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Sample records for rot fungus pleurotus

  1. Identification of naphthalene metabolism by white rot fungus Pleurotus eryngii.

    PubMed

    Hadibarata, Tony; Teh, Zee Chuang; Rubiyatno; Zubir, Meor Mohd Fikri Ahmad; Khudhair, Ameer Badr; Yusoff, Abdull Rahim Mohd; Salim, Mohd Razman; Hidayat, Topik

    2013-10-01

    The use of biomaterials or microorganisms in PAHs degradation had presented an eye-catching performance. Pleurotus eryngii is a white rot fungus, which is easily isolated from the decayed woods in the tropical rain forest, used to determine the capability to utilize naphthalene, a two-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as source of carbon and energy. In the meantime, biotransformation of naphthalene to intermediates and other by-products during degradation was investigated in this study. Pleurotus eryngii had been incubated in liquid medium formulated with naphthalene for 14 days. The presence of metabolites of naphthalene suggests that Pleurotus eryngii begin the ring cleavage by dioxygenation on C1 and C4 position to give 1,4-naphthaquinone. 1,4-Naphthaquinone was further degraded to benzoic acid, where the proposed terepthalic acid is absent in the cultured extract. Further degradation of benzoic acid by Pleurotus eryngii shows the existence of catechol as a result of the combination of decarboxylation and hydroxylation process. Unfortunately, phthalic acid was not detected in this study. Several enzymes, including manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, 1,2-dioxygenase and 2,3-dioxygenase are enzymes responsible for naphthalene degradation. Reduction of naphthalene and the presence of metabolites in liquid medium showed the ability of Pleurotus eryngii to utilize naphthalene as carbon source instead of a limited glucose amount. PMID:23334282

  2. Molecular Karyotype of the White Rot Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Larraya, Luis M.; Pérez, Gumer; Peñas, María M.; Baars, Johan J. P.; Mikosch, Thomas S. P.; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Ramírez, Lucía

    1999-01-01

    The white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus is an edible basidiomycete with increasing agricultural and biotechnological importance. Genetic manipulation and breeding of this organism are restricted because of the lack of knowledge about its genomic structure. In this study, we analyzed the genomic constitution of P. ostreatus by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis optimized for the separation of its chromosomes. We have determined that it contains 11 pairs of chromosomes with sizes ranging from 1.4 to 4.7 Mbp. In addition to chromosome separation, the use of single-copy DNA probes allowed us to resolve the ambiguities caused by chromosome comigration. When the two nuclei present in the dikaryon were separated by protoplasting, analysis of their karyotypes revealed length polymorphisms affecting various chromosomes. This is, to our knowledge, the clearest chromosome separation available for this species. PMID:10427028

  3. Metabolism of phenanthrene by the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed Central

    Bezalel, L; Hadar, Y; Fu, P P; Freeman, J P; Cerniglia, C E

    1996-01-01

    The white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus, grown for 11 days in basidiomycetes rich medium containing [14C] phenanthrene, metabolized 94% of the phenanthrene added. Of the total radioactivity, 3% was oxidized to CO2. Approximately 52% of phenanthrene was metabolized to trans-9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol) (28%), 2,2'-diphenic acid (17%), and unidentified metabolites (7%). Nonextractable metabolites accounted for 35% of the total radioactivity. The metabolites were extracted with ethyl acetate, separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, and UV spectroscopy analyses. 18O2-labeling experiments indicated that one atom of oxygen was incorporated into the phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol. Circular dichroism spectra of the phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol indicated that the absolute configuration of the predominant enantiomer was 9R,10R, which is different from that of the principal enantiomer produced by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Significantly less phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol was observed in incubations with the cytochrome P-450 inhibitor SKF 525-A (77% decrease), 1-aminobenzotriazole (83% decrease), or fluoxetine (63% decrease). These experiments with cytochrome P-450 inhibitors and 18O2 labeling and the formation of phenanthrene trans-9R,10R-dihydrodiol as the predominant metabolite suggest that P. ostreatus initially oxidizes phenanthrene stereoselectively by a cytochrome P-450 monoxygenase and that this is followed by epoxide hydrolase-catalyzed hydration reactions. PMID:8779594

  4. Mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus

    SciTech Connect

    Bezalel, L.; Hadar, Y.; Cerniglia, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    White rot fungi, including Pleurotus ostreatus, have the ability to efficiently degrade lignin, a naturally occurring aromatic polymer. Previous work has found these organisms were able to degrade PAHs and in some cases to mineralize them; most of the work was done with Phanerochaete chrysosporium. P. ostreatus differs from P. chrysosporium in its lignin degradation mechanism. In this study, enzymatic activities were monitored during P. ostreatus growth in the presence of PAHs and the fungus`s ability to mineralize catechol and various PAHs was demonstrated. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Potential applications of the white rot fungus Pleurotus in bioregenerative life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Yu, Ch.; Gurevich, Yu. L.; Liu, H.

    Earlier we demonstrated the possibility of using soil-like substrate SLS for plant cultivation in bioregenerative life support systems BLSS We suggest dividing the process of SLS bioregeneration at BLSS conditions into two stages At the first stage plant residues should be used for growing of white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus Pleurotus florida etc The fruit bodies could be used as food Spent mushroom compost is carried in SLS and treated by microorganisms and worms at the second stage The possibility of extension of human food ration is only one of the reasons for realization of the suggested two-stage SLS regeneration scheme people s daily consumption of mushrooms is limited to 200 -250 g of wet weight or 20 -25 g of dry weight Multiple tests showed what is more important is that inclusion of mushrooms into the system cycle scheme contributes through various mechanisms to the more stable functioning of vegetative cenosis in general Taking into account the given experimental data we determined the scheme of mushroom module material balance The technological peculiarities of mushroom cultivation at BLSS conditions are being discussed

  6. Removal of phenolics in olive mill wastewaters using the white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Fountoulakis, M S; Dokianakis, S N; Kornaros, M E; Aggelis, G G; Lyberatos, G

    2002-11-01

    Olive mill wastewaters (OMW) present a major environmental problem. The large amounts generated, combined with the high phenols and chemical oxygen demand concentrations, are the main difficulties in finding a solution for the management of these wastewaters, which are dangerous for the environment. The phenols, which are contained in the OMW have a structure similar to lignin, which makes them difficult to biodegrade. Lignin can be degraded only by a few microorganisms, such as "white-rot" basidiomycete, which produce manganese (MnPs) and lignin peroxidases (LiPs) and laccases that are responsible for the oxidisation of lignin compounds. The capability of Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade phenols of OMW in different conditions such as in sterilized and thermally processed (at 100 degrees C) wastewater, with and without dilution, is investigated in this work. According to the experimental results P. ostreatus removed phenols from the culture medium, under all different conditions that were examined. The degradation of phenols reached up to 78.3% for the sterilized and 50% diluted OMW, 66.7% and 64.7% for the thermally processed OMW, with and without dilution, respectively. The effect of pre-treatment of OMW on the performance of anaerobic digestion is also assessed, as methanogenic bacteria are seriously affected by the presence of phenol compounds. The pre-treated wastewater was shown to be more amenable to a subsequent anaerobic digestion. PMID:12448515

  7. Biosorption and biotransformation of fluoranthene by the white-rot fungus Pleurotus eryngii F032.

    PubMed

    Hadibarata, Tony; Kristanti, Risky Ayu; Hamdzah, Myzairah

    2014-01-01

    Major concern about the presence of fluoranthene, which consists of four fused benzene rings, in the environment has been raised in the past few years due to its toxic, mutagenic, and persistent organic pollutant properties. In this study, we investigated the removal of fluoranthene under static and agitated conditions. About 89% fluoranthene was removed within 30 days under the agitated condition, whereas under the static condition, only 54% fluoranthene was removed. We further investigated the behavior and mechanism of fluoranthene biosorption and biotransformation by Pleurotus eryngii F032 to accelerate the elimination of fluoranthene. The optimum conditions for the elimination of fluoranthene by P. eryngii F032 included a temperature of 35 °C, pH 3, 0.2% inoculum concentration, and a C/N ratio of 16. Under these conditions at the initial fluoranthene concentration of 10 mg/L, more than 95% of fluoranthene was successfully removed within 30 days. Of those factors influencing the biodegradation of fluoranthene, salinity, glucose, and rhamnolipid content were of the greatest importance. Degradation metabolites identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were 1-naphthalenecarboxylic acid and salicylic acid, suggesting possible metabolic pathways. Finally, it can be presumed that the major mechanism of fluoranthene elimination by white-rot fungi is to mineralize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons via biotransformation enzymes like laccase. PMID:24033877

  8. Potential of a white-rot fungus Pleurotus eryngii F032 for degradation and transformation of fluorene.

    PubMed

    Hadibarata, Tony; Kristanti, Risky Ayu

    2014-02-01

    The white-rot fungus Pleurotus eryngii F032 showed the capability to degrade a three fused-ring aromatic hydrocarbons fluorene. The elimination of fluorene through sorption was also investigated. Enzyme production is accompanied by an increase in biomass of P. eryngii F032 during degradation process. The fungus totally degraded fluorine within 23 d at 10-mg l(-1) solution. Fluorene degradation was affected with initial fluorene concentrations. The highest enzyme activity was shown by laccase in the 10-mg l(-1) culture after 30 d of incubation (1620 U l(-1)). Few activities of enzymes were observed in the fungal cell at the varying concentration of fluorene. Three metabolic were detected and separated in ethylacetate extract, after isolated by column chromatography. The metabolites, 9-fluorenone, phthalic acid, and benzoic acid were identified using UV-vis spectrophotometer and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results show the presence of a complex mechanism for the regulation of fluorene-degrading enzymes. PMID:24528643

  9. Transformation Pathways of the Recalcitrant Pharmaceutical Compound Carbamazepine by the White-Rot Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus: Effects of Growth Conditions.

    PubMed

    Golan-Rozen, Naama; Seiwert, Bettina; Riemenschneider, Christina; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Chefetz, Benny; Hadar, Yitzhak

    2015-10-20

    The widely used anticonvulsant pharmaceutical carbamazepine is recalcitrant in many environmental niches and thus poses a challenge in wastewater treatment. We followed the decomposition of carbamazepine by the white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus in liquid culture compared to solid-state fermentation on lignocellulosic substrate where different enzymatic systems are active. Carbamazepine metabolites were identified using liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS). In liquid culture, carbamazepine was only transformed to 10,11-epoxy carbamazepine and 10,11-dihydroxy carbamazepine as a dead-end product. During solid-state fermentation, carbamazepine metabolism resulted in the generation of an additional 22 transformation products, some of which are toxic. Under solid-state-fermentation conditions, 10,11-epoxy carbamazepine was further metabolized via acridine and 10,11-dihydroxy carbamazepine pathways. The latter was further metabolized via five subpathways. When (14)C-carbonyl-labeled carbamazepine was used as the substrate, (14)C-CO2 release amounted to 17.4% of the initial radioactivity after 63 days of incubation. The proposed pathways were validated using metabolites (10,11-epoxy carbamazepine, 10,11-dihydroxy carbamazepine, and acridine) as primary substrates and following their fate at different time points. This work highlights the effect of growth conditions on the transformation pathways of xenobiotics. A better understanding of the fate of pollutants during bioremediation treatments is important for establishment of such technologies. PMID:26418858

  10. Overproduction of Laccase by the White-Rot Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus Using Apple Pomace as Inducer.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Jin; Yoon, Dae-Eun; Kim, Hong-Il; Kwon, O-Chul; Yoo, Young-Bok; Kong, Won-Sik; Lee, Chang-Soo

    2014-06-01

    Laccase activity of Pleurotus ostreatus is significantly increased by the addition of apple pomace. Among various conditions, the best concentration of apple pomace and cultivation time for the production of laccase by P. ostreatus was 2.5% and 9 days, respectively. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses of laccase isoenzyme genes, including pox1, pox3, pox4, poxc, poxa3, and poxa1b, revealed a clear effect of apple pomace on transcription induction. Our findings reveal that the use of apple pomace can be a model for the valuable addition of similar wastes and for the development of a solid-state fermenter and commercial production of oyster mushroom P. ostreatus. PMID:25071391

  11. The white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus secretes laccase isozymes with different substrate specificities.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Mariana; Arias, María E; Copa-Patiño, José L; Flärdh, María; González, Aldo E

    2003-01-01

    Four laccase isozymes (LCC1, LCC2, LCC3 and LCC4) synthesized by Pleurotus ostreatus strain V-184 were purified and characterized. LCC1 and LCC2 have molecular masses of about 60 and 65 kDa and exhibited the same pI value (3.0). Their N termini were sequenced, revealing the same amino acid sequence and homology with laccases from other microorganisms. Laccases LCC3 and LCC4 were characterized by SDS-PAGE, estimating their molecular masses around 80 and 82 kDa, respectively. By native isoelectrofocusing, their pI values were 4.7 and 4.5, respectively. When staining with ABTS and guaiacol in native polyacrilamide gels, different specificities were observed for LCC1/LCC2 and LCC3/LCC4 isozymes. PMID:21149010

  12. Overproduction of Laccase by the White-Rot Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus Using Apple Pomace as Inducer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Jin; Yoon, Dae-Eun; Kim, Hong-Il; Kwon, O-Chul; Yoo, Young-Bok; Kong, Won-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Laccase activity of Pleurotus ostreatus is significantly increased by the addition of apple pomace. Among various conditions, the best concentration of apple pomace and cultivation time for the production of laccase by P. ostreatus was 2.5% and 9 days, respectively. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses of laccase isoenzyme genes, including pox1, pox3, pox4, poxc, poxa3, and poxa1b, revealed a clear effect of apple pomace on transcription induction. Our findings reveal that the use of apple pomace can be a model for the valuable addition of similar wastes and for the development of a solid-state fermenter and commercial production of oyster mushroom P. ostreatus. PMID:25071391

  13. [Effects of microbial pretreatment of kenaf stalk by the white-rot fungus Pleurotus sajor-caju on bioconversion of fuel ethanol production].

    PubMed

    Ruan, Qicheng; Qi, Jianmin; Hu, Kaihui; Fang, Pingping; Lin, Haihong; Xu, Jiantang; Tao, Aifen; Lin, Guolong; Yi, Lifu

    2011-10-01

    Kenaf stalk was pretreated by the white-rot fungus Pleurotus sajor-caju incubated in solid-state kenaf stalk cultivation medium. Delignification and subsequent enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of kenaf stalk were investigated in order to evaluate effects of microbial pretreatment on bioconversion of kenaf lignocellulose to fuel ethanol production. The highest delignification rate of 50.20% was obtained after 25-35 days cultivation by P. sajor-caju, which could improve subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of kenaf cellulose. And the saccharification rate of pretreated kenaf stalk reached 69.33 to 78.64%, 4.5-5.1 times higher than the control. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with microbial-pretreatment kenaf stalk as substrate was performed. The highest overall ethanol yield of 68.31% with 18.35 to 18.90 mg/mL was achieved after 72 h of SSF. PMID:22260063

  14. Manganese-enhanced biotransformation of atrazine by the white rot fungus Pleurotus pulmonarius and its correlation with oxidation activity.

    PubMed Central

    Masaphy, S; Henis, Y; Levanon, D

    1996-01-01

    Manganese enhanced atrazine transformation by the fungus Pleurotus pulmonarius when added to a liquid culture medium at concentrations of up to 300 microM. Both N-dealkylated and propylhydroxylated metabolites accumulated in the culture medium, with the former accumulating to a greater extent than did the latter. Lipid peroxidation, oxygenase and peroxidase activities, and the cytochrome P-450 concentration increased. In addition, an increase in the spectral interactions between atrazine and components in the cell extract was observed. Antioxidants, mainly nordihydroguaiaretic acid, which inhibits lipoxygenase, peroxidase, and P-450 activities, and piperonyl butoxide, which inhibits P-450 activity, inhibited atrazine transformation by the mycelium. It is suggested that the stimulation of oxidative activity by Mn might be responsible for increasing the biotransformation of atrazine and for nonspecific transformations of other xenobiotic compounds. PMID:8967773

  15. Optimization of pyrene degradation by white-rot fungus Pleurotus pulmonarius F043 and characterization of its metabolites.

    PubMed

    Hadibarata, Tony; Teh, Zee Chuang

    2014-08-01

    Pleurotus pulmonarius F043, a fungus collected from tropical rain forest, was used to degrade pyrene, a four-rings polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in a mineral medium broth. A maximum degradation rate of pyrene (90 %) was occurred at pH 3 and the lowest degradation rate was found in the culture at pH 10 (2 %). More than 90 % pyrene degradation was achieved at pH ranged from 3 to 5, whereas the degradation rate significantly declined when the pH was >5. The degradation of pyrene increased from 2 to 96 % when the temperature rose from 4 to 25 °C. When the temperature was increased to 60 °C resulting the lowest degradation rate into 7 %. Among the agitation rates tested, 120 rpm was the best with 95 % degradation, followed by 100 rpm (90 %). The optimum agitation range for pyrene degradation by P. pulmonarius F043 was 100-120 rpm. Among all the concentrations tested, 0.5 % Tween 80 was the best with 98 % degradation, followed by 1 % Tween 80 (90 %). The optimum concentration of Tween 80 for pyrene degradation by P. pulmonarius F043 was 0.5-1 %. The degradation rate decreased, while the concentration of Tween 80 was increased. The metabolic product was found during degradation process through the identification of gentisic acid by TLC, UV-Spectrophotometer, and GC-MS. PMID:24554082

  16. Electrochemistry Combined with LC-HRMS: Elucidating Transformation Products of the Recalcitrant Pharmaceutical Compound Carbamazepine Generated by the White-Rot Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Seiwert, Bettina; Golan-Rozen, Naama; Weidauer, Cindy; Riemenschneider, Christina; Chefetz, Benny; Hadar, Yitzhak; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2015-10-20

    Transformation products (TPs) of environmental pollutants must be identified to understand biodegradation processes and reaction mechanisms and to assess the efficiency of treatment processes. The combination of oxidation by an electrochemical cell (EC) with analysis by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) is a rapid approach for the determination and identification of TPs generated by natural microbial processes. Electrochemically generated TPs of the recalcitrant pharmaceutical carbamazepine (CBZ) were used for a target screening for TPs formed by the white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. EC with LC-HRMS facilitates detection and identification of TPs because the product spectrum is not superimposed with biogenic metabolites and elevated substrate concentrations can be used. A group of 10 TPs formed in the microbial process were detected by target screening for molecular ions, and another 4 were detected by screening on the basis of characteristic fragment ions. Three of these TPs have never been reported before. For CBZ, EC with LC-HRMS was found to be more effective than software tools in defining targets for the screening and faster than nontarget screening alone in TP identification. EC with LC-HRMS may be used to feed MS databases with spectra of possible TPs of larger numbers of environmental contaminants for an efficient target screening. PMID:26348877

  17. Marker recycling via 5-fluoroorotic acid and 5-fluorocytosine counter-selection in the white-rot agaricomycete Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Takehito; Tsuzuki, Masami; Irie, Toshikazu; Sakamoto, Masahiro; Honda, Yoichi

    2016-09-01

    Of all of the natural polymers, lignin, an aromatic heteropolymer in plant secondary cell walls, is the most resistant to biological degradation. White-rot fungi are the only known organisms that can depolymerize or modify wood lignin. Investigating the mechanisms underlying lignin biodegradation by white-rot fungi would contribute to the ecofriendly utilization of woody biomass as renewable resources in the future. Efficient gene disruption, which is generally very challenging in the white-rot fungi, was established in Pleurotus ostreatus (the oyster mushroom). Some of the genes encoding manganese peroxidases, enzymes that are considered to be involved in lignin biodegradation, were disrupted separately, and the phenotype of each single-gene disruptant was analysed. However, it remains difficult to generate multi-gene disruptants in this fungus. Here we developed a new genetic transformation marker in P. ostreatus and demonstrated two marker recycling methods that use counter-selection to generate a multigene disruptant. This study will enable future genetic studies of white-rot fungi, and it will increase our understanding of the complicated mechanisms, which involve various enzymes, including lignin-degrading enzymes, underlying lignin biodegradation by these fungi. PMID:27567720

  18. Disposable diapers biodegradation by the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Valdemar, Rosa María; Turpin-Marion, Sylvie; Delfín-Alcalá, Irma; Vázquez-Morillas, Alethia

    2011-08-01

    This research assesses the feasibility of degrading used disposable diapers, an important component (5-15% in weight) of urban solid waste in Mexico, by the activity of the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus, also known as oyster mushroom. Disposable diapers contain polyethylene, polypropylene and a super absorbent polymer. Nevertheless, its main component is cellulose, which degrades slowly. P. ostreatus has been utilized extensively to degrade cellulosic materials of agroindustrial sources, using in situ techniques. The practice has been extended to the commercial farming of the mushroom. This degradation capacity was assayed to reduce mass and volume of used disposable diapers. Pilot laboratory assays were performed to estimate the usefulness of the following variables on conditioning of used diapers before they act as substrate for P. ostreatus: (1) permanence vs removal of plastic cover; (2) shredding vs grinding; (3) addition of grape wastes to improve structure, nitrogen and trace elements content. Wheat straw was used as a positive control. After 68 days, decrease of the mass of diapers and productivity of fungus was measured. Weight and volume of degradable materials was reduced up to 90%. Cellulose content was diminished in 50% and lignine content in 47%. The highest efficiency for degradation of cellulosic materials corresponded to the substrates that showed highest biological efficiency, which varied from 0% to 34%. Harvested mushrooms had good appearance and protein content and were free of human disease pathogens. This research indicates that growing P. ostreatus on disposable diapers could be a good alternative for two current problems: reduction of urban solid waste and availability of high protein food sources. PMID:21474296

  19. OXIDATION OF PERSISTANT ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY A WHITE ROT FUNGUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium degraded DDT [1,1,-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane], 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,4,5,2',-4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocylohexane), and benzo[a]pyrene t...

  20. Microsatellites from the charcoal rot fungus (Macrophomina phaseolina)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellite loci were identified from the charcoal rot fungus Macrophomina phaseolina. Primer pairs for 46 loci were developed and of these 13 were optimized and screened using genomic DNA from 44 fungal isolates collected predominantly from two soybean fields in MS. All optimized loci were poly...

  1. [Bioremediation of oil-polluted soil with an association including the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus and soil microflora].

    PubMed

    Pozdniakova, N N; Nikitina, V E; Turkovskaia, O V

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of application of the Pleurotus ostreatus D1-soil microflora to bioremediation of oil-polluted soils was studied. The fungus degraded mainly the aromatic fraction, whereas soil microflora intensely degraded paraffin and naphthene oil fractions. Introduction of the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus D to soil induces degradation of a wider range of oil hydrocarbons. It is reasonable to further investigate the discovered phenomenon in order to improve procedures of remediation of oil-polluted soils. PMID:18491600

  2. Bioremediation of Direct Blue 14 and Extracellular Ligninolytic Enzyme Production by White Rot Fungi: Pleurotus Spp.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, M. P.; Vishwakarma, S. K.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation, four species of white rot fungi (Pleurotus), that is, P. flabellatus, P. florida, P. ostreatus and P. sajor-caju were used for decolorization of direct blue 14 (DB14). Among all four species of Pleurotus, P. flabellatus showed the fastest decolorization in petri plates on different concentration, that is, 200 mg/L, 400 mg/L, and 600 mg/L. All these four species were also evaluated for extracellular ligninolytic enzymes (laccase and manganese peroxidase) production and it was observed that the twelve days old culture of P. flabellatus showed the maximum enzymatic activity, that is, 915.7 U/mL and 769.2 U/mL of laccase and manganese peroxidase, respectively. Other three Pleurotus species took more time for dye decolorization and exhibited less enzymatic activities. The rate of decolorization of DB14 dye solution (20 mg/L) by crude enzymes isolated from P. flabellatus was very fast, and it was observed that up to 90.39% dye solution was decolorized in 6 hrs of incubation. PMID:23841054

  3. Efficient xylose fermentation by the brown rot fungus Neolentinus lepideus.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kenji; Kanawaku, Ryuichi; Masumoto, Masaru; Yanase, Hideshi

    2012-02-10

    The efficient production of bioethanol on an industrial scale requires the use of renewable lignocellulosic biomass as a starting material. A limiting factor in developing efficient processes is identifying microorganisms that are able to effectively ferment xylose, the major pentose sugar found in hemicellulose, and break down carbohydrate polymers without pre-treatment steps. Here, a basidiomycete brown rot fungus was isolated as a new biocatalyst with unprecedented fermentability, as it was capable of converting not only the 6-carbon sugars constituting cellulose, but also the major 5-carbon sugar xylose in hemicelluloses, to ethanol. The fungus was identified as Neolentinus lepideus and was capable of assimilating and fermenting xylose to ethanol in yields of 0.30, 0.33, and 0.34 g of ethanol per g of xylose consumed under aerobic, oxygen-limited, and anaerobic conditions, respectively. A small amount of xylitol was detected as the major by-product of xylose metabolism. N. lepideus produced ethanol from glucose, mannose, galactose, cellobiose, maltose, and lactose with yields ranging from 0.34 to 0.38 g ethanol per g sugar consumed, and also exhibited relatively favorable conversion of non-pretreated starch, xylan, and wheat bran. These results suggest that N. lepideus is a promising candidate for cost-effective and environmentally friendly ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. To our knowledge, this is the first report on efficient ethanol fermentation from various carbohydrates, including xylose, by a naturally occurring brown rot fungus. PMID:22226194

  4. Biodegradation of hazardous waste using white rot fungus: Project planning and concept development document

    SciTech Connect

    Luey, J.; Brouns, T.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1990-11-01

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been shown to effectively degrade pollutants such as trichlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and other halogenated aromatic compounds. These refractory organic compounds and many others have been identified in the tank waste, groundwater and soil of various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The treatment of these refractory organic compounds has been identified as a high priority for DOE's Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT E) waste treatment programs. Unlike many bacteria, the white rot fungus P. chrysosporium is capable of degrading these types of refractory organics and may be valuable for the treatment of wastes containing multiple pollutants. The objectives of this project are to identify DOE waste problems amenable to white rot fungus treatment and to develop and demonstrate white rot fungus treatment process for these hazardous organic compounds. 32 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF WATER AND SOIL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY BASED ON THE UTILIZATION OF A WHITE-ROT, WOOD ROTTING FUNGUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The wood rotting fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been selected as a candidate species to be used as a degrader of hazardous waste organic constituents found in liquids and soils. The selection of the species is attributable to its rapid growth, its ability to degrade lign...

  6. Bioremediation with white rot fungus. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of white rot fungus to degrade a variety of hazardous materials. The citations examine the application of the fungus to the remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentachlorophenol, herbicides, insecticides, and other environmentally persistent organic compounds. The results of laboratory and field studies are presented. The use of white rot fungus in biological pulping and delignification is also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 50 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHATETE CHRYSOSPORIUM: INVOLVEMENT OF THE LIGNIN DEGRADING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade's wide variety of structurally diverse organic compounds, including a number of environmentall3 persistent organopollutants. he unique biodegradative abilities of this fungus appears to be dependent upon ...

  8. [Kinetics model for batch culture of white rot fungus].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiao-ping; Wen, Xiang-hua; Xu, Kang-ning; Bian, Bing-hui

    2008-02-01

    In order to understand ligninolytic enzymes production process during culture of white rot fungus, accordingly to direct the design of fermentation process, a kinetics model was built for the batch culture of Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The parameters in the model were calibrated based on the experimental data from free and immobilized culture separately. The difference between each variable's values calculated based on kinetics model and experimental data is within 15%. Comparing parameters for the free and the immobilized culture, it is found that maximum biomass concentrations are both 1.78 g/L; growth rate ratio of immobilized culture (0.6683 d(-1)) is larger than that of free culture (0.5144 d(-1)); very little glucose is consumed for biomass growth in free culture while in immobilized culture much glucose is used and ammonium nitrogen is consumed at a greater rate. Ligninolytic enzymes production process is non-growth related; fungal pellets can produce MnP (231 U/L) in free culture with a production rate of 115.8 U x (g x d)(-1) before peak and 26.1 U x (g x d)(-1) after peak, thus fed-batch is a possible mode to improve MnP production and fermentation efficiency. MnP (410 U/L) and LiP (721 U/L) can be produced in immobilized culture, but MnP and LiP production rate decrease from 80.1 U x (g x d)(-1) and 248.9 U x (g x d)(-1) to 6.04 U x (g x d)(-1) and 0 U x (g x d)(-1), respectively, indicating a proper feed moment is before the enzymes peak during fed-batch culture. PMID:18613526

  9. Improvement of tolerance to lead by filamentous fungus Pleurotus ostreatus HAU-2 and its oxidative responses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shimin; Zhang, Xiaolin; Chang, Cheng; Yuan, Zhiyong; Wang, Ting; Zhao, Yong; Yang, Xitian; Zhang, Yuting; La, Guixiao; Wu, Kun; Zhang, Zhiming; Li, Xuanzhen

    2016-05-01

    Wastewater contaminated with heavy metals is a world-wide concern. One biological treatment strategy includes filamentous fungi capable of extracellular adsorption and intracellular bioaccumulation. Here we report that an acclimated strain of filamentous fungus Pleurotus ostreatus HAU-2 can withstand Pb up to 1500 mg L(-1) Pb, conditions in which the wildtype strain cannot grow. The acclimated strain grew in liquid culture under 500 mg L(-1) Pb without significant abnormity in biomass and morphology, and was able to remove significant amounts of heavy metals with rate of 99.1% at 200 mg L(-1) and 63.3% at 1500 mg L(-1). Intracellular bioaccumulation as well as extracellular adsorption both contributed the Pb reduction. Pb induced levels of H2O2, and its concentration reached 72.9-100.9 μmol g(-1) under 200-1000 mg L(-1) Pb. A relatively higher malonaldehyde (MDA) concentration (8.06-7.59 nmol g(-1)) was also observed at 500-1500 mg L(-1) Pb, indicating that Pb exposure resulted in oxidative damage. The fungal cells also defended against the attack of reactive oxygen species by producing antioxidants. Of the three antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), CAT was the most responsive and the maximal enzyme activity was 15.8 U mg(-1) protein. Additionally, glutathione (GSH) might also play a role (3.16-3.21 mg g(-1) protein) in detoxification under relatively low Pb concentration (100-200 mg L(-1)). Our findings suggested that filamentous fungus could be selected for increased tolerance to heavy metals and that CAT and GSH might be important components of this tolerance. PMID:26891354

  10. A novel stirrer design and its application in submerged fermentation of the edible fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hu; Sun, Jiao; Tian, Baozhen; Wang, Honglin

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a straight diagonal-pitched blade stirrer was designed, built and characterized in a 5-L fermenter. Compared with the six straight blade Rushton turbine, the power consumption of the new stirrer is lower at a given speed under conditions of no ventilation. The oxygen transference is poorer at the same agitation speed in the cultivation conditions and scales investigated, which confirms that the shear stress of the new stirrer is lower and the gas dispersion is weaker. The new stirrer was installed in a 5-L bioreactor and evaluated in submerged fermentation of the edible fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. The results showed that the maximum dry weight of mycelium is increased by 47 % and reached 7.47 g/L, and the maximum laccase activity is increased by 15 % up to 2,277 U/L. Glucose consumption was also found to be relatively faster. The power consumption is 2.8 % lower than that of the Rushton turbine. PMID:25234512

  11. Polluting macrophytes Colombian lake Fúquene used as substrate by edible fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Nieto, Patricia; García-Gómez, Gustavo; Mora-Ortiz, Laura; Robles-Camargo, George

    2014-01-01

    Invasive aquatic plants from Lake Fúquene (Cundinamarca, Colombia), water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes C. Mart.) and Brazilian elodea (Egeria densa Planch.) have been removed mechanically from the lake and can be used for edible mushrooms production. The growth of the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) on these aquatic macrophytes was investigated in order to evaluate the possible use of fruiting bodies and spent biomass in food production for human and animal nutrition, respectively. Treatments included: water hyacinth, Brazilian elodea, sawdust, rice hulls and their combinations, inoculated with P. ostreatus at 3%. Water hyacinth mixed with sawdust stimulated significantly fruiting bodies production (P = 3.3 × 10(-7)) with 71% biological efficacy, followed by water hyacinth with rice husk (55%) and elodea with rice husk (48%), all of these have protein contents between 26 and 47%. Loss of lignin (0.9-21.6%), cellulose (3.7-58.3%) and hemicellulose (1.9-53.8%) and increment in vitro digestibility (16.7-139.3%) and reducing sugars (73.4-838.4%) were observed in most treatments. Treatments spent biomass presented Relative Forage Values (RFV) from 46.1 to 232.4%. The results demonstrated the fungus degrading ability and its potential use in aquatic macrophytes conversion biomass into digestible ruminant feed as added value to the fruiting bodies production for human nutrition. PMID:23900906

  12. Short read sequencing for Genomic Analysis of the brown rot fungus Fibroporia radiculosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The practical capability of short read sequencing for whole genome gene prediction was investigated for Fibroporia radiculosa, a copper-tolerant basidiomycete fungus that causes brown rot decay of wood. Illumina GAIIX reads from a single run of a paired-end library (75 nt read length, 300 bp insert...

