medicinal plants commonly used in traditional medicine  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some commonly used herbal medicine in Iran to introduce a new source for management of Alzheimer’s disease. A total of 18 aqueous-methanolic extract (1:1; v/v) from the following plants: Brassica alba, Brassica nigra, Camellia sinensis, Cinchona officinalis, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus x aurantium, Ferula assafoetida, Humulus lupulus, Juglans regia, Juniperus sabina, Myristica fragrans, Pelargonium graveolens, Pistacia vera, Punica granatum, Rheum officinale, Rosa damascena, Salix alba, and Zizyphus vulgaris were prepared and screened for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity using in vitro Ellman spectrophotometric method. Results According to the obtained results, the order of inhibitory activity (IC50 values, ?g /ml) of extracts from highest to the lowest was: C. sinensis (5.96), C. aurantifolia (19.57), Z. vulgaris (24.37), B. nigra (84.30) and R. damascena (93.1). Conclusions The results indicated and confirmed the traditional use of these herbs for management of central nervous system disorders. C. sinensis showed the highest activity in inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. However, further investigations on identification of active components in the extracts are needed. PMID:24401532

2014-01-01

210

Food protective effect of geraniol and its congeners against stored food mites.  

PubMed

The acaricidal activities of compounds derived from the oil of Pelargonium graveolens leaves against the storage food mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, were compared with the activity of a commercial acaricide, benzyl benzoate, in an impregnated fabric disk bioassay. Purification of the active constituent from P. graveolens was accomplished by silica gel chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Structural analysis of the active constituent by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C-NMR, 1H-13C shift correlated spectroscopy NMR, and distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer NMR identified trans-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol (geraniol). Based on the 50% lethal dose values, the most toxic compounds against T. putrescentiae were geraniol (1.95 microg/cm3), which was followed by nerol (2.21 microg/cm3), citral (9.65 microg/cm3), benzyl benzoate (11.27 microg/cm3), and beta-citronellol (15.86 microg/cm3). Our results suggest that geraniol is more effective in controlling T. putrescentiae than benzyl benzoate is. Furthermore, geraniol, which is used as a flavoring for beverages, candies, ice creams, and baked goods and congeners (citral and nerol), may be useful for managing populations of T. putrescentiae. PMID:19681271

Jeon, J H; Lee, C H; Lee, H S

2009-07-01

211

Apparent Resistivity and Estimated Interaction Potential of Surface Water and Groundwater along Selected Canals and Streams in the Elkhorn-Loup Model Study Area, North-Central Nebraska, 2006-07  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2005, the State of Nebraska adopted new legislation that in part requires local Natural Resources Districts to include the effect of groundwater use on surface-water systems in their groundwater management plan. In response the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Upper Elkhorn, Lower Elkhorn, Upper Loup, Lower Loup, Middle Niobrara, Lower Niobrara, Lewis and Clark, and Lower Platte North Natural Resources Districts, did a study during 2006-07 to investigate the surface-water and groundwater interaction within a 79,800-square-kilometer area in north-central Nebraska. To determine how streambed materials affect surface-water and groundwater interaction, surface geophysical and lithologic data were integrated at four sites to characterize the hydrogeologic conditions within the study area. Frequency-domain electromagnetic and waterborne direct- current resistivity profiles were collected to map the near-surface hydrogeologic conditions along sections of Ainsworth Canal near Ainsworth, Nebraska; Mirdan and Geranium Canals near Ord, Nebraska; North Loup River near Ord, Nebraska; and Middle Loup River near Thedford, Nebraska. Lithologic data were collected from test holes at each site to aid interpretation of the geophysical data. Geostatistical analysis incorporating the spatial variability of resistivity was used to account for the effect of lithologic heterogeneity on effective hydraulic permeability. The geostatistical analysis and lithologic data descriptions were used to make an interpretation of the hydrogeologic system and derive estimates of surface-water/groundwater interaction potential within the canals and streambeds. The estimated interaction potential at the Ainsworth Canal site and the Mirdan and Geranium Canal site is generally low to moderately low. The sediment textures at nearby test holes typically were silt and clay and fine-to-medium sand. The apparent resistivity values for these sites ranged from 2 to 120 ohm-meters. The vertical and horizontal variability of the apparent resistivity data were consistently low. Low resistive variability indicates little lithologic heterogeneity for either canal site. The surface-water/groundwater interaction-potential estimates are in agreement with the narrow frequency distribution of resistivity, low apparent resistivities, low spatial heterogeneity, and test-hole grain-size ranges. The estimated surface-water/groundwater interaction potential at the North Loup and Middle Loup River sites is moderate to moderately high. The sediment textures at nearby test holes were predominantly fine, medium, and coarse sand with some silt and silty to sandy clay. The apparent resistivity values for these sites ranged from 34 to 1,338 ohm-meters. The vertical variability of the resistivity data was moderately high. The horizontal variability at these sites is low to moderately low. The higher resistive variability at these sites indicates generally greater lithologic heterogeneity than at either the Ainsworth Canal site or the Mirdan and Geranium Canal site. The surface-water/groundwater interaction-potential estimates are in agreement with the generally moderate to high apparent resistivity, the greater spatial heterogeneity, and the variable lithologic texture. A higher interaction potential as compared to the canal sites is expected because of the higher subsurface resistivity and greater lithologic heterogeneity.

Teeple, Andrew P.; Vrabel, Joseph; Kress, Wade H.; Cannia, James C.

2009-01-01

212

Peril in the market-classification and dosage of species used as anti-diabetics in Lima, Peru  

PubMed Central

Background Peru is what Peruvian anthropologist Lupe Camino calls the “health axis” of the old Central Andean culture area stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. In particular in the North of the country the traditional use of medicinal dates back as far as the first millennium B.C. Both healers, and the wider population, often buy their medicinal plants in local markets, but there is very little comparative information available about which plants are sold under which vernacular name at any given time, for which indication, and which dosage information and information about side effects is given by vendors. For this study we used two traditionally used species groups “Hercampuri” Gentianella spec. (Gentianaceae) and “Pasuchaca” Geranium spec. (Geraniaceae.), found in the Mercado Aviación in Lima, as small, clearly circumscribed plant group frequently used to treat symptoms of diabetes as a test case to study the taxonomy, indications, dosage, indicated side effects, and additional species used as admixtures and hypothesized that: 1. A wide variety of different species is sold under the same common name, and often several common names exist for one species. 2. There is no consistency in the dosage, or a relationship between dosage and species marketed under one name. 3. However, there is consistency in the knowledge about usage and side effects. Methods Surveys focusing on medicinal plants sold and their properties were conducted at the Mercado Aviación in Lima in December 2012. Vouchers of all specimens were deposited at the National Herbarium of Peru. Results and conclusions Our surveys in Mercado Aviación in Lima yielded four species of Gentianella, two of Geranium, and three additional species from three genera used as common additives that were sold as anti-diabetic. These results indicate that even in case of only a few plant species, used for a very clearly circumscribed application, patients run a considerable risk when purchasing their remedies in the market. The possible side effects in this case are the more serious because diabetes has to be treated long term, and as such the patients are ingesting possible toxic remedies over a long period of time. Much more control, and a much more stringent identification of the material sold in public markets, and entering the global supply chain via internet sales, would be needed. PMID:23718140

2013-01-01

213

The mechanics of explosive dispersal and self-burial in the seeds of the filaree, Erodium cicutarium (Geraniaceae).  

PubMed

The filaree (Erodium cicutarium), a small, flowering plant related to geraniums, possesses a unique seed dispersal mechanism: the plant can fling its seeds up to half a meter away; and the seeds can bury themselves by drilling into the ground, twisting and untwisting in response to changes in humidity. These feats are accomplished using awns, helical bristles of dead but hygroscopically active tissue attached to the seeds. Here, we describe the kinematics of explosive dispersal and self-burial based on detailed high-speed and time-lapse videos. We use these observations to develop a simple mechanical model that accounts for the coiling behavior of the awn and allows comparison of the strain energy stored in the awn with the kinetic energy at launch. The model is used to examine tradeoffs between dispersal distance and reliability of the dispersal mechanism. The mechanical model may help in understanding the invasive potential of this species and provides a framework for examining other evolutionary tradeoffs in seed dispersal mechanisms among the Geraniaceae. PMID:21270299

Evangelista, Dennis; Hotton, Scott; Dumais, Jacques

2011-02-15

214

[Six-month follow-up of the effect of neomenor in patients with painful menstruation].  

PubMed

Neomenor is herbal medication especially created to permanently relieve painful menstruation symptoms in girls and women with primary dysmenorrhea. It supplies the organism with substances essential for the metabolic processes that guarantee normal menstrual cycles. In some women these substances are out of balance, there is an excess of prostaglandins, which leads to painful periods, menstrual cramps and even migraine. Each NEOMENOR tablet contains 400 mg of standardized extracts from stalks of: Astragalus glycypyhyllos (Wild liquorice), Erodium cicutarium (Redstem Stork's Bill) and Geranium sanguineum (Bloody Cranesbill). Their biologically active substances inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins and their secretion into the uterus, hence strong muscle contractions are reduced and menstrual cramps disappear. The aim of this short study is to gain personal impressions about the action of the preparation. We have tested 35 girls and women with middle-age--18.74 on (14-28 years) with menarche--average at 12.8, suffering of primary dysmenorrhea. We have watched following factors: degree of dysmenorrhea, duration of complaints, habitus, gynecological and mental status, used painkillers. As a result of three months treatment 63% of the patients with III-d and 37% with II-nd grade of dysmenorrhea transformed in 42% with II-nd and 45% with I-st grade of dysmenorrhea. Only in 4 patients (11%) therapy was without success. The monitoring continues. PMID:21695945

Sirakov, M; Karamisheva, V; Ivanov, St

2011-01-01

215

Influence of relative humidity on direct sulfur dioxide damage to plant sexual reproduction  

SciTech Connect

Results of in vivo experiments with Geranium carolinianum L. showed that sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) damaged sexual reproduction (in terms of decreased seed set) when relative humdity (RH) was 80% or above but not when RH was 70% or below. Relative humidity alone, if 80% or higher, damaged sexual reproduction; the addition of SO/sub 2/ increased the damage. A high SO/sub 2/ dosage of 1.5 ppM/7 hours at 50% RH caused leaf injury, but decreased percent seed set <5%, whereas a low SO/sub 2/ dosage of 0.2 ppM/7 hours at 90% RH decreased percent seed set by 32% without visible leaf injury. At an SO/sub 2/ dosage of 0.4 ppM/7 hours administered during anthesis, percent seed set was virtually identical with the control at 70% RH, 35% below the control at 80% RH, and 68% below the control at 90% RH.

Murdy, W.H.; Ragsdale, H.L.

1980-07-01

216

Population differentiation for plasticity to light in an annual herb: Adaptation and cost.  

