Note: This page contains sample records for the topic rose-scented geranium pelargonium from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Rose-scented geranium ( Pelargonium sp.) generated by Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated Ri-insertion for improved essential oil quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic plants of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens cv. Hemanti) have been produced from Agrobacterium rhizogenes (strains A4 and LBA9402) mediated hairy root cultures. Amongst the explants tested, leaves were most responsive followed by the petioles\\u000a and internodal segments, respectively. The A4 strain performed better for all the three explants both in terms of frequency of response and time requirement for

Gauri Saxena; Suchitra Banerjee; Laiq-ur-Rahman; Praveen Chandra Verma; G. R. Mallavarapu; Sushil Kumar

2007-01-01

2

Biomass yield, essential oil yield and essential oil composition of rose-scented geranium ( Pelargonium species) as influenced by row spacings and intercropping with cornmint ( Mentha arvensis L.f. piperascens Malinv. ex Holmes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium species, family, Geraniaceae) is a vegetatively propagated (through rooted stem cuttings), initially slow growing, high value aromatic crop. Cornmint (Mentha arvensis L. f. piperascens Malinvaud ex Holmes, family, Lamiaceae) is also a vegetatively propagated (through rhizomes, runners or stolons and terminal stem cuttings), high demand aromatic–cum–medicinal crop. Essential oils isolated through steam distillation of shoot biomass of

B. R. Rajeswara Rao

2002-01-01

3

Fragrant volatile oil composition of Nutmeg Geranium (Pelargonium?×?fragrans Willd.) from India.  

PubMed

Hydrodistilled essential oil of 'Nutmeg Geranium' (Pelargonium?×?fragrans Willd.), grown in foothills of northern India was analysed by capillary gas chromatography (GC/flame ionisation detector (FID)) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 51 constituents, representing 90.2% of the total oil composition were identified. The oil was mainly dominated by monoterpenoids (58.4%), followed by sesquiterpenoids (19.4%), and phenyl propanoids (10.1%). Major constituents of the essential oil were fenchone (10.7%), methyl eugenol (9.9%), ?-pinene (9.4%), ?-thujene (7.6%), limonene (6.4%), spathulenol (4.7%), sabinene (4.3%), linalool (4.2%), (E)-caryophyllene (4.2%), terpinen-4-ol (3.2%), ?-pinene (2.9%), caryophyllene oxide (2.2%) and bicyclogermacrene (2.1%). This is the first report on essential oil composition of Nutmeg Geranium oil grown in India. PMID:22616953

Verma, Ram S; Padalia, Rajendra C; Chauhan, Amit

2013-04-01

4

Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of leaf essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L'H?r. in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér.), which is used in traditional Tunisian folk medicine for the treatment of hyperglycaemia, is widely known as one of the medicinal herbs with the highest antioxidant activity. The present paper is conducted to test the hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities of the leaf essential oil of P. graveolens. Methods The essential oil P. graveolens was administered daily and orally to the rats at two doses of 75?mg/kg and 150?mg/kg body weight (b.w.) for 30?days. The chemical composition of P. graveolens essential oil, body weight, serum glucose, hepatic glycogen, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), the components of hepatic, and renal and serum antioxidant systems were evaluated. The hypoglycemic effect of rose-scented geranium was compared to that of the known anti-diabetic drug glibenclamide (600??g/kg b.w.). Results After the administration of two doses of essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. together with glibenclamide which is known by its antidiabetic activities and used as reference (600??g/kg b.w.), for four weeks, the serum glucose significantly decreased and antioxidant perturbations were restored. The hypoglycemic effect of P. graveolens at the dose of 150?mg/kg b.w. was significantly (pgeranium oils were confirmed. Conclusions It suggests that administration of essential oil of P. graveolens may be helpful in the prevention of diabetic complications associated with oxidative stress. Our results, therefore, suggest that the rose-scented geranium could be used as a safe alternative antihyperglycemic drug for diabetic patients.

2012-01-01

5

Biomass yield, essential oil yield and resource use efficiency in geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L. Her. ex. Ait), intercropped with fodder crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of intercropping of fodder crops on growth and yield attributes of the essential oil-yielding multi-harvest aromatic plant geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L. Her. ex. Ait) under field conditions during 2005–2007. In addition aggressivity, land equivalent ratio (LER), area time equivalent ratio (ATER) and land use efficiency % (LUE%) as an index

Rajesh Kumar Verma; Laiq ur Rahman; Ram Swaroop Verma; Ajai Yadav; Sunita Mishra; Amit Chauhan; Anand Singh; Alok Kalra; Arun Kumar Kukreja; Suman Preet Singh Khanuja

2009-01-01

6

Influence of an organic mulching on fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency and herb and essential oil yields in geranium (Pelargonium graveolens).  

PubMed

In a field study, conducted at Lucknow ( 26.5 degrees N, 80.5 degrees E and 120 m altitude), India for two years (1996-1997 and 1997-1998), eight treatment combinations of two variables of organic mulch (paddy straw at 7 t/ha and no mulch) and four levels of fertilizer nitrogen (0, 80, 160 and 240 kg/ha) were examined to observe the effect of organic mulching on N-use efficiency and essential oil yield in a multi-harvested geranium crop. Results revealed that application of paddy straw mulch increased the herb and essential oil yields in geranium by 23% and 27%, respectively, over the unmulched control at planted crop harvest. Corresponding values at regenerated crop harvest were 18.7% and 19.2%. A significant response to N was observed with 160 kgN/ha in mulched plot over the same level of N in the unmulched plot. Using paddy straw mulch, nitrogen uptake by plants of planted and regenerated crops was increased by 33% and 28.4%, respectively, over the unmulched control. Apparent N recoveries by planted and regenerated crops were estimated to be 33.7% and 22.7% for the unmulched control, as against 40% and 29.2% with paddy straw mulch at 160 kgN/ha. The quality of essential oil of geranium in terms of its major constituents, citronellol and geraniol, was not affected by the use of organic mulching and nitrogen fertilization and these constituents were found to be of a standard acceptable in international trade. It was concluded from this study that use of an organic mulch with 160 kgN/ha proved better in terms of economising 80 kgN/ha to produce an economic yield of 96.1 kg geranium oil from two harvests under subtropical conditions of the north Indian plains. At 160 kgN/ha, paddy straw mulch application permitted the geranium crop to produce 18.4 kg/ha more oil which gave an additional return of Rs. 53,600/ha than that of unmulched control. Paddy straw mulch and nitrogen fertilization had no adverse effect on the quality of essential oil of geranium. PMID:12507867

Ram, Muni; Ram, D; Roy, S K

2003-05-01

7

Fumigant antitermitic activity of plant essential oils and components from Ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ), Allspice ( Pimenta dioica ), caraway ( Carum carvi ), dill ( Anethum graveolens ), Geranium ( Pelargonium graveolens ), and Litsea ( Litsea cubeba ) oils against Japanese termite ( Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe).  

PubMed

Plant essential oils from 26 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against the Japanese termite, Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe, using a fumigation bioassay. Responses varied with source, exposure time, and concentration. Among the essential oils tested, strong insecticidal activity was observed with the essential oils of ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ), allspice ( Pimenta dioica ), caraway ( Carum carvi ), dill ( Anethum graveolens ), geranium ( Pelargonium graveolens ), and litsea ( Litsea cubeba ). The composition of six essential oils was identified by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The compounds thus identified were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against Japanese termites. Responses varied in a dose-dependent manner for each compound. Phenol compounds exhibited the strongest insecticidal activity among the test compounds; furthermore, alcohol and aldehyde groups were more toxic than hydrocarbons. The essential oils and compounds described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for termite control. PMID:19722567

Seo, Seon-Mi; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Chang-Hoon; Shin, Sang-Chul; Park, Il-Kwon

2009-08-12

8

Detection and identification of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus in Pelargonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rose geraniums (Pelargonium spp.) are important essential oil bearing plants of great demand in national and international markets. Geraniums are susceptible\\u000a to several viruses; however, the incidence of Prunus necrotic ring spot virus (PNRSV) was not reported until recently. During the survey of geranium plantations in experimental\\u000a fields of the Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, India, Ilarvirus-like symptoms were

S. Kulshrestha; N. Verma; V. Hollan; G. Raikhy; M. Kumar Singh; R. Ram; A. A. Zaidi

2005-01-01

9

Analysis of 1,3 dimethylamylamine concentrations in Geraniaceae, geranium oil and dietary supplements.  

PubMed

1,3-Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) is a sympathomimetic compound currently incorporated into some dietary supplements. Significant controversy exists regarding the 'natural' origin of DMAA, as claimed by manufacturers of supplements. Manufacturers often refer to its presence by the name Geranamine® implying that DMAA is found in the plant species Geranium and Pelargonium known collectively as Geraniaceae. This study determined whether DMAA is present in the plant species, Geranium and Pelargonium. In addition, concentrations of DMAA in popular dietary supplements and commercial Geranium and Pelargonium oils were assessed. One Pelargonium cultivar, one Geranium cultivar, three essential oils from Pelargonium or Geranium, raw DMAA powder, and seven dietary supplements (DS) sold as finished products and labelled as containing DMAA, or one of its synonyms, were analyzed for the presence of DMAA by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). No measurable levels of DMAA in Geranium, Pelargonium or essential oils at a detection limit of 1-2?ng/g were present. UPLC/MS/MS analysis confirmed the presence of DMAA in spiked plant and oil samples, all seven DS products, and raw DMAA powder. Concentrations (weight%) of DMAA provided in DS ranged from 0.11% to 673%. This study indicates DMAA contained in DS is of a synthetic origin and is not present in the plant species Geranium and Pelargonium; thus the 'natural' origin and use of DMAA as an ingredient in DS is not substantiated. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23704033

Austin, Krista G; Travis, John; Pace, Gerry; Lieberman, Harris R

2014-07-01

10

H-mutant Bacteriophages as a Potential Biocontrol of Bacterial Blight of Geranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteriophages specific to Xanthomonas compestris pv. pelargonii (Xcp), the causal agent of bacterial blight of geranium, Pelargonium ×hortorum L.H. Bailey, were isolated from soil and sludge samples from Florida, California, Minnesota, and Utah. Sixteen phages were evaluated for their potential to lyse 21 Xcp strains collected from around the world. The Xcp strains varied in their susceptibility to the phage

J. E. Flaherty; B. K. Harbaugh; J. B. Jones; G. C. Somodi; L. E. Jackson

11

Essential oils and anxiolytic aromatherapy.  

PubMed

A number of essential oils are currently in use as aromatherapy agents to relieve anxiety, stress, and depression. Popular anxiolytic oils include lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), rose (Rosa damascena), orange (Citrus sinensis), bergamot (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), sandalwood (Santalum album), clary sage (Salvia sclarea), Roman chamomile (Anthemis nobilis), and rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp.). This review discusses the chemical constituents and CNS effects of these aromatherapeutic essential oils, as well as recent studies on additional essential oils with anxiolytic activities. PMID:19831048

Setzer, William N

2009-09-01

12

Evidence for the Presence of 1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) in Geranium Plant Materials.  

PubMed

1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) is an aliphatic amine with stimulant properties that are reportedly found naturally only in geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). The presence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants was first reported in a paper published in 1996, but some have questioned the identification of 1,3-DMAA in that study. Since then, a number of additional studies have been published, largely reporting the absence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants and commercial geranium oils. However, in two recent studies, 1,3-DMAA was detected in geranium plant tissues and a geranium oil sample using a simplified extraction approach on tissues and oil sourced from China. Whether or not 1,3-DMAA is found naturally in plants has significant implications as to how commercial products containing 1,3-DMAA are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. In this paper, differences in source materials, extraction procedures, and analytical approaches are reviewed in an attempt to rationalize the apparently conflicting evidence for the presence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plant materials. PMID:23843687

Gauthier, Thomas D

2013-01-01

13

Evidence for the Presence of 1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) in Geranium Plant Materials  

PubMed Central

1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) is an aliphatic amine with stimulant properties that are reportedly found naturally only in geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). The presence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants was first reported in a paper published in 1996, but some have questioned the identification of 1,3-DMAA in that study. Since then, a number of additional studies have been published, largely reporting the absence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants and commercial geranium oils. However, in two recent studies, 1,3-DMAA was detected in geranium plant tissues and a geranium oil sample using a simplified extraction approach on tissues and oil sourced from China. Whether or not 1,3-DMAA is found naturally in plants has significant implications as to how commercial products containing 1,3-DMAA are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. In this paper, differences in source materials, extraction procedures, and analytical approaches are reviewed in an attempt to rationalize the apparently conflicting evidence for the presence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plant materials.

Gauthier, Thomas D.

2013-01-01

14

Identification and quantification of dimethylamylamine in geranium by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A sensitive and reliable method of liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/ MS) was developed and validated for determining 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) and 1,4-dimethylamylamine (1,4-DMAA) in geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). The sample was extracted with 0.5 M HCl and purified by liquid-liquid partition with hexane. The parameters for reverse-phase (C18) LC and positive ESI/MS/MS were optimized. The matrix effect, specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy and reproducibility of the method were determined and evaluated. The method was linear over a range of 0.10-10.00 ng/mL examined, with R(2) of 0.99 for both 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-DMAA. The recoveries from spiked concentrations between 5.00-40.00 ng/g were 85.1%-104.9% for 1,3-DMAA, with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.9%-11.0%, and 82.9%-101.8% for 1,4-DMAA, with RSD of 3.2%-11.7%. The instrument detection limit was 1-2 pg for both DMAAs. The quantification limit was estimated to be 1-2 ng/g for the plant sample. This method was successfully applied to the quantitative determination of 1,3- and 1,4-DMAA in both geranium plant and geranium oil. PMID:22915838

Li, J S; Chen, M; Li, Z C

2012-01-01

15

Identification and Quantification of Dimethylamylamine in Geranium by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

A sensitive and reliable method of liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/ MS) was developed and validated for determining 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) and 1,4-dimethylamylamine (1,4-DMAA) in geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). The sample was extracted with 0.5 M HCl and purified by liquid-liquid partition with hexane. The parameters for reverse-phase (C18) LC and positive ESI/MS/MS were optimized. The matrix effect, specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy and reproducibility of the method were determined and evaluated. The method was linear over a range of 0.10–10.00 ng/mL examined, with R2 of 0.99 for both 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-DMAA. The recoveries from spiked concentrations between 5.00–40.00 ng/g were 85.1%–104.9% for 1,3-DMAA, with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.9%–11.0%, and 82.9%–101.8% for 1,4-DMAA, with RSD of 3.2%–11.7%. The instrument detection limit was 1–2 pg for both DMAAs. The quantification limit was estimated to be 1–2 ng/g for the plant sample. This method was successfully applied to the quantitative determination of 1,3- and 1,4-DMAA in both geranium plant and geranium oil.

Li, J.S.; Chen, M.; Li, Z.C.

2012-01-01

16

Agrobacterium rhizogenes -mediated transformation of scented geranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for producing genetically transformed plants from explants of three scentedPelargonium spp. Transgenic hairy root lines were developed fromPelargonium spp leaf explants and microcuttings after inoculation withAgrobacterium rhizogenes strains derived from the agropine A4 strain. Hairy root lines grew prolifically on growth regulator-free medium. Transgenic\\u000a shoots were regenerated from hairy roots and the plants have been successfully

Alessandro Pellegrineschi; Oliviero Davolio-Mariani

1997-01-01

17

Fertilization and Colors of Plastic Mulch Affect Biomass and Essential Oil of Sweet-Scented Geranium  

PubMed Central

Sweet-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér), a plant belonging to the Geraniaceae family, has medicinal and aromatic properties and is widely used in the cosmetic, soap, perfume, aromatherapy, and food industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fertilization and the use of different colors of plastic mulch on sweet-scented geranium biomass and essential oil. Three colors of plastic mulch (black, white, and silver-colored) and a control without plastic mulch were assessed along with three fertilizers (20,000?L·ha?1 of cattle manure; 1,000?kg·ha?1 of NPK 3-12-6; and 20,000?L·ha?1 of cattle manure + 1,000?kg·ha?1 of NPK 3-12-6 fertilizer) and a control without fertilizer. The absence of a soil cover negatively influenced the agronomical variables, while coverage with plastic mulch was associated with increased biomass. The use of fertilizer had no effect on the evaluated agronomic variables. When cattle manure and NPK 3-12-6 were used together, combined with white or black plastic mulch, the highest yields of essential oil were obtained. For the silver-colored plastic mulch, higher amounts of essential oil (6,9-guaiadien) were obtained with mineral fertilizer.

Silva, Anderson de Carvalho; dos Santos, Wallace Melo; Prata, Paloma Santana; Alves, Pericles Barreto

2014-01-01

18

Fertilization and colors of plastic mulch affect biomass and essential oil of sweet-scented geranium.  

PubMed

Sweet-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér), a plant belonging to the Geraniaceae family, has medicinal and aromatic properties and is widely used in the cosmetic, soap, perfume, aromatherapy, and food industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fertilization and the use of different colors of plastic mulch on sweet-scented geranium biomass and essential oil. Three colors of plastic mulch (black, white, and silver-colored) and a control without plastic mulch were assessed along with three fertilizers (20,000 L · ha(-1) of cattle manure; 1,000 kg · ha(-1) of NPK 3-12-6; and 20,000 L · ha(-1) of cattle manure + 1,000 kg · ha(-1) of NPK 3-12-6 fertilizer) and a control without fertilizer. The absence of a soil cover negatively influenced the agronomical variables, while coverage with plastic mulch was associated with increased biomass. The use of fertilizer had no effect on the evaluated agronomic variables. When cattle manure and NPK 3-12-6 were used together, combined with white or black plastic mulch, the highest yields of essential oil were obtained. For the silver-colored plastic mulch, higher amounts of essential oil (6,9-guaiadien) were obtained with mineral fertilizer. PMID:24757440

Silva, Anderson de Carvalho; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; dos Santos, Wallace Melo; Prata, Paloma Santana; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima

2014-01-01

19

A reappraisal of Pelargonium sect. Ligularia ( Geraniaceae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of 33 species ofPelargonium sect.Ligularia reveals four basic chromosome numbers, x = 8, 9, 10, and 11, and variation in chromosome size. From evidence of karyology and hybridization attempts, proposals are made to divide the section into smaller groups and to transfer some species to other sections.

Focke Albers; Mary Gibby; Mathilde Austmann

1992-01-01

20

Delimitation of Pelargonium sect. Glaucophyllum ( Geraniaceae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pelargonium otavienseKnuth andP. spinosumWilld. are excluded from sect.Glaucophyllum, whileP. grandiflorum (Andr.)Willd.,P. patulumJacq. andP. tabulare (Burm. f.)L'Hérit. of sect.Eumorpha are included. Sect.Glaucophyllum is characterized by green to glaucous vegetative organs and zygomorphic white to pink corolla with five narrow petals. All the species have an identical pollen and chromosome morphology, the same basic chromosome number (x = 11) and similar flavonoid

J. J. A. VAN DER WALT; Focke Albers; Mary Gibby

1990-01-01

21

Analysis and Confirmation of 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-DMAA in Geranium Plants Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry at ng/g Concentrations.  

PubMed

1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) is a stimulant commercially sold in a variety of dietary supplements as a chemical species derived from geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). Whether 1,3-DMAA naturally occurs in geranium plants or other dietary ingredients, it has important regulatory and commercial ramifications. However, the analysis of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants is not trivial due to low concentrations and a complex environmental matrix, requiring high selectivity and sensitivity. An extraction method combined with high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry is used to determine 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-dimethylamylamine (1,4-DMAA) concentrations in geranium plants with both external calibration and standard addition method. Samples from the Changzhou, Kunming, and Guiyang regions of China during both winter and summer were analyzed for 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-DMAA. The diastereomer ratios of the 1,3-DMAA stereoisomers of a racemic standard and the extracted plant were also quantified. PMID:23225994

Fleming, Heather L; Ranaivo, Patricia L; Simone, Paul S

2012-01-01

22

Analysis and Confirmation of 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-DMAA in Geranium Plants Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry at ng/g Concentrations  

PubMed Central

1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) is a stimulant commercially sold in a variety of dietary supplements as a chemical species derived from geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). Whether 1,3-DMAA naturally occurs in geranium plants or other dietary ingredients, it has important regulatory and commercial ramifications. However, the analysis of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants is not trivial due to low concentrations and a complex environmental matrix, requiring high selectivity and sensitivity. An extraction method combined with high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry is used to determine 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-dimethylamylamine (1,4-DMAA) concentrations in geranium plants with both external calibration and standard addition method. Samples from the Changzhou, Kunming, and Guiyang regions of China during both winter and summer were analyzed for 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-DMAA. The diastereomer ratios of the 1,3-DMAA stereoisomers of a racemic standard and the extracted plant were also quantified.

Fleming, Heather L.; Ranaivo, Patricia L.; Simone, Paul S.

2012-01-01

23

In vitro biological activities of South African Pelargonium (Geraniaceae) species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite commercial interest and ethnobotanical data, the pharmacological activities of a number of indigenous Pelargonium species hitherto remain poorly explored. The acetone extracts of twenty-one Pelargonium species (section Pelargonium) were included in this study. Using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, potent anti-oxidant activity was observed for the crude extracts of P. betulinum and P. crispum (IC50 values of 4.13±0.14 ?g\\/ml and 4.49±0.18 ?g\\/ml,

J. Y. Y. Lalli; R. L. Van Zyl; S. F. Van Vuuren; A. M. Viljoen

2008-01-01

24

Investigating contact toxicity of Geranium and Artemisia essential oils on Bemisia tabaci Gen.  

PubMed Central

Objective: Sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gen. (B. tabaci), is one of the most important pests of various greenhouse crops in Iran. Nowadays, chemical insecticides are broadly used for control of the pests that causes risk to consumer's health. For the first time, contact toxicity of Pelargonium roseum Andrews and Artemisia sieberi Besser essential oils on B. tabaci and its possible application against the whitefly was evaluated in 2012. Materials and Methods: Essential oil with concentrations of 2500, 1250, 125, and 12 ppm were used. Infested leaves of greenhouse cucumber were treated by mentioned concentrations. After 24 hours, mortality of B. tabaci was recorded and compared after correcting by Abbot's formula. Results: Results showed that all concentrations of the essential oil could significantly reduce population of B. tabaci compared with the control treatment. Phytotoxicity of the treated leaves were recorded after 24, 48, and 72 hours and compared with the control. Concentrations of 2500, 1250, and 125 ppm caused severe phytotoxicity on greenhouse cucumber leaves and therefore are not suitable for greenhouse application. Phytotoxicity of 12 ppm was relatively low. Conclusions: This data implicated suitable protective effects of the essential oils to the pest infestation. Therefore, essential oils distillated from Geranium and Artemisia could be applied to control B. tabaci in greenhouse cucumber at V/V 12 ppm.

Yarahmadi, Fatemeh; Rajabpour, Ali; Zandi Sohani, Nooshin; Ramezani, Leila

2013-01-01

25

Pelargoniins, new ellagitannins from Pelargonium reniforme.  

