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Sample records for rotator cuff surgery

  1. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the

  2. Rotator cuff problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... painting and carpentry Poor posture over many years Aging Rotator cuff tears TEARS Rotator cuff tears may ... joint x-ray ( arthrogram ), the doctor injects contrast material (dye) into the shoulder joint. Then an x- ...

  3. Rotator Cuff Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... They include tendinitis, bursitis, and injuries such as tears. Rotator cuff tendons can become inflamed from frequent use or aging. ... can also damage the rotator cuff. Aging causes tendons to wear down, which can lead to a tear. Some tears are not painful, but others can ...

  4. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of open and arthroscopic rotator cuff repair [the UK Rotator Cuff Surgery (UKUFF) randomised trial].

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Andrew J; Cooper, Cushla D; Campbell, Marion K; Rees, Jonathan L; Moser, Jane; Beard, David J; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Gray, Alastair; Dawson, Jill; Murphy, Jacqueline; Bruhn, Hanne; Cooper, David; Ramsay, Craig R

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Uncertainty exists regarding the best management of patients with degenerative tears of the rotator cuff. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of arthroscopic and open rotator cuff repair in patients aged ≥ 50 years with degenerative rotator cuff tendon tears. DESIGN Two parallel-group randomised controlled trial. SETTING Nineteen teaching and district general hospitals in the UK. PARTICIPANTS Patients (n = 273) aged ≥ 50 years with degenerative rotator cuff tendon tears. INTERVENTIONS Arthroscopic surgery and open rotator cuff repair, with surgeons using their usual and preferred method of arthroscopic or open repair. Follow-up was by telephone questionnaire at 2 and 8 weeks after surgery and by postal questionnaire at 8, 12 and 24 months after randomisation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) at 24 months was the primary outcome measure. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of the shoulder was made at 12 months after surgery to assess the integrity of the repair. RESULTS The mean OSS improved from 26.3 [standard deviation (SD) 8.2] at baseline to 41.7 (SD 7.9) at 24 months for arthroscopic surgery and from 25.0 (SD 8.0) at baseline to 41.5 (SD 7.9) at 24 months for open surgery. When effect sizes are shown for the intervention, a negative sign indicates that an open procedure is favoured. For the intention-to-treat analysis, there was no statistical difference between the groups, the difference in OSS score at 24 months was -0.76 [95% confidence interval (CI) -2.75 to 1.22; p = 0.452] and the CI excluded the predetermined clinically important difference in the OSS of 3 points. There was also no statistical difference when the groups were compared per protocol (difference in OSS score -0.46, 95% CI -5.30 to 4.39; p = 0.854). The questionnaire response rate was > 86%. At 8 months, 77% of participants reported that shoulder problems were much or slightly better, and at 24 months this increased to 85%. There were no significant differences in mean cost between the arthroscopic group and the open repair group for any of the component resource-use categories, nor for the total follow-up costs at 24 months. The overall treatment cost at 2 years was £2567 (SD £176) for arthroscopic surgery and £2699 (SD £149) for open surgery, according to intention-to-treat analysis. For the per-protocol analysis there was a significant difference in total initial procedure-related costs between the arthroscopic group and the open repair group, with arthroscopic repair being more costly by £371 (95% CI £135 to £607). Total quality-adjusted life-years accrued at 24 months averaged 1.34 (SD 0.05) in the arthroscopic repair group and 1.35 (SD 0.05) in the open repair group, a non-significant difference of 0.01 (95% CI -0.11 to 0.10). The rate of re-tear was not significantly different across the randomised groups (46.4% and 38.6% for arthroscopic and open surgery, respectively). The participants with tears that were impossible to repair had the lowest OSSs, the participants with re-tears had slightly higher OSSs and the participants with healed repairs had the most improved OSSs. These findings were the same when analysed per protocol. CONCLUSION In patients aged > 50 years with a degenerative rotator cuff tear there is no difference in clinical effectiveness or cost-effectiveness between open repair and arthroscopic repair at 2 years for the primary outcome (OSS) and all other prespecified secondary outcomes. Future work should explore new methods to improve tendon healing and reduce the high rate of re-tears observed in this trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN97804283. FUNDING This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 19, No. 80. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information. PMID:26463717

  5. [Ultrasound assessment of reconstructed rotator cuffs].

    PubMed

    Cammerer, U; Habermeyer, P; Plenk, A; Huber, R

    1992-12-01

    The evaluation of recurrent shoulder symptoms in patients who have had rotator cuff repair is a diagnostic challenge. Pain and limitation of motion may be caused by a recurrence of the rotator cuff tear. Arthrography is not considered to be helpful in postoperative cases, since it is false-positive in most of them. Pre-operative ultrasonography of the shoulder is regarded as a highly accurate diagnostic tool for rotator cuff tears. The diagnostic criteria used are: the continuity of the rotator cuff, its contour, its thickness and its echogenicity. Our study was aimed at determining which ultrasonographic criteria were significant for a retear. In addition, the "normal" postoperative sonographic appearance of the rotator cuff was established. Of 133 patients with a full thickness rotator cuff tear, 110 were evaluated 4-48 months (mean in 21 months) after surgery. A total of 85 cuffs were reconstructed, in 46 cases by direct suture, in 33 cases by suture to the major tubercle and in 6 cases by tendon transfer (Cofield technique). In 25 cases cuffs the could not be reconstructed. Subacromial decompression was performed routinely. The patients were evaluated clinically by range of movement, force and isometric and impingement tests. The subjective outcome was assessed by the algo-functional index of Patte. Ultrasonography was performed using a 7.5-MHz linear scanner. Each sonographic criterion was referred to the clinical and subjective findings. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the rotator cuffs that could not be reconstructed revealed non-visualization of the tendons. In 13 of the 85 patients in whom reconstruction of the cuff was possible a normal sonographic pattern was seen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1287844

  6. Proximal Biceps Tendon and Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Virk, Mandeep S; Cole, Brian J

    2016-01-01

    The long head of biceps tendon (LHBT) is frequently involved in rotator cuff tears and can cause anterior shoulder pain. Tendon hypertrophy, hourglass contracture, delamination, tears, and tendon instability in the bicipital groove are common macroscopic pathologic findings affecting the LHBT in the presence of rotator cuff tears. Failure to address LHBT disorders in the setting of rotator cuff tear can result in persistent shoulder pain and poor satisfaction after rotator cuff repair. Tenotomy or tenodesis of the LHBT are effective options for relieving pain arising from the LHBT in the setting of reparable and selected irreparable rotator cuff tears. PMID:26614474

  7. Rotator cuff and subacromial pathology.

    PubMed

    Yablon, Corrie M; Jacobson, Jon A

    2015-07-01

    Both MRI and ultrasound (US) demonstrate equivalent accuracy in the evaluation of the rotator cuff. Both modalities have their advantages, disadvantages, and pitfalls. Radiography is an important complementary modality in that it can demonstrate occult sources of shoulder pain. MRI is recommended for the evaluation of shoulder pain in patients < 40 years of age because labral pathology is frequently identified. However, in patients > 40 years, US should be the first-line modality because the incidence of rotator cuff pathology increases with age. US is useful to guide procedures such as subacromial injection and calcific tendinosis lavage. Radiologists should be knowledgeable of both MRI and US of the shoulder to tailor these examinations to the specific needs of their patients. PMID:26021584

  8. Rotator Cuff Tears

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can stress your rotator cuff muscles and tendons. Baseball, tennis, rowing, and weightli ing are examples of ... vulnerable to overuse tears, particularly tennis players and baseball pitchers. Painters, carpenters, and others who do overhead ...

  9. Treatment of lesions of the rotator cuff.

    PubMed

    Saggini, R; Cavezza, T; Di Pancrazio, L; Pisciella, V; Saladino, G; Zuccaro, M C; Bellomo, R G

    2010-01-01

    The impingement syndrome and tendinopathy of the rotator cuff are the most common causes (complaints) of pain and disability of the shoulder. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a specific rehabilitative protocol, integrated with the administration of a nutritional supplement, in the conservative rehabilitative treatment, as well as in post-surgery, of patients with lesions of the rotator cuff. Two groups with syndrome of the rotator cuff were formed to follow different therapeutic courses, in relation to the choice of each subject to undergo the conservative treatment (Arm A) or the surgical one (Arm B). In Arm A the study included the association of therapy with ESWT (shock waves) with the proprioceptive Multi Joint System, for rehabilitating joint movement and muscle strength of the shoulder, and a specific nutritional supplement to reduce the pain and conserve the cartilage tissue. Between February 2009 and June 2009, we enrolled 30 subjects (randomized into three homogenous groups A1, A2, A3), average age 4510 years, with rotator cuff syndrome with calcification of the shoulder, diagnosed through clinical examination and investigative instruments (X-ray, echography or NMR). In Arm B, from September 2009 to January 2010, we enrolled 50 patients (randomized into two groups, B1 and B2), 24 male (average age 58.4: min 28 and max 78) and 26 females (average age 59.5: min 30 and max 80), who had undergone rotator cuff operations and acromionplasty for non-massive lesions without important gleno-humeral instability, with either open or arthroscopic procedures. The analysis of the results of Arm A highlights that in terms of reducing pain the main benefits were found in Group A1 where the supplement was given. From the analysis of the data of Arm B, in both groups an improvement of the first 4 items evaluated was evident. In Group B1, 84 percent of the patients declared to be satisfied and improved and 16 percent were dissatisfied; in Group B2, where the nutritional supplement was given, 92 percent were satisfied and 8 percent were dissatisfied. In conclusion, we retain that in cases of rotator cuff syndrome, an integrated rehabilitative approach, whether conservative or post-surgical, directed at taking total control of the patient, must observe particular attention to the optimization of the articular tissular metabolic balance in order to favour better functional recovery. PMID:21122285

  10. Partial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Current Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Matthewson, Graeme; Beach, Cara J.; Nelson, Atiba A.; Woodmass, Jarret M.; Ono, Yohei; Boorman, Richard S.; Lo, Ian K. Y.; Thornton, Gail M.

    2015-01-01

    Partial thickness rotator cuff tears are a common cause of pain in the adult shoulder. Despite their high prevalence, the diagnosis and treatment of partial thickness rotator cuff tears remains controversial. While recent studies have helped to elucidate the anatomy and natural history of disease progression, the optimal treatment, both nonoperative and operative, is unclear. Although the advent of arthroscopy has improved the accuracy of the diagnosis of partial thickness rotator cuff tears, the number of surgical techniques used to repair these tears has also increased. While multiple repair techniques have been described, there is currently no significant clinical evidence supporting more complex surgical techniques over standard rotator cuff repair. Further research is required to determine the clinical indications for surgical and nonsurgical management, when formal rotator cuff repair is specifically indicated and when biologic adjunctive therapy may be utilized. PMID:26171251

  11. Current Biomechanical Concepts for Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    For the past few decades, the repair of rotator cuff tears has evolved significantly with advances in arthroscopy techniques, suture anchors and instrumentation. From the biomechanical perspective, the focus in arthroscopic repair has been on increasing fixation strength and restoration of the footprint contact characteristics to provide early rehabilitation and improve healing. To accomplish these objectives, various repair strategies and construct configurations have been developed for rotator cuff repair with the understanding that many factors contribute to the structural integrity of the repaired construct. These include repaired rotator cuff tendon-footprint motion, increased tendon-footprint contact area and pressure, and tissue quality of tendon and bone. In addition, the healing response may be compromised by intrinsic factors such as decreased vascularity, hypoxia, and fibrocartilaginous changes or aforementioned extrinsic compression factors. Furthermore, it is well documented that torn rotator cuff muscles have a tendency to atrophy and become subject to fatty infiltration which may affect the longevity of the repair. Despite all the aforementioned factors, initial fixation strength is an essential consideration in optimizing rotator cuff repair. Therefore, numerous biomechanical studies have focused on elucidating the strongest devices, knots, and repair configurations to improve contact characteristics for rotator cuff repair. In this review, the biomechanical concepts behind current rotator cuff repair techniques will be reviewed and discussed. PMID:23730471

  12. Conservative management of rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Pegreffi, Francesco; Paladini, Paolo; Campi, Fabrizio; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    Ranking among the most prevalent of shoulder disorders, lesions involving shoulder rotator cuff strike million of patients in the United States at different points in their lives. Despite the fact that rotator cuff disease is a very common cause of pain and disability of the upper arm, a high proportion of patients is asymptomatic and unaware of performing daily living activities despite of a shoulder lesion. Given these drawbacks, surgeons are trying exploring whether conservative treatment is a viable option for the management of these injuries. This study presents a rationale to consider nonoperative treatment an effective option when dealing with patients with rotator cuff tears. PMID:22089284

  13. The Societal and Economic Value of Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Richard C.; Koenig, Lane; Acevedo, Daniel; Dall, Timothy M.; Gallo, Paul; Romeo, Anthony; Tongue, John; Williams, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although rotator cuff disease is a common musculoskeletal problem in the United States, the impact of this condition on earnings, missed workdays, and disability payments is largely unknown. This study examines the value of surgical treatment for full-thickness rotator cuff tears from a societal perspective. Methods: A Markov decision model was constructed to estimate lifetime direct and indirect costs associated with surgical and continued nonoperative treatment for symptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears. All patients were assumed to have been unresponsive to one six-week trial of nonoperative treatment prior to entering the model. Model assumptions were obtained from the literature and data analysis. We obtained estimates of indirect costs using national survey data and patient-reported outcomes. Four indirect costs were modeled: probability of employment, household income, missed workdays, and disability payments. Direct cost estimates were based on average Medicare reimbursements with adjustments to an all-payer population. Effectiveness was expressed in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Results: The age-weighted mean total societal savings from rotator cuff repair compared with nonoperative treatment was $13,771 over a patients lifetime. Savings ranged from $77,662 for patients who are thirty to thirty-nine years old to a net cost to society of $11,997 for those who are seventy to seventy-nine years old. In addition, surgical treatment results in an average improvement of 0.62 QALY. Societal savings were highly sensitive to age, with savings being positive at the age of sixty-one years and younger. The estimated lifetime societal savings of the approximately 250,000 rotator cuff repairs performed in the U.S. each year was $3.44 billion. Conclusions: Rotator cuff repair for full-thickness tears produces net societal cost savings for patients under the age of sixty-one years and greater QALYs for all patients. Rotator cuff repair is cost-effective for all populations. The results of this study should not be interpreted as suggesting that all rotator cuff tears require surgery. Rather, the results show that rotator cuff repair has an important role in minimizing the societal burden of rotator cuff disease. PMID:24257656

  14. Analysis of Direct Costs of Outpatient Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.

    PubMed

    Narvy, Steven J; Ahluwalia, Avtar; Vangsness, C Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Arthroscopic rotator cuff surgery is one of the most commonly performed orthopedic surgical procedures. We conducted a study to calculate the direct cost of arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff tears confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-eight shoulders in 26 patients (mean age, 54.5 years) underwent primary rotator cuff repair by a single fellowship-trained arthroscopic surgeon in the outpatient surgery center of a major academic medical center. All patients had interscalene blocks placed while in the preoperative holding area. Direct costs of this cycle of care were calculated using the time-driven activity-based costing algorithm. Mean time in operating room was 148 minutes; mean time in recovery was 105 minutes. Calculated surgical cost for this process cycle was $5904.21. Among material costs, suture anchor costs were the main cost driver. Preoperative bloodwork was obtained in 23 cases, adding a mean cost of $111.04. Our findings provide important preliminary information regarding the direct economic costs of rotator cuff surgery and may be useful to hospitals and surgery centers negotiating procedural reimbursement for the increased cost of repairing complex tears. PMID:26761928

  15. Understanding and preventing complications in repairing rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Osti, Leonardo; Papalia, Rocco; Del Buono, Angelo; Denaro, Vincenzo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Repair of rotator cuff tears is a common procedure. Prior to approaching this surgery, it should be realized that each surgical step can lead to complications, including those related to positioning and anaesthesia. Stiffness, infection and failure of repair are the more frequent complications reported. PMID:21986055

  16. Clinical Examination of the Rotator Cuff

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Nitin B.; Wilcox, Reginald; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Higgins, Laurence D.

    2013-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears are the leading cause of shoulder pain and shoulder-related disability accounting for 4.5 million physician visits in the United States annually. A careful history and structured physical examination are often sufficient for diagnosing rotator cuff disorders. We are not aware of a clinical review article that presents a structured physical examination protocol of the rotator cuff for the interested clinician. To fill this void, we present a physical examination protocol developed on the basis of review of prior literature and our clinical experience from dedicated shoulder practices. Our protocol includes range of motion testing using a goniometer, strength testing using a dynamometer, and select special tests. Among the many tests for rotator cuff disorders that have been described, we chose ones that have been more thoroughly assessed for sensitivity and specificity. This protocol can be used to isolate the specific rotator cuff tendon involved. The protocol can be typically completed in 15 minutes. We also discuss the clinical implications and limitations of the physical examination maneuvers described in our protocol. This protocol is thorough yet time-efficient for a busy clinical practice. It is useful in diagnosis of rotator cuff tears, impingement syndrome, and biceps pathology. PMID:23332909

  17. Protocol for the United Kingdom Rotator Cuff Study (UKUFF)

    PubMed Central

    Carr, A. J.; Rees, J. L.; Ramsay, C. R.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Gray, A.; Moser, J.; Dawson, J.; Bruhn, H.; Cooper, C. D.; Beard, D. J.; Campbell, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    This protocol describes a pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) to assess the clinical and cost effectiveness of arthroscopic and open surgery in the management of rotator cuff tears. This trial began in 2007 and was modified in 2010, with the removal of a non-operative arm due to high rates of early crossover to surgery. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:15560. PMID:24845913

  18. Rotator cuff tears: An evidence based approach.

    PubMed

    Sambandam, Senthil Nathan; Khanna, Vishesh; Gul, Arif; Mounasamy, Varatharaj

    2015-12-18

    Lesions of the rotator cuff (RC) are a common occurrence affecting millions of people across all parts of the globe. RC tears are also rampantly prevalent with an age-dependent increase in numbers. Other associated factors include a history of trauma, limb dominance, contralateral shoulder, smoking-status, hypercholesterolemia, posture and occupational dispositions. The challenge lies in early diagnosis since a high proportion of patients are asymptomatic. Pain and decreasing shoulder power and function should alert the heedful practitioner in recognizing promptly the onset or aggravation of existing RC tears. Partial-thickness tears (PTT) can be bursal-sided or articular-sided tears. Over the course of time, PTT enlarge and propagate into full-thickness tears (FTT) and develop distinct chronic pathological changes due to muscle retraction, fatty infiltration and muscle atrophy. These lead to a reduction in tendon elasticity and viability. Eventually, the glenohumeral joint experiences a series of degenerative alterations - cuff tear arthropathy. To avert this, a vigilant clinician must utilize and corroborate clinical skill and radiological findings to identify tear progression. Modern radio-diagnostic means of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging provide excellent visualization of structural details and are crucial in determining further course of action for these patients. Physical therapy along with activity modifications, anti-inflammatory and analgesic medications form the pillars of nonoperative treatment. Elderly patients with minimal functional demands can be managed conservatively and reassessed at frequent intervals. Regular monitoring helps in isolating patients who require surgical interventions. Early surgery should be considered in younger, active and symptomatic, healthy patients. In addition to being cost-effective, this helps in providing a functional shoulder with a stable cuff. An easily reproducible technique of maximal strength and sturdiness should by chosen among the armamentarium of the shoulder surgeon. Grade 1 PTTs do well with debridement while more severe lesions mandate repair either by trans-tendon technique or repair following conversion into FTT. Early repair of repairable FTT can avoid appearance and progression of disability and weakness. The choice of surgery varies from surgeon-to-surgeon with arthroscopy taking the lead in the current scenario. The double-row repairs have an edge over the single-row technique in some patients especially those with massive tears. Stronger, cost-effective and improved functional scores can be obtained by the former. Both early and delayed postoperative rehabilitation programmes have led to comparable outcomes. Guarded results may be anticipated in patients in extremes of age, presence of comorbidities and severe tear patters. Overall, satisfactory results are obtained with timely diagnosis and execution of the appropriate treatment modality. PMID:26716086

  19. Rotator cuff tears: An evidence based approach

    PubMed Central

    Sambandam, Senthil Nathan; Khanna, Vishesh; Gul, Arif; Mounasamy, Varatharaj

    2015-01-01

    Lesions of the rotator cuff (RC) are a common occurrence affecting millions of people across all parts of the globe. RC tears are also rampantly prevalent with an age-dependent increase in numbers. Other associated factors include a history of trauma, limb dominance, contralateral shoulder, smoking-status, hypercholesterolemia, posture and occupational dispositions. The challenge lies in early diagnosis since a high proportion of patients are asymptomatic. Pain and decreasing shoulder power and function should alert the heedful practitioner in recognizing promptly the onset or aggravation of existing RC tears. Partial-thickness tears (PTT) can be bursal-sided or articular-sided tears. Over the course of time, PTT enlarge and propagate into full-thickness tears (FTT) and develop distinct chronic pathological changes due to muscle retraction, fatty infiltration and muscle atrophy. These lead to a reduction in tendon elasticity and viability. Eventually, the glenohumeral joint experiences a series of degenerative alterations - cuff tear arthropathy. To avert this, a vigilant clinician must utilize and corroborate clinical skill and radiological findings to identify tear progression. Modern radio-diagnostic means of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging provide excellent visualization of structural details and are crucial in determining further course of action for these patients. Physical therapy along with activity modifications, anti-inflammatory and analgesic medications form the pillars of nonoperative treatment. Elderly patients with minimal functional demands can be managed conservatively and reassessed at frequent intervals. Regular monitoring helps in isolating patients who require surgical interventions. Early surgery should be considered in younger, active and symptomatic, healthy patients. In addition to being cost-effective, this helps in providing a functional shoulder with a stable cuff. An easily reproducible technique of maximal strength and sturdiness should by chosen among the armamentarium of the shoulder surgeon. Grade 1 PTTs do well with debridement while more severe lesions mandate repair either by trans-tendon technique or repair following conversion into FTT. Early repair of repairable FTT can avoid appearance and progression of disability and weakness. The choice of surgery varies from surgeon-to-surgeon with arthroscopy taking the lead in the current scenario. The double-row repairs have an edge over the single-row technique in some patients especially those with massive tears. Stronger, cost-effective and improved functional scores can be obtained by the former. Both early and delayed postoperative rehabilitation programmes have led to comparable outcomes. Guarded results may be anticipated in patients in extremes of age, presence of comorbidities and severe tear patters. Overall, satisfactory results are obtained with timely diagnosis and execution of the appropriate treatment modality. PMID:26716086

  20. Rotator cuff tear measurement by arthropneumotomography

    SciTech Connect

    Kilcoyne, R.F.; Matsen, F.A. III

    1983-02-01

    Five years of experience with a method of shoulder arthrography using upright tomography in cases of suspected or known rotator cuff tears has demonstrated its effectiveness. The value of the procedure lies in its ability to demonstrate the size of the cuff tear and the thickness of the remaining cuff tissue. This information provides the surgeon with a preoperative estimate of the difficulty of the repair and the prognosis for a good functional recovery. In 33 cases, there was good correlation between the upright thin-section tomogram findings and the surgical results. The tomograms provided better information about the size of the tear and the quality of the remaining cuff than did plain arthrograms.