PubMed

Phenotypic plasticity allows plants to cope with environmental heterogeneity. Environmental variation among populations may select for differentiation in plasticity. To test this idea, we used the annual plant Geranium carolinianum, which inhabits old fields that are densely vegetated and lack canopy cover and wood margins with tree shade but less neighbor shade. Individuals from three populations of each habitat were planted in natural low and high light environments, and morphological traits important for light acquisition were measured. Old-field plants were more plastic, with greater elongation of petioles and internodes in low light than those from wood margins. This larger shade avoidance response suggests evolution of greater plasticity to neighbor shade than to the tree canopy. Fitness of old-field plants was high across both light environments, whereas fitness of wood-margin plants was reduced in low light. Selection favored longer internodes in low than high light. Finally, plasticity for internode length was negatively associated with fitness in high light, suggesting a cost of plasticity for this trait. Together these results indicate that shade-avoidance plasticity of petiole and internode length is adaptive. However, greater elongation of internode length may be constrained by the cost of plasticity expressed in high light. The evolution of plasticity appears to reflect a balance between its adaptive nature and its cost to fitness. PMID:21632315

Bell, Daniela L; Galloway, Laura F

2008-01-01

217

Are plants grown under low visible irradiance sensitive to low levels of ultraviolet-B radiation?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical question in ultraviolet-B radiation research is how different portions of the solar spectrum influence plant UV B sensitivity. Field-grown plants show only subtle responses to supplemental UV-B radiation in many aspects of growth, yet plants grown under low visible light (as in most growth chambers and greenhouses) show much more discernible changes. Here we assess a specific aspect of UV-B sensitivity in plants grown under lower PAR: when one maintains a constant proportion of UV-B to PAR, but different absolute irradiance levels, does plant sensitivity to UV-B change? We conducted field experiments at near-ambient PAR and enhanced UV-B, and also with reduced irradiance in both wavebands, on three species. Each of these species occurs in both open and shaded habitats. We found the grass Setaria viridis sensitive to UV-B radiation only when grown at lower irradiances, while the forb Geranium viscosissimum was only sensitive to UV-B at the higher irradiances. In the grass Elymus glaucus, UV-B sensitivity did not appear to be influenced by the irradiance levels. Species appear to respond differently to these changes in irradiance levels, and an array of physiological and anatomical mechanisms are likely involved.

Flint, Stephan D.; Caldwell, Martyn M.; Ryel, Ron J.

2005-08-01

218

Efficacy of plant extracts and oils as mosquito repellents.  

PubMed

Some natural products, extract of Achillea millefolium (yarrow), birch/pine tar-, citronella-, clove-, eucalyptus-, geranium-, lavender-, lily of the valley- and peppermint oils have been tested for repellency in the laboratory against Aedes aegypti and in the field predominantly against Aedes communis and A. cinereus. The laboratory tests showed that yarrow extract exhibited a similar repellency as the reference substances N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide and N,N-diethyl-mandelic acid amide. A good repelling effect was also obtained with the oils of birch/pine tar and eucalyptus. The field tests revealed that the extracts and oils with good activity against Aedes aegypti also were effective against A. communis and A. cinereus. Furthermore oils of citronella and lily of the valley showed similar activity and were comparable with the used reference substances mentioned. Each of these natural products contained a great number of constituents when characterized by chromatography/mass spectrometry. Available data in the literature were gathered, both regarding mosquito repellency and toxicity for humans and larger animals, for each product as well as its major constituents. PMID:23195905

Thorsell, W; Mikiver, A; Malander, I; Tunón, H

1998-08-01

219

Laser-assisted biosynthesis for noble nanoparticles production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extracellular Biosynthesis technique (EBS) for nanoparticles production has attracted a lot of attention as an environmentally friendly and an inexpensive methodology. Our recent research was focused on the rapid approach of the green synthesis method and the reduction of the homogeneous size distribution of nanoparticles using pulse laser application. Noble nanoparticles (NNPs) were produced using various ethanol and water plant extracts. The plants were chosen based on their biomedical applications. The plants we used were Magnolia grandiflora, Geranium, Aloe `tingtinkie', Aloe barbadensis (Aloe Vera), Eucalyptus angophoroides, Sansevieria trifasciata, Impatiens scapiflora. Water and ethanol extract, were used as reducing agents to produce the nanoparticles. The reaction process was monitored using a UV-Visible spectroscopy. NNPs were characterized by Fourier Transfer Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and the Dynamic Light Scattering technique (DLS). During the pulse laser Nd-YAG illumination (?=1064nm, 532nm, PE= 450mJ, 200mJ, 10 min) the blue shift of the surface plasmon resonance absorption peak was observed from ~424nm to 403nm for silver NP; and from ~530nm to 520 nm for gold NPs. In addition, NNPs solution after Nd-YAG illumination was characterized by the narrowing of the surface plasmon absorption resonance band, which corresponds to monodispersed NNPS distribution. FTIR, TEM, DLS, Zeta potential results demonstrated that NNPs were surrounded by biological molecules, which naturally stabilized nanosolutions for months. Cytotoxicity investigation of biosynthesized NNPs is in progress.

Kukhtarev, Tatiana; Edwards, Vernessa; Kukhtareva, Nickolai; Moses, Sherita

2014-08-01

220

A comprehensive review of vaginitis phytotherapy.  

PubMed

To overview phytotherapy of vaginitis in order to identify new approaches for new pharmacological treatments. All related literature databases were searched for herbal medicinal treatment in vaginitis. The search terms were plant, herb, herbal therapy, phytotherapy, vaginitis, vaginal, anti-candida, anti-bacterial and anti-trichomonas. All of the human, animal and in vitro studies were included. Anti-candida, anti-bacterial and anti-trichomonas effects were the key outcomes. The plants including carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, menthol, terpinen-4-ol and thymol exhibited anti-candida effects. A very low concentration of geranium oil and geraniol blocked mycelial growth, but not yeast. Tea tree oil including terpinen-4-ol, alpha-terpinene, gamma-terpinene and alpha-terpineol showed anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-protozoal properties against trichomonas. Allium hirtifolium (persian shallot) comparable to metronidazole exhibited anti-trichomonas activity due to its components such as allicin, ajoene and other organosulfides. The plants having beneficial effects on vaginitis encompass essential oils that clear the pathway that future studies should be focused to standardize theses herbs. PMID:22514885

Azimi, Hanieh; Fallah-Tafti, Mehrnaz; Karimi-Darmiyan, Maliheh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

2011-11-01

221

Dried leaves from rocky mountain plants decrease infestation by stored-product beetles.  

PubMed

Leaves of two highly aromatic plants,Artemisia tridentata (Nutt.) andMonarda fistulosa L., prepared according to a patented process, inhibited oviposition by the Mexican bean weevil,Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman), in beans at concentrations less than 1% w/w. Both plant species were less effective against the rice weevil,Sitophilus oryzae L., in wheat, with onlyM. fistulosa exhibiting any concentration-dependent activity. The maximal control achieved against this species was less than 50% at 3% w/w. Two less aromatic plant species,Balsamorhiza sagittata (Pursh.) Nutt. andGeranium viscosissimum Fisch. and Mey., caused only low levels of inhibition against both insect species. Volatiles probably caused the response toA. tridentata andM. fistulosa, while the asymptotic concentration dependence for the less volatile plant material was likely caused by behavioral factors related to the physical presence of foreign particulate matter in the foodstuff. Chemical analysis indicated that most of the volatile components from the dried leaf material from all species were terpenoids, with camphor (9.7 mg/g) and 1,8-cineole (4.0 mg/g) being most abundant inA. tridentata and carvacrol (26.3 mg/g) being most abundant inM. fistulosa. PMID:24234015

Weaver, D K; Phillips, T W; Dunkel, F V; Weaver, T; Grubb, R T; Nance, E L

1995-02-01

222

Evaluation of the effects of plant-derived essential oils on central nervous system function using discrete shuttle-type conditioned avoidance response in mice.  

PubMed

Although plant-derived essential oils (EOs) have been used to treat various mental disorders, their central nervous system (CNS) acting effects have not been clarified. The present study compared the effects of 20 kinds of EOs with the effects of already-known CNS acting drugs to examine whether the EOs exhibited CNS stimulant-like effects, CNS depressant-like effects, or neither. All agents were tested using a discrete shuttle-type conditioned avoidance task in mice. Essential oils of peppermint and chamomile exhibited CNS stimulant-like effects; that is, they increased the response rate (number of shuttlings/min) of the avoidance response. Linden also increased the response rate, however, the effect was not dose-dependent. In contrast, EOs of orange, grapefruit, and cypress exhibited CNS depressant-like effects; that is, they decreased the response rate of the avoidance response. Essential oils of eucalyptus and rose decreased the avoidance rate (number of avoidance responses/number of avoidance trials) without affecting the response rate, indicating that they may exhibit some CNS acting effects. Essential oils of 12 other plants, including juniper, patchouli, geranium, jasmine, clary sage, neroli, lavender, lemon, ylang-ylang, niaouli, vetivert and frankincense had no effect on the avoidance response in mice. PMID:22086772

Umezu, Toyoshi

2012-06-01

223

Evaluation of vetiver oil and seven insect-active essential oils against the Formosan subterranean termite.  

PubMed

Repellency and toxicity of 8 essential oils (vetiver grass, cassia leaf, clove bud, cedarwood, Eucalyptus globules, Eucalyptus citrodora, lemongrass and geranium) were evaluated against the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Vetiver oil proved the most effective repellent because of its long-lasting activity. Clove bud was the most toxic, killing 100% of termites in 2 days at 50 micrograms/cm2. The tunneling response of termites to vetiver oil also was examined. Vetiver oil decreased termite tunneling activity at concentrations as low as 5 micrograms/g sand. Tunneling and paper consumption were not observed when vetiver oil concentrations were higher than 25 micrograms/g sand. Bioactivity of the 8 oils against termites and chemical volatility were inversely associated. Listed in decreasing order of volatility, the major constituents of the 8 oils were: eucalyptol, citronellal, citral, citronellol, cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, thujopsene, and both alpha- and beta-vetivone. Vetivor oil is a promising novel termiticide with reduced environmental impact for use against subterranean termites. PMID:11521400

Zhu, B C; Henderson, G; Chen, F; Fei, H; Laine, R A

2001-08-01

224

Aromatherapy Massage Affects Menopausal Symptoms in Korean Climacteric Women: A Pilot-Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight times in total). The experimental group reported a significantly lower total menopausal index than wait-listed controls (P < 0.05). There were also significant intergroup differences in subcategories such as vasomotor, melancholia, arthralgia and myalgia (all P < 0.05). These findings suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, depression and pain in climacteric women. However, it could not be verified whether the positive effects were from the aromatherapy, the massage or both. Further rigorous studies should be done with more objective measures. PMID:18830459

Hur, Myung-Haeng; Yang, Yun Seok

2008-01-01

225

Influence of the chemical structure on odor qualities and odor thresholds in homologous series of alka-1,5-dien-3-ones, alk-1-en-3-ones, alka-1,5-dien-3-ols, and alk-1-en-3-ols.  

PubMed

Odor qualities and odor thresholds in air in homologous series of synthesized alk-1-en-3-ols and alka-1,5-dien-3-ols and their corresponding ketones were evaluated by gas chromatography-olfactometry. In the series of the alk-1-en-3-ols and alk-1-en-3-ones the odor quality changed successively from pungent for the compounds with five carbon atoms via metallic, vegetable-like for the six- and seven-carbon odorants to mushroom-like for the compounds with eight and nine carbon atoms. With further increase in chain length the mushroom-like impression decreased and changed to citrus-like, soapy, or herb-like. In both series, two odor threshold minima were found for the six-carbon and also for the eight- and nine-carbon odorants, respectively. In contrast to this, the odor qualities in the series of the (Z)- and (E)-alka-1,5-dien-3-ols and their corresponding ketones did not change significantly with geranium-like, metallic odors and an increasing mushroom-like odor note with increasing chain length. The lowest thresholds were found for the eight- and nine-carbon (Z)-compounds, respectively. PMID:24456405

Lorber, Katja; Schieberle, Peter; Buettner, Andrea

2014-02-01

226

A method for quantifying rotational symmetry.  