  13. BIOLOGICAL OXIDATIONS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY ENZYMES FROM A WHITE ROT FUNGUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade a wide variety of structurally diverse organopollutants is dependent upon the lignin-degrading system of this microorganism. n part, the lignin-degrading system-consists of a family of peroxidases, which a...

  14. Biological pretreatment of corn stover with white-rot fungus for improved enzymatic hydrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass by white-rot fungus can represent a low-cost and eco-friendly alternative to harsh physical, chemical or physico-chemical pretreatment methods to facilitate enzymatic hydrolysis. However, fungal pretreatment can cause carbohydrate loss and it is, th...

  15. BIODEGRADATION OF CRYSTAL VIOLET BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOPORIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biodegradation of crystal violet (N,N,N',N',N",N"-hexamethylpararosaniline) in ligninolytic (nitrogen-limited) cultures of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance of crystal violet and by the identification of three metabolites (N,N,...

  16. BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium secretes a unique hydrogen peroxide-dependent oxidase capable of degrading lignin, a highly complex, chemically resistant, non-repeating heteropolymer. ue to its ability to generate carbon-centered radicals, this enzyme is able to...

  17. Biodegradation of pentachlorophenol by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (1988)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extensive biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance and mineralization of [14C]PCP in nutrient nitrogen-limited culture. Mass balance analyses demonstrated the formation of water-soluble met...

  18. Degradation of tannins in spent coffee grounds by Pleurotus sajor-caju.

    PubMed

    Wong, Y S; Wang, X

    1991-09-01

    Pleurotus sajor-caju PL27, a white rot fungus, degraded up to 87% of the tannins in spent coffee grounds as a solid substrate over 32 days. Degradation of tannins was enhanced if potato and dextrose were included. The potential nutritive value of the substrate as animal feed may be improved by this process. PMID:24425201

  19. EVIDENCE FOR CLEAVAGE OF LIGNIN BY A BROWN ROT FUNGUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodegradation by brown-rot fungi is quantitatively one of the most important fates of lignocellulose in nature. It has long been thought that these fungi do not degrade lignin significantly, and that their activities on this abundant aromatic biopolymer are limited to minor oxidative modifications....

  20. Characterization of a Brown Rot Fungus Isolated from Dwarf Flowering Almond in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Myoung Yong; Jeon, Young Jae

    2007-01-01

    The fruits showing brown rot symptom on dwarf flowering almond were found in Gongju, Chungchungnam-Do in Korea in July 2005. Small water-soaked lesions on the fruits were initiated, and gradually developed to soft rot covered with gray conidia. Then the diseased fruits were shrunk and became grayish-black mummies. A fungus was isolated from the diseased fruit and its morphological, cultural and molecular genetic characteristics were investigated. Typical blastospores of Monilinia spp. were observed under a light microscope both from tissues of the diseased fruits and from PDA-grown cultures. The fungus grew well at 25℃ and on PDA. The ITS ribosomal DNA region (650 bp) of the fungus was amplified by PCR and analyzed. Comparative data on ITS sequence homology among Monilinia spp., ITS sequence-based phylogram and morphological characteristics showed that the fungus is Monilinia fructicola. This is the first report on Monilinia fructicola causing brown rot on fruits of dwarf flowering almond in Korea. PMID:24015065

  1. Bio-liquefaction/solubilization of lignitic humic acids by white-rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium)

    SciTech Connect

    Elbeyli, I.Y.; Palantoken, A.; Piskin, S.; Peksel, A.; Kuzu, H.

    2006-08-15

    Humic acid samples obtained from lignite were liquefied/solubilized by using white-rot fungus, and chemical characterization of the products was investigated by FTIR and GC-MS techniques. Prior to the microbial treatment, raw lignite was oxidized with hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid separately, and then humic acids were extracted by alkali solution. The prepared humic acid samples were placed on the agar surface of the fungus and liquid products formed by microbial affects were collected. The products were analyzed and the chemical properties were compared. The results show that oxidation agent and oxidation degree affect composition of the liquid products formed by microbial attack.

  2. Biological decolourisation of pulp mill effluent using white rot fungus Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, S V; Murthy, D V S; Swaminathan, T

    2012-07-01

    The conventional biological treatment methods employed in the pulp and paper industries are not effective in reducing the colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The white-rot fungi are reported to have the ability to biodegrade the lignin and its derivatives. This paper is focused on the biological treatment of pulp mill effluent from a bagasse-based pulp and paper industry using fungal treatment. Experiments were conducted using the white rot fungus, Trametes versicolor in shake flasks operated in batch mode with different carbon sources. The decolourisation efficiencies of 82.5% and 80.3% were obtained in the presence of 15 g/L and 5 g/L of glucose and sucrose concentrations respectively with a considerable COD reduction. The possibility of reusing the grown fungus was examined for repeated treatment studies. PMID:24749195

  3. Biodegradation of ddt (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane) by the white rot fungus phanerochaete chrysosporium

    SciTech Connect

    Bumpus, J.A.; Aust, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive biodegradation of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by disappearance and mineralization of (14C) DDT in nutrient nitrogen-deficient cultures. Mass balance studies demonstrated the formation of polar and water-soluble metabolites during degradation. Hexane-extractable metabolites identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry included 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane(DDD), 2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol (dicofol), 2,2-dichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethanol (FW-152), and 4,4'-dichlorobenzophenone (DBP). DDD was the first metabolite observed; it appeared after 3 days of incubation and disappeared from culture upon continued incubation. This, as well as the fact that ((14)C) dicofol was mineralized, demonstrates that intermediates formed during DDT degradation are also metabolized. These results demonstrate that the pathway for DDT degradation in P. chrysosporium is clearly different from the major pathway proposed for microbial or environmental degradation of DDT. Like P. chrysosporium ME-446 and BKM-F-1767, the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Phellinus weirii, and Polyporus versicolor also mineralized DDT.

  4. Proteases of Wood Rot Fungi with Emphasis on the Genus Pleurotus

    PubMed Central

    Inácio, Fabíola Dorneles; Ferreira, Roselene Oliveira; de Araujo, Caroline Aparecida Vaz; Brugnari, Tatiane; Castoldi, Rafael; Peralta, Rosane Marina; de Souza, Cristina Giatti Marques

    2015-01-01

    Proteases are present in all living organisms and they play an important role in physiological conditions. Cell growth and death, blood clotting, and immune defense are all examples of the importance of proteases in maintaining homeostasis. There is growing interest in proteases due to their use for industrial purposes. The search for proteases with specific characteristics is designed to reduce production costs and to find suitable properties for certain industrial sectors, as well as good producing organisms. Ninety percent of commercialized proteases are obtained from microbial sources and proteases from macromycetes have recently gained prominence in the search for new enzymes with specific characteristics. The production of proteases from saprophytic basidiomycetes has led to the identification of various classes of proteases. The genus Pleurotus has been extensively studied because of its ligninolytic enzymes. The characteristics of this genus are easy cultivation techniques, high yield, low nutrient requirements, and excellent adaptation. There are few studies in the literature about proteases of Pleurotus spp. This review gathers together information about proteases, especially those derived from basidiomycetes, and aims at stimulating further research about fungal proteases because of their physiological importance and their application in various industries such as biotechnology and medicine. PMID:26180792

  5. Proteases of Wood Rot Fungi with Emphasis on the Genus Pleurotus.

    PubMed

    Inácio, Fabíola Dorneles; Ferreira, Roselene Oliveira; de Araujo, Caroline Aparecida Vaz; Brugnari, Tatiane; Castoldi, Rafael; Peralta, Rosane Marina; de Souza, Cristina Giatti Marques

    2015-01-01

    Proteases are present in all living organisms and they play an important role in physiological conditions. Cell growth and death, blood clotting, and immune defense are all examples of the importance of proteases in maintaining homeostasis. There is growing interest in proteases due to their use for industrial purposes. The search for proteases with specific characteristics is designed to reduce production costs and to find suitable properties for certain industrial sectors, as well as good producing organisms. Ninety percent of commercialized proteases are obtained from microbial sources and proteases from macromycetes have recently gained prominence in the search for new enzymes with specific characteristics. The production of proteases from saprophytic basidiomycetes has led to the identification of various classes of proteases. The genus Pleurotus has been extensively studied because of its ligninolytic enzymes. The characteristics of this genus are easy cultivation techniques, high yield, low nutrient requirements, and excellent adaptation. There are few studies in the literature about proteases of Pleurotus spp. This review gathers together information about proteases, especially those derived from basidiomycetes, and aims at stimulating further research about fungal proteases because of their physiological importance and their application in various industries such as biotechnology and medicine. PMID:26180792

  6. BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOPORIUM: INVOLVEMENT OF THE LIGNIN DEGRADING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The white-rot fungus Phanrochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide variety of structurally diverse organic compounds, including a number of environmentally persistent organopollutants. The unique biodegradative abilities of this fungus appears to be depend...

  7. Biodegradation of crystal violet by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed Central

    Bumpus, J A; Brock, B J

    1988-01-01

    Biodegradation of crystal violet (N,N,N',N',N'',N''-hexamethylpararosaniline) in ligninolytic (nitrogen-limited) cultures of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance of crystal violet and by the identification of three metabolites (N,N,N',N',N''-pentamethylpararosaniline, N,N,N',N''-tetramethylpararosaniline, and N,N',N''-trimethylpararosaniline) formed by sequential N-demethylation of the parent compound. Metabolite formation also occurred when crystal violet was incubated with the extracellular fluid obtained from ligninolytic cultures of this fungus, provided that an H2O2-generating system was supplied. This, as well as the fact that a purified ligninase catalyzed N-demethylation of crystal violet, demonstrated that biodegradation of crystal violet by this fungus is dependent, at least in part, upon its lignin-degrading system. In addition to crystal violet, six other triphenylmethane dyes (pararosaniline, cresol red, bromphenol blue, ethyl violet, malachite green, and brilliant green) were shown to be degraded by the lignin-degrading system of this fungus. An unexpected result was the finding that substantial degradation of crystal violet also occurred in nonligninolytic (nitrogen-sufficient) cultures of P. chrysosporium, suggesting that in addition to the lignin-degrading system, another mechanism exists in this fungus which is also able to degrade crystal violet. PMID:3389809

  8. Liquefaction/solubilization of low-rank Turkish coals by white-rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium)

    SciTech Connect

    Elbeyli, I.Y.; Palantoken, A.; Piskin, S.; Kuzu, H.; Peksel, A.

    2006-08-15

    Microbial coal liquefaction/solubilization of three low-rank Turkish coals (Bursa-Kestelek, Kutahya-Seyitomer and Mugla-Yatagan lignite) was attempted by using a white-rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium DSM No. 6909); chemical compositions of the products were investigated. The lignite samples were oxidized by nitric acid under moderate conditions and then oxidized samples were placed on the agar medium of Phanerochaete chrysosporium. FTIR spectra of raw lignites, oxidized lignites and liquid products were recorded, and the acetone-soluble fractions of these samples were identified by GC-MS technique. Results show that the fungus affects the nitro and carboxyl/carbonyl groups in oxidized lignite sample, the liquid products obtained by microbial effects are the mixture of water-soluble compounds, and show limited organic solubility.

  9. Effect of plant extracts and systemic fungicide on the pineapple fruit-rotting fungus, Ceratocystis paradoxa.

    PubMed

    Damayanti, M; Susheela, K; Sharma, G J

    1996-01-01

    Antifungal activities of extracts of sixteen plants were tested against Ceratocystis paradoxa which causes soft rot of pineapples. Xanthium strumarium was the most effective followed by Allium sativum. The effectiveness of various extracts against C. paradoxa was in the decreasing order of Meriandra bengalensis, Mentha piperita, Curcuma longa, Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus, Toona ciliata, Vitex negundo, Azadirachta indica, Eupatorium birmanicum, Ocimum sanctum and Leucas aspera. Extracts of Cassia tora, Gynura cusimba, Calotropis gigantea and Ocimum canum showed poor fungitoxicity. Ethanol was suitable for extraction of the inhibitory substance from X. strumarium. Acetonitrile was highly toxic to this fungus. Millipore filter-sterilized extracts had a more inhibitory effect on the fungus than the autoclaved samples. Treatment of pineapple fruits infested with C. paradoxa by X. strumarium extract reduced the severity of the disease. PMID:9022263

  10. Evidence of Subterranean Termite Feeding Deterrent Produced by Brown Rot Fungus Fibroporia radiculosa (Peck) Parmasto 1968 (Polyporales, Fomitopsidaceae).

    PubMed

    Kamaluddin, Nadia Nuraniya; Nakagawa-Izumi, Akiko; Nishizawa, Shota; Fukunaga, Ayuko; Doi, Shuichi; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi; Horisawa, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    We found that decayed wood stakes with no termite damage collected from a termite-infested field exhibited a deterrent effect against the termite Reticulitermes speratus, Kolbe, 1885. The effect was observed to be lost or reduced by drying. After identification, it was found that the decayed stakes were infected by brown rot fungus Fibroporia radiculosa (Peck) Parmasto, 1968. In a no-choice feeding test, wood blocks decayed by this fungus under laboratory condition deterred R. speratus feeding and n-hexane extract from the decayed stake and blocks induced termite mortality. These data provided an insight into the interaction between wood-rot fungi and wood-feeding termites. PMID:27548231

  11. Ethanol Production from Various Sugars and Cellulosic Biomass by White Rot Fungus Lenzites betulinus.

    PubMed

    Im, Kyung Hoan; Nguyen, Trung Kien; Choi, Jaehyuk; Lee, Tae Soo

    2016-03-01

    Lenzites betulinus, known as gilled polypore belongs to Basidiomycota was isolated from fruiting body on broadleaf dead trees. It was found that the mycelia of white rot fungus Lenzites betulinus IUM 5468 produced ethanol from various sugars, including glucose, mannose, galactose, and cellobiose with a yield of 0.38, 0.26, 0.07, and 0.26 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed, respectively. This fungus relatively exhibited a good ethanol production from xylose at 0.26 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed. However, the ethanol conversion rate of arabinose was relatively low (at 0.07 g of ethanol per gram sugar). L. betulinus was capable of producing ethanol directly from rice straw and corn stalks at 0.22 g and 0.16 g of ethanol per gram of substrates, respectively, when this fungus was cultured in a basal medium containing 20 g/L rice straw or corn stalks. These results indicate that L. betulinus can produce ethanol efficiently from glucose, mannose, and cellobiose and produce ethanol very poorly from galactose and arabinose. Therefore, it is suggested that this fungus can ferment ethanol from various sugars and hydrolyze cellulosic materials to sugars and convert them to ethanol simultaneously. PMID:27103854

  12. Ethanol Production from Various Sugars and Cellulosic Biomass by White Rot Fungus Lenzites betulinus

    PubMed Central

    Im, Kyung Hoan; Nguyen, Trung Kien; Choi, Jaehyuk

    2016-01-01

    Lenzites betulinus, known as gilled polypore belongs to Basidiomycota was isolated from fruiting body on broadleaf dead trees. It was found that the mycelia of white rot fungus Lenzites betulinus IUM 5468 produced ethanol from various sugars, including glucose, mannose, galactose, and cellobiose with a yield of 0.38, 0.26, 0.07, and 0.26 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed, respectively. This fungus relatively exhibited a good ethanol production from xylose at 0.26 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed. However, the ethanol conversion rate of arabinose was relatively low (at 0.07 g of ethanol per gram sugar). L. betulinus was capable of producing ethanol directly from rice straw and corn stalks at 0.22 g and 0.16 g of ethanol per gram of substrates, respectively, when this fungus was cultured in a basal medium containing 20 g/L rice straw or corn stalks. These results indicate that L. betulinus can produce ethanol efficiently from glucose, mannose, and cellobiose and produce ethanol very poorly from galactose and arabinose. Therefore, it is suggested that this fungus can ferment ethanol from various sugars and hydrolyze cellulosic materials to sugars and convert them to ethanol simultaneously. PMID:27103854

  13. Biodegradation of crystal violet by the white rot fungus phanerochaete chrysosporium

    SciTech Connect

    Bumpus, J.A.; Brock, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    Biodegradation of crystal violet (N,N,N',N',N',N''- hexamethylpararosaniline) in ligninolytic (nitrogen-limited) cultures of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance of crystal violet and by the identification of three metabolites (N,N,N',N',N'' -pentamethylpararosaniline, N,N,N',N'' -tetramethylpararosaniline, and N,N',N'' -trimethylpararosaniline) formed by sequential N-demethylation of the parent compound. Metabolite formation also occurred when crystal violet was incubated with the extracellular fluid obtained from ligninolytic cultures of this fungus, provided that an H2O2-generating system was supplied. This, as well as the fact that a purified ligninase catalyzed N-demethylation of crystal violet, demonstrated that biodegradation of crystal violet by this fungus is dependent, at least in part, upon its lignin-degrading system. In addition to crystal violet, six other triphenylmethane dyes (pararosaniline, cresol red, bromphenol blue, ethyl violet, malachite green, and brilliant green) were shown to be degraded by the lignin-degrading system of this fungus.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium sp. Strain ARG-1 Isolated from the White-Rot Fungus Armillaria gallica

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Caitlin; Kowalski, Caitlin; Zebrowski, Jessica; Tulchinskaya, Yevgeniya; Tai, Albert K.; James-Pederson, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Methylobacterium sp. strain ARG-1 was isolated from a cell culture of hyphal tips of the white-rot fungus Armillaria gallica. We describe here the sequencing, assembly, and annotation of its genome, confirming the presence of genes involved in methylotrophy. This is the first genome announcement of a strain of Methylobacterium associated with A. gallica. PMID:27257212

  15. Degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624.

    PubMed Central

    Takada, S; Nakamura, M; Matsueda, T; Kondo, R; Sakai, K

    1996-01-01

    A method for the degradation of dioxins by white rot fungi was developed. Degradation of a mixture of 10 kinds of tetra- to octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins [PCDDs]) and tetra- to octachlorodibenzofurans (polychlorinated dibenzofurans [PCDFs]), which were chlorinated at 2-, 3-, 7-, and 8-positions of the molecules, by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624 was studied in a stationary low-nitrogen medium. The percent degradation values of PCDDs and PCDFs were approximately 40 (tetra-chloro-) to 76% (hexachloro-) and 45 (tetrachloro-) to 70% (hexachloro-), respectively. Metabolites of 2,3,7,8-tetra- and octaCDD formed by P. sordida YK-624 included 4,5-dichlorocatechol and tetrachlorocatechol, respectively. These results suggest that white rot fungus is able to substantially degrade both PCDDs and PCDFs. This is the first report of the degradation of highly chlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs by a microorganism. PMID:8953705

  16. Biodegradation of polyvinyl alcohol by a brown-rot fungus, Fomitopsis pinicola.

    PubMed

    Tsujiyama, S; Okada, A

    2013-11-01

    A brown-rot fungus, Fomitopsis pinicola, degraded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in quartz sand but not in liquid culture. From gel permeation chromatography analysis, the high-molecular-weight fraction of PVA was decreased by the action of F. pinicola but the coloration of the culture filtrate with I2 solution increased. The reason for the increase in coloration was assumed to be the increase in the low-molecular-weight fraction in degraded PVA. Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectral analysis showed that spectral changes of the fungally degraded PVA were similar to those of PVA treated with Fenton's reagent suggesting that PVA degradation by F. pinicola was via the Fenton reaction. F. pinicola can thus be used to degrade PVA in woody wastes. PMID:23881320

  17. Production of cellobiose dehydrogenase from a newly isolated white rot fungus Termitomyces sp. OE147.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Gupteshwar; Gangwar, Rishabh; Gautam, Ashwani; Kumar, Lalit; Dhariwal, Anuj; Sahai, Vikram; Mishra, Saroj

    2014-08-01

    Class I cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDHs) are extracellular hemoflavo enzymes produced at low levels by the Basidiomycetes (white rot fungi). In presence of suitable electron acceptors, e.g., cytochrome c, 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol, or metal ions, it oxidizes cellobiose to cellobionolactone. A stringent requirement for disaccharides makes CDH also useful for conversion of lactose to lactobionic acid, an important ingredient in pharma and detergent industry. In this work, class I CDH was produced using a newly identified white rot fungus Termitomyces sp. OE147. Four media were evaluated for CDH production, and maximum enzyme activity of 0.92 international unit (IU)/ml was obtained on Ludwig medium under submerged conditions. Statistical optimization of N source, which had significant effect on CDH production, using Box-Behnken design followed by optimization of inoculum size and age resulted in an increase in activity to 2.9 IU/ml and a productivity of ~25 IU/l/h. The nearly purified CDH exhibited high activity of 26.4 IU/mg protein on lactose indicating this enzyme to be useful for lactobionic acid synthesis. Some of the internal peptide sequences bore 100 % homology to the CDH produced in Myceliophthora thermophila. The fungal isolate was amenable to scale up, and an overall productivity of ~18 IU/l/h was obtained at 14-l level. PMID:24929309

  18. Antioxidant and antitumor effects of polysaccharides from the fungus Pleurotus abalonus.

    PubMed

    Ren, Daoyuan; Jiao, Yadong; Yang, Xingbin; Yuan, Li; Guo, Jianjun; Zhao, Yan

    2015-07-25

    Dietary supplement of edible Pleurotus abalonus (P. abalonus) rich in fungal polysaccharides is associated with anticancer health benefit. We here isolated the polysaccharides (PAP) from the fruiting bodies of P. abalonus, and evaluated the antiproliferative activity of the polysaccharides in human colorectal carcinoma LoVo cells. HPLC analysis showed that PAP consisted of D-mannose, D-ribose, l-rhamnose, D-glucuronic acid, D-glucose and D-galactose, and their corresponding mole percentages were 3.4%, 1.1%, 1.9%, 1.4%, 87.9% and 4.4%, respectively. PAP was shown to exert a high antioxidant activity in vitro and a dose-dependent antiproliferative effect against LoVo cancer cells. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that PAP exhibited a stimulatory effect on apoptosis of LoVo cells, and induced the cell-cycle arrest at the S phase. We also found that PAP could increase the generation of intracellular ROS which was a critical mediator in PAP-induced cell growth inhibition. These findings suggest that PAP may serve as a potential novel dietary agent for human colon cancer chemoprevention. PMID:26091901

  19. Biodegradation of environmental pollutants by the white rot fungus phanerochaete chrysosporium

    SciTech Connect

    Bumpus, J.A.; Tien, M.; Wright, D.S.; Aust, S.D.

    1993-01-01

    The white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium secretes a unique hydrogen peroxide-dependent oxidase capable of degrading lignin, a highly complex, chemically resistant, non-repeating heteropolymer. Due to its ability to generate carbon-centered radicals, this enzyme is able to non-specifically catalyze numerous cleavage reactions producing smaller lignin-derived compounds which may then be metabolized by more conventional enzyme systems. The authors have proposed that the lignin-degrading system of this fungus may also have the ability to degrade environmentally persistent organopollutants. In the study P. chrysosporium is shown to able to degrade carbon-14 labeled 1,1'-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT), 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the gamma isomer of 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane (Lindane) as well as the non-halo-genated pollutant benzo(a)pyrene to (14)C-carbon dioxide.

  20. Removal of humic acid from composted hog waste by the white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junying; Song, Yunmeng; Ruan, Roger; Liu, Yuhuan

    2015-01-01

    The potential hazards of humic acid (HA) associated with hog waste effluent, coupled with increasing awareness of environmental problems, have prompted many countries to control disposal of effluents into water bodies and to maximize removal of HA. Here we employed the white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, to degrade the HA in composted hog waste effluent, evaluated by the response surface method. Preliminary experiments demonstrate that pH, temperature and quantity of inoculum are significant variables determining success of the fungus. In total, 13 experiments were conducted with three variables designated as A (pH), B (temperature) and C (inoculum amount). The optimal conditions for reduction of HA by P. chrysosporium are pH 6, 31.5°C and an inoculum quantity of 5.86 g. Predicted and experimental results exhibit strong agreement, indicating efficiency in the model obtained by response surface method. Therefore, P. chrysosporium is an effective micro-organism for removal of HA from composted hog waste effluent. PMID:26114276

  1. Characterization of pyrene biodegradation by white-rot fungus Polyporus sp. S133.

    PubMed

    Hadibarata, Tony; Kristanti, Risky Ayu; Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali; Nugroho, Agung Endro

    2012-01-01

    A white-rot fungus of Polyporus sp. S133 was isolated from an oil-polluted soil. The metabolism of pyrene by this fungus was investigated in liquid medium with 5 mg of the compound. Depletion of pyrene was evident during the 30-day growth period and was 21% and 90%, respectively, in cometabolism and metabolism of pyrene alone. Pyrene was absorbed to fungal cells or biodegraded to form simpler structural compounds. Seventy-one percent of eliminated pyrene was transformed by Polyporus sp. S133 into other compounds, whereas only 18% was absorbed in the fungal cell. The effects of pH and temperature on biomass production of Polyporus sp. S133 for pyrene were examined; the properties of laccase and 1,2-dioxygenase produced by Polyporus sp. S133 during pyrene degradation were investigated. The optimal values of pH were 3, 5, and 4 for laccase, 1,2-dioxygenase, and biomass production, respectively, whereas the optimal values of temperature were 25 °C for laccase and 50 °C for 1,2-dioxygenase and biomass production. Under optimal conditions, pyrene was mainly metabolized to 1-hydroxypyrene and gentisic acid. The structure of 1-hydroxypyrene and gentisic acid was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after identification using thin-layer chromatography. PMID:23586956

  2. Physisporinus vitreus: a versatile white rot fungus for engineering value-added wood products.

    PubMed

    Schwarze, Francis W M R; Schubert, Mark

    2011-11-01

    The credo of every scientist working in the field of applied science is to transfer knowledge "from science to market," a process that combines (1) science (fundamental discoveries and basic research) with (2) technology development (performance assessment and optimization) and (3) technology transfer (industrial application). Over the past 7 years, we have intensively investigated the potential of the white rot fungus, Physisporinus vitreus, for engineering value-added wood products. Because of its exceptional wood degradation pattern, i.e., selective lignification without significant wood strength losses and a preferential degradation of bordered pit membranes, it is possible to use this fungus under controlled conditions to improve the acoustic properties of tonewood (i.e., "mycowood") as well as to enhance the uptake of preservatives and wood modification substances in refractory wood species (e.g., Norway spruce), a process known as "bioincising." This minireview summarizes the research that we have performed with P. vitreus and critically discusses the challenges encountered during the development of two distinct processes for engineering value-added wood products. Finally, we peep into the future potential of the bioincising and mycowood processes for additional applications in the forest and wood industry. PMID:21901405

  3. Transcriptional profiles of laccase genes in the brown rot fungus Postia placenta MAD-R-698.

    PubMed

    An, Hongde; Wei, Dongsheng; Xiao, Tingting

    2015-09-01

    One of the laccase isoforms in the brown rot fungus Postia placenta is thought to contribute to the production of hydroxyl radicals, which play an important role in lignocellulose degradation. However, the presence of at least two laccase isoforms in this fungus makes it difficult to understand the details of this mechanism. In this study, we systematically investigated the transcriptional patterns of two laccase genes, Pplcc1 and Pplcc2, by quantitative PCR (qPCR) to better understand the mechanism. The qPCR results showed that neither of the two genes was expressed constitutively throughout growth in liquid culture or during the degradation of a woody substrate. Transcription of Pplcc1 was upregulated under nitrogen depletion and in response to a high concentration of copper in liquid culture, and during the initial colonization of intact aspen wafer. However, it was subject to catabolite repression by a high concentration of glucose. Transcription of Pplcc2 was upregulated by stresses caused by ferulic acid, 2, 6-dimethylbenzoic acid, and ethanol, and under osmotic stress in liquid culture. However, the transcription of Pplcc2 was downregulated upon contact with the woody substrate in solid culture. These results indicate that Pplcc1 and Pplcc2 are differentially regulated in liquid and solid cultures. Pplcc1 seems to play the major role in producing hydroxyl radicals and Pplcc2 in the stress response during the degradation of a woody substrate. PMID:26231371

  4. Transcriptomic analysis of the white rot fungus Polyporus brumalis provides insight into sesquiterpene biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Yeon; Kim, Myungkil; Kim, Seon-Hong; Hong, Chang-Young; Ryu, Sun-Hwa; Choi, In-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Object of this study was to identify genes and enzymes that are involved in sesquiterpene biosynthesis in the wood rotting fungus, Polyporus brumalis. Sesquiterpenes, β-eudesmane and β-eudesmol, were produced by the mycelium of P. brumalis cultured in modified medium. However, theses final products were not observed when the fungus was grown in potato dextrose medium. We used next generation sequencing (NGS) to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to terpene metabolism. This approach generated 25,000 unigenes and 127 metabolic pathways that were assigned to Kyoto Encyclopedia Genes Groups (KEGG). Further analysis of samples from modified medium indicated significant upregulation of 8 unigenes involved in the mevalonate (MVA) and methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) biosynthetic pathways. These pathways generate isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), which are precursors for the synthesis of sesquiterpenes. Furthermore, genes encoding germacrene A synthase, which facilitate the cyclization of FPP, were only differentially expressed in mycelium from fungi grown in modified medium. Our data provide a resource for studying the molecular mechanisms underpinning sesquiterpene biosynthesis and terpene metabolism. PMID:26686622

  5. Direct three-dimensional characterization and multiscale visualization of wheat straw deconstruction by white rot fungus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Qian, Chen; Jiang, Lei; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-08-19

    Microbial degradation of lignocellulose for resource and energy recovery has received increasing interest. Despite its obvious importance, the mechanism behind the biodegradation, especially the changes of morphological structure and surface characteristics, has not been fully understood. Here, we used three-dimensional (3D) characterization and multiscale visualization methods, in combination with chemical compositional analyses, to elucidate the degradation process of wheat straw by a white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. It was found that the fungal attack initiated from stomata. Lignin of the straw decayed in both size and quantity, and heterogeneity in the biodegradation was observed. After treatment with the fungus, the straw surface turned from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, and the adhesion of the straw surface increased in the fungal degradation. The morphology of the straw outer layer became heterogeneous and loose with the formation of many holes with various sizes. The wasp-tunnels-like structure of the collenchyma and parenchyma of the straw as well as the fungal hyphae interspersed inside the straw structure were clearly visualized in the 3D reconstruction structure. This work offers a new insight into the mechanism of lignocellulose biodegradation and demonstrates that multiscale visualization methods could be a useful tool to explore such complex processes. PMID:25072830

  6. Saccharification of Lignocelluloses by Carbohydrate Active Enzymes of the White Rot Fungus Dichomitus squalens

    PubMed Central

    Rytioja, Johanna; Hildén, Kristiina; Mäkinen, Susanna; Vehmaanperä, Jari; Hatakka, Annele; Mäkelä, Miia R.