  1. Rotator Cerclage Technique for Partial Rotator Cuff Ruptures

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Murat; Firat, Ahmet; Gursoy, Safa; Akkaya, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The frequency of partial rotator cuff tears is gradually increasing because of the advancements in imaging methods and arthroscopy techniques. One of the repair techniques is repair of the partial rotator cuff tear by conversion to a full-thickness tear. Another technique, the transtendon technique, has some practical challenges and risks. We attempted to develop a practical and easy technique with low morbidity to repair partial tears called the rotator cerclage technique. PMID:26900559

  2. Massive rotator cuff tears: arthroscopy to arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anshu; Jawa, Andrew; Morman, Monica; Sanofsky, Benjamin; Higgins, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    The understanding of rotator cuff disease has increased exponentially since Codman drew attention to this pathology in the early 1900s. Although challenging, the surgical treatment of massive rotator cuff tears is rational, with treatment decisions based on physical examination, imaging, biologic, and patient factors. Arthroscopy can be used to treat ancillary pain generators, dbride necrotic tissue, and possibly restore balance to the force couples about the shoulder. Tendon transfers may be effective in restoring functional strength to irreparable, ineffectual muscle units. Arthroplasty is both a primary treatment and a salvage option. PMID:20415384

  3. Muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration after an acute rotator cuff repair in a sheep model

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Tammy; Liu, Xuhui; Easley, Jeremiah T.; Ravishankar, Bharat; Puttlitz, Christian; Feeley, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction rotator cuff tears (RCTs) are the most common tendon injury seen in orthopedic patients. Muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration of the muscle are crucial factors that dictate the outcome following rotator cuff surgery. Though less studied in humans, rotator cuff muscle fibrosis has been seen in animal models as well and may influence outcomes as well. The purpose of this study was to determine if the rotator cuff would develop muscle changes even in the setting of an acute repair in a sheep model. We hypothesized that fatty infiltration and fibrosis would be present even after an acute repair six months after initial surgery. Methods twelve female adult sheep underwent an acute rotator cuff tear and immediate repair on the right shoulder. The left shoulder served as a control and did not undergo a tear or a repair. Six months following acute rotator cuff repairs, sheep muscles were harvested to study atrophy, fatty infiltration, and fibrosis by histological analysis, western blotting, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results the repair group demonstrated an increase expression of muscle atrophy, fatty infiltration, and fibrosis related genes. Significantly increased adipocytes, muscle fatty infiltration, and collagen deposition was observed in rotator cuff muscles in the tendon repair group compared to the control group. Conclusions rotator cuff muscle undergoes degradation changes including fatty infiltration and fibrosis even after the tendons are repair immediately after rupture. Level of Evidence Basic Science Study. PMID:26261789

  4. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in elite rugby players

    PubMed Central

    Tambe, Amol; Badge, Ravi; Funk, Lennard

    2009-01-01

    Background Rugby is an increasingly popular collision sport. A wide spectrum of injuries can be sustained during training and match play. Rotator cuff injury is uncommon in contact sports and there is little published literature on the treatment of rotator cuff tears in rugby players. Aims We therefore reviewed the results and functional outcomes of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in elite rugby players. Materials and Methods Eleven professional rugby players underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair at our hospital over a 2-year period. We collected data on these patients from the operative records. The patients were recalled for outcome scoring and ultrasound scans. Results There were seven rugby league players and four rugby union players, including six internationals. Their mean age was 25.7 years. All had had a traumatic episode during match play and could not return to the game after the injury. The mean time to surgery was 5 weeks. The mean width of the cuff tear was 1.8 cm. All were full- thickness cuff tears. Associated injuries included two Bankart lesions, one bony Bankart lesion, one posterior labral tear, and two 360° labral tears. The biceps was involved in three cases. Two were debrided and a tenodesis was performed in one. Repair was with suture anchors. Following surgery, all patients underwent a supervised accelerated rehabilitation programme. The final follow-up was at 18 months (range: 6–31 months) post surgery. The Constant scores improved from 44 preoperatively to 99 at the last follow-up. The mean score at 3 months was 95. The Oxford shoulder score improved from 34 to 12, with the mean third month score being 18. The mean time taken to return to full match play at the preinjury level was 4.8 months. There were no complications in any of the patients and postoperative scans in nine patients confirmed that the repairs had healed. Conclusion We conclude that full-thickness rotator cuff tears in the contact athlete can be addressed successfully by arthroscopic repair, with a rapid return to preinjury status. PMID:20616950

  5. Imaging of the Rotator Cuff With Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Hartshorn, Timothy; Ren, Jian; Vangsness, C Thomas

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated the utility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in imaging porcine and human rotator cuff (RTC) tissue, analyzed its effectiveness in identifying clinical pathology, and correlated these findings with histologic examination. Twelve human cadaveric and 6 porcine shoulders were evaluated. Six-millimeter-wide bone sections were harvested from the proximal humerus of each specimen, with each containing the entire enthesis of the respective RTC tendon, as well as 2 cm of tendon medial to the enthesis. Only the supraspinatus tendon was evaluated in the human specimens, whereas the enthesis of multiple RTC tendons were evaluated in the porcine model. All specimens were imaged using OCT and correlated with histologic evaluation. Optical coherence tomography evaluation of macroscopically healthy tissue consistently showed an easily identifiable banding pattern (birefringence) in contrast to a disorganized, homogeneous appearance in grossly diseased tissue. Optical coherence tomography was more effective for qualitative evaluation of RTC tissue, identification of bursal-sided RTC tears, and localization of calcific deposits, whereas intrasubstance tendon delaminations and partial articular-sided tendon avulsion lesions were relatively more difficult to identify. Optical coherence tomography correlated well with histologic evaluation in all specimens. Optical coherence tomography provides high-resolution, subsurface imaging of rotator cuff tissue in real-time to a depth of up to 4 mm with excellent correlation to histology in a cadaveric model. Optical coherence tomography could be an effective adjunctive tool for the identification and localization of rotator cuff pathology. The use of OCT in arthroscopic shoulder surgery potentially provides a minimally invasive modality for qualitative assessment of rotator cuff pathology. This may allow for a decrease in soft tissue dissection, improved qualitative assessment of cuff tissue, and improved patient outcomes. PMID:26375544

  6. I.S.Mu.L.T - Rotator Cuff Tears Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Francesco; Piccirilli, Eleonora; Bossa, Michela; Via, Alessio Giai; Colombo, Alessandra; Chillemi, Claudio; Gasparre, Giuseppe; Pellicciari, Leonardo; Franceschetti, Edoardo; Rugiero, Clelia; Scialdoni, Alessandro; Vittadini, Filippo; Brancaccio, Paola; Creta, Domenico; Buono, Angelo Del; Garofalo, Raffaele; Franceschi, Francesco; Frizziero, Antonio; Mahmoud, Asmaa; Merolla, Giovanni; Nicoletti, Simone; Spoliti, Marco; Osti, Leonardo; Padulo, Johnny; Portinaro, Nicola; Tajana, Gianfranco; Castagna, Alex; Foti, Calogero; Masiero, Stefano; Porcellini, Giuseppe; Tarantino, Umberto; Maffulli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Despite the high level achieved in the field of shoulder surgery, a global consensus on rotator cuff tears management is lacking. This work is divided into two main sessions: in the first, we set questions about hot topics involved in the rotator cuff tears, from the etiopathogenesis to the surgical treatment. In the second, we answered these questions by mentioning Evidence Based Medicine. The aim of the present work is to provide easily accessible guidelines: they could be considered as recommendations for a good clinical practice developed through a process of systematic review of the literature and expert opinion, in order to improve the quality of care and rationalize the use of resources. PMID:26958532

  7. I.S.Mu.L.T - Rotator Cuff Tears Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Francesco; Piccirilli, Eleonora; Bossa, Michela; Via, Alessio Giai; Colombo, Alessandra; Chillemi, Claudio; Gasparre, Giuseppe; Pellicciari, Leonardo; Franceschetti, Edoardo; Rugiero, Clelia; Scialdoni, Alessandro; Vittadini, Filippo; Brancaccio, Paola; Creta, Domenico; Buono, Angelo Del; Garofalo, Raffaele; Franceschi, Francesco; Frizziero, Antonio; Mahmoud, Asmaa; Merolla, Giovanni; Nicoletti, Simone; Spoliti, Marco; Osti, Leonardo; Padulo, Johnny; Portinaro, Nicola; Tajana, Gianfranco; Castagna, Alex; Foti, Calogero; Masiero, Stefano; Porcellini, Giuseppe; Tarantino, Umberto; Maffulli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Despite the high level achieved in the field of shoulder surgery, a global consensus on rotator cuff tears management is lacking. This work is divided into two main sessions: in the first, we set questions about hot topics involved in the rotator cuff tears, from the etiopathogenesis to the surgical treatment. In the second, we answered these questions by mentioning Evidence Based Medicine. The aim of the present work is to provide easily accessible guidelines: they could be considered as recommendations for a good clinical practice developed through a process of systematic review of the literature and expert opinion, in order to improve the quality of care and rationalize the use of resources. PMID:26958532

  8. Glenohumeral interposition of rotator cuff stumps: a rare complication of traumatic rotator cuff tear*

    PubMed Central

    Agnollitto, Paulo Moraes; Chu, Marcio Wen King; Lorenzato, Mario Muller; Zatiti, Salomão Chade Assan; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The present report describes a case where typical findings of traumatic glenohumeral interposition of rotator cuff stumps were surgically confirmed. This condition is a rare complication of shoulder trauma. Generally, it occurs in high-energy trauma, frequently in association with glenohumeral joint dislocation. Radiography demonstrated increased joint space, internal rotation of the humerus and coracoid process fracture. In addition to the mentioned findings, magnetic resonance imaging showed massive rotator cuff tear with interposition of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus and subscapularis stumps within the glenohumeral joint. Surgical treatment was performed confirming the injury and the rotator cuff stumps interposition. It is important that radiologists and orthopedic surgeons become familiar with this entity which, because of its rarity, might be neglected in cases of shoulder trauma. PMID:26929462

  9. Glenohumeral interposition of rotator cuff stumps: a rare complication of traumatic rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Agnollitto, Paulo Moraes; Chu, Marcio Wen King; Lorenzato, Mario Muller; Zatiti, Salomão Chade Assan; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The present report describes a case where typical findings of traumatic glenohumeral interposition of rotator cuff stumps were surgically confirmed. This condition is a rare complication of shoulder trauma. Generally, it occurs in high-energy trauma, frequently in association with glenohumeral joint dislocation. Radiography demonstrated increased joint space, internal rotation of the humerus and coracoid process fracture. In addition to the mentioned findings, magnetic resonance imaging showed massive rotator cuff tear with interposition of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus and subscapularis stumps within the glenohumeral joint. Surgical treatment was performed confirming the injury and the rotator cuff stumps interposition. It is important that radiologists and orthopedic surgeons become familiar with this entity which, because of its rarity, might be neglected in cases of shoulder trauma. PMID:26929462

  10. Anomalous biceps origin from the rotator cuff

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Samik; Patel, Vipul R

    2015-01-01

    Variations in the origin of the long head of biceps tendon (LHBT) have been described in literature; however, its clinical significance remains uncertain. We describe in this report, the history, physical examination and the arthroscopic findings in a patient who had an anomalous origin of the LHBT from the rotator cuff, resulting in restriction of range of motion. This anomalous origin of the long head of biceps tendon causing capsular contracture and restriction of movements leading to secondary internal impingement, has not been extensively reported in the literature. Shoulder arthroscopists should be aware that, although, an uncommon clinical condition, the aberrant congenital origin of the LHBT from the rotator cuff can rarely become pathologic in middle age and lead to shoulder dysfunction. In such cases, release of the anomalous band may be required, along with the treatment of other concomitant intraarticular pathologies in the glenohumeral joint. PMID:25593361

  11. Glenohumeral stability in simulated rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Steenbrink, F; de Groot, J H; Veeger, H E J; van der Helm, F C T; Rozing, P M

    2009-08-01

    Rotator cuff tears disrupt the force balance in the shoulder and the glenohumeral joint in particular, resulting in compromised arm elevation torques. The trade-off between glenohumeral torque and glenohumeral stability is not yet understood. We hypothesize that compensation of lost abduction torque will lead to a superior redirection of the reaction force vector onto the glenoid surface, which will require additional muscle forces to maintain glenohumeral stability. Muscle forces in a single arm position for five combinations of simulated cuff tears were estimated by inverse dynamic simulation (Delft Shoulder and Elbow Model) and compared with muscle forces in the non-injured condition. Each cuff tear condition was simulated both without and with an active modeling constraint for glenohumeral stability, which was defined as the condition in which the glenohumeral reaction force intersects the glenoid surface. For the simulated position an isolated tear of the supraspinatus only increased the effort of the other muscles with 8%, and did not introduce instability. For massive cuff tears beyond the supraspinatus, instability became a prominent factor: the deltoids were not able to fully compensate lost net abduction torque without introducing destabilizing forces; unfavorable abductor muscles (i.e. in the simulated position the subscapularis and the biceps longum) remain to compensate the necessary abduction torque; the teres minor appeared to be of vital importance to maintain glenohumeral stability. Adverse adductor muscle co-contraction is essential to preserve glenohumeral stability. PMID:19450803

  12. Evaluation of Internet Information About Rotator Cuff Repair.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Kevin A; Codella, Stephen; Ciccotti, Michael G; Kane, Patrick W; Duncan, Ian C; Cohen, Steven B

    2016-01-01

    The content and quality of Internet websites are not governed or regulated. Therefore, patients who consult the Internet may receive outdated or incorrect medical information. Researchers have analyzed the quality of web information about various orthopedic surgeries, but no such analysis has been performed on websites covering rotator cuff repair. We conducted a study to evaluate and analyze rotator cuff repair information available to the general public through the Internet; to assess changes in the quality of information over time; to determine if sites sponsored by academic institutions offered higher-quality information; and to assess whether the readability of the material varied according to DISCERN scores. Two Internet searches were conducted, in 2011 and 2014. The 3 most commonly used search engines were used to search for rotator cuff repair. The first 50 websites from each search engine were evaluated for authorship and content. The DISCERN instrument was used to analyze the quality of each website's health information. The 2011 search revealed 21% of websites were associated with an academic institution, 38% were authored by a hospital or physician group, and 11.5% were industry-sponsored. The 2014 search revealed a similar distribution of contributors. The highest DISCERN scores were given to academic institution websites (51.6) and public education websites (49). There was no correlation between readability and DISCERN scores. Websites associated with academic institutions produced the highest-quality medical information. Over the past few years, authorship and content have changed little with respect to Internet information about rotator cuff repair. PMID:26991581

  13. Disability and satisfaction after Rotator Cuff decompression or repair: a sex and gender analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rotator-cuff pathology is the most common cause of pain and disability in the shoulder. Examining the combined effect of biological and societal factors on disability would potentially identify existing differences between men and women with rotator cuff pathology which would help to provide suggestions for better models of care. Purpose of this study was to determine the overall differences in disability between men and women and to examine the relationship between factors that represent sex (biological factors) and gender (non-biological factors) with disability and satisfaction with surgical outcome 6 months after rotator cuff surgery. Methods Patients with impingement syndrome and/or rotator cuff tear who underwent rotator cuff surgery completed the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff (WORC) index, the American Shoulder & Elbow Surgeons (ASES) assessment form, and the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) outcome measures prior to surgery and 6 months post-operatively. They also rated their satisfaction with surgery at their follow-up appointment. Results and Discussion One hundred and seventy patients entered into the study (85 men and 85 women). One hundred and sixty patients (94%) completed the 6-month assessment. Women reported more disability both prior to and after surgery. Disability at 6 months was associated with pain-limited range of motion, participation limitation, age and strength. Satisfaction with surgery was associated with level of reported disability, expectations for improved pain, pain-limited range of motion and strength. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that women with rotator cuff pathology suffer from higher levels of pre- and post-operative disability and sex and gender qualities contribute to these differences. Gender-sensitive approach will help to identify existing differences between men and women which will help to promote more effective and tailored care by health professionals. PMID:21457534

  14. Anterior superior instability with rotator cuff tearing: SLAC lesion.

    PubMed

    Savoie, F H; Field, L D; Atchinson, S

    2001-07-01

    Anterosuperior instability of the shoulder may occur from a variety of pathologic lesions. We describe a specific entity, the SLAC (superior labrum, anterior cuff) lesion that involves an association of anterior-superior labral tear with a partial supraspinatus tear. We retrospectively isolated a group of 40 patients with this lesion. The presenting complaints, physical examination findings, surgical findings, and results were isolated. Overhead activities were the most common etiology; load and shift instability testing and whipple rotator cuff testing were the most common physical examination findings. Surgical repair was successful in 37 of the 40 patients. The SLAC lesion is a definable clinical entity with predictable history, examination, surgical pathology, and satisfactory results from surgery. PMID:11888140

  15. Performance After Rotator Cuff Tear and Operative Treatment: A Case-Control Study of Major League Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Namdari, Surena; Baldwin, Keith; Ahn, Albert; Huffman, G. Russell; Sennett, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Little is known about pitching performance or lack of it among Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers who undergo operative treatment of rotator cuff tears. Objective: To assess pitching performance outcomes in MLB players who needed operative treatment of rotator cuff tears and to compare performance in these athletes with that in a control group of MLB players. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Publicly available player profiles, press releases, and team injury reports. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-three MLB pitchers with documented surgery to treat rotator cuff tears and 117 control pitchers who did not have documented rotator cuff tears were identified. Main Outcome Measure(s): Major League Baseball pitching attrition and performance variables. Results: Players who underwent rotator cuff surgery were no more likely not to play than control players. Performance variables of players who underwent surgery improved after surgery but never returned to baseline preoperative status. Players who needed rotator cuff surgery typically were more experienced and had better earned run averages than control players. Conclusions: Pitchers who had symptomatic rotator cuff tears that necessitated operative treatment tended to decline gradually in performance leading up to their operations and to improve gradually over the next 3 seasons. In contrast to what we expected, they did not have a greater attrition rate than their control counterparts; however, their performances did not return to preoperative levels over the course of the study. PMID:21669100

  16. Imaging algorithms for evaluating suspected rotator cuff disease: Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound consensus conference statement.

    PubMed

    Nazarian, Levon N; Jacobson, Jon A; Benson, Carol B; Bancroft, Laura W; Bedi, Asheesh; McShane, John M; Miller, Theodore T; Parker, Laurence; Smith, Jay; Steinbach, Lynne S; Teefey, Sharlene A; Thiele, Ralf G; Tuite, Michael J; Wise, James N; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2013-05-01

    The Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound convened a panel of specialists from a variety of medical disciplines to reach a consensus about the recommended imaging evaluation of painful shoulders with clinically suspected rotator cuff disease. The panel met in Chicago, Ill, on October 18 and 19, 2011, and created this consensus statement regarding the roles of radiography, ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), CT arthrography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and MR arthrography. The consensus panel consisted of two co-moderators, a facilitator, a statistician and health care economist, and 10 physicians who have specialty expertise in shoulder pain evaluation and/or treatment. Of the 13 physicians on the panel, nine were radiologists who were chosen to represent a broad range of skill sets in diagnostic imaging, different practice types (private and academic), and different geographical regions of the United States. Five of the radiologists routinely performed musculoskeletal US as part of their practice and four did not. There was also one representative from each of the following clinical specialties: rheumatology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, orthopedic surgery, and nonoperative sports medicine. The goal of this conference was to construct several algorithms with which to guide the imaging evaluation of suspected rotator cuff disease in patients with a native rotator cuff, patients with a repaired rotator cuff, and patients who have undergone shoulder replacement. The panel hopes that these recommendations will lead to greater uniformity in rotator cuff imaging and more cost-effective care for patients suspected of having rotator cuff abnormality. PMID:23401583

  17. Management of Rotator Cuff and Impingement Injuries in the Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gerald R.; Kelley, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To review current concepts of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of rotator cuff and impingement injuries in the athlete. Data Sources: The information we present was compiled from a review of classic and recently published material regarding rotator cuff and impingement injuries. These materials were identified through a search of a personal literature database compiled by the authors, as well as by selective searching of the MEDLINE. In addition, much of the information presented represents observations and opinions of the authors developed over 8 to 10 years of treating shoulder injuries in athletes. Data Synthesis: Biomechanics of the normal shoulder and pathophysiology of rotator cuff injuries in the athletic population are discussed, followed by a summary of the important diagnostic features of rotator cuff and impingement injuries. The principles of rehabilitation are extensively presented, along with indications and important technical aspects of selected surgical procedures. General principles and specific protocols of postoperative rehabilitation are also summarized. Conclusions/Recommendations: Rotator cuff and impingement injuries in the athletic population are multifactorial in etiology, exhibiting significant overlap with glenohumeral instability. Nonoperative treatment is successful in most athletic patients with rotator cuff and impingement injuries. When nonoperative treatment fails, arthroscopic surgical techniques such as rotator cuff repair and subacromial decompression may be successful in returning the athlete to competition. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12.Figure 13. PMID:16558644

  18. Tissue engineering and rotator cuff tendon healing.

    PubMed

    Dines, Joshua S; Grande, Daniel A; Dines, David M

    2007-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears are common soft-tissue injuries that often require surgical treatment. Initial efforts to better tendon healing centered on improving the strength of the repair. More recent studies have focused on biologic enhancement of the healing process. Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary field that involves the application of scientific principles toward creating living tissue to replace, repair, or augment diseased tissue. Gene therapy involves the transfer of a certain gene into a cell so that the cell translates the gene into a specific protein. The advantage of using a gene-therapy, tissue-engineered approach to effect healing rests in the ability of the physician to select growth factors with documented roles in the tendon-healing cascade. Ideally, an improvement to the current repair technique would yield improved tendon healing leading to improved clinical results. PMID:17524676

  19. Rotator Cuff Damage: Reexamining the Causes and Treatments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Heyward L.

    1988-01-01

    Sports medicine specialists are beginning to reexamine the causes and treatments of rotator cuff problems, questioning the role of primary impingement in a deficient or torn cuff and trying new surgical procedures as alternatives to the traditional open acromioplasty. (Author/CB)

  20. Intense focused ultrasound stimulation of the rotator cuff: evaluation of the source of pain in rotator cuff tears and tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Gellhorn, Alfred C; Gillenwater, Cody; Mourad, Pierre D

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to evaluate the ability of individual 0.1-s long pulses of intense focused ultrasound (iFU) emitted with a carrier frequency of 2 MHz to evoke diagnostic sensations when applied to patients whose shoulders have rotator cuff tears or tendinopathy. Patients were adults with painful shoulders and clinical and imaging findings consistent with rotator cuff disease. iFU stimulation of the shoulder was performed using B-mode ultrasound coupled with a focused ultrasound transducer that allowed image-guided delivery of precisely localized pulses of energy to different anatomic areas around the rotator cuff. The main outcome measure was iFU spatial average-temporal average intensity (I_SATA), and location required to elicit sensation. In control patients, iFU produced no sensation throughout the range of stimulation intensities (≤2000 W/cm(2) I_SATA). In patients with rotator cuff disease, iFU was able to induce sensation in the tendons of the rotator cuff, the subacromial bursa, and the subchondral bone in patients with chronic shoulder pain and rotator cuff disease, with an average ± standard deviation intensity equaling 680 ± 281 W/cm(2) I_SATA. This result suggests a primary role for these tissues in the pathogenesis of shoulder pain related to rotator cuff tendinopathy. PMID:26058842

  1. Augmentation of Rotator Cuff Repair With Soft Tissue Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Thangarajah, Tanujan; Pendegrass, Catherine J.; Shahbazi, Shirin; Lambert, Simon; Alexander, Susan; Blunn, Gordon W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Tears of the rotator cuff are one of the most common tendon disorders. Treatment often includes surgical repair, but the rate of failure to gain or maintain healing has been reported to be as high as 94%. This has been substantially attributed to the inadequate capacity of tendon to heal once damaged, particularly to bone at the enthesis. A number of strategies have been developed to improve tendon-bone healing, tendon-tendon healing, and tendon regeneration. Scaffolds have received considerable attention for replacement, reconstruction, or reinforcement of tendon defects but may not possess situation-specific or durable mechanical and biological characteristics. Purpose To provide an overview of the biology of tendon-bone healing and the current scaffolds used to augment rotator cuff repairs. Study Design Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods A preliminary literature search of MEDLINE and Embase databases was performed using the terms rotator cuff scaffolds, rotator cuff augmentation, allografts for rotator cuff repair, xenografts for rotator cuff repair, and synthetic grafts for rotator cuff repair. Results The search identified 438 unique articles. Of these, 214 articles were irrelevant to the topic and were therefore excluded. This left a total of 224 studies that were suitable for analysis. Conclusion A number of novel biomaterials have been developed into biologically and mechanically favorable scaffolds. Few clinical trials have examined their effect on tendon-bone healing in well-designed, long-term follow-up studies with appropriate control groups. While there is still considerable work to be done before scaffolds are introduced into routine clinical practice, there does appear to be a clear indication for their use as an interpositional graft for large and massive retracted rotator cuff tears and when repairing a poor-quality degenerative tendon. PMID:26665095

  2. Improved apparatus for predictive diagnosis of rotator cuff disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillai, Anup; Hall, Brittany N.; Thigpen, Charles A.; Kwartowitz, David M.

    2014-03-01

    Rotator cuff disease impacts over 50% of the population over 60, with reports of incidence being as high as 90% within this population, causing pain and possible loss of function. The rotator cuff is composed of muscles and tendons that work in tandem to support the shoulder. Heavy use of these muscles can lead to rotator cuff tear, with the most common causes is age-related degeneration or sport injuries, both being a function of overuse. Tears ranges in severity from partial thickness tear to total rupture. Diagnostic techniques are based on physical assessment, detailed patient history, and medical imaging; primarily X-ray, MRI and ultrasonography are the chosen modalities for assessment. The final treatment technique and imaging modality; however, is chosen by the clinician is at their discretion. Ultrasound has been shown to have good accuracy for identification and measurement of full-thickness and partial-thickness rotator cuff tears. In this study, we report on the progress and improvement of our method of transduction and analysis of in situ measurement of rotator cuff biomechanics. We have improved the ability of the clinician to apply a uniform force to the underlying musculotendentious tissues while simultaneously obtaining the ultrasound image. This measurement protocol combined with region of interest (ROI) based image processing will help in developing a predictive diagnostic model for treatment of rotator cuff disease and help the clinicians choose the best treatment technique.