PubMed

Here, a new approach for quantifying rotational symmetry based on vector analysis was described and compared with information obtained from a geometric morphometric analysis and a technique based on distance alone. A new method was developed that generates a polygon from the length and angle data of a structure and then quantifies the minimum change necessary to convert that polygon into a regular polygon. This technique yielded an asymmetry score (s) that can range from 0 (perfect symmetry) to 1 (complete asymmetry). Using digital images of Geranium robertianum flowers, this new method was compared with a technique based on lengths alone and with established geometric morphometric methods used to quantify shape variation. Asymmetry scores (s) more clearly described variation in symmetry and were more consistent with a visual assessment of the images than either comparative technique. This procedure is the first to quantify the asymmetry of radial structures accurately, uses easily obtainable measures to calculate the asymmetry score and allows comparisons among individuals and species, even when the comparisons involve structures with different patterns of symmetry. This technique enables the rigorous analysis of polysymmetric structures and provides a foundation for a better understanding of symmetry in nature. PMID:17688593

Frey, Frank M; Robertson, Aaron; Bukoski, Michael

2007-01-01

227

Phytotoxic effect, uptake, and transformation of biochanin A in selected weed species.  

PubMed

Certain isoflavones are plant growth inhibitors, and biochanin A is a major isoflavone in clover species used for weed management. The effect of biochanin A on the monocot weed species Echinochloa crus-galli L. and Lolium perenne L. and dicot species Silene noctiflora L., Geranium molle L., and Amaranthus caudatus L. was evaluated in agar medium bioassays. S. noctiflora and G. molle root growth was progressively inhibited with increasing concentrations of biochanin A, whereas the monocot species were unaffected. With regard to the dicot species, S. noctiflora (EC(50) = 35.80 ?M and EC(25) = 5.20 ?M) was more susceptible than G. molle (EC(50), EC(25) > 400 ?M). S. noctiflora, G. molle, and E. crus-galli root and shoot samples, representing a susceptible, a less susceptible, and a nonsusceptible species, respectively, were analyzed by LC-MS to quantify biochanin A and its transformation products. Biochanin A and its known transformation products genistein, dihydrobiochanin A, pratensein, and p-coumaric acid were quantified. Sissotrin was identified and quantified while assigning unknown peaks. The treated root samples contained more biochanin A, genistein, pratensein, and dihydrobiochanin A than shoot samples. PMID:23030687

Shajib, Md Tariqul Islam; Pedersen, Hans Albert; Mortensen, Anne Garfield; Kudsk, Per; Fomsgaard, Inge S

2012-10-31

228

Plant extracts with anti-inflammatory properties--a new approach for characterization of their bioactive compounds and establishment of structure-antioxidant activity relationships.  

PubMed

Geranium robertianum L. (Geraniacea) and Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. (Rubiaceae) plant extracts, frequently used in traditional medicine for treatment of inflammatory and cancer diseases, were studied to identify potential bioactive compounds that may justify their therapeutic use and their underlying mechanisms of action. Since some of the pharmacological properties of these plant extracts may be linked to their antioxidant potential, the antioxidant activity, in relation to free radical scavenging, was measured by the ABTS/HRP and DPPH() assays, presenting U. tomentosa the higher activity. The antioxidant activity was also evaluated by scavenging of HOCl, the major strong oxidant produced by neutrophils and a potent pro-inflammatory agent. U. tomentosa was found to be a better protector against HOCl, which may justify its effectiveness against inflammatory diseases. SPE/LC-DAD was used for separation/purification purposes and ESI-MS/MS for identification/characterization of the major non-volatile components, mainly flavonoids and phenolic acids. The ESI-MS/MS methodology proposed can be used as a model procedure for identification/characterization of unknowns without the prerequisite for standard compounds analysis. The ESI-MS/MS data obtained were consistent with the antioxidant activity results and structure-activity relationships for the compounds identified were discussed. PMID:19201196

Amaral, Sónia; Mira, Lurdes; Nogueira, J M F; da Silva, Alda Pereira; Helena Florêncio, M

2009-03-01

229

Screening of Crude Plant Extracts with Anti-Obesity Activity  

E-print Network

Abstract: Obesity is a global health problem. It is also known to be a risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders, type 2 diabetes, systemic hypertension, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis. In this study, we screened crude extracts from 400 plants to test their anti-obesity activity using porcine pancreatic lipase assay (PPL; triacylglycerol lipase, EC 3.1.1.3) in vitro activity. Among the 400 plants species examined, 44 extracts from plants, showed high anti-lipase activity using 2,4-dinitrophenylbutyrate as a substrate in porcine pancreatic lipase assay. Furthermore, 44 plant extracts were investigated for their inhibition of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Among these 44 extracts examined, crude extracts from 4 natural plant species were active. Salicis Radicis Cortex had the highest fat inhibitory activity, whereas Rubi Fructus, Corni Fructus, and Geranium nepalense exhibited fat inhibitory capacity higher than 30% at 100 ?g/mL in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting anti-obesity activity. These results suggest that four potent plant extracts might be of therapeutic interest with respect to the treatment of obesity.

Changhyun Roh; Uhee Jung

2012-01-01

230

Bioindication of heavy metals with aquatic macrophytes: the case of a stream polluted with power plant sewages in Poland.  

PubMed

The Kozi Brod (left tributary of the Biala Przemsza, east of Katowice) flows in a highly industrial coal-mining area dominated by the power plant of Siersza. Concentrations of the microelements nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), barium (Ba), aluminum (Al), vanadium (V), and strontium (Sr), as well as the macronutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and sulfur (S), were measured in water and plants of the Kozi Brod. The collected plants were: Myosotis palustris L. Nathorst, Galium palustre L., Mentha rotundifolia L. Huds., Mentha aquatica L., Berula erecta (Huds.) Coville, Cardamine amara L., Epilobium angustifolium L., Geranium palustre L., Lysimachia vulgaris L., Crepis paludosa L. Much., Calitriche verna L., Solanum dulcamara L., and the aquatic moss Hygrohypnum ochraceum (Turn.) Loesk. These plants were used to evaluate the spatial distribution of elements in the Kozi Brod and contained elevated levels of Co, Cd, Zn, Ni, Mn, Al, Pb, and Cu. Significant correlations between concentrations of Cd, Zn, and Mn in water and plants indicate the potential of these species for pollution monitoring. PMID:11205536

Samecka-Cymerman, A; Kempers, A J

2001-01-12

231

Biological and molecular characterization of a novel carmovirus isolated from angelonia.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT A new carmovirus was isolated from Angelonia plants (Angelonia angustifolia), with flower break and mild foliar symptoms, grown in the United States and Israel. The virus, for which the name Angelonia flower break virus (AnFBV) is proposed, has isometric particles, approximately 30 nm in diameter. The experimental host range was limited to Nicotiana species, Schizanthus pinnatus, Myosotis sylvatica, Phlox drummondii, and Digitalis purpurea. Virions were isolated from systemically infected N. benthamiana leaves, and directly from naturally infected Angelonia leaves, using typical carmovirus protocols. Koch's postulates were completed by mechanical inoculation of uninfected Angelonia seedlings with purified virions. Isometric particles were observed in leaf dips and virion preparations from both Angelonia and N. benthamiana, and in thin sections of Angelonia flower tissue by electron microscopy. In sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of dissociated purified virus preparations, a major protein component with a molecular mass of 38 kDa was observed. Virion preparations were used to produce virus-specific polyclonal antisera in both Israel and the United States. The antisera did not react with Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV), Carnation mottle virus (CarMV), or Saguaro cactus virus (SgCV) by either enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or immunoblotting. In reciprocal tests, antisera against PFBV, CarMV, and SgCV reacted only with the homologous viruses. The complete nucleotide sequence of a Florida isolate of AnFBV and the coat protein (CP) gene sequences of Israeli and Maryland isolates were determined. The genomic RNA is 3,964 nucleotides and contains four open reading frames arranged in a manner typical of carmoviruses. The AnFBV CP is most closely related to PFBV, whereas the AnFBV replicase is most closely related to PFBV, CarMV, and SgCV. Particle morphology, serological properties, genome organization, and phylogenetic analysis are all consistent with assignment of AnFBV to the genus Carmovirus. PMID:18944305

Adkins, Scott; Hammond, John; Gera, Abed; Maroon-Lango, Clarissa J; Sobolev, Irena; Harness, Andrea; Zeidan, Mohammad; Spiegel, Sara

2006-05-01

232

Activated charcoal-mediated RNA extraction method for Azadirachta indica and plants highly rich in polyphenolics, polysaccharides and other complex secondary compounds  

PubMed Central

Background High quality RNA is a primary requisite for numerous molecular biological applications but is difficult to isolate from several plants rich in polysaccharides, polyphenolics and other secondary metabolites. These compounds either bind with nucleic acids or often co-precipitate at the final step and many times cannot be removed by conventional methods and kits. Addition of vinyl-pyrollidone polymers in extraction buffer efficiently removes polyphenolics to some extent, but, it failed in case of Azadirachta indica and several other medicinal and aromatic plants. Findings Here we report the use of adsorption property of activated charcoal (0.03%–0.1%) in RNA isolation procedures to remove complex secondary metabolites and polyphenolics to yield good quality RNA from Azadirachta indica. We tested and validated our modified RNA isolation method across 21 different plants including Andrographis paniculata, Aloe vera, Rosa damascena, Pelargonium graveolens, Phyllanthus amarus etc. from 13 other different families, many of which are considered as tough system for isolating RNA. The A260/280 ratio of the extracted RNA ranged between 1.8-2.0 and distinct 28S and 18S ribosomal RNA bands were observed in denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis. Analysis using Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer revealed intact total RNA yield with very good RNA Integrity Number. Conclusions The RNA isolated by our modified method was found to be of high quality and amenable for sensitive downstream molecular applications like subtractive library construction and RT-PCR. This modified RNA isolation procedure would aid and accelerate the biotechnological studies in complex medicinal and aromatic plants which are extremely rich in secondary metabolic compounds. PMID:23537338

2013-01-01

233

Allergic sensitization to ornamental plants in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma.  