    2015-01-01

    White rot fungus Dichomitus squalens is an efficient lignocellulose degrading basidiomycete and a promising source for new plant cell wall polysaccharides depolymerizing enzymes. In this work, we focused on cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) of D. squalens. The native CBHI fraction of the fungus, consisting three isoenzymes, was purified and it maintained the activity for 60 min at 50°C, and was stable in acidic pH. Due to the lack of enzyme activity assay for detecting only CBHII activity, CBHII of D. squalens was produced recombinantly in an industrially important ascomycete host, Trichoderma reesei. CBH enzymes of D. squalens showed potential in hydrolysis of complex lignocellulose substrates sugar beet pulp and wheat bran, and microcrystalline cellulose, Avicel. Recombinant CBHII (rCel6A) of D. squalens hydrolysed all the studied plant biomasses. Compared to individual activities, synergistic effect between rCel6A and native CBHI fraction of D. squalens was significant in the hydrolysis of Avicel. Furthermore, the addition of laccase to the mixture of CBHI fraction and rCel6A significantly enhanced the amount of released reducing sugars from sugar beet pulp. Especially, synergy between individual enzymes is a crucial factor in the tailor-made enzyme mixtures needed for hydrolysis of different plant biomass feedstocks. Our data supports the importance of oxidoreductases in improved enzyme cocktails for lignocellulose saccharification. PMID:26660105

  7. Involvement of Cytochrome P450 in Pentachlorophenol Transformation in a White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Daliang; Wang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of cytochrome P450 and P450-mediated pentachlorophenol oxidation in a white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated in this study. The carbon monoxide difference spectra indicated induction of P450 (103±13 pmol P450 per mg protein in the microsomal fraction) by pentachlorophenol. The pentachlorophenol oxidation by the microsomal P450 was NADPH-dependent at a rate of 19.0±1.2 pmol min−1 (mg protein)−1, which led to formation of tetrachlorohydroquinone and was significantly inhibited by piperonyl butoxide (a P450 inhibitor). Tetrachlorohydroquinone was also found in the cultures, while the extracellular ligninases which were reported to be involved in tetrachlorohydroquinone formation were undetectable. The formation of tetrachlorohydroquinone was not detectable in the cultures added with either piperonyl butoxide or cycloheximide (an inhibitor of de novo protein synthesis). These results revealed the pentachlorophenol oxidation by induced P450 in the fungus, and it should be the first time that P450-mediated pentachlorophenol oxidation was demonstrated in a microorganism. Furthermore, the addition of the P450 inhibitor to the cultures led to obvious increase of pentachlorophenol, suggesting that the relationship between P450 and pentachlorophenol methylation is worthy of further research. PMID:23029295

  8. Saccharification of Lignocelluloses by Carbohydrate Active Enzymes of the White Rot Fungus Dichomitus squalens.

    PubMed

    Rytioja, Johanna; Hildén, Kristiina; Mäkinen, Susanna; Vehmaanperä, Jari; Hatakka, Annele; Mäkelä, Miia R

    2015-01-01

    White rot fungus Dichomitus squalens is an efficient lignocellulose degrading basidiomycete and a promising source for new plant cell wall polysaccharides depolymerizing enzymes. In this work, we focused on cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) of D. squalens. The native CBHI fraction of the fungus, consisting three isoenzymes, was purified and it maintained the activity for 60 min at 50°C, and was stable in acidic pH. Due to the lack of enzyme activity assay for detecting only CBHII activity, CBHII of D. squalens was produced recombinantly in an industrially important ascomycete host, Trichoderma reesei. CBH enzymes of D. squalens showed potential in hydrolysis of complex lignocellulose substrates sugar beet pulp and wheat bran, and microcrystalline cellulose, Avicel. Recombinant CBHII (rCel6A) of D. squalens hydrolysed all the studied plant biomasses. Compared to individual activities, synergistic effect between rCel6A and native CBHI fraction of D. squalens was significant in the hydrolysis of Avicel. Furthermore, the addition of laccase to the mixture of CBHI fraction and rCel6A significantly enhanced the amount of released reducing sugars from sugar beet pulp. Especially, synergy between individual enzymes is a crucial factor in the tailor-made enzyme mixtures needed for hydrolysis of different plant biomass feedstocks. Our data supports the importance of oxidoreductases in improved enzyme cocktails for lignocellulose saccharification. PMID:26660105

  9. Initial Steps in the Degradation of Methoxychlor by the White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    PubMed Central

    Grifoll, M.; Hammel, K. E.

    1997-01-01

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium mineralized [ring-(sup14)C]methoxychlor [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)ethane] and metabolized it to a variety of products. The three most prominent of these were identified as the 1-dechloro derivative 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)ethane, the 2-hydroxy derivative 2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)ethanol, and the 1-dechloro-2-hydroxy derivative 2,2-dichloro-1,1-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)ethanol by comparison of the derivatives with authentic standards in chromatographic and mass spectrometric experiments. In addition, the 1-dechloro-2-hydroxy derivative was identified from its (sup1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum. The 1-dechloro and 2-hydroxy derivatives were both converted to the 1-dechloro-2-hydroxy derivative by the fungus; i.e., there was no requirement that dechlorination precede hydroxylation or vice versa. All three metabolites were mineralized and are therefore likely intermediates in the degradation of methoxychlor by P. chrysosporium. PMID:16535547

  10. Bio-Treatment of Energetic Materials Using White-Rot Fungus

    SciTech Connect

    MM Shah

    1998-11-12

    The nitramine explosive, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), is used by militaries around the world in high yield munitions and often in combination with hexahydro- 1,3,5-trirdtro- 1,3,5- triazine (RDX). Improper handling and disposal of manufacturing wastewater may lead to environmental contamination. In the past wastewater was collected in disposal lagoons where it evaporated, and deposited large amounts of explosives on the lagoon floor. Although lagoon disposal is no longer practiced, thousands of acres have been already contaminated. RDX and, to a lesser extent, HMX have leached through the soil subsurface and contaminated groundwater ( 1,2). Likewjse, burning of substandard material or demilitarization of out-of-date muriitions has also led to environmental contamination. The current stockpile of energetic materials at DOE sites requires resource recovery or disposition (RRD). A related challenge exists in the clean-up of the DOE sites where soil and ground water are contaminated with explosives. Current technologies such as incineration, molten salt process, supercritical water oxidation are expensive and have technical hurdles. Open burning and open detonation(OB/OD) is not encouraged by regulatory agencies for disposal of explosives. Hence, there is need for a safe . technology to degrade these contaminants. The fi.mgal process does not employ open burning or open detonation to destroy energetic materials. The fimgal process can be used by itself, or it can augment or support other technologies for the treatment of energetic materials. The proposed enzyme technology will not release any air pollutants and will meet the regulations of Clean Air Act amendments, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Federal. Facilities Compliance Act. The goal for this project was to test the ability of white-rot fungus to degrade HMX. In our study, we investigated the biodegradation of HMX using white-rot fungus in liquid and solid cultures

  11. BIODEGRADATION OF 2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID IN LIQUID CULTURE AND IN SOIL BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extensive biodegradation of [14 C]-2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid ([14C]-2,4,5-T) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated in nutrient nitrogen-limited aqueous cultures and in [14C]-2,4,5-T-contaminated soil inoculated with this fungus and supplemen...

  12. Role of apoptosis, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and p53 protein in chemically induced colon cancer in rats fed corncob fiber treated with the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Zusman, I; Reifen, R; Livni, O; Smirnoff, P; Gurevich, P; Sandler, B; Nyska, A; Gal, R; Tendler, Y; Madar, Z

    1997-01-01

    The role of apoptosis, proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and p53 protein in the preventive effects of dietary fiber treated with the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus on rat-colon tumorigenesis was studied. Tumors were induced by five subcutaneous injections of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), 20 mg/kg rat, once a week. Rats were fed a semi-synthetic fiberfree diet (control) or a high-fiber diet (15%) derived from corncob treated or non-treated with the fungus. The rats we sacrificed 24 weeks after the first carcinogenic injection. The fungus treated corn-cob significantly decreased tumor incidence (to 26%) as compared to 44% and 57% in the other dietary groups. The apoptotic index (AI) significantly decreased in malignant tissue as compared to non-tumorous tissue. PCNA and cytoplasmic content of p53 protein exhibited an increasing trend in malignant tissue as compared to benign tissue (at 15% and 18%, respectively). The fungus-treated corncob significantly increased the content of p53 in the cell cytoplasm (to 33%) and its serum levels in tumor-bearing rats (to 38%). The cellular concentration of PCNA decreased to 61% in tumors obtained from rats fed the fungus-treated corncob as compared to controls. A high positive correlation was found between tumor grade and p53 protein in the serum (r = 0.97) or in the cell cytoplasm (r = 0.77) and between tumor grade and PCNA (r = 0.81). An inverse relationship was found between tumor grade and AI (r = -0.63). We found that 15% of corncob fiber alone seems not to be enough to prevent chemically induced tumorigenesis. The corncob fiber (15%) treated with the fungus had a significant protective effect against DMH-induced rat colon cancer, even at 15% and this effect was accompanied by the activation of some cellular mechanisms such as apoptosis, PCNA and p53 protein activation. Incubation of corncob with the fungus Pleurotus os, increased the dietary fiber content up to 78%. Thus corncob inhibits colon cancer development, and

  13. P450monooxygenases (P450ome) of the model white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Khajamohiddin; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2012-01-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium, the model white rot fungus, has been the focus of research for the past about four decades for understanding the mechanisms and processes of biodegradation of the natural aromatic polymer lignin and a broad range of environmental toxic chemicals. The ability to degrade this vast array of xenobiotic compounds was originally attributed to its lignin-degrading enzyme system (LDS), mainly the extracellular peroxidases. However, subsequent physiological, biochemical, and/or genetic studies by us and others identified the involvement of a peroxidase-independent oxidoreductase system, the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system. The whole genome sequence revealed an extraordinarily large P450 contingent (P450ome) with an estimated 149 P450s in this organism. This review focuses on the current status of understanding on the P450 monooxygenase system of P. chrysosporium in terms of pre-genomic and post-genomic identification, structural and evolutionary analysis, transcriptional regulation, redox partners, and functional characterization for its biodegradative potential. Future research on this catalytically diverse oxidoreductase enzyme system and its major role as a newly emerged player in xenobiotic metabolism/degradation is discussed. PMID:22624627

  14. Molecular Differentiation and Detection of Ginseng-Adapted Isolates of the Root Rot Fungus Cylindrocarpon destructans.

    PubMed

    Seifert, K A; McMullen, C R; Yee, D; Reeleder, R D; Dobinson, K F

    2003-12-01

    ABSTRACT The soilborne fungus Cylindrocarpon destructans (teleomorph: Neonectria radicicola) causes root rot in a wide range of plant hosts; the disease is of particular concern in ginseng production, and in conifer and fruit tree nurseries. beta-Tubulin gene and rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence data and pathogenicity assays were used to characterize isolates of C. destructans from ginseng and other hosts. The results of these studies demonstrated a high amount of sequence divergence among strains identified as C. destructans or N. radicicola, suggesting the existence of several phylogenetic species in this complex. Accordingly, we propose that the two varieties of N. radicicola be raised to species status. Certain highly aggressive ginseng isolates from Ontario, Korea, and Japan have identical ITS and beta-tubulin sequences, and form a monophyletic clade (designated "clade a"); these strains are identified as C. destructans f. sp. panacis. Other ginseng strains clustered in monophyletic groups with strains from angiosperm and conifers. A subtractive hybridization method was used to isolate genomic DNA sequences with diagnostic potential from the aggressive C. destructans Ontario ginseng isolate 1640. One of these sequences was similar to the rRNA gene intergenic spacer from a Fusarium oxysporum isolate from Pinus ponderosa, and hybridized to DNA from F. oxysporum and all C. destructans isolates tested. Primers were designed that could be used to amplify this sequence specifically from the highly aggressive, ginsengadapted C. destructans isolates from Ontario and Korea and other members of clade a. PMID:18943617

  15. Evolutionary history of the conifer root rot fungus Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Dalman, K; Olson, A; Stenlid, J

    2010-11-01

    We investigated two hypotheses for the origin of the root rot fungus Heterobasidion annosum species complex: (i) that geology has been an important factor for the speciation (ii) that co-evolutionary processes with the hosts drove the divergence of the pathogen species. The H. annosum species complex consists of five species: three occur in Europe, H. annosum s.s., Heterobasidion parviporum and Heterobasidion abietinum, and two in North America, Heterobasidion irregulare and Heterobasidion occidentale; all with different but partially overlapping host preferences. The evolution of the H. annosum species complex was studied using six partially sequenced genes, between 10 and 30 individuals of each species were analysed. Neighbour-joining trees were constructed for each gene, and a Bayesian tree was built for the combined data set. In addition, haplotype networks were constructed to illustrate the species relationships. For three of the genes, H. parviporum and H. abietinum share haplotypes supporting recent divergence and/or possible gene flow. We propose that the H. annosum species complex originated in Laurasia and that the H. annosum s.s./H. irregulare and H. parviporum/H. abietinum/H. occidentale ancestral species emerged between 45 and 60 Ma in the Palaearctic, well after the radiation of the host genera. Our data imply that H. irregulare and H. occidentale were colonizing North America via different routes. In conclusion, plate tectonics are likely to have been the main factor influencing Heterobasidion speciation and biogeography. PMID:20964759

  16. Molecular characterization of manganese peroxidases from white-rot fungus Polyporus brumalis.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Sun-Hwa; Kim, Boyeong; Kim, Myungkil; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2014-03-01

    The cDNAs of six manganese-dependent peroxidases (MnPs) were isolated from white-rot fungus Polyporus brumalis. The MnP proteins shared similar properties with each other in terms of size (approximately 360-365 amino acids) and primary structure, showing 62-96 % amino acid sequence identity. RT-PCR analysis indicated that these six genes were predominantly expressed in shallow stationary culture (SSC) in a liquid medium. Gene expression was induced by treatment with dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and wood chips. Expression of pbmnp4 was strongly induced by both treatments, whereas that of pbmnp5 was induced only by DBP, while pbmnp6 was induced by wood chips only. Then, we overexpressed pbmnp4 in P. brumalis under the control of the GPD promoter. Overexpression of pbmnp4 effectively increased MnP activity; the transformant that had the highest MnP activity also demonstrated the most effective decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Blue R dye. Identification of MnP cDNAs can contribute to the efficient production of lignin-degradation enzymes and may lead to utilization of basidiomycetous fungi for degradation of lignin and numerous recalcitrant xenobiotics. PMID:23828244

  17. An extracellular laccase with potent dye decolorizing ability from white rot fungus Trametes sp. LAC-01.

    PubMed

    Ling, Zhuo-Ren; Wang, Shan-Shan; Zhu, Meng-Juan; Ning, Ying-Jie; Wang, Shou-Nan; Li, Bing; Yang, Ai-Zhen; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Zhao, Xiao-Meng

    2015-11-01

    A novel laccase was purified from fermentation broth of white rot fungus Trametes sp. LAC-01 using an isolation procedure involving three ion-exchange chromatography steps on DEAE-cellulose, SP-Sepharose, and Q-Sepharose, and one gel-filtration step. The purified enzyme (TSL) was proved as a monomeric protein with a Mr of 59kDa based on SDS-PAGE and FPLC. Partial amino acid sequences were obtained by LC-MS/MS sharing considerably high sequence similarity with that of other laccases. It possessed optimal pH of 2.6 and temperature of 60°C using ABTS as the substrate. The Km of the laccase toward ABTS was estimated to 30.28μM at pH 2.6 and 40°C. TSL manifested considerably high oxidizing activity toward ABTS, but was avoid of degradative activity toward benzidine, caftaric acid, etc. It was effective in the decolorization of phenolic dyes - Bromothymol Blue and Malachite Green with decolorization rate higher than 60% after 24h of incubation. Adjunction of Cu(2+) with the final concentration of 2.0mmol/L significantly activated laccase production with a steady high level of 275.8-282.2U/mL in 96-144h. The high yield and short production period makes Trametes sp. LAC-01 and TSL potentially useful for industrial and environmental application and commercialization. PMID:26361865

  18. Degradation of selected agrochemicals by the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Mir-Tutusaus, Josep Anton; Masís-Mora, Mario; Corcellas, Cayo; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Sarrà, Montserrat; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E

    2014-12-01

    Use of agrochemicals is a worldwide practice that exerts an important effect on the environment; therefore the search of approaches for the elimination of such pollutants should be encouraged. The degradation of the insecticides imiprothrin (IP) and cypermethrin (CP), the insecticide/nematicide carbofuran (CBF) and the antibiotic of agricultural use oxytetracycline (OTC) were assayed with the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Experiments with fungal pellets demonstrated extensive degradation of the four tested agrochemicals, at rates that followed the pattern IP>OTC>CP>CBF. In vitro assays with laccase-mediator systems showed that this extracellular enzyme participates in the transformation of IP but not in the cases of CBF and OTC. On the other hand, in vivo studies with inhibitors of cytochrome P450 revealed that this intracellular system plays an important role in the degradation of IP, OTC and CBF, but not for CP. The compounds 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (DCCA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA) were detected as transformation products of CP, as a result of the breakdown of the molecule. Meanwhile, 3-hydroxycarbofuran was detected as a transformation product of CBF; this metabolite tended to accumulate during the process, nonetheless, the toxicity of the system was effectively reduced. Simultaneous degradation of CBF and OTC showed a reduction in toxicity; similarly, when successive additions of OTC were done during the slower degradation of CBF, the fungal pellets were able to degrade both compounds. The simultaneous degradation of the four compounds successfully took place with minimal inhibition of fungal activity and resulted in the reduction of the global toxicity, thus supporting the potential use of T. versicolor for the treatment of diverse agrochemicals. PMID:25217998

  19. Short-read sequencing for genomic analysis of the brown rot fungus Fibroporia radiculosa.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juliet D; Perkins, Andy D; Sonstegard, Tad S; Schroeder, Steven G; Burgess, Shane C; Diehl, Susan V

    2012-04-01

    The feasibility of short-read sequencing for genomic analysis was demonstrated for Fibroporia radiculosa, a copper-tolerant fungus that causes brown rot decay of wood. The effect of read quality on genomic assembly was assessed by filtering Illumina GAIIx reads from a single run of a paired-end library (75-nucleotide read length and 300-bp fragment size) at three different stringency levels and then assembling each data set with Velvet. A simple approach was devised to determine which filter stringency was "best." Venn diagrams identified the regions containing reads that were used in an assembly but were of a low-enough quality to be removed by a filter. By plotting base quality histograms of reads in this region, we judged whether a filter was too stringent or not stringent enough. Our best assembly had a genome size of 33.6 Mb, an N50 of 65.8 kb for a k-mer of 51, and a maximum contig length of 347 kb. Using GeneMark, 9,262 genes were predicted. TargetP and SignalP analyses showed that among the 1,213 genes with secreted products, 986 had motifs for signal peptides and 227 had motifs for signal anchors. Blast2GO analysis provided functional annotation for 5,407 genes. We identified 29 genes with putative roles in copper tolerance and 73 genes for lignocellulose degradation. A search for homologs of these 102 genes showed that F. radiculosa exhibited more similarity to Postia placenta than Serpula lacrymans. Notable differences were found, however, and their involvements in copper tolerance and wood decay are discussed. PMID:22247176

  20. Integrated delignification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of hard wood by a white-rot fungus, Phlebia sp. MG-60.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Ichiro; Hirota, Yoshiyuki; Meguro, Sadatoshi

    2012-12-01

    We propose a new process of unified aerobic delignification and anaerobic saccharification and fermentation of wood by a single microorganism, the white-rot fungus Phlebia sp. MG-60. This fungus is able to selectively degrade lignin under aerobic solid state fermentation conditions, and to produce ethanol directly from delignified oak wood under semi-aerobic liquid culture conditions. After 56 d aerobic incubation, 40.7% of initial lignin and negligible glucan were degraded. Then under semi-aerobic conditions without the addition of cellulase, 43.9% of theoretical maximum ethanol was produced after 20 d. Changing from aerobic conditions (biological delignification pretreatment) to semi-aerobic conditions (saccharification and fermentation) enabled the fermentation of wood by solely biological processes. This is the first report of ethanol production from woody biomass using a single microorganism without addition of chemicals or enzymes. PMID:23073100

  1. Stimulation of Ligninolytic Peroxidase Activity by Nitrogen Nutrients in the White Rot Fungus Bjerkandera sp. Strain BOS55

    PubMed Central

    Kaal, Erwin E. J.; de Jong, Ed; Field, Jim A.

    1993-01-01

    Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55, a newly isolated wild-type white rot fungus, produced lignin peroxidase (LiP) in nitrogen (N)-sufficient glucose-peptone medium, whereas no LiP was detectable in N-limited medium. The production of LiP was induced by the peptide-containing components of this medium and also by soy bean protein. Furthermore, the production of manganese-dependent peroxidase was stimulated by organic N sources, although lower production was also evident in N-limited medium. Further research showed that the induction of LiP depended on the combination of pH and the type of N source. An amino acid mixture and ammonium induced LiP only at either pH 6 or 7.3, respectively. Peptone induced LiP activity at all pH values tested; however, the highest activity was observed at pH 7.3. The results presented here indicate that Bjerkandera spp. are distinct from the model white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which produces ligninolytic peroxidases in response to N limitation. PMID:16349104

  2. Molecular breeding of lignin-degrading brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum by homologous expression of laccase gene.

    PubMed

    Arimoto, Misa; Yamagishi, Kenji; Wang, Jianqiao; Tanaka, Kanade; Miyoshi, Takanori; Kamei, Ichiro; Kondo, Ryuichiro; Mori, Toshio; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Hirai, Hirofumi

    2015-12-01

    The basidiomycete Gloeophyllum trabeum KU-41 can degrade Japanese cedar wood efficiently. To construct a strain better suited for biofuel production from Japanese cedar wood, we developed a gene transformation system for G. trabeum KU-41 using the hygromycin phosphotransferase-encoding gene (hpt) as a marker. The endogenous laccase candidate gene (Gtlcc3) was fused with the promoter of the G. trabeum glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding gene and co-transformed with the hpt-bearing pAH marker plasmid. We obtained 44 co-transformants, and identified co-transformant L#61, which showed the highest laccase activity among all the transformants. Moreover, strain L#61 was able to degrade lignin in Japanese cedar wood-containing medium, in contrast to wild-type G. trabeum KU-41 and to a typical white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. By using strain L#61, direct ethanol production from Japanese cedar wood was improved compared to wild type. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of the molecular breeding of lignin-degrading brown-rot fungus and direct ethanol production from softwoods by co-transformation with laccase overproduction constructs. PMID:26695948

  3. Effect of biodegradation on thermogravimetric and chemical characteristics of hardwood and softwood by brown-rot fungus.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenzhong; Fan, Qi; He, Zesen; Wang, Zhinan; Wang, Xiaobo; Sun, Jin

    2016-07-01

    The thermogravimetric and chemical characterization of hardwood Eucalyptus urophylla (Ep) and softwood Pinus massoniana (Mp) pretreated by brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum were investigated. The results indicated that the brown-rot fungus pretreatment can optimize the thermal decomposition and decrease the initiation temperatures (8-11°C lower) of both the Ep and Mp pyrolysis. The mean activation energy values of the bio-treated samples were 29.7kJ/mol (for Ep) and 42.3kJ/mol (for Mp) lower than that of the un-treated samples at the conversion rate from 0.1 to 0.7 based on Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) method. After the bio-pretreatment, the required temperatures were lower (4-7°C) for the pyrolysis rates of hemicellulose and cellulose in Mp reaching maximum and termination. However, the situation was just the opposite for Ep. The variations in chemical properties of hydrogen bonding, as well as the relative changes in lignin/carbohydrate composition of both wood species were also examined. PMID:27035476

  4. Fungal biodegradation of lignopolystyrene graft copolymers. [Pleurotus ostreatus; Phanerochaete chrysosporium; Trametes versicolor; Gloeophyllum trabeum

    SciTech Connect

    Milstein, O.; Gersonde, R.; Huttermann, A. ); MengJiu Chen; Meister, J.J )

    1992-10-01

    White rot basidiomycetes were able to biodegrade styrene (1-phenylethene) graft copolymers of lignin containing different proportions of lignin and polystyrene (poly(1-phenylethylene)). The biodegradation tests were run on lignin-styrene copolymerization products which contained 10.3, 32.2, and 50.4{percent} (wt/wt) lignin. The polymer samples were incubated with the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Trametes versicolor and the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. White rot fungi degraded the plastic samples at a rate which increased with increasing lignin content in the copolymer sample. Both polystyrene and lignin components of the copolymer were readily degraded. Polystyrene pellets were not degradable in these tests. Degradation was verified for both incubated and control samples by weight loss, quantitative UV spectrophotometric analysis of both lignin and styrene residues, scanning electron microscopy of the plastic surface, and the presence of enzymes active in degradation during incubation. Brown rot fungus did not affect any of the plastics. White rot fungi produced and secreted oxidative enzymes associated with lignin degradation in liquid media during incubation with lignin-polystyrene copolymer.

  5. BIODEGRADATION OF DDT [1,1,1-TRICHLORO-2,2-BIS(4- CHLOROPHENYL) ETHANE] BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extensive biodegradation of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by disappearance and mineralization of [14C]DDT in nutrient nitrogen-deficient cultures. Mass balance studies demonstrated the form...

  6. BIODEGRADATION OF DDT [1,1,1-TRICHLORO-2,2-BIS)4-CHLOROPHENYL) ETHANE] BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extensive biodegradation of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by disappearance and mineralization of [14C]DDT in nutrient nitrogen-deficient cultures. ass balance studies demonstrated the forma...

  7. BIODEGRATION OF 2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID IN LIQUID CULTURE AND IN SOIL BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extensive biodegradation of [14C]-2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid ([[14C]-2,4,5-T) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated in nutrient nitrogen-limited aqueous cultures and in [14C]-2,4,5-T-contaminated soil inoculat...

  8. Decolorization and biodegradation of congo red dye by a novel white rot fungus Alternaria alternata CMERI F6.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Samayita; Basak, Bikram; Dutta, Subhasish; Bhunia, Biswanath; Dey, Apurba

    2013-11-01

    A novel white rot fungus Alternaria alternata CMERI F6 decolorized 99.99% of 600 mg/L congo red within 48 h in yeast extract-glucose medium at 25 °C, pH 5 and 150 rpm. Physicochemical parameters like carbon and nitrogen sources, temperature, pH and aeration were optimized to develop faster decolorization process. Dye decolorization rate was maximal (20.21 mg/L h) at 25 °C, pH 5, 150 rpm and 800 mg/L dye, giving 78% final decolorization efficiency. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray Diffraction analysis revealed that the fungus become amorphous after dye adsorption. HPLC and FTIR analysis of the extracted metabolites suggested that the decolorization occurred through biosorption and biodegradation. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and acid-alkali and 70% ethanol treatment revealed the efficient dye retention capability of the fungus. The foregoing results justify the applicability of the strain in removal of congo red from textile wastewaters and their safe disposal. PMID:24034987

  9. Morphological Characterization and Quantification of the Mycelial Growth of the Brown-Rot Fungus Postia placenta for Modeling Purposes.

    PubMed

    Du, Huan; Lv, Pin; Ayouz, Mehdi; Besserer, Arnaud; Perré, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Continuous observation was performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy to visualize the three-dimensional microscopic growth of the brown-rot fungus, Postia placenta, for seventeen days. The morphological characterization of Postia placenta was quantitatively determined, including the tip extension rate, branch angle and branching length, (hyphal length between two adjacent branch sites). A voxel method has been developed to measure the growth of the biomass. Additionally, the tip extension rate distribution, the branch angle distribution and the branching length distribution, which quantified the hyphal growth characteristics, were evaluated. Statistical analysis revealed that the extension rate of tips was randomly distributed in space. The branch angle distribution did not change with the development of the colony, however, the branching length distribution did vary with the development of the colony. The experimental data will be incorporated into a lattice-based model simulating the growth of Postia placenta. PMID:27602575

  10. Evaluation of chicken manure, kenaf, and phanerochaete chrysosporium (white rot fungus) as enhancers of polychlorinated biphenyl biodegradation

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, K.; Borazjani, A.; Diehl, S.V.

    1995-12-31

    In this 150-day study, chicken manure, kenaf, and white rot fungus were added to soil microcosms in an attempt to enhance the degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls. The soil was contaminated with commercial PCB mixtures. Dishes were ammended with 5% dry weight chicken manure, 1% dry weight kenaf, and 1% dry weight kenaf plus Phanerochaete chrysosporium inoculant. PCB concentrations were determined at 30 day intervals by soxhlet extraction and gas chromatography analyses. Preliminary results of microbial populations and PCB degradation are presented. At 90 days, the microcosms amended with chicken manure had significantly higher populations of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes. However, at 120 days, these soils underwent great reductions in actinomycete and bacterial populations. Through 60 days, the concentration of the PCBs Aroclor 1242 and 1248 had its greatest reduction in the kenaf amended soils. The concentration of Aroclor 1260 either increased or stayed at high levels for 30 days before stabilizing or decreasing by day 60.

  11. Production of fiberboard using corn stalk pretreated with white-rot fungus Trametes hirsute by hot pressing without adhesive.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianguo; Zhang, Xin; Wan, Jilin; Ma, Fuying; Tang, Yong; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2011-12-01

    Corn stalk pretreated with white-rot fungus Trametes hirsute was used to produce fiberboard by hot pressing without adhesive. The moduli of rupture and elasticity of the corn-stalk-based fiberboard were increased 3.40- and 8.87-fold when bio-pretreated rather than untreated corn stalk was used. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and chemical analysis showed that bio-pretreated corn stalk increased the mechanical properties of the fiberboard because it had more than twice the number of hydroxyl group, an 18% higher crystallinity, and twice the polysaccharide content of untreated corn stalk. Its laccase content was 4.65 ± 0.38 U/g. Corn stalk-based fiberboard production did not require adhesives, thus eliminating a potential source of toxic emissions such as formaldehyde gas. PMID:22014702

  12. Gene expression analysis of copper tolerance and wood decay in the brown rot fungus Fibroporia radiculosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many brown rot fungi are capable of rapidly degrading wood and are copper-tolerant. To better understand the genes that control these processes, we examined gene expression of Fibroporia radiculosa growing on wood treated with a copper-based preservative that combined copper carbonate with dimethyld...

  13. Acid and neutral trehalase activities in mutants of the corn rot fungus Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a fungal pathogen known to cause corn rot and other plant diseases and to contaminate grain with toxic metabolites. We are characterizing trehalose metabolism in F. verticillioides with the hope that this pathway might serve as a target for controlling Fusarium disease. T...