PubMed

The range of natural ellagitannins is extended by identification of five new metabolites with 1C4 glucose core, designated as pelargoniins A-D and isocorilagin, and the new phyllanthusiin E methyl ester. They are accompanied in the aerial parts of Pelargonium reniforme by two known structurally related metabolites, corilagin and phyllanthusiin C, two phenolcarboxylic acids, brevifolincarboxylic acid and phyllanthusiin E, the gallotannin 1-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose, and the ellagitannins strictinin and isostrictinin having a 4C1-glucose core. The structures of these compounds were established from spectroscopic studies. This is the first example of the co-occurrence of ellagitannins with 4C1 and 1C4 glucopyranose core demonstrated for a member of the Geraniaceae. PMID:10975505

Latté, K P; Kolodziej, H

2000-08-01

26

Influence of an organic mulching on fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency and herb and essential oil yields in geranium ( Pelargonium graveolens)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a field study, conducted at Lucknow ( 26.5° N, 80.5° E and 120 m altitude), India for two years (1996–1997 and 1997–1998), eight treatment combinations of two variables of organic mulch (paddy straw at 7 t\\/ha and no mulch) and four levels of fertilizer nitrogen (0, 80, 160 and 240 kg\\/ha) were examined to observe the effect of organic

Muni Ram; D Ram; S. K Roy

2003-01-01

27

Scanning electron microscograph of vessel member from Pelargonium leaf with perforations and pits.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scanning electron microscograph of vessel member from Pelargonium leaf with perforations and pits. Micrograph, courtesy of Professor Peter B. Kaufman and Dr. P Dayanandan, Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Esau, Katherine

2004-03-09

28

Suppression of neutrophil recruitment in mice by geranium essential oil.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: In aromatherapy, essential oils are used as anti-inflammatory remedies, but experimental studies on their action mechanisms are very limited. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To assess their anti-inflammatory activities, the effects of essential oils on neutrophil recruitment in mice were examined in vivo. METHOD: The effect of essential oils on leukocyte and neutrophil recruitment induced 6 h after intraperitoneal injection of casein in mice was examined. RESULTS: Leukocyte recruitment into the peritoneal cavity in mice was suppressed by intraperitoneal injections of geranium, lemongrass and spearmint oils at the dose of 5 microl/mouse, but was not by tea tree oil. This recruitment was inhibited dose-dependently by geranium oil. The suppression of leukocyte recruitment resulted from inhibition of neutrophil accumulation. CONCLUSION: Some essential oils used as anti-inflammatory remedies suppress neutrophil recruitment into the peritoneal cavity in mice.

Abe, Shigeru; Maruyama, Naho; Hayama, Kazumi; Inouye, Shigeharu; Oshima, Haruyuki; Yamaguchi, Hideyo

2004-01-01

29

A trnL-F based phylogeny for species of Pelargonium ( Geraniaceae ) with small chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic analysis was performed of 921 positions of trnL (UAA) 5' exon — trnF (GAA) exon chloroplast DNA regions from 68 representatives ofPelargonium sectt.Campylia, Cortusina, Glaucophyllum, Hoarea, Isopetalum, Ligularia, Otidia, Pelargonium, Peristera, Polyactium, andReniformia, together with five putative outgroup species from sectionsCiconium, Chorisma andJenkinsonia. The total data set therefore comprised 67.2 kb of DNA sequence. Two main ingroup clades were

Freek T. Bakker; Alastair Culham; Louise C. Daugherty; Mary Gibby

1999-01-01

30

O-Galloyl-C-glycosylflavones from Pelargonium reniforme.  

PubMed

The unique series of C-2''-acylated C-glycosylflavones is extended by the discovery of the C-8-glucosyl derivatives 2''-O-galloylvitexin and 2''-O-galloylorientin and their C-6 analogues 2''-O-galloylisovitexin and 2''-O-galloylisoorientin, representing the first described O-galloyl-C-glycosylflavones. They are accompanied in the aerial parts of Pelargonium reniforme by the known non-galloylated parent analogues vitexin, orientin, isovitexin and isoorientin, as well as several known flavonoid-O-glycosides. The structures of these compounds were established from spectroscopic studies. Differentiation between C-glycosylation at C-6 and C-8 is discussed on the basis of the effects of dynamic rotational isomerism. PMID:11830160

Latté, Klaus Peter; Ferreira, Daneel; Venkatraman, M S; Kolodziej, Herbert

2002-02-01

31

Suppression of Carrageenan- and Collagen II-Induced Inflammation in Mice by Geranium Oil  

PubMed Central

To obtain experimental evidence on the therapeutic efficacy of essential oils in aromatherapy for inflammatory diseases, we examined the effects of geranium oil on carrageenan-induced and collagen II-induced inflammation in mice, to assess acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activities of the oil. Single intraperitoneal injection of 5 ?L of geranium oil clearly suppressed the carrageenan-induced footpaw edema and increase in tissue myeloperoxidase activity, and repeated administration of the oil suppressed collagen-induced arthritis. These results revealed that geranium oil suppressed both acute and chronic inflammatory responses in mice.

Maruyama, Naho; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Hu, Weimin; Morofuji, Shinichiro; Inouye, Shigeharu; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

2006-01-01

32

Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds from Pelargonium reniforme.  

PubMed

Flavonoids and hydrolyzable tannins isolated from Pelargonium reniforme were evaluated for their antioxidant ability using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical generating system and a luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay. In both assays, the polyphenols tested showed higher radical scavenging activities than the reference antioxidant, ascorbic acid (IC50 2.6-32.9 microM vs 40.9 microM in the DPPH test, and 2-25 times stronger effects in the chemiluminescence assay). A comparison of the flavonoids and the tannins showed that the latter have more potential than the former. Structural requirements for marked antioxidant activities of hydrolyzable tannins were the presence of galloyl and hexahydroxydiphenoyl groups, and apparently carbonyl (ester) functionalities in oxidatively modified dehydrohexa-hydroxydiphenoyl moieties. For flavonoids, it appeared that a catechol (3',4'-dihydroxy) element in the B-ring were important determinants and that O-glycosides were more effective than flavone-based C-glucosyls. Conspicuously, introduction of a galloyl group significantly enhanced their potentials. The demonstrated marked antioxidant effects of the polyphenols provide a clue for beneficial effects of P. reniforme in the treatment of liver disorders among several ethnic groups in areas of southern Africa. PMID:15264932

Latté, Klaus Peter; Kolodziej, Herbert

2004-07-28

33

Further antibacterial Geranium macrorrhizum L. metabolites and synthesis of epoxygermacrones.  

PubMed

4,5- and 1,10-Epoxygermacrones were isolated from the essential oil of aerial parts of Geranium macrorrhizum L. (Geraniaceae). The structures of the epoxy derivatives were deduced from their 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra, molecular modeling, and confirmed by synthesis starting from germacrone. The epoxy compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activities by a microdilution assay, which revealed high activities of both compounds against Bacillus subtilis (minimum inhibitory concentrations (M/Cs) determined were 4.3 and 43?nmol/ml for 1,10- and 4,5-epoxygermacrone, resp.) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.043 and 0.855??mol/ml for 1,10- and 4,5-epoxygermacrone, resp.). The discovery and observed activity of the two epoxides fills the gap in our knowledge of the active principles in this highly renowned ethnomedicinal plant species. PMID:24706624

Radulovi?, Niko S; Zlatkovi?, Dragan; Deki?, Milan; Stojanovi?-Radi?, Zorica

2014-04-01

34

Insights into the Selective Pressures Restricting Pelargonium Flower Break Virus Genome Variability: Evidence for Host Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular diversity of Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV) was assessed using a collection of isolates from different geographical origins, hosts, and collecting times. The genomic region examined was 1,828 nucleotides (nt) long and comprised the coding sequences for the movement (p7 and p12) and the coat (CP) proteins, as well as flanking segments including the entire 3 untranslated region

Patricia Rico; Pilar Ivars; Santiago F. Elena; Carmen Hernandez

2006-01-01

35

Safety evaluation of the extract from the roots of Pelargonium reniforme Curtis in male wistar rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pelargonium reniforme Curtis is an herb used for the treatment of various human and animal diseases especially in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. The effects of the oral administration of aqueous extract of the plant roots at 100, 200 and 400 mg\\/kg body weight for 21 days on some haematological and biochemical parameters in male Wistar rats were investigated.

E. A. Adewusi; A. J. Afolayan

2009-01-01

36

Phylogenetic relationships within Pelargonium sect. Peristera ( Geraniaceae ) inferred from nrDNA and cpDNA sequence comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic analysis of nrDNA ITS and trnL (UAA) 5' exon-trnF (GAA) chloroplast DNA sequences from 17 species ofPelargonium sect.Peristera, together with nine putative outgroups, suggests paraphyly for the section and a close relationship between the highly disjunct South African and Australian species of sect.Peristera. Representatives fromPelargonium sectt.Reniformia, Ligularia s. l. andIsopetalum (the St. Helena endemicP. cotyledonis) appear to be nested

Freek T. Bakker; Dorothea Hellbrügge; Alastair Culham; Mary Gibby

1998-01-01

37

PHOSPHORUS DEFICIENCY IN PELARGONIUM: EFFECTS ON NITRATE AND AMMONIUM UPTAKE AND ACIDITY GENERATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sudden pH decline (SPD) of the substrate is an increasing problem in geranium growth systems, and the cause is unknown. In this study, we investigate whether a phosphorus (P) deficiency can cause SPD, and whether the effect is related to inhibition of ammonium (NH4 ) and nitrate (NO3 ) uptake and a corresponding shift in the cation to anion

Matthew D. Taylor; Paul V. Nelson; Jonathan M. Frantz; Thomas W. Rufty

2010-01-01

38

Antioxidative activity of glycoprotein isolated from Geranium sibiricum Linne.  

PubMed

Glycoprotein from Geranium sibiricum Linne (GSL) with 18 kDa was isolated and it consists of carbohydrate moiety (10.45%) and protein moiety (89.55%). The GSL glycoprotein was characterised by its radical scavenging activity under various experimental conditions. When GSL glycoprotein was treated with deactivation agents (pronase E or NaIO(4)), its scavenging activity decreased in both cases. It has optimal and maximal activity in acidic, neutral pH (up to pH 9), and up to 85 degrees C. Also, its activity reduced in the case of Ca(2+) and Mn(2+), with the exception of the Mg(2+) case. Its activity in the presence of Mn(2+) declined more than in the case of the Ca(2+). Also, GSL glycoprotein (500 microg mL(-1)) has antioxidative effects on hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals in cell-free systems, and GSL glycoprotein (200 microg mL(-1)) significantly protected from cytotoxicity in the GO (100 mU mL(-1))-treated Chang liver cells for 4 h. PMID:19296378

Shim, J U; Lim, K T

2009-01-01

39

1,3-Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) in supplements and geranium products: natural or synthetic?  

PubMed

1,3-Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) is a stimulant existing in various pre-workout supplements and often labelled as part of geranium plants. The safety and origin of DMAA in these supplements is the subject of intense debate. In this study, the enantiomeric and diastereomeric ratios of two different known synthetic DMAA compounds, as well as the total concentrations of DMAA and its stereoisomeric ratios in 13 different supplements, were determined by gas chromatography. The stereoisomeric ratios of DMAA in the synthetic standards and in all the commercial supplements were indistinguishable. Eight different commercial geranium extracts of different geographical origins (China and the Middle East) were examined for the presence of DMAA by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). No DMAA was detected in any of the eight geranium products with a limit of detection of 10 parts per billion (w/w). PMID:22786761

Zhang, Ying; Woods, Ross M; Breitbach, Zachary S; Armstrong, Daniel W

2012-12-01

40

Sulfur Dioxide Flux into Leaves of Geranium carolinianum L. 1  

PubMed Central

The concurrent exchange of SO2 and H2O vapor between the atmosphere and foliage of Geranium carolinianum was investigated using a whole-plant gas exchange chamber. Total leaf flux of SO2 was partitioned into leaf surface and internal fractions. The emission rate of SO2-induced H2S was measured to develop a net leaf budget for atmospherically derived sulfur. Stomatal resistance to SO2 flux was estimated by two techniques: (a) RsSO2? from SO2 data using analog modeling techniques and (b) RsSO2 from analogy to H2O (i.e. 1.89 RsH2o). The emission of H2S was positively correlated with the rate of SO2 flux into the leaf interior. An accounting of the simultaneous, bidirectional flux of gaseous sulfur compounds during pollutant exposure showed that sulfur accumulation in the leaf interior of G. carolinianum was 7 to 15% lower than that estimated solely from mass-balance calculations of SO2 flux data (i.e. ignoring H2S emissions). The esimate of stomatal resistance to pollutant flux from the SO2 data (RsSO2?) was consistently less than the simultaneous estimate derived from analogy to H2O vapor (RsSO2). The resultant of RsSO2? — RsSO2, which was always negative, is indicative of a residual resistance to SO2 flux into the leaf interior. On a comparative basis, SO2 molecules experienced less pathway resistance to diffusion than effluxing H2O molecules. It is proposed that the SO2:H2O path length ratio is less than unity, as a consequence of the pollutant's high water solubility and unique chemical reactivity in solution. Thus, the diffusive paths for H2O and SO2 in G. carolinianum are not completely synonymous.

Taylor, George E.; Tingey, David T.

1983-01-01

41

Suppression of neutrophil accumulation in mice by cutaneous application of geranium essential oil  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies suggested that essential oils suppressed the adherence response of human neutrophils in vitro and that intraperitoneal application of geranium oil suppressed the neutrophil accumulation into peritoneal cavity in vivo. Usually, essential oils are applied through skin in aromatherapy in inflammatory symptoms. The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of cutaneous application of essential oils on the accumulation of neutrophils in inflammatory sites in skin of mice. Methods Inflammation with accumulation of inflammatory cells was induced by injection of curdlan, a (1?3)-?-D-glucan in skin or peritoneal cavity of mice. Essential oils were applied cutaneously to the mice immediately and 3 hr after intradermal injection of curdlan. The skin with inflammatory lesion was cut off 6 hr after injection of curdlan, and the homogenates were used for myeloperoxidase (MPO: a marker enzyme of neutrophil granule) assay. Results The MPO activity of the skin lesion induced by curdlan was suppressed dose-dependently by cutaneous application of geranium oil. Other oils such as lavender, eucalyptus and tea tree oils also suppressed the activity, but their activities seemed weaker than geranium. Juniper oil didn't suppress the activity Conclusion Cutaneous application of essential oils, especially geranium oil, can suppress the inflammatory symptoms with neutrophil accumulation and edema.

Maruyama, Naho; Sekimoto, Yuka; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Inouye, Shigeharu; Oshima, Haruyuki; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

2005-01-01

42

Suppression of neutrophil accumulation in mice by cutaneous application of geranium essential oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that essential oils suppressed the adherence response of human neutrophils in vitro and that intraperitoneal application of geranium oil suppressed the neutrophil accumulation into peritoneal cavity in vivo. Usually, essential oils are applied through skin in aromatherapy in inflammatory symptoms. The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of cutaneous application of essential oils

Naho Maruyama; Yuka Sekimoto; Hiroko Ishibashi; Shigeharu Inouye; Haruyuki Oshima; Hideyo Yamaguchi; Shigeru Abe

2005-01-01

43

SULFUR DIOXIDE FLUX INTO LEAVES OF 'GERANIUM CAROLINIANUM' L.: EVIDENCE FOR A NONSTOMATAL OR RESIDUAL RESISTANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The concurrent exchange of SO2 and H2O vapor between the atmosphere and foliage of Geranium carolinanum was investigated using a whole-plant gas exchange chamber. Total leaf flux of SO2 was partitioned into leaf surface and internal fractions. The emission rate of SO2-induced H2S...

44

The Cultivation of Plants for Their Essential Oils: Java Citronella; Eucalyptus Citriodora Hook; Davana; Geranium; and French Basil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book is a compilation of five pamphlets on the cultivation of various plants for their essential oils. The plants are Java citronella, Eucalyptus citriodora, Davana, Geranium, and French Basil. For each plant the following topics are covered: Botany;...

O. P. Virmani P. Singh M. R. Narayana M. Sarwar A. K. ivastava

1980-01-01

45

Field demonstration of age dependent increase in lead phytoextraction by Pelargonium cultivar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unnecessary for living organisms, lead (Pb) is one of the major widespread toxic metals found in the environment with potential danger to human health and to ecosystems (Shahid et al. 2012). Lead is known to induce a broad range of toxic effects to living organism, including those that are morphological, physiological and biochemical in origin (Pourrut et al. 2011). A field study was carried out in the vicinity of Pb recycling plant near Toulouse-France, and contaminated by atmospheric fallouts to evaluate lead extraction and uptake efficiency of hyperaccumulater Attar of Roses Pelargonium cultivar. It was found that Attar of Roses has ability to accumulate (8644 mgPb/kg DW plant) and survive on highly contaminated acidic soil (39250 mg kg-1 of total Pb) without any morpho-phytotoxicity symptoms. Moreover Attar showed increased extraction of lead from bulk soil to rhizosphere through Pb mobilization and ultimately increased uptake by roots and translocation to shoots. The studied contaminated soil could be cleaned up in few years by planting hyperaccumulater Attar of Rose for longer time period. Under optimum fertlization, irrigation and use of natural or synthetic chelates (EDTA, LMOWA, humic substances etc.) along with old Attar of rose plants, time requires for complete remediation of contaminated site can be reduced to practically applicable time period. Moreover, the use of Pelargonium for remediation has several additional practical, esthetical and economic advantages. The extraction of value-added essential oils from harvested biomass could offset the cost of deploying phytoremediation and renders it as a viable approach for remediating highly contaminated soils, on large scale. Keywords: metal uptake, Pelargonium, phytoremediation, cultivar, soil-plant transfer and kinetic. References Pourrut, B., Shahid, M., Dumat, C., Winterton, P., Pinelli, E., 2011a. Lead uptake, toxicity and detoxification in plants. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 213, 113-136. Shahid, M., Arshad, M., Kaemmerer, M., Pinelli, E., Probst, A., Baque, D., Pradere, P., Dumat, C., 2012a. Long term field metal extraction by pelargonium: Phytoextraction efficiency in relation with plant maturity. Inter. J. Phytorem. 14, 493-505.

Shahid, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad; Pinelli, Eric; Alric, Alain; Kaemmerer, Michel; Pradere, Philippe; Dumat, Camille

2013-04-01

46

Shifts in Climate Foster Exceptional Opportunities for Species Radiation: The Case of South African Geraniums  

PubMed Central

Climate change is often assumed to be a major driver of biodiversity loss. However, it can also set the stage for novel diversification in lineages with the evolutionary ability to colonize new environments. Here we tested if the extraordinary evolutionary success of the genus Pelargonium was related to the ability of its species to capitalize on the climate niche variation produced by the historical changes in southern Africa. We evaluated the relationship between rates of climate niche evolution and diversification rates in the main Pelargonium lineages and disentangled the roles of deep and recent historical events in the modification of species niches. Pelargonium clades exhibiting higher ecological differentiation along summer precipitation (SPP) gradients also experienced higher diversification rates. Faster rates of niche differentiation in spatially structured variables, along with lower levels of niche overlap among closely related species, suggest recent modification in species niches (e.g. dispersal or range shift) and niche lability. We suggest that highly structured SPP gradients established during the aridification process within southern Africa, in concert with niche lability and low niche overlap, contributed to species divergence. These factors are likely to be responsible for the extensive diversification of other lineages in this diversity hot spot.

Martinez-Cabrera, Hugo I.; Peres-Neto, Pedro R.

2013-01-01

47

Sulfur dioxide flux into leaves of Geranium carolinianum L. : evidence for a nonstomatal or residual resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concurrent exchange of SOâ and HâO vapor between the atmosphere and foliage of Geranium carolinianum was investigated using a whole-plant gas exchange chamber. Total leaf flux of SOâ was partitioned into leaf surface and internal fractions. The emission rate of SOâ-induced HâS was measured to develop a net leaf budget for atmospherically derived sulfur. Stomatal resistance to SOâ flux

G. E. Jr. Taylor; D. T. Tingey

1983-01-01

48

Response of post-storage carbohydrate levels in pelargonium cuttings to reduced air temperature during rooting and the relationship with leaf senescence and adventitious root formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rooting of dark-stored pelargonium (Pelargonium×hortorum) cuttings can be restricted by carbohydrate shortage resulting from the interplay between depleted carbohydrate reserves and weak photosynthesis under the low light conditions of winter in Central Europe. The hypothesis was tested, that considerably reduced air temperature during rooting increases current availability of carbohydrates, thereby improving survival and root formation. Dark-stored cuttings (4 days, 10°C)

Uwe Druege; Roland Kadner

2008-01-01

49

Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and In Vitro Antioxidant Properties of Monarda citriodora var. citriodora, Myristica fragrans, Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum, Pelargonium sp. and Thymus zygis Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Monarda citriodora var. citriodora, Myristica fragrans, Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum, Pelargonium sp. and Thymus zygis were screened for antioxidative properties in a lipid-rich matrix as quantified by spectrophotometry using iron (II) sulphate and 2,2?-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride as sources of primordial free radicals. Furthermore, the antimicrobial properties of M. fragrans, O. vulgare, Pelargonium

H. J. Damien Dorman; Stanley G. Deans

2004-01-01

50

The antibacterial activity of geranium oil against Gram-negative bacteria isolated from difficult-to-heal wounds.  

PubMed

Hard-to-heal wounds represent a significant problem to patients, health care professionals, and health care system. They can be formed as a result of mechanical injuries and burns, and any co-existing chronic disease increases the risk of their emergence. Diabetics are at a greater risk of developing chronic wounds because of poor circulation, slow healing times, vascular disease and neuropathy. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of geranium oil against Gram-negative bacterial clinical strains. Clinical strains were isolated from patients with difficult-to-treat wounds and a comprehensive evaluation of their sensitivity to antibiotics was carried out. The constituents of geranium oil were specified by GC-FID-MS analysis. The micro-dilution broth method was used to check the inhibition of microbial growth at various concentrations of geranium oil. The tested geranium oil was efficacious against Gram-negative pathogens responsible for problems with wound treatment. The results suggest that geranium oil may be considered an effective component of therapy in the case of frequent recurrences of infections caused by resistant pathogens. PMID:24290961

Sienkiewicz, Monika; Pozna?ska-Kurowska, Katarzyna; Kaszuba, Andrzej; Kowalczyk, Edward

2014-08-01

51

Behavior of organelle nuclei (nucleoids) in generative and vegetative cells during maturation of pollen in Lilium longiflorum and Pelargonium zonale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The behavior of organelle nuclei during maturation of the male gametes ofLilium longiflorum andPelargonium zonale was examined by fluorescence microscopy after staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and Southern hybridization. The organelle nuclei in both generative and vegetative cells inL. longiflorum were preferentially degraded during the maturation of the male gametes. In the mature pollen grains ofL. longiflorum, there were absolutely

Sodmergen; T. Suzuki; S. Kawano; S. Nakamura; S. Tano; T. Kuroiwa

1992-01-01

52

Protective activity of geranium oil and its component, geraniol, in combination with vaginal washing against vaginal candidiasis in mice.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate an effective administration method of essential oils for vaginal candidiasis, efficacy of vaginal application of essential oils against murine experimental candidiasis was investigated. The effect on vaginal inflammation and Candida growth form was also studied. Vaginal candidiasis was established by intravaginal infection of C. albicans to estradiol-treated mice. These mice intravaginally received essential oils such as geranium and tea tree singly or in combination with vaginal washing. Vaginal administration of clotrimazole significantly decreased the number of viable C. albicans cells in the vaginal cavity by itself. In contrast, these essential oils did not lower the cell number. When application of geranium oil or geraniol was combined with vaginal washing, the cell number was decreased significantly. The myeloperoxidase activity assay exhibited the possibility that essential oils worked not only to reduce the viable cell number of C. albicans, but also to improve vaginal inflammation. The smear of vaginal washing suspension suggested that more yeast-form cells appeared in vaginal smears of these oil-treated mice than in control mice. In vitro study showed that a very low concentration (25 microg/ml) of geranium oil and geraniol inhibited mycelial growth, but not yeast growth. Based on these findings, it is estimated that vaginal application of geranium oil or its main component, geraniol, suppressed Candida cell growth in the vagina and its local inflammation when combined with vaginal washing. PMID:18670079

Maruyama, Naho; Takizawa, Toshio; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Hisajima, Tatsuya; Inouye, Shigeharu; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

2008-08-01

53

Predicting the outcome of competition along a nitrogen gradient – a case study with Erodium cicutarium and Geranium pusillum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand the effect of a nitrogen gradient on the intraspecific and interspecific competition between plants, the two species Erodium cicutarium and Geranium pusillum were grown in a response-surface competion experiment at three different densities along a nitrogen gradient consisting of four different nitrogen levels. Seed set data were estimated from biomass measurements and fitted to a generalized

Signe Søndergaard; Lea B Petersen; Christian Damgaard

2005-01-01

54

The root extract of the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides is a potent HIV-1 attachment inhibitor.  