  3. Progression from calcifying tendinitis to rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Masafumi; Higuchi, Fujio; Suzuki, Ritsu; Yamanaka, Kensuke

    2003-02-01

    This report documents the clinical, radiographic and histologic findings in a 46-year-old man with calcifying tendinitis in his left shoulder which progressed to rotator cuff tear. The patient had a 1-year history of repeated calcifying tendinitis before being referred to our hospital. On the initial visit, radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed calcium deposition localized in the supraspinatus tendon without apparent tear. Three months after the first visit, MRI revealed a partial-thickness rotator cuff tear at the site of calcium deposition. Surgical and histologic findings demonstrated that calcium deposition was the cause of cuff rupture. To our knowledge, based on a review of the English literature, this is the first case report in which the progression from calcifying tendinitis to rotator cuff tear has been serially observed. PMID:12589487

  4. Tendon transfer for irreparable rotator cuff tears: indications and surgical rationale

    PubMed Central

    Merolla, Giovanni; Chillemi, Claudio; Franceschini, Vincenzo; Cerciello, Simone; Ippolito, Giorgio; Paladini, Paolo; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: treatment of symptomatic irreparable rotator cuff tears is extremely challenging because, at present, there are no ideal solutions to this problem. Many patients respond favorably to nonsurgical treatment. However, when conservative measures fail to improve the patient’s pain and disability, surgery should be considered. Methods: different surgical techniques are available and the choice of the most appropriate procedure depends on the presenting symptoms, age of the patient, functional demand, medical comorbidities, joint stability and presence of arthritic changes. The transposition of the surrounding muscles to replace the rotator cuff function represents a viable option in the treatment of younger patients without glenohumeral osteoarthritis and with severe functional limitation. Purpose: aim of this study is to give an overview of the currently available evidence regarding tendon transfer procedures for irreparable rotator cuff tears. PMID:25767779

  5. Calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff

    PubMed Central

    ElShewy, Mohamed Taha

    2016-01-01

    Calcific tendinitis within the rotator cuff tendon is a common shoulder disorder that should be differentiated from dystrophic calcification as the pathogenesis and natural history of both is totally different. Calcific tendinitis usually occurs in the fifth and sixth decades of life among sedentary workers. It is classified into formative and resorptive phases. The chronic formative phase results from transient hypoxia that is commonly associated with repeated microtrauma causing calcium deposition into the matrix vesicles within the chondrocytes forming bone foci that later coalesce. This phase may extend from 1 to 6 years, and is usually asymptomatic. The resorptive phase extends from 3 wk up to 6 mo with vascularization at the periphery of the calcium deposits causing macrophage and mononuclear giant cell infiltration, together with fibroblast formation leading to an aggressive inflammatory reaction with inflammatory cell accumulation, excessive edema and rise of the intra-tendineous pressure. This results in a severely painful shoulder. Radiological investigations confirm the diagnosis and suggest the phase of the condition and are used to follow its progression. Although routine conventional X-ray allows detection of the deposits, magnetic resonance imaging studies allow better evaluation of any coexisting pathology. Various methods of treatment have been suggested. The appropriate method should be individualized for each patient. Conservative treatment includes pain killers and physiotherapy, or “minimally invasive” techniques as needling or puncture and aspiration. It is almost always successful since the natural history of the condition ends with resorption of the deposits and complete relief of pain. Due to the intolerable pain of the acute and severely painful resorptive stage, the patient often demands any sort of operative intervention. In such case arthroscopic removal is the best option as complete removal of the deposits is unnecessary. PMID:26807357

  6. Calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff.

    PubMed

    ElShewy, Mohamed Taha

    2016-01-18

    Calcific tendinitis within the rotator cuff tendon is a common shoulder disorder that should be differentiated from dystrophic calcification as the pathogenesis and natural history of both is totally different. Calcific tendinitis usually occurs in the fifth and sixth decades of life among sedentary workers. It is classified into formative and resorptive phases. The chronic formative phase results from transient hypoxia that is commonly associated with repeated microtrauma causing calcium deposition into the matrix vesicles within the chondrocytes forming bone foci that later coalesce. This phase may extend from 1 to 6 years, and is usually asymptomatic. The resorptive phase extends from 3 wk up to 6 mo with vascularization at the periphery of the calcium deposits causing macrophage and mononuclear giant cell infiltration, together with fibroblast formation leading to an aggressive inflammatory reaction with inflammatory cell accumulation, excessive edema and rise of the intra-tendineous pressure. This results in a severely painful shoulder. Radiological investigations confirm the diagnosis and suggest the phase of the condition and are used to follow its progression. Although routine conventional X-ray allows detection of the deposits, magnetic resonance imaging studies allow better evaluation of any coexisting pathology. Various methods of treatment have been suggested. The appropriate method should be individualized for each patient. Conservative treatment includes pain killers and physiotherapy, or "minimally invasive" techniques as needling or puncture and aspiration. It is almost always successful since the natural history of the condition ends with resorption of the deposits and complete relief of pain. Due to the intolerable pain of the acute and severely painful resorptive stage, the patient often demands any sort of operative intervention. In such case arthroscopic removal is the best option as complete removal of the deposits is unnecessary. PMID:26807357

  7. Imaging Algorithms for Evaluating Suspected Rotator Cuff Disease: Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound Consensus Conference Statement

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Jon A.; Benson, Carol B.; Bancroft, Laura W.; Bedi, Asheesh; McShane, John M.; Miller, Theodore T.; Parker, Laurence; Smith, Jay; Steinbach, Lynne S.; Teefey, Sharlene A.; Thiele, Ralf G.; Tuite, Michael J.; Wise, James N.; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound convened a panel of specialists from a variety of medical disciplines to reach a consensus about the recommended imaging evaluation of painful shoulders with clinically suspected rotator cuff disease. The panel met in Chicago, Ill, on October 18 and 19, 2011, and created this consensus statement regarding the roles of radiography, ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), CT arthrography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and MR arthrography. The consensus panel consisted of two co-moderators, a facilitator, a statistician and health care economist, and 10 physicians who have specialty expertise in shoulder pain evaluation and/or treatment. Of the 13 physicians on the panel, nine were radiologists who were chosen to represent a broad range of skill sets in diagnostic imaging, different practice types (private and academic), and different geographical regions of the United States. Five of the radiologists routinely performed musculoskeletal US as part of their practice and four did not. There was also one representative from each of the following clinical specialties: rheumatology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, orthopedic surgery, and nonoperative sports medicine. The goal of this conference was to construct several algorithms with which to guide the imaging evaluation of suspected rotator cuff disease in patients with a native rotator cuff, patients with a repaired rotator cuff, and patients who have undergone shoulder replacement. The panel hopes that these recommendations will lead to greater uniformity in rotator cuff imaging and more cost-effective care for patients suspected of having rotator cuff abnormality. © RSNA, 2013 PMID:23401583

  8. Heterotopic ossification of the deltoid muscle after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Brett S; Wilcox, Reg B; Higgins, Laurence D

    2010-07-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO), a well-known sequela of trauma, burns, head injury, and certain congenital or acquired metabolic conditions, has a predilection for the hip and the elbow. This disease has uncommonly been found after elective open shoulder surgery but extremely seldom after minimally invasive surgery. In our search of the peer-reviewed literature, we found no reports of HO after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. The clinical importance of heterotopic bone after shoulder surgery remains unclear because of inconsistent definitions, varying correlations of symptom severity and radiographic findings, and lack of treatment efficacy data. Here we report a case of severely symptomatic HO after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair - successfully treated with excision of the heterotopic bone, interval release, and manipulation. PMID:20844777

  9. Complications Following Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Tear Repair

    PubMed Central

    Audig, Laurent; Blum, Raphael; Mller, Andreas M.; Flury, Matthias; Durchholz, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Background Valid comparison of outcomes after surgical procedures requires consensus on which instruments and parameters should be used, including the recording and evaluation of surgical complications. An international standard outlining the terminology and definitions of surgical complications in orthopaedics is lacking. Purpose This study systematically reviewed the literature for terms and definitions related to the occurrence of negative events or complications after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR) with specific focus on shoulder stiffness. Study Design Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases were searched for reviews, clinical studies, and case reports of complications associated with ARCR. Reference lists of selected articles were also screened. The terminology of complications and their definitions were extracted from all relevant original articles by a single reviewer and verified by a second reviewer. Definitions of shoulder stiffness or equivalent terms were tabulated. Results Of 654 references published after 2007 and obtained from the search, 233 full-text papers (44 reviews, 155 studies, 31 case reports, and 3 surgical technique presentations) were reviewed. Twenty-two additional references cited for a definition were checked. One report defined the term surgical complication. There were 242 different terms used to describe local events and 64 to describe nonlocal events. Furthermore, 16 definitions of terms such as frozen shoulder, shoulder stiffness, or stiff painful shoulder were identified. Diagnosis criteria for shoulder stiffness differed widely; 12 various definitions for restriction in range of motion were noted. One definition included a gradation of stiffness severity, whereas another considered the patients subjective assessment of motion. Conclusion The literature does not consistently report on complications after ARCR, making valid comparison of the incidence of these events among published reports impossible. Specifically, the variation in criteria used to diagnose shoulder stiffness is problematic for valid and accurate reporting of this event. A standard for reporting this event and other complications after ARCR is needed. Clinical Relevance This review serves as the basis for the development of a uniform documentation process for shoulder stiffness and the standardization of complication definitions in ARCR following international consensus. PMID:26665096

  10. [Rotator cuff avulsion fractures : Current concepts in the surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Pauly, S; Scheibel, M

    2016-02-01

    Rotator cuff avulsion fractures represent rare lesions in younger individuals and are caused by different trauma mechanisms. The present article outlines current concepts regarding diagnosis, indications, and surgical approaches to the treatment of greater and lesser tuberosity fractures, as discussed in the international literature. Modified arthroscopic double-row rotator cuff repair techniques allow for the anatomical reduction and retention of fragments and the treatment of concomitant intra-articular lesions at the same time. Moreover, the article provides practical hints on different surgical repair techniques, their respective limitations and results from the literature. PMID:26754657

  11. Arthroscopic knots and strength sutures for rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Buchmann, Stefan; Berton, Alessandra; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2011-09-01

    Most arthroscopic rotator cuff reconstruction techniques require a method of securing the tendon to the bone to obtain a stable construct. The available options include knotless technology and suture welding, but the most common method uses suture anchors and knots. Tissue quality, surgical technique, repair material, and tension overload influence the stability of tissue repair. Arthroscopic knots are technically demanding because they are tied through cannulas with long-handled knot pushers. The strength of the repair is also influenced by the suture material used. In this study, we review the state-of-the-art of arthroscopic knots and suture materials being used for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. PMID:21822109

  12. Reverse arthroplasty of the shoulder for treating rotator cuff arthropathy???

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Marcus Vinicius Galvo; de Faria, Jos Leonardo Rocha; Siqueira, Glucio; Cohen, Marcio; Brando, Bruno; Moraes, Rickson; Monteiro, Martim; Motta, Geraldo

    2014-01-01

    Objective to present a retrospective analysis on the clinical-functional results and complications among patients with rotator cuff arthropathy (RCA) who underwent reverse arthroplasty of the shoulder. Methods patients with a diagnosis of RCA associated with pseudoparalysis of anterior elevation who underwent reverse arthroplasty of the shoulder with a minimum follow-up of one year were selected. Results preoperative information was gathered from our shoulder and elbow arthroplasty register, comprising age, sex, laterality, history of previous procedures, Constant's functional scores and the preoperative range of motion as described in the protocol of the American Academy of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery (ASES). After a mean follow-up of 44 months, 17 patients (94%) were satisfied with the result from the procedure. Conclusion reverse arthroplasty for treating RCA in patients with pseudoparalysis of the shoulder was shown to be effective in achieving a statistically significant improvement in range of motion regarding anterior flexion and abduction. However, in this series, there was no improvement in range of motion regarding external and internal rotation. Reverse arthroplasty is a procedure that reestablishes shoulder joint function in patients who previously did not present any therapeutic possibilities. PMID:26229813

  13. Mechanical characterization and biocompatibility of a novel reinforced fascia patch for rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Aurora, Amit; Mesiha, Mena; Tan, Carmela D; Walker, Esteban; Sahoo, Sambit; Iannotti, Joseph P; McCarron, Jesse A; Derwin, Kathleen A

    2011-11-01

    To provide mechanical augmentation for rotator cuff repair, it is necessary (though perhaps not sufficient) that scaffolds have tendon-like material and suture retention properties, be applied to the repair in a surgically appropriate manner, and maintain their mechanical properties for an acceptable period of time following surgery. While allograft fascia lata has material, structural, and biochemical properties similar to tendon tissue, its poor suture retention properties abrogates its potential as an augmentation device. The goal of this work was to design a novel reinforced fascia patch with suture retention and stiffness properties adequate to provide mechanical augmentation for rotator cuff repair. Fascia was reinforced by stitching with PLLA or PLLA/PGA polymer braids. Reinforced fascia patches had a maximum construct load greater than (or equal to) the suture retention properties of human rotator cuff tendon (?250N) at time zero and after in vivo implantation for 12 weeks in a rat subcutaneous model. The patches were able to withstand the 2500 loading cycles projected for the early post-operative period. The patches also demonstrated biocompatibility with the host using a rat abdominal wall defect model. These studies suggest the potential use of reinforced fascia patches to provide mechanical augmentation, minimize tendon retraction and possibly reduce the incidence of rotator cuff repair failure. PMID:21976447

  14. Anatomical Considerations of the Suprascapular Nerve in Rotator Cuff Repairs

    PubMed Central

    Tom, James A.; Shah, Mitesh P.; Lee, Dan J.; Cerynik, Douglas L.; Amin, Nirav H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. When using the double interval slide technique for arthroscopic repair of chronic large or massive rotator cuff tears, the posterior interval release is directed toward the scapular spine until the fat pad that protects the suprascapular nerve is reached. Injury to the suprascapular nerve can occur due to the nerve's proximity to the operative field. This study aimed to identify safe margins for avoiding injury to the suprascapular nerve. Materials and Methods. For 20 shoulders in ten cadavers, the distance was measured from the suprascapular notch to the glenoid rim, the articular margin of the rotator cuff footprint, and the lateral border of the acromion. Results. From the suprascapular notch, the suprascapular nerve coursed an average of 3.42 cm to the glenoid rim, 5.34 cm to the articular margin of the rotator cuff footprint, and 6.09 cm to the lateral border of the acromion. Conclusions. The results of this study define a safe zone, using anatomic landmarks, to help surgeons avoid iatrogenic injury to the suprascapular nerve when employing the double interval slide technique in arthroscopic repair of the rotator cuff. PMID:24724030

  15. Functional evaluation of patient after arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff tear

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rohit; Jadhav, Umesh

    2014-01-01

    Background Rotator cuff tear is a common problem either after trauma or after degenerative tear in old age group. Arthroscopic repair is the current concept of rotator cuff repair. Here, we are trying to evaluate the functional outcome after arthroscopic repair of full thickness rotator cuff tear (single row) in Indian population. Materials and methods Twenty five patients (14 males and 11 females) who underwent arthroscopic repair of full thickness rotator cuff tear at a single institution were included in the study. Postoperatively patient's shoulder was rated according to UCLA score, pain was graded according to the visual analog score. The range of motion was analysed and documented. Results The mean age of the patients were 50.48 years. The preoperative VAS score mode was 7 and post operative VAS was 1 (p value <0.001). The UCLA grading was good in 80% (n = 20), fair in 12% (n = 3), excellent in 8% (n = 2) and poor results were seen in none of the patients. The mean UCLA improved from a score of 15.84 to 30.28 with a p value <0.001. Mean postoperative forward flexion was 161.6°, mean abduction was 147.6° and mean external rotation was 45.4°. Conclusion Arthroscopic repair is a good procedure for full thickness rotator cuff tear with minimal complications. The newer double row repair claims to be biomechanically superior with faster healing rates without functional advantages, hence we used a single row repair considering the Indian population and the cost effectiveness of the surgery with good to excellent results. PMID:25983476

  16. Muscle Gene Expression Patterns in Human Rotator Cuff Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Alexander; McCarthy, Meagan; Pichika, Rajeswari; Sato, Eugene J.; Lieber, Richard L.; Schenk, Simon; Lane, John G.; Ward, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Rotator cuff pathology is a common source of shoulder pain with variable etiology and pathoanatomical characteristics. Pathological processes of fatty infiltration, muscle atrophy, and fibrosis have all been invoked as causes for poor outcomes after rotator cuff tear repair. The aims of this study were to measure the expression of key genes associated with adipogenesis, myogenesis, and fibrosis in human rotator cuff muscle after injury and to compare the expression among groups of patients with varied severities of rotator cuff pathology. Methods: Biopsies of the supraspinatus muscle were obtained arthroscopically from twenty-seven patients in the following operative groups: bursitis (n = 10), tendinopathy (n = 7), full-thickness rotator cuff tear (n = 8), and massive rotator cuff tear (n = 2). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed to characterize gene expression pathways involved in myogenesis, adipogenesis, and fibrosis. Results: Patients with a massive tear demonstrated downregulation of the fibrogenic, adipogenic, and myogenic genes, indicating that the muscle was not in a state of active change and may have difficulty responding to stimuli. Patients with a full-thickness tear showed upregulation of fibrotic and adipogenic genes; at the tissue level, these correspond to the pathologies most detrimental to outcomes of surgical repair. Patients with bursitis or tendinopathy still expressed myogenic genes, indicating that the muscle may be attempting to accommodate the mechanical deficiencies induced by the tendon tear. Conclusions: Gene expression in human rotator cuff muscles varied according to tendon injury severity. Patients with bursitis and tendinopathy appeared to be expressing pro-myogenic genes, whereas patients with a full-thickness tear were expressing genes associated with fatty atrophy and fibrosis. In contrast, patients with a massive tear appeared to have downregulation of all gene programs except inhibition of myogenesis. Clinical Relevance: These data highlight the difficulty in treating massive tears and suggest that the timing of treatment may be important for muscle recovery. Specifically, earlier interventions to address tendon injury may allow muscles to respond more appropriately to mechanical stimuli. PMID:25232080

  17. EVALUATION OF THE RESULTS FROM REOPERATIONS ON PATIENTS WITH ROTATOR CUFF LESIONS

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Fregoneze, Marcelo; Santos, Pedro Doneux; da Silva, Luciana Andrade; do Val Sella, Guilherme; Santos, Ruy Mesquita Maranhão; de Souza, Adriano; Estelles, José Renato Depari; Checchia, Sérgio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the results from open or arthroscopic surgical treatment on patients with symptomatic recurrence of rotator cuff injuries. Methods: Between December 1990 and July 2007, 30 patients were assessed and underwent reoperation performed by the Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Group of the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Fernandinho Simonsen Wing, Santa Casa de São Paulo, because of dehiscence of the rotator cuff suture. The study included patients with symptomatic recurrence of the injury and with at least 24 months of postoperative follow-up. Results: According to the UCLA evaluation criteria, 21 patients (70%) showed excellent or good outcomes; and nine patients (30%) showed fair or poor outcomes. Conclusion: Open or arthroscopic surgical treatment of recurrent rotator cuff injuries tended to present worse results than from the primary repair. In this study, we found that 70% of the results were excellent and good. The presence of extensive injuries in the reoperation tended to evolve with larger numbers of unsatisfactory results. In our study, we obtained better results from arthroscopic surgery than from open surgery.

  18. RESULTS OF SURGICAL TREATMENT OF DENERATIVE ARTHROPATHY OF THE ROTATOR CUFF USING HEMIARTHROPLASTY- CTA®

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Rômulo Brasil; Ribeiro, Fabiano Rebouças; Tenor, Antonio Carlos; Filho, Cantidio Salvador Filardi; da Costa, Guilherme Barbieri Leme; Storti, Thiago Medeiros; da Costa Garcia, André; Lutfi, Hilton Vargas

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess results of CTA® partial shoulder arthroplasty for treatment of degenerative arthropathy of the rotator cuff. Methods: Between December 2006 and June 2009, 23 shoulders of 23 patients were submitted to CTA® type partial shoulder arthroplasty for treatment of arthropathy secondary to rotator cuff injury. Post-operative follow up time ranged from 6 to 35 months. Mean age was 74.1 years. Patients were predominantly female, representing 78.3% of cases. The right limb was affected in 18 patients. All patients had undergone at least 6 months of physiotherapy without improvement of the algetic picture, and being submitted to surgery by the same surgical team. None of the patients had history of surgery on the affected shoulder. The method elected for assessing patients during post-operative follow up was based on UCLA scoring criteria. Results: Improvement in pain was observed in all patients after arthroplasty. Mean UCLA pain score was 9.22 (ranging from 10 to 8). Mean function was 6 (10 to 2). Active frontal flexion was 2.39 (highest score 4 and lowest 0). Mean frontal flexion force was 4.09, maximum was 5 and minimum 3. Mean score on the UCLA was 26.52. 95% were satisfied with the surgery. Conclusion: CTA® type partial shoulder arthroplasty produced satisfactory results in the treatment of degenerative arthropathy of the rotator cuff and had a low rate of complications.

  19. Hemi- versus bipolar shoulder arthroplasty for chronic rotator cuff arthropathy

    PubMed Central

    Pap, Gza

    2007-01-01

    Both bipolar and hemiarthroplasty have been used to treat rotator cuff arthropathy (RCA) of the shoulder in patients with low functional demands. In this study, 41 patients treated with either a bipolar or hemiarthroplasty were selected retrospectively to detect possible differences in the functional outcome and to evaluate radiological properties of the implants. Patients were examined before and 30??6months after surgery. There were no differences in the Constant scores between the groups treated with hemiarthroplasty and bipolar arthroplasty, 58.9??13.1 points and 55.8??13.5 points, respectively (P?=?0.457). We found a significant increase in abduction postoperatively in both groups (P?=?0.041 bipolar, P?=?0.000 hemiarthroplasty) but without statistical significance between the hemiarthroplasty and bipolar arthroplasty groups (P?=?0.124, F?=?2.6). This result is related in the bipolar group due to movement between the shell and inner head (P?=?0.042) and in the hemiarthroplasty group due to movement between the humeral head component and the glenoid (P?=?0.000). In conclusion, we found that both hemiarthroplasty and bipolar arthroplasty are effective treatment options for carefully selected patients with RCA and low functional demands, with no differences between the groups. PMID:17609946

  20. Conservative management of rotator cuff tears: literature review and proposal for a prognostic. Prediction Score

    PubMed Central

    Merolla, Giovanni; Paladini, Paolo; Saporito, Marco; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Summary Rotator cuff tears are a common cause of pain and shoulder dysfunction. The prevalence of the rotator cuff tears increases with the age reaching the 80% in patients aged more than 80 year. Symptomatic shoulders usually are initially treated conservatively and then, in case of poor outcomes, with surgery. Different parameters are still used to decide between the conservative or surgical treatment in patients with rotator cuff tears. Aim of the current study is to characterize the various features used in decision making and to validate a Prediction Score that let us know which patients could have a good and stable outcome with non operative treatment. We enrolled 60 patients (mean age 52 years) with symptomatic rotator cuff tears who were assigned to conservative treatment and were evaluated at 6,9 and 12 months follow-up. We developed a score based on 18 clinical and radiographic parameters. 27 patients (non conservative) (45%) with a mean prediction score of 16.1 1.7 interrupted the conservative treatment, while 33 patients (conservative) (55%) with an average prediction score of 11.3 1.8 remained conservatively treated at last follow-up. The conservative patients were 14 years older than non conservative patients. According to the results of this study we identified a value of 13 points as a cut-off score to predict good results by conservative management of rotator cuff tear. These outcomes support the assumption that a predictive prognostic score may guarantee a rational approach in the management of subjects with RC tears, especially in elderly who continue to have the higher rate of recurrence and therefore could be well treated with standard conservative therapies. PMID:23738239

  1. Midterm clinical outcomes following arthroscopic transosseous rotator cuff repair

    PubMed Central

    Flanagin, Brody A.; Garofalo, Raffaele; Lo, Eddie Y.; Feher, LeeAnne; Castagna, Alessandro; Qin, Huanying; Krishnan, Sumant G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Arthroscopic transosseous (TO) rotator cuff repair has recently emerged as a new option for surgical treatment of symptomatic rotator cuff tears. Limited data is available regarding outcomes using this technique. This study evaluated midterm clinical outcomes following a novel arthroscopic TO (anchorless) rotator cuff repair technique. Materials and Methods: A consecutive series of 107 patients and 109 shoulders underwent arthroscopic TO (anchorless) rotator cuff repair for a symptomatic full-thickness tear. Pre and postoperative range of motion (ROM) was compared at an average of 11.8 months. Postoperative outcome scores were obtained at an average of 38.0 months. Statistical analysis was performed to compare pre and postoperative ROM data. Univariate analysis was performed using Student's t-test to compare the effect of other clinical characteristics on final outcome. Results: Statistically significant improvements were noted in forward flexion, external rotation and internal rotation (P < 0.0001). Average postoperative subjective shoulder value was 93.7, simple shoulder test 11.6, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score 94.6. According to ASES scores, results for the 109 shoulders available for final follow-up were excellent in 95 (87.1%), good in 8 (7.3%), fair in 3 (2.8%), and poor in 3 (2.8%). There was no difference in ROM or outcome scores in patients who underwent a concomitant biceps procedure (tenodesis or tenotomy) compared with those who did not. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in outcome between patients who underwent either biceps tenodesis or tenotomy. Age, history of injury preceding the onset of pain, tear size, number of TO tunnels required to perform the repair, and presence of fatty infiltration did not correlate with postoperative ROM or subjective outcome measures at final follow-up. Two complications and four failures were noted. Conclusions: Arthroscopic TO rotator cuff repair technique leads to statistically significant midterm improvement in ROM and satisfactory midterm subjective outcome scores with low complication/failure rates in patients with average medium-sized rotator cuff tears with minimal fatty infiltration. Further work is required to evaluate radiographic healing rates with this technique and to compare outcomes following suture anchor repair. Level of Evidence: Level IV PMID:26980983

  2. EXTENSIVE ROTATOR CUFF INJURIES: AN EVALUATION OF ARTHROSCOPIC REPAIR OUTCOMES

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Fregoneze, Marcelo; Santos, Pedro Doneux; Silva, Luciana Andrade; Eduardo, Cesar Moreira Mariz Pinto Rodrigo Tormin Ortiz; Checchia, Sergio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    To assess the outcomes of the surgical treatment of extensive rotator cuff injuries through arthroscopy. Methods: Between June 1998 and October 2006, 61 patients with extensive rotator cuff injuries and submitted to surgical arthroscopy technique by the Shoulder and Elbow Group of the Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Santa Casa de Misericórdia Medical School were reassessed. The study included all patients with at least two tendons affected or with retraction at least on two tendons up to the glenoidal cavity edge and with at least 12 months of follow-up. Results: According to UCLA's evaluation criteria, 54 (89%) patients showed excellent or good outcomes; no fair outcome in none of the patients; and seven (11%) poor outcomes. A satisfaction rate of 92% was reported. Postoperative joint motion went from a mean lifting value of 93° to 141°, the mean lateral rotation went from 32° to 48° and the mean medial rotation went from L1 to T10. These differences were regarded as statistically significant. Conclusion: The arthroscopic repair of extensive rotator cuff injuries leads to satisfactory outcomes for most of the patients, with a high satisfaction degree.

  3. Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Using the Undersurface Technique

    PubMed Central

    Rubenis, Imants; Lam, Patrick H.; Murrell, George A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair has traditionally been performed in the subacromial space from the bursal side of the tendon. The undersurface rotator cuff repair technique involves the arthroscope remaining in the glenohumeral joint, thus viewing the tendon from its undersurface during repair without a bursectomy or acromioplasty. Purpose: To compare the clinical and structural outcomes of undersurface rotator cuff repair with bursal-side repair. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was conducted on 2 cohorts of patients who had undergone arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with knotless suture anchors configured in a single-row formation using inverted mattress–style sutures from either the bursal side (n = 100) or undersurface (n = 165) of the supraspinatus tendon. Data were collected preoperatively, intraoperatively, and at 1 week, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 2 years postoperatively. At each time point, patients completed a modified L’Insalata questionnaire to assess patient-ranked pain scores and were clinically examined using standardized tests. Ultrasound examination was performed at 6 months and 2 years to assess the integrity of the repair. Results: At 2 years postoperatively, patients in both cohorts had significantly less pain and less difficulty with overhead activities compared with preoperative levels (P < .001). The type of repair performed (bursal or undersurface) did not affect the ability to perform overhead activities at 2 years. At 2 years, both groups also had similar retear rates (21% for bursal side, 23% for undersurface). The mean operative time for the arthroscopic rotator cuff repair was 32 minutes when performed from the bursal side and 20 minutes when performed from the undersurface (P < .001). Conclusion: Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, whether performed from the subacromial space or glenohumeral joint, resulted in decreased levels of pain and difficulty with overhead activities at 2 years. The major difference between the 2 techniques was operative time, with the undersurface technique being performed significantly faster than the bursal-side repair technique. PMID:26535375

  4. COMPARISON OF COMPLEMENTARY EXAMS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF ROTATOR CUFF INJURIES

    PubMed Central

    El-Kouba, Gabriel; Andreas Huber, Thomas; Freitas, José Renato Wilke; Steglich, Valdir; Ayzemberg, Henrique; Santos, Adriano M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of simple radiography, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing rotator cuff injuries, comparing their findings with open or arthroscopic surgery findings. Methods: Protocols of the Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Service for patients undergoing surgical treatment for rotator cuff injuries diagnosed by means of radiography, ultrasound and/or MRI between 2002 and 2007 were evaluated. Based on the data gathered, we analyzed the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of these complementary examinations, compared with the findings during the surgical procedures. Results: This study included 147 patients with a mean age of 46.09 years. All the patients had undergone a radiography examination, 101 had undergone ultrasound examination and 72 had undergone MRI. We found sensitivity of 13.8%, specificity of 2.6% and accuracy of 30% with radiography; sensitivity of 57.6%, specificity of 29.6% and accuracy of 51.4% with ultrasound; and sensitivity of 86.6%, specificity of 22.2% and accuracy of 63.3% with MRI. Conclusion: Radiography was found to be a specific examination when the mirror sign was present. MRI and ultrasound were shown to be reliable methods with high accuracy for diagnosing rotator cuff injuries.