  14. Monitoring of white-rot fungus during bioremediation of polychlorinated dioxin-contaminated fly ash.

    PubMed

    Suhara, H; Daikoku, C; Takata, H; Suzuki, S; Matsufuji, Y; Sakai, K; Kondo, R

    2003-10-01

    Bioremediation is a low-cost treatment alternative for the cleanup of polychlorinated-dioxin-contaminated soils and fly ash when pollution spread is wide-ranging. An interesting fungus, Ceriporia sp. MZ-340, with a high ability to degrade dioxin, was isolated from white rotten wood of a broadleaf tree from Kyushu Island in Japan. We have attempted to use the fungus for bioremediation of polychlorinated-dioxin-contaminated soil on site. However, we have to consider that this trial has the potential problem of introducing a biohazard to a natural ecosystem if this organism is naturalized. We have therefore developed a monitoring system for the introduced fungus as a part of the examination and evaluation of bioremediation in our laboratory. We have also developed a PCR-based assay to reliably detect the fungus at the bioremediation site. DNA isolated from the site was amplified by PCR using a specific primer derived from internal transcribed spacer region (ITS: ITS1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS2) sequences of Ceriporia sp. MZ-340. We successfully monitored Ceriporia sp. MZ-340 down to 100 fg/ micro l DNA and down to 2 mg/g mycelium. We also successfully monitored the fungus specifically at the bioremediation site. The polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran content was observed to decrease in response to treatment with the fungus. The species-specific PCR technique developed in the present work is useful in evaluating the possibility of on-site bioremediation using the fungus Ceriporia sp. MZ-340. PMID:12827316

  15. Nutritional evaluation of the white-rot fungus Sporotrichum pulverulentum as a feedstuff to rats, pigs, and sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Thomke, S.; Rundgren, M.; Eriksson, S.

    1980-11-01

    The production of single-cell protein (SCP) based on cheap carbon sources such as spent liquor from paper mills is of interest for different reasons. The white-rot fungus (Sporotrichum pulverulentum) has earlier been shown to degrade cellulose and lignin. The nutritive value of this fungus was investigated with rats, pigs, and sheep. The effect of different drying processes was evaluated on rats. Experiments with piglets, growing pigs, and sheep were aimed at getting primary information on nutritive parameters with domestic animal species. Chemical analysis of S. pulverulentum showed that the sum of the amino acids corresponded to 70% and ammonia, GABA, and glucosamine to 20% of its crude protein content. Differences between drying treatments in their effect on protein digestibility were not noted. From a protein quality viewpoint, a tendency toward superiority was noted for two of the drying processes. The amino acid digestibility of S. pulverulentum was inferior to values for soybean oil meal given in textbooks. The piglet experiment confirmed the lower nutritive value of S. pulverulentum compared with soybean oil meal. In the piglet stage a content of metabolizable energy of S. pulverulentum was found which corresponded to 60% of that for soybean oil meal. With increasing age the ability of pigs to utilize the fungus increased. The limited nutritive value for monogastric animals is most certainly caused by the cell-wall structure of S. pulverulentum with poor digestibility of the carbohydrates. The experiment with sheep showed more satisfactory results than with monogastric species, with digestibility of crude protein of 82% and a content of metabolizable energy of 70% of soybean oil meal.

  16. Genome sequence of a white rot fungus Schizopora paradoxa KUC8140 for wood decay and mycoremediation.

    PubMed

    Min, Byoungnam; Park, Hongjae; Jang, Yeongseon; Kim, Jae-Jin; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Lipzen, Anna; Riley, Robert; Grigoriev, Igor V; Spatafora, Joseph W; Choi, In-Geol

    2015-10-10

    Schizopora paradoxa KUC8140 is a white rot wood degrader commonly found in Korea. Tolerance to heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dye decolorization activity make this strain a potential candidate for mycoremediation. We report the genome sequence of S. paradoxa KUC8140 containing 44.4Mbp. Based on ab initio gene prediction, homology search and RNA-seq, total 17,098 gene models were annotated. We identified 17 lignin-modifying peroxidases and other 377 carbohydrate-active enzymes for modeling lignocellulose deconstruction and mycoremediation. PMID:26188242

  17. Three-dimensional outgrowth of a wood-rotting fungus added to a contaminated soil from a former gasworks site.

    PubMed

    Andersson, B E; Tornberg, K; Henrysson, T; Olsson, S

    2001-05-01

    The capability of wood-rotting fungi (WRF) to colonise contaminated soil is an important fungal characteristic in the development of WRF-based soil bioremediation, it is also important to have methods that monitor the presence of the WRF in the soil. In this lab-scale study, it was shown that it was possible to re-capture, localise and identify a brown-rot fungus, Antrodia vaillantii, after it has been inoculated into, and grown in, a contaminated soil from a former gasworks site. The three-dimensional outgrowth of A. vaillantii was monitored by allowing it to grow into fungicide-treated wood baits, temporarily placed in the soil. After two weeks, the baits were withdrawn from the soil and surface sterilised with hydrogen peroxide to favour fungi growing inside baits, i.e., A. vaillantii. After subsequent plating of baits on selective agar medium the presence of A. vaillantii was confirmed with PCR/RFLP. A. vaillantii was found to be viable throughout the 54 days long study and exhibited a surface growth pattern similar to other well-known cord-forming basidiomycetes. Firstly, the upper part of the soil closest to the place of inoculation was colonised, however, over a period of time, the area of colonisation spread deeper into the soil. The detection method employed in the current study gave a conservative estimate of the fungal proliferation and did not require extensive sampling. Its use could be applicable in both applied research, such as soil bioremediation, and in pure microbial ecology studies. PMID:11265786

  18. The application of laser microdissection to in planta gene expression profiling of the maize anthracnose stalk rot fungus Colletotrichum graminicola.

    PubMed

    Tang, Weihua; Coughlan, Sean; Crane, Edmund; Beatty, Mary; Duvick, Jon

    2006-11-01

    Laser microdissection (LM) offers a potential means for deep sampling of a fungal plant-pathogen transcriptome during the infection process using whole-genome DNA microarrays. The use of a fluorescent protein-expressing fungus can greatly facilitate the identification of fungal structures for LM sampling. However, fixation methods that preserve both tissue histology and protein fluorescence, and that also yield RNA of suitable quality for microarray applications, have not been reported. We developed a microwave-accelerated acetone fixation, paraffin-embedding method that fulfills these requirements and used it to prepare mature maize stalk tissues infected with an Anemonia majano cyan fluorescent protein-expressing isolate of the anthracnose stalk rot fungus Colletotrichum graminicola. We successfully used LM to isolate individual maize cells associated with C. graminicola hyphae at an early stage of infection. The LM-derived RNA, after two-round linear amplification, was of sufficient quality and quantity for global expression profiling using a fungal microarray. Comparing replicated LM samples representing an early stage of stalk cell infection with samples from in vitro-germinated conidia, we identified 437 and 370 C. graminicola genes showing significant up- or downregulation, respectively. We confirmed the differential expression of several representative transcripts by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and documented extensive overlap of this dataset with a PCR-subtraction library enriched for C. graminicola transcripts in planta. Our results demonstrate that LM is feasible for in planta pathogen expression profiling and can reveal clues about fungal genes involved in pathogenesis. The method in this report may be advantageous for visualizing a variety of cellular features that depend on a high degree of histochemical preservation and RNA integrity prior to LM. PMID:17073306

  19. White rot fungus bioremediation: Mother Nature`s Pollution Solution{reg_sign}

    SciTech Connect

    Keene, M.A.

    1996-12-01

    The white rot fungi (WRF) bioremediation system developed by Intech One-Eight Corp. (INTECH), which has evolved from both the decade of basic research work cited here and additional applied research efforts, may be easily and sharply differentiated from conventional bioremediation processes relying on the enzymatic activities of bacteria. The technology is an on-site, ex situ bioremediation process employing selected strains of WRF to degrade a wide spectrum of environmentally persistent organic compounds which may contaminate soils, sludges and sediments. Successful demonstrations of cost-effective soil decontamination using WRF technology, ranging in size up to 10,000 tons, have now been performed by licensed affiliates. The use of any WRF organisms or their enzymes for the bioremediation of most organic compounds is covered worldwide by issued and pending patents.

  20. Remediation of textile dye waste water using a white-rot fungus Bjerkandera adusta through solid-state fermentation (SSF).

    PubMed

    Robinson, Tim; Nigam, Poonam Singh

    2008-12-01

    A strict screening strategy for microorganism selection was followed employing a number of white-rot fungi for the bioremediation of textile effluent, which was generated from one Ireland-based American textile industry. Finally, one fungus Bjerkandera adusta has been investigated in depth for its ability to simultaneously degrade and enrich the nutritional quality of highly coloured textile effluent-adsorbed barley husks through solid-state fermentation (SSF). Certain important parameters such as media requirements, moisture content, protein/biomass production and enzyme activities were examined in detail. A previously optimised method of dye desorption was employed to measure the extent of dye remediation through effluent decolorisation achieved as a result of fungal activity in SSF. B. adusta was capable of decolourising a considerable concentration of the synthetic dye effluent (up to 53%) with a moisture content of 80-85%. Protein enrichment of the fermented mass was achieved to the extent of 229 g/kg dry weight initial substrate used. Lignin peroxidase and laccase were found to be the two main enzymes produced during SSF of the dye-adsorbed lignocellulosic waste residue. PMID:18496771

  1. Enhancement of β-Glucosidase Activity from a Brown Rot Fungus Fomitopsis pinicola KCTC 6208 by Medium Optimization.

    PubMed

    Park, Ah Reum; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Jang, Ji Yeon; Yu, Byung Jo; Um, Byung-Hwan; Yoon, Jeong-Jun

    2015-03-01

    β-Glucosidase, which hydrolyzes cellobiose into two glucoses, plays an important role in the process of saccharification of the lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, we optimized the activity of β-glucosidase of brown-rot fungus Fomitopsis pinicola KCTC 6208 using the response surface methodology (RSM) with various concentrations of glucose, yeast extract and ascorbic acid, which are the most significant nutrients for activity of β-glucosidase. The highest activity of β-glucosidase was achieved 3.02% of glucose, 4.35% of yeast extract, and 7.41% ascorbic acid where ascorbic acid was most effective. The maximum activity of β-glucosidase predicted by the RSM was 15.34 U/mg, which was similar to the experimental value 14.90 U/mg at the 16th day of incubation. This optimized activity of β-glucosidase was 23.6 times higher than the preliminary activity value, 0.63 U/mg, and was also much higher than previous values reported in other fungi strains. Therefore, a simplified medium supplemented with a cheap vitamin source, such as ascorbic acid, could be a cost effective mean of increasing β-glucosidase activity. PMID:25892916

  2. Effect of metal ions on autofluorescence of the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans grown on spruce wood.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Jiří; Žižka, Zdeněk; Švec, Karel; Nasswettrová, Andrea; Šmíra, Pavel; Kofroňová, Olga; Benada, Oldřich

    2016-03-01

    This work describes autofluorescence of the mycelium of the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans grown on spruce wood blocks impregnated with various metals. Live mycelium, as opposed to dead mycelium, exhibited yellow autofluorescence upon blue excitation, blue fluorescence with ultraviolet (UV) excitation, orange-red and light-blue fluorescence with violet excitation, and red fluorescence with green excitation. Distinctive autofluorescence was observed in the fungal cell wall and in granula localized in the cytoplasm. In dead mycelium, the intensity of autofluorescence decreased and the signal was diffused throughout the cytoplasm. Metal treatment affected both the color and intensity of autofluorescence and also the morphology of the mycelium. The strongest yellow signal was observed with blue excitation in Cd-treated samples, in conjunction with increased branching and the formation of mycelial loops and protrusions. For the first time, we describe pink autofluorescence that was observed in Mn-, Zn-, and Cu-treated samples with UV, violet or. blue excitation. The lowest signals were obtained in Cu- and Fe-treated samples. Chitin, an important part of the fungal cell wall exhibited intensive primary fluorescence with UV, violet, blue, and green excitation. PMID:26873389

  3. [Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of white-rot fungus and their effects on Pb2+ adsorption by biomass].

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Chen, Gui-Qiu; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Fan, Jia-Qi; Shen, Guo-Li

    2011-03-01

    The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of P. chrysosporium and their effects on Pb2+ biosorption were studied. The product, composition of EPS and the effects on Pb2+ biosorption capacity were investigated in lab via flask experiments. The surface changes of mycelium before and after EPS extraction, before and after Pb2+ adsorption were researched by environment scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (ESEM-EDX). Results showed that at 113 h, the maximum yield of EPS was 125.5 mg/L, which contained 46.6% - 54.3% of sugar and 31.2% - 35.1% of protein. The results of control test after EPS extraction displayed a decrease of biosorption capacity of Pb2+ among 2.12 mg/g (113 h) - 7.73 mg/g (41 h). The results of environment scanning electron microscope (ESEM) showed that the EPS extraction affected the cell wall of white-rot fungus and the Pb-contained globular particle after Pb2+ uptake, which was very useful for further study on heavy metal biosorption mechanism. PMID:21634177

  4. A promising inert support for laccase production and decolouration of textile wastewater by the white-rot fungus Trametes pubescesns.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Couto, Susana

    2012-09-30

    Cubes of nylon sponge, cubes of polyurethane foam (PUF), cuttings of stainless steel sponges and the commercial carriers Kaldnes™ K1 were tested as inert supports for laccase production by the white-rot fungus Trametes pubescens under semi-solid-state fermentation conditions. The cultures operating with Kaldnes™ K1 led to the highest laccase activity (3667 U/l). In addition this support could be re-utilised, making the whole process more economical. Subsequently, the decolouration of simulated textile wastewater (STW) by T. pubescens grown on the different tested supports under semi-solid-state fermentation conditions was studied. Decolouration percentages around 66-80% were obtained in 96 h. It was found that STW decolouration was due to two mechanisms: laccase action (biodegradation) and adsorption onto fungal mycelium, save for the PUF cultures in which decolouration was mainly due to adsorption onto the support. Further, the decolouration of STW by Kaldnes™ K1 cultures in three successive batches of 96 h each was studied. Decolouration percentages of 51.3, 70.0 and 69.8%, were attained for each batch, respectively. PMID:22819474

  5. Enhanced decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80 textile dye by an indigenous white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune IBL-06.

    PubMed

    Asgher, Muhammad; Yasmeen, Qamar; Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir

    2013-10-01

    An indigenously isolated white rot fungus, Schizophyllum commune IBL-06 was used to decolorize Solar brilliant red 80 direct dye in Kirk's basal salts medium. In initial screening study, the maximum decolorization (84.8%) of Solar brilliant red 80 was achieved in 7 days shaking incubation period at pH 4.5 and 30 °C. Different physical and nutritional factors including pH, temperature and fungal inoculum density were statistically optimized through Completely Randomized Design (CRD), to enhance the efficiency of S. commune IBL-06 for maximum decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80 dye. The effects of inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources were also investigated. Percent dye decolorization was determined by a reduction in optical density at the wavelength of maximum absorbance (λ max, 590 nm). Under optimum conditions, the S. commune IBL-06 completely decolorized (100%) the Solar brilliant red 80 dye using maltose and ammonium sulfate as inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively in 3 days. S. commune IBL-06 produced the three major ligninolytic enzymes lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganase peroxidase (MnP) and lacaase (Lac) during the decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80. LiP was the major enzyme (944 U/mL) secreted by S. commune IBL-06 along with comparatively lower activities of MnP and Laccase. PMID:24235871

  6. Enhanced decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80 textile dye by an indigenous white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune IBL-06

    PubMed Central

    Asgher, Muhammad; Yasmeen, Qamar; Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir

    2013-01-01

    An indigenously isolated white rot fungus, Schizophyllum commune IBL-06 was used to decolorize Solar brilliant red 80 direct dye in Kirk’s basal salts medium. In initial screening study, the maximum decolorization (84.8%) of Solar brilliant red 80 was achieved in 7 days shaking incubation period at pH 4.5 and 30 °C. Different physical and nutritional factors including pH, temperature and fungal inoculum density were statistically optimized through Completely Randomized Design (CRD), to enhance the efficiency of S. commune IBL-06 for maximum decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80 dye. The effects of inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources were also investigated. Percent dye decolorization was determined by a reduction in optical density at the wavelength of maximum absorbance (λmax, 590 nm). Under optimum conditions, the S. commune IBL-06 completely decolorized (100%) the Solar brilliant red 80 dye using maltose and ammonium sulfate as inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively in 3 days. S. commune IBL-06 produced the three major ligninolytic enzymes lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganase peroxidase (MnP) and lacaase (Lac) during the decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80. LiP was the major enzyme (944 U/mL) secreted by S. commune IBL-06 along with comparatively lower activities of MnP and Laccase. PMID:24235871

  7. Three Native Cellulose-Depolymerizing Endoglucanases from Solid-Substrate Cultures of the Brown Rot Fungus Meruliporia (Serpula) incrassata

    PubMed Central

    Kleman-Leyer, Karen M.; Kirk, T. Kent

    1994-01-01

    Three extracellular cellulose-depolymerizing enzymes from cotton undergoing decay by the brown rot fungus Meruliporia (Serpula) incrassata were isolated by anion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatographies. Depolymerization was detected by analyzing the changes in the molecular size distribution of cotton cellulose by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography. The average degree of polymerization (DP; number of glucosyl residues per cellulose chain) was calculated from the size-exclusion chromatography data. The very acidic purified endoglucanases, Cel 25, Cel 49, and Cel 57, were glycosylated and had molecular weights of 25,200, 48,500, and 57,100, respectively. Two, Cel 25 and Cel 49, depolymerized cotton cellulose and were also very active on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). Cel 57, by contrast, significantly depolymerized cotton cellulose but did not release reducing sugars from CMC and only very slightly reduced the viscosity of CMC solutions. Molecular size distributions of cotton cellulose attacked by the three endoglucanases revealed single major peaks that shifted to lower DP positions. A second smaller peak (DP, 10 to 20) was also observed in the size-exclusion chromatograms of cotton attacked by Cel 49 and Cel 57. Under the reaction conditions used, Cel 25, the most active of the cellulases, reduced the weight average DP from 3,438 to 315, solubilizing approximately 20% of the cellulose. The weight average DP values of cotton attacked under the same conditions by Cel 49 and Cel 57 were 814 and 534; weight losses were 9 and 11% respectively. Images PMID:16349351

  8. Regulation of cellulolytic activity in the white-rot fungus Ischonderma resinosum

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    The fungus, which can selectively remove lignin from wood, was grown on soluble media in stationary submerged cultures to investigate the effects of various carbohydrates on cellulolytic activity. The activities of extracellular cellulases (filter paper activity and carboxymethyl cellulase) were higher in cultures grown on carboxymethyl cellulose than in those on xylan or glucose. Carboxymethyl cellulase was induced in succinate-grown cultures after the addition of cellobiose or carboxymethyl cellulose; ..beta..-glucosidase was induced by cellobiose. Supplemental xylose, arabinose, fucose, glucuronic acid, and several other carbohydrates were catabolite repressors of cellulase activity. 21 references.

  9. Effects of selenium oxyanions on the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Ortiz, Erika J; Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Saikaly, Pascal E; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L

    2015-03-01

    The ability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to reduce the oxidized forms of selenium, selenate and selenite, and their effects on the growth, substrate consumption rate, and pellet morphology of the fungus were assessed. The effect of different operational parameters (pH, glucose, and selenium concentration) on the response of P. chrysosporium to selenium oxyanions was explored as well. This fungal species showed a high sensitivity to selenium, particularly selenite, which inhibited the fungal growth and substrate consumption when supplied at 10 mg L(-1) in the growth medium, whereas selenate did not have such a strong influence on the fungus. Biological removal of selenite was achieved under semi-acidic conditions (pH 4.5) with about 40 % removal efficiency, whereas less than 10 % selenium removal was achieved for incubations with selenate. P. chrysosporium was found to be a selenium-reducing organism, capable of synthesizing elemental selenium from selenite but not from selenate. Analysis with transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and a 3D reconstruction showed that elemental selenium was produced intracellularly as nanoparticles in the range of 30-400 nm. Furthermore, selenite influenced the pellet morphology of P. chrysosporium by reducing the size of the fungal pellets and inducing their compaction and smoothness. PMID:25341399

  10. Gene Silencing by RNA Interference in the White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium▿

    PubMed Central

    Matityahu, Avi; Hadar, Yitzhak; Dosoretz, Carlos G.; Belinky, Paula A.

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of RNA interference (RNAi) is demonstrated in the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The manganese-containing superoxide dismutase gene (MnSOD1) was used as the target for RNAi. The plasmid constructed for gene silencing contained a transcriptional unit for hairpin RNA expression. Significantly lower MnSOD expression at both the mRNA and protein activity levels was detected in RNAi transformants. Furthermore, even though P. chrysosporium possesses three copies of the MnSOD gene, this RNAi construct was sufficient to decrease the enzymatic activity by as much as 70% relative to control levels. Implementation of the RNAi technique in P. chrysosporium provides an alternative genetic tool for studies of gene function, particularly of essential genes or gene families. PMID:18606804

  11. An aryl-alcohol oxidase of Pleurotus sapidus: heterologous expression, characterization, and application in a 2-enzyme system.

    PubMed

    Galperin, Ilya; Javeed, Aysha; Luig, Hanno; Lochnit, Günter; Rühl, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Aryl-alcohol oxidases (AAOs) are enzymes supporting the degradation of lignin by fungal derived class II peroxidases produced by white-rot fungi. AAOs are able to generate H2O2 as a by-product via oxidation of an aryl-alcohol into its correspondent aldehyde. In this study, an AAO was heterologously expressed in a basidiomycete host for the first time. The gene for an AAO of the white-rot fungus Pleurotus sapidus, a close relative to the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus, was cloned into an expression vector and put under control of the promotor of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene 2 (gpdII) of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus. The expression vector was transformed into the model basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea, and several positive transformants were obtained. The best producing transformants were grown in shake-flasks and in a stirred tank reactor reaching enzymatic activities of up to 125 U L(-1) using veratryl alcohol as a substrate. The purified AAO was biochemically characterized and compared to the previously described native and recombinant AAOs from other Pleurotus species. In addition, a two-enzyme system comprising a dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP) from Mycetinis scorodonius and the P. sapidus AAO was successfully employed to bleach the anthraquinone dye Reactive Blue 5. PMID:27138199

  12. Charcoal rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charcoal rot is reported occasionally on alfalfa in the U.S. and has also been found in Australia, Pakistan, Uganda, east Africa, and the former Soviet Union. The fungus causing the disease is widespread throughout tropical and subtropical countries. It causes disease on more than 500 crop and we...

  13. The root rot fungus Armillaria mellea introduced into South Africa by early Dutch settlers.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, M P; Wingfield, B D; Harrington, T C; Steimel, J; Coutinho, T A; Wingfield, M J

    2001-02-01

    Dead and dying oak (Quercus) and numerous other woody ornamental trees and shrubs showing signs and symptoms of Armillaria root rot were identified in the Company Gardens, Cape Town, South Africa, which were established in the mid-1600s by the Dutch East Indies Trading Company. Nineteen isolates from dying trees or from mushrooms were collected and analysed to identify and characterize the Armillaria sp. responsible for the disease. The AluI digestion of the amplified product of the first intergenic spacer region (IGS-1) of the rRNA operon of 19 isolates from the Company Gardens was identical to that of some of the European isolates of A. mellea s. s. The IGS-1 region and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) were sequenced for some of the Cape Town isolates. Phylogenetic analyses placed the Cape Town isolates in the European clade of A. mellea, which is distinct from the Asian and North American clades of this species. Identification based on sexual compatibility was conducted using A. mellea tester strains in diploid-haploid pairings, which showed some compatibility between the Cape Town isolates and testers from Europe. Somatic compatibility tests (diploid-diploid pairings) and DNA fingerprinting with multilocus, microsatellite probes indicated that the Cape Town isolates were genetically identical and may have resulted from vegetative (clonal) spread from a single focus in the centre of the original Company Gardens (c. 1652). The colonized area is at least 345 m in diameter. Assuming a linear spread rate underground of 0.3 m/year to 1.6 m/year, the genet (clone) was estimated to be between 108 and 575 years old. These data suggest that A. mellea was introduced into Cape Town from Europe, perhaps on potted plants, such as grapes or citrus, planted in the Company Gardens more than 300 years ago. PMID:11298953

  14. Protective effect of vanilloids against chemical stress on the white-rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Kuhar, Francisco; Papinutti, Leandro

    2013-07-30

    Bioremediation of contaminated sites by biosorption of pollutants onto a wide range of materials has emerged as a promising treatment for recalcitrant aromatic compounds or heavy metals. When adsorption occurs on living white-rot fungi mycelia, the pollutants may be degraded by ligninolytic enzymes. However, the survival of mycelia in harsh conditions is one of the drawbacks of those methodologies. In this study, it was demonstrated that culture media supplemented with several guaiacol derivatives (vanilloids) increased the resistance of Ganoderma lucidum E47 cultures to chemical stress by enhancing the adsorptive capacity of the extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM). The toxicity of the fungicides gentian violet (GV), malachite green (MG) and clotrimazole, and the heavy metal Cadmium was noticeably diminished in fungal cultures supplemented with the guaiacol derivative vanillic acid (VA). No degradation of the tested compounds was detected. The activity of the oxidative enzymatic systems like laccase, a well-known oxidase associated to dye degradation, was only detectable after complete growth on plates. Extremely low concentrations of VA caused a significant protective effect, radial extension of the growth halo in plates supplemented with 0.0001 mM of VA plus GV was up to 20% to that obtained in control plates (without addition of GV and VA). Therefore, the protective effect could not be attributable to VA per se. ECMM separated from the mycelium exhibited a much higher increase in the adsorptive capacity when isolated from liquid cultures containing VA, while that obtained from unsupplemented cultures showed an almost null adsorptive capacity. PMID:23583918

  15. A Novel Expansin Protein from the White-Rot Fungus Schizophyllum commune

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Carbente, María del Rayo; Iracheta-Cárdenas, María Magdalena; Arévalo-Niño, Katiushka; Folch-Mallol, Jorge Luis

    2015-01-01

    A novel expansin protein (ScExlx1) was found, cloned and expressed from the Basidiomycete fungus Schizophylum commune. This protein showed the canonical features of plant expansins. ScExlx1 showed the ability to form “bubbles” in cotton fibers, reduce the size of avicel particles and enhance reducing sugar liberation from cotton fibers pretreated with the protein and then treated with cellulases. ScExlx1 was able to bind cellulose, birchwood xylan and chitin and this property was not affected by different sodium chloride concentrations. A novel property of ScExlx1 is its capacity to enhance reducing sugars (N-acetyl glucosamine) liberation from pretreated chitin and further added with chitinase, which has not been reported for any expansin or expansin-like protein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a bona fide fungal expansin found in a basidiomycete and we could express the bioactive protein in Pichia pastoris. PMID:25803865

  16. Purification by Immunoaffinity Chromatography, Characterization, and Structural Analysis of a Thermostable Pyranose Oxidase from the White Rot Fungus Phlebiopsis gigantea

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, A.; Bieg, S.; Huwig, A.; Kohring, G.; Giffhorn, F.

    1996-01-01

    A moderately thermostable pyranose oxidase (PROD) was purified to apparent homogeneity with a yield of 71% from mycelium extracts of the white rot fungus Phlebiopsis gigantea by an efficient three-step procedure that included heat treatment, immunoaffinity chromatography, and gel filtration on Superdex 200. PROD of P. gigantea is a glycoprotein with a pI between pH 5.3 and 5.7. The relative molecular weight (M(infr)) of native PROD is 295,600 (plusmn) 5% as determined by four independent methods. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of PROD revealed two distinct but similar stained bands corresponding to polypeptides with M(infr)s of 77,000 and 70,000, suggesting a heterotetrameric enzyme structure. The tetrameric structure of PROD was confirmed by electron microscopic examinations, which additionally showed the ellipsoidal shape (4.6 by 10 nm) of each subunit. Spectral analyses and direct determinations showed the presence of covalently bound flavin adenine dinucleotide with a stoichiometry of 3.12 mol/mol of enzyme. A broad pH optimum was determined in the range pH 5.0 to 8.0 in 100 mM sodium phosphate, and the activation energy for d-glucose oxidation was 24.7 kJ/mol. The main substrates of PROD are d-glucose, l-sorbose, and d-xylose, for which K(infm) values 1.2, 16.5, and 22.2 mM were determined, respectively. PROD showed high stability during storage. In 100 mM sodium phosphate (pH 6.0 to 8.0), the half-life of PROD activity was >300 days at 40(deg)C, >110 days at 50(deg)C (pH 7.0), and 1 h at 65(deg)C. PMID:16535364

  17. A DNA based method to detect the grapevine root-rotting fungus Roesleria subterranea in soil and root samples

    PubMed Central

    Neuhauser, Sigrid; Huber, Lars; Kirchmair, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Summary Roesleria subterranea causes root rot in grapevine and fruit trees. The fungus has long been underestimated as a weak parasite, but during the last years it has been reported to cause severe damages in German vineyards. Direct, observation-based detection of the parasite is time consuming and destructive, as large parts of the rootstocks have to be uprooted and screened for the tiny, stipitate, hypogeous ascomata of R. subterranea. To facilitate rapid detection in vineyards, protocols to extract DNA from soil samples and grapevine roots, and R.-subterranea-specific PCR primers were designed. Twelve DNA–extraction protocols for soil samples were tested in small-scale experiments, and selected parameters were optimised. A protocol based on ball-mill homogenization, DNA extraction with SDS, skim milk, chloroform, and isopropanol, and subsequent purification of the raw extracts with PVPP-spin-columns was most effective. This DNA extraction protocol was found to be suitable for a wide range of soil-types including clay, loam and humic-rich soils. For DNA extraction from grapevine roots a CTAB-based protocol was more reliable for various grapevine rootstock varieties. Roesleria-subterranea-specific primers for the ITS1–5.8S–ITS2 rDNA-region were developed and tested for their specificity to DNA extracts from eleven R. subterranea strains isolated from grapevine and fruit trees. No cross reactions were detected with DNA extracts from 44 different species of fungi isolated from vineyard soils. The sensitivity of the species-specific primers in combination with the DNA extraction method for soil was high: as little as 100 fg μl−1 R.-subterranea-DNA was sufficient for a detection in soil samples and plant material. Given that specific primers are available, the presented method will also allow quick and large-scale testing for other root pathogens. PMID:21442023

  18. Gene expression analysis of copper tolerance and wood decay in the brown rot fungus Fibroporia radiculosa.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juliet D; Parker, Leslie A; Perkins, Andy D; Sonstegard, Tad S; Schroeder, Steven G; Nicholas, Darrel D; Diehl, Susan V

    2013-03-01

    High-throughput transcriptomics was used to identify Fibroporia radiculosa genes that were differentially regulated during colonization of wood treated with a copper-based preservative. The transcriptome was profiled at two time points while the fungus was growing on wood treated with micronized copper quat (MCQ). A total of 917 transcripts were differentially expressed. Fifty-eight of these genes were more highly expressed when the MCQ was protecting the wood from strength loss and had putative functions related to oxalate production/degradation, laccase activity, quinone biosynthesis, pectin degradation, ATP production, cytochrome P450 activity, signal transduction, and transcriptional regulation. Sixty-one genes were more highly expressed when the MCQ lost its effectiveness (>50% strength loss) and had functions related to oxalate degradation; cytochrome P450 activity; H(2)O(2) production and degradation; degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin; hexose transport; membrane glycerophospholipid metabolism; and cell wall chemistry. Ten of these differentially regulated genes were quantified by reverse transcriptase PCR for a more in-depth study (4 time points on wood with or without MCQ treatment). Our results showed that MCQ induced higher than normal levels of expression for four genes (putative annotations for isocitrate lyase, glyoxylate dehydrogenase, laccase, and oxalate decarboxylase 1), while four other genes (putative annotations for oxalate decarboxylase 2, aryl alcohol oxidase, glycoside hydrolase 5, and glycoside hydrolase 10) were repressed. The significance of these results is that we have identified several genes that appear to be coregulated, with putative functions related to copper tolerance and/or wood decay. PMID:23263965

  19. Gene Expression Analysis of Copper Tolerance and Wood Decay in the Brown Rot Fungus Fibroporia radiculosa

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Leslie A.; Perkins, Andy D.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Schroeder, Steven G.; Nicholas, Darrel D.; Diehl, Susan V.