PubMed

Ornamental plants (OPs) can lead to immediate-type sensitization and even asthma and rhinitis symptoms in some cases. This study aimed to evaluate sensitization to OPs in patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and to determine the factors affecting the rate of sensitization to OPs. A total of 150 patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Demographics and disease characteristics were recorded. Skin-prick tests were performed with a standardized inhalant allergen panel. Skin tests by "prick-to-prick" method with the leaves of 15 Ops, which are known to lead to allergenic sensitization, were performed. Skin tests with OPs were positive in 80 patients (47.1%). There was no significant difference between OP sensitized and nonsensitized patients in terms of gender, age, number of exposed OPs, and duration of exposure. Skin test positivity rate for OPs was significantly high in atopic subjects, patients with allergic rhinitis, food sensitivity, and indoor OP exposure, but not in patients with pollen and latex allergy. Most sensitizing OPs were Yucca elephantipes (52.5%), Dieffenbachia picta (50.8%), and Euphorbia pulcherrima (47.5%). There was significant correlation between having Saintpaulia ionantha, Croton, Pelargonium, Y. elephantipes, and positive skin test to these plants. Sensitivity to OPs was significantly higher in atopic subjects and patients with allergic rhinitis, food allergy, and indoor OP exposure. Furthermore, atopy and food sensitivity were found as risk factors for developing sensitization to indoor plants. Additional trials on the relationship between sensitization to OPs and allergic symptoms are needed. PMID:24717779

Aydin, Ömür; Erkekol, Ferda Öner; Misirloigil, Zeynep; Demirel, Yavuz Selim; Mungan, Dil?ad

2014-01-01

234

Impact of fertilizing pattern on the biodiversity of a weed community and wheat growth.  

PubMed

Weeding and fertilization are important farming practices. Integrated weed management should protect or improve the biodiversity of farmland weed communities for a better ecological environment with not only increased crop yield, but also reduced use of herbicides. This study hypothesized that appropriate fertilization would benefit both crop growth and the biodiversity of farmland weed communities. To study the effects of different fertilizing patterns on the biodiversity of a farmland weed community and their adaptive mechanisms, indices of species diversity and responses of weed species and wheat were investigated in a 17-year field trial with a winter wheat-soybean rotation. This long term field trial includes six fertilizing treatments with different N, P and K application rates. The results indicated that wheat and the four prevalent weed species (Galium aparine, Vicia sativa, Veronica persica and Geranium carolinianum) showed different responses to fertilizer treatment in terms of density, plant height, shoot biomass, and nutrient accumulations. Each individual weed population exhibited its own adaptive mechanisms, such as increased internode length for growth advantages and increased light interception. The PK treatment had higher density, shoot biomass, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou Indices of weed community than N plus P fertilizer treatments. The N1/2PK treatment showed the same weed species number as the PK treatment. It also showed higher Shannon-Wiener and Pielou Indices of the weed community, although it had a lower wheat yield than the NPK treatment. The negative effects of the N1/2PK treatment on wheat yield could be balanced by the simultaneous positive effects on weed communities, which are intermediate in terms of the effects on wheat and weeds. PMID:24416223

Tang, Leilei; Cheng, Chuanpeng; Wan, Kaiyuan; Li, Ruhai; Wang, Daozhong; Tao, Yong; Pan, Junfeng; Xie, Juan; Chen, Fang

2014-01-01

235

Impact of Fertilizing Pattern on the Biodiversity of a Weed Community and Wheat Growth  

PubMed Central

Weeding and fertilization are important farming practices. Integrated weed management should protect or improve the biodiversity of farmland weed communities for a better ecological environment with not only increased crop yield, but also reduced use of herbicides. This study hypothesized that appropriate fertilization would benefit both crop growth and the biodiversity of farmland weed communities. To study the effects of different fertilizing patterns on the biodiversity of a farmland weed community and their adaptive mechanisms, indices of species diversity and responses of weed species and wheat were investigated in a 17-year field trial with a winter wheat-soybean rotation. This long term field trial includes six fertilizing treatments with different N, P and K application rates. The results indicated that wheat and the four prevalent weed species (Galium aparine, Vicia sativa, Veronica persica and Geranium carolinianum) showed different responses to fertilizer treatment in terms of density, plant height, shoot biomass, and nutrient accumulations. Each individual weed population exhibited its own adaptive mechanisms, such as increased internode length for growth advantages and increased light interception. The PK treatment had higher density, shoot biomass, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou Indices of weed community than N plus P fertilizer treatments. The N1/2PK treatment showed the same weed species number as the PK treatment. It also showed higher Shannon-Wiener and Pielou Indices of the weed community, although it had a lower wheat yield than the NPK treatment. The negative effects of the N1/2PK treatment on wheat yield could be balanced by the simultaneous positive effects on weed communities, which are intermediate in terms of the effects on wheat and weeds. PMID:24416223

Tang, Leilei; Cheng, Chuanpeng; Wan, Kaiyuan; Li, Ruhai; Wang, Daozhong; Tao, Yong; Pan, Junfeng; Xie, Juan; Chen, Fang

2014-01-01

236

The autumn effect: timing of physical dormancy break in seeds of two winter annual species of Geraniaceae by a stepwise process  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The involvement of two steps in the physical dormancy (PY)-breaking process previously has been demonstrated in seeds of Fabaceae and Convolvulaceae. Even though there is a claim for a moisture-controlled stepwise PY-breaking in some species of Geraniaceae, no study has evaluated the role of temperature in the PY-breaking process in this family. The aim of this study was to determine whether a temperature-controlled stepwise PY-breaking process occurs in seeds of the winter annuals Geranium carolinianum and G. dissectum. Methods Seeds of G. carolinianum and G. dissectum were stored under different temperature regimes to test the effect of storage temperature on PY-break. The role of temperature and moisture regimes in regulating PY-break was investigated by treatments simulating natural conditions. Greenhouse (non-heated) experiments on seed germination and burial experiments (outdoors) were carried out to determine the PY-breaking behaviour in the natural habitat. Key Results Irrespective of moisture conditions, sensitivity to the PY-breaking step in seeds of G. carolinianum was induced at temperatures ?20 °C, and exposure to temperatures ?20 °C made the sensitive seeds permeable. Sensitivity of seeds increased with time. In G. dissectum, PY-break occurred at temperatures ?20 °C in a single step under constant wet or dry conditions and in two steps under alternate wet–dry conditions if seeds were initially kept wet. Conclusions Timing of seed germination with the onset of autumn can be explained by PY-breaking processes involving (a) two temperature-dependent steps in G. carolinianum and (b) one or two moisture-dependent step(s) along with the inability to germinate under high temperatures in G. dissectum. Geraniaceae is the third of 18 families with PY in which a two-step PY-breaking process has been demonstrated. PMID:22684684

Gama-Arachchige, N. S.; Baskin, J. M.; Geneve, R. L.; Baskin, C. C.

2012-01-01

237

Repellency to Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) of plant essential oils alone or in combination with Calophyllum inophyllum nut oil.  

PubMed

The repellency to female Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) of 21 essential oils (EOs) alone or in combination with Calophyllum inophyllum L. (Clusiaceae) nut oil (tamanu oil) was examined using an exposed human hand bioassay. Results were compared with those of commonly used repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). In tests with six human male volunteers at a dose of 0.5 mg/cm2, patchouli (protection time [PT], 3.67 h) was the most effective EO but less active than DEET (4.47 h), as judged by the PT to first bite. Very strong repellency also was produced by clove bud, lovage root, and clove leaf EOs (PT, 3.50-3.25 h), whereas strong repellency was obtained from thyme white EO (2.12 h). Thyme red, oregano, and geranium EOs exhibited moderate repellency (PT, 1.24-1.11 h). At 0.25 mg/cm2, protection time of clove bud, clove leaf, and lovage root EOs (PT, approximately equal to 1 h) was shorter than that of DEET (2.17 h). An increase in the protection time was produced by binary mixtures (PT, 2.68-2.04 h) of five EOs (clove bud, clove leaf, thyme white, patchouli, and savory) and tamanu oil (0.25:2.0 mg/cm2) compared with that of either the constituted essential oil or tamanu oil alone (PT, 0.56 h). The protection time of these binary mixtures was comparable with that of DEET. With the exception of savory EO, the other EOs, tamanu oil, and binary mixtures did not induce any adverse effects on the human volunteers at 0.5 mg/cm2. Thus, binary mixtures of essential oils and tamanu oil described merit further study as potential repellents for protection from humans and domestic animals from biting and nuisance caused by S. calcitrans. PMID:20695272

Hieu, Tran Trung; Kim, Soon-Il; Lee, Sang-Guei; Ahn, Young-Joon

2010-07-01

238

Phytosociological study of the dwarf shrub heath of Simeonof Wilderness, Shumagin Islands, Southwestern Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The maritime dwarf shrub heath vegetation of the Northern Pacific, Simeonof Island, Shumagin Islands, Southwestern Alaska, was studied according to the Braun-Blanquet approach. Based on 30 releve??s of 16 m2 that include vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens, two new associations could be described belonging to the class Loiseleurio-Vaccinietea (order Rhododendro-Vaccinietalia): Rubo-Empetretum nigri and Carici-Empetretum nigri. The wind-sheltered Rubo-Empetretum nigri (alliance Phyllodoco-Vaccinion) mainly occurs in the lowlands on level terrain or sloping sites at lower foot slopes of mountains on deeper, mesic soil; this association is the zonal vegetation of the lowlands. Boreal, widespread and amphi-Beringian species are prominent in the distribution-type spectrum of the vascular plants. Two variants of Rubo-Empetretum nigri are described. A Geranium erianthum variant occurs on south-facing slopes and is rich in vascular plants species. A Plagiothecium undulatum variant is restricted to northern exposures and is rich in bryophytes and lichens. A Carici-Empetretum nigri (alliance Loiseleurio-Diapension) occurs on shallow soil on wind exposed sites at higher elevations in the mountains. It is very rich in lichen species of arctic-alpine distribution. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) suggests that altitude, nutrient content of the soil and exposition are the most important differential ecological factors. Soil depth, total carbon and nitrogen content, plant available phosphorus and all other measured cation contents are higher in Rubo-Empetretum than in Carici-Empetretum. Literature comparisons confirm the occurrence of both associations in other areas on the Southwest Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands. Presumably both associations have an amphi-Beringian distribution. The syntaxonomy of boreal-montane dwarf shrub heaths and synecological aspects are briefly discussed. ?? 2004 Gebru??der Borntraeger.

Daniels, F.J.A.; Talbot, S.S.; Looman, Talbot S.; Schofield, W.B.

2004-01-01

239

Reversible inhibition of three important human liver cytochrome p450 enzymes by tiliroside.  

PubMed

Tiliroside, an active flavonoid extensively found in many medicinal plants including Helichrysum italicum, Geranium mexicanum and Helianthemum glomeratum, has been demonstrated to exert multiple biological effects including antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant and antitumor activities. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes play an important role in the Phase I oxidation metabolism of a wide range of xenobiotics and inhibition of CYP isoforms might influence the elimination of drugs and induce serious adverse drug response. The inhibition of seven CYP isoforms (CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2C8 and CYP2E1) by tiliroside was investigated using in vitro human liver microsomal incubation assays. The results showed that tiliroside strongly inhibited the activity of CYP3A4 (IC(50) = 9.0 ± 1.7 ?m), CYP2C8 (IC(50) = 12.1 ± 0.9 ?m) and CYP2C9 (IC(50) = 10.2 ± 0.9 ?m) with other CYP isoforms negligibly influenced. Further kinetic analysis showed that inhibition of these three CYP isoforms by tiliroside is best fit to a competitive way. The K(i) value was calculated to be 5.5 ?m, 3.3 ?m, 9.4 ?m for CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C8, respectively. The relatively low K(i) values suggested that tiliroside might induce drug-drug interactions with many clinically used drugs which are mainly metabolized by these three CYP isoforms. Therefore, attention should be given to the probable drug-drug interaction between tiliroside-containing herbs and substrates of CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C8. PMID:21031626

Sun, Dong-Xue; Lu, Jin-Cai; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Cao, Yun-Feng; Mao, Yu-Xi; Zhu, Liang-Liang; Yin, Jun; Yang, Ling

2010-11-01

240

Free radical scavenging action of medicinal herbs from Mongolia.  