  5. Shoulder muscle forces during driving: Sudden steering can load the rotator cuff beyond its repair limit

    PubMed Central

    Pandis, Petros; Prinold, Joe A.I.; Bull, Anthony M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Driving is one of the most common everyday tasks and the rotator cuff muscles are the primary shoulder stabilisers. Muscle forces during driving are not currently known, yet knowledge of these would influence important clinical advice such as return to activities after surgery. The aim of this study is to quantify shoulder and rotator cuff muscle forces during driving in different postures. Methods A musculoskeletal modelling approach is taken, using a modified driving simulator in combination with an upper limb musculoskeletal model (UK National Shoulder Model). Motion data and external force vectors were model inputs and upper limb muscle and joint forces were the outputs. Findings Comparisons of the predicted glenohumeral joint forces were compared to in vivo literature values, with good agreement demonstrated (61 SD 8% body weight mean peak compared to 60 SD 1% body weight mean peak). High muscle activation was predicted in the rotator cuff muscles; particularly supraspinatus (mean 55% of the maximum and up to 164 SD 27 N). This level of loading is up to 72% of mean failure strength for supraspinatus repairs, and could therefore be dangerous for some cases. Statistically significant and large differences are shown to exist in the joint and muscle forces for different driving positions as well as steering with one or both hands (up to 46% body weight glenohumeral joint force). Interpretation These conclusions should be a key consideration in rehabilitating the shoulder after surgery, preventing specific upper limb injuries and predicting return to driving recommendations. PMID:26139549

  6. Open Rotator Cuff Tear Repair Using Deltopectoral Approach

    PubMed Central

    Guity, Mohammad Reza; Eraghi, Amir Sobhani

    2015-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to evaluate the outcome of the open repair of rotator cuff tears via the deltopectoral approach in patients unable to afford arthroscopic repair costs. Methods: We evaluated 80 consecutive patients who were treated for full-thickness rotator cuff tears by open repair through the deltopectoral approach. There were 48 men and 32 women at a mean age of 60.1 years (range, 35-80 years). Preoperative and postoperative clinical assessments were performed with the Constant score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, modified University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) score, and pain visual analog scale. Results: The mean follow-up period was 30.6 months (range, 18-48 months). At final follow-up visits, the ASES, Constant score, and modified UCLA score were found to have improved significantly from 33.56, 39.24, and 13.0 to 85.64, 81.46, and 32.2, respectively (P <0.01). Pain, as measured on a visual analog scale, was improved significantly (P <0.01). The mean time for recovering the full range of motion was 2.5 months. Postoperative pain at 48 hours and at 6 weeks was relatively low. There were no cases of intractable stiffness. Conclusion: The deltopectoral approach for open rotator cuff repair produced satisfactory results and reduces rate of shoulder stiffness and postoperative pain. PMID:26622080

  7. A randomised controlled feasibility study investigating the use of eccentric and concentric strengthening exercises in the treatment of rotator cuff tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, Marcus; Adams, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To conduct a feasibility study to compare concentric and eccentric rotator cuff strengthening exercises for rotator cuff tendinopathy. Methods: A total of 11 patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy who were on the waiting list for arthroscopic subacromial decompression surgery were randomised to perform eccentric rotator cuff strengthening exercises, concentric strengthening exercises or no exercises. Patients were evaluated in terms of levels of pain and function using the Oxford Shoulder Score and a Visual Analogue Scale initially, at 4 weeks and at 8 weeks. Results: The study design was found to be acceptable to patients and achieved a high level of 86% compliance. The drop-out rate was 0%. Two patients performing eccentric strengthening exercises improved sufficiently to cancel their planned surgery. Conclusion: Further research in this area is recommended. The study design was feasible and power calculations have been conducted to aid future research planning.

  8. The low-profile Roman bridge technique for knotless double-row repair of the rotator cuff.

    PubMed

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Franceschi, Francesco; Spiezia, Filippo; Marinozzi, Andrea; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2011-03-01

    With advances in arthroscopic surgery, many techniques have been developed to increase the tendon-bone contact area, reconstituting a more anatomic configuration of the rotator cuff footprint and providing a better environment for tendon healing. We present a low-profile arthroscopic rotator cuff repair technique which uses suture bridges to optimize rotator cuff tendon-footprint contact area and mean pressure. A 5.5mm Bio-Corkscrew suture anchor (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA), double-loaded with No. 2 FiberWire sutures (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA), is placed in the anteromedial aspect of the footprint. Two suture limbs from a single suture are both passed through a single anterior point in the rotator cuff. One suture limb is retrieved from the cannula. The second suture limb is passed through a single posterior point in the rotator cuff producing two points of fixation in the tendon, with a tendon bridge between them. The same suture limb is retrieved through the lateral portal, and then inserted into the bone by means of a Pushlock (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA), placed approximately 1.5-2cm posterior to the first anchor. This second suture is passed again in the posterior aspect of the cuff. The limbs of the first suture are pulled to compress the tendon in the medial aspect of the footprint. The two free suture limbs are used to produce suture bridges over the tendon by means of a Pushlock (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA), placed 1cm distal to the lateral edge of the footprint relative to the medially placed suture anchors anterior to posterior. This technique allows us to perform a low-profile (single pulley-suture bridges) repair for knotless double-row repair of the rotator cuff. PMID:21063885

  9. Diagnostic anatomy and diagnostics of enthesal pathologies of the rotator cuff

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Detailed anatomy, crucial in modern high-definition diagnostics imaging, is a base for understanding diagnostic images and the nature of the diagnosed disease. The aim of this paper is presentation of a new anatomical model of the rotator cuff, which includes definition of tendinous and capsule-ligamentous layers as equally important to rotator cuff function understanding. Schematic and diagnostic (ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging) anatomy of the rotator cuff based on the core tendon concept is presented. Appropriate tissue layers of the cuff are discussed in detail. In the diagnostics part some enthesal pathologies of the rotator cuff are presented. Material and methods New anatomical data was analyzed in the context of rotator cuff layers their presence, thickness and structure observed on magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonographic images. Conclusions Rotator cuff should be regarded as a multilayer structure consisting of fused fibers of tendons and capsuloligamentous complex. The thickness of these layers is comparable therefore it is important to realize that capsular pathologies may become a serious obstacle to normal shoulder joint function. Understanding of anatomical rotator cuff layers explains the formation of calcific cavities within the rotator cuff. In fact between layers of the cuff. Calcific cavities are a sequelae of chronic enthesopathy/enthesal tear with hydroxyapatite filling and probably delaminating the tendinous layer from the capsuloligamentous one. PMID:26674384

  10. Disintegration of an absorbable rotator cuff anchor six weeks after implantation.

    PubMed

    Kelly, James D

    2005-04-01

    Rotator cuff failure by suture-bone or suture anchor pull-out, suture breakage, knot slippage, and tendon pull-out are well described. I report a case of early disintegration of a bioabsorbable suture anchor. A 77-year-old woman underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. On suspecting failure, the repair was repeated 40 days later. Arthroscopy revealed disintegration of the suture loop from the anchor. Open rotator cuff repair was then performed with transosseous suture and metallic anchors. PMID:15800531

  11. A symptom-based classification for shoulders with massive rotator cuff defects

    PubMed Central

    Loew, Markus

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to propose a classification for shoulders with massive rotator cuff defects based on patients clinical symptoms. A total of 100 shoulders with massive rotator cuff tears were evaluated clinically using the Constant score (CS) and with radiographs in two planes. Three types were defined and correlated with radiographic findings: (1) the arthritic type (type I), (2) the non-reactive type (type II) and (3) the necrotic type (type III). Significant differences in the overall CS (type I: 28.6 points, range: 4 61; type II: 18.8 points, range: 6 52; type III: 15.5 points, range: 6 31) and its subgroups and in shoulder motion were found between types I and II and between types I and III (p?surgery in patients with massive rotator cuff defects. PMID:19214508

  12. Immobilization After Rotator Cuff Repair: What Evidence Do We Have Now?

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jason E; Horneff, John G; Gee, Albert O

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent tears after rotator cuff repair are common. Postoperative rehabilitation after rotator cuff repair is a modifiable factor controlled by the surgeon that can affect re-tear rates. Some surgeons prefer early mobilization after rotator cuff repair, whereas others prefer a period of immobilization to protect the repair site. The tendon-healing process incorporates biochemical and biomechanical responses to mechanical loading. Healing can be optimized with controlled loading. Complete load removal and chronic overload can be deleterious to the process. Several randomized clinical studies have also characterized the role of postoperative mobilization after rotator cuff repair. PMID:26614931

  13. Augmented Fixation With Biodegradable Subacromial Spacer After Repair of Massive Rotator Cuff Tear

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Murat; Akkaya, Mustafa; Gursoy, Safa; Isik, Cetin

    2015-01-01

    Unsuccessful outcomes after repair of massive rotator cuff ruptures accompanied by muscle atrophy and fatty degeneration are frequently associated with inadequate management and secondary tears. We report the functional differences after rotator cuff rupture repair with a biodegradable spacer application. In these patients, rotator cuff rupture repair should provide coverage of the humeral head. Subsequently, acromioplasty should be performed to allow adequate space for the subacromial spacer. Thereafter measurement of the intra-articular space required for application of the biodegradable spacer is performed. Using this method can decrease the rate of tears by providing a safe subacromial space in cases of massive rotator cuff rupture. PMID:26697306

  14. All-Arthroscopic Patch Augmentation of a Massive Rotator Cuff Tear: Surgical Technique

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, Peter N.; Frank, Rachel M.; Gupta, Anil K.; Yanke, Adam B.; Trenhaile, Scott W.; Romeo, Anthony A.; Bach, Bernard R.; Verma, Nikhil N.

    2013-01-01

    Surgical management of massive rotator cuff tears remains challenging, with failure rates ranging from 20% to 90%. Multiple different arthroscopic and open techniques have been described, but there is no current gold standard. Failure after rotator cuff repair is typically multifactorial; however, failure of tendon-footprint healing is often implicated. Patch augmentation has been described as a possible technique to augment the biology of rotator cuff repair in situations of compromised tendon quality and has shown promising short-term results. The purpose of this article is to describe our preferred surgical technique for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with patch augmentation. PMID:24400198

  15. Effect of tamoxifen on fatty degeneration and atrophy of rotator cuff muscles in chronic rotator cuff tear: An animal model study.

    PubMed

    Cho, Edward; Zhang, Yue; Pruznak, Anne; Kim, H Mike

    2015-12-01

    Fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles is an irreversible change resulting from chronic rotator cuff tear and is associated with poor clinical outcomes following rotator cuff repair. We evaluated the effect of Tamoxifen, a competitive estrogen receptor inhibitor, on fatty degeneration using a mouse model for chronic rotator cuff tear. Sixteen adult mice were divided into two diet groups (Tamoxifen vs. Regular) and subjected to surgical creation of a large rotator cuff tear and suprascapular nerve transection in their left shoulder with the right shoulder serving as a control. The rotator cuff muscles were harvested at 16 weeks and subjected to histology and RT-PCR for adipogenic and myogenic markers. Histology showed substantially decreased atrophy and endomysial inflammation in Tamoxifen group, but no significant differences in the amount of intramuscular adipocytes and lipid droplets compared to the Regular group. With RT-PCR, the operated shoulders showed significant upregulation of myogenin and PPAR-?, and downregulation of myostatin compared to the nonsurgical shoulder. No significant differences of gene expression were found between the two diet groups. Our study demonstrated that tamoxifen diet leads to decreased muscle atrophy and inflammatory changes following chronic rotator cuff tear, but has no apparent effect on adipogenesis. 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:1846-1853, 2015. PMID:26121952

  16. PROSPECTIVE AND COMPARATIVE STUDY ON FUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES AFTER OPEN AND ARTHROSCOPIC REPAIR OF ROTATOR CUFF TEARS

    PubMed Central

    de Castro Veado, Marco Antônio; Castilho, Rodrigo Simões; Maia, Philipe Eduardo Carvalho; Rodrigues, Alessandro Ulhôa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively assess the surgical results from patients undergoing repairs to rotator cuff injuries via open and arthroscopic procedures, with regard to functional and clinical features, and by means of ultrasound examinations, and to compare occurrences of renewed tearing. Methods: Sixty patients underwent operations performed by the same surgeon (29 via open surgery and 31 via arthroscopy), to repair complete rotator cuff tears. The procedures were performed at Hospital Governor Israel Pinheiro (HGIP) and Mater Dei Hospital in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, between August 2007 and February 2009. The patients were assessed functionally by means of the UCLA score before and after the operation, and magnetic resonance imaging was done before the operation. All the patients were reassessed at least 12 months after the operation, and an ultrasound examination was also performed at this time. Results: Out of the 29 patients who underwent open surgery, 27 (93.1%) presented good or excellent results, with a mean UCLA score of 32 after the operation. Their mean follow-up was 14 months. Three patients presented renewed tearing on ultrasound, of whom one remained asymptomatic. Out of the 31 patients who underwent arthroscopic procedures, 29 (93.5%) presented good or excellent results, with a mean UCLA score of 33 after the operation. Their mean follow-up was 19 months. Two patients presented renewed tearing, of whom one remained asymptomatic and one evolved with loosening of an anchor, with an unsatisfactory result. Conclusion: The repairs on rotator cuff injuries presented good results by means of both open surgery and arthroscopy, with similar functional results in the two groups and similar rates of renewed tearing.

  17. Magnetic resonance appearance of bioabsorbable anchor screws for double row arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs

    PubMed Central

    Pawaskar, Aditya C; Kekatpure, Aashay; Cho, Nam-Su; Rhee, Yong-Girl; Jeon, In-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the bioabsorbable, anchor related postoperative changes in rotator cuff surgery, which has become more popular recently. The purpose of the present study was to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to analyze the degradation of bioabsorbable anchors and to determine the incidences and characteristics of early postoperative reactions around the anchors and their mechanical failures. Materials and Methods: Postoperative MRIs of 200 patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were retrospectively analyzed. The tissue reactions around the bioanchors included fluid accumulations around the anchor, granulation tissue formation and changes in the condition of the surrounding osseous structure. The condition of the bioanchor itself was also examined, including whether the bioanchor failed mechanically. In the case of mechanical failure, the location of the failure was noted. Serial MRIs of 18 patients were available for analysis. Results: The total number of medial row bioanchors was 124, while that of the lateral row was 338. A low signal intensity rim suggestive of sclerosis surrounded all lateral row bioanchors. Ninety three lateral row bioanchors (27%) showed a rim with signal intensity similar to or less than that of surrounding bone, which was granulation tissue or foreign body reaction (FBR). Similar signal intensity was seen around nine medial row bioanchors (7%). Fluid accumulation was seen around 4 lateral row bioanchors (1%) and around 14 medial row bioanchors (11%). Five lateral row bioanchors showed the breakage, while there was none in the medial row bioanchors. There were nine cases with a cuff re-tear (4.5%). There was no evidence of affection of glenohumeral articular surfaces or of osteolysis around any bioanchor. In serial MRI, there was no change in appearance of the bioanchors, but the granulation tissue or FBR around four bioanchors and the fluid around one bioanchor showed a decrease in successive MRI. Conclusion: This study highlights the normal and adverse reactions to Bioabsorbable anchors that surgeons can expect to see on MRI after rotator cuff repairs. PMID:26015604

  18. Predicting Rotator Cuff Tears Using Data Mining and Bayesian Likelihood Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hsueh-Yi; Huang, Chen-Yuan; Su, Chwen-Tzeng; Lin, Chen-Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Rotator cuff tear is a common cause of shoulder diseases. Correct diagnosis of rotator cuff tears can save patients from further invasive, costly and painful tests. This study used predictive data mining and Bayesian theory to improve the accuracy of diagnosing rotator cuff tears by clinical examination alone. Methods In this retrospective study, 169 patients who had a preliminary diagnosis of rotator cuff tear on the basis of clinical evaluation followed by confirmatory MRI between 2007 and 2011 were identified. MRI was used as a reference standard to classify rotator cuff tears. The predictor variable was the clinical assessment results, which consisted of 16 attributes. This study employed 2 data mining methods (ANN and the decision tree) and a statistical method (logistic regression) to classify the rotator cuff diagnosis into tear and no tear groups. Likelihood ratio and Bayesian theory were applied to estimate the probability of rotator cuff tears based on the results of the prediction models. Results Our proposed data mining procedures outperformed the classic statistical method. The correction rate, sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve of predicting a rotator cuff tear were statistical better in the ANN and decision tree models compared to logistic regression. Based on likelihood ratios derived from our prediction models, Fagan's nomogram could be constructed to assess the probability of a patient who has a rotator cuff tear using a pretest probability and a prediction result (tear or no tear). Conclusions Our predictive data mining models, combined with likelihood ratios and Bayesian theory, appear to be good tools to classify rotator cuff tears as well as determine the probability of the presence of the disease to enhance diagnostic decision making for rotator cuff tears. PMID:24733553

  19. Smoking and operative treatment of rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Kukkonen, J; Kauko, T; Virolainen, P; rimaa, V

    2014-04-01

    This registry study was set up to evaluate the effect of smoking on the pre-operative status, intraoperative findings, and post-operative status after rotator cuff reconstruction. Five hundred seventy-six consecutive shoulders with primarily arthroscopically repaired penetrating rotator cuff tear were followed up. Tobacco consumption was recorded as pack-years. Age-adjusted Constant score was used as an outcome measure. Five hundred sixty-four patients were available for 1-year follow-up (dropout rate 2%). One hundred fourteen (20%) and 450 (80%) patients were pre-operatively recorded to be smokers and non-smokers, respectively. The gender distribution did not differ between the groups (P = 0.286). The mean age of all patients was 55 years in smokers (SD 9.1) and 61 years in non-smokers (SD 9.4) (P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in pre-operative Constant score (P = 0.075) or mean size of intraoperatively measured tendon tear (P = 0.290) between the groups. At final follow-up, there was a statistically significant difference in Constant scores between smokers [71 (SE 1.4)] and non-smokers [75 (SE 0.7)] (P = 0.017). The pack-years of smoking correlated with neither the Constant score (P = 0.815) nor the size of the tear (P = 0.786). We conclude that operatively treated rotator cuff tear patients who smoked were significantly younger than non-smokers, and that smoking was associated with lower post-operative Constant score. PMID:23206267

  20. Classification of rotator cuff tendinopathy using high definition ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Hinsley, Hannah; Nicholls, Alex; Daines, Michael; Wallace, Gemma; Arden, Nigel; Carr, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: ultrasound is a valid cost effective tool in screening for rotator cuff pathology with high levels of accuracy in detecting full-thickness tears. To date there is no rotator cuff tendinopathy classification using ultrasound. The aims of this study are to define a valid high-definition ultrasound rotator cuff tendinopathy classification, which has discriminate validity between groups based upon anatomical principles. Methods: 464 women, aged 65–87, from an established general population cohort underwent bilateral shoulder ultrasound and musculoskeletal assessment. Sonographer accuracy was established in a separate study by comparing ultrasound findings to the gold standard intra-operative findings. Results: there were 510 normal tendons, 217 abnormal tendons, 77 partial tears, and 124 full-thickness tears. There was no statistical difference in age or the proportion with pain between the abnormal enthesis and partial tear groups, however both groups were statistically older (p<0.001) and had a greater proportion with pain (p<0.001 & p=0.050) than normal tendons. The full-thickness tears were statistically older than normal tendons (p<0.001), but not abnormal/partially torn tendons. The proportion with pain was significantly greater than both groups (p<0.001 & p=0.006). Symptomatic shoulders had a larger median tear size than asymptomatic shoulders (p=0.006). Using tear size as a predictor of pain likelihood, optimum sensitivity and specificity occurred when dividing tears into groups up to 2.5cm and >2.5cm, which corresponds with anatomical descriptions of the width of the supraspinatus tendon. Conclusion: the classification system is as follows: Normal Tendons; Abnormal enthesis/Partial-thickness tear; Single tendon full-thickness tears (0–2.5cm); Multi-tendon full-thickness tears (>2.5cm). PMID:25489559

  1. Association between alcohol consumption and rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Passaretti, Daniele; Candela, Vittorio; Venditto, Teresa; Giannicola, Giuseppe; Gumina, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Background and purpose - Long-term alcohol intake is associated with various negative effects on capillary microcirculation and tissue perfusion. We hypothesized that alcohol consumption might be a risk factor for both the occurrence and the severity of rotator cuff tears (RCTs). Patients and methods - A case-control study was performed. We studied 249 consecutive patients (139 men and 110 women; mean age 64 (54-78) years) who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Tear size was determined intraoperatively. The control group had 356 subjects (186 men and 170 women; mean age 66 (58-82) years) with no RCT. All participants were questioned about their alcohol intake. Participants were divided into: (1) non-drinkers if they consumed less than 0.01 g of ethanol per day, and (2) moderate drinkers and (3) excessive drinkers if women (men) consumed > 24 g (36 g) per day for at least 2 years. Results - Total alcohol consumption, wine consumption, and duration of alcohol intake were higher in both men and women with RCT than in both men and women in the control group. Excessive alcohol consumption was found to be a risk factor for the occurrence of RCT in both sexes (men: OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-3.9; women: OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 0.94-4.1). Massive tears were associated with a higher intake of alcohol (especially wine) than smaller lesions. Interpretation - Long-term alcohol intake is a significant risk factor for the occurrence and severity of rotator cuff tear in both sexes. PMID:26610042

  2. Efficacy of hyaluronic acid or steroid injections for the treatment of a rat model of rotator cuff injury.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Sasaki, Yu; Kijima, Takehiro; Hashimoto, Eiko; Sasaki, Yasuhito; Kenmoku, Tomonori; Yamazaki, Hironori; Miyagi, Masayuki; Ohtori, Seiji; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated dorsal root ganglia from C3-C7, analyzed gait, and compared the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) which was a marker of inflammatory pain in a rat rotator cuff tear model in which the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons were detached; comparisons were made to a sham group in which only the tendons were exposed. Fluorogold was injected into the glenohumeral joint 21 days after surgery in both groups, and saline, steroids, or hyaluronic acid was injected into the glenohumeral joint in the rotator cuff tear group 26 days after surgery. The proportions of CGRP-immunoreactive neurons were higher and the gait parameters were impaired in the rotator cuff tear group compared to in the sham group. However, the CGRP expression was reduced and the gait was improved with steroid or hyaluronic acid injection compared to saline, suggesting that both hyaluronic acid and steroid injections suppressed of inflammation which thought to be provided pain relief. While there were no significant differences, the suppression of CGRP expression and the improved gait after hyaluronic acid and steroid injections suggested that both methods were effective for rat rotator cuff tear model. 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:1861-1867, 2015. PMID:26147720

  3. A modified Mason-Allen technique for rotator cuff repair using suture anchors.

    PubMed

    Scheibel, Markus Thomas; Habermeyer, Peter

    2003-03-01

    An adequate restoration of the muscle-tendon-bone unit is essential for a successful outcome after rotator cuff reconstruction. We describe a suture grasping technique for rotator cuff repair using suture anchors that can be performed either arthroscopically or during open rotator cuff refixation. The technique we use is a combination of a mattress and a single suture, thus representing the principles of a Mason-Allen suture technique. The modified Mason-Allen technique for suture anchor repair is easy to perform and provides excellent initial fixation strength allowing durable osteofibroblastic integration of the reinserted cuff. PMID:12627162

  4. Effects of corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid on torn rotator cuff tendons in vitro and in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hidehiro; Gotoh, Masafumi; Kanazawa, Tomonoshin; Ohta, Keisuke; Nakamura, Keiichirou; Honda, Hirokazu; Ohzono, Hiroki; Shimokobe, Hisao; Mitsui, Yasuhiro; Shirachi, Isao; Okawa, Takahiro; Higuchi, Fujio; Shirahama, Masahiro; Shiba, Naoto; Matsueda, Satoko

    2015-10-01

    Corticosteroids (CS) or hyaluronic acid (HA) is used in subacromial injection for the conservative treatment of rotator cuff tears (RCT); this study addresses the question of how CS and HA affect the tendon tissue and fibroblasts in vitro and in rats. Cell proliferation assays were performed in human tendon fibroblasts from RCT. Rats underwent surgery to create RCT, and the surgical sites were injected with CS or HA. The rotator cuff tendons were subjected to biomechanical testing, microscopic and immunohistochemical analysis of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and ultrastructural analysis. Cell proliferation was significantly decreased with CS in vitro (p?surgery. Histological and biomechanical data 4 weeks after surgery were not significant among the three groups. Unlike HA, CS caused cell death, and inhibition of the proliferation of tendon fibroblasts, leading to a delay of tendon healing involved and a subsequent decrease of biomechanical strength at the surgical site. PMID:26174562

  5. Evaluation of rotator cuff muscle strength in healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, Paulo Jos Oliveira; Tomazini, Jos Elias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the strength generated by the rotator muscles of the shoulder joint between the right upper limb and left upper limb among healthy individuals. METHODS: To evaluate the muscle strength of upper limbs from isometric contractions in the horizontal direction (rotation) an isometric dynamometer was used, equipped with transducers, signal conditioning, a data acquisition board, and finally, a computer. Study participants were 22 male military subjects, aged between 18 and 19 years old, body mass between 57.7 and 93.0 kg (71.8 9.45 kg) and height between 1.67 and 1.90 m (1.75 0.06 m), healthy and without clinical diseases or any type of orthopedic injury in the muscle skeletal system. RESULTS: The internal rotation in the right upper limb (RUL) was higher than the average strength of internal rotation in the left upper limb (LUL) (p = 0.723). The external rotation strength in RUL was lower than the average strength of external rotation in the LUL (p=0.788). No statistical difference was observed by comparing the strength values of all isometric strength tests. CONCLUSION: For the sample and methodology used to assess muscle strength, there was no statistical difference between the strength generated by the muscles of the rotator cuff of the right and left upper limbs. Experimental Study. PMID:26207091

  6. Prognostic factors for clinical outcomes after rotator cuff repair

    PubMed Central

    Pécora, José Otávio Reggi; Malavolta, Eduardo Angeli; Assunção, Jorge Henrique; Gracitelli, Mauro Emílio Conforto; Martins, João Paulo Sobreiro; Ferreira, Arnaldo Amado

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify prognostic factors of postoperative functional outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective case series evaluating patients undergoing rotator cuff repair, analyzed by the UCLA score (pre and 12-month postoperative) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (preoperative). Patients' intrinsic variables related to the injury and intervention were evaluated. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to determine variables impact on postoperative functional assessment. RESULTS: 131 patients were included. The mean UCLA score increased from 13.17 ± 3.77 to 28.73 ± 6.09 (p<0,001). We obtained 65.7% of good and excellent results. Age (r= 0.232, p= 0.004) and reparability of posterosuperior injuries (r= 0.151, p= 0.043) correlated with the functional assessment at 12 months. After multivariate linear regression analysis, only age was associated (p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: The surgical treatment of rotator cuff tears lead to good and excellent results in 65.6% of patients. Age was an independent predictor factor with better clinical outcomes by UCLA score in older patients. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:26207092