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput transcriptomics was used to identify Fibroporia radiculosa genes that were differentially regulated during colonization of wood treated with a copper-based preservative. The transcriptome was profiled at two time points while the fungus was growing on wood treated with micronized copper quat (MCQ). A total of 917 transcripts were differentially expressed. Fifty-eight of these genes were more highly expressed when the MCQ was protecting the wood from strength loss and had putative functions related to oxalate production/degradation, laccase activity, quinone biosynthesis, pectin degradation, ATP production, cytochrome P450 activity, signal transduction, and transcriptional regulation. Sixty-one genes were more highly expressed when the MCQ lost its effectiveness (>50% strength loss) and had functions related to oxalate degradation; cytochrome P450 activity; H2O2 production and degradation; degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin; hexose transport; membrane glycerophospholipid metabolism; and cell wall chemistry. Ten of these differentially regulated genes were quantified by reverse transcriptase PCR for a more in-depth study (4 time points on wood with or without MCQ treatment). Our results showed that MCQ induced higher than normal levels of expression for four genes (putative annotations for isocitrate lyase, glyoxylate dehydrogenase, laccase, and oxalate decarboxylase 1), while four other genes (putative annotations for oxalate decarboxylase 2, aryl alcohol oxidase, glycoside hydrolase 5, and glycoside hydrolase 10) were repressed. The significance of these results is that we have identified several genes that appear to be coregulated, with putative functions related to copper tolerance and/or wood decay. PMID:23263965

  20. Biotransformation of (-)-α-pinene and geraniol to α-terpineol and p-menthane-3,8-diol by the white rot fungus, Polyporus brumalis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Yeon; Kim, Seon-Hong; Hong, Chang-Young; Park, Se-Yeong; Choi, In-Gyu

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the monoterpenes, α-pinene and geraniol, were biotransformed to synthesize monoterpene alcohol compounds. Polyporus brumalis which is classified as a white rot fungus was used as a biocatalyst. Consequently α-terpineol was synthesized from α-pinene by P. brumalis mycelium, after three days. Moreover, another substrate, the acyclic monoterpenoids geraniol was transformed into the cyclic compound, p-menthane-3, 8-diol (PMD). The main metabolites, i.e., α-terpineol and PMD, are known to be bioactive monoterpene alcohol compounds. This study highlights the potential of fungal biocatalysts for monoterpene transformation. PMID:26115995

  1. Effect of metal ions and redox mediators on decolorization of synthetic dyes by crude laccase from a novel white rot fungus Peniophora sp. (NFCCI-2131).

    PubMed

    Shankar, Shiv; Shikha; Nill, Shikha

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different metal ions and two redox mediators on laccase activity and laccase-catalyzed decolorization of five synthetic dyes was investigated in vitro using crude laccase from a novel white rot fungus Peniophora sp. (NFCCI-2131). The fungus effectively decolorized crystal violet and brilliant green on malt extract agar medium. Laccase activity was enhanced by metal ions such as Cd(2+), Mn(2+), Ni(2+), Co(2+), Na(+) Ca(2+), and Cu(2+). Among the different dyes tested, highest decolorization of crystal violet (96.30 %) was obtained in the presence of 1 mM ABTS followed by 86.01 % by HBT. The results conspicuously indicated that laccase from Peniophora sp. has the potential for color removal from textile dye effluent even in the presence of toxic metal ions. PMID:25293639

  2. Role of P450 Monooxygenases in the Degradation of the Endocrine-Disrupting Chemical Nonylphenol by the White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium▿

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Yadav, Jagjit S.

    2009-01-01

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium extensively degraded the endocrine disruptor chemical nonylphenol (NP; 100% of 100 ppm) in both nutrient-limited cultures and nutrient-sufficient cultures. The P450 enzyme inhibitor piperonyl butoxide caused significant inhibition (∼75%) of the degradation activity in nutrient-rich malt extract (ME) cultures but no inhibition in defined low-nitrogen (LN) cultures, indicating an essential role of P450 monooxygenase(s) in NP degradation under nutrient-rich conditions. A genome-wide analysis using our custom-designed P450 microarray revealed significant induction of multiple P450 monooxygenase genes by NP: 18 genes were induced (2- to 195-fold) under nutrient-rich conditions, 17 genes were induced (2- to 6-fold) in LN cultures, and 3 were induced under both nutrient-rich and LN conditions. The P450 genes Pff 311b (corresponding to protein identification number [ID] 5852) and Pff 4a (protein ID 5001) showed extraordinarily high levels of induction (195- and 167-fold, respectively) in ME cultures. The P450 oxidoreductase (POR), glutathione S-transferase (gst), and cellulose metabolism genes were also induced in ME cultures. In contrast, certain metabolic genes, such as five of the peroxidase genes, showed partial downregulation by NP. This study provides the first evidence for the involvement of P450 enzymes in NP degradation by a white rot fungus and the first genome-wide identification of specific P450 genes responsive to an environmentally significant toxicant. PMID:19542331

  3. The ligninolytic peroxidases in the genus Pleurotus: divergence in activities, expression, and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Knop, Doriv; Yarden, Oded; Hadar, Yitzhak

    2015-02-01

    Mushrooms of the genus Pleurotus are comprised of cultivated edible ligninolytic fungi with medicinal properties and a wide array of biotechnological and environmental applications. Like other white-rot fungi (WRF), they are able to grow on a variety of lignocellulosic biomass substrates and degrade both natural and anthropogenic aromatic compounds. This is due to the presence of the non-specific oxidative enzymatic systems, which are mainly consisted of lacasses, versatile peroxidases (VPs), and short manganese peroxidases (short-MnPs). Additional, less studied, peroxidase are dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs) and heme-thiolate peroxidases (HTPs). During the past two decades, substantial information has accumulated concerning the biochemistry, structure and function of the Pleurotus ligninolytic peroxidases, which are considered to play a key role in many biodegradation processes. The production of these enzymes is dependent on growth media composition, pH, and temperature as well as the growth phase of the fungus. Mn(2+) concentration differentially affects the expression of the different genes. It also severs as a preferred substrate for these preoxidases. Recently, sequencing of the Pleurotus ostreatus genome was completed, and a comprehensive picture of the ligninolytic peroxidase gene family, consisting of three VPs and six short-MnPs, has been established. Similar enzymes were also discovered and studied in other Pleurotus species. In addition, progress has been made in the development of molecular tools for targeted gene replacement, RNAi-based gene silencing and overexpression of genes of interest. These advances increase the fundamental understanding of the ligninolytic system and provide the opportunity for harnessing the unique attributes of these WRF for applied purposes. PMID:25503316

  4. Bio-remediation of colored industrial wastewaters by the white-rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Pleurotus ostreatus and their enzymes.

    PubMed

    Faraco, V; Pezzella, C; Miele, A; Giardina, P; Sannia, G

    2009-04-01

    The effect of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Pleurotus ostreatus whole cells and their ligninolytic enzymes on models of colored industrial wastewaters was evaluated. Models of acid, direct and reactive dye wastewaters from textile industry have been defined on the basis of discharged amounts, economic relevance and representativeness of chemical structures of the contained dyes. Phanerochaete chrysosporium provided an effective decolourization of direct dye wastewater model, reaching about 45% decolourization in only 1 day of treatment, and about 90% decolourization within 7 days, whilst P. ostreatus was able to decolorize and detoxify acid dye wastewater model providing 40% decolourization in only 1 day, and 60% in 7 days. P. ostreatus growth conditions that induce laccase production (up to 130,000 U/l) were identified, and extra-cellular enzyme mixtures, with known laccase isoenzyme composition, were produced and used in wastewater models decolourization. The mixtures decolorized and detoxified the acid dye wastewater model, suggesting laccases as the main agents of wastewater decolourization by P. ostreatus. A laccase mixture was immobilized by entrapment in Cu-alginate beads, and the immobilized enzymes were shown to be effective in batch decolourization, even after 15 stepwise additions of dye for a total exposure of about 1 month. PMID:18758969

  5. Application of Asymetrical and Hoke Designs for Optimization of Laccase Production by the White-Rot Fungus Fomes fomentarius in Solid-State Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Neifar, Mohamed; Kamoun, Amel; Jaouani, Atef; Ellouze-Ghorbel, Raoudha; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia

    2011-01-01

    Statistical approaches were employed for the optimization of different cultural parameters for the production of laccase by the white rot fungus Fomes fomentarius MUCL 35117 in wheat bran-based solid medium. first, screening of production parameters was performed using an asymmetrical design 2533//16, and the variables with statistically significant effects on laccase production were identified. Second, inoculum size, CaCl2 concentration, CuSO4 concentration, and incubation time were selected for further optimization studies using a Hoke design. The application of the response surface methodology allows us to determine a set of optimal conditions (CaCl2, 5.5 mg/gs, CuSO4, 2.5 mg/gs, inoculum size, 3 fungal discs (6 mm Ø), and 13 days of static cultivation). Experiments carried out under these conditions led to a laccase production yield of 150 U/g dry substrate. PMID:23008760

  6. The ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus converts organic matter in plant litter using a trimmed brown-rot mechanism involving Fenton chemistry.

    PubMed

    Rineau, Francois; Roth, Doris; Shah, Firoz; Smits, Mark; Johansson, Tomas; Canbäck, Björn; Olsen, Peter Bjarke; Persson, Per; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Lindquist, Erika; Grigoriev, Igor V; Lange, Lene; Tunlid, Anders

    2012-06-01

    Soils in boreal forests contain large stocks of carbon. Plants are the main source of this carbon through tissue residues and root exudates. A major part of the exudates are allocated to symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi. In return, the plant receives nutrients, in particular nitrogen from the mycorrhizal fungi. To capture the nitrogen, the fungi must at least partly disrupt the recalcitrant organic matter-protein complexes within which the nitrogen is embedded. This disruption process is poorly characterized. We used spectroscopic analyses and transcriptome profiling to examine the mechanism by which the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus degrades organic matter when acquiring nitrogen from plant litter. The fungus partially degraded polysaccharides and modified the structure of polyphenols. The observed chemical changes were consistent with a hydroxyl radical attack, involving Fenton chemistry similar to that of brown-rot fungi. The set of enzymes expressed by Pa. involutus during the degradation of the organic matter was similar to the set of enzymes involved in the oxidative degradation of wood by brown-rot fungi. However, Pa. involutus lacked transcripts encoding extracellular enzymes needed for metabolizing the released carbon. The saprotrophic activity has been reduced to a radical-based biodegradation system that can efficiently disrupt the organic matter-protein complexes and thereby mobilize the entrapped nutrients. We suggest that the released carbon then becomes available for further degradation and assimilation by commensal microbes, and that these activities have been lost in ectomycorrhizal fungi as an adaptation to symbiotic growth on host photosynthate. The interdependence of ectomycorrhizal symbionts and saprophytic microbes would provide a key link in the turnover of nutrients and carbon in forest ecosystems. PMID:22469289

  7. The ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus converts organic matter in plant litter using a trimmed brown-rot mechanism involving Fenton chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Rineau, Francois; Roth, Doris; Shah, Firoz; Smits, Mark; Johansson, Tomas; Canbäck, Björn; Olsen, Peter Bjarke; Persson, Per; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Lindquist, Erika; Grigoriev, Igor V; Lange, Lene; Tunlid, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Soils in boreal forests contain large stocks of carbon. Plants are the main source of this carbon through tissue residues and root exudates. A major part of the exudates are allocated to symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi. In return, the plant receives nutrients, in particular nitrogen from the mycorrhizal fungi. To capture the nitrogen, the fungi must at least partly disrupt the recalcitrant organic matter–protein complexes within which the nitrogen is embedded. This disruption process is poorly characterized. We used spectroscopic analyses and transcriptome profiling to examine the mechanism by which the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus degrades organic matter when acquiring nitrogen from plant litter. The fungus partially degraded polysaccharides and modified the structure of polyphenols. The observed chemical changes were consistent with a hydroxyl radical attack, involving Fenton chemistry similar to that of brown-rot fungi. The set of enzymes expressed by Pa. involutus during the degradation of the organic matter was similar to the set of enzymes involved in the oxidative degradation of wood by brown-rot fungi. However, Pa. involutus lacked transcripts encoding extracellular enzymes needed for metabolizing the released carbon. The saprotrophic activity has been reduced to a radical-based biodegradation system that can efficiently disrupt the organic matter–protein complexes and thereby mobilize the entrapped nutrients. We suggest that the released carbon then becomes available for further degradation and assimilation by commensal microbes, and that these activities have been lost in ectomycorrhizal fungi as an adaptation to symbiotic growth on host photosynthate. The interdependence of ectomycorrhizal symbionts and saprophytic microbes would provide a key link in the turnover of nutrients and carbon in forest ecosystems. PMID:22469289

  8. Strategies for dephenolization of raw olive mill wastewater by means of Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Giuseppe; Russo, Maria Elena; Giardina, Paola; Marzocchella, Antonio; Sannia, Giovanni; Salatino, Piero

    2012-05-01

    The reduction of polyphenols content in olive mill wastewater (OMW) is a major issue in olive oil manufacturing. Although researchers have pointed out the potential of white-rot fungus in dephenolizing OMW, the results available in the literature mainly concern pretreated (sterilized) OMW. This paper deals with the reduction of polyphenols content in untreated OMW by means of a white-rot fungus, Pleurotus ostreatus. Dephenolization was performed both in an airlift bioreactor and in aerated flasks. The process was carried out under controlled non-sterile conditions, with different operating configurations (batch, continuous, biomass recycling) representative of potential industrial operations. Total organic carbon, polyphenols concentration, phenol oxidase activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, oxygen consumption rate, and pH were measured during every run. Tests were carried out with or without added nutrients (potato starch and potato dextrose) and laccases inducers (i.e., CuSO₄). OMW endogenous microorganisms were competing with P. ostreatus for oxygen during simultaneous fermentation. Dephenolization of raw OMW by P. ostreatus under single batch was as large as 70%. Dephenolization was still extensive even when biomass was recycled up to six times. OMW pre-aeration had to be provided under continuous operation to avoid oxygen consumption by endogenous microorganisms that might spoil the process. The role of laccases in the dephenolization process has been discussed. Dephenolization under batch conditions with biomass recycling and added nutrients proved to be the most effective configuration for OMW polyphenols reduction in industrial plants (42-68% for five cycles). PMID:22179541

  9. Transcriptional analysis of selected cellulose-acting enzymes encoding genes of the white-rot fungus Dichomitus squalens on spruce wood and microcrystalline cellulose.

    PubMed

    Rytioja, Johanna; Hildén, Kristiina; Hatakka, Annele; Mäkelä, Miia R

    2014-11-01

    The recent discovery of oxidative cellulose degradation enhancing enzymes has considerably changed the traditional concept of hydrolytic cellulose degradation. The relative expression levels of ten cellulose-acting enzyme encoding genes of the white-rot fungus Dichomitus squalens were studied on solid-state spruce wood and in microcrystalline Avicel cellulose cultures. From the cellobiohydrolase encoding genes, cel7c was detected at the highest level and showed constitutive expression whereas variable transcript levels were detected for cel7a, cel7b and cel6 in the course of four-week spruce cultivation. The cellulolytic enzyme activities detected in the liquid cultures were consistent with the transcript levels. Interestingly, the selected lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO) encoding genes were expressed in both cultures, but showed different transcription patterns on wood compared to those in submerged microcrystalline cellulose cultures. On spruce wood, higher transcript levels were detected for the lpmos carrying cellulose binding module (CBM) than for the lpmos without CBMs. In both cultures, the expression levels of the lpmo genes were generally higher than the levels of cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) encoding genes. Based on the results of this work, the oxidative cellulose cleaving enzymes of D. squalens have essential role in cellulose degrading machinery of the fungus. PMID:24394946

  10. Characterisation of the initial degradation stage of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood after attack by brown-rot fungus Coniophora puteana.

    PubMed

    Irbe, Ilze; Andersone, Ingeborga; Andersons, Bruno; Noldt, Guna; Dizhbite, Tatiana; Kurnosova, Nina; Nuopponen, Mari; Stewart, Derek

    2011-07-01

    In our study, early period degradation (10 days) of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood by the brown-rot fungus Coniophora puteana (Schum.: Fr.) Karst. (BAM Ebw.15) was followed at the wood chemical composition and ultrastructure-level, and highlighted the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An advanced decay period of 50 days was chosen for comparison of the degradation dynamics. Scanning UV microspectrophotometry (UMSP) analyses of lignin distribution in wood cells revealed that the linkages of lignin and polysaccharides were already disrupted in the early period of fungal attack. An increase in the lignin absorption A(280) value from 0.24 (control) to 0.44 in decayed wood was attributed to its oxidative modification which has been proposed to be generated by Fenton reaction derived ROS. The wood weight loss in the initial degradation period was 2%, whilst cellulose and lignin content decreased by 6.7% and 1%, respectively. Lignin methoxyl (-OCH3) content decreased from 15.1% (control) to 14.2% in decayed wood. Diffuse reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (DRIFT) spectroscopy corroborated the moderate loss in the hemicellulose and lignin degradation accompanying degradation. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra and spin trapping confirmed the generation of ROS, such as hydroxyl radicals (HO∙), in the early wood degradation period. Our results showed that irreversible changes in wood structure started immediately after wood colonisation by fungal hyphae and the results generated here will assist in the understanding of the biochemical mechanisms of wood biodegradation by brown-rot fungi with the ultimate aim of developing novel wood protection methods. PMID:21327804

  11. Successive Mineralization and Detoxification of Benzo[a]pyrene by the White Rot Fungus Bjerkandera sp. Strain BOS55 and Indigenous Microflora

    PubMed Central

    Kotterman, Michiel J. J.; Vis, Eric H.; Field, Jim A.

    1998-01-01

    White rot fungi can oxidize high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) rapidly to polar metabolites, but only limited mineralization takes place. The objectives of this study were to determine if the polar metabolites can be readily mineralized by indigenous microflora from several inoculum sources, such as activated sludge, forest soils, and PAH-adapted sediment sludge, and to determine if such metabolites have decreased mutagenicity compared to the mutagenicity of the parent PAH. 14C-radiolabeled benzo[a]pyrene was subjected to oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55. After 15 days, up to 8.5% of the [14C]benzo[a]pyrene was recovered as 14CO2 in fungal cultures, up to 73% was recovered as water-soluble metabolites, and only 4% remained soluble in dibutyl ether. Thin-layer chromatography analysis revealed that many polar fluorescent metabolites accumulated. Addition of indigenous microflora to fungal cultures with oxidized benzo[a]pyrene on day 15 resulted in an initially rapid increase in the level of 14CO2 recovery to a maximal value of 34% by the end of the experiments (>150 days), and the level of water-soluble label decreased to 16% of the initial level. In fungal cultures not inoculated with microflora, the level of 14CO2 recovery increased to 13.5%, while the level of recovery of water-soluble metabolites remained as high as 61%. No large differences in 14CO2 production were observed with several inocula, showing that some polar metabolites of fungal benzo[a]pyrene oxidation were readily degraded by indigenous microorganisms, while other metabolites were not. Of the inocula tested, only PAH-adapted sediment sludge was capable of directly mineralizing intact benzo[a]pyrene, albeit at a lower rate and to a lesser extent than the mineralization observed after combined treatment with white rot fungi and indigenous microflora. Fungal oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene resulted in rapid and almost complete elimination of its high

  12. Melanoidin-containing wastewaters induce selective laccase gene expression in the white-rot fungus Trametes sp. I-62.

    PubMed

    González, Tania; Terrón, María Carmen; Yagüe, Susana; Junca, Howard; Carbajo, José María; Zapico, Ernesto Javier; Silva, Ricardo; Arana-Cuenca, Ainhoa; Téllez, Alejandro; González, Aldo Enrique

    2008-03-01

    Wastewaters generated from the production of ethanol from sugar cane molasses may have detrimental effects on the environment due to their high chemical oxygen demand and dark brown color. The color is mainly associated with the presence of melanoidins, which are highly recalcitrant to biodegradation. We report here the induction of laccases by molasses wastewaters and molasses melanoidins in the basidiomycetous fungus Trametes sp. I-62. The time course of effluent decolorization and laccase activity in the culture supernatant of the fungus were correlated. The expression of laccase genes lcc1 and lcc2 increased as a result of the addition of complete molasses wastewater and its high molecular weight fraction to fungal cultures. This is the first time differential laccase gene expression has been reported to occur upon exposure of fungal cultures to molasses wastewaters and their melanoidins. PMID:18248962

  13. Edible fungus degrade bisphenol A with no harmful effect on its fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengdong; Li, Mingzhu; Chen, Xiaoyan; Li, Mingchun

    2015-08-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical that is ubiquitous in the environment because of its broad industrial use. The authors report that the most widely cultivated mushroom in the world (i.e., white-rot fungus, Pleurotus ostreatus) efficiently degraded 10mg/L of BPA in 7 days. Extracellular laccase was identified as the enzyme responsible for this activity. LC-MS analysis of the metabolites revealed the presence of both low- and high-molecular-weight products obtained via oxidative cleavage and coupling reactions, respectively. In particular, an analysis of the fatty acid composition and chemical structure of the fungal mycelium demonstrated that exposure to BPA resulted in no harmful effects on this edible fungus. The results provide a better understanding of the environmental fate of BPA and its potential impact on food crops. PMID:25933259

  14. Manganese Is Not Required for Biobleaching of Oxygen-Delignified Kraft Pulp by the White Rot Fungus Bjerkandera sp. Strain BOS55

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, M. T.; Feijoo, G.; Sierra-Alvarez, R.; Lema, J.; Field, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    The white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 extensively delignified and bleached oxygen-delignified eucalyptus kraft pulp handsheets. Biologically mediated brightness gains of up to 14 ISO (International Standards Organization units) were obtained, providing high final brightness values of up to 80% ISO. In nitrogen-limited cultures (2.2 mM N), manganese (Mn) greatly improved manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP) production. However, the biobleaching was not affected by the Mn nutrient regimen, ranging from 1,000 (mu)M added Mn to below the detection limit of 0.26 (mu)M Mn in EDTA-extracted pulp medium. The lowest Mn concentration tested was at least several orders of magnitude lower than the K(infm) known for MnP. Consequently, it was concluded that Mn is not required for biobleaching in Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55. Nonetheless, fast protein liquid chromatography profiles indicated that MnP was the predominant oxidative enzyme produced even under culture conditions in the near absence of manganese. High nitrogen (22 mM N) and exogenous veratryl alcohol (2 mM) repressed biobleaching in Mn-deficient but not in Mn-sufficient culture medium. No correlation was observed between the titers of extracellular peroxidases and the biobleaching. However, the decolorization rate of the polyaromatic dye Poly R-478 was moderately correlated to the biobleaching under a wide range of Mn and N nutrient regimens. PMID:16535591

  15. White-rot fungus Ganoderma sp.En3 had a strong ability to decolorize and tolerate the anthraquinone, indigo and triphenylmethane dye with high concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ruoying; Ma, Li; He, Feng; Yu, Dong; Fan, Ruozhi; Zhang, Yangming; Long, Zheping; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Yang

    2016-03-01

    The ability of the white-rot fungus Ganoderma sp.En3 to decolorize different kinds of dyes widely applied in the textile and dyeing industry, including the anthraquinone dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), indigo dye indigo carmine and triphenylmethane dye methyl green, was evaluated in this study. Ganoderma sp.En3 had a strong capability of decolorizing high concentrations of RBBR, indigo carmine and methyl green. Obvious reduction of Chemical Oxygen Demand was observed after decolorization of different dyes. Ganoderma sp.En3 had a strong ability to tolerate RBBR, indigo carmine and methyl green with high concentrations. High concentrations of RBBR, indigo carmine and methyl green could also be efficiently decolorized by the crude enzyme of Ganoderma sp.En3. Different redox mediators such as syringaldehyde, acetosyringone and acetovanillone could enhance the decolorization capability for higher concentration of indigo carmine and methyl green. Different metal ions had little effect on the ability of the crude enzyme to decolorize indigo carmine and methyl green. Our study suggested that Ganoderma sp.En3 had a strong capability for decolorizing and tolerating high concentrations of different types of dyes such as RBBR, indigo carmine and methyl green. PMID:26684007

  16. Influence of Cadmium and Mercury on Activities of Ligninolytic Enzymes and Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Pleurotus ostreatus in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Baldrian, Petr; in der Wiesche, Carsten; Gabriel, Jiří; Nerud, František; Zadražil, František

    2000-01-01

    The white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus was able to degrade the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, and benzo[ghi]perylene in nonsterile soil both in the presence and in the absence of cadmium and mercury. During 15 weeks of incubation, recovery of individual compounds was 16 to 69% in soil without additional metal. While soil microflora contributed mostly to degradation of pyrene (82%) and benzo[a]anthracene (41%), the fungus enhanced the disappearance of less-soluble polycyclic aromatic compounds containing five or six aromatic rings. Although the heavy metals in the soil affected the activity of ligninolytic enzymes produced by the fungus (laccase and Mn-dependent peroxidase), no decrease in PAH degradation was found in soil containing Cd or Hg at 10 to 100 ppm. In the presence of cadmium at 500 ppm in soil, degradation of PAHs by soil microflora was not affected whereas the contribution of fungus was negligible, probably due to the absence of Mn-dependent peroxidase activity. In the presence of Hg at 50 to 100 ppm or Cd at 100 to 500 ppm, the extent of soil colonization by the fungus was limited. PMID:10831426

  17. Biodecolorization and biodegradation of reactive Levafix Blue E-RA granulate dye by the white rot fungus Irpex lacteus.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, Duraisamy; Velmurugan, Natarajan; Shim, Jae Hong; Oh, Byung-Taek; Senthil, Kalaiselvi; Lee, Yang Soo

    2012-11-30

    The treatment of effluents from textile industry with microorganisms, especially bacteria and fungi, has recently gained attention. The present study was conducted using white rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trametes hirsuta, Trametes sp., and Lentinula edodes for the decolorization of reactive textile Levafix Blue E-RA granulate dye. I. lacteus resulted in the best decolorization and degradation of the dye within four days. Therefore, more detailed studies were carried out using I. lacteus. The decolorization was evaluated at various concentration, pH values, and temperatures. The activities of laccase, manganese peroxidase, and lignin peroxidase enzymes were estimated to reveal the roles of enzymes in decolorization. The colorless nature of the fungal cells revealed that decolorization occurred through degradation, and confirmed by analysis of the metabolites by UV-visible spectroscopy and High Performance Liquid Chromatography after decolorization. The metabolites were identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, and functional group analysis was performed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The degraded dye metabolites were assessed for phytotoxicity using Vigna radiata and Brassica juncea, which demonstrated nontoxic nature of the metabolites formed after degradation of dye. PMID:22846889

  18. Improvement of ethanol production by recombinant expression of pyruvate decarboxylase in the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianqiao; Hirabayashi, Sho; Mori, Toshio; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Hirai, Hirofumi

    2016-07-01

    To improve ethanol production by Phanerochaete sordida YK-624, the pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) gene was cloned from and reintroduced into this hyper lignin-degrading fungus; the gene encodes a key enzyme in alcoholic fermentation. We screened 16 transformant P. sordida YK-624 strains that each expressed a second, recombinant PDC gene (pdc) and then identified the transformant strain (designated GP7) with the highest ethanol production. Direct ethanol production from hardwood was 1.41 higher with GP7 than with wild-type P. sordida YK-624. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the increased PDC activity was caused by elevated recombinant pdc expression. Taken together, these results suggested that ethanol production by P. sordida YK-624 can be improved by the stable expression of an additional, recombinant pdc. PMID:26766784

  19. Pleurotus ostreatus manganese‐dependent peroxidase silencing impairs decolourization of Orange II

    PubMed Central

    Salame, Tomer M.; Yarden, Oded; Hadar, Yitzhak

    2010-01-01

    Summary Decolourization of azo dyes by Pleurotus ostreatus, a white‐rot fungus capable of lignin depolymerization and mineralization, is related to the ligninolytic activity of enzymes produced by this fungus. The capacity of P. ostreatus to decolourize the azo dye Orange II (OII) was dependent and positively co‐linear to Mn2+ concentration in the medium, and thus attributed to Mn2+‐dependent peroxidase (MnP) activity. Based on the ongoing P. ostreatus genome deciphering project we identified at least nine genes encoding for MnP gene family members (mnp1–9), of which only four (mnp1–4) were previously known. Relative real‐time PCR quantification analysis confirmed that all the nine genes are transcribed, and that Mn2+ amendment results in a drastic increase in the transcript levels of the predominantly expressed MnP genes (mnp3 and mnp9), while decreasing versatile peroxidase gene transcription (mnp4). A reverse genetics strategy based on silencing the P. ostreatus mnp3 gene by RNAi was implemented. Knock‐down of mnp3 resulted in the reduction of fungal OII decolourization capacity, which was co‐linear with marked silencing of the Mn2+‐dependent peroxidase genes mnp3 and mnp9. This is the first direct genetic proof of an association between MnP gene expression levels and azo dye decolourization capacity in P. ostreatus, which may have significant implication on understanding the mechanisms governing lignin biodegradation. Moreover, this study has proven the applicability of RNAi as a tool for gene function studies in Pleurotus research. PMID:21255310

  20. A novel glucose dehydrogenase from the white-rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus: production in Aspergillus niger and physicochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme.

    PubMed

    Piumi, François; Levasseur, Anthony; Navarro, David; Zhou, Simeng; Mathieu, Yann; Ropartz, David; Ludwig, Roland; Faulds, Craig B; Record, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Data on glucose dehydrogenases (GDHs) are scarce and availability of these enzymes for application purposes is limited. This paper describes a new GDH from the fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus CIRM BRFM 137 that is the first reported GDH from a white-rot fungus belonging to the Basidiomycota. The enzyme was recombinantly produced in Aspergillus niger, a well-known fungal host producing an array of homologous or heterologous enzymes for industrial applications. The full-length gene that encodes GDH from P. cinnabarinus (PcGDH) consists of 2,425 bp and codes for a deduced protein of 620 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 62.5 kDa. The corresponding complementary DNA was cloned and placed under the control of the strong and constitutive glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter. The signal peptide of the glucoamylase prepro sequence of A. niger was used to target PcGDH secretion into the culture medium, achieving a yield of 640 mg L(-1), which is tenfold higher than any other reported value. The recombinant PcGDH was purified twofold to homogeneity in a one-step procedure with a 41 % recovery using a Ni Sepharose column. The identity of the recombinant protein was further confirmed by immunodetection using western blot analysis and N-terminal sequencing. The molecular mass of the native PcGDH was 130 kDa, suggesting a homodimeric form. Optimal pH and temperature were found to be similar (5.5 and 60 °C, respectively) to those determined for the previously characterized GDH, i.e., from Glomerella cingulata. However PcGDH exhibits a lower catalytic efficiency of 67 M(-1) s(-1) toward glucose. This substrate is by far the preferred substrate, which constitutes an advantage over other sugar oxidases in the case of blood glucose monitoring. The substrate-binding domain of PcGDH turns out to be conserved as compared to other glucose-methanol-choline (GMCs) oxidoreductases. In addition, the ability of PcGDH to reduce oxidized quinones or radical

  1. Micronized Copper Wood Preservatives: Efficacy of Ion, Nano, and Bulk Copper against the Brown Rot Fungus Rhodonia placenta.