PubMed

In the present study we evaluated the free radical scavenging action of some medicinal herbs growing in Mongolia. The aqueous extract of nine herbs Chamenerion angustifolium (Ch.ang), Equisetum arvense (Eq.arv), Gentiana decumbens (Gn.dec), Geranium pratense (Gr.pra), Lomatogonium carinthiacum (L.car), Nonea poulla (N.pl), Phodococcum vitis-idaea (Ph.v), Sphallerocarpus gracilis (Sph.gr), Stellera chamaejasme (St.cha) were used in the present experiment. The free radical scavenging action was determined in vitro and ex vivo by using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer and chemiluminescence (CL) analyzer. The results showed that extracts of Ch.ang, Gn.dec, Gr.pra, L.car, N.pl, Ph.v, Sph.gr and St. cha possess strong scavenging action of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. On the other hand, the radical scavenging action of Eq.arv was low. Extracts of N.pl and Ph.v markedly inhibited the CL generated from rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450 system whereas the CL was moderately inhibited by Eq.arv, Gn.dec, Gr.pra, L.car and St.cha. The extracts of Ch.ang and Sph.gr did not decrease the CL generation. Ch.ang, Gr.pra, L.car, N.pl, Ph.v and St.cha also depressed reactive oxygen production from polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated by phorbol-12-myristate acetate ex vivo. Thus it was confirmed that the medicinal herbs from Mongolia possess high antioxidant potency in vitro and ex vivo. PMID:11185733

Myagmar, B E; Aniya, Y

2000-06-01

241

An Ethnobotanical study of Medicinal Plants in high mountainous region of Chail valley (District Swat- Pakistan)  

PubMed Central

Background This paper represents the first ethnobotanical study in Chail valley of district Swat-Pakistan and provides significant information on medicinal plants use among the tribal people of the area. The aim of this study was to document the medicinal uses of local plants and to develop an ethnobotanical inventory of the species diversity. Methods In present study, semi-structured interviews with 142 inhabitants (age range between 31–75 years) were conducted. Ethnobotanical data was analyzed using relative frequency of citation (RFC) to determine the well-known and most useful species in the area. Results Current research work reports total of 50 plant species belonging to 48 genera of 35 families from Chail valley. Origanum vulgare, Geranium wallichianum and Skimmia laureola have the highest values of relative frequency of citation (RFC) and are widely known by the inhabitants of the valley. The majority of the documented plants were herbs (58%) followed by shrubs (28%), trees (12%) and then climbers (2%). The part of the plant most frequently used was the leaves (33%) followed by roots (17%), fruits (14%), whole plant (12%), rhizomes (9%), stems (6%), barks (5%) and seeds (4%). Decoction was the most common preparation method use in herbal recipes. The most frequently treated diseases in the valley were urinary disorders, skin infections, digestive disorders, asthma, jaundice, angina, chronic dysentery and diarrhea. Conclusion This study contributes an ethnobotanical inventory of medicinal plants with their frequency of citations together with the part used, disease treated and methods of application among the tribal communities of Chail valley. The present survey has documented from this valley considerable indigenous knowledge about the local medicinal plants for treating number of common diseases that is ready to be further investigated for biological, pharmacological and toxicological screening. This study also provides some socio-economic aspects which are associated to the local tribal communities. PMID:24739524

2014-01-01

242

Sensitive and specific detection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. pelargonii with DNA primers and probes identified by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis.  

PubMed Central

The random amplified polymorphic DNA method was used to distinguish strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. pelargonii from 21 other Xanthomonas species and/or pathovars. Among the 42 arbitrarily chosen primers evaluated, 3 were found to reveal diagnostic polymorphisms when purified DNAs from compared strains were amplified by the PCR. The three primers revealed DNA amplification patterns which were conserved among all 53 strains tested of X. campestris pv. pelargonii isolated from various locations worldwide. The distinctive X. compestris pv. pelargonii patterns were clearly different from those obtained with any of 46 other Xanthomonas strains tested. An amplified 1.2-kb DNA fragment, apparently unique to X. campestris pv. pelargonii by these random amplified polymorphic DNA tests, was cloned and evaluated as a diagnostic DNA probe. It hybridized with total DNA from all 53 X. campestris pv. pelargonii strains tested and not with any of the 46 other Xanthomonas strains tested. The DNA sequence of the terminal ends of this 1.2-kb fragment was obtained and used to design a pair of 18-mer oligonucleotide primers specific for X. campestris pv. pelargonii. The custom-synthesized primers amplified the same 1.2-kb DNA fragment from all 53 X. campestris pv. pelargonii strains tested and failed to amplify DNA from any of the 46 other Xanthomonas strains tested. DNA isolated from saprophytes associated with the geranium plant also did not produce amplified DNA with these primers. The sensitivity of the PCR assay using the custom-synthesized primers was between 10 and 50 cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:7993095

Manulis, S; Valinsky, L; Lichter, A; Gabriel, D W

1994-01-01

243

The acceptability of meadow plants to the slug Deroceras reticulatum and implications for grassland restoration  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Despite the selective pressure slugs may exert on seedling recruitment there is a lack of information in this context within grassland restoration studies. Selective grazing is influenced by interspecific differences in acceptability. As part of a larger study of how slug–seedling interactions may influence upland hay meadow restoration, an assessment of relative acceptability is made for seedlings of meadow plants to the slug, Deroceras reticulatum. Methods Slug feeding damage to seedling monocultures of 23 meadow species and Brassica napus was assessed in microcosms over 14 d. The severity and rate of damage incurred by each plant species was analysed with a generalized additive mixed model. Plant species were then ranked for their relative acceptability. Key Results Interspecific variation in relative acceptability suggested seedlings of meadow species form a hierarchy of acceptability to D. reticulatum. The four most acceptable species were Achillea millefolium and the grasses Holcus lanatus, Poa trivialis and Festuca rubra. Trifolium pratense was acceptable to D. reticulatum and was the second highest ranking forb species. The most unacceptable species were mainly forbs associated with the target grassland, and included Geranium sylvaticum, Rumex acetosa, Leontodon hispidus and the grass Anthoxanthum odoratum. A strong positive correlation was found for mean cumulative feeding damage and cumulative seedling mortality at day 14. Conclusions Highly unacceptable species to D. reticulatum are unlikely to be selectively grazed by slugs during the seedling recruitment phase, and were predominantly target restoration species. Seedlings of highly acceptable species may be less likely to survive slug herbivory and contribute to seedling recruitment at restoration sites. Selective slug herbivory, influenced by acceptability, may influence community-level processes if seedling recruitment and establishment of key functional species, such as T. pratense is reduced. PMID:23632124

Barlow, Sarah E.; Close, Andrew J.; Port, Gordon R.

2013-01-01

244

The ecological aspect of ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology of population in Bosnia and Herzegovina.  

PubMed

This paper contains first systematical revision of the results on traditional use of wild medicinal and aromatic herbs on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H)--west of Balkan Peninsula; Southeast of Europe. There have been detected 227 plants belonging to 71 different plant families, which are being used with ethno therapeutic purpose. Results were obtained by method of open ethno botanical interview which comprised 150 persons, whose average age was 63. Medicinal plants in ethno therapy are being used either in fresh, raw or dried condition. Different herbal parts, depending on period of vegetation season, sometimes even in winter, are basis for preparation of infusions (59%), decoct (19%), tinctures (4%). Especially original are balms known as Bosnian "mehlems", which are fresh cuted herbal parts mixed with lukewarm resin, raw cow butter or honey. In ethno therapy are mostly being used aerial plant organs. Majority of herbs is being used for treatment of illnesses of respiratory (22%), gastrointestinal (19%) and urinary and genital system (9%), for treatment of skin conditions (11%), as well as for nervous system and heart diseases (16%). The most original plants on the field of ethno pharmacology, comparing with ethno therapy practice of other regions, are as follows: Ballota nigra, Aesculus hippocastanum, Calluna vulgaris, Centaurea cyanus, Euphrasia rostkoviana, Geranium robertianum, Gentiana asclepiadea, Helichrysum italicum, Lycopodium clavatum, Marrubium vulgare, Nepeta cataria, Populus tremula, Ruta graveolens, Tamus communis, Teucrium montanum, T. chamaedrys, and endemic plants Gentiana lutea subsp. symphyandra, Teucrium arduini, Micromeria thymifolia, Satureja montana, S. subspicata, Rhamnus fallax and Viola elegantula. There haven't been noticed significant differences in the frequencies of medicinal plants use among different ethnical groups. But, it has been perceived that longer ethno therapeutic tradition possess inhabitants of sub- and Mediterranean areas, as well as inhabitants of the mountain areas of B&H, regardless their ethnicity. PMID:18041402

Redzi?, Sulejman S

2007-09-01

245

Evaluation of commercial products for personal protection against mosquitoes.  

PubMed

Human landing catch studies were conducted in a semi-field setting to determine the efficacy of seven commercial products used for personal protection against mosquitoes. Experiments were conducted in two empty, insecticide free, mesh-enclosed greenhouses, in Israel, with either 1500 Aedes albopictus or 1500 Culex pipiens released on consecutive study nights. The products tested in this study were the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ Mosquito Repellent (Metofluthrin 31.2%) and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick Mosquito Repeller (Cinnamon oil 10.5%; Eugenol 13%; Geranium oil 21%; Peppermint 5.3%; Lemongrass oil 2.6%), which are personal diffusers; Super Band™ Wristband (22% Citronella oil) and the PIC(®) Citronella Plus Wristband (Geraniol 15%; Lemongrass oil 5%, Citronella oil 1%); the Sonic Insect Repeller Keychain; the Mosquito Guard Patch (Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus 80mg), an adhesive-backed sticker for use on textiles; and the Mosquito Patch (vitamin B1 300mg), a transdermal patch. It was determined that the sticker, transdermal patch, wristbands and sonic device did not provide significant protection to volunteers compared with the mosquito attack rate on control volunteers who were not wearing a repellent device. The personal diffusers: - OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick - provided superior protection compared with all other devices in this study. These diffusers reduced biting on the arms of volunteers by 96.28% and 95.26% respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 94.94% and 92.15% respectively, for Cx. pipiens. In a second trial conducted to compare these devices directly, biting was reduced by the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) by 87.55% and 92.83%, respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 97.22% and 94.14%, respectively, for Cx. pipiens. There was no significant difference between the performances of the two diffusers for each species. PMID:23092689

Revay, Edita E; Junnila, Amy; Xue, Rui-De; Kline, Daniel L; Bernier, Ulrich R; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Qualls, Whitney A; Ghattas, Nina; Müller, Günter C

2013-02-01

246

Enzymatic profile, adhesive and invasive properties of Candida albicans under the influence of selected plant essential oils.  