  7. Factors affecting healing after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair

    PubMed Central

    Abtahi, Amir M; Granger, Erin K; Tashjian, Robert Z

    2015-01-01

    Rotator cuff repair has been shown to have good long-term results. Unfortunately, a significant proportion of repairs still fail to heal. Many factors, both patient and surgeon related, can influence healing after repair. Older age, larger tear size, worse muscle quality, greater muscle-tendon unit retraction, smoking, osteoporosis, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia have all shown to negatively influence tendon healing. Surgeon related factors that can influence healing include repair construct-single vs double row, rehabilitation, and biologics including platelet rich plasma and mesenchymal stem cells. Double-row repairs are biomechanically stronger and have better healing rates compared with single-row repairs although clinical outcomes are equivalent between both constructs. Slower, less aggressive rehabilitation programs have demonstrated improved healing with no negative effect on final range of motion and are therefore recommended after repair of most full thickness tears. Additionally no definitive evidence supports the use of platelet rich plasma or mesenchymal stem cells regarding improvement of healing rates and clinical outcomes. Further research is needed to identify effective biologically directed augmentations that will improve healing rates and clinical outcomes after rotator cuff repair. PMID:25793161

  8. Rat rotator cuff muscle responds differently from hindlimb muscle to a combined tendon-nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Davies, Michael R; Ravishankar, Bharat; Laron, Dominique; Kim, Hubert T; Liu, Xuhui; Feeley, Brian T

    2015-07-01

    Rotator cuff tears (RCTs) are among the most common musculoskeletal injuries seen by orthopaedic surgeons. Clinically, massive cuff tears lead to unique pathophysiological changes in rotator cuff muscle, including atrophy, and massive fatty infiltration, which are rarely seen in other skeletal muscles. Studies in a rodent model for RCT have demonstrated that these histologic findings are accompanied by activation of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) pathways following combined tendon-nerve injury. The purpose of this study was to compare the histologic and molecular features of rotator cuff muscle and gastrocnemius muscle--a major hindlimb muscle, following combined tendon-nerve injury. Six weeks after injury, the rat gastrocnemius did not exhibit notable fatty infiltration compared to the rotator cuff. Likewise, the adipogenic markers SREBP-1 and PPAR? as well as the TGF-? canonical pathway were upregulated in the rotator cuff, but not the gastrocnemius. Our study suggests that the rat rotator cuff and hindlimb muscles differ significantly in their response to a combined tendon-nerve injury. Clinically, these findings highlight the unique response of the rotator cuff to injury, and may begin to explain the poor outcomes of massive RCTs compared to other muscle-tendon injuries. PMID:25974842

  9. A Comparison of Conventional Ultrasonography and Arthrosonography in the Assessment of Cuff Integrity after Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwang Won; Chun, Tong Jin; Bae, Kyoung Wan; Choy, Won Sik; Park, Hyeon Jong

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was designed to perform conventional ultrasonography, magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) and arthrosonography exams after rotator cuff repair to compare the results of conventional ultrasonography and arthrosonography with those of MRA as the gold standard. Methods We prospectively studied 42 consecutive patients (14 males, 28 females; average age, 59.4 years) who received arthroscopic rotator cuff repair due to full-thickness tears of the supraspinatus tendon from 2008 to 2010. The integrity assessment of the repaired rotator cuff was performed 6 months postoperatively using conventional ultrasonography, MRA, and arthrosonography. Results The diagnostic accuracy of the conventional ultrasonography compared to MRA was 78.6% and the McNemar test results were 0.016 in full-thickness tear and 0.077 in partial-thickness tear. The diagnostic accuracy of arthrosonography compared to MRA was 92.9% and the McNemar test results were 0.998 in full-thickness tear and 0.875 in partial-thickness tear. Conclusions It was found that the integrity assessment of the repaired rotator cuff by ultrasonography must be guarded against and that arthrosonography is an effective alternative method in the postoperative integrity assessment. Also, an arthrosonography seems to be a suitable modality to replace the conventional ultrasonography. PMID:25177461

  10. Labrum and rotator cuff injuries in the throwing athlete.

    PubMed

    Menge, Travis J; Byram, Ian R; Boykin, Robert E; Bushnell, Brandon D

    2015-02-01

    The large amount of force imparted across the shoulder during the act of throwing makes the glenohumeral joint highly susceptible to injury in the athlete performing overhead throwing motions. The bony incongruity of the shoulder enables greater range of motion than any other joint in the body, but it also results in significant strain on the surrounding soft tissues during the throwing motion. Throwers can present with acute injuries, but more commonly they suffer from chronic overuse conditions resulting from repetitive overload. Proper management requires early recognition with treatment directed toward the athlete's safe return to sports. Failure to institute an appropriate management strategy may result in significant complications, including prolonged disability, progression of symptoms, and further injury. We discuss the functional anatomy, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, evaluation, and treatment of common injuries of the glenoid labrum and rotator cuff in the overhead throwing athlete. PMID:25599876

  11. The global percutaneous shuttling technique tip for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Vopat, Bryan G; Murali, Jothi; Gowda, Ashok L; Kaback, Lee; Blaine, Theodore

    2014-04-22

    Most arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs utilize suture passing devices placed through arthroscopic cannulas. These devices are limited by the size of the passing device where the suture is passed through the tendon. An alternative technique has been used in the senior author's practice for the past ten years, where sutures are placed through the rotator cuff tendon using percutaneous passing devices. This technique, dubbed the global percutaneous shuttling technique of rotator cuff repair, affords the placement of sutures from nearly any angle and location in the shoulder, and has the potential advantage of larger suture bites through the tendon edge. These advantages may increase the area of tendon available to compress to the rotator cuff footprint and improve tendon healing and outcomes. The aim of this study is to describe the global percutaneous shuttling (GPS) technique and report our results using this method. The GPS technique can be used for any full thickness rotator cuff tear and is particularly useful for massive cuff tears with poor tissue quality. We recently followed up 22 patients with an average follow up of 32 months to validate its usefulness. American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores improved significantly from 37 preoperatively to 90 postoperatively (P<0.0001). This data supports the use of the GPS technique for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Further biomechanical studies are currently being performed to assess the improvements in tendon footprint area with this technique. PMID:25002932

  12. Application of Pain Quantitative Analysis Device for Assessment of Postoperative Pain after Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Mifune, Yutaka; Inui, Atsuyuki; Nagura, Issei; Sakata, Ryosuke; Muto, Tomoyuki; Harada, Yoshifumi; Takase, Fumiaki; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Kokubu, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose : The PainVision™ system was recently developed for quantitative pain assessment. Here, we used this system to evaluate the effect of plexus brachialis block on postoperative pain after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Methods : Fifty-five patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were included in this study. First 26 cases received no plexus brachialis block (control group), and the next 29 cases received the plexus brachialis block before surgery (block group). Patients completed the visual analog scale at 4, 8, 16, and 24 hours after surgery, and the intensity of postoperative pain was assessed with PainVision™ at 16 hours. The postoperative use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents was also recorded. Results : The pain intensity at 16 hours after surgery assessed by PainVision™ was significantly lower in the block group than in the control group (block, 252.0 ± 47.8, control, 489.0 ± 89.1, P < 0.05). However, there were no differences in the VAS values at 16 hours between the 2 groups (block, 4.3 ± 0.6, control, 5.7 ± 0.4, P = N.S.). The pain intensity and VAS at 16 hours after surgery were highly correlated (r = 0.59, P = 0.006 in the block group and r = 0.62, P = 0.003 in the control group). The effect size of the assessment by PainVision™ was bigger than that of VAS (r=0.31 in VAS and 0.51 in Pain vision). Conclusion : The PainVision™ system could be useful to evaluate postoperative pain because it enables the quantification and comparison of pain intensity independent of individual pain thresholds. PMID:26157522

  13. Gene polymorphism of IL-6 and MMP-3 decreases passive range of motion after rotator cuff repair

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Yan; Peng, Cheng; Liu, Chenguang; Zhang, Na; Yue, Shouwei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Post-operative stiffness is common after rotator cuff repair, given the difference in susceptibility and severity, the genetic factors may be involved. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and Matrix metalloproteinases 3 (MMP-3) were previous found as key cytokines in the pathologies of adhesive capsulitis. The present study aims to investigate whether variants within the IL-6 and MMP-3 gene contributed to post-operative stiffness in a Chinese Han population. Methods: A total of 188 patients diagnosed with rotator cuff tears treated with mini-open surgery were enrolled in this study, among which 87 patients were diagnosed as post-operative stiffness and the remaining 101 patients as controls. All subjects were genotyped for IL-6 and MMP-3 SNPs. Results: The rs1800796 of IL-6 and rs679620 of MMP-3 were found significantly associated with increased susceptibility and severity of post-operative stiffness. Conclusion: The rs1800796 SNP of IL-6 and rs650108 SNP of MMP-3 were associated with increased risk of post-operative stiffness susceptibility and severity. This finding can be used in guiding the rehabilitation procedure after rotator cuff surgery, in another word, those with the genetic susceptibility factors should receive a more radical rehabilitation procedure and those without the susceptibility factors can be more conservative. PMID:26191285

  14. Effectiveness of Physical Therapy in Treating Atraumatic Full Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears. A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, John E.; Dunn, Warren R.; Sanders, Rosemary; An, Qi; Baumgarten, Keith M.; Bishop, Julie Y.; Brophy, Robert H.; Carey, James L.; Holloway, Brian G.; Jones, Grant L.; Ma, C. Benjamin; Marx, Robert G.; McCarty, Eric C.; Poddar, Sourav K.; Smith, Matthew V.; Spencer, Edwin E.; Vidal, Armando F.; Wolf, Brian R.; Wright, Rick W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effectiveness of a specific non-operative physical therapy program in treating atraumatic full thickness rotator cuff tears using a multicenter prospective cohort study design. Methods Patients with atraumatic full thickness rotator cuff tears who consented to enroll provided data via questionnaire on demographics, symptom characteristics, co-morbidities, willingness to undergo surgery, and patient related outcome assessments (SF-12, ASES, WORC, SANE score, Shoulder Activity Scale). Physicians recorded physical examination and imaging data. Patients began a physical therapy program developed from a systematic review of the literature and returned for evaluation at 6 and 12 weeks. At those visits patients could chose one of three courses: 1.) Cured (no formal follow up scheduled), 2.) Improved (continue therapy with scheduled reassessment in 6 weeks), or 3.) No better (offered surgery). Patients were contacted by telephone at 1 and 2 years to determine if they had undergone surgery since their last visit. A Wilcoxon signed rank test with continuity correction was used to compare initial, 6 week, and 12 week outcome scores. Results The cohort consists of 452 patients. Patient reported outcomes improved significantly at 6 and 12 weeks. Patients elected to undergo surgery less than 25% of the time. Patients who decided to have surgery generally did so between 6 and 12 weeks, and few had surgery between 3 and 24 months. Conclusion Non-operative treatment using this physical therapy protocol is effective for treating atraumatic full thickness rotator cuff tears in approximately 75% of patients followed for two years. Level of evidence Level IV, Case Series, Treatment Study PMID:23540577

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of clinical examination features for identifying large rotator cuff tears in primary health care

    PubMed Central

    Cadogan, Angela; McNair, Peter; Laslett, Mark; Hing, Wayne; Taylor, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Rotator cuff tears are a common and disabling complaint. The early diagnosis of medium and large size rotator cuff tears can enhance the prognosis of the patient. The aim of this study was to identify clinical features with the strongest ability to accurately predict the presence of a medium, large or multitendon (MLM) rotator cuff tear in a primary care cohort. Methods: Participants were consecutively recruited from primary health care practices (n?=?203). All participants underwent a standardized history and physical examination, followed by a standardized X-ray series and diagnostic ultrasound scan. Clinical features associated with the presence of a MLM rotator cuff tear were identified (P<0.200), a logistic multiple regression model was derived for identifying a MLM rotator cuff tear and thereafter diagnostic accuracy was calculated. Results: A MLM rotator cuff tear was identified in 24 participants (11.8%). Constant pain and a painful arc in abduction were the strongest predictors of a MLM tear (adjusted odds ratio 3.04 and 13.97 respectively). Combinations of ten history and physical examination variables demonstrated highest levels of sensitivity when five or fewer were positive [100%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.861.00; negative likelihood ratio: 0.00, 95% CI: 0.000.28], and highest specificity when eight or more were positive (0.91, 95% CI: 0.860.95; positive likelihood ratio 4.66, 95% CI: 2.348.74). Discussion: Combinations of patient history and physical examination findings were able to accurately detect the presence of a MLM rotator cuff tear. These findings may aid the primary care clinician in more efficient and accurate identification of rotator cuff tears that may require further investigation or orthopedic consultation. PMID:24421626

  16. Effects of rotator cuff tears on muscle moment arms: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Adams, Corinne R; Baldwin, Mark A; Laz, Peter J; Rullkoetter, Paul J; Langenderfer, Joseph E

    2007-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears cause morphologic changes to cuff tendons and muscles, which can alter muscle architecture and moment arm. The effects of these alterations on shoulder mechanical performance in terms of muscle force and joint strength are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to develop a three-dimensional explicit finite element model for investigating morphological changes to rotator cuff tendons following cuff tear. The subsequent objectives were to validate the model by comparing model-predicted moment arms to empirical data, and to use the model to investigate the hypothesis that rotator cuff muscle moment arms are reduced when tendons are divided along the force-bearing direction of the tendon. The model was constructed by extracting tendon, cartilage, and bone geometry from the male Visible Human data set. Infraspinatus and teres minor muscle and tendon paths were identified relative to the humerus and scapula. Kinetic and kinematic boundary conditions in the model replicated experimental protocols, which rotated the humerus from 45 degrees internal to 45 degrees external rotation with constant loads on the tendons. External rotation moment arms were calculated for two conditions of the cuff tendons: intact normal and divided tendon. Predicted moment arms were within the 1-99% confidence intervals of experimental data for nearly all joint angles and tendon sub-regions. In agreement with the experimental findings, when compared to the intact condition, predicted moment arms were reduced for the divided tendon condition. The results of this study provide evidence that one potential mechanism for the reduction in strength observed with cuff tear is reduction of muscle moment arms. The model provides a platform for future studies addressing mechanisms responsible for reduced muscle force and joint strength including changes to muscle length-tension operating range due to altered muscle and tendon excursions, and the effects of cuff tear size and location on moment arms and muscle forces. PMID:17597135

  17. ARTHROSCOPIC TREATMENT OF CALCIFYING TENDINITIS OF THE ROTATOR CUFF

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Arnaldo Amado Ferreira; Trevizani, Cassio Silva; Benegas, Eduardo; Malavolta, Eduardo Angeli; Gracitelli, Mauro Emílio Conforto; Bitar, Alexandre Carneiro; Neto, Francisco José dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical and radiographic results from arthroscopic surgical treatment of the rotator cuff in patients with calcifying tendinitis. Method: A retrospective study was conducted on twenty patients who underwent arthroscopic treatment for calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder between March 1999 and November 2005. Six patients were excluded due to loss of follow-up. The average follow-up period was 41.4 months. Eight patients (57%) were female and six (43%) were male. The right side was affected in 10 cases (71%) and the left in four cases (29%). Nine cases (64%) had calcification in the supraspinatus tendon, two (14%) in the infraspinatus tendon, and three (21%) in both tendons. Results: In all cases, resection of the calcium deposits was performed by means of a needle (Jelco® No. 14) in combination with curettage (mini-curette). Two shoulders (14%) underwent subacromial decompression, and one (7%) underwent excision of the distal clavicle. A tendon-tendon suture was performed in three shoulders (21%). None of the patients underwent tendon-bone reinsertion. The mean score obtained on the UCLA scale was 33 points (26-35), thus indicating that a majority of patients had good results. In the final radiographic evaluation, none of the patients showed signs of calcification. Conclusion: Arthroscopic treatment of calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder safely allows excision of the calcification, leading to good results in relation to shoulder pain and function.

  18. Strength of fixation with transosseous sutures in rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, G L; Warner, J P; Miller, M D; Boardman, D; Towers, J; Debski, R

    1997-07-01

    The effect of various configurations of placement of transosseous sutures on the immediate strength of fixation was studied in forty-five fresh-frozen humeri from cadavera of older individuals (mean age at the time of death, sixty-three years). The ultimate strength (the strength to failure) was significantly greater (p < 0.05) when the sutures were placed at sites more distal to the tip of the greater tuberosity or when the sutures were tied over a wider bone bridge. Cortical augmentation with use of a plastic button through which the transosseous sutures were tied increased the ultimate strength approximately 1.9-fold. The increase in the ultimate strength of the transosseous repair corresponded significantly with the increasing mean thickness of the cortical bone as the sutures were placed more distally along the lateral aspect of the humerus. We concluded that the strength of the fixation of a rotator cuff repair can be increased by placing the transosseous sutures at least ten millimeters distal to the tip of the greater tuberosity and by tying them over a bone bridge that is at least ten millimeters wide. When bone is very osteoporotic, cortical augmentation with a readily available plastic button strengthens the repair. PMID:9234883

  19. Mechanical strength of repairs of the rotator cuff.

    PubMed

    Gerber, C; Schneeberger, A G; Beck, M; Schlegel, U

    1994-05-01

    We have studied the mechanical properties of several current techniques of tendon-to-bone suture employed in rotator-cuff repair. Non-absorbable braided polyester and absorbable polyglactin and polyglycolic acid sutures best combined ultimate tensile strength and stiffness. Polyglyconate and polydioxanone sutures failed only at high loads, but elongated considerably under moderate loads. We then compared the mechanical properties of nine different techniques of tendon grasping, using 159 normal infraspinatus tendons from sheep. The most commonly used simple stitch was mechanically poor: repairs with two or four such stitches failed at 184 N and 208 N respectively. A new modification of the Mason-Allen suture technique improved the ultimate tensile strength to 359 N for two stitches. Finally, we studied the mechanical properties of several methods of anchorage to bone using typically osteoporotic specimens. Single and even double transosseous sutures and suture anchor fixation both failed at low tensile loads (about 140 N). The use of a 2 mm thick, plate-like augmentation device improved the failure strength to 329 N. The mechanical properties of many current repair techniques are poor and can be greatly improved by using good materials, an improved tendon-grasping suture, and augmentation at the bone attachment. PMID:8175836

  20. Assessment and characterization of in situ rotator cuff biomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trent, Erika A.; Bailey, Lane; Mefleh, Fuad N.; Raikar, Vipul P.; Shanley, Ellen; Thigpen, Charles A.; Dean, Delphine; Kwartowitz, David M.

    2013-03-01

    Rotator cuff disease is a degenerative disorder that is a common, costly, and often debilitating, ranging in severity from partial thickness tear, which may cause pain, to total rupture, leading to loss in function. Currently, clinical diagnosis and determination of disease extent relies primarily on subjective assessment of pain, range of motion, and possibly X-ray or ultrasound images. The final treatment plan however is at the discretion of the clinician, who often bases their decision on personal experiences, and not quantitative standards. The use of ultrasound for the assessment of tissue biomechanics is established, such as in ultrasound elastography, where soft tissue biomechanics are measured. Few studies have investigated the use of ultrasound elastography in the characterization of musculoskeletal biomechanics. To assess tissue biomechanics we have developed a device, which measures the force applied to the underlying musculotendentious tissue while simultaneously obtaining the related ultrasound images. In this work, the musculotendinous region of the infraspinatus of twenty asymptomatic male organized baseball players was examined to access the variability in tissue properties within a single patient and across a normal population. Elastic moduli at percent strains less than 15 were significantly different than those above 15 percent strain within the normal population. No significant difference in tissue properties was demonstrated within a single patient. This analysis demonstrated elastic moduli are variable across individuals and incidence. Therefore threshold elastic moduli will likely be a function of variation in local-tissue moduli as opposed to a specific global value.

  1. OUTCOME OF ROTATOR CUFF REPAIR IN SNYDER TYPE Cl AND C2 LESIONS, CONSIDERING SMOKERS AND NONSMOKERS

    PubMed Central

    Júnior, Sérgio Correa Pinto; Luciano, Lessandro Gesser; Zotto, Crischiman Dal; Vieira, Felipe Fantozzi; Klassen, Ralf; Rodrigues, Airton; Neto, Francisco José dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of smoking on the results from surgical repair of Snyder type C1 and C2 complete lesions of the rotator cuff. Methods: We evaluated 166 patients who had undergone surgical treatment for Snyder type C1 and C2 complete lesions of the rotator cuff, between June 2002 and December 2006. The inclusion criteria were a minimum follow-up period of 24 months and the absence of previous surgery on the affected shoulder. Patients with other associated injuries were excluded. We evaluated smoking and nonsmoking patients in accordance with the criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO). Female patients (119) predominated over male patients (47), and the mean age was 57 years (38 to 78). Out of the 166 patients evaluated, 21 were classified as smokers and 145 as nonsmokers. The final results were evaluated using the UCLA (University of California at Los Angeles) criteria and statistical analysis was performed using the Epi Info® software. Results: According to the UCLA criteria, smokers had a final average of 32.6 points, while non-smokers had 33.8. Postoperative statistical analysis revealed a difference between the two groups, such that non-smoking patients had a better outcome. Conclusion: Smoking interferes with the final results from repairs of small and medium-sized lesions of the rotator cuff.

  2. Elevated plasma levels of TIMP-1 in patients with rotator cuff tear

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Extracellular matrix remodeling is altered in rotator cuff tears, partly due to altered expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors. It is unclear whether this altered expression can be traced as changes in plasma protein levels. We measured the plasma levels of MMPs and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) in patients with rotator cuff tears and related changes in the pattern of MMP and TIMP levels to the extent of the rotator cuff tear. Methods Blood samples were collected from 17 patients, median age 61 (3977) years, with sonographically verified rotator cuff tears (partial- or full-thickness). These were compared with 16 age- and sex-matched control individuals with sonographically intact rotator cuffs. Plasma levels of MMPs and TIMPs were measured simultaneously using Luminex technology and ELISA. Results The plasma levels of TIMP-1 were elevated in patients with rotator cuff tears, especially in those with full-thickness tears. The levels of TIMP-1, TIMP-3, and MMP-9 were higher in patients with full-thickness tears than in those with partial-thickness tears, but only the TIMP-1 levels were significantly different from those in the controls. Interpretation The observed elevation of TIMP-1 in plasma might reflect local pathological processes in or around the rotator cuff, or a genetic predisposition in these patients. That the levels of TIMP-1 and of certain MMPs were found to differ significantly between partial and full-thickness tears may reflect the extent of the lesion or different etiology and pathomechanisms. PMID:23043271

  3. Reusing Cadaveric Humeri for Fracture Testing After Testing Simulated Rotator Cuff Tendon Repairs

    PubMed Central

    Pitts, Todd C.; Knight, Alex N.; Burkhead, Wayne Z.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The financial cost of using human tissues in biomedical testing and surgical reconstruction is predicted to increase at a rate that is disproportionately greater than other materials used in biomechanical testing. Our first hypothesis is that cadaveric proximal humeri that had undergone monotonic failure testing of simulated rotator cuff repairs would not differ in ultimate fracture loads or in energy absorbed to fracture when compared to controls (i.e., bones without cuff repairs). Our second hypothesis is that there can be substantial cost savings if these cadaveric proximal humeri, with simulated cuff repairs, can be re-used for fracture testing. Results of fracture tests (conducted in a backwards fall configuration) and cost analysis support both hypotheses. Hence, the bones that had undergone monotonic failure tests of various rotator cuff repair techniques can be re-used in fracture tests because their load-carrying capacity is not significantly reduced. PMID:25371862

  4. Arthroscopic Implantation of a Bio-Inductive Collagen Scaffold for Treatment of an Articular-Sided Partial Rotator Cuff Tear

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Richard K.N.; Ryu, Jessica H.J.; Abrams, Jeffrey S.; Savoie, Felix H.

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of articular-sided partial rotator cuff tears remains a challenge to the treating orthopaedic surgeon. Treatment algorithms have included nonoperative management, debridement alone, and debridement and subacromial decompression, as well as articular-sided rotator cuff repair and completion of the tear on the bursal side followed by a traditional arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Implantation of a bio-inductive collagen scaffold on the bursal side of the rotator cuff to potentially heal an articular-sided tear represents a novel approach to this difficult clinical entity. PMID:26697308

  5. An assessment of porcine dermal xenograft as an augmentation graft in the treatment of extensive rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Badhe, Sachin P; Lawrence, Tom M; Smith, F D; Lunn, P G

    2008-01-01

    Porcine dermal collagen (Zimmer Patch, formerly known as Permacol; Tissue Science Laboratories plc, Aldershot, Hampshire, UK) has been used for reinforcement of several human body tissues with success and has been shown to act as a durable, permanent tissue scaffold that assists healing. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of porcine dermal collagen as a tendon augmentation graft in the repair of extensive rotator cuff tears. This prospective study evaluated the clinical, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging outcome 4.5 years (range, 3-5 years) after the treatment of extensive rotator cuff tears with porcine dermal collagen tendon augmentation grafting. The study group consisted of 10 patients (5 men, 5 women) with a mean age of 66 years (range, 46-80 years). Patients were evaluated clinically using the Constant score preoperatively, at 1 year, and at final follow-up when ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed to assess for graft and rotator cuff integrity. Average Constant scores improved from 41 preoperatively to 62 at final follow-up (P = .0003). Pain, abduction power, and range of motion significantly improved after surgery (P < .05), and patient satisfaction levels were high. Imaging studies identified intact grafts in 8 patients and graft detachment in 2. No adverse side effects were reported during the study period. The use of porcine dermal collagen as an augmentation graft in the treatment of massive rotator cuff tears is safe and, in most patients, is associated with improved clinical outcome. Randomized trials are required to assess any benefit over standard current surgical treatment regimens. PMID:18201655

  6. Arthroscopic Management of Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears in Major League Baseball Pitchers: The Lateralized Footprint Repair Technique.