    PubMed

    Civardi, Chiara; Schubert, Mark; Fey, Angelika; Wick, Peter; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2015-01-01

    Recently introduced micronized copper (MC) formulations, consisting of a nanosized fraction of basic copper (Cu) carbonate (CuCO3·Cu(OH)2) nanoparticles (NPs), were introduced to the market for wood protection. Cu NPs may presumably be more effective against wood-destroying fungi than bulk or ionic Cu compounds. In particular, Cu- tolerant wood-destroying fungi may not recognize NPs, which may penetrate into fungal cell walls and membranes and exert their impact. The objective of this study was to assess if MC wood preservative formulations have a superior efficacy against Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungi due to nano effects than conventional Cu biocides. After screening a range of wood-destroying fungi for their resistance to Cu, we investigated fungal growth of the Cu-tolerant fungus Rhodonia placenta in solid and liquid media and on wood treated with MC azole (MCA). In liquid cultures we evaluated the fungal response to ion, nano and bulk Cu distinguishing the ionic and particle effects by means of the Cu2+ chelator ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TTM) and measuring fungal biomass, oxalic acid production and laccase activity of R. placenta. Our results do not support the presence of particular nano effects of MCA against R. placenta that would account for an increased antifungal efficacy, but provide evidence that attribute the main effectiveness of MCA to azoles. PMID:26554706

  2. Micronized Copper Wood Preservatives: Efficacy of Ion, Nano, and Bulk Copper against the Brown Rot Fungus Rhodonia placenta

    PubMed Central

    Civardi, Chiara; Schubert, Mark; Fey, Angelika; Wick, Peter; Schwarze, Francis W. M. R.

    2015-01-01

    Recently introduced micronized copper (MC) formulations, consisting of a nanosized fraction of basic copper (Cu) carbonate (CuCO3·Cu(OH)2) nanoparticles (NPs), were introduced to the market for wood protection. Cu NPs may presumably be more effective against wood-destroying fungi than bulk or ionic Cu compounds. In particular, Cu- tolerant wood-destroying fungi may not recognize NPs, which may penetrate into fungal cell walls and membranes and exert their impact. The objective of this study was to assess if MC wood preservative formulations have a superior efficacy against Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungi due to nano effects than conventional Cu biocides. After screening a range of wood-destroying fungi for their resistance to Cu, we investigated fungal growth of the Cu-tolerant fungus Rhodonia placenta in solid and liquid media and on wood treated with MC azole (MCA). In liquid cultures we evaluated the fungal response to ion, nano and bulk Cu distinguishing the ionic and particle effects by means of the Cu2+ chelator ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TTM) and measuring fungal biomass, oxalic acid production and laccase activity of R. placenta. Our results do not support the presence of particular nano effects of MCA against R. placenta that would account for an increased antifungal efficacy, but provide evidence that attribute the main effectiveness of MCA to azoles. PMID:26554706

  3. Transcriptomic Responses of the Softwood-Degrading White-Rot Fungus Phanerochaete carnosa during Growth on Coniferous and Deciduous Wood ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Jacqueline; Doering, Matt; Canam, Thomas; Gong, Yunchen; Guttman, David S.; Campbell, Malcolm M.; Master, Emma R.

    2011-01-01

    To identify enzymes that could be developed to reduce the recalcitrance of softwood resources, the transcriptomes of the softwood-degrading white-rot fungus Phanerochaete carnosa were evaluated after growth on lodgepole pine, white spruce, balsam fir, and sugar maple and compared to the transcriptome of P. carnosa after growth on liquid nutrient medium. One hundred fifty-two million paired-end reads were obtained, and 63% of these reads were mapped to 10,257 gene models from P. carnosa. Five-hundred thirty-three of these genes had transcripts that were at least four times more abundant during growth on at least one wood medium than on nutrient medium. The 30 transcripts that were on average over 100 times more abundant during growth on wood than on nutrient medium included 6 manganese peroxidases, 5 cellulases, 2 hemicellulases, a lignin peroxidase, glyoxal oxidase, and a P450 monooxygenase. Notably, among the genes encoding putative cellulases, one encoding a glycosyl hydrolase family 61 protein had the highest relative transcript abundance during growth on wood. Overall, transcripts predicted to encode lignin-degrading activities were more abundant than those predicted to encode carbohydrate-active enzymes. Transcripts predicted to encode three MnPs represented the most highly abundant transcripts in wood-grown cultivations compared to nutrient medium cultivations. Gene set enrichment analyses did not distinguish transcriptomes resulting from softwood and hardwood cultivations, suggesting that similar sets of enzyme activities are elicited by P. carnosa grown on different wood substrates, albeit to different expression levels. PMID:21441342

  4. Substrate-specific transcription of the enigmatic GH61 family of the pathogenic white-rot fungus Heterobasidion irregulare during growth on lignocellulose.

    PubMed

    Yakovlev, Igor; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav; Hietala, Ari M; Stefańczyk, Emil; Solheim, Halvor; Fossdal, Carl Gunnar

    2012-08-01

    The GH61 represents the most enigmatic Glycoside Hydrolase family (GH) regarding enzymatic activity and importance in cellulose degradation. Heterobasidion irregulare is a necrotizing pathogen and white-rot fungus that causes enormous damages in conifer forests. The genome of H. irregulare allowed identification of ten HiGH61 genes. qRT-PCR analysis separate the HiGH61 members into two groups; one that show up regulation on lignocellulosic substrates (HiGH61A, HiGH61B, HiGH61D, HiGH61G, HiGH61H, and HiGH61I) and a second showing either down-regulation or constitutive expression (HiGH61C, HiGH61E, HiGH61F, and HiGH61J). HiGH61H showed up to 17,000-fold increase on spruce heartwood suggesting a pivotal role in cellulose decomposition during saprotrophic growth. Sequence analysis of these genes reveals that all GH61s except HiGH61G possess the conserved metal-binding motif essential for activity. The sequences also divide into groups having either an insert near the N terminus or an insert near the second catalytic histidine, which may represent extensions of the substrate-binding surface. Three of the HiGH61s encode cellulose-binding modules (CBM1). Interestingly, HiGH61H and HiGH61I having CBM1s are up-regulated on pure cellulose. There was a common substrate-specific induction patterns of the HiGH61s with several reference cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic GHs, this taken together with their low transcript levels on media lacking lignocellulose, reflect the concerted nature of cell wall polymer degradation. PMID:22718248

  5. Treatment of wheat straw using tannase and white-rot fungus to improve feed utilization by ruminants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Current research to enrich cattle feed has primarily focused on treatment using white rot fungi, while there are scarce reports using the enzyme tannase, which is discussed only in reviews or in the form of a hypothesis. In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of tannase on wheat straw (WS) and also the effect of lyophilized tannase at concentrations of 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3% (w/w) on WS followed by fermentation with Ganoderma sp. for 10 d and compared in relation to biochemical parameters, crude protein (CP) content, and nutritional value by calculating the C/N ratio in order to improve the nutritional value of cattle feed. Results Penicillium charlesii, a tannase-producing microorganism, produced 61.4 IU/mL of tannase in 54 h when 2% (w/v) tannic acid (TA) was initially used as a substrate in medium containing (% w/v) sucrose (1.0), NaNO3 (1.0), and MgSO4 (0.08 pH, 5.0) in a 300-L fermentor (working volume 220 L), and concomitantly fed with 1.0% (w/v) TA after 24 h. The yield of partially purified and lyophilized tannase was 5.8 IU/mg. The tannin-free myco-straw at 0.1% (w/w) tannase showed 37.8% (w/w) lignin degradation with only a 20.4% (w/w) decrease in cellulose content and the in vitro feed digestibility was 32.2%. An increase in CP content (up to 1.28-fold) along with a lower C/N ratio of 25.0%, as compared to myco-straw, was obtained. Conclusions The use of tannin-free myco-straw has potential to improve the nutritional content of cattle feed. This biological treatment process was safe, eco-friendly, easy to perform, and was less expensive as compared to other treatment methods. PMID:24555694

  6. Violet root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus causing violet root rot, Helicobasidium brebissonii (anamorph Rhizoctonia crocorum), is widely distributed in Europe and North America but is rarely of much economic importance on alfalfa. The disease has also been reported in Australia, Argentina, and Iran. The disease is characterized b...

  7. Armillaria root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    First described on grapevines in California in the 1880s, Armillaria root rot occurs in all major grape-growing regions of the state. The causal fungus, Armillaria mellea, infects woody grapevine roots and the base of the trunk (the root collar), resulting in a slow decline and eventual death of the...

  8. Stachbotrys Root Rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stachybotrys root rot is caused by Stachybotrys chartarum, a cellulytic saprophytic hyphomycete fungus. The pathogen produces mycotoxins including a host of immunosupressant compounds for human and is one of the causes of the "sick building syndrome." Although S. chartarum is rarely known as a plan...

  9. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Young, Darcy; Rice, James; Martin, Rachael; Lindquist, Erika; Lipzen, Anna; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

    2015-01-01

    Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 “Bunker C” fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes). Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ≥ log2(2-fold) greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels. PMID:26111162

  10. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Young, Darcy; Rice, James; Martin, Rachael; Lindquist, Erika; Lipzen, Anna; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

    2015-01-01

    Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 "Bunker C" fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes). Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ≥ log2(2-fold) greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels. PMID:26111162

  11. Selective natural induction of laccases in Pleurotus sajor-caju, suitable for application at a biofuel cell cathode at neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Fokina, Oleksandra; Eipper, Jens; Kerzenmacher, Sven; Fischer, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    Laccases are multicopper oxidoreductases with broad substrate specificity and are applied in biofuel cells at the cathode to improve its oxygen reduction performance. However, the production of laccases by e.g. fungi is often accompanied by the need of synthetic growth supplements for increased enzyme production. In this study we present a strategy for the white-rot fungus Pleurotus sajor-caju for natural laccase activity induction using lignocellulose substrates and culture supernatant of Aspergillus nidulans. P. sajor-caju laccases were secreted into the supernatant, which was directly used at a carbon-nanotube buckypaper cathode in a biofuel cell. Maximal current densities of -148±3μAcm(-2) and -102±9μAcm(-2) at 400mV were achieved at pH 5 and 7, respectively. Variations in cathode performance were observed with culture supernatants produced under different conditions due to the induction of specific laccases. PMID:27393835

  12. Presence of Pleurotus ostreatus in Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lechner, Bernardo Ernesto; Petersen, Ronald; Rajchenberg, Mario; Albertó, Edgardo

    2002-06-01

    Specimens belonging to the genus Pleurotus were collected growing on fallen trunks of Araucaria araucana, a native tree with a poorly known mycoflora, which grows in Patagonia, Argentina. Fruitbodies were produced in culture on sawdust from an isolated strain. Interspecific pairing tests performed between mating types of Pleurotus from Patagonia and tester strains of P. pulmonarius and P. ostreatus showed the Patagonia strain to be 100% compatible with P. ostreatus and incompatible with P. pulmonarius. Dikaryons obtained on sawdust were fertile, since they were able to produce fruitbodies and viable spores. This is the first documented record of P. ostreatus from Argentina and the first gilled fungus found growing on Araucaria araucana. PMID:12828514

  13. A novel P450-initiated biphasic process for sustainable biodegradation of benzo[a]pyrene in soil under nutrient-sufficient conditions by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Sukanta S.; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Shann, Jodi; Yadav, Jagjit S.

    2013-01-01

    High molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are resistant to biodegradation in soil. Conventionally, white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been investigated for HMW-PAH degradation in soil primarily using nutrient-deficient (ligninolytic) conditions, albeit with limited and non-sustainable biodegradation outcomes. In this study, we report development of an alternative novel biphasic process initiated under nutrient-sufficient (non-ligninolytic) culture conditions, by employing an advanced experimental design strategy. During the initial nutrient-sufficient non-ligninolytic phase (16 days), the process showed upregulation (3.6-and 22.3-fold, respectively) of two key PAH-oxidizing P450 monooxygenases pc2 (CYP63A2) and pah4 (CYP5136A3) and formation of typical P450-hydroxylated metabolite. This along with abrogation (84.9%) of BaP degradation activity in response to a P450-specific inhibitor implied key role of these monooxygenases. The subsequent phase triggered on continued incubation (to 25 days) switched the process from non-ligninolytic to ligninolytic resulting in a significantly higher net degradation (91.6% as against 67.4% in the control nutrient-limited set) of BaP with concomitant de novo ligninolytic enzyme expression making it a biphasic process yielding improved sustainable bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil. To our knowledge this is the first report on development of such biphasic process for bioremediation application of a white rot fungus. PMID:24051002

  14. Mutual interactions of Pleurotus ostreatus with bacteria of activated sludge in solid-bed bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Svobodová, Kateřina; Petráčková, Denisa; Kozická, Barbora; Halada, Petr; Novotný, Čeněk

    2016-06-01

    White rot fungi are well known for their ability to degrade xenobiotics in pure cultures but few studies focus on their performance under bacterial stress in real wastewaters. This study investigated mutual interactions in co-cultures of Pleurotus ostreatus and activated sludge microbes in batch reactors and different culture media. Under the bacterial stress an increase in the dye decolorization efficiency (95 vs. 77.1 %) and a 2-fold elevated laccase activity (156.7 vs. 78.4 Ul(-1)) were observed in fungal-bacterial cultures compared to pure P. ostreatus despite a limited growth of bacteria in mixed cultures. According to 16S-rDNA analyses, P. ostreatus was able to alter the structure of bacterial communities. In malt extract-glucose medium the fungus inhibited growth of planktonic bacteria and prevented shifts in bacterial utilization of potential C-sources. A model bacterium, Rhodococcus erythropolis responded to fungal metabolites by down regulation of uridylate kinase and acetyl-CoA synthetase. PMID:27116960

  15. Lignocellulose degradation during solid-state fermentation: Pleurotus ostreatus versus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    SciTech Connect

    Kerem, Z.; Friesem, D.; Hadar, Y. )

    1992-04-01

    Lignocellulose degradation and activities related to lignin degradation were studied in the solid-state fermentation of cotton stalks by comparison two white rot fungi, Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. P. chrysosporium grew vigorously, resulting in rapid, nonselective degradation of 55% of the organic components of the cotton stalks within 15 days. In contrast, P. ostreatus grew more slowly with obvious selectivity for lignin degradation and resulting in the degradation of only 20% of the organic matter after 30 days of incubation. The kinetics of {sup 14}C-lignin mineralization exhibited similar differences. In cultures of P. chrysosporium, mineralization ceased after 18 days, resulting in the release of 12% of the total radioactivity as {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. In P. ostreatus, on the other hand, 17% of the total radioactivity was released in a steady rate throughout a period of 60 days of incubation. Laccase activity was only detected in water extracts of the P. ostreatus fermentation. No lignin peroxidase activity was detected in either the water extract or liquid cultures of this fungus. 2-Keto-4-thiomethyl butyric acid cleavage to ethylene correlated to lignin degradation in both fungi. A study of fungal activity under solid-state conditions, in contrast to those done under defined liquid culture, may help to better understand the mechanism involved in lignocellulose degradation.

  16. DISEASES OF SOYBEAN: CHARCOAL ROT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean yield losses due to charcoal rot occur regularly. Yield losses of 20-30% due to root and stem infections of soybean caused by the soil-inhabiting fungus Macrophomina phaseolina have been reported in some fields in years highly favorable for disease development. This bulletin summarizes the...

  17. Changes in Molecular Size Distribution of Cellulose during Attack by White Rot and Brown Rot Fungi.

    PubMed

    Kleman-Leyer, K; Agosin, E; Conner, A H; Kirk, T K

    1992-04-01

    The kinetics of cotton cellulose depolymerization by the brown rot fungus Postia placenta and the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium were investigated with solid-state cultures. The degree of polymerization (DP; the average number of glucosyl residues per cellulose molecule) of cellulose removed from soil-block cultures during degradation by P. placenta was first determined viscosimetrically. Changes in molecular size distribution of cellulose attacked by either fungus were then determined by size exclusion chromatography as the tricarbanilate derivative. The first study with P. placenta revealed two phases of depolymerization: a rapid decrease to a DP of approximately 800 and then a slower decrease to a DP of approximately 250. Almost all depolymerization occurred before weight loss. Determination of the molecular size distribution of cellulose during attack by the brown rot fungus revealed single major peaks centered over progressively lower DPs. Cellulose attacked by P. chrysosporium was continuously consumed and showed a different pattern of change in molecular size distribution than cellulose attacked by P. placenta. At first, a broad peak which shifted at a slightly lower average DP appeared, but as attack progressed the peak narrowed and the average DP increased slightly. From these results, it is apparent that the mechanism of cellulose degradation differs fundamentally between brown and white rot fungi, as represented by the species studied here. We conclude that the brown rot fungus cleaved completely through the amorphous regions of the cellulose microfibrils, whereas the white rot fungus attacked the surfaces of the microfibrils, resulting in a progressive erosion. PMID:16348694

  18. Changes in Molecular Size Distribution of Cellulose during Attack by White Rot and Brown Rot Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Kleman-Leyer, Karen; Agosin, Eduardo; Conner, Anthony H.; Kirk, T. Kent

    1992-01-01

    The kinetics of cotton cellulose depolymerization by the brown rot fungus Postia placenta and the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium were investigated with solid-state cultures. The degree of polymerization (DP; the average number of glucosyl residues per cellulose molecule) of cellulose removed from soil-block cultures during degradation by P. placenta was first determined viscosimetrically. Changes in molecular size distribution of cellulose attacked by either fungus were then determined by size exclusion chromatography as the tricarbanilate derivative. The first study with P. placenta revealed two phases of depolymerization: a rapid decrease to a DP of approximately 800 and then a slower decrease to a DP of approximately 250. Almost all depolymerization occurred before weight loss. Determination of the molecular size distribution of cellulose during attack by the brown rot fungus revealed single major peaks centered over progressively lower DPs. Cellulose attacked by P. chrysosporium was continuously consumed and showed a different pattern of change in molecular size distribution than cellulose attacked by P. placenta. At first, a broad peak which shifted at a slightly lower average DP appeared, but as attack progressed the peak narrowed and the average DP increased slightly. From these results, it is apparent that the mechanism of cellulose degradation differs fundamentally between brown and white rot fungi, as represented by the species studied here. We conclude that the brown rot fungus cleaved completely through the amorphous regions of the cellulose microfibrils, whereas the white rot fungus attacked the surfaces of the microfibrils, resulting in a progressive erosion. PMID:16348694

  19. Laccase production by the aquatic ascomycete Phoma sp. UHH 5-1-03 and the white rot basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus DSM 1833 during submerged cultivation on banana peels and enzyme applicability for the removal of endocrine-disrupting chemicals.

    PubMed

    Libardi, Nelson; Gern, Regina Maria Miranda; Furlan, Sandra Aparecida; Schlosser, Dietmar

    2012-07-01

    This work aimed to study the production of laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus DSM 1833 and Phoma sp. UHH 5-1-03 using banana peels as alternative carbon source, the subsequent partial purification and characterization of the enzyme, as well the applicability to degrade endocrine disruptors. The laccase stability with pH and temperature, the optimum pH, the K (m) and V(max) parameters, and the molar mass were determined. Tests were conducted for assessing the ability of degradation of the endocrine disruptors t-nonylphenol, bisphenol A, and 17α-ethinylestradiol. Laccase production of 752 and 1,117 U L⁻¹ was obtained for Phoma sp. and P. ostreatus, respectively. Phoma sp. laccase showed higher stability with temperature and pH. The laccase from both species showed higher affinity by syringaldazine. The culture broth with banana peels induced the production of two isoforms of P. ostreatus (58.7 and 21 kDa) and one of Phoma sp. laccase (72 kDa). In the first day of incubation, the concentrations of bisphenol A and 17α-ethinylestradiol were reduced to values close to zero and after 3 days the concentration of t-nonylphenol was reduced in 90% by the P. ostreatus laccase, but there was no reduction in its concentration by the Phoma sp. laccase. PMID:22371062

  20. Biodegradation of heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide-contaminated soils by white-rot fungal inocula.

    PubMed

    Purnomo, Adi Setyo; Putra, Surya Rosa; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2014-10-01

    The ability of certain white-rot fungi (WRF) inocula to transform heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide and its application in artificially contaminated soil were investigated. Fungal inoculum of Pleurotus ostreatus eliminated approximately 89 % of heptachlor after 28 days of incubation, and chlordene was detected as the primary metabolite. The fungal inoculum of Pleurotus ostreatus had the highest ability to degrade heptachlor epoxide; approximately 32 % were degraded after 28 days of incubation, and heptachlor diol was detected as the metabolite product. Because Pleurotus ostreatus transformed heptachlor into a less toxic metabolite and could also effectively degrade heptachlor epoxide, it was then selected to be applied to artificially contaminated soil. The spent mushroom waste (SMW) of Pleurotus ostreatus degraded heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide by approximately 91 and 26 %, respectively, over 28 days. This finding indicated that Pleurotus ostreatus SMW could be used to bioremediate heptachlor- and heptachlor epoxide-contaminated environments. PMID:24840358

  1. Biodegradation of carbamazepine and clarithromycin by Trichoderma harzianum and Pleurotus ostreatus investigated by liquid chromatography - high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (FTICR MS-IRMPD).

    PubMed

    Buchicchio, Alessandro; Bianco, Giuliana; Sofo, Adriano; Masi, Salvatore; Caniani, Donatella

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the capability of pharmaceutical biodegradation of fungus Trichoderma harzianum was evaluated through the comparison with the well-known biodegradation capability of white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. The study was performed in aqueous phase under aerobic conditions, using two of the most frequently detected drugs in water bodies: carbamazepine and clarithromycin, with concentrations commonly found in treated wastewater (4μg/l and 0.03μg/l respectively). For the first time, we demonstrated that T. harzianum is able to remove carbamazepine and clarithromycin. The analyses were performed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, using high-resolution Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry upon electrospray ionization in positive ion mode. The high selectivity and mass accuracy provided by high-resolution mass spectrometry, allowed us to identify some unknown metabolites. On the basis of our study, the major metabolites detected in liquid culture treated by T. harzianum were: 14-hydroxy-descladinosyl- and descladinosyl-clarithromycin, which are pharmacologically inactive products not dangerous for the environment. PMID:27039063

  2. Tetramethylpyrazine from Pleurotus geesteranus.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hengsheng; Liu, Huaizhi; Chen, Junchen; Shao, Suqin; Zhu, Honghui; Tsao, Rong; Zhou, Ting

    2015-09-01

    For the first time, the bioactive compound tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) was isolated and identified from the culture of Pleurotus geesteranus Singer. Its identification was confirmed unambiguously by identical retention time and mass spectrum to those of a TMP standard. The TMP content in P. geesteranus from solid culture was up to 8.04 g.kg(-1)ds. This finding provides a novel natural way to produce TMP and will lead to new value added mushroom products with nutraceutical functions. PMID:26594757

  3. An unstructured mathematical model for growth of Pleurotus ostreatus on lignocellulosic material in solid-state fermentation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sarikaya, A.; Ladisch, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    Inedible plant material, generated in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), should be recycled preferably by bioregenerative methods that utilize enzymes or micro-organisms. This material consists of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin with the lignin fraction representing a recalcitrant component that is not readily treated by enzymatic methods. Consequently, the white-rot fungus, Pleurotus ostreatus, is attractive since it effectively degrades lignin and produces edible mushrooms. This work describes an unstructured model for the growth of P. ostreatus in a solid-state fermentation system using lignocellulosic plant materials from Brassica napus (rapeseed) as a substrate at three different particle sizes. A logistic function model based on area was found to fit the surface growth of the mycelium on the solid substrate with respect to time, whereas a model based on diameter, alone, did not fit the data as well. The difference between the two measures of growth was also evident for mycelial growth in a bioreactor designed to facilitate a slow flowrate of air through the 1.5 cm thick mat of lignocellulosic biomass particles. The result is consistent with the concept of competition of the mycelium for the substrate that surrounds it, rather than just substrate that is immediately available to single cells. This approach provides a quantitative measure of P. ostreatus growth on lignocellulosic biomass in a solid-state fermentation system. The experimental data show that the best growth is obtained for the largest particles (1 cm) of the lignocellulosic substrate. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Biodegradation of aflatoxin B1 in contaminated rice straw by Pleurotus ostreatus MTCC 142 and Pleurotus ostreatus GHBBF10 in the presence of metal salts and surfactants.

    PubMed

    Das, Arijit; Bhattacharya, Sourav; Palaniswamy, Muthusamy; Angayarkanni, Jayaraman

    2014-08-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic fungal metabolite having carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic effects on human and animal health. Accidental feeding of aflatoxin-contaminated rice straw may be detrimental for ruminant livestock and can lead to transmission of this toxin or its metabolites into the milk of dairy cattle. White-rot basidiomycetous fungus Pleurotus ostreatus produces ligninolytic enzymes like laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP). These extracellular enzymes have been reported to degrade many environmentally hazardous compounds. The present study examines the ability of P. ostreatus strains to degrade AFB1 in rice straw in the presence of metal salts and surfactants. Laccase and MnP activities were determined spectrophotometrically. The efficiency of AFB1 degradation was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography. Highest degradation was recorded for both P. ostreatus MTCC 142 (89.14 %) and P. ostreatus GHBBF10 (91.76 %) at 0.5 µg mL(-1) initial concentration of AFB1. Enhanced degradation was noted for P. ostreatus MTCC 142 in the presence of Cu(2+) and Triton X-100, at toxin concentration of 5 µg mL(-1). P. ostreatus GHBBF10 showed highest degradation in the presence of Zn(2+) and Tween 80. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis revealed the formation of hydrated, decarbonylated and O-dealkylated products. The present findings suggested that supplementation of AFB1-contaminated rice straw by certain metal salts and surfactants can improve the enzymatic degradation of this mycotoxin by P. ostreatus strains. PMID:24770873

  5. Biodegradation of the X-ray contrast agent iopromide and the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ofloxacin by the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor in hospital wastewaters and identification of degradation products.

    PubMed

    Gros, Meritxell; Cruz-Morato, Carles; Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Longrée, Philipp; Singer, Heinz; Sarrà, Montserrat; Hollender, Juliane; Vicent, Teresa; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes the degradation of the X-ray contrast agent iopromide (IOP) and the antibiotic ofloxacin (OFLOX) by the white-rot-fungus Trametes versicolor. Batch studies in synthetic medium revealed that between 60 and 80% of IOP and OFLOX were removed when spiked at approximately 12 mg L(-1) and 10 mg L(-1), respectively. A significant number of transformation products (TPs) were identified for both pharmaceuticals, confirming their degradation. IOP TPs were attributed to two principal reactions: (i) sequential deiodination of the aromatic ring and (ii) N-dealkylation of the amide at the hydroxylated side chain of the molecule. On the other hand, OFLOX transformation products were attributed mainly to the oxidation, hydroxylation and cleavage of the piperazine ring. Experiments in 10 L-bioreactor with fungal biomass fluidized by air pulses operated in batch achieved high percentage of degradation of IOP and OFLOX when load with sterile (87% IOP, 98.5% OFLOX) and unsterile (65.4% IOP, 99% OFLOX) hospital wastewater (HWW) at their real concentration (μg L(-1) level). Some of the most relevant IOP and OFLOX TPs identified in synthetic medium were also detected in bioreactor samples. Acute toxicity tests indicated a reduction of the toxicity in the final culture broth from both experiments in synthetic medium and in batch bioreactor. PMID:24867600

  6. Management of Rhizoctonia root and crown rot of subarbeet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia root and crown rot is caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani and is one of the most severe soil-borne diseases of sugarbeet in Minnesota and North Dakota. Rhizoctonia root and crown rot may reduce yield significantly, and diseased beets may cause problems in storage piles. Fields with...

  7. Predominance of a Versatile-Peroxidase-Encoding Gene, mnp4, as Demonstrated by Gene Replacement via a Gene Targeting System for Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Salame, Tomer M.; Knop, Doriv; Tal, Dana; Levinson, Dana; Yarden, Oded

    2012-01-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus (the oyster mushroom) and other white rot filamentous basidiomycetes are key players in the global carbon cycle. P. ostreatus is also a commercially important edible fungus with medicinal properties and is important for biotechnological and environmental applications. Efficient gene targeting via homologous recombination (HR) is a fundamental tool for facilitating comprehensive gene function studies. Since the natural HR frequency in Pleurotus transformations is low (2.3%), transformed DNA is predominantly integrated ectopically. To overcome this limitation, a general gene targeting system was developed by producing a P. ostreatus PC9 homokaryon Δku80 strain, using carboxin resistance complemented by the development of a protocol for hygromycin B resistance protoplast-based DNA transformation and homokaryon isolation. The Δku80 strain exhibited exclusive (100%) HR in the integration of transforming DNA, providing a high efficiency of gene targeting. Furthermore, the Δku80 strains produced showed a phenotype similar to that of the wild-type PC9 strain, with similar growth fitness, ligninolytic functionality, and capability of mating with the incompatible strain PC15 to produce a dikaryon which retained its resistance to the corresponding selection and was capable of producing typical fruiting bodies. The applicability of this system is demonstrated by inactivation of the versatile peroxidase (VP) encoded by mnp4. This enzyme is part of the ligninolytic system of P. ostreatus, being one of the nine members of the manganese-peroxidase (MnP) gene family, and is the predominantly expressed VP in Mn2+-deficient media. mnp4 inactivation provided a direct proof that mnp4 encodes a key VP responsible for the Mn2+-dependent and Mn2+-independent peroxidase activity under Mn2+-deficient culture conditions. PMID:22636004

  8. Influence of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) concentration on the degradation of TNT in explosive-contaminated soils by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed Central

    Spiker, J K; Crawford, D L; Crawford, R L

    1992-01-01

    The ability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to bioremediate TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) in a soil containing 12,000 ppm of TNT and the explosives RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5- triazine; 3,000 ppm) and HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine; 300 ppm) was investigated. The fungus did not grow in malt extract broth containing more than 0.02% (wt/vol; 24 ppm of TNT) soil. Pure TNT or explosives extracted from the soil were degraded by P. chrysosporium spore-inoculated cultures at TNT concentrations of up to 20 ppm. Mycelium-inoculated cultures degraded 100 ppm of TNT, but further growth was inhibited above 20 ppm. In malt extract broth, spore-inoculated cultures mineralized 10% of added [14C]TNT (5 ppm) in 27 days at 37 degrees C. No mineralization occurred during [14C]TNT biotransformation by mycelium-inoculated cultures, although the TNT was transformed. PMID:1444437

  9. Expression of the Laccase Gene from a White Rot Fungus in Pichia pastoris Can Enhance the Resistance of This Yeast to H2O2-Mediated Oxidative Stress by Stimulating the Glutathione-Based Antioxidative System

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Fangfang; Zhuo, Rui; Ma, Fuying; Gong, Yangmin; Wan, Xia; Jiang, Mulan

    2012-01-01

    Laccase is a copper-containing polyphenol oxidase that has great potential in industrial and biotechnological applications. Previous research has suggested that fungal laccase may be involved in the defense against oxidative stress, but there is little direct evidence supporting this hypothesis, and the mechanism by which laccase protects cells from oxidative stress also remains unclear. Here, we report that the expression of the laccase gene from white rot fungus in Pichia pastoris can significantly enhance the resistance of yeast to H2O2-mediated oxidative stress. The expression of laccase in yeast was found to confer a strong ability to scavenge intracellular H2O2 and to protect cells from lipid oxidative damage. The mechanism by which laccase gene expression increases resistance to oxidative stress was then investigated further. We found that laccase gene expression in Pichia pastoris could increase the level of glutathione-based antioxidative activity, including the intracellular glutathione levels and the enzymatic activity of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. The transcription of the laccase gene in Pichia pastoris was found to be enhanced by the oxidative stress caused by exogenous H2O2. The stimulation of laccase gene expression in response to exogenous H2O2 stress further contributed to the transcriptional induction of the genes involved in the glutathione-dependent antioxidative system, including PpYAP1, PpGPX1, PpPMP20, PpGLR1, and PpGSH1. Taken together, these results suggest that the expression of the laccase gene in Pichia pastoris can enhance the resistance of yeast to H2O2-mediated oxidative stress by stimulating the glutathione-based antioxidative system to protect the cell from oxidative damage. PMID:22706050

  10. Degradation of Green Polyethylene by Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Ribeiro, Karla Veloso Gonçalves; Mendes, Igor Rodrigues; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2015-01-01

    We studied the biodegradation of green polyethylene (GP) by Pleurotus ostreatus. The GP was developed from renewable raw materials to help to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases. However, little information regarding the biodegradation of GP discarded in the environment is available. P. ostreatus is a lignocellulolytic fungus that has been used in bioremediation processes for agroindustrial residues, pollutants, and recalcitrant compounds. Recently, we showed the potential of this fungus to degrade oxo-biodegradable polyethylene. GP plastic bags were exposed to sunlight for up to 120 days to induce the initial photodegradation of the polymers. After this period, no cracks, pits, or new functional groups in the structure of GP were observed. Fragments of these bags were used as the substrate for the growth of P. ostreatus. After 30 d of incubation, physical and chemical alterations in the structure of GP were observed. We conclude that the exposure of GP to sunlight and its subsequent incubation in the presence of P. ostreatus can decrease the half-life of GP and facilitate the mineralization of these polymers. PMID:26076188

  11. Degradation of Green Polyethylene by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Ribeiro, Karla Veloso Gonçalves; Mendes, Igor Rodrigues; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2015-01-01

    We studied the biodegradation of green polyethylene (GP) by Pleurotus ostreatus. The GP was developed from renewable raw materials to help to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases. However, little information regarding the biodegradation of GP discarded in the environment is available. P. ostreatus is a lignocellulolytic fungus that has been used in bioremediation processes for agroindustrial residues, pollutants, and recalcitrant compounds. Recently, we showed the potential of this fungus to degrade oxo-biodegradable polyethylene. GP plastic bags were exposed to sunlight for up to 120 days to induce the initial photodegradation of the polymers. After this period, no cracks, pits, or new functional groups in the structure of GP were observed. Fragments of these bags were used as the substrate for the growth of P. ostreatus. After 30 d of incubation, physical and chemical alterations in the structure of GP were observed. We conclude that the exposure of GP to sunlight and its subsequent incubation in the presence of P. ostreatus can decrease the half-life of GP and facilitate the mineralization of these polymers. PMID:26076188

  12. Black streak root rot of lentil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black streak root rot of lentil is caused by the soil borne fungus Thielaviopsis basicola. The pathogen is widespread. The disease shows symptoms of black streaking on root, and stunted plants. The disease is favored by cool and moist weather. Management of the disease rely on avoiding fields wi...