PubMed

Global HIV-1 treatment would benefit greatly from safe herbal medicines with scientifically validated novel anti-HIV-1 activities. The root extract from the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides (PS) is licensed in Germany as the herbal medicine EPs®7630, with numerous clinical trials supporting its safety in humans. Here we provide evidence from multiple cell culture experiments that PS extract displays potent anti-HIV-1 activity. We show that PS extract protects peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages from infection with various X4 and R5 tropic HIV-1 strains, including clinical isolates. Functional studies revealed that the extract from PS has a novel mode-of-action. It interferes directly with viral infectivity and blocks the attachment of HIV-1 particles to target cells, protecting them from virus entry. Analysis of the chemical footprint of anti-HIV activity indicates that HIV-1 inhibition is mediated by multiple polyphenolic compounds with low cytotoxicity and can be separated from other extract components with higher cytotoxicity. Based on our data and its excellent safety profile, we propose that PS extract represents a lead candidate for the development of a scientifically validated herbal medicine for anti-HIV-1 therapy with a mode-of-action different from and complementary to current single-molecule drugs. PMID:24489923

Helfer, Markus; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Schneider, Martha; Rebensburg, Stephanie; Forcisi, Sara; Müller, Constanze; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Schindler, Michael; Brack-Werner, Ruth

2014-01-01

55

Insights into the Selective Pressures Restricting Pelargonium Flower Break Virus Genome Variability: Evidence for Host Adaptation  

PubMed Central

The molecular diversity of Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV) was assessed using a collection of isolates from different geographical origins, hosts, and collecting times. The genomic region examined was 1,828 nucleotides (nt) long and comprised the coding sequences for the movement (p7 and p12) and the coat (CP) proteins, as well as flanking segments including the entire 3? untranslated region (3? UTR). Some constraints limiting viral heterogeneity could be inferred from sequence analyses, such as the conservation of the amino acid sequences of p7 and of the shell domain of the CP, the maintenance of a leucine zipper motif in p12, and the preservation of a particular folding in the 3? UTR. A remarkable covariation, involving five specific amino acid sites, was found in the CP of isolates largely propagated in the local lesion host Chenopodium quinoa and in the progeny of a PFBV variant subjected to serial passages in this host. Concomitant with this covariation, up to 30 nucleotide substitutions in a 1,428-nt region of the viral RNA could be attributable to C. quinoa-specific adaptation, representing one of the most outstanding cases of host-driven genome variation for a plant virus. Globally, the results indicate that the selective pressures exerted by the host play a critical role in shaping PFBV populations and that these populations are likely being selected for at both protein and RNA levels.

Rico, Patricia; Ivars, Pilar; Elena, Santiago F.; Hernandez, Carmen

2006-01-01

56

Antibacterial, Antifungal, Cytotoxic, Phytotoxic, Insecticidal, and Enzyme Inhibitory Activities of Geranium wallichianum  

PubMed Central

The present study describes the phytochemical investigations of the crude extracts of rhizomes and leaves of Geranium wallichianum. The crude extracts were fractionated to obtain n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol fractions, which were subjected to different biological activities and enzyme inhibition assays to explore the therapeutic potential of this medicinally important herb. The results indicated that the crude extracts and different fractions of rhizomes and leaves showed varied degree of antimicrobial activities and enzyme inhibitions in different assays. Overall, the rhizome extract and its different fractions showed comparatively better activities in various assays. Furthermore, the purified constituents from the repeated chromatographic separations were also subjected to enzyme inhibition studies against three different enzymes. The results of these studies showed that lipoxygenase enzyme was significantly inhibited as compared to urease. In case of chemical constituents, the sterols (2–4) showed no inhibition, while ursolic acid (1) and benzoic ester (6) showed significant inhibition of urease enzymes.

Ismail, Muhammad; Hussain, Javid; Khan, Arif-ullah; Khan, Abdul Latif; Ali, Liaqat; Khan, Farman-ullah; Khan, Amir Zada; Niaz, Uzma; Lee, In-Jung

2012-01-01

57

Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by extracts and constituents from Angelica archangelica and Geranium sylvaticum.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition of several Icelandic medicinal herbs. Ethanolic extracts of Angelica archangelica seeds and the aerial parts of Geranium sylvaticum proved effective, with IC50 values of 2.20 mg/ml and 3.56 mg/ml, respectively. The activity of imperatorin and xanthotoxin from A. archangelica was measured. Xanthotoxin proved much more potent than imperatorin, with an IC50 value of 155 microg/ml (0.72 mM) but that for imperatorin was above 274 microg/ml (1.01 mM). However, furanocoumarins seem to have a minor part in the total activity of this extract. Synergistic interaction was observed between the extracts of A. archangelica and G. sylvaticum. Several medicinal herbs (Achillea millefolium, Filipendula ulmaria, Thymus praecox and Matricaria maritima) did not show AChE inhibitory activity. PMID:18069242

Sigurdsson, Steinthor; Gudbjarnason, Sigmundur

2007-01-01

58

Casparian bands occur in the periderm of Pelargonium hortorum stem and root  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Casparian bands are characteristic of the endodermis and exodermis of roots, but also occur infrequently in other plant organs, for example stems and leaves. To date, these structures have not been detected in phellem cells of a periderm. The aim of this study was to determine whether Casparian bands occur in phellem cells using tests that are known to detect Casparian bands in cells that also contain suberin lamellae. Both natural periderm and wound-induced structures were examined in shoots and roots. Methods Using Pelargonium hortorum as a candidate species, the following tests were conducted: (1) staining with berberine and counterstaining with aniline blue, (2) mounting sections in concentrated sulphuric acid and (3) investigating the permeability of the walls with berberine as an apoplastic, fluorescent tracer. Key Results (1) Berberine–aniline blue staining revealed a modification in the radial and transverse walls of mature phellem cells in both stems and roots. Three days after wounding through to the cortex of stems, the boundary zone cells (pre-existing, living cells nearest the wound) had developed vividly stained primary walls. By 17 d, staining of mature phellem cells of wound-induced periderm was similar to that of natural periderm. (2) Mature native phellem cells of stems resisted acid digestion. (3) Berberine was excluded from the anticlinal (radial and transverse) walls of mature phellem cells in stems and roots, and from the wound-induced boundary zone. Conclusions Casparian bands are present in mature phellem cells in both stems and roots of P. hortorum. It is proposed that Casparian bands act to retard water loss and pathogen entry through the primary cell walls of the phellem cells, thus contributing to the main functions of the periderm.

Meyer, Chris J.; Peterson, Carol A.

2011-01-01

59

In vitro synergic efficacy of the combination of Nystatin with the essential oils of Origanum vulgare and Pelargonium graveolens against some Candida species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigated a synergistic effect between the essential oils Origanum vulgare, Pelargonium graveolens and Melaleuca alternifolia and the antifungal compound Nystatin. Nystatin is considered a drug of choice in the treatment of fungal infections, but it can cause some considerable problems through its side effects, such as renal damage. Finding a new product that can reduce the

Antonio Rosato; Cesare Vitali; Monica Piarulli; Manuela Mazzotta; Maria Pia Argentieri; Rosanna Mallamaci

2009-01-01

60

Evaluation of biological control agents for control of botrytis blight of geranium and powdery mildew of rose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four commercially formulated biological control products, containing Gliocladium catenulatum (Prestop® WP), Trichoderma harzianum (PlantShield®) and Bacillus subtilis [Serenade® MAX™ (wettable powder) and Rhapsody® ASO™ (liquid)] were evaluated for control of rose powdery mildew (Podosphaera pannosa) on outdoor, container-grown roses and botrytis blight (Botrytis cinerea) on greenhouse-grown zonal geraniums in 2006 and 2007. The products were applied every 7–14 days and

Janice F. Elmhirst; C. Haselhan; Z. K. Punja

2011-01-01

61

An ellagitannin, n-butyl gallate, two aryltetralin lignans, and an unprecedented diterpene ester from Pelargonium reniforme.  

PubMed

The structural diversity of the metabolic pool of Pelargonium reniforme was extended by the characterization of the 1C4-glucose based ellagitannin pelargoniin E, gallic acid n-butyl ester, (-)-4,4',9'-trihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxy-2,7'-cyclolignan 9-O-beta-glucopyranoside and reniformin, a diterpene ester comprised of a diterpene acid with an uncommon -(CH2)(2)- bridging element linked to 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethansulfonic acid. These metabolites were associated with the known (alpha,beta)-3,4-di-O-galloyl-glucopyranoside, 4,6-dihydroxy-2beta-glucopyranosyloxyacetophenone, 1-O-galloylglycerol, 6'-O-galloylsalidroside and (+)-isolariciresinol-9'-O-beta-glucopyranoside. All structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods. PMID:17964619

Latté, Klaus Peter; Kaloga, Maki; Schäfer, Andreas; Kolodziej, Herbert

2008-02-01

62

EPs7630(®) from Pelargonium sidoides increases stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans probably via the DAF-16/FOXO pathway.  

PubMed

EPs7630(®) a water alcohol extract of the roots from Pelargonium sidoides contains several secondary metabolites including highly oxygenated coumarins, various phenolics and polyphenols. Using the DPPH assay to measure antioxidant activity a free radical scavenging activity of 14.7±0.85?g/ml (IC50) was determined. As an in vivo model Caenorhabditis elegans was applied to study the effect of EPs7630(®) on stress resistance. EPs7630(®) treatment reduces intracellular hsp-16.2::GFP expression (induced by the pro-oxidant juglone) indicating that the secondary metabolites of EPs7630(®) are bioavailable and exhibit antioxidant activities in vivo. Application of EPs7630(®) (50?g/ml) to the transgenic mutant TJ356 induced the migration of the transcription factor DAF-16 from cytosol to the nucleus, suggesting a prominent role of DAF-16/FOXO in the daf-2 pathway for stress resistance. PMID:24252337

Rezaizadehnajafi, Leila; Wink, Michael

2014-03-15

63

Identification and characterization of cDNAs encoding ethylene biosynthetic enzymes from Pelargonium x hortorum cv Snow Mass leaves.  

PubMed Central

Two Pelargonium 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase cDNAs (GAC-1 and GAC-2) were identified and characterized. GAC-1 is 1934 bp long with a 1446-bp open reading frame encoding a 54.1-kD polypeptide. GAC-2 is a 1170-bp-long ACC synthase polymerase chain reaction fragment encoding 390 amino acids. Expression of GAC-1 and GAC-2 together with a previously identified ACC oxidase (GEFE-1) was examined in different Pelargonium plant parts, and leaves were subjected to osmotic stress (sorbitol), metal ion stress (CuCl2), auxin (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid [2,4-D]), and ethylene. GAC-1 expression was not detectable in any of the plant parts tested, whereas high levels of GAC-2 were expressed in the leaf bud, young leaf, young floret, fully open floret, and senescing floret. GAC-2 was expressed to a lesser degree in fully expanded leaves or roots and was undetectable in old leaves and floret buds. GEFE-1 was detectable at all leaf ages tested, in young and fully open florets, and in the roots; however, the highest degree of expression was in the senescing florets. GAC-1 was induced by sorbitol. Both GAC-1 and GAC-2 were only slightly affected by CuCl2 and induced indirectly by 2,4-D. GEFE-1 was highly induced by sorbitol, CuCl2, and 2,4-D. GAC-1, GAC-2, and GEFE-1 were unaffected by ethylene treatment. These results suggest that GAC-1 is only induced by stress and that GAC-2 may be developmentally regulated, whereas GEFE-1 is influenced by both stress and development.

Wang, T W; Arteca, R N

1995-01-01

64

Effect of Variable Solvents on Particle Size of Geranium Oil-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticle (Ge-SLN) For Mosquito Repellent Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new delivery system for insect repellent is proposed by the incorporation of geranium oil into solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN). A variety of solvents which act as co-surfactants, were introduced to increase the particle size of GE-SLN. Ethanol, which has a high boiling point and a long chain alcohol produced larger particle than dichloromethane. The structure of SLN was not stable when methanol and acetone were used as co-solvents. Concentration of solvents can also influence the size of SLN. In vitro release experiments showed that SLN was able to reduce the rapid evaporation of geranium oil.

Asnawi, Syalwati; Aziz, Azila A.; Aziz, Ramlan A.

2009-06-01

65

Antibacterial activity and composition of essential oils from Pelargonium graveolens L'Her and Vitex agnus-castus L  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Essential oils are volatile compounds that have been used since Middle Ages as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, sedative, local anesthetic and food flavoring agents. In the current study, essential oils of Pelargonium graveolens L'Her and Vitex agnus-castus L. were analyzed for their antibacterial activities. Materials and Methods The chemical compositions of essential oils were characterized by GC-MS. Disc diffusion method was used to study antimicrobial activity. Results and Conclusion Inhibition zones showed that the essential oils of the two plants were active against all of the studied bacteria (except Listeria monocytogenes). The susceptibility of the strains changed with the dilution of essential oils in DMSO. The pure essential oils showed the most extensive inhibition zones and they were very effective antimicrobial compounds compared to chloramphenicol and amoxicillin. The most susceptible strain against these two essential oils was Staphylococcus aureus. It seems that ?-citronellol is a prominent part of P. graveolens volatile oil and caryophyllene oxide is a famous and important part of V. agnus-castus volatile oil and their probable synergistic effect with other constituents are responsible for the antibacterial effects of these oils. However further studies must be performed to confirm the safety of these oils for use as antimicrobial agents and natural preservatives in different products.

Ghannadi, A; Bagherinejad, MR; Abedi, D; Jalali, M; Absalan, B; Sadeghi, N

2012-01-01

66

Antimicrobial, Antiviral and Immunomodulatory Activity Studies of Pelargonium sidoides (EPs® 7630) in the Context of Health Promotion  

PubMed Central

Pelargonium species contribute significantly to the health care of a large population in the Southern African region, as part of a long-standing medical system intimately linked to traditional healing practices. Most notably, extracts of the roots of P. sidoides have commonly been applied for the treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea but only occasionally for respiratory complaints. Clinical trials have shown that a modern aqueous-ethanolic formulation of P. sidoides extracts (EPs® 7630) is an efficacious treatment for disorders of the respiratory tract, for example bronchitis and sinusitis. It should be noted that EPs® 7630 is the most widely investigated extract and therefore is the focus of this review. In order to provide a rationale for its therapeutic activity extracts have been evaluated for antibacterial activity and for their effects on non-specific immune functions. Only moderate direct antibacterial capabilities against a spectrum of bacteria, including Mycobacteria strains, have been noted. In contrast, a large body of in vitro studies has provided convincing evidence for an anti-infective principle associated with activation of the non-specific immune system. Interestingly, significant inhibition of interaction between bacteria and host cells, a key to the pathogenesis of respiratory tract infections, has emerged from recent studies. In addition, antiviral effects have been demonstrated, including inhibition of the replication of respiratory viruses and the enzymes haemagglutinin and neuraminidase. Besides, an increase of cilliary beat frequency of respiratory cells may contribute to the beneficial effects of P. sidoides extracts. This example provides a compelling argument for continuing the exploration of Nature and traditional medical systems as a source of therapeutically useful herbal medicines.

Kolodziej, Herbert

2011-01-01

67

Anti-hepatitis B virus activities of Geranium carolinianum L. extracts and identification of the active components.  

PubMed

The ethanol extract of Geranium carolinianum L., a domestic plant grown in China, was subjected to sequential extractions with different organic solvents. The extracts were assayed for anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) activities. The ethyl acetate fraction was found to contain the highest level of anti-HBV activity. In order to identify the active ingredients, the ethyl acetate fraction was further fractionated by column chromatography. Seven compounds were identified including ellagic acid, geraniin, quercitrin, hyperin, hirsutrin, quercetin, and kaempferol, whose structures were determined by NMR. The presence of the anti-HBV compounds geraniin, ellagic acid and hyperin in G. carolinianum L. may account for the effectiveness of this folk medicine in the treatment of HBV infections. Geraniin inhibited hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) secretion by more than 85.8% and 63.7%, respectively, at the non-cytotoxic concentration of 200 microg/ml. The inhibitions of HBsAg and HBeAg secretion by geraniin were higher than the inhibition by the positive control Lamivudine, 33.5% and 32.2% respectively, at the same concentration. Since HBeAg is involved in immune tolerance during HBV infection, the newly identified anti-HBV compound geraniin might be a candidate agent to overcome the immune tolerance in HBV-infected individuals. This is the first report of the anti-HBV effects of geraniin and hyperin, the active substances derived from G. carolinianum L. PMID:18379075

Li, Jiyang; Huang, Hai; Zhou, Wei; Feng, Meiqing; Zhou, Pei

2008-04-01

68

Evaluation of Geranium spp., Helleborus spp. and Hyssopus spp. polyphenolic extracts inhibitory activity against urease and ?-chymotrypsin.  

PubMed

This study was meant to determine the inhibitory activity of tannins and flavonoid compounds from Geranium robertianum, Helleborus purpurascens and Hyssopus officinale plant polyphenol rich extracts against urease and ?-chymotrypsin. The G. robertianum, H. purpurascens and H. officinale extracts were purified and concentrated by microfiltration and ultrafiltration. Phenolic compounds including flavonoids and tannins have been linked to many pharmacological activities. Thus, the polyphenolic content of the extracts was assessed by UV-Vis spectroscopy and HPLC. The concentrated extracts enriched in polyphenolic compounds (flavonoids, tannins and phenolic acids) showed a significant inhibition against urease from jack bean (over 90%), whereas in case of the ?-chymotrypsin, they proved to have an inhibition below 54%. The results of this support the use of G. robertianum, H. purpurascens and H. officinale polyphenolic extracts as potential sources of urease inhibitors. Among the three plant extracts tested, H. officinale polyphenolic extracts exhibited a high inhibitory activity (92.67%) against urease and low inhibition (19.6%) against ?-chymotrypsin and could be considered as possible remedy in ulcer treatment. PMID:23317419

Paun, Gabriela; Litescu, Simona Carmen; Neagu, Elena; Tache, Andreia; Lucian Radu, Gabriel

2014-02-01

69

Acquisition of physical dormancy and ontogeny of the micropyle-water-gap complex in developing seeds of Geranium carolinianum (Geraniaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The ‘hinged valve gap’ has been previously identified as the initial site of water entry (i.e. water gap) in physically dormant (PY) seeds of Geranium carolinianum (Geraniaceae). However, neither the ontogeny of the hinged valve gap nor acquisition of PY by seeds of Geraniaceae has been studied previously. The aims of the present study were to investigate the physiological events related to acquisition of PY and the ontogeny of the hinged valve gap and seed coat of G. carolinianum. Methods Seeds of G. carolinianum were studied from the ovule stage until dispersal. The developmental stages of acquisition of germinability, physiological maturity and PY were determined by seed measurement, germination and imbibition experiments using intact seeds and isolated embryos of both fresh and slow-dried seeds. Ontogeny of the seed coat and water gap was studied using light microscopy. Key Results Developing seeds achieved germinability, physiological maturity and PY on days 9, 14 and 20 after pollination (DAP), respectively. The critical moisture content of seeds on acquisition of PY was 11 %. Slow-drying caused the stage of acquisition of PY to shift from 20 to 13 DAP. Greater extent of cell division and differentiation at the micropyle, water gap and chalaza than at the rest of the seed coat resulted in particular anatomical features. Palisade and subpalisade cells of varying forms developed in these sites. A clear demarcation between the water gap and micropyle is not evident due to their close proximity. Conclusions Acquisition of PY in seeds of G. carolinianum occurs after physiological maturity and is triggered by maturation drying. The micropyle and water gap cannot be considered as two separate entities, and thus it is more appropriate to consider them together as a ‘micropyle–water-gap complex’.

Gama-Arachchige, N. S.; Baskin, J. M.; Geneve, R. L.; Baskin, C. C.

2011-01-01

70

An appropriate method for extracting the insect repellent citronellol from an indigenous plant (Pelargonium graveolens L'Her) for potential use by resource-limited animal owners.  

PubMed

Veterinary needs appraisals in rural, peri-urban and urban areas have indicated a need for affordable and accessible veterinary health care. It was also found that farmers and animal owners used indigenous plants for treating animals. In Africa, insects such as Culex, Culicoides and Stomoxys may transmit diseases, cause irritation to animals or prevent wound healing. Insect repellents used topically are generally safer and cheaper than insecticides. Using readily available commercial sources of ethanol 43% v/v (brandy and cane spirits), it was shown that citronellol could be extracted from uncrushed leaves of the indigenous shrub Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér. Efficacy of extraction was compared to that using reagent grade absolute ethanol. The peak concentration of citronellol was achieved within 7 days of extraction and thereafter remained constant for 4 months. Extraction methods using tap water and cooking oil were not successful. The extraction was also less successful when the leaves were crushed or macerated before being placed into ethanol. Gas chromatography was used to monitor the concentration of citronellol in the different extracts. PMID:11030360

Botha, B M; McCrindle, C M

2000-06-01

71

A membrane-associated movement protein of Pelargonium flower break virus shows RNA-binding activity and contains a biologically relevant leucine zipper-like motif.  

PubMed

Two small viral proteins (DGBp1 and DGBp2) have been proposed to act in a concerted manner to aid intra- and intercellular trafficking of carmoviruses though the distribution of functions and mode of action of each protein partner are not yet clear. Here we have confirmed the requirement of the DGBps of Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV), p7 and p12, for pathogen movement. Studies focused on p12 have shown that it associates to cellular membranes, which is in accordance to its hydrophobic profile and to that reported for several homologs. However, peculiarities that distinguish p12 from other DGBps2 have been found. Firstly, it contains a leucine zipper-like motif which is essential for virus infectivity in plants. Secondly, it has an unusually long and basic N-terminal region that confers RNA binding activity. The results suggest that PFBV p12 may differ mechanistically from related proteins and possible roles of PFBV DGBps are discussed. PMID:21444100

Martínez-Turiño, Sandra; Hernández, Carmen

2011-05-10

72

Moderate Temperature Fluctuations Rapidly Reduce the Viability of Ralstonia solanacearum Race 3, Biovar 2, in Infected Geranium, Tomato, and Potato Plants?  

PubMed Central

Most Ralstonia solanacearum strains are tropical plant pathogens, but race 3, biovar 2 (R3bv2), strains can cause bacterial wilt in temperate zones or tropical highlands where other strains cannot. R3bv2 is a quarantine pathogen in North America and Europe because of its potential to damage the potato industry in cooler climates. However, R3bv2 will not become established if it cannot survive temperate winters. Previous experiments showed that in water at 4°C, R3bv2 does not survive as long as native U.S. strains, but R3bv2 remains viable longer than U.S. strains in potato tubers at 4°C. To further investigate the effects of temperature on this high-concern pathogen, we assessed the ability of R3bv2 and a native U.S. strain to survive typical temperate winter temperature cycles of 2 days at 5°C followed by 2 days at ?10°C. We measured pathogen survival in infected tomato and geranium plants, in infected potato tubers, and in sterile water. The population sizes of both strains declined rapidly under these conditions in all three plant hosts and in sterile water, and no culturable R. solanacearum cells were detected after five to seven temperature cycles in plant tissue. The fluctuations played a critical role in loss of bacterial viability, since at a constant temperature of ?20°C, both strains could survive in infected geranium tissue for at least 6 months. These results suggest that even when sheltered in infected plant tissue, R3bv2 is unlikely to survive the temperature fluctuations typical of a northern temperate winter.

Scherf, Jacob M.; Milling, Annett; Allen, Caitilyn

2010-01-01

73

An internal ribosome entry site directs translation of the 3'-gene from Pelargonium flower break virus genomic RNA: implications for infectivity.  