    PubMed

    Dines, Joshua S; Jones, Kristofer; Maher, Patrick; Altchek, David

    2016-01-01

    Clinical outcomes of surgical management of full-thickness rotator cuff tears in professional baseball players have been uniformly poor. We conducted a study to investigate return-to-play data and functional performance using a novel arthroscopic repair technique. We hypothesized that arthroscopic rotator cuff repair would result in a high rate of return to professional pitching and favorable functional outcomes. We identified 6 consecutive Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers who underwent surgical repair of full-thickness rotator cuff injuries using the lateralized footprint repair technique. At most recent follow-up, patients were evaluated to determine their ability to return to athletic activity. Functional outcomes were also assessed using player performance statistics. By mean follow-up of 66.7 months (range, 23.2-94.6 months), 5 (83%) of the 6 pitchers had returned to their preinjury level of competition for at least 1 full season. Despite the high rate of return to MLB play, few pitchers resumed pitching productivity at their preoperative level; mean number of innings pitched decreased from 1806.5 to 183.7. A slight performance reduction was also found in a comparison of preoperative and postoperative pitching statistics. Of note, the return rate was higher for players over age 30 years than for those under 30 years. Overhead athletes require a delicate balance of shoulder mobility and stability to meet functional demands. Anatomical adaptations at the glenohumeral joint should be considered when performing rotator cuff repair in these patients in order to preserve peak functional performance. This novel repair technique affords a high rate of return to MLB play, though elite overhead throwers should be counseled that pitching productivity might decrease after surgery. PMID:26991564

  7. Correlations between biochemical markers in the synovial fluid and severity of rotator cuff disease.

    PubMed

    Tajana, M S; Murena, L; Valli, F; Passi, A; Grassi, F A

    2009-04-01

    The role of biochemical factors in the onset and natural history of rotator cuff disease is not fully understood, but it is generally recognised that they could induce tendon damage in association with mechanical and vascular factors. In this study, 5 biochemical parameters were analysed (total protein concentration, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 or gelatinase A, MMP-9 or gelatinase B, type I collagen telopeptides, hyaluronic acid) in the synovial fluid (SF) aspirated from the gleno-humeral joint of 29 patients undergoing surgical therapy for rotator cuff lesions. Four different groups of patients were identified according to the severity of the lesion: partial tear of the rotator cuff, full thickness tear involving 1 tendon and cuff tear arthropathy (CTA). The total SF protein concentration progressively increased with loss of integrity of the rotator cuff, reaching the highest levels in CTA. The absolute enzymatic activity of gelatinases was greater in full thickness tears than in partial tears, while it decreased in CTA. Conversely, the ratio between gelatinases and total protein content reached the highest level in partial tears and then progressively decreased. Collagen I telopeptides were significantly increased in full thickness tears and CTA, whereas the levels of hyaluronic acid decreased with worsening of rotator cuff disease. These findings support the hypothesis that gelatinases, which are involved in physiological tendon remodelling, intervene in the evolution of rotator cuff disease, too. Increased levels of type I collagen telopeptides give evidence that tendon tears are associated with an anatomic loss of tendon tissue and not with simple tendon retraction. PMID:19711169

  8. Is the Supraspinatus Muscle Atrophy Truly Irreversible after Surgical Repair of Rotator Cuff Tears?

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Seok Won; Kim, Sae Hoon; Tae, Suk-Kee; Yoon, Jong Pil; Choi, Jung-Ah

    2013-01-01

    Background Atrophy of rotator cuff muscles has been considered an irreversible phenomenon. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether atrophy is truly irreversible after rotator cuff repair. Methods We measured supraspinatus muscle atrophy of 191 patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and postoperative multidetector computed tomography images, taken at least 1 year after operation. The occupation ratio was calculated using Photoshop CS3 software. We compared the change between pre- and postoperative occupation ratios after modifying the preoperative occupation ratio. In addition, possible relationship between various clinical factors and the change of atrophy, and between the change of atrophy and cuff integrity after surgical repair were evaluated. Results The mean occupation ratio was significantly increased postoperatively from 0.44 ± 0.17 to 0.52 ± 0.17 (p < 0.001). Among 191 patients, 81 (42.4%) showed improvement of atrophy (more than a 10% increase in occupation ratio) and 33 (17.3%) worsening (more than a 10% decrease). Various clinical factors such as age tear size, or initial degree of atrophy did not affect the change of atrophy. However, the change of atrophy was related to repair integrity: cuff healing failure rate of 48.5% (16 of 33) in worsened atrophy; and 22.2% (18 of 81) in improved atrophy (p = 0.007). Conclusions The supraspinatus muscle atrophy as measured by occupation ratio could be improved postoperatively in case of successful cuff repair. PMID:23467404

  9. High incidence of acute full-thickness rotator cuff tears

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Zidan, Fikri; Lunsjo, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Epidemiological studies of full-thickness rotator cuff tears (FTRCTs) have mainly investigated degenerative lesions. We estimated the population-based incidence of acute FTRCT using a new diagnostic model. Patients and methods During the period November 2010 through October 2012, we prospectively studied all patients aged 18–75 years with acute onset of pain after shoulder trauma, with limited active abduction, and with normal conventional radiographs. 259 consecutive patients met these inclusion criteria. The patients had a median age of 51 (18–75) years. 65% were males. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to the clinical findings: group I, suspected FTRCT; group II, other specific diagnoses; and group III, sprain. Semi-acute MRI was performed in all patients in group I and in patients in group III who did not recover functionally. Results We identified 60 patients with FTRCTs. The estimated annual incidence of MRI-verified acute FTRCT was 16 (95% CI: 11–23) per 105 inhabitants for the population aged 18–75 years and 25 (CI: 18–36) per 105 inhabitants for the population aged 40–75 years. The prevalence of acute FTRCT in the study group was 60/259 (23%, CI: 18–28). The tears were usually large and affected more than 1 tendon in 36 of these 60 patients. The subscapularis was involved in 38 of the 60 patients. Interpretation Acute FTRCTs are common shoulder injuries, especially in men. They are usually large and often involve the subscapularis tendon. PMID:25708526

  10. Posterior Rotator Cuff Strengthening Using Theraband in a Functional Diagonal Pattern in Collegiate Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Page, Phillip A.; Lamberth, John; Abadie, Ben; Boling, Robert; Collins, Robert; Linton, Russell

    1993-01-01

    The deceleration phase of the pitching mechanism requires forceful eccentric contraction of the posterior rotator cuff. Because traditional isotonic strengthening may not be specific to this eccentric pattern, a more effective and functional means of strengthening the posterior rotator cuff is needed. Twelve collegiate baseball pitchers performed a moderate intensity isotonic dumbbell strengthening routine for 6 weeks. Six of the 12 subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental group and placed on a Theraband Elastic Band strengthening routine in a functional-diagonal pattern to emphasize the eccentric contraction of the posterior rotator cuff, in addition to the isotonic routine. The control group (n = 6) performed only the isotonic exercises. Both groups were evaluated on a KIN-COM isokinetic dynamometer in a functional diagonal pattern. Pretest and posttest average eccentric force production of the posterior rotator cuff was compared at two speeds, 60 and 180/s. Data were analyzed with an analysis of covariance at the .05 level with significance at 60/s. Values at 180/s, however, were not significant. Eccentric force production at 60/s increased more during training in the experimental group (+19.8%) than in the control group (-1.6%). There was no difference in the two groups at 180/s; both decreased (8 to 15%). Theraband was effective at 60/s in functional eccentric strengthening of the posterior rotator cuff in the pitching shoulder. ImagesFig 1. PMID:16558251

  11. Epidemiology of the rotator cuff tears: a new incidence related to thyroid disease

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Francesco; Osti, Leonardo; Padulo, Johnny; Maffulli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: in the last years the incidence of rotator cuff tears increased and one main cause still waiting to be clarified. Receptors for thyroid hormones in rotator cuff tendons suggest possible effects on tendons metabolism and status. We undertook a retrospective, observational cohort study of 441 patients who underwent arthroscopic and mini-open repair for non traumatic degenerative rotator cuff tears. Methods: all the patients, predominantly females (63%), were interview to assess the relationship (frequency for class age 20 yrs and factor analysis) between lesions of the rotator cuff with the following variables: gender, thyroid disease, smoker, taking medications for diabetes, hypertension or high cholesterol; presence of associated conditions (diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia). Results: thyroid disease is highly frequently (until 63% for 60<80 yrs) in females group independent to the age. Conversely, males showed a high frequency for smoker 37<62% until 80 yrs and 50% hypercholesterolemia over 80 yrs for the clinical variable studied. Conclusions: this is the first clinical report that shown a relationship between thyroid pathologies and non-traumatic rotator cuff tear as increased risk factors. PMID:25489548

  12. Clinical evidence in the treatment of rotator cuff tears with hyaluronic acid

    PubMed Central

    Osti, Leonardo; Buda, Matteo; Buono, Angelo Del; Osti, Raffaella; Massari, Leo

    2015-01-01

    Summary Purpose the aim of this quantitative review is to document potential benefit and adverse effects of hyaluronic acid (HA) injection into the shoulder with rotator cuff tears. Methods a systematic literature search was performed in english PubMed, Medline, Ovid, Google Scholar and Embase databases using the combined key words “hyaluronic acid”, “rotator cuff tear”, “hyaluronate”, “shoulder”, “viscosupplementation”, with no limit regarding the year of publication. Articles were included if they reported data on clinical and functional outcomes, complications in series of patients who had undergone HA injection for management of rotator cuff tears. Two Authors screened the selected articles for title, abstract and full text in accordance with predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The papers were accurately analyzed focusing on objective rating scores reported. Results a total of 11 studies, prospective, 7 were randomized were included by full text. A total of 1102 patients were evaluated clinically after different HA injection compare with corticosteroid injection, physically therapies, saline solution injection and control groups. The use of HA in patients with rotator cuff tears improve VAS and functional score in all trials that we have analyzed. Conclusion intra-articular injection with HA is effective in reducing pain and improving function in shoulder with rotator cuff tears and without severe adverse reaction. Level of evidence Level I. PMID:26958534

  13. Repair of the rotator cuff. Mini-open and arthroscopic repairs.

    PubMed

    Norberg, F B; Field, L D; Savoie, F H

    2000-01-01

    The repair of rotator cuff tears by traditional open subacromial decompression and rotator cuff tendon reapproximation has proved successful in restoring function and decreasing pain, but open rotator cuff repair has some inherent disadvantages. Postoperative detachment of the deltoid repair has been reported and results in significant morbidity. The open technique may also require a longer period of limited motion resulting in greater stiffness. Arthroscopically assisted mini-open repairs and, more recently, completely arthroscopic repairs of the rotator cuff have been developed and increasingly are being applied. Both techniques avoid detachment of the deltoid. The mini-open and arthroscopic approaches to rotator cuff repair have the added benefit of arthroscopic evaluation of the glenohumeral joint. The mini-open technique has the advantage of allowing the direct visualization of the cuff repair and allows surgeons to place the stitches in an open fashion, which is familiar to all surgeons. The mini-open technique also allows the placement of tension-absorbing stitches in the rare cases that they are needed. Mini-open techniques also allow the choice of bone anchors or osseous tunnels for fixation. The completely arthroscopic cuff repair has several potential advantages over the open and mini-open cuff repair techniques; first is the decreased disruption of the soft tissues, which may result in less scarring and adhesions. The procedure is the most cosmetically appealing of the techniques. Reduced postoperative pain is also cited as an advantage but has been demonstrated only in a single, nonrandomized study. Finally, if technical difficulties arise, the conversion to a mini-open repair can be done easily. In a few studies, arthroscopic cuff repair techniques have shown promise as an alternative to mini-open or open repair, but these results have been at the hands of a few surgeons who have extensive experience in arthroscopy of the shoulder. In contrast, the mini-open procedure requires modest arthroscopic skills and has a documented history of success. Nevertheless, arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is a viable and effective technique in the hands of surgeons with adequate skills, and this procedure is likely to become more commonly performed in the future as shoulder arthroscopic skills and instrumentation improve. PMID:10652666

  14. The response of tenocytes to commercial scaffolds used for rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Smith, R D; Carr, A; Dakin, S G; Snelling, S J; Yapp, C; Hakimi, O

    2016-01-01

    Surgical repairs of rotator cuff tears have high re-tear rates and many scaffolds have been developed to augment the repair. Understanding the interaction between patients' cells and scaffolds is important for improving scaffold performance and tendon healing. In this in vitro study, we investigated the response of patient-derived tenocytes to eight different scaffolds. Tested scaffolds included X-Repair, Poly-Tape, LARS Ligament, BioFiber (synthetic scaffolds), BioFiber-CM (biosynthetic scaffold), GraftJacket, Permacol, and Conexa (biological scaffolds). Cell attachment, proliferation, gene expression, and morphology were assessed. After one day, more cells attached to synthetic scaffolds with dense, fine and aligned fibres (X-Repair and Poly-Tape). Despite low initial cell attachment, the human dermal scaffold (GraftJacket) promoted the greatest proliferation of cells over 13 days. Expression of collagen types I and III were upregulated in cells grown on non-cross-linked porcine dermis (Conexa). Interestingly, the ratio of collagen I to collagen III mRNA was lower on all dermal scaffolds compared to synthetic and biosynthetic scaffolds. These findings demonstrate significant differences in the response of patient-derived tendon cells to scaffolds that are routinely used for rotator cuff surgery. Synthetic scaffolds promoted increased cell adhesion and a tendon-like cellular phenotype, while biological scaffolds promoted cell proliferation and expression of collagen genes. However, no single scaffold was superior. Our results may help understand the way that patients' cells interact with scaffolds and guide the development of new scaffolds in the future. PMID:26855160

  15. The response of tenocytes to commercial scaffolds used for rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Smith, R D; Carr, A; Dakin, S G; Snelling, S J; Yapp, C; Hakimi, O

    2016-01-01

    Surgical repairs of rotator cuff tears have high re-tear rates and many scaffolds have been developed to augment the repair. Understanding the interaction between patients' cells and scaffolds is important for improving scaffold performance and tendon healing. In this in vitro study, we investigated the response of patient-derived tenocytes to eight different scaffolds. Tested scaffolds included X-Repair, Poly-Tape, LARS Ligament, BioFiber (synthetic scaffolds), BioFiber-CM (biosynthetic scaffold), GraftJacket, Permacol, and Conexa (biological scaffolds). Cell attachment, proliferation, gene expression, and morphology were assessed. After one day, more cells attached to synthetic scaffolds with dense, fine and aligned fibres (X-Repair and Poly-Tape). Despite low initial cell attachment, the human dermal scaffold (GraftJacket) promoted the greatest proliferation of cells over 13 days. Expression of collagen types I and III were upregulated in cells grown on non-cross-linked porcine dermis (Conexa). Interestingly, the ratio of collagen I to collagen III mRNA was lower on all dermal scaffolds compared to synthetic and biosynthetic scaffolds. These findings demonstrate significant differences in the response of patient-derived tendon cells to scaffolds that are routinely used for rotator cuff surgery. Synthetic scaffolds promoted increased cell adhesion and a tendon-like cellular phenotype, while biological scaffolds promoted cell proliferation and expression of collagen genes. However, no single scaffold was superior. Our results may help understand the way that patients' cells interact with scaffolds and guide the development of new scaffolds in the future. PMID:26815643

  16. Synovial Chondromatosis of the Subacromial Bursa Causing a Bursal-Sided Rotator Cuff Tear

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Julie A.; Garrigues, Grant E.

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis is an uncommon condition, and involvement of the shoulder is even more rare. We report on a 39-year-old female who presented with symptoms, radiographic features, and intraoperative findings consistent with multiple subacromial loose bodies resulting in a partial-thickness, bursal-sided rotator cuff tear of the supraspinatus muscle. She was treated with an arthroscopic removal of loose bodies, complete excision of the subacromial/subdeltoid bursa, acromioplasty, and rotator cuff repair. To our knowledge, this is the first report of arthroscopic treatment for a bursal-sided, partial-thickness rotator cuff tear treated with greater than two-year clinical and radiographic follow-up. We utilized shoulder scores, preoperative and postoperative range of motion, and imaging to assess the results of treatment and surveillance for recurrence in our patient after two-year follow-up. PMID:25861500

  17. Epimuscular Fat in the Human Rotator Cuff Is a Novel Beige Depot

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Gretchen A.; Gibbons, Michael C.; Sato, Eugene; Lane, John G.; Ward, Samuel R.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic rotator cuff (RC) tears are a common and debilitating injury, characterized by dramatic expansion of adipose tissue, muscle atrophy, and limited functional recovery. The role of adipose expansion in RC pathology is unknown; however, given the identified paracrine/endocrine regulation by other adipose depots, it likely affects tissue function outside its boundaries. Therefore, we characterized the epimuscular (EM) fat depot of the human rotator cuff, defined its response to RC tears, and evaluated its influence on myogenesis in vitro. EM fat biopsies exhibited morphological and functional features of human beige fat compared with patient-matched s.c. biopsies, which appeared whiter. The transcriptional profile of EM fat and isolated EM adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) shifted as a function of the tear state; EM fat from intact cuffs had significantly elevated expression of the genes associated with uncoupled respiration, and the EM fat from torn cuffs had increased expression of beige-selective genes. EM ASC cocultures with human- and mouse-derived myogenic cells exhibited increased levels of myogenesis compared with s.c. cultures. Increased fusion and decreased proliferation of myogenic cells, rather than changes to the ASCs, were found to underlie this effect. Taken together, these data suggest that EM fat in the human rotator cuff is a novel beige adipose depot influenced by cuff state with therapeutic potential for promoting myogenesis in neighboring musculature. Significance Rotator cuff tears affect millions of people in the U.S.; however, current interventions are hindered by persistent muscle degeneration. This study identifies the therapeutic potential for muscle recovery in the epimuscular fat in the rotator cuff, previously considered a negative feature of the pathology, and finds that this fat is beige, rather than white. This is important for two reasons. First, the stem cells that were isolated from this beige fat are more myogenic than those from white fat, which have been the focus of stem cell-based therapies to date, suggesting epimuscular fat could be a better stem cell source to augment rotator cuff repair. Second, these beige stem cells promote myogenesis in neighboring cells in culture, suggesting the potential for this fat to be manipulated therapeutically to promote muscle recovery through secreted signals. PMID:25999520

  18. [Irreparable rotator cuff tears : Debridement, partial reconstruction, tendon transfer or reversed shoulder arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Patzer, Th; Hufeland, M; Krauspe, R

    2016-02-01

    Therapeutic options for the treatment of irreparable rotator cuff tears are fluent, are dependent on the patients' claims and demands and on the grade of the ongoing cuff tear arthropathy.A partial rotator cuff reconstruction with sufficient tenolysis combined with interval slide techniques to restore the anterior and posterior force couple may be indicated if there is no fatty degeneration > grade 3 of the rotator cuff muscles in a well-centered joint. The margin convergence technique with side-by-side adaptation of the tendon limbs may reduce the load on the reconstructed tendons.The role of the suprascapular nerve, which can probably be constricted by the retracted rotator cuff, and its therapy has not been completely clarified. When distinct symptoms are present neurolysis may be reasonable.Tendon transfers can be indicated in a cooperative patient < 65 years with a higher grade of muscular atrophy but without degenerative changes > grade II according to Hamada with the loss of active external rotation but performable active flexion. For posterosuperior tears the latissimus dorsi or recently the teres major tendon transfer to the rotator cuff footprint may be appropriate. For nonreconstructable anterosuperior tears a partial transfer of the pectoralis major tendon is possible.Careful subacromial debridement combined with biceps tenotomy and a cautious or reversed decompression may reduce the pain temporarily without having an influence on active motion until with the loss of active elevation the indication for a reversed shoulder arthroplasty is reached.In the mean time, absorbable subacromial spacers may re-center the humeral head, but the effectiveness of this therapy on clinical outcome should be analyzed in further studies. PMID:26768144

  19. The role of the peripheral and central nervous systems in rotator cuff disease.

    PubMed

    Bachasson, Damien; Singh, Anshuman; Shah, Sameer B; Lane, John G; Ward, Samuel R

    2015-08-01

    Rotator cuff (RC) disease is an extremely common condition associated with shoulder pain, reduced functional capacities, and impaired quality of life. It primarily involves alterations in tendon health and mechanical properties that can ultimately lead to tendon failure. RC tendon tears induce progressive muscle changes that have a negative impact on surgical reparability of the RC tendons and clinical outcomes. At the same time, a significant base of clinical data suggests a relatively weak relationship between RC integrity and clinical presentation, emphasizing the multifactorial aspects of RC disease. This review aims to summarize the potential contribution of peripheral, spinal, and supraspinal neural factors that may (1) exacerbate structural and functional muscle changes induced by tendon tear, (2) compromise the reversal of these changes during surgery and rehabilitation, (3) contribute to pain generation and persistence of pain, (4) impair shoulder function through reduced proprioception, kinematics, and muscle recruitment, and (5) help explain interindividual differences and response to treatment. Given the current clinical and scientific interest in peripheral nerve injury in the context of RC disease and surgery, we carefully reviewed this body of literature with a particular emphasis on suprascapular neuropathy that has generated a large number of studies in the past decade. Within this process, we highlight the gaps in current knowledge and suggest research avenues for scientists and clinicians. PMID:26189809

  20. Fatal pulmonary embolism after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Durant, Thomas J.S.; Cote, Mark P.; Arciero, Robert A.; Mazzocca, Augustus D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: pulmonary embolism (PE) is a rare and serious complication of arthroscopic orthopaedic surgery. Currently there is great paucity in the literature regarding PE events following arthroscopic rotator cuff (ARCR) surgery. The purpose of this case series was to (1) report our known incidence rate of symptomatic PE following ARCR for a single surgeon and (2) describe five cases of pulmonary embolism following ARCR, detailing patient medical history and potential perioperative risk factors. Methods: the number of PE events were queried retrospectively from the institutional database with the ICD-9 code 415.1 within a 10 year time frame (20032013). Cases of PE identified by ICD-9 query were reviewed for type of procedure, postoperative day of event, and surgeon. Only patients with a confirmed diagnosis by computed tomography (CT) scan or post-mortem exam, were included in this study. Patient medical records belonging to affected patients were ordered and reviewed by a single investigator. Pre, intra, and postoperative information was obtained and summarized. Results: 5 cases of PE were identified, two of which were fatal. All events occurred in the perioperative period following ARCR. The 10 year incidence rate for PE following ARCR was 0.89%. Medical record review revealed significant risk factors for these patients when compared to current VTE prophylactic guidelines. Conclusions: our ten year incidence rate of PE following arthroscopic shoulder surgery and ARCR was 0.25 and 0.89% respectively. These rates were found to be considerably higher than reported rates of PE in the general population and following arthroscopic shoulder surgery. In addition, our methods failed to detect subclinical PE events, resulting in the likelihood of this value to be an underestimate of the true incidence. Medical record review revealed risk factors which would qualify patients for chemoprophylaxis under certain guidelines, however, the validity of available risk stratification methods continue to be a topic of debate. Level of Evidence: Level IV; case series. PMID:25332941

  1. Anterior shoulder stability: Contributions of rotator cuff forces and the capsular ligaments in a cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Blasier, R B; Guldberg, R E; Rothman, E D

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify in a biomechanical model the contributions to shoulder joint stability that are made by tensions in the four tendons of the rotator cuff and by static resistance of defined portions of the capsular ligaments. A materials testing machine was used to directly determine anterior joint laxity by measurement of the force required to produce a standard anterior subluxation. Shoulders were tested in external or neutral humeral rotation. Data were analyzed by multiway analysis of variance with regression analysis. This model simulated tensions in the rotator cuff musculature by applying static loads at the tendon insertion sites acting along the anatomic lines of action. A load in any of the cuff tendons resulted in a measurable and statistically significant contribution to anterior joint stability. The contributions between different tendons were not significantly different and did not depend on the humeral rotation (neutral or external). In neutral humeral rotation the superior and middle glenohumeral ligaments together function equally with the inferior glenohumeral ligament as primary stabilizers against anterior humeral translation. The posterior capsule is a secondary stabilizer. The external rotation of the abducted humerus increases anterior stability by more than doubling the stability contribution from the inferior glenohumeral ligament. The stability contribution from the posterior capsule is larger in external rotation than in neutral rotation but is still of secondary magnitude. In external rotation the stability contribution of the anterior capsule, including the superior glenohumeral ligament and the middle glenohumeral ligament, becomes insignificant. The model presented here simulates the combined effect of two major sources of shoulder stability. This versatile model permits the direct measurement of the contributions to anterior shoulder stability that are made by tensions in the rotator cuff tendons and by static resistance of defined capsular zones. The use of multiple regression analysis-a standard statistical technique but one relatively new to the orthopaedic literature-permits quantitative determination of the contribution of each independent variable to the dependent variable, shoulder stability. PMID:22971606

  2. Effect of methylprednisolone use on the rotator cuff in rats: biomechanical and histological study?

    PubMed Central

    Ghellioni, Gustavo Vincius; da Silva, Lucas Souto; Piovezan, Anna Paula; Martins, Rafael Olvio

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influence of treatment with different doses of methylprednisolone on the mechanical resistance and possible histological alterations of the rotator cuff tendon in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into four treatment groups: sham, vehicle or 0.6mg/kg or 6.0mg/kg of methylprednisolone. Changes to mechanical resistance (in N) and histological parameters (fibrillar appearance, presence of collagen, edema and vascular proliferation) of the rotator cuff tendon were evaluated. The analyses were conducted after administration of one treatment (24h afterwards), two treatments (7 days afterward) or three treatments (14 days afterwards), into the subacromial space. Results Seven and fourteen days after the treatments were started, it was found that in a dose-dependent manner, methylprednisolone reduced the mechanical resistance of the rotator cuff tendon (p<0.05 in relation to the vehicle group). Modifications to the histological parameters were observed on the 7th and 14th days after the first infiltration, especially regarding the presence of collagen and vascular proliferation, for the dose of 0.6mg/kg of methylprednisolone, and also regarding the presence of collagen, edema and vascular proliferation for the dose of 6.0mg/kg of corticoid. Conclusion The results obtained demonstrated a relationship between methylprednisolone use through infiltration into the subacromial space and reduction of the mechanical resistance of and histological modifications to the rotator cuff tendon in rats. PMID:26229927

  3. Distribution and expression of type VI collagen and elastic fibers in human rotator cuff tendon tears.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Dipti; Grant, Tyler M; Hakimi, Osnat; Carr, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for a progressive extracellular matrix change in rotator cuff disease progression. Directly surrounding the cell is the pericellular matrix, where assembly of matrix aggregates typically occurs making it critical in the response of tendon cells to pathological conditions. Studies in animal models have identified type VI collagen, fibrillin-1 and elastin to be located in the pericellular matrix of tendon and contribute in maintaining the structural and biomechanical integrity of tendon. However, there have been no reports on the localization of these proteins in human tendon biopsies. This study aimed to characterize the distribution of these ECM components in human rotator cuffs and gain greater insight into the relationship of pathology to tear size by analyzing the distribution and expression profiles of these ECM components. Confocal microscopy confirmed the localization of these structural molecules in the pericellular matrix of the human rotator cuff. Tendon degeneration led to an increased visibility of these components with a significant disorganization in the distribution of type VI collagen. At the genetic level, an increase in tear size was linked to an increased transcription of type VI collagen and fibrillin-1 with no significant alteration in the elastin levels. This is the first study to confirm the localization of type VI collagen, elastin and fibrillin-1 in the pericellular region of human supraspinatus tendon and assesses the effect of tendon degeneration on these structures, thus providing a useful insight into the composition of human rotator cuff tears which can be instrumental in predicting disease prognosis. PMID:25166893