PubMed

The influence of essential oils (EOs) used at sublethal level, on the presence and intensity of Candida albicans virulence factors was evaluated. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Lemon balm, Citronella, Geranium and Clove oils were established as 0.097% (v/v). Using the agar plates with substrates for proteases, phospholipases and hemolysins it was shown that C. albicans ATCC 10231 and C. albicans ATCC 90028 strains differed in the type and amount of enzymes produced. No significant difference in their total amount could be detected after pretreatment for 24 h with EOs at ½ MIC. However, the short-term (1 h) acting oils at MIC caused a statistically significant reduction in this activity. In the API ZYM test it was demonstrated that both strains exhibited activity of the same 9 out of 19 enzyme types and that EOs caused a significant decrease in the release of some of them. In the presence of subMIC of EOs, or when the fungus had previously been exposed to the MIC of oil, germ tubes formation was significantly and irreversibly reduced. Such C. albicans spotted on the Spider agar containing EOs at subMICs were unable to penetrate the agar. A significant decrease in the C. albicans adhesion to the fibroblast monolayer with respect to controls was also demonstrated when yeasts had been exposed to EOs at MIC (1 h) in liquid medium. Thus, it has been shown that tested oils, used even at subMIC, exhibit significant activity reducing the presence/quantity of important C. albicans virulence factors. PMID:24644554

Budzy?ska, Aleksandra; Sadowska, Beata; Wi?ckowska-Szakiel, Marzena; Ró?alska, Barbara

2014-01-01

247

In vitro screening of forty medicinal plant extracts from the United States Northern Great Plains for anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus.  

PubMed

An egg hatch assay (EHA) and a larval migration assay (LMA) involving Haemonchus contortus was used to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of methanol extracts from 40 plants that are native or naturalized within the U.S.A. Northern Great Plains. Only one of these 40 plants (i.e. Lotus corniculatus) had been previously evaluated for activity against any gastrointestinal nematode. The various extracts were initially screened at 50mg/ml diluted either in 0.5% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) or 3-(N-morpholino) propanesulfonic acid (MOPS buffer), and plants showing 100% inhibition at 50mg/ml, were further evaluated at 8 other concentrations (25-0.19 mg/ml). Extracts with 100% activity with the EHA were again screened with the LMA (50mg/ml). Two extracts with the highest LMA inhibition were also evaluated at lower concentrations (25-3.1mg/ml). Of the 40 methanolic extracts screened, 7 (Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus, Ericameria nauseosa, Liatris punctata, Melilotus alba, Melilotus officinalis, Perideridia gairdneri, and Sanguinaria canadensis) showed significant egg-hatch inhibition in DMSO and MOPS buffer. Three extracts (Geranium viscosissimum, L. corniculatus, and Rhus aromatica) only showed significant inhibition in DMSO. The 8 extracts showing 100% efficacy at 50mg/ml exhibited dose-dependent effects at the 8 lower concentrations, and R. aromatica and E. nauseosa extracts had the lowest ED50 values. Similarly, when these 8 plant extracts were further evaluated with the LMA, the extracts of E. nauseosa and R. aromatica again exhibited the highest activity (p<0.001), with ED50 values of 4.0mg/ml and 10.43 mg/ml respectively. Three other extracts (C. viscidiflorus, M. alba and M. officinalis) also showed inhibitory activity in the LMA. These results support the need for additional evaluations of the nematocidal properties for at least these 5 plants. PMID:24548703

Acharya, Jyotsna; Hildreth, Michael B; Reese, R Neil

2014-03-17

248

Subsurface Examination of a Foliar Biofilm Using Scanning Electron- and Focused-Ion-Beam Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The dual beam scanning electron microscope, equipped with both a focused ion- and scanning electron- beam (FIB SEM) is a novel tool for the exploration of the subsurface structure of biological tissues. The FIB can remove a predetermined amount of material from a selected site to allow for subsurface exploration and when coupled with SEM or scanning ion- beam microscopy (SIM) could be suitable to examine the subsurface structure of bacterial biofilms on the leaf surface. The suitability of chemical and cryofixation was examined for use with the FIB SEM to examine bacterial biofilms on leaf surfaces. The biological control agent, Burkholderia pyroccinia FP62, that rapidly colonizes the leaf surface and forms biofilms, was inoculated onto geranium leaves and incubated in a greenhouse for 7 or 14 days. Cryofixation was not suitable for examination of leaf biofilms because it created a frozen layer over the leaf surface that cracked when exposed to the electron beam and the protective cap required for FIB milling could not be accurately deposited. With chemically fixed samples, it was possible to precisely FIB mill a single cross section (5 µm) or sequential cross sections from a single site without any damage to the surrounding surface. Biofilms, 7 days post-inoculation (DPI), were composed of 2 to 5 bacterial cell layers while biofilms 14 DPI ranged from 5 to greater than 30 cell layers. Empty spaces between bacteria cells in the subsurface structure were observed in biofilms 7- and 14-DPI. Sequential cross sections inferred that the empty spaces were often continuous between FP62 cells and could possibly make up a network of channels throughout the biofilm. FIB SEM was a useful tool to observe the subsurface composition of a foliar biofilm.

Wallace, Patricia K.; Arey, Bruce W.; Mahaffee, Walt F.

2011-08-01

249

Differential costs of reproduction in females and hermaphrodites in a gynodioecious plant  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Plants exhibit a variety of reproductive systems where unisexual (females or males) morphs coexist with hermaphrodites. The maintenance of dimorphic and polymorphic reproductive systems may be problematic. For example, to coexist with hermaphrodites the females of gynodioecious species have to compensate for the lack of male function. In our study species, Geranium sylvaticum, a perennial gynodioecious herb, the relative seed fitness advantage of females varies significantly between years within populations as well as among populations. Differences in reproductive investment between females and hermaphrodites may lead to differences in future survival, growth and reproductive success, i.e. to differential costs of reproduction. Since females of this species produce more seeds, higher costs of reproduction in females than in hermaphrodites were expected. Due to the higher costs of reproduction, the yearly variation in reproductive output of females might be more pronounced than that of hermaphrodites. Methods Using supplemental hand-pollination of females and hermaphrodites of G. sylvaticum we examined if increased reproductive output leads to differential costs of reproduction in terms of survival, probability of flowering, and seed production in the following year. Key Results Experimentally increased reproductive output had differential effects on the reproduction of females and hermaphrodites. In hermaphrodites, the probability of flowering decreased significantly in the following year, whereas in females the costs were expressed in terms of decreased future seed production. Conclusions When combining the probability of flowering and seed production per plant to estimate the multiplicative change in fitness, female plants showed a 56 % and hermaphrodites showed a 39 % decrease in fitness due to experimentally increased reproduction. Therefore, in total, female plants seem to be more sensitive to the cost of reproduction in terms of seed fitness than hermaphrodites. PMID:22419762

Toivonen, Eija; Mutikainen, Pia

2012-01-01

250

Application of variable-number tandem-repeat typing to discriminate Ralstonia solanacearum strains associated with English watercourses and disease outbreaks.  

PubMed

Variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis was used for high-resolution discrimination among Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype IIB sequevar 1 (PIIB-1) isolates and further evaluated for use in source tracing. Five tandem-repeat-containing loci (comprising six tandem repeats) discriminated 17 different VNTR profiles among 75 isolates from potato, geranium, bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara), tomato, and the environment. R. solanacearum isolates from crops at three unrelated outbreak sites where river water had been used for irrigation had distinct VNTR profiles that were shared with PIIB-1 isolates from infected bittersweet growing upriver of each site. The VNTR profiling results supported the implication that the source of R. solanacearum at each outbreak was contaminated river water. Analysis of 51 isolates from bittersweet growing in river water at different locations provided a means to evaluate the technique for studying the epidemiology of the pathogen in the environment. Ten different VNTR profiles were identified among bittersweet PIIB-1 isolates from the River Thames. Repeated findings of contiguous river stretches that produced isolates that shared single VNTR profiles supported the hypothesis that the pathogen had disseminated from infected bittersweet plants located upriver. VNTR profiles shared between bittersweet isolates from two widely separated Thames tributaries (River Ray and River Colne) suggested they were independently contaminated with the same clonal type. Some bittersweet isolates had VNTR profiles that were shared with potato isolates collected outside the United Kingdom. It was concluded that VNTR profiling could contribute to further understanding of R. solanacearum epidemiology and assist in control of future disease outbreaks. PMID:23892739

Parkinson, Neil; Bryant, Ruth; Bew, Janice; Conyers, Christine; Stones, Robert; Alcock, Michael; Elphinstone, John

2013-10-01

251

Application of Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing To Discriminate Ralstonia solanacearum Strains Associated with English Watercourses and Disease Outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis was used for high-resolution discrimination among Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype IIB sequevar 1 (PIIB-1) isolates and further evaluated for use in source tracing. Five tandem-repeat-containing loci (comprising six tandem repeats) discriminated 17 different VNTR profiles among 75 isolates from potato, geranium, bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara), tomato, and the environment. R. solanacearum isolates from crops at three unrelated outbreak sites where river water had been used for irrigation had distinct VNTR profiles that were shared with PIIB-1 isolates from infected bittersweet growing upriver of each site. The VNTR profiling results supported the implication that the source of R. solanacearum at each outbreak was contaminated river water. Analysis of 51 isolates from bittersweet growing in river water at different locations provided a means to evaluate the technique for studying the epidemiology of the pathogen in the environment. Ten different VNTR profiles were identified among bittersweet PIIB-1 isolates from the River Thames. Repeated findings of contiguous river stretches that produced isolates that shared single VNTR profiles supported the hypothesis that the pathogen had disseminated from infected bittersweet plants located upriver. VNTR profiles shared between bittersweet isolates from two widely separated Thames tributaries (River Ray and River Colne) suggested they were independently contaminated with the same clonal type. Some bittersweet isolates had VNTR profiles that were shared with potato isolates collected outside the United Kingdom. It was concluded that VNTR profiling could contribute to further understanding of R. solanacearum epidemiology and assist in control of future disease outbreaks. PMID:23892739

Bryant, Ruth; Bew, Janice; Conyers, Christine; Stones, Robert; Alcock, Michael; Elphinstone, John

2013-01-01

252

Fumigant insecticidal activity and repellent effect of five essential oils and seven monoterpenes on first-instar nymphs of Rhodnius prolixus.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the fumigant and repellent activity of five essential oils (from eucalyptus, geranium, lavender, mint, and orange oil) and seven monoterpenes (eucalyptol, geraniol, limonene, linalool, menthone, linalyl acetate, and menthyl acetate) on first-instar nymphs of the bloodsucking bug Rhodnius prolixus Stahl (vector of Chagas disease in several Latin American countries). Fumigant activity was evaluated by exposing the nymphs to the vapors emitted by 100 microl of essential oil or monoterpene in a closed recipient. The knockdown time 50% (KT50) for eucalyptus essential oil was 215.6 min (seven times less toxic than dichlorvos, a volatile organophosphorus insecticide used as a positive control). The remaining essential oils showed a poor fumigant activity: < 50% of nymphs were knocked down after 540 min of exposure. The KT50 values for monoterpenes, expressed in minutes, were as follows: 117.2 (eucalyptol), 408.7 (linalool), 474.0 (menthone), and 484.2 (limonene). Eucalyptol was 3.5 times less toxic than dichlorvos. No affected nymphs were observed after 540 min of exposure to geraniol, linalyl acetate, or menthyl acetate. Repellency was quantified using a video tracking system. Two concentrations of essential oils or monoterpenes were studied (40 and 400 microg/cm2). Only mint and lavender essential oils produced a light repellent effect at 400 microg/cm2. Geraniol and menthyl acetate produced a repellent effect at both tested concentrations and menthone only elicited an effect at 400 microg/cm2. In all cases, the repellent effect was lesser than that produced by the broad-spectrum insect repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). PMID:19496421