PubMed

Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV, genus Carmovirus) has a single-stranded positive-sense genomic RNA (gRNA) which contains five ORFs. The two 5'-proximal ORFs encode the replicases, two internal ORFs encode movement proteins, and the 3'-proximal ORF encodes a polypeptide (p37) which plays a dual role as capsid protein and as suppressor of RNA silencing. Like other members of family Tombusviridae, carmoviruses express ORFs that are not 5'-proximal from subgenomic RNAs. However, in one case, corresponding to Hisbiscus chlorotic ringspot virus, it has been reported that the 3'-proximal gene can be translated from the gRNA through an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Here we show that PFBV also holds an IRES that mediates production of p37 from the gRNA, raising the question of whether this translation strategy may be conserved in the genus. The PFBV IRES was functional both in vitro and in vivo and either in the viral context or when inserted into synthetic bicistronic constructs. Through deletion and mutagenesis studies we have found that the IRES is contained within a 80 nt segment and have identified some structural traits that influence IRES function. Interestingly, mutations that diminish IRES activity strongly reduced the infectivity of the virus while the progress of the infection was favoured by mutations potentiating such activity. These results support the biological significance of the IRES-driven p37 translation and suggest that production of the silencing suppressor from the gRNA might allow the virus to early counteract the defence response of the host, thus facilitating pathogen multiplication and spread. PMID:21818349

Fernández-Miragall, Olga; Hernández, Carmen

2011-01-01

74

Chromosome number and secondary chromosomal associations in wild populations of Geranium pratense L. from the cold deserts of Lahaul-Spiti (India).  

PubMed

In this work we studied the meiotic chromosome number and details of secondary chromosomal associations recorded for the first time in Geranium pratense L. from the alpine environments in the cold deserts of Lahaul-Spiti (India). All the presently studied individuals of the species existed at 4x level (x = 14). The present chromosome count of n = 28 in the species adds a new cytotype to the already existing diploid chromosome count of 2n = 28 from the Eastern Himalayas and outside of India. Out of the six accessions scored presently four showed normal meiotic course. However, two accessions investigated from Mud, 3800 m and Koksar, 3140 m depicted abnormal meiotic course due to the presence of multivalents and univalents, and secondary associations of bivalents/chromosomes. The secondary chromosomal associations in the species existed among bivalents/chromosomes were noticed in the PMCs at prophase-1 (diakinesis) and persisted till the separation of sister chromatids at M-II. The variation in the number of bivalents/chromosomes involved in the secondary associations at M-I (2-8) and A-I/M-II (2-12) has also been recorded. The occurrence of such secondary associations of bivalents/chromosomes in G. pratense which existed at 4x level indicated the secondary polyploid nature of the species. PMID:23745363

Kumar, P; Singhal, V K

2013-01-01

75

Patterns of genetic diversity reveal multiple introductions and recurrent founder effects during range expansion in invasive populations of Geranium carolinianum (Geraniaceae).  

PubMed

Genetic diversity, and thus the adaptive potential of invasive populations, is largely based on three factors: patterns of genetic diversity in the species' native range, the number and location of introductions and the number of founding individuals per introduction. Specifically, reductions in genetic diversity ('founder effects') should be stronger for species with low within-population diversity in their native range and few introductions of few individuals to the invasive range. We test these predictions with Geranium carolinianum, a winter annual herb native to North America and invasive in China. We measure the extent of founder effects using allozymes and microsatellites, and ask whether this is consistent with its colonization history and patterns of diversity in the native range. In the native range, genetic diversity is higher and structure is lower than expected based on life history traits. In China, our results provide evidence for multiple introductions near Nanjing, Jiangsu province, with subsequent range expansion to the west and south. Patterns of genetic diversity across China reveal weak founder effects that are driven largely by low-diversity populations at the expansion front, away from the introduction location. This suggests that reduced diversity in China has resulted from successive founder events during range expansion, and that the loss of genetic diversity in the Nanjing area was mitigated by multiple introductions from diverse source populations. This has implications for the future of G. carolinianum in China, as continued gene flow among populations should eventually increase genetic diversity within the more recently founded populations. PMID:24346497

Shirk, R Y; Hamrick, J L; Zhang, C; Qiang, S

2014-05-01

76

Quantitative analysis of the thermal requirements for stepwise physical dormancy-break in seeds of the winter annual Geranium carolinianum (Geraniaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Physical dormancy (PY)-break in some annual plant species is a two-step process controlled by two different temperature and/or moisture regimes. The thermal time model has been used to quantify PY-break in several species of Fabaceae, but not to describe stepwise PY-break. The primary aims of this study were to quantify the thermal requirement for sensitivity induction by developing a thermal time model and to propose a mechanism for stepwise PY-breaking in the winter annual Geranium carolinianum. Methods Seeds of G. carolinianum were stored under dry conditions at different constant and alternating temperatures to induce sensitivity (step I). Sensitivity induction was analysed based on the thermal time approach using the Gompertz function. The effect of temperature on step II was studied by incubating sensitive seeds at low temperatures. Scanning electron microscopy, penetrometer techniques, and different humidity levels and temperatures were used to explain the mechanism of stepwise PY-break. Key Results The base temperature (Tb) for sensitivity induction was 17·2 °C and constant for all seed fractions of the population. Thermal time for sensitivity induction during step I in the PY-breaking process agreed with the three-parameter Gompertz model. Step II (PY-break) did not agree with the thermal time concept. Q10 values for the rate of sensitivity induction and PY-break were between 2·0 and 3·5 and between 0·02 and 0·1, respectively. The force required to separate the water gap palisade layer from the sub-palisade layer was significantly reduced after sensitivity induction. Conclusions Step I and step II in PY-breaking of G. carolinianum are controlled by chemical and physical processes, respectively. This study indicates the feasibility of applying the developed thermal time model to predict or manipulate sensitivity induction in seeds with two-step PY-breaking processes. The model is the first and most detailed one yet developed for sensitivity induction in PY-break.

Gama-Arachchige, N. S.; Baskin, J. M.; Geneve, R. L.; Baskin, C. C.

2013-01-01

77

What limits production of unusual monoenoic fatty acids in transgenic plants?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unusual monounsaturated fatty acids are major constituents (greater than 80%) in seeds of Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander) and Thunbergia alata Bojer, as well as in glandular trichomes (greater than 80% derived products) of Pelargonium 2hortorum (geranium). These diverged fatty acid structures are produced via distinct plastidial acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturases. When expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. under strong

Mi Chung Suh; David J. Schultz; John B. Ohlrogge

2002-01-01

78

Graded Index Silicon Geranium on Lattice Matched Silicon Geranium Semiconductor Alloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lattice matched silicon germanium (SiGe) semiconductive alloy is formed when a {111} crystal plane of a cubic diamond structure SiGe is grown on the {0001} C-plane of a single crystalline Al2O3 substrate such that a <110> orientation of the cubic diamond structure SiGe is aligned with a <1,0,-1,0> orientation of the {0001} C-plane. A lattice match between the substrate and the SiGe is achieved by using a SiGe composition that is 0.7223 atomic percent silicon and 0.2777 atomic percent germanium. A layer of Si(1-x), ,Ge(x) is formed on the cubic diamond structure SiGe. The value of X (i) defines an atomic percent of germanium satisfying 0.2277

Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R., Jr. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

79

A Rapid Method for Isolating Glandular Trichomes  

PubMed Central

A physical method is described for the rapid isolation of plant trichomes, with emphasis on stalked glandular types. The technique involved breaking frozen trichomes with powdered dry ice and collection of glandular heads by sieving from larger tissue fragments. This method was applied to several plants that bear similar stalked trichomes: geranium (Pelargonium), potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), squash (Cucurbita pepo), and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti). The tissue preparation was of sufficient quality without further purification for biochemical and molecular studies. The preparation maintained the biochemical integrity of the trichomes for active enzymes and usable nucleic acids. A large quantity of tissue can be harvested; for example, 351 milligrams dry weight of glandular trichomes were harvested from geranium pedicels in 12 hours. The utility of the technique was demonstrated by examining the fatty acid composition of tall glandular trichomes of geraniums, Pelargonium ×hortorum L.H. Bailey. These purified cells contained high concentrations of unusual ?5-unsaturated fatty acids, proportionally 23.4% of total fatty acids in the trichomes. When the trichomes were removed, the supporting tissue contained no ?5-fatty acids, thereby unequivocally localizing ?5-fatty acids to the trichomes. Because ?5-fatty acids are unique precursors for the biosynthesis of ?5-anacardic acids, we conclude that anacardic acid synthesis must occur in the glandular trichomes. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2

Yerger, Ellen H.; Grazzini, Richard A.; Hesk, David; Cox-Foster, Diana L.; Craig, Richard; Mumma, Ralph O.

1992-01-01

80

Elevated CO 2 affects plant responses to variation in boron availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  Effects of elevated CO2 on N relations are well studied, but effects on other nutrients, especially micronutrients, are not. We investigated effects\\u000a of elevated CO2 on response to variation in boron (B) availability in three unrelated species: seed geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and water fern (Azolla caroliniana).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Plants were grown at two levels of CO2 (370, 700 ppm)

Sasmita Mishra; Scott A. Heckathorn; Jonathan M. Frantz

81

Measurements of Thermophysical Properties of Molten Silicon and Geranium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this ground base program is to measure thermophysical properties of molten/ undercooled silicon, germanium, and Si-Ge alloys using a high temperature electrostatic levitator and in clearly assessing the need of the microgravity environment to achieve the objective with higher degrees of accuracy. Silicon and germanium are two of the most important semiconductors for industrial applications: silicon is unsurpassed as a microelectronics material, occupying more than 95% of the electronics market. Si-Ge alloy is attracting keen interest for advanced electronic and optoelectronic applications in view of its variable band gap and lattice parameter depending upon its composition. Accurate thermophysical properties of these materials are very much needed in the semiconductor industry for the growth of large high quality crystals.

Rhim, Won-Kyu

2001-01-01

82

Determination of Phenolic Compounds from Geranium sanguineum by HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed for simultaneous determination of seventeen phenolic compounds (one phenolic acid, seven cinnamic acid derivatives, four quercetin glycosides, five flavonol, and flavone aglycones) from plant material. Separation of all examined compounds was carried out in 35 minutes on a Zorbax SB?C18 analytical column (100×3.0 mm, 3.5 µm) with methanol?KH2PO4 buffer (40 mM, pH 2.3) as

S. Leucuta; L. Vlase; S. Gocan; L. Radu; C. Fodorea

2005-01-01

83

Could 1,3 dimethylamylamine (DMAA) in food supplements have a natural origin?  

PubMed

1,3 dimethylamylamine or methylexaneamine (DMAA) is a synthetic pharmaceutical patented in the 1940s as a nasal decongestant which can be used as a recreational stimulant. Alleged to occur in nature, DMAA has become a widely used ingredient in sports food supplements, despite its status as a doping agent and concerns over its safety. There is now some doubt as to whether it can be sourced naturally or whether it actually occurs naturally at all. The presence of DMAA was investigated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in extracts of the leaves and stems of four geranium species and of three well-known cultivars. The amounts of DMAA in commercial geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) oil and the leading sports supplement which uses the ingredient were also measured. DMAA was not found in any of the leaves or stems or in the commercial geranium oil included in this study. Approximately 30 mg per daily dose was found in the food supplement. Therefore, the amount of DMAA found in the supplement is most unlikely to have been sourced in nature, and it must be concluded that synthetic DMAA, known to be capable of causing severe adverse physiological effects, has been added. PMID:22941904

Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Moro, Enzo; Dos Santos, Ariana; Uberti, Francesca; Restani, Patrizia

2013-02-01

84

78 FR 7738 - Notice of Request for Revision to and Extension of Approval of an Information Collection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certification Program for Imported Articles of Pelargonium spp. and Solanum spp...a certification program for imported articles of Pelargonium spp. and Solanum spp...the certification program for imported articles of Pelargonium spp. and Solanum...

2013-02-04

85

Effects of a Chinese medical herbs complex on cellular immunity and toxicity-related conditions of breast cancer patients.  

PubMed

Rose geranium (Pelargonium graveolens, Geraniaceae) has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties, and promotes wound healing. Similarly, Ganoderma tsugae (Ganodermataceae), Codonopsis pilosula (Campanulaceae) and Angelica sinensis (Apiaceae) are traditional Chinese herbs associated with immunomodulatory functions. In the present study, a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to examine whether the Chinese medicinal herb complex, RG-CMH, which represents a mixture of rose geranium and extracts of G. tsugae, C. pilosula and A. sinensis, can improve the immune cell count of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy to prevent leucopenia and immune impairment that usually occurs during cancer therapy. A total of fifty-eight breast cancer patients who received chemotherapy or radiotherapy were enrolled. Immune cell levels in patient serum were determined before, and following, 6 weeks of cancer treatment for patients receiving either an RG-CMH or a placebo. Administration of RG-CMH was associated with a significant reduction in levels of leucocytes from 31·5 % for the placebo group to 13·4 % for the RG-CMH group. Similarly, levels of neutrophils significantly decreased from 35·6 % for the placebo group to 11·0 % for the RG-CMH group. RG-CMH intervention was also associated with a decrease in levels of T cells, helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells compared with the placebo group. However, these differences between the two groups were not statistically significant. In conclusion, administration of RG-CMH to patients receiving chemotherapy/radiotherapy may have the capacity to delay, or ease, the reduction in levels of leucocytes and neutrophils that are experienced by patients during cancer treatment. PMID:21864416

Zhuang, S R; Chiu, H F; Chen, S L; Tsai, J H; Lee, M Y; Lee, H S; Shen, Y C; Yan, Y Y; Shane, G T; Wang, C-K

2012-03-01

86

Multiple major increases and decreases in mitochondrial substitution rates in the plant family Geraniaceae  

PubMed Central

Background Rates of synonymous nucleotide substitutions are, in general, exceptionally low in plant mitochondrial genomes, several times lower than in chloroplast genomes, 10–20 times lower than in plant nuclear genomes, and 50–100 times lower than in many animal mitochondrial genomes. Several cases of moderate variation in mitochondrial substitution rates have been reported in plants, but these mostly involve correlated changes in chloroplast and/or nuclear substitution rates and are therefore thought to reflect whole-organism forces rather than ones impinging directly on the mitochondrial mutation rate. Only a single case of extensive, mitochondrial-specific rate changes has been described, in the angiosperm genus Plantago. Results We explored a second potential case of highly accelerated mitochondrial sequence evolution in plants. This case was first suggested by relatively poor hybridization of mitochondrial gene probes to DNA of Pelargonium hortorum (the common geranium). We found that all eight mitochondrial genes sequenced from P. hortorum are exceptionally divergent, whereas chloroplast and nuclear divergence is unexceptional in P. hortorum. Two mitochondrial genes were sequenced from a broad range of taxa of variable relatedness to P. hortorum, and absolute rates of mitochondrial synonymous substitutions were calculated on each branch of a phylogenetic tree of these taxa. We infer one major, ~10-fold increase in the mitochondrial synonymous substitution rate at the base of the Pelargonium family Geraniaceae, and a subsequent ~10-fold rate increase early in the evolution of Pelargonium. We also infer several moderate to major rate decreases following these initial rate increases, such that the mitochondrial substitution rate has returned to normally low levels in many members of the Geraniaceae. Finally, we find unusually little RNA editing of Geraniaceae mitochondrial genes, suggesting high levels of retroprocessing in their history. Conclusion The existence of major, mitochondrial-specific changes in rates of synonymous substitutions in the Geraniaceae implies major and reversible underlying changes in the mitochondrial mutation rate in this family. Together with the recent report of a similar pattern of rate heterogeneity in Plantago, these findings indicate that the mitochondrial mutation rate is a more plastic character in plants than previously realized. Many molecular factors could be responsible for these dramatic changes in the mitochondrial mutation rate, including nuclear gene mutations affecting the fidelity and efficacy of mitochondrial DNA replication and/or repair and – consistent with the lack of RNA editing – exceptionally high levels of "mutagenic" retroprocessing. That the mitochondrial mutation rate has returned to normally low levels in many Geraniaceae raises the possibility that, akin to the ephemerality of mutator strains in bacteria, selection favors a low mutation rate in plant mitochondria.

Parkinson, Christopher L; Mower, Jeffrey P; Qiu, Yin-Long; Shirk, Andrew J; Song, Keming; Young, Nelson D; dePamphilis, Claude W; Palmer, Jeffrey D

2005-01-01

87

Laboratory evaluation of aromatic essential oils from thirteen plant species as candidate repellents against Leptotrombidium chiggers (Acari: Trombiculidae), the vector of scrub typhus.  

PubMed

Scrub typhus, a rickettsial disease transmitted by several species of Leptotrombidium chiggers (larvae), is endemic in many areas of Asia. The disease is best prevented by the use of personal protective measures, including repellents. In this study commercially produced aromatic, essential oils of 13 plant species and ethanol (control) were tested in the laboratory for repellency against host-seeking chiggers of Leptotrombidium imphalum Vercammen-Grandjean and Langston (Acari: Trombiculidae). A rapid, simple and economic in vitro test method was used by exposing the chigger for up to 5 min. Repellency was based on relative percentages of chiggers attracted to test and control substances. Four of the 13 essential oils showed promise as effective repellent against L. imphalum chiggers. Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oil exhibited 100% repellency at 5% concentration (dilution with absolute ethanol), whereas Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil exhibited 100% repellency at 40% concentration. Undiluted oils of Zingiber cassamunar (plai) and Eucalyptus globules (blue gum) exhibited 100% repellency. Of the remaining nine essential oils, only 100% Pelargonium graveolens (geranium) exhibited >50% repellency (viz. 57%). Styrax torkinensis (benzoin) oil did not exhibit any repellency. These findings show that several aromatic, essential oils of plants may be useful as chigger repellent for the prevention of scrub typhus. Syzygium aromaticum oil may be safer and more economical to prevent chigger attacks than commercially available synthetic chemicals, such as DEET that may have harmful side effects. PMID:19009361

Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yoolek, Adisak; Kongkaew, Wittaya; Lerdthusnee, Kriangkrai; Khlaimanee, Nittaya; Parsartvit, Anchana; Malainual, Nat; Yong, Hoi-Sen

2009-03-01

88

Identification and characterization of the water gap in physically dormant seeds of Geraniaceae, with special reference to Geranium carolinianum  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Physical dormancy in seeds of species of Geraniaceae is caused by a water-impermeable palisade layer in the outer integument of the seed coat and a closed chalaza. The chalazal cleft has been reported to be the water gap (i.e. location of initial water entry) in innately permeable seeds of Geraniaceae. The primary aim of this study was to re-evaluate the location of the water gap and to characterize its morphology and anatomy in physically dormant seeds of Geraniaceae, with particular reference to G. carolinianum. Methods Length, width, mass, anatomy and germination of two seed types (light brown and dark brown) of G. carolinianum were compared. Location, anatomy and morphology of the water gap were characterized using free-hand and microtome tissue sectioning, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dye tracking, blocking and seed-burial experiments. Key Results Treatment with dry heat caused a colour change in the palisade cells adjacent to the micropyle. When placed in water, the ‘hinged valve’ (blister) erupted at the site of the colour change, exposing the water gap. The morphology and anatomy in the water-gap region differs from those of the rest of the seed coat. The morphology of the seed coat of the water-gap region is similar in G. carolinianum, G. columbinum, G. molle and G. pusillum and differs from that of the closely related species Erodium cicutarium. Conclusions Dislodgment of swollen ‘hinged valve’ palisade cells adjacent to the micropyle caused the water gap to open in physically dormant seeds of G. carolinianum, and it was clear that initial water uptake takes place through this gap and not via the chalazal opening as previously reported. This water gap (‘hinged valve gap’) differs from water gaps previously described for other families in morphology, anatomy and location in the seed coat.

Gama-Arachchige, N. S.; Baskin, J. M.; Geneve, R. L.; Baskin, C. C.

2010-01-01

89

Recent loss of plastid-encoded ndh genes within Erodium (Geraniaceae).  

PubMed

Plastid genomes in the flowering plant family Geraniaceae are known to be highly rearranged based on complete sequences representing the four major genera Erodium, Geranium, Monsonia, and Pelargonium. In this paper we report on the genome sequence of a second species of Erodium, E. carvifolium, representing the second major clade (clade II) in the phylogeny of this genus. Comparison of this genome sequence to the previously published sequence of E. texanum from clade I demonstrates that the plastid genomes of these two species encode the same number of proteins but differ greatly in their relative degree of rearrangement; 14 kb of additional sequence in E. texanum contains complex repeats associated with rearrangement endpoints, whereas the plastid genome of E. carvifolium is streamlined at 116 kb and displays no unique alterations in gene order. Furthermore, these species from both major clades of Erodium contain intact NADH dehydrogenase (ndh) genes, but the 11 ndh genes are represented as pseudogenes in a small clade of 13 species. It is unclear whether plastid-encoded ndh genes have been lost entirely or functionally transferred to the nucleus. This is the third report of the absence of functional ndh genes, and the current study describes the most recent loss of these genes among photosynthetic seed plants and the second such loss among angiosperms. The other ndh losses from Pinaceae/Gnetales and Orchidaceae are much more ancient. Comparative biochemistry between Erodium species with and without plastid-encoded ndh genes may elucidate changes in photosynthetic function and the role of the Ndh complex. PMID:21327834

Chris Blazier, J; Guisinger, Mary M; Jansen, Robert K

2011-07-01

90

Anacardic acid inhibits estrogen receptor alpha-DNA binding and reduces target gene transcription and breast cancer cell proliferation  

PubMed Central

Anacardic acid (2-hydroxy-6-alkylbenzoic acid) is a dietary and medicinal phytochemical with established anticancer activity in cell and animal models. The mechanisms by which anacardic acid inhibits cancer cell proliferation remain undefined. Anacardic acid 24:1?5 (AnAc 24:1?5) was purified from geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum) and shown to inhibit the proliferation of estrogen receptor ? (ER?)-positive MCF-7 and endocrine-resistant LCC9 and LY2 breast cancer cells with greater efficacy than ER?-negative primary human breast epithelial cells, MCF-10A normal breast epithelial cells, and MDA-MB-231 basal-like breast cancer cells. AnAc 24:1?5 inhibited cell cycle progression and induced apoptosis in a cell-specific manner. AnAc 24:1?5 inhibited estradiol (E2)-induced estrogen response element (ERE) reporter activity and transcription of the endogenous E2-target genes: pS2, cyclin D1, and cathepsin D in MCF-7 cells. AnAc 24:1?5 did not compete with E2 for ER? or ER? binding, nor did AnAc 24:1?5 reduce ER? or ER? steady state protein levels in MCF-7 cells; rather, AnAc 24:1?5 inhibited ER-ERE binding in vitro. Virtual Screening with the molecular docking software Surflex evaluated AnAc 24:1?5 interaction with ER? ligand binding and DNA binding domains (LBD and DBD) in conjunction with experimental validation. Molecular modeling revealed AnAc 24:1?5 interaction with the ER? DBD but not the LBD. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments revealed that AnAc 24:1?5 inhibited E2-ER? interaction with the endogenous pS2 gene promoter region containing an ERE. These data indicate that AnAc 24:1?5 inhibits cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis in an ER-dependent manner by reducing ER-DNA interaction and inhibiting ER-mediated transcriptional responses.

Schultz, David J.; Wickramasinghe, Nalinie S.; Ivanova, Margarita M.; Isaacs, Susan M.; Dougherty, Susan M.; Imbert-Fernandez, Yoannis; Cunningham, Albert R.; Chen, Chunyuan; Klinge, Carolyn M.

2010-01-01

91

Biosynthesis of 2-phenylethanol from glucose with genetically engineered Kluyveromyces marxianus.  