  4. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: suture anchor properties, modes of failure and technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Ma, Richard; Chow, Robert; Choi, Luke; Diduch, David

    2011-05-01

    Rotator cuff injury and tears are a common source of shoulder pain, particularly among the elderly. Arthroscopic repair has now become the mainstay in the treatment of significant injuries that have failed conservative therapy. Compared with the traditional open technique, arthroscopic repair offers patients smaller incisions and less soft-tissue trauma, which result in improved postoperative pain and rehabilitation. The advances that have made arthroscopic repairs a reality includes improvement in arthroscopic rotator cuff instrumentation, particularly suture anchors. Suture anchors are used to reattach the torn rotator cuff tissue back onto the bone. Current rotator cuff anchors vary by design, anchor composition and suture materials. A treating physician should be aware of the advantages and limitations of these implants, which may influence the choice of one anchor over another. In addition to anchor variables, other factors that may affect the success of the repair include the local environment and surgical technique. In this article, various aspects of anchor design will be discussed. In addition, a concise review of technical considerations will also be discussed. PMID:21542709

  5. Differential ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy signaling following rotator cuff tears and suprascapular nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sunil K; Kim, Hubert T; Feeley, Brian T; Liu, Xuhui

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have evaluated role of Akt/mTOR signaling in rotator cuff muscle atrophy and determined that there was differential in signaling following tendon transection (TT) and suprascapular nerve (SSN) denervation (DN), suggesting that atrophy following TT and DN was modulated by different protein degradation pathways. In this study, two muscle proteolytic systems that have been shown to be potent regulators of muscle atrophy in other injury models, the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and autophagy, were evaluated following TT and DN. In addition to examining protein degradation, this study assessed protein synthesis rate following these two surgical models to understand how the balance between protein degradation and synthesis results in atrophy following rotator cuff injury. In contrast to the traditional theory that protein synthesis is decreased during muscle atrophy, this study suggests that protein synthesis is up-regulated in rotator cuff muscle atrophy following both surgical models. While the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway was a major contributor to the atrophy seen following DN, autophagy was a major contributor following TT. The findings of this study suggest that protein degradation is the primary factor contributing to atrophy following rotator cuff injury. However, different proteolytic pathways are activated if SSN injury is involved. PMID:24018537

  6. A New Technique for Patch Augmentation of Rotator Cuff Repairs

    PubMed Central

    Mihara, Shuzou; Ono, Teruyasu; Inoue, Hirofumi; Kisimoto, Tetsurou

    2014-01-01

    Massive rotator cuff tears defying primary repair have been treated with debridement, arthroscopic subacromial decompression, partial repair, muscle-tendon transfer, and joint prosthesis, among other techniques. However, the treatment results have not been satisfactory compared with those of small- to medium-sized rotator cuff tears; each procedure has its merits and demerits, and currently, there is no single established method. For massive rotator cuff tears defying primary repair, the arthroscopic patch graft procedure has been reported as an effective surgical procedure, and this procedure is chosen as the first-line treatment in our department. In this procedure, suture anchors are generally used to fix the patch graft to the footprint on the side of the greater tuberosity. However, tendon-to-bone healing is frequently difficult to achieve, and bone-to-bone healing seems more advantageous for the repair of the rotator cuff attachment site. To improve the results of treatment, a new patch graft procedure was developed, in which the iliotibial ligament with bone was collected at Gerdy's tubercle and the bone was anchored to the footprint on the side of the greater tuberosity. With this procedure, excellent results were obtained, although only short-term results are available at present. The technique and its results so far are reported. PMID:25126505

  7. Eccentric training as a new approach for rotator cuff tendinopathy: Review and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Paula R; Alburquerque-Sendn, Francisco; Salvini, Tania F

    2014-01-01

    Excessive mechanical loading is considered the major cause of rotator cuff tendinopathy. Although tendon problems are very common, they are not always easy to treat. Eccentric training has been proposed as an effective conservative treatment for the Achilles and patellar tendinopathies, but less evidence exists about its effectiveness for the rotator cuff tendinopathy. The mechanotransduction process associated with an adequate dose of mechanical load might explain the beneficial results of applying the eccentric training to the tendons. An adequate load increases healing and an inadequate (over or underuse) load can deteriorate the tendon structure. Different eccentric training protocols have been used in the few studies conducted for people with rotator cuff tendinopathy. Further, the effects of the eccentric training for rotator cuff tendinopathy were only evaluated on pain, function and strength. Future studies should assess the effects of the eccentric training also on shoulder kinematics and muscle activity. Individualization of the exercise prescription, comprehension and motivation of the patients, and the establishment of specific goals, practice and efforts should all be considered when prescribing the eccentric training. In conclusion, eccentric training should be used aiming improvement of the tendon degeneration, but more evidence is necessary to establish the adequate dose-response and to determine long-term follow-up effects. PMID:25405092

  8. Rotator cuff tendinopathy: is there a role for polyunsaturated Fatty acids and antioxidants?

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jeremy S; Sandford, Fiona M

    2009-01-01

    Despite the lack of robust evidence, there has been a steady increase in the use of dietary supplements, including Omega 3 fatty acids and antioxidants, in the management of musculoskeletal conditions. One reason for this is that unsatisfactory outcomes with conventional treatments have lead sufferers to seek alternative solutions including the use of nutritional supplements. In the United Kingdom alone, the current supplement market is estimated to be over 300 pounds million per annum. One target market for nutritional supplements is tendinopathies including conditions involving the rotator cuff. This condition is debilitating and associated with considerable morbidity. Incidence increases with advancing age. High levels of cytokines, such as the pro-inflammatory interleukin 1 beta and vascular endothelial growth factor, have been reported within the bursa of patients with rotator cuff disease. There is also evidence that high concentrations of free-radical oxidants may also be involved in tendon pathology. Therefore, the possibility exists that dietary supplements may have a beneficial effect on tendon pathology, including that of the rotator cuff. A review was conducted to synthesize the available research literature on the histopathology of rotator cuff disease and the effectiveness of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and antioxidants on tendinopathies. A search was conducted using the MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, EMBASE, Cochrane, and PEDro databases using the terms "rotator cuff" and "tear/s" and "subacromial impingement syndrome," "burase," "bursitis," "tendinopathy," "tendinitis," "tendinosis," "polyunsaturated fatty acids," "PUFA," "Omega 3," "histopathology," "etiology," and "antioxidants." English language was an inclusion criterion. There were no randomized clinical trials found relating specifically to the rotator cuff. Only one trial was found that investigated the efficacy of PUFAs and antioxidants on tendinopathies. The findings suggest that some (low level) evidence exists to support the supplementation in the management of tendinopathies. Any conclusions based on this one article should be reached with caution. Subsequently, there is a distinct and clear need for well-planned randomized controlled trials that aim to investigate the efficacy of supplements in the management of tendinopathies including those of the rotator cuff. PMID:18950988

  9. Symptoms of Pain Do Not Correlate with Rotator Cuff Tear Severity

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Warren R.; Kuhn, John E.; Sanders, Rosemary; An, Qi; Baumgarten, Keith M.; Bishop, Julie Y.; Brophy, Robert H.; Carey, James L.; Holloway, G. Brian; Jones, Grant L.; Ma, C. Benjamin; Marx, Robert G.; McCarty, Eric C.; Poddar, Sourav K.; Smith, Matthew V.; Spencer, Edwin E.; Vidal, Armando F.; Wolf, Brian R.; Wright, Rick W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: For many orthopaedic disorders, symptoms correlate with disease severity. The objective of this study was to determine if pain level is related to the severity of rotator cuff disorders. Methods: A cohort of 393 subjects with an atraumatic symptomatic full-thickness rotator-cuff tear treated with physical therapy was studied. Baseline pretreatment data were used to examine the relationship between the severity of rotator cuff disease and pain. Disease severity was determined by evaluating tear size, retraction, superior humeral head migration, and rotator cuff muscle atrophy. Pain was measured on the 10-point visual analog scale (VAS) in the patient-reported American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score. A linear multiple regression model was constructed with use of the continuous VAS score as the dependent variable and measures of rotator cuff tear severity and other nonanatomic patient factors as the independent variables. Forty-eight percent of the patients were female, and the median age was sixty-one years. The dominant shoulder was involved in 69% of the patients. The duration of symptoms was less than one month for 8% of the patients, one to three months for 22%, four to six months for 20%, seven to twelve months for 15%, and more than a year for 36%. The tear involved only the supraspinatus in 72% of the patients; the supraspinatus and infraspinatus, with or without the teres minor, in 21%; and only the subscapularis in 7%. Humeral head migration was noted in 16%. Tendon retraction was minimal in 48%, midhumeral in 34%, glenohumeral in 13%, and to the glenoid in 5%. The median baseline VAS pain score was 4.4. Results: Multivariable modeling, controlling for other baseline factors, identified increased comorbidities (p = 0.002), lower education level (p = 0.004), and race (p = 0.041) as the only significant factors associated with pain on presentation. No measure of rotator cuff tear severity correlated with pain (p > 0.25). Conclusions: Anatomic features defining the severity of atraumatic rotator cuff tears are not associated with the pain level. Factors associated with pain are comorbidities, lower education level, and race. Level of Evidence: Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:24875019

  10. T lymphocytes are not required for the development of fatty degeneration after rotator cuff tear

    PubMed Central

    Gumucio, J.; Flood, M.; Harning, J.; Phan, A.; Roche, S.; Lynch, E.; Bedi, A.; Mendias, C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Rotator cuff tears are among the most common and debilitating upper extremity injuries. Chronic cuff tears result in atrophy and an infiltration of fat into the muscle, a condition commonly referred to as ‘fatty degeneration’. While stem cell therapies hold promise for the treatment of cuff tears, a suitable immunodeficient animal model that could be used to study human or other xenograft-based therapies for the treatment of rotator cuff injuries had not previously been identified. Methods A full-thickness, massive supraspinatus and infraspinatus tear was induced in adult T-cell deficient rats. We hypothesised that, compared with controls, 28 days after inducing a tear we would observe a decrease in muscle force production, an accumulation of type IIB fibres, and an upregulation in the expression of genes involved with muscle atrophy, fibrosis and inflammation. Results Chronic cuff tears in nude rats resulted in a 30% to 40% decrease in muscle mass, a 23% reduction in production of muscle force, and an induction of genes that regulate atrophy, fibrosis, lipid accumulation, inflammation and macrophage recruitment. Marked large lipid droplet accumulation was also present. Conclusions The extent of degenerative changes in nude rats was similar to what was observed in T-cell competent rats. T cells may not play an important role in regulating muscle degeneration following chronic muscle unloading. The general similarities between nude and T-cell competent rats suggest the nude rat is likely an appropriate preclinical model for the study of xenografts that have the potential to enhance the treatment of chronically torn rotator cuff muscles. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:262–72. PMID:25185444

  11. Pulsed electromagnetic fields after rotator cuff repair: a randomized, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Osti, Leonardo; Buono, Angelo Del; Maffulli, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    The current study tested the hypothesis that the use of pulsed electromagnetic fields after rotator cuff repair is effective in the short term as an adjuvant treatment to reduce local inflammation, postoperative joint swelling, and recovery time, as well as to induce pain relief. Sixty-six patients who underwent shoulder arthroscopy for repair of small to medium rotator cuff tears were randomly divided into 2 groups with a block randomization procedure. Thirty-two patients underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair and application of pulsed electromagnetic fields postoperatively; 34 patients underwent rotator cuff repair and placebo treatment (placebo group). All patients had the same postoperative rehabilitation protocol. At 3 months from the index procedure, visual analog scale, range of motion, and University of California at Los Angeles and Constant scores were significantly better in the pulsed electromagnetic fields group than in the placebo group (P<.05). Three patients in the pulsed electromagnetic fields group and 7 patients in the placebo group had mild to moderate capsulitis (P=.2). Severe capsulitis occurred in 1 patient in the pulsed electromagnetic fields group and 2 patients in the placebo group (P=.6). At the last follow-up (minimum, 2 years), clinical and functional outcomes were further improved in both groups, with no significant intergroup differences. Application of pulsed electromagnetic fields after rotator cuff repair is safe and reduces postoperative pain, analgesic use, and stiffness in the short term. At 2 years, no difference was seen in outcomes in patients who did or did not undergo treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields. PMID:25760511

  12. Synthetic and degradable patches: an emerging solution for rotator cuff repair

    PubMed Central

    Hakimi, Osnat; Mouthuy, Pierre-Alexis; Carr, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The use of rotator cuff augmentation has increased dramatically over the last 10 years in response to the high rate of failure observed after non-augmented surgery. However, although augmentations have been shown to reduce shoulder pain, there is no consensus or clear guideline as to what is the safest or most efficacious material. Current augmentations, either available commercially or in development, can be classified into three categories: non-degradable structures, extra cellular matrix (ECM)-based patches and degradable synthetic scaffolds. Non-degradable structures have excellent mechanical properties, but can cause problems of infection and loss of integrity in the long-term. ECM-based patches usually demonstrate excellent biological properties in vitro, but studies have highlighted complications in vivo due to poor mechanical support and to infection or inflammation. Degradable synthetic scaffolds represent the new generation of implants. It is proposed that a combination of good mechanical properties, active promotion of biological healing, low infection risk and bio-absorption are the ideal characteristics of an augmentation material. Among the materials with these features, those processed by electrospinning have shown great promis. However, their clinical effectiveness has yet to be proven and well conducted clinical trials are urgently required. PMID:23837794

  13. Partial rotator cuff injury in athletes: bursal or articular?☆

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Cassiano Diniz; Cohen, Carina; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Figueiredo, Eduardo Antônio; Monteiro, Gustavo Cará; de Castro Pochini, Alberto; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Ejnisman, Benno

    2015-01-01

    A painful shoulder is a very common complaint among athletes, especially in the case of those in sports involving throwing. Partial lesions of the rotator cuff may be very painful and cause significant functional limitation to athletes’ sports practice. The incidence of partial lesions of the cuff is variable (13–37%). It is difficult to make the clinical and radiological diagnosis, and this condition should be borne in mind in the cases of all athletes who present symptoms of rotator cuff syndrome, including in patients who are diagnosed only with tendinopathy. Objective To evaluate the epidemiological behavior of partial lesions of the rotator cuff in both amateur and professional athletes in different types of sports. Methods We evaluated 720 medical files on athletes attended at the shoulder service of the Discipline of Sports Medicine at the Sports Traumatology Center, Federal University of São Paulo. The majority of them were men (65%). Among all the patients, 83 of them were diagnosed with partial lesions of the rotator cuff, by means of ultrasonography or magnetic resonance, or in some cases using both. We applied the binomial test to compare the proportions found. Result It was observed that intra-articular lesions predominated (67.6%) and that these occurred more frequently in athletes in sports involving throwing (66%). Bursal lesions occurred in 32.4% of the athletes, predominantly in those who did muscle building (75%). Conclusion Intra-articular lesions are more frequent than bursal lesions and they occur predominantly in athletes in sports involving throwing, while bursal lesions were more prevalent in athletes who did muscle building. PMID:26417568

  14. Structural Characteristics Are Not Associated With Pain and Function in Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Emily J.; Matzkin, Elizabeth E.; Dong, Yan; Higgins, Laurence D.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Jain, Nitin B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Structural characteristics of rotator cuff tears are used in surgical decision making. However, data on the association of tear size with patient-reported pain and function are sparse. Purpose: To assess the association of tear size, fatty infiltration, and muscle atrophy with shoulder pain/function in patients with cuff tears undergoing operative and nonoperative treatment. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 67 patients with rotator cuff tears were recruited for this longitudinal cohort study. Patients were determined to have a cuff tear using clinical assessment and blinded magnetic resonance imaging review. The Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) was used as a measure of shoulder pain and function. Results: Tear size and thickness were not significantly associated with pain (SPADI pain score, 60.6 [95% CI, 49.8-71.5] for partial-thickness tear; 56.8 [95% CI, 42.8-70.7] for <2 cm full-thickness tear; 60.4 [95% CI, 51.7-69.0] for ?2 cm full-thickness tear). Tear size and thickness were not associated with function (SPADI disability score, 42.7 [95% CI, 29.8-55.6] for partial-thickness tear; 37.6 [95% CI, 23.9-51.4] for <2 cm full-thickness tear; 45.1 [95% CI, 35.4-54.8] for ?2 cm full-thickness tear). Fatty infiltration, muscle atrophy, and tendon retraction were also not significantly associated with SPADI pain and disability scores. A Mental Health Index score of <68 as well as age ?60 years were significantly associated with a higher SPADI pain score. Female sex, increased number of comorbidities, Mental Health Index score of <68, and age <60 years were significantly associated with a higher SPADI disability score. Conclusion: In patients with rotator cuff tears undergoing operative and nonoperative treatment, pain and functional status were not associated with tear size and thickness, fatty infiltration, and muscle atrophy. Conversely, factors unrelated to cuff anatomy such as mental health, comorbidities, age, and sex were associated with pain/function. These findings have clinical implications during surgical decision making and suggest that pain and functional disability in patients with rotator cuff tears is multifactorial and should not solely be attributed to structural characteristics. PMID:26675985

  15. The MRI geyser sign: acromioclavicular joint cysts in the setting of a chronic rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Cooper, H John; Milillo, Ralph; Klein, Devon A; DiFelice, Gregory S

    2011-06-01

    We present the case of a 71-year-old man with a large acromioclavicular (AC) joint cyst successfully managed with surgical excision. AC joint cysts are soft tissue masses generally signifying underlying rotator cuff pathology. Traditionally, these cysts were identified with shoulder arthrography as a "geyser" of fluid escaping through the AC joint. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is today's preferred imaging modality; we describe the MRI equivalent of the "geyser sign," signifying synovial fluid escaping through the cuff defect, across the subacromial bursa, and decompressing superiorly through a degenerated AC joint. Surgical management is preferred for symptomatic cysts. Based on a review of limited retrospective case series, recommendations for management of these lesions are as follows. Repair of the rotator cuff is preferable whenever possible. In the case of an irreparable defect, good results can be achieved through excisional AC joint arthroplasty and resection of the cyst base. Aspiration of these cysts should not be attempted, due to the high recurrence rate and potential for a draining sinus. Hemiarthroplasty also may be effective in indirectly decompressing these cysts; but given the invasive nature of this procedure, it should be reserved for patients who are also symptomatic from cuff arthropathy. PMID:21869946

  16. Effect of highly purified capsaicin on articular cartilage and rotator cuff tendon healing: An in vivo rabbit study.

    PubMed

    Friel, Nicole A; McNickle, Allison G; DeFranco, Michael J; Wang, FanChia; Shewman, Elizabeth F; Verma, Nikhil N; Cole, Brian J; Bach, Bernard R; Chubinskaya, Susan; Kramer, Susan M; Wang, Vincent M

    2015-12-01

    Highly purified capsaicin has emerged as a promising injectable compound capable of providing sustained pain relief following a single localized treatment during orthopedic surgical procedures. To further assess its reliability for clinical use, the potential effect of highly purified capsaicin on articular cartilage metabolism as well as tendon structure and function warrants clarification. In the current study, rabbits received unilateral supraspinatus transection and repair with a single 1?ml injection of capsaicin (R+C), PEG-only placebo (R+P), or saline (R+S) into the glenohumeral joint (GHJ). An additional group received 1?ml capsaicin onto an intact rotator cuff (I+C). At 18 weeks post-op, cartilage proteoglycan (PG) synthesis and content as well as cell viability were similar (p>0.05) across treatment groups. Biomechanical testing revealed no differences (p>0.05) among tendon repair treatment groups. Similarly, histologic features of both cartilage and repaired tendons showed minimal differences across groups. Hence, in this rabbit model, a single injection of highly purified capsaicin into the GHJ does not induce a deleterious response with regard to cartilage matrix metabolism and cell viability, or rotator cuff healing. These data provide further evidence supporting the use of injectable, highly purified capsaicin as a safe alternative for management of postoperative pain following GHJ surgery. PMID:26135547

  17. Rotator cuff muscle function and its relation to scapular morphology in apes.

    PubMed

    Larson, Susan G; Stern, Jack T

    2013-10-01

    It is widely held that many differences among primate species in scapular morphology can be functionally related to differing demands on the shoulder associated with particular locomotor habits. This perspective is largely based on broad scale studies, while more narrow comparisons of scapular form often fail to follow predictions based on inferred differences in shoulder function. For example, the ratio of supraspinous fossa/infraspinous fossa size in apes is commonly viewed as an indicator of the importance of overhead use of the forelimb, yet paradoxically, the African apes, the most terrestrial of the great apes, have higher scapular fossa ratios than the more suspensory orangutan. The recent discovery of several nearly complete early hominin scapular specimens, and their apparent morphological affinities to scapulae of orangutans and gorillas rather than chimpanzees, has led to renewed interest in the comparative analysis of human and extant ape scapular form. To facilitate the functional interpretation of differences in ape scapulae, particularly in regard to relative scapular fossa size, we used electromyography (EMG) to document the activity patterns in all four rotator cuff muscles in orangutans and gibbons, comparing the results with previously published data for chimpanzees. The EMG results indicate that the distinctive contributions of each cuff muscle to locomotion are the same in the three ape species, failing to support inferences of differences in rotator cuff function based on relative scapular fossa size comparisons. It is also shown that relative scapular fossa size is not in fact a good predictor of either the relative masses or cross-sectional areas of the rotator cuff muscles in apes, and relative fossa size gives a false impression of the importance of individual cuff muscles to locomotor differences among apes. A possible explanation for the disparity between fossa and muscle size relates to the underappreciated role of the scapular spine in structural reinforcement of the blade. PMID:23968682

  18. [Reconstruction of massive rotator cuff rupture using a deltoid muscle flap].

    PubMed

    Augereau, B

    1991-10-01

    In extensive rotator cuff tears with rupture of the supra- and infraspinatus muscles, we have obtained good and very good results persisting for 3 years or longer only in 40% of cases treated by resection and debridement, and in 25% of our cases the head of the humerus was found to be no longer centrally located in the joint socket on X-ray examination 10 years after treatment. It was therefore proposed that an active muscle flap taken from the anterior part of the deltoid muscle (part III according to Fick) should be used to span the trophic defect in the rotator cuff, being sutured into healthy tissue following freshening up. This seems logical, since the transferred muscle flap remains innervated and vascularized and also works synergistically with the rest of the rotator cuff. The flap interposed in this way between the greater tubercle of the humerus and the acromion functions in the same way as a double-bellied muscle and prevents displacement of the head of the humerus. In this way an active rotator cuff is produced, which also takes over the function of stabilizing the humeral head. After follow-up of at least 1 year (average 19 months), the result is aesthetically satisfactory in all 50 shoulders treated in this way; 47 are free of pain or painful only some of the time; in 32 active elevation of over 120 degrees is possible; 21 have symmetrical force ratios in elevation and 15 for outward rotation in 90 degrees abduction. All reconstructed shoulders were characterized by fatigability in elevation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1745542

  19. Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty for Management of Postinfectious Arthropathy With Rotator Cuff Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Morris, Brent J; Waggenspack, Wame N; Laughlin, Mitzi S; Elkousy, Hussein A; Gartsman, Gary M; Edwards, T Bradley

    2015-08-01

    Treatment of patients with rotator cuff deficiency and arthritis in the setting of a prior glenohumeral infection (postinfectious arthropathy) is complex, with little evidence to guide treatment. The current authors present their approach to management of these patients and clinical outcomes after reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). All primary RSAs performed for postinfectious arthropathy and rotator cuff deficiency with native glenohumeral joints were identified in a prospective shoulder arthroplasty registry. Eight patients with a minimum of 2-year follow-up were included in the analysis. Clinical outcomes, including the Constant score, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, the Western Ontario Osteoarthritis Shoulder (WOOS) index, the Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) score, and range of motion measurements, were assessed preoperatively and at final follow-up. At an average follow-up of 4.4 years, no patient had a clinically detectable recurrence of infection. Significant improvements were noted in all outcome scores from preoperative evaluation to final follow-up after RSA, including Constant score (P=.003), ASES score (P<.001), WOOS index (P=.002), SANE score (P=.025), forward flexion (P<.001), abduction (P<.001), and external rotation (P=.020). Seven of 8 patients reported they were satisfied or very satisfied at final follow-up. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty can be performed in patients without significant medical comorbidities in the setting of postinfectious arthropathy and rotator cuff deficiency with a low risk of recurrence of infection. Significant clinical improvements were noted at short-term follow-up. PMID:26270757

  20. Arthroscopic Superior Capsular Reconstruction for Treatment of Massive Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Hirahara, Alan M.; Adams, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    Massive irreparable rotator cuff tears have been troublesome entities to treat, especially in younger patients. Few good options exist, leaving most patients in recent years receiving a reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty carries serious risks, a limited lifespan, and no other viable options should it fail. Recent biomechanical studies have shown that the superior capsule is critical to containing the glenohumeral joint reduced, allowing the larger muscles like the deltoid and pectoralis major to function properly. The superior capsular reconstruction is an anatomic reconstruction of the superior capsule to restore the normal restraint to superior translation that occurs with a deficient rotator cuff. The technique described in this article is an arthroscopic reconstruction of the superior capsule with dermal allograft. PMID:26870638

  1. Effects of therapeutic ultrasound and exercise on pain, function, and isokinetic shoulder rotator strength of patients with rotator cuff disease

    PubMed Central

    Analan, Pınar Doruk; Leblebici, Berrin; Adam, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the effects of therapeutic continuous ultrasound (US) on patients with rotator cuff disease. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two patients were treated with a standard physiotherapy program consisting of a hot-pack, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), exercises, and US that was supervised by the same physiotherapist. The patients were randomly assigned to either a group that received true US (n=11) or one that received sham US (n=11). [Results] There were significant differences between the pre- and post-intervention UCLA Shoulder Rating Scale and Constant-Murley Shoulder Outcome scores, VAS, and external rotation (ER) peak torque 60°/second values for both the true and sham US groups. However, the between-group differences were not statistically significant. [Conclusion] In patients with rotator cuff disease, physiotherapy interventions effectively treat the pain, improve the clinical status, and increase the muscle strength of the shoulder ER at a low constant angular velocity, with functional improvement being seen immediately after treatment. However, at the end of the intervention, the US had yielded no additional efficacy to the physiotherapy treatment regimen of the patients with rotator cuff disease. PMID:26644656