Sfara, V; Zerba, E N; Alzogaray, Raúl A

2009-05-01

253

Where are you sucking from? Using Stable Isotopes to understand Host Specificity in two Hemiparasitic plants above the tree line in Northern Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By Alejandro Macias, Erik Hobbie, Ruth Varner, Kaitlyn Steele Hemiparasites are known to suck nutrients from nearby plants but their host specificity is not well understood. Hemiparasites are ecosystem engineers, limiting surrounding plant's growth, and decreasing local biodiversity. To better understand this phenomenon, the host specificities of two hemiparasitic angiosperms, Bartsia alpina , and Pedicularis lapponica were studied above the tree line along an elevational gradient in Sweden. B. alpina specialized in wetter environments, as indicated by their higher ?13C signature, and their growth among Salixsp.Betula nana, Bistorta vivipara, Viola biflora, Geranium sp., and Trollious europaeus. P. lapponica was common in drier, less species rich environments, known as heaths, where B. nana, Empetrum negrum, Phyllodoce coeruela, Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea are the most common species. P. lapponica had higher foliage ?13C due to its better water-use efficiency in a dry environment. Field survey data and ?N15 values of both the foliage of the parasitic plants and their potential hosts were used to determine host specificity. Since the ?N15 value of the hemiparasitic plant and its host are similar due to parasitism, it was determined that P. lapponica had a preference for plants with an ericoid mycorrhizal association, such as Vaccinium sp, and E. negrum, but not for the common P. coeruela. This does not support the idea found in the literature that P. lapponica has a preference for grasses. B. alpina was less host specific, associating with non-mycorrhizal, ericoid, and ectomycorhizal plants, such as Carex sp, Vaccinium sp., and S. lapponum. The ectomycorrhizal species, Salix sp., and B. nana, were both potential hosts for B. alpina and P. lapponica due to their presence among them. However, the isotopic data revealed that B. alpina had a preference for Salix sp., and P. lapponica had a preference for B. nana.

Macias Sevde, A. S.

2012-12-01

254

Evaluation of molecular chaperons Hsp72 and neuropeptide Y as characteristic markers of adaptogenic activity of plant extracts.  

PubMed

We have previously demonstrated that ADAPT-232, a fixed combination of adaptogenic substances derived from Eleutherococcus senticosus root extract, Schisandra chinensis berry extract, Rhodiola rosea root extract stimulated the expression and release of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and molecular chaperone Hsp72 from isolated human neurolgia cells. Both of these mediators of stress response are known to play an important role in regulation of neuroendocrine system and immune response. We further demonstrated that ADAPT-232 induced release of Hsp70 is mediated by NPY, suggesting an existence of NPY-mediated pathway of activation of Hsp72 release into the blood circulation system. The objective of this study was to determine whether this pathway is common for adaptogens and whether NPY and/or Hsp72 can be considered as necessary specific biomarkers for adaptogenic activity. The release of NPY and Hsp72 from neuroglia cells in response to treatment with various plant extracts (n=23) including selected validated adaptogens, partly validated adaptogens, claimed but negligibly validated adaptogens and some other plant extracts affecting neuroendocrine and immune systems but never considered as adaptogens was measured using high throughput ELISA techniques. We demonstrated that adaptogens, e.g. R. rosea, S. chinensis and E. senticosus stimulate both NPY and Hsp70 release from neuroblastoma cells, while tonics and stimulants have no significant effect on NPY in this in vitro test. In the groups of partly validated adaptogens the effect of Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera was not statistically significant both on NPY and Hsp70 release, while the activating effect of Bryonia alba and Rhaponticum cartamoides was significant only on Hsp70. In contrast, all tested non-adaptogens, such as antiinflammatoty plant extracts Matricaria recutita, Pelargonium sidoides, Hedera helix and Vitis vinifera significantly inhibit Hsp70 release and have no influence on NPY release from neuroblastoma cells. These experiments were further validated using primary human neurons and confirmed that adaptogens activate the release of both NPY and Hsp70, while tested non adaptogens were inactive in NPY assay and inhibit the release of Hsp70. Taken together, our data demonstrates for the first time that neuropeptide Y and heat shock protein Hsp70 can be used as molecular biomarkers for adaptogenic activity. PMID:23920279

Asea, Alexzander; Kaur, Punit; Panossian, Alexander; Wikman, Karl Georg

2013-11-15

255

Phenotypical differences among B. cinerea isolates from ornamental plants.  

PubMed

B. cinerea is a common pathogenic fungus which causes Botrytis blight (Grey mould) in most ornamental plants. It may be responsible for serious preharvest diseases and postharvest losses in fruits, vegetables and flowers. In this work, several B. cinerea isolates from ornamental plants (Chamelaucium uncinatum, Pelargonium x hortorum, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Lantana camara, Lonicera japonica, Hydrangea macrophylla, and Cyclamen persicum) affected by Botrytis blight in the south of Spain were studied. All the isolates were confirmed as B. cinerea by PCR using a specific 750-bp molecular marker, which is present in all strains of this species but absent from other species of Botrytis. The isolates were evaluated by reference to mature conidia length, sclerotia production, and growth rate. Conidia, conidiophores and hyphae were described by light microscopy and some by cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM). Conidium length was measured by using an eyepiece micrometer at 400x power, whereas the growth rate was assessed from differences in colony diameter between the third and fourth day of growth in potato-dextrose agar culture medium at 26 degrees C. B. cinerea showed a high degree of phenotypical variability among isolates, not only as regards visual aspects of the colonies but also in some morphological structures such as conidium length, conidiophores, sclerotia production, and hyphae. Differences were also observed in the growth rates. Conidiation was insignificant in the isolates from H. macrophylla, and P. x hortorum, where the overall appearance was white in all the growing stages, whereas isolates from L. camara, C. persicum and C. uncinatum were mainly grey or brown in mature stages. The longest conidia were obtained in isolates from H. macrophylla and C. persicum (17-18 microm) and the lowest in C. uncinatum (9 microm). All the isolates, except L. camara, developed mature sclerotia after approximately 16 days in the conditions used. H. macrophylla had around 72 sclerotia per colony, whereas C. persicum had only nine after 28 days. The growth rate of isolates from L. camara was the highest (1.64 cm/day). Such phenotypical variability may result in a differential response to plant growth regulators if plants are infected by Botrytis in the early stages of growth. In this way, we confirm, as we have done in other published studies, that isolates show different responses to some plant hormones and inhibitors. PMID:19226749

Martínez, J A; Valdés, R; Vicente, M J; Bañón, S

2008-01-01

256

Temperature-dependent growth of Botrytis cinerea isolates from potted plants.  

PubMed

Botrytis cinereo is a common aggressive saprophyte fungus which also invades injured plant tissues, causing Botrytis blight (Grey mould) in many ornamental plants, including potted flowering plants. Several B. cinerea isolates from potted plants (Pelargonium x hortorum, Lantana camara, Lonicera japonica, Hydrangea macrophylla, and Cyclamen persicum) affected by Botrytis blight in the south of Spain were studied and identified by PCR. The isolates showed phenotypic differences between them, as previously reported by the authors. In this work we demonstrate that these isolates show different temperature-dependent growth phenomena, expressed as mycelial growth rates, conidiation (measured as the number of conidia per colony and time of appearance), mass of both aerial and submerged mycelia, and sclerotia production. Growth rates were assessed from differences in colony area and mass of both aerial and submerged mycelium growing in potato dextrose agar culture medium (PDA). Three temperatures were used to measure these variables (6, 16, and 26 degrees C) and to establish the differences among isolates by modelling the effects of temperature on the growth variables. B. cinerea showed a high degree of phenotypic variability and differences in its growth kinetics, depending on temperature and isolate in question. The isolate from P. x hortorum showed the greatest conidiation although this process did not depend on the temperatures assayed. The growth rate of the isolates from P. x hortorum was the highest. The growth rates in all the isolates were determined and the growth kinetics could be fitted to a typical equation of fungi growing on solid culture medium. The isolate from P. x hortorum was the most vigorous, while the least vigorous was the isolate from L. japonica. A relationship between mycelial growth rate, conidiation and aerial mycelium could be established. A temperature of 26 degrees C accelerated sclerotia production, but only in the isolate from C. persicum. Such phenotypical variability and differences in growth rates may result in a differential response in plant-pathogen interactions when isolates attack hosts at different temperatures, meaning that a variety of plant protection strategies should be considered when B. cinerea attacks these potted plants. PMID:20222557

Martínez, J A; Gómez-Bellot, M J; Bañón, S

2009-01-01

257

Determining solute inputs to soil and stream waters in a seasonally snow-covered mountain catchment in northern New Mexico using Ge/Si, 87Sr/86Sr and ion chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of mineral weathering releases lithogenic elements to soil and stream waters, which influences the health of catchment ecosystems. Variations in hydrologic conditions between years and climatic seasons may change subsurface flowpaths, modifying the influence of weathering on stream water composition. This two-year study aims to determine the changes in solute sources to stream and soil waters in a seasonally snow-covered headwater catchment in the Jemez Mountains in northern New Mexico by using a multi-tracer approach including major cations, strontium (Sr) isotopes, geranium (Ge)/silica (Si) ratios and trace metals. Climatic forcing was different for the two years studied; 2010 had ample snow accumulation resulting in an increase in stream flow during melt, whereas little snow fall in 2011 caused minimal response in the hydrograph. Stream water base cations display relatively constant concentrations with variations in the hydrograph, suggesting that the rate of solute transport out of the system is directly related to fluxes in the water supply. Strontium isotope ratios of stream waters during 2010 and 2011 snowmelt periods (0.70753) were very similar to the spring Sr-isotope ratio (0.70751) indicating deep soilwater as a single dominant source of major cations to stream waters. However, Ge/Si ratios, Fe, Al, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations increase during the 2010 snowmelt. Iron, Al and DOC form complexes with organic material and are therefore enriched in the shallow soils. Ge is enriched in secondary, relative to primary, minerals during incongruent weathering, so it is also enriched in soils relative to parent rock. The Ge/Si ratio peak of 3.11 ?mol/mol, in combination with an increase in Al, Fe, and DOC concentrations represents a flushing of shallow soils during the 2010 snow melt. Preceding the snow melt Ge/Si ratios decrease to a minimum ratio of 0.72 ?mol/mol in 2010 and continue to decrease into 2011 to a minimum of 0.07 ?mol/mol. Aluminum, Fe, and DOC concentrations also decrease after the peak in snow melt and remain stable and low for the remainder of the study period. The lack of an increase in Ge/Si ratios and Al, Fe, and DOC concentrations during the summer rains shows that deeper soil water dominates stream water composition from June-March, following the snowmelt period.

Porter, C. M.; McIntosh, J. C.; Derry, L. A.; Meixner, T.; Chorover, J.; Brooks, P. D.; Rasmussen, C.; Perdrial, J. N.

2012-12-01

258

Plants and hypotensive, antiatheromatous and coronarodilatating action.  