  13. Collar rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Collar rot of lentil is an important seedling disease particularly under high moisture and high temperature conditions. It is caused by the fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii. The pathogen has an extremely wide host range, and produces sclerotia, which can survive in the soil for many years. Infe...

  14. Redundancy among manganese peroxidases in Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Salame, Tomer M; Knop, Doriv; Levinson, Dana; Yarden, Oded; Hadar, Yitzhak

    2013-04-01

    Manganese peroxidases (MnPs) are key players in the ligninolytic system of white rot fungi. In Pleurotus ostreatus (the oyster mushroom) these enzymes are encoded by a gene family comprising nine members, mnp1 to -9 (mnp genes). Mn(2+) amendment to P. ostreatus cultures results in enhanced degradation of recalcitrant compounds (such as the azo dye orange II) and lignin. In Mn(2+)-amended glucose-peptone medium, mnp3, mnp4, and mnp9 were the most highly expressed mnp genes. After 7 days of incubation, the time point at which the greatest capacity for orange II decolorization was observed, mnp3 expression and the presence of MnP3 in the extracellular culture fluids were predominant. To determine the significance of MnP3 for ligninolytic functionality in Mn(2+)-sufficient cultures, mnp3 was inactivated via the Δku80 strain-based P. ostreatus gene-targeting system. In Mn(2+)-sufficient medium, inactivation of mnp3 did not significantly affect expression of nontargeted MnPs or their genes, nor did it considerably diminish the fungal Mn(2+)-mediated orange II decolorization capacity, despite the significant reduction in total MnP activity. Similarly, inactivation of either mnp4 or mnp9 did not affect orange II decolorization ability. These results indicate functional redundancy within the P. ostreatus MnP gene family, enabling compensation upon deficiency of one of its members. PMID:23377936

  15. Redundancy among Manganese Peroxidases in Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Salame, Tomer M.; Knop, Doriv; Levinson, Dana; Yarden, Oded

    2013-01-01

    Manganese peroxidases (MnPs) are key players in the ligninolytic system of white rot fungi. In Pleurotus ostreatus (the oyster mushroom) these enzymes are encoded by a gene family comprising nine members, mnp1 to -9 (mnp genes). Mn2+ amendment to P. ostreatus cultures results in enhanced degradation of recalcitrant compounds (such as the azo dye orange II) and lignin. In Mn2+-amended glucose-peptone medium, mnp3, mnp4, and mnp9 were the most highly expressed mnp genes. After 7 days of incubation, the time point at which the greatest capacity for orange II decolorization was observed, mnp3 expression and the presence of MnP3 in the extracellular culture fluids were predominant. To determine the significance of MnP3 for ligninolytic functionality in Mn2+-sufficient cultures, mnp3 was inactivated via the Δku80 strain-based P. ostreatus gene-targeting system. In Mn2+-sufficient medium, inactivation of mnp3 did not significantly affect expression of nontargeted MnPs or their genes, nor did it considerably diminish the fungal Mn2+-mediated orange II decolorization capacity, despite the significant reduction in total MnP activity. Similarly, inactivation of either mnp4 or mnp9 did not affect orange II decolorization ability. These results indicate functional redundancy within the P. ostreatus MnP gene family, enabling compensation upon deficiency of one of its members. PMID:23377936

  16. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the small subunit of the heterodimeric laccase POXA3b from Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Ferraroni, Marta; Scozzafava, Andrea; Ullah, Sana; Tron, Thierry; Piscitelli, Alessandra; Sannia, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Laccases are multicopper oxidases of great biotechnological potential. While laccases are generally monomeric glycoproteins, the white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus produces two closely related heterodimeric isoenzymes composed of a large subunit, homologous to the other fungal laccases, and a small subunit. The sequence of the small subunit does not show significant homology to any other protein or domain of known function and consequently its function is unknown. The highest similarity to proteins of known structure is to a putative enoyl-CoA hydratase/isomerase from Acinetobacter baumannii, which shows an identity of 27.8%. Diffraction-quality crystals of the small subunit of the heterodimeric laccase POXA3b (sPOXA3b) from P. ostreatus were obtained using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at 294 K from a solution consisting of 1.8 M sodium formate, 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.5. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P41212 or P43212, with unit-cell parameters a = 126.6, c = 53.9 Å. The asymmetric unit contains two molecules related by a noncrystallographic twofold axis. A complete data set extending to a maximum resolution of 2.5 Å was collected at 100 K using a wavelength of 1.140 Å. PMID:24419623

  17. Collection of Group Characteristics of Pleurotus Eryngii Using Machine Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunsheng; Wan, Changzhao; Yang, Juan; Chen, Jianlin; Yuan, Tao; Zhao, Jingyin

    An information collection system which was used to group characteristics of pleurotus eryngii was introduced. The group characteristics of pleurotus eryngii were quantified using machine vision in order to inspect and control the pleurotus eryngii house environment by an automated system. Its main contents include the following: collection of pleurotus eryngii image; image processing and pattern recognition. Finally, by analysing pleurotus eryngii image, the systems for group characteristics of pleurotus eryngii are proved to be greatly effective.

  18. Effect of fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) feeding on subsequent Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dark-winged fungus gnats in the genus Bradysia (Diptera: Sciaridae) and root rot pathogens in the genus Pythium (Oomycetes) are important pests of greenhouse floriculture. Observations have pointed to a possible correlation between Pythium root rot disease and fungus gnat infestations; however, inte...

  19. Aggregation and feeding behavior of the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) on wood decayed by three species of wood rot fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aggregation and feeding behavior of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, was evaluated on wood decayed by three species of fungus that use different enzymatic pathways to degrade lignocellulose, the brown rot fungus, Gloeophyllum trabeum and two white rot fungi, Phanero...

  20. [Phylogenetic analysis of Pleurotus species].

    PubMed

    Shnyreva, A A; Shnyreva, A V

    2015-02-01

    We performed phylogenetic analysis for ten Pleurotus species, based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of rDNA. A phylogenetic tree was constructed on the basis of 31 oyster fungi strains of different origin and 10 reference sequences from GenBank. Our analysis demonstrates that the tested Pleurotus species are of monophyletic origin. We evaluated the evolutionary distances between these species. Classic genetic analysis of sexual compatibility based on monocaryon (mon)-mon crosses showed no reproductive barriers within the P. cornucopiae-P. euosmus species complex. Thus, despite the divergence (subclustering) between commercial strains and natural isolates of P. ostreatus revealed by phylogenetic analysis, there is no reproductive isolation between these groups. A common allele of the matB locus was identified for the commercial strains Sommer and L/4, supporting the common origin of these strains. PMID:25966583

  1. Comparison of airborne multispectral and hyperspectral imagery for mapping cotton root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot, caused by the soilborne fungus, Phymatotrichum omnivorum, is a major cotton disease affecting cotton production in the southwestern and south central U.S. Accurate delineation of root rot infestations is necessary for cost-effective management of the disease. The objective of this s...

  2. First report of brown rot on apple fruit caused by Monilinia fructicola in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown rot, caused by Monilinia fructicola (G. Wint.) Honey, is the most devastating disease of stone fruits in North America resulting in significant economic losses. The fungus has been recently reported to cause pre and postharvest brown rot on apple fruit in Germany, Italy, and Serbia. However, M...

  3. Control of speck rot in apple fruit caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis with pre- and postharvest fungicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Speck rot caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis is a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus occurs in the orchard, but symptoms develop during storage. In this study, selected pre- and postharvest fungicides were evaluated for control of s...

  4. Preharvest applications of fungicides for control of Sphaeropsis rot in stored apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sphaeropsis rot caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens is a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple in Washington State and causes significant economic losses. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus occurs in the orchard, but decay symptoms develop during storage or in the market. The...

  5. Candidate genes associated with QTL controlling resistance to fusarium root rot in pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium root rot (FRR) of pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a serious pathogen in the USA and Europe and genetic resistance offers an effective and economical control for this pathogen. Fusarium root rot is caused by the fungus pathogen (Haematonectria haematococca (Berk. & Broome) (Anamorph): Fusarium sol...

  6. Soybean Seed Composition in Cultivars Differing in Resistance to Charcoal Rot (Macrophomina phaseolina)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L) Merr.] cultivars of maturity group (MG) IV were selected based on their susceptibility to charcoal rot disease caused by a soilborne fungus (Macrophomina phaseolina). Seed composition and nitrogen fixation in soybean has not been well investigated under charcoal rot infestat...

  7. Comparison of airborne multispectral and hyperspectral imagery for mapping cotton root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot caused by the soilborne fungus, Phymatotrichum omnivorum, is a major cotton disease affecting cotton production in the southwestern and south central U.S. Accurate delineation of root rot infestations is necessary for cost-effective management of the disease. The objective of this st...

  8. Monitoring cotton root rot progression within a growing season using airborne multispectral imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot, caused by the fungus Phymatotrichopsis omnivora, is a serious and destructive disease affecting cotton production in the southwestern United States. Accurate delineation of cotton root rot infections is important for cost-effective management of the disease. The objective of this st...

  9. Degradation of lignin in pulp mill wastewaters by white-rot fungi on biofilm.

    PubMed

    Wu, Juan; Xiao, Ya-Zhong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2005-08-01

    An investigation was conducted to explore the lignin-degrading capacity of attached-growth white-rot fungi. Five white-rot fungi, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, Lentinus edodes, Trametes versicolor and S22, grown on a porous plastic media, were individually used to treat black liquor from a pulp and paper mill. Over 71% of lignin and 48% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were removed from the wastewater. Several factors, including pH, concentrations of carbon, nitrogen and trace elements in wastewater, all had significant effects on the degradation of lignin and the removal of COD. Three white-rot fungi, P. chrysosporium, P. ostreatus and S22, showed high capacity for lignin degradation at pH 9.0-11.0. The addition of 1 g l-1 glucose and 0.2 g l-1 ammonium tartrate was beneficial for the degradation of lignin by the white-rot fungi studied. PMID:15792583

  10. BLACK ROOT ROT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black Root Rot Prepared by G. S. Abawi, Revised by L.E. Hanson Black root rot is caused by Thielaviopsis basicola (syn. Chalara elegans). The pathogen is widely distributed, can infect more than 130 plant species in 15 families, and causes severe black root rot diseases in ornamentals and crops suc...

  11. Effect of growth substrate, method of fermentation, and nitrogen source on lignocellulose-degrading enzymes production by white-rot basidiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Elisashvili, Vladimir; Kachlishvili, Eva; Penninckx, Michel

    2008-11-01

    The exploration of seven physiologically different white rot fungi potential to produce cellulase, xylanase, laccase, and manganese peroxidase (MnP) showed that the enzyme yield and their ratio in enzyme preparations significantly depends on the fungus species, lignocellulosic growth substrate, and cultivation method. The fruit residues were appropriate growth substrates for the production of hydrolytic enzymes and laccase. The highest endoglucanase (111 U ml(-1)) and xylanase (135 U ml(-1)) activities were revealed in submerged fermentation (SF) of banana peels by Pycnoporus coccineus. In the same cultivation conditions Cerrena maxima accumulated the highest level of laccase activity (7,620 U l(-1)). The lignified materials (wheat straw and tree leaves) appeared to be appropriate for the MnP secretion by majority basidiomycetes. With few exceptions, SF favored to hydrolases and laccase production by fungi tested whereas SSF was appropriate for the MnP accumulation. Thus, the Coriolopsis polyzona hydrolases activity increased more than threefold, while laccase yield increased 15-fold when tree leaves were undergone to SF instead SSF. The supplementation of nitrogen to the control medium seemed to have a negative effect on all enzyme production in SSF of wheat straw and tree leaves by Pleurotus ostreatus. In SF peptone and ammonium containing salts significantly increased C. polyzona and Trametes versicolor hydrolases and laccase yields. However, in most cases the supplementation of media with additional nitrogen lowered the fungi specific enzyme activities. Especially strong repression of T. versicolor MnP production was revealed. PMID:18716810

  12. Ground-based technologies for cotton root rot control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phymatotrichum, or cotton root rot (CRR), is a fungus currently affecting broadleaf crops including cotton in the southwestern U.S. and northern Mexico. The ability of CRR to lie dormant in the soil for several years tends to negate the effects of crop rotation, and it remains a problem for cotton...

  13. Visualization of the mycelia of wood-rotting fungi by fluorescence in situ hybridization using a peptide nucleic acid probe.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Yuji; Nakaba, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Hiroshi; Funada, Ryo; Yoshida, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    White rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and brown rot fungus, Postia placenta, grown on agar plates, were visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe. Mycelia grown on wood chips were also clearly detected by PNA-FISH following blocking treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the visualization of fungi in wood by FISH. PMID:23391931

  14. Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR

    SciTech Connect

    D`Souza, T.M.; Boominathan, K.; Reddy, C.A.

    1996-10-01

    Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequences of each of the PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Nutrition Requirements of Pleurotus flabellatus

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, H. C.; Bano, Zakia

    1970-01-01

    The mycelium of Pleurotus flabellatus was grown in a synthetic medium to obtain accurate information on its nutritional requirements. Among various carbon sources tried, the organism was found to utilize hexose sugars more readily than other sugars. Ammonium citrate was found to be the best source of nitrogen. The yield of dry matter increased as the concentration of nitrogen was increased up to a certain stage beyond which there was no increase in the yield, but the crude protein content of the mycelium increased. Detailed studies on the effect of varying the concentrations of other major nutrients, i.e., potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium, on the growth and crude protein content of the mycelium were also carried out. Optimal pH range was fairly broad, lying between 4.5 to 7.5. PMID:16349874

  16. Aflatoxin detoxification by manganese peroxidase purified from Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Yehia, Ramy Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Manganese peroxidase (MnP) was produced from white rot edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus on the culture filtrate. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity using (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, DEAE-Sepharose and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The final enzyme activity achieved 81 U mL−1, specific activity 78 U mg−1 with purification fold of 130 and recovery 1.2% of the crude enzyme. SDS-PAGE indicated that the pure enzyme have a molecular mass of approximately 42 kDa. The optimum pH was between 4–5 and the optimum temperature was 25 °C. The pure MnP activity was enhanced by Mn2+, Cu2+, Ca2+ and K+ and inhibited by Hg+2 and Cd+2. H2O2 at 5 mM enhanced MnP activity while at 10 mM inhibited it significantly. The MnP-cDNA encoding gene was sequenced and determined (GenBank accession no. AB698450.1). The MnP-cDNA was found to consist of 497 bp in an Open Reading Frame (ORF) encoding 165 amino acids. MnP from P. ostreatus could detoxify aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) depending on enzyme concentration and incubation period. The highest detoxification power (90%) was observed after 48 h incubation at 1.5 U mL−1 enzyme activities. PMID:24948923

  17. Nutritional Analysis of Cultivated Mushrooms in Bangladesh - Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus sajor-caju, Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Nuhu; Amin, Ruhul; Khan, Asaduzzaman; Ara, Ismot; Shim, Mi Ja; Lee, Min Woong

    2008-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation has been started recently in Bangladesh. Awareness of the nutritional and medicinal importance of mushrooms is not extensive. In this study, the nutritional values of dietary mushrooms- Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus sajorcaju, Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica that are very popular among the cultivated mushrooms in Bangladesh have been determined. These mushrooms were rich in proteins (20~25%) and fibers (13~24% in dry samples) and contained a lower amount of lipid (4 to 5%). The carbohydrate contents ranged from 37 to 48% (on the basis of dry weight). These were also rich in mineral contents (total ash content is 8~13%). The pileus and gills were protein and lipid rich and stripe was carbohydrate and fiber-rich. The moisture content of mushrooms ranged from 86 to 87.5%. Data of this study suggest that mushrooms are rich in nutritional value. PMID:23997631

  18. Isolation of Fungal Pathogens to an Edible Mushroom, Pleurotus eryngii, and Development of Specific ITS Primers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Kim, Sinil; Lee, Hyun-Jun; Park, Ju-Wan; Ro, Hyeon-Su

    2013-12-01

    Fungal pathogens have caused severe damage to the commercial production of Pleurotus eryngii, the king oyster mushroom, by reducing production yield, causing deterioration of commercial value, and shortening shelf-life. Four strains of pathogenic fungi, including Trichoderma koningiopsis DC3, Phomopsis sp. MP4, Mucor circinelloides MP5, and Cladosporium bruhnei MP6, were isolated from the bottle culture of diseased P. eryngii. A species-specific primer set was designed for each fungus from the ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 sequences. PCR using the ITS primer set yielded a unique DNA band for each fungus without any cross-reaction, proving the validity of our method in detection of mushroom fungal pathogens. PMID:24493949

  19. Isolation of Fungal Pathogens to an Edible Mushroom, Pleurotus eryngii, and Development of Specific ITS Primers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Kim, Sinil; Lee, Hyun-Jun; Park, Ju-Wan

    2013-01-01

    Fungal pathogens have caused severe damage to the commercial production of Pleurotus eryngii, the king oyster mushroom, by reducing production yield, causing deterioration of commercial value, and shortening shelf-life. Four strains of pathogenic fungi, including Trichoderma koningiopsis DC3, Phomopsis sp. MP4, Mucor circinelloides MP5, and Cladosporium bruhnei MP6, were isolated from the bottle culture of diseased P. eryngii. A species-specific primer set was designed for each fungus from the ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 sequences. PCR using the ITS primer set yielded a unique DNA band for each fungus without any cross-reaction, proving the validity of our method in detection of mushroom fungal pathogens. PMID:24493949

  20. Pythium Root Rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pythium root rot is a disease that is found in agricultural and nursery soils throughout the United States and Canada. It is caused by several Pythium species, and the symptoms are typified by leaf or needle chlorosis, stunting, root rot, and plant death. The disease is favored by wet soils, overc...

  1. Corky root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corky root rot (corchosis) was first reported in Argentina in 1985, but the disease was presumably present long before that. The disease occurs in most alfalfa-growing areas of Argentina but is more common in older stands. In space-planted alfalfa trials scored for root problems, corky root rot was ...

  2. Identification of Calonectria colhounii Associated with Basal Stem Rot on Blueberry Seedlings Imported from the United States of America

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Nak Beom; Kim, Wan Gyu; Park, Myung Soo; Hyun, Ik-Hwa; Heo, Noh-Youl

    2010-01-01

    Basal stem rot symptoms were found on blueberry seedlings imported from the United States of America in 2008. The fungus obtained from the diseased seedlings was identified as Calonectria colhounii based on morphological and molecular characteristics. The consignments of the blueberry seedlings infected with C. colhounii were destroyed to prevent introduction of the fungus to Korea. PMID:23956678

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of the Fungus Trametes hirsuta 072

    PubMed Central

    Tyazhelova, Tatiana V.; Moiseenko, Konstantin V.; Vasina, Daria V.; Mosunova, Olga V.; Fedorova, Tatiana V.; Maloshenok, Lilya G.; Landesman, Elena O.; Bruskin, Sergei A.; Psurtseva, Nadezhda V.; Slesarev, Alexei I.; Kozyavkin, Sergei A.; Koroleva, Olga V.

    2015-01-01

    A standard draft genome sequence of the white rot saprotrophic fungus Trametes hirsuta 072 (Basidiomycota, Polyporales) is presented. The genome sequence contains about 33.6 Mb assembled in 141 scaffolds with a G+C content of ~57.6%. The draft genome annotation predicts 14,598 putative protein-coding open reading frames (ORFs). PMID:26586872

  4. Lignocellulolytic enzyme production of Pleurotus ostreatus growth in agroindustrial wastes.

    PubMed

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Nunes, Mateus Dias; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Torres, Denise Pereira; de Cássia Soares da Silva, Marliane; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2012-10-01

    The mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus has nutritional and medicinal characteristics that depend on the growth substrate. In nature, this fungus grows on dead wood, but it can be artificially cultivated on agricultural wastes (coffee husks, eucalyptus sawdust, corncobs and sugar cane bagasse). The degradation of agricultural wastes involves some enzyme complexes made up of oxidative (laccase, manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase) and hydrolytic enzymes (cellulases, xylanases and tanases). Understanding how these enzymes work will help to improve the productivity of mushroom cultures and decrease the potential pollution that can be caused by inadequate discharge of the agroindustrial residues. The objective of this work was to assess the activity of the lignocellulolytic enzymes produced by two P. ostreatus strains (PLO 2 and PLO 6). These strains were used to inoculate samples of coffee husks, eucalyptus sawdust or eucalyptus bark add with or without 20 % rice bran. Every five days after substrate inoculation, the enzyme activity and soluble protein concentration were evaluated. The maximum activity of oxidative enzymes was observed at day 10 after inoculation, and the activity of the hydrolytic enzymes increased during the entire period of the experiment. The results show that substrate composition and colonization time influenced the activity of the lignocellulolytic enzymes. PMID:24031982

  5. An esterase from the basidiomycete Pleurotus sapidus hydrolyzes feruloylated saccharides.

    PubMed

    Linke, Diana; Matthes, Rene; Nimtz, Manfred; Zorn, Holger; Bunzel, Mirko; Berger, Ralf G

    2013-08-01

    Investigating the secretion of esterases by the basidiomycetous fungus Pleurotus sapidus in a Tween 80-rich nutrient medium, an enzyme was discovered that hydrolyzed the ester bond of feruloylated saccharides. The enzyme was purified by ion exchange and size exclusion chromatography. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed a monomeric protein of about 55 kDa. The complete coding sequence with an open reading frame of 1,665 bp encoded a protein (Est1) consisting of 554 amino acids. The enzyme showed no significant homology to any published feruloyl esterase sequences, but possessed putative conserved domains of the lipase/esterase superfamily. Substrate specificity studies classified the new enzyme as type-A feruloyl esterase, hydrolyzing methyl ferulate, methyl sinapate, and methyl p-coumarate but no methyl caffeate. The enzyme had a pH optimum of 6 and a temperature optimum at 50 °C. Ferulic acid was efficiently released from ferulated saccharides, and the feruloyl esterase exhibited moderate stability in biphasic systems (50 % toluene or tert-butylmethyl ether). PMID:23203636

  6. Lignocellulolytic enzyme production of Pleurotus ostreatus growth in agroindustrial wastes

    PubMed Central

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Nunes, Mateus Dias; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Torres, Denise Pereira; de Cássia Soares da Silva, Marliane; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2012-01-01

    The mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus has nutritional and medicinal characteristics that depend on the growth substrate. In nature, this fungus grows on dead wood, but it can be artificially cultivated on agricultural wastes (coffee husks, eucalyptus sawdust, corncobs and sugar cane bagasse). The degradation of agricultural wastes involves some enzyme complexes made up of oxidative (laccase, manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase) and hydrolytic enzymes (cellulases, xylanases and tanases). Understanding how these enzymes work will help to improve the productivity of mushroom cultures and decrease the potential pollution that can be caused by inadequate discharge of the agroindustrial residues. The objective of this work was to assess the activity of the lignocellulolytic enzymes produced by two P. ostreatus strains (PLO 2 and PLO 6). These strains were used to inoculate samples of coffee husks, eucalyptus sawdust or eucalyptus bark add with or without 20 % rice bran. Every five days after substrate inoculation, the enzyme activity and soluble protein concentration were evaluated. The maximum activity of oxidative enzymes was observed at day 10 after inoculation, and the activity of the hydrolytic enzymes increased during the entire period of the experiment. The results show that substrate composition and colonization time influenced the activity of the lignocellulolytic enzymes. PMID:24031982

  7. Feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization, ruminal condition and blood metabolites in wethers fed ground bamboo pellets cultured with white-rot fungus (Ceriporiopsis subvermispora) and mixed with soybean curd residue and soy sauce cake.

    PubMed

    Oguri, Michimasa; Okano, Kanji; Ieki, Hajime; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Tadokoro, Osamu; Sano, Yoshinori; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hajime

    2013-09-01

    Three types of bamboo pellets as a ruminant feed: P1 (ground bamboo (GB) cultured with the fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora (CGB) : soybean curd residue (T) : soy sauce cake (S) in a 5:4:1 ratio on a dry matter (DM) basis); P2 (GB : T : S = 5:4:1 on a DM basis); and P3 (CGB : T : S = 5.5:0.8:3.7 on a DM basis) were prepared. Four wethers were assigned in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate the applicability of the bamboo pellets. The experimental treatments were C (control): fed alfalfa hay cubes (AC) only, and T1, T2 and T3: fed P1, P2, and P3 with AC by 1:1 on a DM basis, respectively. The digestibility of the DM, organic matter and acid detergent fiber of P1 were significantly higher than those of P2 and P3 (P < 0.05). The total digestible nutrient (TDN) contents of AC, P1, P2 and P3 were 56.5%, 60.2%, 53.2% and 47.0%, respectively. No significant differences in nitrogen retention or ruminal pH and NH₃ were observed among the treatment groups. The results indicate that bamboo pellets cultured with C. subvermispora and mainly mixed with soybean curd residue improved nutritional quality of ground bamboo because of its high digestibility and TDN content. PMID:23607929

  8. Fungus Amongus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakeley, Deidra

    2005-01-01

    This role-playing simulation is designed to help teach middle level students about the typical lifecycle of a fungus. In this interactive simulation, students assume the roles of fungi, spores, living and dead organisms, bacteria, and rain. As they move around a playing field collecting food and water chips, they discover how the organisms…

  9. Production and Degradation of Oxalic Acid by Brown Rot Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Espejo, Eduardo; Agosin, Eduardo

    1991-01-01

    Our results show that all of the brown rot fungi tested produce oxalic acid in liquid as well as in semisolid cultures. Gloeophyllum trabeum, which accumulates the lowest amount of oxalic acid during decay of pine holocellulose, showed the highest polysaccharide-depolymerizing activity. Semisolid cultures inoculated with this fungus rapidly converted 14C-labeled oxalic acid to CO2 during cellulose depolymerization. The other brown rot fungi also oxidized 14C-labeled oxalic acid, although less rapidly. In contrast, semisolid cultures inoculated with the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor did not significantly catabolize the acid and did not depolymerize the holocellulose during decay. Semisolid cultures of G. trabeum amended with desferrioxamine, a specific iron-chelating agent, were unable to lower the degree of polymerization of cellulose or to oxidize 14C-labeled oxalic acid to the extent or at the rate that control cultures did. These results suggest that both iron and oxalic acid are involved in cellulose depolymerization by brown rot fungi. PMID:16348522

  10. Resistance mechanisms to toxin-mediated charcoal rot infection in maturity group III soybean: role of seed phenol lignin soflavones sugars and seed minerals in charcoal rot resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charcoal rot is a disease caused by the fungus Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, and thought to infect the plants through roots by a toxin-mediated mechanism, resulting in yield loss and poor seed quality, especially under drought conditions. The mechanism by which this infection occurs is not y...

  11. New sesquiterpenoids from the edible mushroom Pleurotus cystidiosus and their inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase and PTP1B.

    PubMed

    Tao, Qiao-Qiao; Ma, Ke; Bao, Li; Wang, Kai; Han, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Jin-Xia; Huang, Chen-Yang; Liu, Hong-Wei

    2016-06-01

    Nine new sesquiterpenoids, clitocybulol derivatives, clitocybulols G-O (1-9) and three known sesquiterpenoids, clitocybulols C-E (10-12), were isolated from the solid culture of the edible fungus Pleurotus cystidiosus. The structures of compounds 1-12 were determined by spectroscopic methods. The absolute configurations of compounds 1-9 were assigned via the circular dichroism (CD) data analysis. Compounds 1, 6 and 10 showed moderate inhibitory activity against protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) with IC50 values of 49.5, 38.1 and 36.0μM, respectively. PMID:27085303

  12. Monitoring cotton root rot progression within and across growing seasons using remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot, caused by the soilborne fungus Phymatotrichopsis omnivore Shear (Duggar), is one of the most destructive plant diseases occurring throughout the southwestern U.S. More recently, a fungicide, flutriafol, has been evaluated in Texas and was found to have the potential for controlling ...

  13. Influence of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium on the Severity of Strawberry Anthracnose Crown Rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium on the severity of anthracnose crown rot (causal fungus, Colletotrichum fragariae) was evaluated in three greenhouse studies. Strawberry plants were maintained under standard greenhouse conditions with one plant per 10 cm pot fertilized three tim...

  14. Evaluating spectral measures derived from airborne multispectral imagery for detecting cotton root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot, caused by the soilborne fungus Phymatotrichopsis omnivore, is one of the most destructive plant diseases occurring throughout the southwestern United States. This disease has plagued the cotton industry for more than 100 years, but effective practices for its control are still lacki...

  15. Evaluating unsupervised and supervised image classification methods for mapping cotton root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot, caused by the soilborne fungus Phymatotrichopsis omnivora, is one of the most destructive plant diseases occurring throughout the southwestern United States. This disease has plagued the cotton industry for over a century, but effective practices for its control are still lacking. R...

  16. Creating prescription maps from historical imagery for site-specific management of cotton root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot, caused by the soilborne fungus Phymatotrichopsis omnivore, is a severe plant disease that has affected cotton production for over a century. Recent research found that a commercial fungicide, Topguard (flutriafol), was able to control this disease. As a result, Topguard Terra Fungic...

  17. Seed treatment with live or dead Fusarium verticillioides equivalently reduces the severity of subsequent stalk rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a widely distributed fungus that can associate with maize as a deleterious pathogen and an advantageous endophyte. Here, we show that seed treatment with live F.verticillioides enhances maize resistance to secondary stalk rot infection, and demonstrate that dead F.vertici...