PubMed

2-Phenylethanol (2-PE) is an aromatic alcohol with a rose scent, which is used in the cosmetics, fragrance and food industries. 2-PE is produced in a few yeast strains by Ehrlich pathway. In this study, Kluyveromyces marxianus was genetically engineered for overproduction of 2-PE from glucose. About 1.0g/L of 2-PE was produced by overexpressing phenylpyruvate decarboxylase (ARO10) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2) genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A similar level of 2-PE was also produced from evolved K. marxianus, which was resistant to the phenylalanine analog, p-fluorophenylalanine. aroG(fbr) from Klebsiella pneumoniae encoding a feedback resistant mutant of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate (DHAP) synthase was overexpressed in the evolved K. marxianus. Finally, 1.3g/L of 2-PE was produced from 20g/L glucose without addition of phenylalanine in the medium. PMID:24910335

Kim, Tae-Yeon; Lee, Sang-Woo; Oh, Min-Kyu

2014-01-01

92

Optical Properties and Nondestructive Estimation of Anthocyanin Content in Plant Leaves¶  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absorption and reflectance spectra of maple ( Acer pla- tanoides), cotoneaster (Cotoneaster alaunica), dogwood (Cornus alba) and pelargonium (Pelargonium zonale) leaves with a wide range of pigment content and com- position were studied in visible and near-infrared spectra in order to reveal specific anthocyanin (Anth) spectral features in leaves. Comparing absorption spectra of Anth-containing and Anth-free leaves with the same

Anatoly A. Gitelson; Mark N. Merzlyak; Olga B. Chivkunova

2001-01-01

93

Changes in carotenoid content and distribution in living plant tissue can be observed and mapped in situ using NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-infrared (NIR) excited Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy has been applied for in situ analysis of carotenoids in living plant samples. Pelargonium x hortorum leaf has been mapped using a Raman mapping technique to illustrate heterogeneous distribution of carotenoids. Mapping has also been employed for visualization of carotenoid changes induced by abiotic and biotic stress. In a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum

Rafal Baranski; Malgorzata Baranska; Hartwig Schulz

2005-01-01

94

Soil rehabilitation and erosion control through agro-ecological practices on Reunion Island (French Overseas Territory, Indian Ocean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the western slopes of Reunion Island, the trends in cropping systems for perfume pelargonium are causing serious erosion problems. This paper reviews the causes of these trends, presents the consequences of this deterioration, and assesses the agro-ecological solutions by means of cover plants and hedging with agroforest species. Firstly, the short term effects of cover plants (Lotus uliginosus, Pennisetum

Sylvain Perret; Roger Michellon; Johnny Boyer; Jacques Tassin

1996-01-01

95

[The protective action of a natural preparation of anthocyan (pelargonidin-3,5-diglucoside)].  

PubMed

The effect of an anthocyan preparation isolated from flower petals of Pelargonium roseum and Rosa canina was studied in the Chinese hamster fibroblasts and Vicia faba seedlings in respect of cytogenetic damage and mouse survival. The pronounced radioprotective effect and the absence of the toxic effect were observed. PMID:8332723

Akhmadieva, A Kh; Zaichkina, S I; Ruzieva, R Kh; Ganassi, E E

1993-01-01

96

Detection of cucumber mosaic virus in some ornamental plants and elimination of nonspecific ELISA reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

During surveys carried out in 2008 in the nurseries of some ornamental and medical plants, about 90 plant samples belonging to six plant species were collected. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was detected by routinely double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) in most tested plants. In Vinca rosea, Ocimum basilicum and Pelargonium sp., which reacted positively for CMV, 100% of

Sabry Y. M. Mahmoud

2011-01-01

97

Inhibition of photosynthesis, acidification and stimulation of zeaxanthin formation in leaves by sulfur dioxide and reversal of these effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves of Pelargonium zonale L. and Spinacia oleracea L. were fumigated with high concentrations of SO2 for very short periods of time with the aim of first producing acute symptoms of damage and then observing repair. The response of different photosynthetic parameters to SO2 was monitored during and after fumigation. The following results were obtained: (1) Inhibition of CO2 assimilation

Sonja Veljovic-Jovanovic; Wolfgang Bilger; Ulrich Heber

1993-01-01

98

Beobachtungen bei der Zucht von Polyommatus (Aricia) torulensis (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations during the breeding of Polyommatus (Aricia) torulensis (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) Between the years 1994 and 1996 the biotope of Polyommatus (Aricia) torulensis Hesselbarth & Siepe, 1993 in the Northeast of Turkey was visited three times, to get some facts about the ecology and biology of this blue. The eggs are deposited in the wild on the leaves of a Geranium

Klaus G. Schurian

99

Medicinal plants for suppressing soil-borne plant diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of controlling common scab of potato with Geranium pratense, root of which show an antimicrobial activity, was investigated. Application of dried root powder or powdered methanol extract from G. pratense roots to the soil tended to decrease the area with scab lesions on tubers sampled from the soil with a high inoculum level. Mixed-cropping of potato with G.

Jun Ushiki; Satoshi Tahara; Yoshihiko Hayakawa; Toshiaki Tadano

1998-01-01

100

Antibacterial screening of some essential oils, monoterpenoids and novel N-methyl carbamates based on monoterpenoids against Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Erwinia carotovora  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive evaluation of 13 plant essential oils namely: caraway, chenopodium, cinnamon, clove, eucalyptus, garlic, geranium, lemon, matrecary, peppermint, rose, rosemary and thyme and 14 of their monoterpenoidal constituents: borneol, camphor, carvacrol, carveol, carvone (R and S), chlorothymol, cineol, cinnamaldehyde, citronellol, eugenol, geraneol, menthol, and thymol was investigated for their antibacterial activity against the two phytopathogenic bacteria, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and

Saad Rashad El-Zemity; Mohamed Aly Radwan; Shady Abd El-Monam Mohamed; Shebl Mohamed Sherby

2008-01-01

101

Molecular Structure of Methyl benzoate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Methyl benzoate is used mainly as a perfume; it has a very pleasant smell and mixes well with scents of ylang ylang, musk, rose, and geranium. Methyl benzoate also acts as a solvent for cellulose esters, as a dying carrier, disinfectant additive, penetrating agent, and as a pesticide.

2002-10-11

102

Contributions to the Flora and Plant Ecology of Campbell Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Native plant species newly recorded for Campbell Island are: Lycopodium cf. australianum, Rumex flexuosus, R. negleclus, Cotula dispersa subsp. dispersa, Acianthus viridis, and possibly Puccinellia macquariensis hitherto regarded as an endemic grass of Macquarie Island. Additions to the exotic flora include cultivars, garden escapes, and otner largely ephemeral introductions. These are: the weeds Cardamine hirsuta, Polygonum convolvulus, Geranium pusillum, Hypericum

Colin D. Meurk

1975-01-01

103

Design and development of aqueous nanoformulations for mosquito control.  

PubMed

Microemulsions (ME) are thermodynamically stable isotropic mixtures of oil, water, and surfactant; they would also be attractive as potential insecticidal products due to the high bioviability of the active ingredient, attributable to the small sizes of the oil drops. A laboratory study was conducted in order to compare the biological effect of oil in water (o/w) geranium essential oil (EO) and geraniol MEs and emulsions, against Culex pipiens pipiens mosquito larvae. The systems were based on three nonionic surfactants (Cremophor EL, Brij 35, Tween 80). The MEs showed dispersed phase diameters in the range of 8 to 14 nm and had low PDI values (<0.2). The MEs were analyzed by TEM, indicating that they had nearly spherical morphology. The microemulsified systems based on geranium EO and those of geraniol produced a notable increase of the larvicidal activity when compared with the respectably emulsions, concluding that the biological effect is related with the diameter of the dispersed phase. The smallest drops achieved the highest larvicidal activity, being the aqueous nanoformulations based on geraniol most effective than those of geranium EO. However, geranium microemulsions are preferred due to their residual toxicological profiles. The results indicate that these novel systems could be used in integrated pest management program for the C. pipiens pipiens. PMID:24292544

Montefuscoli, Antonela Rita; Werdin González, Jorge Omar; Palma, Santiago Daniel; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia; Fernández Band, Beatriz

2014-02-01

104

Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of 12 medicinal and aromatic plants were investigated for their radical scavenging activity using DPPH and ABTS assays: Salvia sclarea, Salvia glutinosa, Salvia pratensis, Lavandula angustifolia, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Echinacea purpurea, Rhaponticum carthamoides, Juglans regia, Melilotus officinalis, Geranium macrorrhizum and Potentilla fruticosa. Salvia officinalis was used as a reference plant with well documented antioxidant activity. G. macrorrhizum and

G. Miliauskas; P. R. Venskutonis; T. A. van Beek

2004-01-01

105

New Records of fungous diseases on plants in New Zealand, 1962–64  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following fungi are recorded in New Zealand for the first time: Elsinoe parthenocissi Jenkins and Bitancourt on Parthenocissus tricuspidata (Sieb, and Zucc.) Planch (Virginia creeper), Venturia circinans (Fr.) Sacc. on Geranium molle L. (crane’s-bill); V. enteleae n. sp. on Entelea arborescens R. Br.; Griphosphaeria corticola (Fckl.) Hoehnel on Rosa sp., on Rosa rubiginosa L. (sweet briar), on R. idaeus

Joan M. Dingley

1965-01-01

106

Spring Flowers: Harvest of a Sensitive Eye  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defining and describing a number of spring flowers, this article includes illustrations and explanations that demonstrate "art and science are born of the same parents". The flowers discussed are skunk cabbage, bellwort, spring beauty, jack-in-the-pulpit, Solomon's seal, wild geranium, showy orchids, moccasin flower, bluets, apple, and Indian…

Clark, Eloise; Levin, Ted

1978-01-01

107

Laboratory evaluation of four commercial repellents against larval Leptotrombidium deliense (Acari: Trombiculidae).  

PubMed

Four commercial repellents were evaluated in the laboratory against Leptotrombidium deliense chiggers. Both in vitro and in vivo methods were used to determine repellency of the compounds. The repellents were Kellis (containing citronella oil, jojoba oil and tea tree oil), Kaps (containing citronella oil), BioZ (containing citronella oil, geranium oil and lemon grass oil) and Off (containing DEET). The combination of three active ingredients: citronella oil, geranium oil, lemon grass oil gave the highest repellency (87%) followed by DEET (84%). In vitro repellencies ranged from 73% to 87%. There was no significant difference between the four products. All the repellents had 100% in vivo repellency compared to 41-57% for the controls. PMID:21073028

Hanifah, Azima Laili; Ismail, Siti Hazar Awang; Ming, Ho Tze

2010-09-01

108

Chemical composition, olfactory evaluation and antimicrobial activity of selected essential oils and absolutes from Morocco.  

PubMed

The chemical compositions of selected essential oils from North Africa, especially Morocco, of geranium, wild Moroccan chamomile and rosemary as well as absolutes of rose and geranium were determined using GC/FID and GC/MS. These oils and absolutes were tested concerning their antimicrobial activity against some food spoilage strains obtained from fresh milk and minced meat products, like sausages and pork fillet, in accordance with ISO testing procedures. Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Salmonella abony and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) strains were used, as well as the yeast Candida albicans. Using a serial broth dilution method, all samples demonstrated weak antimicrobial activity against the Gram-negative bacteria and the yeast, compared with the activity towards the Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:20922989

Wanner, Juergen; Schmidt, Erich; Bail, Stefanie; Jirovetz, Leopold; Buchbauer, Gerhard; Gochev, Velizar; Girova, Tanya; Atanasova, Teodora; Stoyanova, Albena

2010-09-01

109

Morphological analysis of alpine communities of the north-western Caucasus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The species composition of four alpine communities in the north-western Caucasus was subjected to a morphological analysis.\\u000a The communities are an alpine lichen heath type (ALH), aFestuca varia grassland type (FVG), aGeranium-Hedysarum meadow type (GHM) and a snowbed community (SBC). Eighty-two species were studied, using the following morphological parameters:\\u000a vegetative mobility, presence of rosettes, architectural model, life form according toRaunkiaer

Galina A. Pokarzhevskaya

1995-01-01

110

Emerging Plant Pathogenic Bacteria and Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several bacteria, previously classified as non-fluorescent, oxidase positive pseudomonads, Ralstonia, Acidovorax, and Burkholderia have emerged as serious problems worldwide. Perhaps the most destructive is R. solanacearum (RS), a soilborne pathogen with a very wide host range. RS race 3, biovar 2 infects potato and geranium during cooler weather\\u000a making it an additional threat. Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae has emerged as

Norman W. Schaad

111

Studies of mitochondrial morphology and DNA amount in the rice egg cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

In plant vegetative cells, mitochondria are usually small and grain-shaped. In contrast, unusually shaped giant mitochondria\\u000a (large cup-shaped or long stretched-rod-shaped) appear in the egg cells of geranium, maize, Ipomoea nil, and bracken. In this study, to characterize egg cell mitochondria in rice, we used nonenzymatic manual dissection to isolate\\u000a unfertilized egg cells of rice and observed the egg cell

Hideki Takanashi; Takayuki Ohnishi; Mirai Mogi; Takashi Okamoto; Shin-ichi Arimura; Nobuhiro Tsutsumi

2010-01-01

112

Evaluation of Vetiver Oil and Seven Insect-Active Essential Oils Against the Formosan Subterranean Termite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repellency and toxicity of 8 essential oils (vetiver grass, cassia leaf, clove bud, cedarwood, Eucalyptus globules,Eucalyptus citrodora, lemongrass and geranium) were evaluated against the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Vetiver oil proved the most effective repellent because of its long-lasting activity. Clove bud was the most toxic, killing 100% of termites in 2 days at 50 µg\\/cm2. The tunneling

Betty C. R. Zhu; Gregg Henderson; Feng Chen; Huixin Fei; Roger A. Laine

2001-01-01

113

Repellent effectiveness of seven plant essential oils, sunflower oil and natural insecticides against horn flies on pastured dairy cows and heifers.  

PubMed

Plant essential oils (basil, geranium, balsam fir, lavender, lemongrass, peppermint, pine and tea tree), mixed with either sunflower oil or ethyl alcohol, were applied at 5% concentrations to the sides of Holstein cattle. Pastured cattle treated with essential oils diluted in sunflower oil had less flies than the untreated control for a 24-h period. However, the essential oil treatments were not significantly different than the carrier oil alone. Barn-held heifers treated with essential oils and sunflower oil alone had significantly less flies than the untreated control for up to 8 h after treatment. Basil, geranium, lavender, lemongrass and peppermint repelled more flies than sunflower oil alone for a period ranging from 1.5 to 4 h after treatments applied to heifers. All essential oils repelled > 75% of the flies on the treated area for 6 and 8 h on pastured cows and indoor heifers, respectively. Geranium, lemongrass and peppermint stayed effective for a longer duration. Essential oils mixed with ethyl alcohol demonstrated less repellence than when mixed with the carrier oil. Safer's soap, natural pyrethrins without piperonyl butoxide and ethyl alcohol alone were not efficient at repelling flies. Essential oils could be formulated for use as fly repellents in livestock production. PMID:24382265

Lachance, S; Grange, G

2014-06-01

114

Phytophthora tropicalis on Hedera helix and Epipremnum aureum in Polish greenhouses.  

PubMed

Phytophthora tropicalis was isolated from Hedera helix and Epipremnum aureum showing discoloration of leaves, necrosis of shoot base, spread upwards and on roots. The species was detected from 7/8 plants of Hedera and 3/4 of Epipremnum. Additionally Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium avenaceum and Rhizoctonia solani were recovered from some of diseased plants. P. tropicalis caused leaf necrosis of 13 plant species and tomato seedlings. The quickest spread of necrosis was observed on leaves of Peperomia magnoliaefolia, Pelargonium zonale and Phalaenopsis x hybridum. The disease developed at temperature ranged from 10 degrees to 32.5 degrees C with optimum 30 degrees C. PMID:17390874

Orlikowski, L B; Trzewik, A; Wiejacha, K

2006-01-01

115

Superconducting niobium alloys  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of making a niobium alloy having the general formula Nb/sub 3/M where M is selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, indium, tin, geranium, silicon, and mixtures thereof. The method comprising reacting NbX/sub y/ with M in a solution comprising a liquid alkali metal, where X is halogen and y is the valence of the niobium and an inert solid salt that has a melting point between about 450{sup 0}C and about 600{sup 0}C in an amount sufficient to absorb the exothermic heat of the reaction.

Charles, R.G.

1989-09-12

116

[The in vitro action of plants on Vibrio cholerae].  

PubMed

Natural products of several plants, according to the geographic location, are used by Peruvian people in the popular treatment of diarrhea, with good success. When cholerae cases appeared in Peru, we were interested to know the "in vitro" effect against Vibrio cholerae 01, of these useful plants to treat diarrhea. The following plants were tested: Cichorium intybus, Althaea officinalis, Psorela glandulosa, Geranium maculatum, Punica granatum, Malus sativa, Cydonia oblonga, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Krameria triandria, Tea chinensis, Daucus carota, Persea gratissima, Psidium guayaba and Lippia dulcis. Decoction or infusion of the plants were used in the "in vitro" experiments. The following plants showed no "in vitro" effect against V. cholerae: Cichorium intybus, Althaea officinalis, Psorela glandulosa, Geranium maculatum, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Krameria triandria, Psidium guayaba, Lippia dulcis and Daucus carota. Decoction of Malus sativa and Cydenia oblonga showed bactericidal effect for their acidity and stone avocado (Persea gratissima) a late bactericidal effect. Tea infusión and the decoction of Punica granatum peel, showed the best bactericidal effect and we suggest to use them as to stop cholera spreading. PMID:8018898

Guevara, J M; Chumpitaz, J; Valencia, E

1994-01-01

117

Mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) and distinguish them from other MLOs.  

PubMed

DNA of 10 lines of rice yellow dwarf (RYD) mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) from Japan, the Phillippines, and Thailand hybridized with four probes containing chromosomal and six probes containing extrachromosomal DNA of a Tochigi (Japan) line of RYD MLO. One chromosomal probe (RYD9) and all six extrachromosomal probes hybridized with various other MLOs (sugarcane white leaf, onion yellows, cineraria witches'-broom, Japanese hornwort witches'-broom, water dropwort wiches'-broom, gentian witches'-broom, udo dwarf, tsuwabuki witches'-broom, pelargonium witches's-broom, peach western-X, and pear decline). DNA from the culturable mollicutes Spiroplasma kunkelii, Spiroplasma citri, Mycoplasma hominis, and Mycoplasma orale did not hybridize with RYD MLO probes. The extrachromosomal DNAs hybridizing with the probes showed variations in electrophoretic behavior. PMID:8489230

Nakashima, K; Kato, S; Iwanami, S; Murata, N

1993-04-01

118

Mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) and distinguish them from other MLOs.  

PubMed Central

DNA of 10 lines of rice yellow dwarf (RYD) mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) from Japan, the Phillippines, and Thailand hybridized with four probes containing chromosomal and six probes containing extrachromosomal DNA of a Tochigi (Japan) line of RYD MLO. One chromosomal probe (RYD9) and all six extrachromosomal probes hybridized with various other MLOs (sugarcane white leaf, onion yellows, cineraria witches'-broom, Japanese hornwort witches'-broom, water dropwort wiches'-broom, gentian witches'-broom, udo dwarf, tsuwabuki witches'-broom, pelargonium witches's-broom, peach western-X, and pear decline). DNA from the culturable mollicutes Spiroplasma kunkelii, Spiroplasma citri, Mycoplasma hominis, and Mycoplasma orale did not hybridize with RYD MLO probes. The extrachromosomal DNAs hybridizing with the probes showed variations in electrophoretic behavior. Images

Nakashima, K; Kato, S; Iwanami, S; Murata, N

1993-01-01

119

Characterization of a new Anulavirus isolated from Amazon lily plants.  

PubMed

A quasi-spherical virus was isolated from a cultivated Amazon lily plant (Eucharis grandiflora) that could be mechanically transmitted to healthy E. grandiflora plants, subsequently producing mild mosaic or mottle symptoms on the leaves. The purified virus consisted of three quasi-spherical particles about 20 nm wide and 70, 40 and 30 nm in length, containing three segmented genomes of 3,169, 2,507 and 2,530 nucleotides, respectively. Sequence analysis showed that the newly isolated virus is related to pelargonium zonate spot virus, a member of the genus Anulavirus. We propose that the virus should be designated as Amazon lily mild mottle virus (ALiMMV). PMID:22965580

Fuji, S; Kikuchi, M; Ueda, S; Toda, T; Furuya, H; Fukumoto, F; Hanada, K

2013-01-01

120

Interspecific Variation in SO2 Flux 1  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to clarify the relationships among stomatal, residual, and epidermal conductances in determining the flux of SO2 air pollution to leaves. Variations in leaf SO2 and H2O vapor fluxes were determined using four plant species: Pisum sativum L. (garden pea), Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. flacca (mutant of tomato), Geranium carolinianum L. (wild geranium), and Diplacus aurantiacus (Curtis) Jeps. (a native California shrub). Fluxes were measured using the mass-balance approach during exposure to 4.56 micromoles per cubic meter (0.11 microliters per liter) SO2 for 2 hours in a controlled environmental chamber. Flux through adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces with closed stomata ranged from 1.9 to 9.4 nanomoles per square meter per second for SO2, and 0.3 to 1.3 millimoles per square meter per second for H2O vapor. Flux of SO2 into leaves through stomata ranged from ?0 to 8.5 (dark) and 3.8 to 16.0 (light) millimoles per square meter per second. Flux of H2O vapor from leaves through stomata ranged from ?0 to 0.6 (dark) to 0.4 to 0.9 (light) millimole per square meter per second. Lycopersicon had internal flux rates for both SO2 and H2O vapor over twice as high as for the other species. Stomatal conductance based on H2O vapor flux averaged from 0.07 to 0.13 mole per square meter per second among the four species. Internal conductance of SO2 as calculated from SO2 flux was from 0.04 mole per square meter per second lower to 0.06 mole per square meter per second higher than stomatal conductance. For Pisum, Geranium, and Diplacus stomatal conductance was the same or slightly higher than internal conductance, indicating that, in general, SO2 flux could be predicted from stomatal conductance for H2O vapor. However, for the Lycopersicon mutant, internal leaf conductance was much higher than stomatal conductance, indicating that factors inside leaves can play a significant role in determining SO2 flux.

Olszyk, David M.; Tingey, David T.

1985-01-01

121

Effects of aromatherapy massage on blood pressure and lipid profile in korean climacteric women.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on the lipid profile and blood pressure in Korean climacteric women. A wait-listed control group, pretest-posttest design was used. The subjects comprised 58 climacteric women: 30 in the experimental group and 28 in the control group. Aromatherapy massage using lavender, rose geranium, rose, and jasmine was given to the experimental group only. Each massage session lasted 30 minutes, and was performed once weekly for two 8-week periods with self abdominal daily massage at home. The intervention produced significant differences in the systolic blood pressure compare to pretreatment and significant differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressures at posttreatment between the two groups. These results suggest that aromatherapy massage may exert positive effects on blood pressure. However, more objective, clinical measures should be applied in a future study with a randomized placebo-controlled design. PMID:17654092

Hur, Myung-Haeng; Oh, Heeyoung; Lee, Myeong Soo; Kim, Chan; Choi, Ae-Na; Shin, Gil-Ran

2007-09-01

122

Staining paraffin extracted, alcohol rinsed and air dried plant tissue with an aqueous mixture of three dyes.  

PubMed

A staining solution containing alcian blue 8GX, Bismarck brown Y and safranin O was prepared with 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer, pH 5.0. Paraffin was extracted with MicroClear solvent from 10 microm tissue sections mounted on slides. Paraffin solvent was removed by rinsing with isopropanol, and tissues were air dried. Slides with bare dry tissue sections were immersed in the triple stain and structures could be distinguished within 30 min as follows: nonlignified cell walls, blue; lignified cell walls, nuclei and chloroplasts, red; and cuticle, brown or yellow-brown. Excess staining solution was removed by rinsing with tap water, and the tissues were air dried again. Coverslips were affixed with resin over the stained dry tissues. This novel procedure was tested with immature tomato fruit, mature apple fruit, and various leaf and stem specimens of dogwood, laurel, pawpaw, poinsettia and zonal geranium. PMID:9735876

Graham, E T; Trentham, W R

1998-07-01

123

Screening of natural antioxidants from traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with treatment of rheumatic disease.  

PubMed

In order to find new sources of natural antioxidants, the antioxidant capacities of 50 medicinal plants associated with treatment of rheumatic diseases were systemically evaluated using the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays, and their total phenolic contents were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Their antioxidant activities of some of these plants were analyzed for the first time. The FRAP and TEAC assay results suggested that the antioxidant compounds in these plants possessed free radicals scavenging activity and oxidant reducing power. A positive linear correlation between antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents implied that phenolic compounds in these plants could be the main components contributing to the observed activities. The results showed that Geranium wilfordii, Loranthus parasiticus, Polygonum aviculare, Pyrrosia sheaeri, Sinomenium acutum and Tripterygium wilfordii possessed the highest antioxidant capacities and total phenolic content among 50 plants tested, and could be rich potential sources of natural antioxidants. PMID:20877204

Gan, Ren-You; Kuang, Lei; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Zhang, Yuan; Xia, En-Qin; Song, Feng-Lin; Li, Hua-Bin

2010-09-01

124

Antisecretory activity of plants used to treat gastrointestinal disorders in Mexico.  