PubMed

However great the success in the therapy of hypertension, atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease has been gained today by recent efficient drugs, the definite healing of patients is not yet attained. The late discovery of reserpine, such an efficient drug of plant origin against hypertension, convinced so far reluctant scientists to consider the chemical compounds of the plant world. With respect to this traditional medical knowledge, it seems necessary to define more accurately the specificity of these healings-sometimes recommended unspecifically for a whole branch of medicine. This experimental verification should not use inconsiderately the present-day classification of diseases; there should be an awareness that conventional experimental methods in pharmacology are often unsuitable for revealing the real biological activity of one or another medicinal plant. The interest in the millennial empirical field of health care is acknowledged by the World Health Organization which promotes research and development of traditional medicine, along with investigations into its psychosocial and ethnographic aspects. These studies cover a number of plants growing in Bulgaria that have a healing effect in hypertension, atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease according to the data of traditional medicine. Using screening methods, extracts and chemically pure substances were investigated; extraction was done with solvents such as water, ether, chloroform, dichloretan, ethanol, methanol, and acetone. Most of the experiments were carried out on anesthetized cats, rabbits and dogs. The substances tested were applied mainly intravenously, and in some experiments orally. Chronic experiments were also carried out on wakeful dogs with induced hypertension, on animals fed on an atherogenic diet, and on animals with induced arrhythmia and coronary spasm. Data are presented of clinical examination of some plants or of active substances isolated from them. Major results of these studies are presented for the following plants: Garlic, Geranium; Hellebore; Mistletoe; Olive; Valerian; Hawthorn; Pseucedanum arenarium; Periwinkle; Fumitory. For another 50 plants growing in Bulgaria and in other countries the author presents his and other investigators' experimental and clinical data about hypotensive, antiatheromatous and coronarodilatating action. PMID:574353

Petkov, V

1979-01-01

259

[A phytosociological interpretation of vegetation from sandy hills of the Peruvian desert].  

PubMed

The vegetation of the sandy hills ("lomas") constitutes the main originality of the Peruvian and Chilean desert with a high number of endemics that shapes the vicarious associations. In this work, a phytosociological view of sandy environments of the Peruvian coastal desert is presented. According to the Braun-Blanquet method, we have made up 32 phytosociological inventories and added 138 ones from others authors. In each inventory, we have analyzed its floristic composition and ecological parameters, as altitude, soil and geomorphology. All releves were synthesized in a table to deduce the different associations, higher phytosociological units, and the distribu tion of its flora along the Peruvian coast and the Andean Cordillera. Using the Shannon-Wiener diversity index, the diversity of this flora is discussed making a comparison with historical data about the use of the territory with livestock during pre-Inca and Inca cultures, and Spanish invasion. As a result, two associations from Southern Peru -Nolanetum scaposo-spathulatae and Palauetum camanensis-weberbaueri-, two alliances -Nolanion humifusae from central Peru, and Nolanion spathulatae from the Southern Peru- and a new order -Tetragonio crystallinae-Plantaginetalia limensis- are described. In Nolanetum scaposo-spathulatae, Dictyophragnus englerianus, Leptoglossis lomana, Nolana scaposa, N. spathulata, Palaua velutina and Tetragonia vestita are the main characteristics, while in Palauetum camanensis-weberbaueri association N. scaposa and P. velutina are replaced by Palaua camanensis and P. weberbaueri. Nolanion humifusae alliance integrates species as Geranium limae, Hymenocallis amancaes, Nolana humifusa, N. latipes, Palaua rhombifolia or Villanova oppositifolia. Likewise, Cistanthe weberbaueri, Cryptantha parviflora, Hoffmannseggia miranda, Lupinus mollendoensis, Nolana confinis, N. pallidula, N. scaposa, N. spathulata, Palaua camanensis, P. velutina, P. weberbaueri, Tetragonia vestita and Weberbauerella brongniartioides are the characteristic species of Nolanion spathulatae alliance. The Tetragonio crystallinae-Plantaginetalia limensis order presents characteristic plants don't linked with eutrophic soils, as Calandrinia alba, Cryptantha limensis, Dyschoriste repens, Monnina macrostachya, Oxalis lomana, Palaua malvifolia, Pectocarya lateriflora, Plantago limensis or Tetragonia crystallina, with a distribution that claps the geographical area of the new alliances. On the other hand, the vegetation of the desert ravines is discussed in the context of the coastal river plant communities and its disturbance by the dunes. After the application of the Shannon-Wiener diversity index on the synthetic table columns, we can deduce that an increase in Andean and European ruderal species is linked to an intensive livestock activity. The transhumance between the Andes and the coast from pre-Inca times until now, produces the plant dispersion of high Andean plants toward the coast; the Spanish colonization was the origin of the presence of European plants in the "lomas" vegetation of Peru. PMID:21721240

Galán de Mera, Antonio; Linares Perea, Eliana; Campos de la Cruz, José; Vicente Orellana, José Alfredo

2011-06-01

260

Hemodynamic and Hematologic Profile of Healthy Adults Ingesting Dietary Supplements Containing 1,3-Dimethylamylamine and Caffeine  

PubMed Central

Background: 1,3-dimethylamylamine (a constituent of geranium), alone and in combination with caffeine, is widely used within dietary supplements. We have recently determined the hemodynamic effects of 1,3-dimethylamylamine and caffeine alone and in combination, using a single ingestion study. However, no study has determined the hemodynamic effects of these ingredients following chronic use. Moreover, no study has determined the effects of these ingredients on bloodborne variables related to health and safety. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to assess the hemodynamic and hematologic profile of two different dietary supplements containing 1,3-dimethylamylamine and caffeine (in addition to other ingredients), before and after two weeks of daily intake. Methods: 7 men (24.9 ± 4.2 yrs) ingested the dietary supplement Jack3d™, while 4 men and 2 women (22.5 ± 1.8 yrs) ingested the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ once per day for two weeks. On days 1 and 15, resting heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP), and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure were measured and rate pressure product (RPP) was calculated. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for complete blood counts, comprehensive metabolic panel, and lipid panel. These tests were done prior to ingestion of supplement. On days 1 and 15 following blood collection, subjects ingested the assigned supplement (2 servings) and HR, SBP, DBP, and RPP were recorded at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes post-ingestion. Results: After 14 days of treatment, resting HR, SBP, DBP, and RPP were not increased (P > 0.05). No significant changes were noted in any measured bloodborne variable, with the exception of an increase in fasting blood glucose with ingestion of Jack3d™ (P = 0.02). In response to acute intake of the supplements, HR, DBP, and RPP were not increased statistically (P > 0.05). SBP was increased with OxyELITE Pro™ (P = 0.03), but not with Jack3d™ (P = 0.09). Compared to pre-ingestion and in general, both supplements resulted in an increase in SBP, DBP, and RPP from 5%–15%, with a peak occurring at the 60 or 90 minute post-ingestion time. Conclusion: Acute ingestion of OxyELITE Pro™, but not Jack3d™, results in an increase in SBP. Chronic intake of two servings per day of OxyELITE Pro™ or Jack3d™ over a 14 day period does not result in an elevation in resting HR, SBP, DBP, or RPP. No significant changes are noted in any measured bloodborne variable following 14 days of ingestion, with the exception of blood glucose with Jack3d™. Longer term intervention studies inclusive of larger sample sizes are needed to extend these findings. PMID:23882143

Farney, Tyler M.; McCarthy, Cameron G.; Canale, Robert E.; Allman, Rick J.; Bloomer, Richard J.

2012-01-01

261

NTP Carcinogenesis Studies of Food Grade Geranyl Acetate (71% Geranyl Acetate, 29% Citronellyl Acetate) (CAS No. 105-87-3) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Study).  

PubMed

Geranyl acetate (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadiene-1-ol acetate) is a colorless liquid prepared by fractional distillation of selected essential oils or by acetylation of geraniol. It is a natural constituent of more than 60 essential oils, including Ceylon citronella, palmarosa, lemon grass, petit grain, neroli bigarade, geranium, coriander, carrot, and sassafras. Geranyl acetate is used primarily as a component of perfumes for creams and soaps and as a flavoring ingredient. On the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's list of substances "generally recognized as safe," the Food Chemicals Codex (1972) specifies that geranyl acetate must contain at least 90% total esters. Carcinogenesis studies of food-grade geranyl acetate (containing approximately 29% citronellyl acetate) were conducted by administering the test chemical in corn oil by gavage to groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats at doses of 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg body weight and to groups of 50 male and 50 female B6C3F1 mice at doses of 500 or 1,000 mg/kg. Doses were administered five times per week for 103 weeks. Groups of 50 rats and 50 mice of each sex received corn oil by gavage on the same dosing schedule and served as vehicle controls. The cumulative toxicity of geranyl acetate in the 2-year study was indicated by the significantly shorter survival of high dose male rats (control, 34/50; low dose, 29/50; high dose, 18/50) and of high dose male mice (control, 31/50; low dose, 32/50; high dose, 0/50) and of dosed female mice (38/50; 15/50; 0/50) when compared with controls. Throughout most of the 2-year study, mean body weights of high dose rats and mice of each sex were lower than those of the controls. The occurrence of retinopathy or cataracts in the high dose male rats and low dose female rats as compared with the controls does not appear to be related to the administration of geranyl acetate but rather the proximity of the rats to fluorescent light. The incidence of retinopathy or cataracts (combined) was: males: control, 0/50, 0%; low dose, 1/50, 2%; high dose, 11/50, 22%; females: control, 1/50, 2%; low dose, 13/50, 26%; high dose, 2/50, 4%. Kidney tubular cell adenomas, an uncommon tumor type, were found in 2/50 (4%) low dose male rats. The historical incidence of male corn oil gavage control F344/N rats with kidney tumors is 1/250 (0.4%) at this laboratory and 4/998 (0.4%) in the program. Squamous cell papillomas in the skin were increased marginally in low dose male rats (control, 0/50; low dose, 4/50, 8%; high dose, 1/50, 2%). In addition, one low dose male rat had a squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. The incidence of low dose male rats with either squamous cell papillomas or carcinomas was greater (P<0.05) in comparison with the controls. The historical incidence of squamous cell papillomas or carcinomas (combined) in gavage control male F344/N rats is 3.6% (9/250) at this laboratory and 2.5% (25/999) throughout the program. The incidence of all epidermal tumors was not significantly elevated in dosed male rats relative to controls (control, 3/50, 6%; low dose, 6/50, 12%; high dose, 1/50, 2%). All high dose (1,000 mg/kg) male and female mice were dead by week 91 as a result of accidentally being administered 2,800 mg/kg for 3 days during week 91; survival of low dose and control male mice was comparable. Survival of high dose male and dosed female mice may have been inadequate for the detection of late-appearing tumors. No evidence of any carcinogenic effect was found in either low or high dose mice of either sex. An infection of the genital tract was probably responsible for the deaths of 14/22 control and 8/32 low dose female mice before the end of the study. Cytoplasmic vacuolization was increased in the liver and in the kidney of male and female mice and was considered to be compound related (liver-- male: control, 1/50, 2%; low dose, 7/50, 14%; high dose, 47/50, 94%; female: 1/50, 2%; 27/50, 54%; 46/50, 92%; kidney or kidney tubule--male: 0/50; 0/50; 41/50, 82%; female: 0/50; 24/49, 49%; 37/50, 74%). Under the conditions of these studi

1987-10-01