  18. A new postharvest fruit rot in apple and pear caused by Phacidium lacerum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During surveys for postharvest diseases of apples and pears, an unknown postharvest fruit rot was observed in Washington State. The disease appeared to originate from infection of the stem and calyx tissue of the fruit or wounds on the fruit. An unknown pycnidial fungus was consistently isolated fro...

  19. Species Identification and Variation in the North American Cranberry Fruit Rot Complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complex mixtures of pathogenic fungi cause cranberry fruit rot, with the contribution by any given fungus to the disease varying from bed to bed, cultivar to cultivar, season to season, and across regions. Furthermore, population variability within the individual fungal species across growing region...

  20. Diallel analysis of resistance to fusarium ear rot and fumonisin contamination in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Fusarium verticillioides infects maize ears and kernels, resulting in Fusarium ear rot disease, reduced grain yields, and contamination of grain with the mycotoxin fumonisin. Typical hybrid maize breeding programs involve selection for both favorable inbred and hybrid performance, and the...

  1. Biodegradation of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in liquid broth by brown-rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Perlatti, Bruno; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Fernandes, João Batista; Forim, Moacir Rossi

    2013-11-01

    Dioxins are a class of extremely hazardous molecules that might pose a threat to the environment. This work evaluated the microbial degradation of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4-TCDD), in liquid broth using three brown-rot fungi and one white-rot fungi as control. A fast and reliable extraction method with recoveries of over 98% together with a validated GC-MS method was developed, and applied to quantify 1,2,3,4-TCDD in liquid broth, mycelia and reaction flask, with detection limits of 10 ppb. Among the four strains tested, brown-rot fungus Aspergillus aculeatus showed best results, removing up to 21% of dioxin after 30-day incubation. The results open both a path for biotechnological interest in bioremediation purposes and environmental behavior studies by using brown-rot fungus. PMID:24080442

  2. Laccase isoenzymes of Pleurotus eryngii: characterization, catalytic properties, and participation in activation of molecular oxygen and Mn2+ oxidation.

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, C; Guillén, F; Martínez, A T; Martínez, M J

    1997-01-01

    Two laccase isoenzymes produced by Pleurotus eryngii were purified to electrophoretic homogeneity (42- and 43-fold) with an overall yield of 56.3%. Laccases I and II from this fungus are monomeric glycoproteins with 7 and 1% carbohydrate content, molecular masses (by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) of 65 and 61 kDa, and pIs of 4.1 and 4.2, respectively. The highest rate of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) oxidation for laccase I was reached at 65 degrees C and pH 4, and that for laccase II was reached at 55 degrees C and pH 3.5. Both isoenzymes are stable at high pH, retaining 60 to 70% activity after 24 h from pH 8 to 12. Their amino acid compositions and N-terminal sequences were determined, the latter strongly differing from those of laccases of other basidiomycetes. Antibodies against laccase I reacted with laccase II, as well as with laccases from Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus pulmonarius, and Pleurotus floridanus. Different hydroxy- and methoxy-substituted phenols and aromatic amines were oxidized by the two laccase isoenzymes from P. eryngii, and the influence of the nature, number, and disposition of aromatic-ring substituents on kinetic constants is discussed. Although both isoenzymes presented similar substrate affinities, the maximum rates of reactions catalyzed by laccase I were higher than those of laccase II. In reactions with hydroquinones, semiquinones produced by laccase isoenzymes were in part converted into quinones via autoxidation. The superoxide anion radical produced in the latter reaction dismutated, producing hydrogen peroxide. In the presence of manganous ion, the superoxide union was reduced to hydrogen peroxide with the concomitant production of manganic ion. These results confirmed that laccase in the presence of hydroquinones can participate in the production of both reduced oxygen species and manganic ions. PMID:9172335

  3. Enhanced bioprocessing of lignocellulose: Wood-rot fungal saccharification and fermentation of corn fiber to ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Prachand

    no improvement in ethanol yields. We showed that saccharification of lignocellulosic material with a wood-rot fungal process is quite feasible. Corn fiber from wet milling was best degraded to sugars using aerobic solid state fermentation with the soft-rot fungus T. reesei. However, it was shown that both the white-rot fungus P. chrysosporium and brown-rot fungus G. trabeum had the ability to produce additional consortia of hemi/cellulose degrading enzymes. It is likely that a consortium of enzymes from these fungi would be the best approach in saccharification of lignocellulose. In all cases, a subsequent anaerobic yeast process under submerged conditions is required to ferment the released sugars to ethanol. To our knowledge, this is the first time report on production of cellulolytic enzymes from wet-milled corn fiber using white- and brown-rot fungi for sequential fermentation of corn fiber hydrolyzate to ethanol. Keywords: lignocellulose, ethanol, biofuel, bioeconomy, biomass, renewable resources, corn fiber, pretreatment, solid-substrate fermentation, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), white-rot fungus, brown-rot fungus, soft-rot fungus, fermentable sugars, enzyme activities, cellulytic enzymes Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Gloleophyllum trabeum, Trichoderma reesei, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  4. Comparative examination of the olive mill wastewater biodegradation process by various wood-rot macrofungi.

    PubMed

    Koutrotsios, Georgios; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2014-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) constitutes a major cause of environmental pollution in olive-oil producing regions. Sixty wood-rot macrofungi assigned in 43 species were evaluated for their efficacy to colonize solidified OMW media at initially established optimal growth temperatures. Subsequently eight strains of the following species were qualified: Abortiporus biennis, Ganoderma carnosum, Hapalopilus croceus, Hericium erinaceus, Irpex lacteus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus djamor, and P. pulmonarius. Fungal growth in OMW (25%v/v in water) resulted in marked reduction of total phenolic content, which was significantly correlated with the effluent's decolorization. A. biennis was the best performing strain (it decreased phenolics by 92% and color by 64%) followed by P. djamor and I. lacteus. Increase of plant seeds germination was less pronounced evidencing that phenolics are only partly responsible for OMW's phytotoxicity. Laccase production was highly correlated with all three biodegradation parameters for H. croceus, Ph. chrysosporium, and Pleurotus spp., and so were manganese-independent and manganese dependent peroxidases for A. biennis and I. lacteus. Monitoring of enzymes with respect to biomass production indicated that Pleurotus spp., H. croceus, and Ph. chrysosporium shared common patterns for all three activities. Moreover, generation of enzymes at the early biodegradation stages enhanced the efficiency of OMW treatment. PMID:24987685

  5. Comparative Examination of the Olive Mill Wastewater Biodegradation Process by Various Wood-Rot Macrofungi

    PubMed Central

    Koutrotsios, Georgios; Zervakis, Georgios I.

    2014-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) constitutes a major cause of environmental pollution in olive-oil producing regions. Sixty wood-rot macrofungi assigned in 43 species were evaluated for their efficacy to colonize solidified OMW media at initially established optimal growth temperatures. Subsequently eight strains of the following species were qualified: Abortiporus biennis, Ganoderma carnosum, Hapalopilus croceus, Hericium erinaceus, Irpex lacteus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus djamor, and P. pulmonarius. Fungal growth in OMW (25%v/v in water) resulted in marked reduction of total phenolic content, which was significantly correlated with the effluent's decolorization. A. biennis was the best performing strain (it decreased phenolics by 92% and color by 64%) followed by P. djamor and I. lacteus. Increase of plant seeds germination was less pronounced evidencing that phenolics are only partly responsible for OMW's phytotoxicity. Laccase production was highly correlated with all three biodegradation parameters for H. croceus, Ph. chrysosporium, and Pleurotus spp., and so were manganese-independent and manganese dependent peroxidases for A. biennis and I. lacteus. Monitoring of enzymes with respect to biomass production indicated that Pleurotus spp., H. croceus, and Ph. chrysosporium shared common patterns for all three activities. Moreover, generation of enzymes at the early biodegradation stages enhanced the efficiency of OMW treatment. PMID:24987685

  6. An extracellular carboxylesterase from the basidiomycete Pleurotus sapidus hydrolyses xanthophyll esters.

    PubMed

    Zorn, Holger; Bouws, Henning; Takenberg, Meike; Nimtz, Manfred; Getzlaff, Rita; Breithaupt, Dietmar E; Berger, Ralf G

    2005-05-01

    An extracellular enzyme capable of efficient hydrolysis of xanthophyll esters was purified from culture supernatants of the basidiomycete Pleurotus sapidus. Under native conditions, the enzyme exhibited a molecular mass of 430 kDa, and SDS-PAGE data suggested a composition of eight identical subunits. Biochemical characterisation of the purified protein showed an isoelectric point of 4.5, and ideal hydrolysis conditions were observed at pH 5.8 and 40 degrees C. Partial amino acid sequences were derived from N-terminal Edman degradation and from mass spectrometric ab initio sequencing of internal peptides. An 1861-bp cDNA containing an open reading frame of 1641 bp was cloned from a cDNA library that showed ca. 40% homology to Candida rugosa lipases. The P. sapidus carboxylesterase represents the first enzyme of the lipase/esterase family from a basidiomycetous fungus that has been characterised at the molecular level. PMID:15927887

  7. Identification of the nucleophile catalytic residue of GH51 α-l-arabinofuranosidase from Pleurotus ostreatus

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Amore, Antonella; Iadonisi, Alfonso; Vincent, Florence; Faraco, Vincenza

    2015-12-21

    In this paper, the recombinant α-l-arabinofuranosidase from the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus (rPoAbf) was subjected to site-directed mutagenesis in order to identify the catalytic nucleophile residue. Based on bioinformatics and homology modelling analyses, E449 was revealed to be the potential nucleophilic residue. Thus, the mutant E449G of PoAbf was recombinantly expressed in Pichia pastoris and its recombinant expression level and reactivity were investigated in comparison to the wild-type. The design of a suitable set of hydrolysis experiments in the presence or absence of alcoholic arabinosyl acceptors and/or formate salts allowed to unambiguously identify the residue E449 as the nucleophile residue involvedmore » in the retaining mechanism of this GH51 arabinofuranosidase. 1H NMR analysis was applied for the identification of the products and the assignement of their anomeric configuration.« less

  8. Enhanced green fluorescent protein expression in Pleurotus ostreatus for in vivo analysis of fungal laccase promoters.

    PubMed

    Amore, Antonella; Honda, Yoichi; Faraco, Vincenza

    2012-10-01

    The laccase family of Pleurotus ostreatus has been widely characterized, and studies of the genes coding for laccase isoenzymes in P. ostreatus have so far led to the identification of four different genes and the corresponding cDNAs, poxc, pox1, poxa1b and poxa3. Analyses of P. ostreatus laccase promoters poxc, pox1, poxa1b and poxa3 have allowed identification of several putative response elements, and sequences of metal-responsive elements involved in the formation of complexes with fungal proteins have been identified in poxc and poxa1b promoters. In this work, development of a system for in vivo analysis of P. ostreatus laccase promoter poxc by enhanced green fluorescent protein expression is performed, based on a poly ethylene glycol-mediated procedure for fungal transformation. A quantitative measurement of fluorescence expressed in P. ostreatus transformants is hereby reported for the first time for this fungus. PMID:22893518

  9. Ostreopexin: a hemopexin fold protein from the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Ota, Katja; Mikelj, Miha; Papler, Tadeja; Leonardi, Adrijana; Križaj, Igor; Maček, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Proteins with hemopexin repeats are widespread in viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We report here for the first time the existence of a protein in fungi with the four-bladed β-propeller fold that is typical for hemopexin-like proteins. This protein was isolated from the edible basidiomycetous fungus Pleurotus ostreatus and is named ostreopexin. It binds to Ni(2+)-NTA-agarose, and is structurally and functionally very similar to PA2 albumins isolated from legume seeds and the hemopexin fold protein from rice. Like these plant proteins, ostreopexin shows reversible binding to hemin with moderate affinity, but does not bind to polyamines. We suggest that ostreopexin participates in intracellular management of metal (II or III)-chelates. PMID:23567905

  10. Identification of the nucleophile catalytic residue of GH51 α-L-arabinofuranosidase from Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Amore, Antonella; Iadonisi, Alfonso; Vincent, Florence; Faraco, Vincenza

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the recombinant α-L-arabinofuranosidase from the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus (rPoAbf) was subjected to site-directed mutagenesis in order to identify the catalytic nucleophile residue. Based on bioinformatics and homology modelling analyses, E449 was revealed to be the potential nucleophilic residue. Thus, the mutant E449G of PoAbf was recombinantly expressed in Pichia pastoris and its recombinant expression level and reactivity were investigated in comparison to the wild-type. The design of a suitable set of hydrolysis experiments in the presence or absence of alcoholic arabinosyl acceptors and/or formate salts allowed to unambiguously identify the residue E449 as the nucleophile residue involved in the retaining mechanism of this GH51 arabinofuranosidase. (1)H NMR analysis was applied for the identification of the products and the assignement of their anomeric configuration. PMID:26690659

  11. Environmental conditions modulate the switch among different states of the hydrophobin Vmh2 from Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Longobardi, Sara; Picone, Delia; Ercole, Carmine; Spadaccini, Roberta; De Stefano, Luca; Rea, Ilaria; Giardina, Paola

    2012-03-12

    Fungal hydrophobins are amphipathic, highly surface-active, and self-assembling proteins. The class I hydrophobin Vmh2 from the basidiomycete fungus Pleurotus ostreatus seems to be the most hydrophobic hydrophobin characterized so far. Structural and functional properties of the protein as a function of the environmental conditions have been determined. At least three distinct phenomena can occur, being modulated by the environmental conditions: (1) when the pH increases or in the presence of Ca(2+) ions, an assembled state, β-sheet rich, is formed; (2) when the solvent polarity increases, the protein shows an increased tendency to reach hydrophobic/hydrophilic interfaces, with no detectable conformational change; and (3) when a reversible conformational change and reversible aggregation occur at high temperature. Modulation of the Vmh2 conformational/aggregation features by changing the environmental conditions can be very useful in view of the potential protein applications. PMID:22292968

  12. Bioactive modification of silicon surface using self-assembled hydrophobins from Pleurotus ostreatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Stefano, L.; Rea, I.; de Tommasi, E.; Rendina, I.; Rotiroti, L.; Giocondo, M.; Longobardi, S.; Armenante, A.; Giardina, P.

    2009-10-01

    A crystalline silicon surface can be made biocompatible and chemically stable by a self-assembled biofilm of proteins, the hydrophobins (HFBs) purified from the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. The protein-modified silicon surface shows an improvement in wettability and is suitable for immobilization of other proteins. Two different proteins were successfully immobilized on the HFBs-coated chips: the bovine serum albumin and an enzyme, a laccase, which retains its catalytic activity even when bound on the chip. Variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE), water contact angle (WCA), and fluorescence measurements demonstrated that the proposed approach in silicon surface bioactivation is a feasible strategy for the fabrication of a new class of hybrid devices.

  13. Cylindrocarpon root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cylindrocarpon root rot of alfalfa has been found sporadically in Canada and the northern United States. The etiology of this disease is not fully understood, but the priority for research has not been high because of its infrequent occurrence. The infected area of the root initially has a water-soa...

  14. Inactivation of a Pleurotus ostreatus versatile peroxidase-encoding gene (mnp2) results in reduced lignin degradation.

    PubMed

    Salame, Tomer M; Knop, Doriv; Levinson, Dana; Mabjeesh, Sameer J; Yarden, Oded; Hadar, Yitzhak

    2014-01-01

    Lignin biodegradation by white-rot fungi is pivotal to the earth's carbon cycle. Manganese peroxidases (MnPs), the most common extracellular ligninolytic peroxidases produced by white-rot fungi, are considered key in ligninolysis. Pleurotus ostreatus, the oyster mushroom, is a preferential lignin degrader occupying niches rich in lignocellulose such as decaying trees. Here, we provide direct, genetically based proof for the functional significance of MnP to P. ostreatus ligninolytic capacity under conditions mimicking its natural habitat. When grown on a natural lignocellulosic substrate of cotton stalks under solid-state culture conditions, gene and isoenzyme expression profiles of its short MnP and versatile peroxidase (VP)-encoding gene family revealed that mnp2 was predominately expressed. mnp2, encoding the versatile short MnP isoenzyme 2 was disrupted. Inactivation of mnp2 resulted in three interrelated phenotypes, relative to the wild-type strain: (i) reduction of 14% and 36% in lignin mineralization of stalks non-amended and amended with Mn(2+), respectively; (ii) marked reduction of the bioconverted lignocellulose sensitivity to subsequent bacterial hydrolyses; and (iii) decrease in fungal respiration rate. These results may serve as the basis to clarify the roles of the various types of fungal MnPs and VPs in their contribution to white-rot decay of wood and lignocellulose in various ecosystems. PMID:24119015

  15. Soft Rot of Tomato Caused by Mucor racemosus in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2005-12-01

    A soft rot of fruits caused by Mucor racemosus occurred on cherry tomato collected in Agricultural Products Wholesale Market in Jinju, Korea. The disease infection usually occurred wounded areas after cracking of fruits. At first, the lesions started with water soaked and rapidly softened and diseased lesion gradually expanded. Colonies were white to brownish to gray in color. Sporangia were 32~54 µm in size and globose in shape. Sporangiophores were 8~14 µm in width. Sporangiospores were 5~12 × 4~8 µm in size, ellipsoidal to subglobose in shape. Columella was 27~42 µm in size, obovoid, ellipsoidal, cylindrical-ellipsoidal, slightly pyriform in shape. Chlamydospores were numerous in sporangiophores and barrelshaped when young, subglobose in old cultures. Optimum growth temperature was about 25℃. The fungus was identified as M. racemosus Fres. This is the first report of soft rot on cherry tomato caused by M. racemosus in Korea. PMID:24049508

  16. Microbial based pretreatment of corn stover by white rot fungus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pretreatment, as the first step towards conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks to ethanol, makes up one-third of the total production costs and remains one of the main barriers to commercial success. Typically, harsh methods are used to pretreat lignocellulosic biomass prior to its breakdown to s...

  17. Disease notes - Bacterial root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial root rot initiated by lactic acid bacteria, particularly Leuconostoc, occurs every year in Idaho sugarbeet fields. Hot fall weather seems to make the problem worse. Although Leuconostoc initiates the rot, other bacteria and yeast frequently invade the tissue as well. The acetic acid bac...

  18. Relationship between Monokaryotic Growth Rate and Mating Type in the Edible Basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Larraya, Luis M.; Pérez, Gúmer; Iribarren, Iñaki; Blanco, Juan A.; Alfonso, Mikel; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Ramírez, Lucía

    2001-01-01

    The edible fungus Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) is an industrially produced heterothallic homobasidiomycete whose mating is controlled by a bifactorial tetrapolar genetic system. Two mating loci (matA and matB) control different steps of hyphal fusion, nuclear migration, and nuclear sorting during the onset and progress of the dikaryotic growth. Previous studies have shown that the segregation of the alleles present at the matB locus differs from that expected for a single locus because (i) new nonparental B alleles appeared in the progeny and (ii) there was a distortion in the segregation of the genomic regions close to this mating locus. In this study, we pursued these observations by using a genetic approach based on the identification of molecular markers linked to the matB locus that allowed us to dissect it into two genetically linked subunits (matBα and matBβ) and to correlate the presence of specific matBα and matA alleles with differences in monokaryotic growth rate. The availability of these molecular markers and the mating type dependence of growth rate in monokaryons can be helpful for marker-assisted selection of fast-growing monokaryons to be used in the construction of dikaryons able to colonize the substrate faster than the competitors responsible for reductions in the industrial yield of this fungus. PMID:11472908

  19. Diffusional and transcriptional mechanisms involved in laccases production by Pleurotus ostreatus CP50.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alejandre, Karen I; Flores, Noemí; Tinoco-Valencia, Raunel; Caro, Mario; Flores, Celia; Galindo, Enrique; Serrano-Carreón, Leobardo

    2016-04-10

    The independent effects of hydrodynamic stress (assessed as the Energy Dissipation/Circulation Function, EDCF) and dissolved oxygen tension (DOT) on the growth, morphology and laccase production by Pleurotus ostreatus CP50 were studied using a 3(2) factorial design in a 10L reactor. A bell-shape function for fungus growth between 8 and 22% DOT was observed, as well as a significant negative effect on laccase production and the expression of poxc, the gene encoding for the most abundant laccase produced by P. ostreatus CP50. Increasing EDCF from 1 to 21 kW/m(3)s, had a positive effect on fungus growth, whereas no effect on poxc gene expression was observed. However, the increase in EDCF favored the specific laccase production due to the generation of smaller pellets with less diffusional limitations and increased metabolically active biomass. The results show, for the first time, that hydrodynamic effects on growth and laccase production are mainly physical and diffusional, while the influence of the dissolved oxygen is at transcriptional level. PMID:26924241

  20. Hazardous waste treatment using fungus enters marketplace

    SciTech Connect

    Illman, D.L.

    1993-07-01

    When the announcement was made eight years ago that a common fungus had been found that could degrade a variety of environmental pollutants, the news stirred interest in the scientific community, the private sector, and the general public. Here was the promise of a new technology that might be effective and economical in treating hazardous waste, especially the most recalcitrant of toxic pollutants. Today, commercialization is beginning amid a mixture of optimism and skepticism. The organism in question is white rot fungus, or Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and it belongs to a family of woodrotting fungi common all over North America. The fungi secrete enzymes that break down lignin in wood to carbon dioxide and water--a process called mineralization. These lignin-degrading enzymes are not very discriminating, however. The white rot fungi have been shown to degrade such materials as DDT, the herbicide (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4,5-T), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentachlorophenol (PCP), creosote, coal tars, and heavy fuels, in many cases mineralizing these pollutants to a significant extent.

  1. Developmental and Metabolic Plasticity of White-Skinned Grape Berries in Response to Botrytis cinerea during Noble Rot1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Thomas S.; Vicente, Ariel R.; Doyle, Carolyn L.; Ye, Zirou; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2015-01-01

    Noble rot results from exceptional infections of ripe grape (Vitis vinifera) berries by Botrytis cinerea. Unlike bunch rot, noble rot promotes favorable changes in grape berries and the accumulation of secondary metabolites that enhance wine grape composition. Noble rot-infected berries of cv Sémillon, a white-skinned variety, were collected over 3 years from a commercial vineyard at the same time that fruit were harvested for botrytized wine production. Using an integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that noble rot alters the metabolism of cv Sémillon berries by inducing biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as ripening processes. During noble rot, B. cinerea induced the expression of key regulators of ripening-associated pathways, some of which are distinctive to the normal ripening of red-skinned cultivars. Enhancement of phenylpropanoid metabolism, characterized by a restricted flux in white-skinned berries, was a common outcome of noble rot and red-skinned berry ripening. Transcript and metabolite analyses together with enzymatic assays determined that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a consistent hallmark of noble rot in cv Sémillon berries. The biosynthesis of terpenes and fatty acid aroma precursors also increased during noble rot. We finally characterized the impact of noble rot in botrytized wines. Altogether, the results of this work demonstrated that noble rot causes a major reprogramming of berry development and metabolism. This desirable interaction between a fruit and a fungus stimulates pathways otherwise inactive in white-skinned berries, leading to a greater accumulation of compounds involved in the unique flavor and aroma of botrytized wines. PMID:26450706

  2. Molecular polymorphism and phenotypic diversity in the generalist, wood-decay fungus Eutypa lata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pathogen adaptation to different ecological niches can lead to host specialization and, when coupled with reproductive isolation, ecological speciation. We tested the hypothesis of host specialization in northern California populations of the fungus Eutypa lata, which causes a soft-rot wood decay in...

  3. Effects of host physiology on the development of core rot, caused by alternaria alternata, in Red Delicious apples.

    PubMed

    Shtienberg, D

    2012-08-01

    Alternaria alternata is the predominant fungus involved in moldy core and core rot of Red Delicious apples. The effects of environmental conditions during bloom on moldy core and core rot, and on the need for fungicide application, were examined in 10 experiments carried out in 2007. In untreated experimental plots, typical moldy core symptoms were very common, with relatively low variability (coefficient of variation: 22.2%) among experiments; core rot incidence ranged from 2 to 26% with large variability (coefficient of variation: 90.0%) among experiments. No evidence of prevailing environmental conditions during bloom affecting the development of moldy core or core rot was detected. No effect of fungicide application (a mixture of bromuconazole + captan three times a week at bloom) on moldy core or core rot was found. A random distribution of moldy core and an occasional aggregation of core rot in the orchards were indicated from Morisita's index of dispersion (I(δ)). The hypothesis that core rot incidence is governed by host physiology and that yield load can be used as an indicator of trees' susceptibility was examined in a set of eight observations and four experiments. No correlation was found between tree yield load and moldy core, but core rot incidence was inversely related to yield load. Furthermore, irrespective of tree yield load, core rot was more abundant on large compared with small fruits. It is concluded that host physiology, rather than pathogen occurrence or environmental conditions at bloom stage, governs the development of core rot in Red Delicious apples caused by A. alternata in Israel. PMID:22624774

  4. Evaluation of sugar-cane vinasse treated with Pleurotus sajor-caju utilizing aquatic organisms as toxicological indicators.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luiz F Romanholo; Aguiar, Mario M; Messias, Tamara G; Pompeu, Georgia B; Lopez, Ana M Queijeiro; Silva, Daniel P; Monteiro, Regina T

    2011-01-01

    Toxicity tests with aquatic organisms constitute an effective tool in the evaluation, prediction and detection of the potential effect of pollutants from environmental samples in living organisms. Vinasse, a highly colored effluent, is a sub-product rich in nutrients, mainly organic matter, with high pollutant potential when disposed in the environment. Assays for vinasse decolorization were performed using the fungus Pleurotus sajor-caju CCB020 in vinasse biodegradation study, were occurred reductions of 82.8% in COD, 75.3% in BOD, 99.2% in the coloration and 99.7% in turbidity. The vinasse toxicity reduction was determined by the exposition to the following organisms: Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Daphnia magna, Daphnia similis and Hydra attenuata. This work concluded that the systematic combination of P. sajor-caju and vinasse can be applied in the bioprocess of color reduction and degradation of complex vinasse compounds, with reduction in the toxicity and improving its physical-chemical properties. PMID:20843550

  5. Identification of the nucleophile catalytic residue of GH51 α-l-arabinofuranosidase from Pleurotus ostreatus

    SciTech Connect

    Amore, Antonella; Iadonisi, Alfonso; Vincent, Florence; Faraco, Vincenza

    2015-12-21

    In this paper, the recombinant α-l-arabinofuranosidase from the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus (rPoAbf) was subjected to site-directed mutagenesis in order to identify the catalytic nucleophile residue. Based on bioinformatics and homology modelling analyses, E449 was revealed to be the potential nucleophilic residue. Thus, the mutant E449G of PoAbf was recombinantly expressed in Pichia pastoris and its recombinant expression level and reactivity were investigated in comparison to the wild-type. The design of a suitable set of hydrolysis experiments in the presence or absence of alcoholic arabinosyl acceptors and/or formate salts allowed to unambiguously identify the residue E449 as the nucleophile residue involved in the retaining mechanism of this GH51 arabinofuranosidase. 1H NMR analysis was applied for the identification of the products and the assignement of their anomeric configuration.

  6. Solubilization and Mineralization of Lignin by White Rot Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, C. David; Kropp, Bradley R.; Reid, Ian D.

    1992-01-01

    The white rot fungi Lentinula edodes, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus sajor-caju, Flammulina velutipes, and Schizophyllum commune were grown in liquid media containing 14C-lignin-labelled wood, and the formation of water-soluble 14C-labelled products and 14CO2, the growth of the fungi, and the activities of extracellular lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and laccase were measured. Conditions that affect the rate of lignin degradation were imposed, and both long-term (0- to 16-day) and short-term (0- to 72-h) effects on the production of the two types of product and on the activities of the enzymes were monitored. The production of 14CO2-labelled products from the aqueous ones was also investigated. The short-term studies showed that the different conditions had different effects on the production of the two products and on the activities of the enzymes. Nitrogen sources inhibited the production of both products by all species when differences in growth could be discounted. Medium pH and manganese affected lignin degradation by the different species differently. With P. chrysosporium, the results were consistent, with lignin peroxidase playing a role in lignin solubilization and manganese peroxidase being important in subsequent CO2 production. PMID:16348781

  7. Production of ligninolytic enzymes by white rot fungi on lignocellulosic wastes using novel pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Pandey, A K; Vishwakarma, S K; Srivastava, A K; Pandey, V K; Agrawal, S; Singh, M P

    2014-01-01

    Production of extracellular ligninolytic enzymes (laccase and polyphenol oxidase) secreted by three species of white rot fungi (Pleurotus florida, P. flabellatus and P. sajor—caju) under in vivo condition was studied on two lignocellulosic substrates i.e., paddy straw and wheat straw. These lignocellulosic substrates were treated with neem (Azadirachta indica) oil and ashoka (Saraca indica) leaves extract. Between the two lignocellulosic substrates, paddy straw pretreated with neem oil supported maximum activity of laccase and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). The activities of both the enzymes were low on the 5th day of cultivation which increased on the 10th day and reached at peak on the 15th day. Thereafter, there was continuous decrease in the enzymatic activity. Among the three species, P. flabellatus (P3) showed maximum ligninolytic enzymatic activity followed by P. florida (P2)and P. sajor—caju (P1). PMID:25535711

  8. Iron bioaccumulation in mycelium of Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Sandra M; Umeo, Suzana H; Marcante, Rafael C; Yokota, Meire E; Valle, Juliana S; Dragunski, Douglas C; Colauto, Nelson B; Linde, Giani A

    2015-03-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is able to bioaccumulate several metals in its cell structures; however, there are no reports on its capacity to bioaccumulate iron. The objective of this study was to evaluate cultivation variables to increase iron bioaccumulation in P. ostreatus mycelium. A full factorial design and a central composite design were utilized to evaluate the effect of the following variables: nitrogen and carbon sources, pH and iron concentration in the solid culture medium to produce iron bioaccumulated in mycelial biomass. The maximum production of P. ostreatus mycelial biomass was obtained with yeast extract at 2.96 g of nitrogen L (-1) and glucose at 28.45 g L (-1) . The most important variable to bioaccumulation was the iron concentration in the cultivation medium. Iron concentration at 175 mg L (-1) or higher in the culture medium strongly inhibits the mycelial growth. The highest iron concentration in the mycelium was 3500 mg kg (-1) produced with iron addition of 300 mg L (-1) . The highest iron bioaccumulation in the mycelium was obtained in culture medium with 150 mg L (-1) of iron. Iron bioaccumulation in P. ostreatus mycelium is a potential alternative to produce non-animal food sources of iron. PMID:26221108

  9. Iron bioaccumulation in mycelium of Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Sandra M.; Umeo, Suzana H.; Marcante, Rafael C.; Yokota, Meire E.; Valle, Juliana S.; Dragunski, Douglas C.; Colauto, Nelson B.; Linde, Giani A.

    2015-01-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is able to bioaccumulate several metals in its cell structures; however, there are no reports on its capacity to bioaccumulate iron. The objective of this study was to evaluate cultivation variables to increase iron bioaccumulation in P. ostreatus mycelium. A full factorial design and a central composite design were utilized to evaluate the effect of the following variables: nitrogen and carbon sources, pH and iron concentration in the solid culture medium to produce iron bioaccumulated in mycelial biomass. The maximum production of P. ostreatus mycelial biomass was obtained with yeast extract at 2.96 g of nitrogen L −1 and glucose at 28.45 g L −1 . The most important variable to bioaccumulation was the iron concentration in the cultivation medium. Iron concentration at 175 mg L −1 or higher in the culture medium strongly inhibits the mycelial growth. The highest iron concentration in the mycelium was 3500 mg kg −1 produced with iron addition of 300 mg L −1 . The highest iron bioaccumulation in the mycelium was obtained in culture medium with 150 mg L −1 of iron. Iron bioaccumulation in P. ostreatus mycelium is a potential alternative to produce non-animal food sources of iron. PMID:26221108

  10. 7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action. Although stem rot results from bacterial action, it is inactive in cured...