PubMed

Aqueous and methanolic extracts from 26 medicinal plants used in Mexico to treat gastrointestinal disorders were screened to evaluate their antisecretory activity on cholera toxin-induced intestinal secretion in rat jejunal loops model. Extracts were tested at a dose of 300 mg/kg. From 56 samples tested, both extracts from Chiranthodendron pentadactylon, Hippocratea excelsa and Ocimum basilicum were the most potent with inhibition values ranging from 68.0 to 87.6%. On the other hand, the methanolic extract of Geranium mexicanum (aerial parts) and the aqueous extract of Bocconia frutescens showed the highest activity with inhibition values of 93.4 and 86.0%, respectively. The results obtained in this study give some scientific support to the use of the Mexican medicinal plants employed for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea. PMID:16174555

Velázquez, Claudia; Calzada, Fernando; Torres, Javier; González, Felipe; Ceballos, Guillermo

2006-01-01

125

Identification and aroma impact of norisoprenoids in orange juice.  

PubMed

Four norisoprenoids, alpha-ionone, beta-ionone, beta-cyclocitral, and beta-damascenone, along with their putative carotenoid precursors, were identified in Valencia orange juice using time-intensity GC-O, GC-MS, and photodiode array HPLC. alpha-Ionone and beta-cyclocitral are reported in orange juice for the first time. GC-O aroma peaks were categorized into seven groups with similar sensory qualities: citrus/minty, metallic/mushroom/geranium, roasted/cooked/meaty/spice, fatty/soapy/green, sulfury/solventy/medicine, floral, and sweet fruity. The four norisoprenoids contributed approximately 8% of the total aroma intensity and 78% of the total floral aroma category. The putative carotenoid norisoprenoid precursors, alpha- and beta-carotene, alpha- and beta-cryptoxanthin, and neoxanthin, were identified in the same orange juice using photodiode array HPLC retention times and spectral characteristics. PMID:15656678

Mahattanatawee, Kanjana; Rouseff, Russell; Valim, M Filomena; Naim, Michael

2005-01-26

126

Field evaluation of New Mountain Sandalwood Mosquito Sticks and New Mountain Sandalwood Botanical Repellent against mosquitoes in North Queensland, Australia.  

PubMed

The mosquito repellent efficacy of New Mountain Sandalwood Mosquito Sticks (containing 0.5% w/w essential oils) and New Mountain Sandalwood Botanical Repellent (containing soybean and geranium oils) was assessed. Tests were conducted in the field with 4 volunteers in a wooded area near Cairns, North Queensland, Australia. Predominant biting species were Verrallina funerea and Ve. lineata. A pair of burning Mosquito Sticks immediately upwind of the subject (acting as an area repellent) provided a 73.1% mean reduction in mosquito landing and probing over the 3-h test period. The Botanical Repellent and a DEET-based control were both 100% effective in preventing mosquito probing for 3 h. These data are consistent with other studies of area repellents in that such products provide significant protection from mosquito bites, albeit inferior to the protection provided by topically applied repellents. PMID:16646344

Ritchie, Scott A; Williams, Craig R; Montgomery, Brian L

2006-03-01

127

Plant Information Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the University of Minnesota Libraries, Plant Information Online is intended for just about anyone with a green thumb, or those who want to get their thumbs a bit greener. Visitors to this fine database will find details on over 134,000 wild and cultivated plants, along with information on over 2200 North American retail and wholesale seed and nursery firms. From the homepage, visitors can search the plant database by scientific or common name, and they can also take a look at the search tips for a bit more guidance. Additionally, the site also contains links to selected websites that feature both images and more detailed regional data on thousands of plants. After locating plants of interest, some visitors may wish to browse through the nursery database for tips on locating the closest place for geraniums, hydrangeas, and other such forms of vegetation.

2007-01-01

128

Effect of oral imperatorin on memory in mice.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the effect of the acetylcholinesterase inhibiting mixture of extracts of Angelica archangelica fruit and Geranium sylvaticum on memory. Furthermore the effect of the main compound, the furanocoumarin imperatorin, which has been shown to affect several neurotransmitters, was studied. Passive avoidance was measured by step-down latency and step-through latency of 10 months old mice receiving 0.79 mg/kg of imperatorin daily, pure or as part of the extracts, for 14 days or longer. Step-down latency was significantly higher in both groups receiving imperatorin than in the control group. In contrast, no difference was found between treatment groups regarding step-through latency. The results indicate that the imperatorin is the main active component of the extract mixture. PMID:24140410

Sigurdsson, Steinthor; Gudbjarnason, Sigmundur

2013-11-15

129

Temperature-dependent alterations in host use drive rapid range expansion in a butterfly.  

PubMed

Responses of species to climate change are extremely variable, perhaps because of climate-related changes to interactions among species. We show that temperature-related changes in the dependence of the butterfly Aricia agestis on different larval host plants have facilitated rapid range expansion. Historically, the butterfly was largely restricted to a single plant species, Helianthemum nummularium, but recent warmer conditions have enabled the butterfly to increasingly use the more widespread plant species Geranium molle. This has resulted in a substantial increase in available habitat and rapid range expansion by the butterfly (79 kilometers northward in Britain in 20 years). Interactions among species are often seen as constraints on species' responses to climate change, but we show that temperature-dependent changes to interspecific interactions can also facilitate change. PMID:22628653

Pateman, Rachel M; Hill, Jane K; Roy, David B; Fox, Richard; Thomas, Chris D

2012-05-25

130

Portable Radiation Detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from Kennedy Space Center, General Pneumatics Corporation's Western Research Center satisfied a NASA need for a non-clogging Joule-Thomson cryostat to provide very low temperature cooling for various sensors. This NASA-supported cryostat development played a key part in the development of more portable high-purity geranium gamma-ray detectors. Such are necessary to discern between the radionuclides in medical, fuel, weapon, and waste materials. The outcome of the SBIR project is a cryostat that can cool gamma-ray detectors, without vibration, using compressed gas that can be stored compactly and indefinitely in a standby mode. General Pneumatics also produces custom J-T cryostats for other government, commercial and medical applications.

1997-01-01

131

Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at the Oakley Southern Sky Observatory: 2009 October thru 2010 April  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photometric data for 44 asteroids were collected over 54 nights of observing during 2009 October thru 2010 April at the Oakley Southern Sky Observatory. The asteroids were: 826 Henrika, 918 Itha, 983 Gunila, 1049 Gotho, 1167 Dubiago, 1181 Lilith, 1227 Geranium, 1604 Tombaugh, 1636 Porter, 1826 Miller, 1977 Shura, 2004 Lexell, 2196 Ellicott, 2303 Retsina, 2307 Garuda, 2601 Bologna, 2609 Kiril-Metodi, 2851 Harbin, 2881 Meiden, 3118 Claytonsmith, 3324 Avsyuk, 3640 Gostin, 4207 Chernova, 4536 Drewpinsky, 4838 Billmclaughlin, 5235 Jean-Loup, 5274 Degewij, 5240 Kwasan, (6019) 1991 RO6, 6091 Mitsuru, 6961 Ashitaka, (7111) 1985 QA1, (8228) 1996 YB2, 11017 Billputnam, (13023) 1988 XT1, (14741) 2000 EQ49, 15938 Bohnenblust, 16463 Nayoro, (17633) 1996 JU, (21023) 1989 DK, 21558 Alisonliu, (21594) 1998 VP31, (34459) 2000 SC91, and (189099) 2001 RO.

Albers, Kenda; Kragh, Katherine; Monnier, Adam; Pligge, Zachary; Stolze, Kellen; West, Josh; Yim, Arnold; Ditteon, Richard

2010-10-01

132

Apparent Resistivity and Estimated Interaction Potential of Surface Water and Groundwater along Selected Canals and Streams in the Elkhorn-Loup Model Study Area, North-Central Nebraska, 2006-07  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2005, the State of Nebraska adopted new legislation that in part requires local Natural Resources Districts to include the effect of groundwater use on surface-water systems in their groundwater management plan. In response the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Upper Elkhorn, Lower Elkhorn, Upper Loup, Lower Loup, Middle Niobrara, Lower Niobrara, Lewis and Clark, and Lower Platte North Natural Resources Districts, did a study during 2006-07 to investigate the surface-water and groundwater interaction within a 79,800-square-kilometer area in north-central Nebraska. To determine how streambed materials affect surface-water and groundwater interaction, surface geophysical and lithologic data were integrated at four sites to characterize the hydrogeologic conditions within the study area. Frequency-domain electromagnetic and waterborne direct- current resistivity profiles were collected to map the near-surface hydrogeologic conditions along sections of Ainsworth Canal near Ainsworth, Nebraska; Mirdan and Geranium Canals near Ord, Nebraska; North Loup River near Ord, Nebraska; and Middle Loup River near Thedford, Nebraska. Lithologic data were collected from test holes at each site to aid interpretation of the geophysical data. Geostatistical analysis incorporating the spatial variability of resistivity was used to account for the effect of lithologic heterogeneity on effective hydraulic permeability. The geostatistical analysis and lithologic data descriptions were used to make an interpretation of the hydrogeologic system and derive estimates of surface-water/groundwater interaction potential within the canals and streambeds. The estimated interaction potential at the Ainsworth Canal site and the Mirdan and Geranium Canal site is generally low to moderately low. The sediment textures at nearby test holes typically were silt and clay and fine-to-medium sand. The apparent resistivity values for these sites ranged from 2 to 120 ohm-meters. The vertical and horizontal variability of the apparent resistivity data were consistently low. Low resistive variability indicates little lithologic heterogeneity for either canal site. The surface-water/groundwater interaction-potential estimates are in agreement with the narrow frequency distribution of resistivity, low apparent resistivities, low spatial heterogeneity, and test-hole grain-size ranges. The estimated surface-water/groundwater interaction potential at the North Loup and Middle Loup River sites is moderate to moderately high. The sediment textures at nearby test holes were predominantly fine, medium, and coarse sand with some silt and silty to sandy clay. The apparent resistivity values for these sites ranged from 34 to 1,338 ohm-meters. The vertical variability of the resistivity data was moderately high. The horizontal variability at these sites is low to moderately low. The higher resistive variability at these sites indicates generally greater lithologic heterogeneity than at either the Ainsworth Canal site or the Mirdan and Geranium Canal site. The surface-water/groundwater interaction-potential estimates are in agreement with the generally moderate to high apparent resistivity, the greater spatial heterogeneity, and the variable lithologic texture. A higher interaction potential as compared to the canal sites is expected because of the higher subsurface resistivity and greater lithologic heterogeneity.

Teeple, Andrew P.; Vrabel, Joseph; Kress, Wade H.; Cannia, James C.

2009-01-01

133

Adverse effects of herbal medicines: an overview of systematic reviews.  

PubMed

This overview of systematic reviews (SRs) aims to evaluate critically the evidence regarding the adverse effects of herbal medicines (HMs). Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant SRs, with 50 SRs of 50 different HMs meeting our inclusion criteria. Most had only minor weaknesses in methods. Serious adverse effects were noted only for four HMs: Herbae pulvis standardisatus, Larrea tridentate, Piper methysticum and Cassia senna. The most severe adverse effects were liver or kidney damage, colon perforation, carcinoma, coma and death. Moderately severe adverse effects were noted for 15 HMs: Pelargonium sidoides, Perna canaliculus, Aloe vera, Mentha piperita, Medicago sativa, Cimicifuga racemosa, Caulophyllum thalictroides, Serenoa repens, Taraxacum officinale, Camellia sinensis, Commifora mukul, Hoodia gordonii, Viscum album, Trifolium pratense and Stevia rebaudiana. Minor adverse effects were noted for 31 HMs: Thymus vulgaris, Lavandula angustifolia Miller, Boswellia serrata, Calendula officinalis, Harpagophytum procumbens, Panax ginseng, Vitex agnus-castus, Crataegus spp., Cinnamomum spp., Petasites hybridus, Agave americana, Hypericum perforatum, Echinacea spp., Silybum marianum, Capsicum spp., Genus phyllanthus, Ginkgo biloba, Valeriana officinalis, Hippocastanaceae, Melissa officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Cnicus benedictus, Salvia hispanica, Vaccinium myrtillus, Mentha spicata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Crocus sativus, Gymnema sylvestre, Morinda citrifolia and Curcuma longa. Most of the HMs evaluated in SRs were associated with only moderately severe or minor adverse effects. PMID:23472485

Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala K; Ernst, Edzard

2013-02-01

134

Development of Cuscuta species on a partially incompatible host: induction of xylem transfer cells.  

PubMed

The growth of dodders, Cuscuta reflexa and Cuscuta japonica, on the partially incompatible host poinsettia ( Euphorbia pulcherrima) is studied. Poinsettia responds by bark growths to the formation of the dodder haustoria and prevents dodder from obtaining normal growth. The growth instead becomes extremely branched, coral-like, and dodder lacks the ability to form haustoria. After a period of coral-like growth, long shoots sprout, resembling the normal growth. These long shoots mark an ending phase for dodder, which dies shortly after without having flowered. During the coral-like growth phase, dodder develops transfer cells in the parenchyma cells bordering the vessels of the xylem in the shoot. The transfer cells have not been observed when dodder is grown on the compatible host Pelargonium zonale. A coral-like growth phase has also been observed at the establishing phase when dodder is grown in vitro on agar; later a more normal growth form takes over. In this coral phase, xylem transfer cells are also developed. The fluorochromes carboxyfluorescein and Texas Red were loaded into the host in the phloem and xylem, respectively, and detection of these fluorochromes in the dodder stem indicated that a functional haustorial contact developed for both vascular systems. The results show that Cuscutaspp. have the genetic ability to develop xylem transfer cells and use this in response to developmental stress. PMID:12664277

Christensen, Nynne M; Dörr, Inge; Hansen, M; van der Kooij, T A W; Schulz, A

2003-03-01

135

Molecular analysis of the complete genomic sequences of four isolates of Gooseberry vein banding associated virus.  

PubMed

The presence of Gooseberry vein banding associated virus (GVBaV), a badnavirus in the family Caulimoviridae, is strongly correlated with gooseberry vein banding disease in Ribes spp. In this study, full-length genomic sequences of four GVBaV isolates from different hosts and geographic regions were determined to be 7649-7663 nucleotides. These isolates share identities of 96.4-97.3% for the complete genomic sequence, indicating low genetic diversity among them. The GVBaV genome contains three open reading frames (ORFs) on the plus strand that potentially encode proteins of 26, 16, and 216 kDa. The size and organization of GVBaV ORFs 1-3 are similar to those of most other badnaviruses. The putative amino acid sequence of GVBaV ORF 3 contained motifs that are conserved among badnavirus proteins including aspartic protease, reverse transcriptase, and ribonuclease H. The highly conserved putative plant tRNA(met)-binding site is also present in the 935-bp intergenic region of GVBaV. The identities of the genomic sequences of GVBaV and other badnaviruses range from 49.1% (Sugarcane bacilliform Mor virus) to 51.7% (Pelargonium vein banding virus, PVBV). Phylogenetic analysis using the amino acid sequence of the ORF 3 putative protein shows that GVBaV groups most closely to Dioscorea bacilliform virus, PVBV, and Taro bacilliform virus. These results confirm that GVBaV is a pararetrovirus of the genus Badnavirus in the family Caulimoviridae. PMID:21533750

Xu, Donglin; Mock, Ray; Kinard, Gary; Li, Ruhui

2011-08-01

136

Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils from five selected herbs.  

PubMed

Eucalyptus bridgesiana, Cymbopogon martinii, Thymus vulgaris, Lindernia anagallis, and Pelargonium fragrans are five species of herbs used in Asia. Their essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS, and a total of 36 components were detected. The results of our study indicated that, except for the essential oil of P. fragrans, all of the essential oils demonstrated obvious antimicrobial activity against a broad range of microorganisms. The C. martinii essential oil, which is rich in geraniol, was the most effective antimicrobial additive. All of the essential oils demonstrated antioxidant activities on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, ?-carotene/linoleic acid assay, and nitric oxide radical scavenging assay. Furthermore, the T. vulgaris essential oil, which possesses plentiful thymol, exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. For P. acnes-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the essential oils of P. aeruginosa, C. martinii, and T. vulgaris reduced the TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-8 secretion levels of THP-1 cells. PMID:21979069

Tsai, Mei-Lin; Lin, Chih-Chien; Lin, Wei-Chao; Yang, Chao-Hsun

2011-01-01

137

Synergistic Antimycobacterial Actions of Knowltonia vesicatoria (L.f) Sims  

PubMed Central

Euclea natalensis A.DC., Knowltonia vesicatoria (L.f) Sims, and Pelargonium sidoides DC. are South African plants traditionally used to treat tuberculosis. Extracts from these plants were used in combination with isoniazid (INH) to investigate the possibility of synergy with respect to antimycobacterial activity. The ethanol extract of K. vesicatoria was subjected to fractionation to identify the active compounds. The activity of the Knowltonia extract remained superior to the fractions with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 625.0??g/mL against Mycobacterium smegmatis and an MIC of 50.00??g/mL against M. tuberculosis. The K. vesicatoria extract was tested against two different drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis, which resulted in an MIC of 50.00??g/mL on both strains. The combination of K. vesicatoria with INH exhibited the best synergistic antimycobacterial activity with a fractional inhibitory concentration index of 0.25 (a combined concentration of 6.28??g/mL). A fifty percent inhibitory concentration of this combination against U937 cells was 121.0??g/mL. Two compounds, stigmasta-5,23-dien-3-ol (1) and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furan-2(5H)-one (2), were isolated from K. vesicatoria as the first report of isolation for both compounds from this plant and the first report of antimycobacterial activity. Compound (1) was active against drug-sensitive M. tuberculosis with an MIC of 50.00??g/mL.

Labuschagne, Antoinette; Hussein, Ahmed A.; Rodriguez, Benjamin; Lall, Namrita

2012-01-01

138

Food protective effect of geraniol and its congeners against stored food mites.  

PubMed

The acaricidal activities of compounds derived from the oil of Pelargonium graveolens leaves against the storage food mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, were compared with the activity of a commercial acaricide, benzyl benzoate, in an impregnated fabric disk bioassay. Purification of the active constituent from P. graveolens was accomplished by silica gel chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Structural analysis of the active constituent by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C-NMR, 1H-13C shift correlated spectroscopy NMR, and distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer NMR identified trans-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol (geraniol). Based on the 50% lethal dose values, the most toxic compounds against T. putrescentiae were geraniol (1.95 microg/cm3), which was followed by nerol (2.21 microg/cm3), citral (9.65 microg/cm3), benzyl benzoate (11.27 microg/cm3), and beta-citronellol (15.86 microg/cm3). Our results suggest that geraniol is more effective in controlling T. putrescentiae than benzyl benzoate is. Furthermore, geraniol, which is used as a flavoring for beverages, candies, ice creams, and baked goods and congeners (citral and nerol), may be useful for managing populations of T. putrescentiae. PMID:19681271

Jeon, J H; Lee, C H; Lee, H S

2009-07-01

139

Peril in the market-classification and dosage of species used as anti-diabetics in Lima, Peru  

PubMed Central

Background Peru is what Peruvian anthropologist Lupe Camino calls the “health axis” of the old Central Andean culture area stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. In particular in the North of the country the traditional use of medicinal dates back as far as the first millennium B.C. Both healers, and the wider population, often buy their medicinal plants in local markets, but there is very little comparative information available about which plants are sold under which vernacular name at any given time, for which indication, and which dosage information and information about side effects is given by vendors. For this study we used two traditionally used species groups “Hercampuri” Gentianella spec. (Gentianaceae) and “Pasuchaca” Geranium spec. (Geraniaceae.), found in the Mercado Aviación in Lima, as small, clearly circumscribed plant group frequently used to treat symptoms of diabetes as a test case to study the taxonomy, indications, dosage, indicated side effects, and additional species used as admixtures and hypothesized that: 1. A wide variety of different species is sold under the same common name, and often several common names exist for one species. 2. There is no consistency in the dosage, or a relationship between dosage and species marketed under one name. 3. However, there is consistency in the knowledge about usage and side effects. Methods Surveys focusing on medicinal plants sold and their properties were conducted at the Mercado Aviación in Lima in December 2012. Vouchers of all specimens were deposited at the National Herbarium of Peru. Results and conclusions Our surveys in Mercado Aviación in Lima yielded four species of Gentianella, two of Geranium, and three additional species from three genera used as common additives that were sold as anti-diabetic. These results indicate that even in case of only a few plant species, used for a very clearly circumscribed application, patients run a considerable risk when purchasing their remedies in the market. The possible side effects in this case are the more serious because diabetes has to be treated long term, and as such the patients are ingesting possible toxic remedies over a long period of time. Much more control, and a much more stringent identification of the material sold in public markets, and entering the global supply chain via internet sales, would be needed.

2013-01-01

140

Aromatherapy massage on the abdomen for alleviating menstrual pain in high school girls: a preliminary controlled clinical study.  

PubMed

This study investigated the alleviating effects of aromatherapy massage and acetaminophen on menstrual pain in Korean high school girls. Subjects were divided into two groups: the aromatherapy massage (treatment) group (n = 32) and the acetaminophen (control) group (n = 23). Aromatherapy massage was performed on subjects in the treatment group. The abdomen was massaged once using clary sage, marjoram, cinnamon, ginger, and geranium in a base of almond oil. The level of menstrual pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale at baseline and twenty-four hours afterward. The reduction of menstrual pain was significantly higher in the aromatherapy group than in the acetaminophen group. Using multiple regression, aromatherapy massage was found to be more highly associated with reduction in the level of menstrual pain than acetaminophen. These finding suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment for menstrual pain in high school girls. However, it could not be verified whether the positive effects derived from the aromatherapy, the massage, or both. Further rigorous studies should be conducted using more objective measures. PMID:21949670

Hur, Myung-Haeng; Lee, Myeong Soo; Seong, Ka-Yeon; Lee, Mi-Kyoung

2012-01-01

141

Aromatherapy massage affects menopausal symptoms in korean climacteric women: a pilot-controlled clinical trial.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight times in total). The experimental group reported a significantly lower total menopausal index than wait-listed controls (P < 0.05). There were also significant intergroup differences in subcategories such as vasomotor, melancholia, arthralgia and myalgia (all P < 0.05). These findings suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, depression and pain in climacteric women. However, it could not be verified whether the positive effects were from the aromatherapy, the massage or both. Further rigorous studies should be done with more objective measures. PMID:18830459

Hur, Myung-Haeng; Yang, Yun Seok; Lee, Myeong Soo

2008-09-01

142

Larval Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) potential for vectoring Pythium root rot pathogens.  

PubMed

A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the capacity of Bradysia impatiens (Johannsen) larvae to ingest propagules from two strains each of Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. and P. ultimum Trow and transmit the pathogens to healthy geranium seedlings on a filter-paper substrate in petri dishes. The capacity of fungus gnat larvae to transmit P. aphanidermatum to seedlings rooted in a commercial peat-based potting mix and germination of Pythium oospores and hyphal swellings before and after passage through the guts of larval fungus gnats were also examined. Assays revealed that Pythium spp. transmission by larval fungus gnats varied greatly with the assay substrate and also with the number and nature of ingested propagules. Transmission was highest (65%) in the petri dish assays testing larvae fed P. aphanidermatum K-13, a strain that produced abundant oospores. Transmission of strain K-13 was much lower (<6%) in plug cells with potting mix. Larvae were less efficient at vectoring P. ultimum strain PSN-1, which produced few oospores, and no transmission was observed with two non-oospore-producing strains: P. aphanidermatum Pa58 and P. ultimum P4. Passage of P. aphanidermatum K-13 through larval guts significantly increased oospore germination. However, decreased germination of hyphal swellings was observed following larval gut passage for strains of P. ultimum. These results expand previous studies suggesting that larval fungus gnats may vector Pythium spp. PMID:22085299

Braun, S E; Sanderson, J P; Wraight, S P

2012-03-01

143

Plant extracts with anti-inflammatory properties--a new approach for characterization of their bioactive compounds and establishment of structure-antioxidant activity relationships.  

PubMed

Geranium robertianum L. (Geraniacea) and Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. (Rubiaceae) plant extracts, frequently used in traditional medicine for treatment of inflammatory and cancer diseases, were studied to identify potential bioactive compounds that may justify their therapeutic use and their underlying mechanisms of action. Since some of the pharmacological properties of these plant extracts may be linked to their antioxidant potential, the antioxidant activity, in relation to free radical scavenging, was measured by the ABTS/HRP and DPPH() assays, presenting U. tomentosa the higher activity. The antioxidant activity was also evaluated by scavenging of HOCl, the major strong oxidant produced by neutrophils and a potent pro-inflammatory agent. U. tomentosa was found to be a better protector against HOCl, which may justify its effectiveness against inflammatory diseases. SPE/LC-DAD was used for separation/purification purposes and ESI-MS/MS for identification/characterization of the major non-volatile components, mainly flavonoids and phenolic acids. The ESI-MS/MS methodology proposed can be used as a model procedure for identification/characterization of unknowns without the prerequisite for standard compounds analysis. The ESI-MS/MS data obtained were consistent with the antioxidant activity results and structure-activity relationships for the compounds identified were discussed. PMID:19201196

Amaral, Sónia; Mira, Lurdes; Nogueira, J M F; da Silva, Alda Pereira; Helena Florêncio, M

2009-03-01

144

Management of Meloidogyne hapla in Herbaceous Perennial Ornamentals by Sanitation and Resistance.  

PubMed

Meloidogyne hapla can be spread in bare-root herbaceous perennial propagation material and may be difficult to control once established in new fields or in the landscape. Root pruning of bare-root plants was investigated as a means of reducing spread and establishment of M. hapla. Plants previously inoculated with 10,000 eggs/plant were root-pruned to remove either a portion or most of the fibrous root system without removing underground stems, buds, tubers, or tuberous roots. Root pruning of Aconitum, Ajuga, Anemone, Geranium, and Trollius significantly reduced or eliminated M. hapla galls and egg production in plants 1 to 4 months after propagation. Planting M. hapla-resistant plants such as Rudbeckia and Aster into pots infested with 10,000 eggs/pot eliminated M. hapla populations after 2 to 6 months of growth. Tomato plants grown after Rudbeckia and Aster were free of galls and eggs, while bioassay tomatoes grown after susceptible plants such as Coreopsis, Primula, and Lobelia were heavily galled with a large number of egg masses. These results demonstrate the potential of sanitation and resistance for management of M. hapla in perennials. PMID:19274274

Lamondia, J A

1997-12-01

145

Management of Meloidogyne hapla in Herbaceous Perennial Ornamentals by Sanitation and Resistance  

PubMed Central

Meloidogyne hapla can be spread in bare-root herbaceous perennial propagation material and may be difficult to control once established in new fields or in the landscape. Root pruning of bare-root plants was investigated as a means of reducing spread and establishment of M. hapla. Plants previously inoculated with 10,000 eggs/plant were root-pruned to remove either a portion or most of the fibrous root system without removing underground stems, buds, tubers, or tuberous roots. Root pruning of Aconitum, Ajuga, Anemone, Geranium, and Trollius significantly reduced or eliminated M. hapla galls and egg production in plants 1 to 4 months after propagation. Planting M. hapla-resistant plants such as Rudbeckia and Aster into pots infested with 10,000 eggs/pot eliminated M. hapla populations after 2 to 6 months of growth. Tomato plants grown after Rudbeckia and Aster were free of galls and eggs, while bioassay tomatoes grown after susceptible plants such as Coreopsis, Primula, and Lobelia were heavily galled with a large number of egg masses. These results demonstrate the potential of sanitation and resistance for management of M. hapla in perennials.

LaMondia, J. A.

1997-01-01

146

Molecular Structure of Camphor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Camphor is found in numerous plants like sage and geraniums and several trees. Since it has wide applications it is both extracted from plants and synthesized around the world, especially in China, India, and the U.S. Camphor is white and has a strong, penetrating fragrant odor and a bitter, pungent taste. The crystalline substance causes an icy feeling when touched. Camphor oil, containing cineol, borneol, camphene, menthol, pinene and other components besides camphor, is mainly found in C.camphora and Dryobalanops camphora. C.camphora is an evergreen tree, which grows slowly and to immense sizes. Some growers believe that the camphor oil should not be taken from a tree younger than fifty years. There are two kinds of camphor oil on the market nowadays: one is from C. cinnamonum, and is recognized as Formosa or Japanese oil of Camphor; the other from D. aromatica is known as east India oil. Camphor oil is used in medical applications to treat numerous diseases. Camphor is also used as food preservative and safe pesticide.

2002-10-18

147

Inhibition of quorum-sensing signals by essential oils.  

PubMed

The role of quorum sensing (QS) is well known in microbial pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance. QS is responsible for motility, swarming, and biofilm production based on the signal molecules, e.g., acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) produced by micro-organisms above certain population density. The inhibition of QS may reduce pathogenicity, antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation in systemic and local infections. The homoserine lactones and other transmitters contribute to antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity of several bacteria; consequently the inhibition of QS signals reduces the problem of resistance and virulence. Due to the increasing number of persistent non-treatable infections, there is an urgent need to develop new strategies to combat infections that destabilize bacterial communities in the host. The effect of essential oils on bacterial growth and QS were evaluated using the sensor strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) producing Escherichia coli ATTC 31298 and the grapevine colonizing Ezf 10-17 strains. Of the tested oils, rose, geranium, lavender and rosemary oils were the most potent QS inhibitors. Eucalyptus and citrus oils moderately reduced pigment production by CV026, whereas the chamomile, orange and juniper oils were ineffective. PMID:19827025

Szabó, Mira Agnes; Varga, Gábor Zoltán; Hohmann, Judit; Schelz, Zsuzsanna; Szegedi, Erno; Amaral, Leonard; Molnár, József

2010-05-01

148

Polarization properties of some kinds of foliage covers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that the investigation of polarization structure of scattered optical radiation considerably enlarges the size of information on physical properties of objects interacting with radiation. For remote sensing the modulation Stokes-polarimeter was used. The main feature of this polarimeter is an electro-optical control converter of polarization in the receiving channel. It allows us to reach the time of single measurement up to a few microseconds and the accuracy does not exceed 0.1%. The measurement process is completely automatic. It carried out the investigation of the following objects: leaves of birch, oak, poplar; geranium; moss. The main consequences are: (1) polarization properties enable us to differ one kind of leaf from another; (2) the rear side of the leaf from the right one; (3) to monitor the degree of natural humidity; (4) to define whether the surface of a given foliage is humid (say, due to rain) or dry. All that and the theoretical investigations carried out by the author now enable us to conclude that the polarization characteristics are extremely informative and may be the basis of the process of recognition, monitoring, and classification of various kinds of foliage and grass covers.

Savenkov, Sergey N.; Marienko, Valeri V.

1995-11-01

149

Immersion Deposition of Metal Films on Silicon and Germanium Substrates in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature carbon dioxide based on immersion deposition technology (SFID) has been developed for producing palladium, copper, silver, and other metal films on silicon-based substrates in supercritical CO2. The reaction is initiated by oxidation of elemental silicon to SiF4 or H2SiF6 by HF with the release of electrons that cause the reduction of metal ions in an organometallic precursor to the metallic form on silicon surface in CO2. Only the substrate surfaces are coated with metals using this method. Based on surface analysis of the films and spectroscopic analysis of the reaction products, the mechanism of metal film deposition is discussed. The metal films (Pd, Cu, and Ag) formed on silicon surfaces by the SFID method exhibit good coverage, smooth and dense texture, high purity and a metallic behavior. Similarly, metal films can also be deposited onto geranium substrates using SFID. The gas-like properties and the high pressure of the supercritical fluids, combined with the low reaction temperature, make this SFID method potentially useful for depositing thin metal films in small features, which are difficult to accomplish by conventional CVD methods.

Ye, Xiang-Rong; Wai, Chien M.; Zhang, Daqing; Kranov, Yanko; Mcilroy, David; Lin, Yuehe; Engelhard, Mark H.

2003-01-29

150

Transgenerational effects of plant sex and arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.  

PubMed

In gynodioecious plants, females are predicted to produce more and/or better offspring than hermaphrodites in order to be maintained in the same population. In the field, the roots of both sexes are usually colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Transgenerational effects of mycorrhizal symbiosis are largely unknown, although theoretically expected. We examined the maternal and paternal effects of AM fungal symbiosis and host sex on seed production and posterior seedling performance in Geranium sylvaticum, a gynodioecious plant. We hand-pollinated cloned females and hermaphrodites in symbiosis with AM fungi or in nonmycorrhizal conditions and measured seed number and mass, and seedling survival and growth in a glasshouse experiment. Females produced more seeds than hermaphrodites, but the seeds did not germinate, survive or grow better. Mycorrhizal plants were larger, but did not produce more seeds than nonmycorrhizal plants. Transgenerational parental effects of AM fungi were verified in seedling performance. This is the first study to show transgenerational mycorrhiza-mediated parental effects in a gynodioecious species. Mycorrhizal symbiosis affects plant fitness mainly through female functions with enduring effects on the next generation. PMID:23659431

Varga, Sandra; Vega-Frutis, Rocío; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

2013-08-01

151

Effect of Mexican medicinal plant used to treat trichomoniasis on Trichomonas vaginalis trophozoites.  

PubMed

Crude methanolic extracts from 22 Mexican medicinal plants were screened for antitrichomonal activity against Trichomonas vaginalis, which is the etiological agent of trichomoniasis. Among the plants tested Carica papaya and Cocos nucifera showed the best antitrichomonal activity with IC(50) values of 5.6 and 5.8 microg/ml, respectively. The extracts of Bocconia frutescens, Geranium mexicanum, and Lygodium venustum showed moderate activity with IC(50) values ranging from 30.9 to 60.9 microg/ml. All the other plant extracts were inactive (IC(50)>100 microg/ml). All extracts tested were less active than metronidazole (IC(50) 0.037 microg/ml), an antiprotozoal drug used as positive control. The results of the antiprotozoal screening support the popular uses of five of the plants tested for the treatment of some urogenital tract disorders in Mexican traditional medicine. However, seeds of Carica papaya and aerial parts of Bocconia frutescens should be used in herbal medicine with care to avoid toxicity. PMID:17628366

Calzada, Fernando; Yépez-Mulia, Lilian; Tapia-Contreras, Amparo

2007-09-01

152

[Methods for determining boron compounds in the air of a work area].  

PubMed

The studies performed with the chinalizarin method the for determination of the concentration of boric compounds in the air of the working area, proved to be impracticable in the presence of geranium and beryllium compounds. A spectrometric method for analysis of boric compounds was developed, based on their interaction with fluoric and ferric ions in the presence of sulfo-salicylic acid, and a complex compound was received of light orange colour to red, depending on the boric concentration. The maximum of absorption was at wave length of 577 mm. The sensitivity of the method was 0.001 mg boric in the analyzed sample -2 cm3. There is a linear dependence between the boric concentration and the optic density of the developed samples of interval 0.001-0.15 mg borium. The accuracy of the method expressed by coefficient of variation in % is in interval 12.4-6.3% for borium concentrations of 0.001-0.1 mg. The field where the method could be applied is defined in the presence of titanium, copper and lead compounds. PMID:7845985

G?l?bova, V

1994-01-01

153

Screening of Crude Plant Extracts with Anti-Obesity Activity  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a global health problem. It is also known to be a risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders, type 2 diabetes, systemic hypertension, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis. In this study, we screened crude extracts from 400 plants to test their anti-obesity activity using porcine pancreatic lipase assay (PPL; triacylglycerol lipase, EC 3.1.1.3) in vitro activity. Among the 400 plants species examined, 44 extracts from plants, showed high anti-lipase activity using 2,4-dinitrophenylbutyrate as a substrate in porcine pancreatic lipase assay. Furthermore, 44 plant extracts were investigated for their inhibition of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Among these 44 extracts examined, crude extracts from 4 natural plant species were active. Salicis Radicis Cortex had the highest fat inhibitory activity, whereas Rubi Fructus, Corni Fructus, and Geranium nepalense exhibited fat inhibitory capacity higher than 30% at 100 ?g/mL in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting anti-obesity activity. These results suggest that four potent plant extracts might be of therapeutic interest with respect to the treatment of obesity.

Roh, Changhyun; Jung, Uhee

2012-01-01

154

Evaluation of vetiver oil and seven insect-active essential oils against the Formosan subterranean termite.  

PubMed

Repellency and toxicity of 8 essential oils (vetiver grass, cassia leaf, clove bud, cedarwood, Eucalyptus globules, Eucalyptus citrodora, lemongrass and geranium) were evaluated against the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Vetiver oil proved the most effective repellent because of its long-lasting activity. Clove bud was the most toxic, killing 100% of termites in 2 days at 50 micrograms/cm2. The tunneling response of termites to vetiver oil also was examined. Vetiver oil decreased termite tunneling activity at concentrations as low as 5 micrograms/g sand. Tunneling and paper consumption were not observed when vetiver oil concentrations were higher than 25 micrograms/g sand. Bioactivity of the 8 oils against termites and chemical volatility were inversely associated. Listed in decreasing order of volatility, the major constituents of the 8 oils were: eucalyptol, citronellal, citral, citronellol, cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, thujopsene, and both alpha- and beta-vetivone. Vetivor oil is a promising novel termiticide with reduced environmental impact for use against subterranean termites. PMID:11521400

Zhu, B C; Henderson, G; Chen, F; Fei, H; Laine, R A

2001-08-01

155

Identification of potent odorants formed during the preparation of extruded potato snacks.  

PubMed

Extrusion cooking processing followed by air-drying has been applied to obtain low-fat potato snacks. Optimal parameters were developed for a dough recipe. Dough contained apart from potato granules 7% of canola oil, 1% of salt, 1% of baking powder, 5% of maltodextrin, and 15% of wheat flour. After the extrusion process, snacks were dried at 85 degrees C for 15 min followed by 130 degrees C for 45 min. The potent odorants of extruded potato snacks were identified using aroma extract dilution analysis and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Among the characteristic compounds, methional with boiled potato flavor, benzenemethanethiol with pepper-seed flavor, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline with popcorn flavor, benzacetaldehyde with strong flowery flavor, butanal with rancid flavor, and 2-acetylpyrazine with roasty flavor were considered to be the main contributors to the aroma of extruded potato snacks. Several compounds were concluded to be developed during extrusion cooking, such as ethanol, 3-methylbutanal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one with geranium flavor, and unknown ones with the flavor of boiled potato, cumin, candy, or parsley root. Compounds such as methanethiol, 2,3-pentanedione, limonene, 2-acetylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, 2-methyl-3,5-diethylpyrazine, 5-methyl-2,3-diethylpyrazine, and (E)-beta-damascenone were probably developed during air-drying of the potato extrudate. PMID:16076130

Majcher, Ma?gorzata A; Jele?, Henryk H

2005-08-10

156

Genome-wide analyses of Geraniaceae plastid DNA reveal unprecedented patterns of increased nucleotide substitutions  

PubMed Central

Angiosperm plastid genomes are generally conserved in gene content and order with rates of nucleotide substitutions for protein-coding genes lower than for nuclear protein-coding genes. A few groups have experienced genomic change, and extreme changes in gene content and order are found within the flowering plant family Geraniaceae. The complete plastid genome sequence of Pelargonium X hortorum (Geraniaceae) reveals the largest and most rearranged plastid genome identified to date. Highly elevated rates of sequence evolution in Geraniaceae mitochondrial genomes have been reported, but rates in Geraniaceae plastid genomes have not been characterized. Analysis of nucleotide substitution rates for 72 plastid genes for 47 angiosperm taxa, including nine Geraniaceae, show that values of dN are highly accelerated in ribosomal protein and RNA polymerase genes throughout the family. Furthermore, dN/dS is significantly elevated in the same two classes of plastid genes as well as in ATPase genes. A relatively high dN/dS ratio could be interpreted as evidence of two phenomena, namely positive or relaxed selection, neither of which is consistent with our current understanding of plastid genome evolution in photosynthetic plants. These analyses are the first to use protein-coding sequences from complete plastid genomes to characterize rates and patterns of sequence evolution for a broad sampling of photosynthetic angiosperms, and they reveal unprecedented accumulation of nucleotide substitutions in Geraniaceae. To explain these remarkable substitution patterns in the highly rearranged Geraniaceae plastid genomes, we propose a model of aberrant DNA repair coupled with altered gene expression.

Guisinger, Mary M.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Jansen, Robert K.

2008-01-01

157

Genome-wide analyses of Geraniaceae plastid DNA reveal unprecedented patterns of increased nucleotide substitutions.  

PubMed

Angiosperm plastid genomes are generally conserved in gene content and order with rates of nucleotide substitutions for protein-coding genes lower than for nuclear protein-coding genes. A few groups have experienced genomic change, and extreme changes in gene content and order are found within the flowering plant family Geraniaceae. The complete plastid genome sequence of Pelargonium X hortorum (Geraniaceae) reveals the largest and most rearranged plastid genome identified to date. Highly elevated rates of sequence evolution in Geraniaceae mitochondrial genomes have been reported, but rates in Geraniaceae plastid genomes have not been characterized. Analysis of nucleotide substitution rates for 72 plastid genes for 47 angiosperm taxa, including nine Geraniaceae, show that values of dN are highly accelerated in ribosomal protein and RNA polymerase genes throughout the family. Furthermore, dN/dS is significantly elevated in the same two classes of plastid genes as well as in ATPase genes. A relatively high dN/dS ratio could be interpreted as evidence of two phenomena, namely positive or relaxed selection, neither of which is consistent with our current understanding of plastid genome evolution in photosynthetic plants. These analyses are the first to use protein-coding sequences from complete plastid genomes to characterize rates and patterns of sequence evolution for a broad sampling of photosynthetic angiosperms, and they reveal unprecedented accumulation of nucleotide substitutions in Geraniaceae. To explain these remarkable substitution patterns in the highly rearranged Geraniaceae plastid genomes, we propose a model of aberrant DNA repair coupled with altered gene expression. PMID:19011103

Guisinger, Mary M; Kuehl, Jennifer V; Boore, Jeffrey L; Jansen, Robert K

2008-11-25

158

Allergic sensitization to ornamental plants in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma.  

PubMed

Ornamental plants (OPs) can lead to immediate-type sensitization and even asthma and rhinitis symptoms in some cases. This study aimed to evaluate sensitization to OPs in patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and to determine the factors affecting the rate of sensitization to OPs. A total of 150 patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Demographics and disease characteristics were recorded. Skin-prick tests were performed with a standardized inhalant allergen panel. Skin tests by "prick-to-prick" method with the leaves of 15 Ops, which are known to lead to allergenic sensitization, were performed. Skin tests with OPs were positive in 80 patients (47.1%). There was no significant difference between OP sensitized and nonsensitized patients in terms of gender, age, number of exposed OPs, and duration of exposure. Skin test positivity rate for OPs was significantly high in atopic subjects, patients with allergic rhinitis, food sensitivity, and indoor OP exposure, but not in patients with pollen and latex allergy. Most sensitizing OPs were Yucca elephantipes (52.5%), Dieffenbachia picta (50.8%), and Euphorbia pulcherrima (47.5%). There was significant correlation between having Saintpaulia ionantha, Croton, Pelargonium, Y. elephantipes, and positive skin test to these plants. Sensitivity to OPs was significantly higher in atopic subjects and patients with allergic rhinitis, food allergy, and indoor OP exposure. Furthermore, atopy and food sensitivity were found as risk factors for developing sensitization to indoor plants. Additional trials on the relationship between sensitization to OPs and allergic symptoms are needed. PMID:24717779

Ayd?n, Omür; Erkekol, Ferda Oner; M?s?rl?gil, Zeynep; Demirel, Yavuz Selim; Mungan, Dil?ad

2014-03-01

159

Application of Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing To Discriminate Ralstonia solanacearum Strains Associated with English Watercourses and Disease Outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis was used for high-resolution discrimination among Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype IIB sequevar 1 (PIIB-1) isolates and further evaluated for use in source tracing. Five tandem-repeat-containing loci (comprising six tandem repeats) discriminated 17 different VNTR profiles among 75 isolates from potato, geranium, bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara), tomato, and the environment. R. solanacearum isolates from crops at three unrelated outbreak sites where river water had been used for irrigation had distinct VNTR profiles that were shared with PIIB-1 isolates from infected bittersweet growing upriver of each site. The VNTR profiling results supported the implication that the source of R. solanacearum at each outbreak was contaminated river water. Analysis of 51 isolates from bittersweet growing in river water at different locations provided a means to evaluate the technique for studying the epidemiology of the pathogen in the environment. Ten different VNTR profiles were identified among bittersweet PIIB-1 isolates from the River Thames. Repeated findings of contiguous river stretches that produced isolates that shared single VNTR profiles supported the hypothesis that the pathogen had disseminated from infected bittersweet plants located upriver. VNTR profiles shared between bittersweet isolates from two widely separated Thames tributaries (River Ray and River Colne) suggested they were independently contaminated with the same clonal type. Some bittersweet isolates had VNTR profiles that were shared with potato isolates collected outside the United Kingdom. It was concluded that VNTR profiling could contribute to further understanding of R. solanacearum epidemiology and assist in control of future disease outbreaks.

Bryant, Ruth; Bew, Janice; Conyers, Christine; Stones, Robert; Alcock, Michael; Elphinstone, John

2013-01-01

160

Reversible inhibition of three important human liver cytochrome p450 enzymes by tiliroside.  

PubMed

Tiliroside, an active flavonoid extensively found in many medicinal plants including Helichrysum italicum, Geranium mexicanum and Helianthemum glomeratum, has been demonstrated to exert multiple biological effects including antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant and antitumor activities. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes play an important role in the Phase I oxidation metabolism of a wide range of xenobiotics and inhibition of CYP isoforms might influence the elimination of drugs and induce serious adverse drug response. The inhibition of seven CYP isoforms (CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2C8 and CYP2E1) by tiliroside was investigated using in vitro human liver microsomal incubation assays. The results showed that tiliroside strongly inhibited the activity of CYP3A4 (IC(50) = 9.0 ± 1.7 ?m), CYP2C8 (IC(50) = 12.1 ± 0.9 ?m) and CYP2C9 (IC(50) = 10.2 ± 0.9 ?m) with other CYP isoforms negligibly influenced. Further kinetic analysis showed that inhibition of these three CYP isoforms by tiliroside is best fit to a competitive way. The K(i) value was calculated to be 5.5 ?m, 3.3 ?m, 9.4 ?m for CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C8, respectively. The relatively low K(i) values suggested that tiliroside might induce drug-drug interactions with many clinically used drugs which are mainly metabolized by these three CYP isoforms. Therefore, attention should be given to the probable drug-drug interaction between tiliroside-containing herbs and substrates of CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C8. PMID:21031626

Sun, Dong-Xue; Lu, Jin-Cai; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Cao, Yun-Feng; Mao, Yu-Xi; Zhu, Liang-Liang; Yin, Jun; Yang, Ling

2010-11-01

161

Combined effect of heat, essential oils and salt on fungicidal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes in a foot bath.  

PubMed

This work was originally undertaken to determine the effective conditions of essential oils against Trichophyton mentagrophytes in vitro for the treatment of tinea pedis in a foot bath. Agar blocks implanted with T. mentagrophytes were immersed in 0.1% aqueous agar containing two-fold dilutions of essential oils with or without sodium chloride at 27 degrees C, 37 degrees C and 42 degrees C for 10 and 20 min. The number of surviving mycelia on the agar blocks was determined from the standard curves of the colony diameter and original inocula of the conidia. At the same time, the thermal effect on the cellular morphology was examined using SEM. Most fungal mycelia (99.7%) were killed after treatment at 42 degrees C for 20 min without essential oil. The fungicidal activity of essential oils was markedly enhanced by treating at 42 degrees C for 20 min as compared with that at 27 degrees C, showing 1/4 - 1/32-fold reduction of minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC to kill 99.99%). The order of the fungicidal activity of 11 essential oils was oregano, thyme thymol, cinnamon bark > lemongrass > clove, palmarose, peppermint, lavender > geranium Bourbon, tea tree > thyme geraniol oils. MFCs were further reduced to 1/2 - 1/8 by the addition of 10% sodium chloride. The salt effect was explained, at least partly, by an increase in mycelial adsorption of antifungal constituents in the presence of sodium chloride. Considerable hyphal damage was done at 27 degrees C by the essential oils, but no further alteration in morphology of the hyphae treated at 42 degrees C with or without oil was observed by SEM. The inhibitory effect of heat and oils was also observed against mycelia of T. rubrum and conidia of T. mentagrophytes. Thermotherapy combined with essential oils and salt would be promising to treat tinea pedis in a foot bath. PMID:17287720

Inouye, Shigeharu; Uchida, Katsuhisa; Nishiyama, Yayoi; Hasumi, Yayoi; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

2007-01-01

162

Where are you sucking from? Using Stable Isotopes to understand Host Specificity in two Hemiparasitic plants above the tree line in Northern Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By Alejandro Macias, Erik Hobbie, Ruth Varner, Kaitlyn Steele Hemiparasites are known to suck nutrients from nearby plants but their host specificity is not well understood. Hemiparasites are ecosystem engineers, limiting surrounding plant's growth, and decreasing local biodiversity. To better understand this phenomenon, the host specificities of two hemiparasitic angiosperms, Bartsia alpina , and Pedicularis lapponica were studied above the tree line along an elevational gradient in Sweden. B. alpina specialized in wetter environments, as indicated by their higher ?13C signature, and their growth among Salixsp.Betula nana, Bistorta vivipara, Viola biflora, Geranium sp., and Trollious europaeus. P. lapponica was common in drier, less species rich environments, known as heaths, where B. nana, Empetrum negrum, Phyllodoce coeruela, Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea are the most common species. P. lapponica had higher foliage ?13C due to its better water-use efficiency in a dry environment. Field survey data and ?N15 values of both the foliage of the parasitic plants and their potential hosts were used to determine host specificity. Since the ?N15 value of the hemiparasitic plant and its host are similar due to parasitism, it was determined that P. lapponica had a preference for plants with an ericoid mycorrhizal association, such as Vaccinium sp, and E. negrum, but not for the common P. coeruela. This does not support the idea found in the literature that P. lapponica has a preference for grasses. B. alpina was less host specific, associating with non-mycorrhizal, ericoid, and ectomycorhizal plants, such as Carex sp, Vaccinium sp., and S. lapponum. The ectomycorrhizal species, Salix sp., and B. nana, were both potential hosts for B. alpina and P. lapponica due to their presence among them. However, the isotopic data revealed that B. alpina had a preference for Salix sp., and P. lapponica had a preference for B. nana.

Macias Sevde, A. S.

2012-12-01

163

The ecological aspect of ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology of population in Bosnia and Herzegovina.  

PubMed

This paper contains first systematical revision of the results on traditional use of wild medicinal and aromatic herbs on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H)--west of Balkan Peninsula; Southeast of Europe. There have been detected 227 plants belonging to 71 different plant families, which are being used with ethno therapeutic purpose. Results were obtained by method of open ethno botanical interview which comprised 150 persons, whose average age was 63. Medicinal plants in ethno therapy are being used either in fresh, raw or dried condition. Different herbal parts, depending on period of vegetation season, sometimes even in winter, are basis for preparation of infusions (59%), decoct (19%), tinctures (4%). Especially original are balms known as Bosnian "mehlems", which are fresh cuted herbal parts mixed with lukewarm resin, raw cow butter or honey. In ethno therapy are mostly being used aerial plant organs. Majority of herbs is being used for treatment of illnesses of respiratory (22%), gastrointestinal (19%) and urinary and genital system (9%), for treatment of skin conditions (11%), as well as for nervous system and heart diseases (16%). The most original plants on the field of ethno pharmacology, comparing with ethno therapy practice of other regions, are as follows: Ballota nigra, Aesculus hippocastanum, Calluna vulgaris, Centaurea cyanus, Euphrasia rostkoviana, Geranium robertianum, Gentiana asclepiadea, Helichrysum italicum, Lycopodium clavatum, Marrubium vulgare, Nepeta cataria, Populus tremula, Ruta graveolens, Tamus communis, Teucrium montanum, T. chamaedrys, and endemic plants Gentiana lutea subsp. symphyandra, Teucrium arduini, Micromeria thymifolia, Satureja montana, S. subspicata, Rhamnus fallax and Viola elegantula. There haven't been noticed significant differences in the frequencies of medicinal plants use among different ethnical groups. But, it has been perceived that longer ethno therapeutic tradition possess inhabitants of sub- and Mediterranean areas, as well as inhabitants of the mountain areas of B&H, regardless their ethnicity. PMID:18041402

Redzi?, Sulejman S

2007-09-01

164

An Ethnobotanical study of Medicinal Plants in high mountainous region of Chail valley (District Swat- Pakistan)  

PubMed Central

Background This paper represents the first ethnobotanical study in Chail valley of district Swat-Pakistan and provides significant information on medicinal plants use among the tribal people of the area. The aim of this study was to document the medicinal uses of local plants and to develop an ethnobotanical inventory of the species diversity. Methods In present study, semi-structured interviews with 142 inhabitants (age range between 31–75 years) were conducted. Ethnobotanical data was analyzed using relative frequency of citation (RFC) to determine the well-known and most useful species in the area. Results Current research work reports total of 50 plant species belonging to 48 genera of 35 families from Chail valley. Origanum vulgare, Geranium wallichianum and Skimmia laureola have the highest values of relative frequency of citation (RFC) and are widely known by the inhabitants of the valley. The majority of the documented plants were herbs (58%) followed by shrubs (28%), trees (12%) and then climbers (2%). The part of the plant most frequently used was the leaves (33%) followed by roots (17%), fruits (14%), whole plant (12%), rhizomes (9%), stems (6%), barks (5%) and seeds (4%). Decoction was the most common preparation method use in herbal recipes. The most frequently treated diseases in the valley were urinary disorders, skin infections, digestive disorders, asthma, jaundice, angina, chronic dysentery and diarrhea. Conclusion This study contributes an ethnobotanical inventory of medicinal plants with their frequency of citations together with the part used, disease treated and methods of application among the tribal communities of Chail valley. The present survey has documented from this valley considerable indigenous knowledge about the local medicinal plants for treating number of common diseases that is ready to be further investigated for biological, pharmacological and toxicological screening. This study also provides some socio-economic aspects which are associated to the local tribal communities.

2014-01-01

165

Free radical scavenging action of medicinal herbs from Mongolia.  

PubMed

In the present study we evaluated the free radical scavenging action of some medicinal herbs growing in Mongolia. The aqueous extract of nine herbs Chamenerion angustifolium (Ch.ang), Equisetum arvense (Eq.arv), Gentiana decumbens (Gn.dec), Geranium pratense (Gr.pra), Lomatogonium carinthiacum (L.car), Nonea poulla (N.pl), Phodococcum vitis-idaea (Ph.v), Sphallerocarpus gracilis (Sph.gr), Stellera chamaejasme (St.cha) were used in the present experiment. The free radical scavenging action was determined in vitro and ex vivo by using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer and chemiluminescence (CL) analyzer. The results showed that extracts of Ch.ang, Gn.dec, Gr.pra, L.car, N.pl, Ph.v, Sph.gr and St. cha possess strong scavenging action of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. On the other hand, the radical scavenging action of Eq.arv was low. Extracts of N.pl and Ph.v markedly inhibited the CL generated from rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450 system whereas the CL was moderately inhibited by Eq.arv, Gn.dec, Gr.pra, L.car and St.cha. The extracts of Ch.ang and Sph.gr did not decrease the CL generation. Ch.ang, Gr.pra, L.car, N.pl, Ph.v and St.cha also depressed reactive oxygen production from polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated by phorbol-12-myristate acetate ex vivo. Thus it was confirmed that the medicinal herbs from Mongolia possess high antioxidant potency in vitro and ex vivo. PMID:11185733

Myagmar, B E; Aniya, Y

2000-06-01

166

Temperature-dependent growth of Botrytis cinerea isolates from potted plants.  

PubMed

Botrytis cinereo is a common aggressive saprophyte fungus which also invades injured plant tissues, causing Botrytis blight (Grey mould) in many ornamental plants, including potted flowering plants. Several B. cinerea isolates from potted plants (Pelargonium x hortorum, Lantana camara, Lonicera japonica, Hydrangea macrophylla, and Cyclamen persicum) affected by Botrytis blight in the south of Spain were studied and identified by PCR. The isolates showed phenotypic differences between them, as previously reported by the authors. In this work we demonstrate that these isolates show different temperature-dependent growth phenomena, expressed as mycelial growth rates, conidiation (measured as the number of conidia per colony and time of appearance), mass of both aerial and submerged mycelia, and sclerotia production. Growth rates were assessed from differences in colony area and mass of both aerial and submerged mycelium growing in potato dextrose agar culture medium (PDA). Three temperatures were used to measure these variables (6, 16, and 26 degrees C) and to establish the differences among isolates by modelling the effects of temperature on the growth variables. B. cinerea showed a high degree of phenotypic variability and differences in its growth kinetics, depending on temperature and isolate in question. The isolate from P. x hortorum showed the greatest conidiation although this process did not depend on the temperatures assayed. The growth rate of the isolates from P. x hortorum was the highest. The growth rates in all the isolates were determined and the growth kinetics could be fitted to a typical equation of fungi growing on solid culture medium. The isolate from P. x hortorum was the most vigorous, while the least vigorous was the isolate from L. japonica. A relationship between mycelial growth rate, conidiation and aerial mycelium could be established. A temperature of 26 degrees C accelerated sclerotia production, but only in the isolate from C. persicum. Such phenotypical variability and differences in growth rates may result in a differential response in plant-pathogen interactions when isolates attack hosts at different temperatures, meaning that a variety of plant protection strategies should be considered when B. cinerea attacks these potted plants. PMID:20222557

Martínez, J A; Gómez-Bellot, M J; Bañón, S

2009-01-01

167

Phenotypical differences among B. cinerea isolates from ornamental plants.  

PubMed

B. cinerea is a common pathogenic fungus which causes Botrytis blight (Grey mould) in most ornamental plants. It may be responsible for serious preharvest diseases and postharvest losses in fruits, vegetables and flowers. In this work, several B. cinerea isolates from ornamental plants (Chamelaucium uncinatum, Pelargonium x hortorum, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Lantana camara, Lonicera japonica, Hydrangea macrophylla, and Cyclamen persicum) affected by Botrytis blight in the south of Spain were studied. All the isolates were confirmed as B. cinerea by PCR using a specific 750-bp molecular marker, which is present in all strains of this species but absent from other species of Botrytis. The isolates were evaluated by reference to mature conidia length, sclerotia production, and growth rate. Conidia, conidiophores and hyphae were described by light microscopy and some by cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM). Conidium length was measured by using an eyepiece micrometer at 400x power, whereas the growth rate was assessed from differences in colony diameter between the third and fourth day of growth in potato-dextrose agar culture medium at 26 degrees C. B. cinerea showed a high degree of phenotypical variability among isolates, not only as regards visual aspects of the colonies but also in some morphological structures such as conidium length, conidiophores, sclerotia production, and hyphae. Differences were also observed in the growth rates. Conidiation was insignificant in the isolates from H. macrophylla, and P. x hortorum, where the overall appearance was white in all the growing stages, whereas isolates from L. camara, C. persicum and C. uncinatum were mainly grey or brown in mature stages. The longest conidia were obtained in isolates from H. macrophylla and C. persicum (17-18 microm) and the lowest in C. uncinatum (9 microm). All the isolates, except L. camara, developed mature sclerotia after approximately 16 days in the conditions used. H. macrophylla had around 72 sclerotia per colony, whereas C. persicum had only nine after 28 days. The growth rate of isolates from L. camara was the highest (1.64 cm/day). Such phenotypical variability may result in a differential response to plant growth regulators if plants are infected by Botrytis in the early stages of growth. In this way, we confirm, as we have done in other published studies, that isolates show different responses to some plant hormones and inhibitors. PMID:19226749

Martínez, J A; Valdés, R; Vicente, M J; Bañón, S

2008-01-01

168

Evaluation of molecular chaperons Hsp72 and neuropeptide Y as characteristic markers of adaptogenic activity of plant extracts.  

PubMed

We have previously demonstrated that ADAPT-232, a fixed combination of adaptogenic substances derived from Eleutherococcus senticosus root extract, Schisandra chinensis berry extract, Rhodiola rosea root extract stimulated the expression and release of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and molecular chaperone Hsp72 from isolated human neurolgia cells. Both of these mediators of stress response are known to play an important role in regulation of neuroendocrine system and immune response. We further demonstrated that ADAPT-232 induced release of Hsp70 is mediated by NPY, suggesting an existence of NPY-mediated pathway of activation of Hsp72 release into the blood circulation system. The objective of this study was to determine whether this pathway is common for adaptogens and whether NPY and/or Hsp72 can be considered as necessary specific biomarkers for adaptogenic activity. The release of NPY and Hsp72 from neuroglia cells in response to treatment with various plant extracts (n=23) including selected validated adaptogens, partly validated adaptogens, claimed but negligibly validated adaptogens and some other plant extracts affecting neuroendocrine and immune systems but never considered as adaptogens was measured using high throughput ELISA techniques. We demonstrated that adaptogens, e.g. R. rosea, S. chinensis and E. senticosus stimulate both NPY and Hsp70 release from neuroblastoma cells, while tonics and stimulants have no significant effect on NPY in this in vitro test. In the groups of partly validated adaptogens the effect of Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera was not statistically significant both on NPY and Hsp70 release, while the activating effect of Bryonia alba and Rhaponticum cartamoides was significant only on Hsp70. In contrast, all tested non-adaptogens, such as antiinflammatoty plant extracts Matricaria recutita, Pelargonium sidoides, Hedera helix and Vitis vinifera significantly inhibit Hsp70 release and have no influence on NPY release from neuroblastoma cells. These experiments were further validated using primary human neurons and confirmed that adaptogens activate the release of both NPY and Hsp70, while tested non adaptogens were inactive in NPY assay and inhibit the release of Hsp70. Taken together, our data demonstrates for the first time that neuropeptide Y and heat shock protein Hsp70 can be used as molecular biomarkers for adaptogenic activity. PMID:23920279

Asea, Alexzander; Kaur, Punit; Panossian, Alexander; Wikman, Karl Georg

2013-11-15

169

Screening of anti-dengue activity in methanolic extracts of medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue fever regardless of its serotypes has been the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral diseases among the world population. The development of a dengue vaccine is complicated by the antibody-dependent enhancement effect. Thus, the development of a plant-based antiviral preparation promises a more potential alternative in combating dengue disease. Methods Present studies investigated the antiviral effects of standardised methanolic extracts of Andrographis paniculata, Citrus limon, Cymbopogon citratus, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum and Pelargonium citrosum on dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1). Results O. sanctum contained 88.6% of total flavonoids content, an amount that was the highest among all the six plants tested while the least was detected in M. charantia. In this study, the maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD) of the six medicinal plants was determined by testing the methanolic extracts against Vero E6 cells in vitro. Studies also determined that the MNTD of methanolic extract was in the decreasing order of M. charantia >C. limon >P. citrosum, O. sanctum >A. paniculata >C. citratus. Antiviral assay based on cytopathic effects (CPE) denoted by degree of inhibition upon treating DENV1-infected Vero E6 cells with MNTD of six medicinal plants showed that A. paniculata has the most antiviral inhibitory effects followed by M. charantia. These results were further verified with an in vitro inhibition assay using MTT, in which 113.0% and 98.0% of cell viability were recorded as opposed to 44.6% in DENV-1 infected cells. Although methanolic extracts of O. sanctum and C. citratus showed slight inhibition effect based on CPE, a significant inhibition was not reflected in MTT assay. Methanolic extracts of C. limon and P. citrosum did not prevent cytopathic effects or cell death from DENV-1. Conclusions The methanol extracts of A. paniculata and M. charantia possess the ability of inhibiting the activity of DENV-1 in in vitro assays. Both of these plants are worth to be further investigated and might be advantageous as an alternative for dengue treatment.

2012-01-01

170

Laboratory evaluation of products to reduce settling of sweetpotato whitefly adults.  

PubMed

The impact of trademarked and commercial products on settling of adults of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), was studied in the laboratory. A no-choice bioassay using leaf disks of tomato, Solanum esculentum L., was developed to evaluate the impact of concentration series of products on settling of B. tabaci adults. The concentration of each product that would reduce settling by 50% (SC50) was estimated for each product using standard probit analyses, and the values were compared with that of Ultra-Fine Oil, a paraffinic oil product that is known to reduce settling of whitefly adults. Twenty-two trademarked products and 42 other products were evaluated in the laboratory bioassay. Based upon comparisons of fiducial limits of the respective SC50 values, Dawn detergent and E-RASE jojoba oil were the only trademarked products that were as effective as Ultra-Fine Oil in reducing settling of B. tabaci adults. Of the nontrademarked products, 25 were similar to Ultra-Fine Oil, although cedar, geranium, ginger, Hamlin (citrus), patchouli, olive and wintergreen oils, as well as citronellal and limonene, had ratios of respective SC50 values with that of Ultra-Fine Oil of approximately 1.5 or less. Combinations of limonene and citronellal with either olive oil or Ultra-Fine Oil were 15 and 30 times, respectively, more effective than Ultra-Fine Oil alone. Candidate products and combinations of products were further evaluated on tomato seedlings in no-choice screenhouse trials for effects on oviposition and on transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (family Geminiviridae, genus Begomovirus, TYLCV) by B. tabaci. Ultra-Fine Oil and olive oil reduced oviposition and transmission of TYLCV in the screenhouse trials. Ginger oil and limonene reduced oviposition in at least one screenhouse trial but did reduce transmission of TYLCV. The laboratory bioassay provided a rapid and relatively easy method to compare products for reducing settling of B. tabaci adults. Even though the reduced settling indicated in the laboratory bioassays was not always reflected in reduced oviposition or TYLCV transmission in the screenhouse trials, the bioassay was useful in rapidly identifying products that reduce settling and that could be investigated further. PMID:19736760

Schuster, D J; Thompson, S; Ortega, L D; Polston, J E

2009-08-01

171

[A phytosociological interpretation of vegetation from sandy hills of the Peruvian desert].  

PubMed

The vegetation of the sandy hills ("lomas") constitutes the main originality of the Peruvian and Chilean desert with a high number of endemics that shapes the vicarious associations. In this work, a phytosociological view of sandy environments of the Peruvian coastal desert is presented. According to the Braun-Blanquet method, we have made up 32 phytosociological inventories and added 138 ones from others authors. In each inventory, we have analyzed its floristic composition and ecological parameters, as altitude, soil and geomorphology. All releves were synthesized in a table to deduce the different associations, higher phytosociological units, and the distribu tion of its flora along the Peruvian coast and the Andean Cordillera. Using the Shannon-Wiener diversity index, the diversity of this flora is discussed making a comparison with historical data about the use of the territory with livestock during pre-Inca and Inca cultures, and Spanish invasion. As a result, two associations from Southern Peru -Nolanetum scaposo-spathulatae and Palauetum camanensis-weberbaueri-, two alliances -Nolanion humifusae from central Peru, and Nolanion spathulatae from the Southern Peru- and a new order -Tetragonio crystallinae-Plantaginetalia limensis- are described. In Nolanetum scaposo-spathulatae, Dictyophragnus englerianus, Leptoglossis lomana, Nolana scaposa, N. spathulata, Palaua velutina and Tetragonia vestita are the main characteristics, while in Palauetum camanensis-weberbaueri association N. scaposa and P. velutina are replaced by Palaua camanensis and P. weberbaueri. Nolanion humifusae alliance integrates species as Geranium limae, Hymenocallis amancaes, Nolana humifusa, N. latipes, Palaua rhombifolia or Villanova oppositifolia. Likewise, Cistanthe weberbaueri, Cryptantha parviflora, Hoffmannseggia miranda, Lupinus mollendoensis, Nolana confinis, N. pallidula, N. scaposa, N. spathulata, Palaua camanensis, P. velutina, P. weberbaueri, Tetragonia vestita and Weberbauerella brongniartioides are the characteristic species of Nolanion spathulatae alliance. The Tetragonio crystallinae-Plantaginetalia limensis order presents characteristic plants don't linked with eutrophic soils, as Calandrinia alba, Cryptantha limensis, Dyschoriste repens, Monnina macrostachya, Oxalis lomana, Palaua malvifolia, Pectocarya lateriflora, Plantago limensis or Tetragonia crystallina, with a distribution that claps the geographical area of the new alliances. On the other hand, the vegetation of the desert ravines is discussed in the context of the coastal river plant communities and its disturbance by the dunes. After the application of the Shannon-Wiener diversity index on the synthetic table columns, we can deduce that an increase in Andean and European ruderal species is linked to an intensive livestock activity. The transhumance between the Andes and the coast from pre-Inca times until now, produces the plant dispersion of high Andean plants toward the coast; the Spanish colonization was the origin of the presence of European plants in the "lomas" vegetation of Peru. PMID:21721240

Galán de Mera, Antonio; Linares Perea, Eliana; Campos de la Cruz, José; Vicente Orellana, José Alfredo

2011-06-01

172

Determining solute inputs to soil and stream waters in a seasonally snow-covered mountain catchment in northern New Mexico using Ge/Si, 87Sr/86Sr and ion chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of mineral weathering releases lithogenic elements to soil and stream waters, which influences the health of catchment ecosystems. Variations in hydrologic conditions between years and climatic seasons may change subsurface flowpaths, modifying the influence of weathering on stream water composition. This two-year study aims to determine the changes in solute sources to stream and soil waters in a seasonally snow-covered headwater catchment in the Jemez Mountains in northern New Mexico by using a multi-tracer approach including major cations, strontium (Sr) isotopes, geranium (Ge)/silica (Si) ratios and trace metals. Climatic forcing was different for the two years studied; 2010 had ample snow accumulation resulting in an increase in stream flow during melt, whereas little snow fall in 2011 caused minimal response in the hydrograph. Stream water base cations display relatively constant concentrations with variations in the hydrograph, suggesting that the rate of solute transport out of the system is directly related to fluxes in the water supply. Strontium isotope ratios of stream waters during 2010 and 2011 snowmelt periods (0.70753) were very similar to the spring Sr-isotope ratio (0.70751) indicating deep soilwater as a single dominant source of major cations to stream waters. However, Ge/Si ratios, Fe, Al, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations increase during the 2010 snowmelt. Iron, Al and DOC form complexes with organic material and are therefore enriched in the shallow soils. Ge is enriched in secondary, relative to primary, minerals during incongruent weathering, so it is also enriched in soils relative to parent rock. The Ge/Si ratio peak of 3.11 ?mol/mol, in combination with an increase in Al, Fe, and DOC concentrations represents a flushing of shallow soils during the 2010 snow melt. Preceding the snow melt Ge/Si ratios decrease to a minimum ratio of 0.72 ?mol/mol in 2010 and continue to decrease into 2011 to a minimum of 0.07 ?mol/mol. Aluminum, Fe, and DOC concentrations also decrease after the peak in snow melt and remain stable and low for the remainder of the study period. The lack of an increase in Ge/Si ratios and Al, Fe, and DOC concentrations during the summer rains shows that deeper soil water dominates stream water composition from June-March, following the snowmelt period.

Porter, C. M.; McIntosh, J. C.; Derry, L. A.; Meixner, T.; Chorover, J.; Brooks, P. D.; Rasmussen, C.; Perdrial, J. N.

2012-12-01