  2. Comparison of rotator cuff muscle architecture between humans and other selected vertebrate species

    PubMed Central

    Mathewson, Margie A.; Kwan, Alan; Eng, Carolyn M.; Lieber, Richard L.; Ward, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compare rotator cuff muscle architecture of typically used animal models with that of humans and quantify the scaling relationships of these muscles across mammals. The four muscles that correspond to the human rotator cuff supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis and teres minor of 10 commonly studied animals were excised and subjected to a series of comparative measurements. When body mass among animals was regressed against physiological cross-sectional area, muscle mass and normalized fiber length, the confidence intervals suggested geometric scaling but did not exclude other scaling relationships. Based on the architectural difference index (ADI), a combined measure of fiber length-to-moment arm ratio, fiber length-to-muscle length ratio and the fraction of the total rotator cuff physiological cross-sectional area contributed by each muscle, chimpanzees were found to be the most similar to humans (ADI=2.15), followed closely by capuchins (ADI=2.16). Interestingly, of the eight non-primates studied, smaller mammals such as mice, rats and dogs were more similar to humans in architectural parameters compared with larger mammals such as sheep, pigs or cows. The force production versus velocity trade-off (indicated by fiber length-to-moment arm ratio) and the excursion ability (indicated by fiber length-to-muscle length ratio) of humans were also most similar to those of primates, followed by the small mammals. Overall, primates provide the best architectural representation of human muscle architecture. However, based on the muscle architectural parameters of non-primates, smaller rather than larger mammals may be better models for studying muscles related to the human rotator cuff. PMID:24072803

  3. Comparison of rotator cuff muscle architecture between humans and other selected vertebrate species.

    PubMed

    Mathewson, Margie A; Kwan, Alan; Eng, Carolyn M; Lieber, Richard L; Ward, Samuel R

    2014-01-15

    In this study, we compare rotator cuff muscle architecture of typically used animal models with that of humans and quantify the scaling relationships of these muscles across mammals. The four muscles that correspond to the human rotator cuff - supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis and teres minor - of 10 commonly studied animals were excised and subjected to a series of comparative measurements. When body mass among animals was regressed against physiological cross-sectional area, muscle mass and normalized fiber length, the confidence intervals suggested geometric scaling but did not exclude other scaling relationships. Based on the architectural difference index (ADI), a combined measure of fiber length-to-moment arm ratio, fiber length-to-muscle length ratio and the fraction of the total rotator cuff physiological cross-sectional area contributed by each muscle, chimpanzees were found to be the most similar to humans (ADI=2.15), followed closely by capuchins (ADI=2.16). Interestingly, of the eight non-primates studied, smaller mammals such as mice, rats and dogs were more similar to humans in architectural parameters compared with larger mammals such as sheep, pigs or cows. The force production versus velocity trade-off (indicated by fiber length-to-moment arm ratio) and the excursion ability (indicated by fiber length-to-muscle length ratio) of humans were also most similar to those of primates, followed by the small mammals. Overall, primates provide the best architectural representation of human muscle architecture. However, based on the muscle architectural parameters of non-primates, smaller rather than larger mammals may be better models for studying muscles related to the human rotator cuff. PMID:24072803

  4. Arthroscopic double-pulley suture-bridge technique for rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Cheon; Rhee, Kwang Jin; Shin, Hyun Dae

    2008-11-01

    After preparation of the bone bed, two doubly loaded suture anchors with suture eyelets are inserted at the articular margin of the greater tuberosity. A retrograde suture-passing instrument penetrates the rotator cuff to retrieve the sutures through the modified Neviaser or subclavian portal. An ipsilateral pair of suture eyelets in the suture anchor is passed through the margins of the rotator cuff tear. The blue suture of the second and third pair is pulled out of the lateral cannula, and the threaded blue suture of the third pair in the needle is passed through the blue suture of the second pair. After retrieving the blue suture of the first pair through the anterior portal, it is pulled out to pass the blue suture of the third pair through the eyelet of the anteromedial anchor. The blue suture is linked between two anchors. The medial row of suture-bridge is repaired with a sliding knot, and the sutures are not cut. Once the rotator cuff repair using the suture-bridge technique has been performed, the two blue strands in the anterior portal are tied. We describe our technique that possesses the advantages of both the double-pulley and suture-bridge techniques, which improves the pressurized contact area and maximizes compression along the medial row. PMID:18058114

  5. Arthroscopic Lamina-Specific Double-Row Fixation for Large Delaminated Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Daisuke; Funakoshi, Noboru; Yamashita, Fumiharu

    2014-01-01

    Delamination is a commonly observed finding at the time of rotator cuff repair, but few studies have described the surgical techniques used for delaminated rotator cuff tears (RCTs) or their clinical outcomes. We developed a technique using a combination of a double row and an additional row, which we call lamina-specific double-row fixation, for large delaminated RCTs. The lamina-specific double-row technique is performed using an additional row (lamina-specific lateral row) of suture anchors placed between the typical medial and lateral rows of suture anchors. The technique is performed as follows: (1) medial-row sutures are passed through the inferior (articular-side) and superior (bursal-side) layers in a mattress fashion; (2) lamina-specific lateral-row simple sutures are passed through the inferior layer; and (3) lateral-row simple sutures are passed through the superior layer. We believe that this technique offers the following advantages: (1) creation of a larger area of contact between the inferior layer and the footprint, (2) higher initial fixation strength of the articular-side components of the repaired rotator cuff tendon, and (3) an adaptation between the superficial and inferior layers. This technique represents an alternative option in the operative treatment of large delaminated RCTs. PMID:25685671

  6. Biomechanical testing of a new knotless suture anchor compared with established anchors for rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Pietschmann, Matthias F; Froehlich, Valerie; Ficklscherer, Andreas; Wegener, Bernd; Jansson, Volkmar; Müller, Peter E

    2008-01-01

    Various suture anchors are available for rotator cuff repair. For arthroscopic application, a knotless anchor was developed to simplify the intra-operative handling. We compared the new knotless anchor (BIOKNOTLESStrade mark RC; DePuy Mitek, Raynham, MA) with established absorbable and titanium suture anchors (UltraSorbtrade mark and Super Revo 5mmtrade mark; ConMed Linvatec, Utica, NY). Each anchor was tested on 6 human cadaveric shoulders. The anchors were inserted into the greater tuberosity. An incremental cyclic loading was performed. Ultimate failure loads, anchor displacement, and mode of failure were recorded. The anchor displacement of the BIOKNOTLESStrade mark RC (15.3 +/- 5.3 mm) after the first cycle with 75 N was significantly higher than with the two other anchors (Super Revo 2.1 +/- 1.6 mm, UltraSorb: 2.7 +/- 1.1 mm). There was no significant difference in the ultimate failure loads of the 3 anchors. Although the Bioknotlesstrade mark RC indicated comparable maximal pullout strength, it bares the risk of losing contact between the tendon-bone-interface due to a significantly higher system displacement. Therefore, gap formation between the bone and the soft tissue fixation jeopardizes the repair. Bioknotlesstrade mark RC should be used in the lateral row only when a double row technique for rotator cuff repair is performed, and is not appropriate for rotator cuff repair if used on its own. PMID:18396417

  7. A Canine Non-Weight-Bearing Model with Radial Neurectomy for Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xiaoxi; Bao, Nirong; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.; Steinmann, Scott P.; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2015-01-01

    Background The major concern of using a large animal model to study rotator cuff repair is the high rate of repair retears. The purpose of this study was to test a non-weight-bearing (NWB) canine model for rotator cuff repair research. Methods First, in the in vitro study, 18 shoulders were randomized to 3 groups. 1) Full-width transections repaired with modified Mason-Allen sutures using 3-0 polyglactin suture, 2) Group 1 repaired using number 2 (#2) polyester braid and long-chain polyethylene suture, and 3) Partial-width transections leaving the superior 2 mm infraspinatus tendon intact without repair. In the in vivo study of 6 dogs, the infraspinatus tendon was partially transected as the same as the in vitro group 3. A radial neurectomy was performed to prevent weight bearing. The operated limb was slung in a custom-made jacket for 6 weeks. Results In the in vitro study, mean ultimate tensile load and stiffness in Group 2 were significantly higher than Group 1 and 3 (p<0.05). In the in vivo study, gross inspection and histology showed that the preserved superior 2-mm portion of the infraspinatus tendon remained intact with normal structure. Conclusions Based on the biomechanical and histological findings, this canine NWB model may be an appropriate and useful model for studies of rotator cuff repair. PMID:26107616

  8. Effects of humeral head compression taping on the isokinetic strength of the shoulder external rotator muscle in patients with rotator cuff tendinitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Moon-Hwan; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of humeral head compression taping (HHCT) on the strength of the shoulder external rotator muscle in patients with rotator cuff tendinitis. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients with rotator cuff tendinitis were recruited. The shoulder external rotator strength was measured using a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer system. A paired t-test was performed to evaluate within-group differences in the strength of the shoulder external rotator muscle. [Results] Significantly higher shoulder external rotator peak torque and peak torque per body weight were found in the HHCT condition than in the no-taping condition. [Conclusion] HHCT may effectively increase the shoulder external rotator muscle strength in patients with rotator cuff tendinitis. PMID:25642053

  9. Aging-associated exacerbation in fatty degeneration and infiltration following rotator cuff tear

    PubMed Central

    Gumucio, Jonathan P; Korn, Michael A; Saripalli, Anjali L; Flood, Michael D; Phan, Anthony C; Roche, Stuart M; Lynch, Evan B; Claflin, Dennis R; Bedi, Asheesh; Mendias, Christopher L

    2013-01-01

    Background Rotator cuff tears are one of the most common musculoskeletal complaints and a substantial source of morbidity in elderly patients. Chronic cuff tears are associated with muscle atrophy and an infiltration of fat to the area, a condition known as fatty degeneration. To improve the treatment of cuff tears in elderly patients, a greater understanding of the changes in the contractile properties of muscle fibers and the molecular regulation of fatty degeneration is essential. Methods Using a full-thickness, massive supraspinatus and infraspinatus tear model in elderly rats, we measured fiber contractility and determined changes in fiber type distribution that develop 30 days after tear. We also measured the expression of mRNA and miRNA transcripts involved in muscle atrophy, lipid accumulation, and matrix synthesis. We hypothesized that a decrease in specific force of muscle fibers, an accumulation of type IIb fibers, and an upregulation in atrophic, fibrogenic, and inflammatory gene expression would occur in torn cuff muscles. Results Thirty days following tear, we observed a reduction in muscle fiber force and an induction of RNA molecules that regulate atrophy, fibrosis, lipid accumulation, inflammation and macrophage recruitment. A marked accumulation of advanced glycation end products, and a significant accretion of macrophages in areas of fat accumulation were observed. Conclusions The extent of degenerative changes in old rats was greater than that observed in adults. Additionally, we identified that the ectopic fat accumulation that occurs in chronic cuff tears does not occur by activation of canonical intramyocellular lipid storage and synthesis pathways. PMID:23790676

  10. Morphology of the humeral insertion of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons: Application to rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Lumsdaine, William; Smith, Adam; Walker, Rowan G; Benz, Daniel; Mohammed, Khalid D; Stewart, Fiona

    2015-09-01

    In shoulder surgery, a precise understanding of anatomical relationships is required for accurate reconstruction. Reports in recent literature have challenged the traditional definitions of the humeral footprints of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons. This study aims to precisely delineate these footprints. The rotator cuffs of 54 shoulders from 27 Australian Caucasoid donor cadavers were examined. The tendinous portions were dissected down to their region/footprint of attachment upon the humerus. Measurements of those footprints, upon the greater and lesser tuberosities, were made. Those measurements were statistically analyzed for any association with age, sex, height, or side. Twenty-seven cadavers had an average age at death of 74.9 ( 12.8), 56% were male, average height was 168 ( 8.6) cm. Due to premorbid fracture, or degeneration, 11 shoulders were excluded. The footprint of the supraspinatus was triangular, with a medial, anteroposterior length of 20.4 4.2 mm. Its lateral anteroposterior length was 6.3 1.6 mm and its maximal mediolateral width was 6.6 2.7 mm. Its calculated area was 122.0 66.6 mm(2). The footprint of the infraspinatus was trapezoidal, with a medial anteroposterior length 22.6 3.0 mm. Its lateral anteroposterior length was 25.4 3.3mm and its maximal mediolateral width was 12.0 2.7 mm. Its calculated area was 294.9 74.1 mm(2). There was no statistical correlation between size of the footprint and age, sex, side, or height. The humeral footprints of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons upon the greater tuberosity were distinct. The lateral border of the infraspinatus' humeral attachment extended much farther anteriorly upon the highest facet of the greater tuberosity than in traditional descriptions. PMID:25914209

  11. Intraosseous foreign body granuloma in rotator cuff repair with bioabsorbable suture anchor.

    PubMed

    Nusselt, T; Freche, S; Klinger, H-M; Baums, M H

    2010-08-01

    Biodegradable implants lead to problems such as cyst formation, soft-tissue inflammation, loose implant fragments or local osteolysis. This report represents the first published case of an intraosseous foreign body granuloma in the humeral head after arthroscopic rotator cuff tear fixation with a poly-L: -lactide (PLLA) suture anchor. A 48-year-old female patient presented with pain in her right shoulder. A refixation of her right supraspinatus tendon with a biodegradable suture anchor was performed 11 months ago at an external hospital. Laboratory tests showed normal values for C-reactive protein, leukocytes and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. No signs of infection or instability were noted. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was 8, the simple shoulder test (SST) was 4 and the American shoulder and elbow surgeons score (ASES) was 44. Plain radiographs showed high lucency in the area of the tuberculum majus. MRI showed an intra- and extraosseous mass surrounded by fluid in this area. Surgical care involved arthroscopic debridement and removal of the suture anchor. Histological examination revealed a foreign body granuloma. At the 18-month follow-up the patient was nearly pain-free. The VAS was 2, SST was 10 and ASES was 88. Foreign body granulomas are a well known but rarely described complication that arises after the use of biodegradable suture anchors in shoulder surgery. Every patient presenting with shoulder pain after usage of a biodegradable fixation material should be evaluated closely. Orthopaedic surgeons should be aware of the possibility of delayed foreign body reactions, especially after using PLLA anchors. PMID:20526849

  12. Diagnosis of Calcific Tendonitis of the Rotator Cuff by Using Susceptibility-weighted MR Imaging.

    PubMed

    Nrenberg, Dominik; Ebersberger, Hans U; Walter, Thula; Ockert, Ben; Knobloch, Gesine; Diederichs, Gerd; Hamm, Bernd; Makowski, Marcus R

    2016-02-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic performance of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) and standard shoulder joint magnetic resonance (MR) sequences in comparison to that of conventional radiography for the identification of calcifications in the rotator cuff in patients with calcific tendonitis. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this prospective study. Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Fifty-four patients clinically suspected of having calcific tendonitis of the rotator cuff were included. On radiographs (the standard of reference), 27 patients had positive calcification findings, and 27 did not. Standard MR sequences and SWI, including magnitude and phase imaging, were performed. The diameter of calcifications was measured to assess intermodality correlations. Sensitivity, specificity, and intra- and interobserver agreement were calculated. Phantom measurements were performed to assess the detection limit of SWI. Results Fifty-six calcifications were detected with radiography in 27 patients. Most (55 calcifications, 98%) could be identified as calcifications by using SWI. Standard T1- and T2-weighted sequences were used to identify 33 calcifications (59%). SWI yielded a sensitivity of 98% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.943, 1) and specificity of 96% (95% CI: 0.886, 1) for the identification of calcifications when compared with radiography. Standard rotator cuff MR sequences yielded a sensitivity of 59% (95% CI: 0.422, 0.758) and specificity of 67% (95% CI: 0.493, 0.847). Diameter measurements demonstrated a high correlation between SWI and radiography (R(2) = 0.90), with overestimation of lesion diameter at SWI (mean standard deviation for SWI, 7.6 mm 5.4; for radiography, 5.3 mm 5.1). SWI yielded higher interobserver agreement (R(2) = 0.99, P < .001; 95% CI: 0.989, 0.996) compared with standard MR sequences (R(2) = 0.67, P = .62; 95% CI: 0.703, 0.899). In phantom experiments, SWI and computed tomography were used to identify small calcifications that were missed at radiography. Conclusion SWI enables the reliable detection of calcifications in the rotator cuff in patients with calcific tendonitis by using conventional radiography as a reference and offers better sensitivity and specificity than standard rotator cuff MR sequences. () RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26347995

  13. Early Results of Concurrent Arthroscopic Repair of Rotator Cuff and Type II Superior Labral Anterior Posterior Tears

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Justin P.; Fleckenstein, Cassie M.; Ducker, Al; Hasan, Samer S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recent reports on concurrent arthroscopic rotator cuff and type II superior labral anterior posterior (SLAP) repair have raised concerns over postoperative stiffness and patient satisfaction. However, it is unclear if the observed stiffness relates to the repair of degenerative SLAP tears in older adults, the surgical technique, the postoperative rehabilitation, or to a combination of these factors. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome and repair integrity of concurrent arthroscopic rotator cuff and type II SLAP repair. Study Design: Case series. Methods: Of 11 patients identified, 7 had a full-thickness rotator cuff tear and 4 had a high-grade partial thickness tear that was completed. A cannula placed through the rotator cuff tear improved the trajectory for posterior suture anchor placement during SLAP repair. Postoperative rehabilitation employed continuous passive motion to prevent stiffness. Results: At minimum of 1-year follow-up, mean yes responses on the Simple Shoulder Test improved from 5.4 to 10.7 (out of 12; P < .01), and mean American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores improved from 40 to 87 (out of 100; P < .01). Mean forward elevation improved from 148 to 161 (P < .01) and external rotation from 58 to 67 (P < .01). Magnetic resonance imaging, obtained at most recent follow-up in 10 patients, demonstrated a healed SLAP tear in all patients and a persistent rotator cuff defect in 1 patient. Conclusions: Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair can be successfully combined with type II SLAP repair in relatively young patients who have sustained traumatic injury to their shoulders. Allowing early passive motion may help prevent postoperative stiffness without compromising rotator cuff healing. PMID:23015981

  14. The Duration of Symptoms does not correlate with Rotator Cuff Tear Severity or Other Patient Related Features. A Cross Sectional Study of Patients with Atraumatic, Full Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Unruh, Kenneth P; Kuhn, John E.; Sanders, Rosemary; An, Qi; Baumgarten, Keith M.; Bishop, Julie Y.; Brophy, Robert H.; Carey, James L.; Holloway, Brian G.; Jones, Grant L.; Ma, Benjamin C.; Marx, Robert G.; McCarty, Eric C.; Poddar, Souray K.; Smith, Matthew V.; Spencer, Edwin E.; Vidal, Armando F.; Wolf, Brian R.; Wright, Rick W.; Dunn, Warren R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to determine if the duration of symptoms influences the features seen in patients with atraumatic full thickness rotator cuff tears. Our hypothesis is that increasing duration of symptoms will correlate with more advanced findings of rotator cuff tear severity on MRI, worse shoulder outcome scores, more pain, decreased range of motion, and less strength. Methods 450 patients with full thickness rotator cuff tears were enrolled in a prospective cohort study to assess the effectiveness of nonoperative treatment and factors predictive of success. Duration of patient symptoms were divided into four groups: ≤3 months, 4–6 months, 7–12 months, and >12 months. Data collected at patient entry into the study included: 1.) Demographic data, 2.) History and physical exam data, 3.) Radiographic imaging data, and 4.) Validated patient reported measures of shoulder status. Statistical analysis included a univariate analysis with Kruskal-Wallis test and Pearson tests to identify statistically significant differences in these features for different durations of symptoms Results Longer duration of symptoms does not correlate with more severe rotator cuff disease. Duration of symptoms was not related to weakness; limited range of motion; tear size; fatty atrophy; or validated patient reported outcome measures. Conclusions There is only a weak relationship between the duration of symptoms and features associated with rotator cuff disease. Level of Evidence Level III, Cross Sectional Study PMID:24411924

  15. The lateral Jobe test: A more reliable method of diagnosing rotator cuff tears

    PubMed Central

    Gillooly, John Joseph; Chidambaram, Ramiah; Mok, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The most reliable clinical investigations to diagnose rotator cuff tears reported in the literature is a triad of weakness on resisted external rotation, pain on impingement, and weakness on supraspinatus testing, or a combination of two of the above in a patient over 60 years of age. We present a simple new clinical test The lateral Jobe Test and compare it to these combined tests. The lateral Jobe test is performed with the patients shoulder abducted 90 in the coronal plane and internally rotated so that with the elbows flexed 90 the fingers point inferiorly and thumbs medially. A positive test is pain or weakness on resisting an inferiorly directed force applied to the distal arms or an inability to perform the test. Materials and Methods: A consecutive series of 175 patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy were reviewed prospectively and examined by two independent orthopedic surgeons blinded to the diagnosis. The results of the clinical tests were validated against arthroscopic findings. Results: The lateral Jobe test had a significantly higher sensitivity (81 vs. 58%) than the combined tests. The specificity of both was similar at 89 and 88%, respectively. Conslusion: The lateral Jobe test is a simple single test which can help in the clinical diagnosis of rotator cuff tears. Level of Evidence: Level IIb PMID:21072147

  16. Treatment options for irreparable postero-superior cuff tears in young patients

    PubMed Central

    Galasso, Olimpio; Familiari, Filippo; Gasparini, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears (RCTs) occur more commonly with advanced age, with most rotator cuff abnormalities in patients less than 30 years old being painful tendinoses or partial-thickness RCTs. Irreparable postero-superior cuff tears has been reported as frequent as 7% to 10% in the general population, and the incidence of irreparable RCTs in young patients is still unknown. Several surgical procedures have been proposed for young patients with irreparable postero-superior RCTs, such as rotator cuff debridement, partial rotator cuff repair, biceps tenotomy/tenodesis, rotator cuff grafting, latissimus dorsi tendon transfer, and reverse shoulder arthroplasty. After being thoroughly investigated in open surgery, arthroscopic techniques for latissimus dorsi tendon transfer have been recently described. They have been shown to be an adequate option to open surgery for managing irreparable postero-superior RCTs refractory to conservative management. PMID:26601058

  17. Effect of subacromial sodium hyaluronate injection on rotator cuff disease: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Moghtaderi, Alireza; Sajadiyeh, Sepideh; Khosrawi, Saeid; Dehghan, Farnaz; Bateni, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Rotator cuff disease is a common cause of shoulder pain. There are studies about the effectiveness of sodium hyaluronate injection on shoulder and knee pain, but few studies demonstrating the efficacy of sodium hyaluronate ultrasonography guided injection for rotator cuff disease. This study evaluates effectiveness of ultrasonography guided subacromial sodium hyaluronate injection in patients with impingment syndrome without rotator cuff complete tear. Materials and Methods: This prospective, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial study was performed among 40 patients with subacromial impingement syndrome without complete tear of rotator cuff. Patients randomly injected ultrasonography guided in 2 groups: Case group by 20 mg of sodium hyaluronate (Fermathron) and control group by 0.9% normal saline. Both groups received 3 weekly injections. The pain score (100 mm visual analogue score [VAS]) was evaluated before first injection and one week after each injection. The constant score was evaluated before first and 12 week after last injection. Data was analyzed statistically by Independent t-test. Results: In both groups mean VAS has decreased, but more significantly in case group (P < 0.001). Mean constant score was significantly higher in case group 12 weeks after last injection (P < 0.001). The constant score improved 12 weeks after the last injection in both groups with a significantly better result in case group (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Subacromial injections of sodium hyaluronate are effective in treating rotator cuff disease without complete tears. PMID:24524035

  18. The prevalence of neovascularity in patients clinically diagnosed with rotator cuff tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Shoulder dysfunction is common and pathology of the rotator cuff tendons and subacromial bursa are considered to be a major cause of pain and morbidity. Although many hypotheses exist there is no definitive understanding as to the origin of the pain arising from these structures. Research investigations from other tendons have placed intra-tendinous neovascularity as a potential mechanism of pain production. The prevalence of neovascularity in patients with a clinical diagnosis of rotator cuff tendinopathy is unknown. As such the primary aim of this pilot study was to investigate if neovascularity could be identified and to determine the prevalence of neovascularity in the rotator cuff tendons and subacromial bursa in subjects with unilateral shoulder pain clinically assessed to be rotator cuff tendinopathy. The secondary aims were to investigate the association between the presence of neovascularity and pain, duration of symptoms, and, neovascularity and shoulder function. Methods Patients with a clinical diagnosis of unilateral rotator cuff tendinopathy referred for a routine diagnostic ultrasound (US) scan in a major London teaching hospital formed the study population. At referral patients were provided with an information document. On the day of the scan (on average, at least one week later) the patients agreeing to participate were taken through the consent process and underwent an additional clinical examination prior to undergoing a bilateral grey scale and colour Doppler US examination (symptomatic and asymptomatic shoulder) using a Philips HDI 5000 Sono CT US machine. The ultrasound scans were performed by one of two radiologists who recorded their findings and the final assessment was made by a third radiologist blinded both to the clinical examination and the ultrasound examination. The findings of the radiologists who performed the scans and the blinded radiologist were compared and any disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results Twenty-six patients agreed to participate and formed the study population. Of these, 6 subjects were not included in the final assessment following the pre-scan clinical investigation. This is because one subject had complete cessation of symptoms between the time of the referral and entry into the trial. Another five had developed bilateral shoulder pain during the same period. The mean age of the 20 subjects forming the study population was 50.2 (range 32-69) years (SD = 10.9) and the mean duration of symptoms was 22.6 (range .75 to 132) months (SD = 40.1). Of the 20 subjects included in the formal analysis, 13 subjects (65%) demonstrated neovascularity in the symptomatic shoulder and 5 subjects (25%) demonstrated neovascularity in the asymptomatic shoulder. The subject withdrawn due to complete cessation of symptoms was not found to have neovascularity in either shoulder and of the 5 withdrawn due to bilateral symptoms; two subjects were found to have signs of bilateral neovascularity, one subject demonstrated neovascularity in one shoulder and two subjects in neither shoulder. Conclusions This study demonstrated that neovascularity does occur in subjects with a clinical diagnosis of rotator cuff tendinopathy and to a lesser extent in asymptomatic shoulders. In addition, the findings of this investigation did not identify an association between the presence of neovascularity; and pain, duration of symptoms or shoulder function. Future research is required to determine the relevance of these findings. PMID:20025761

  19. Evaluation of the results from arthroscopic surgical treatment of rotator cuff injuries in patients aged 65 years and over☆

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; da Silva, Luciana Andrade; Santos, Pedro Doenux; Checchia, Sergio Luiz; Cohen, Carina; Giora, Taís Stedile Busin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the results from arthroscopic surgical treatment of rotator cuff injuries in patients aged 65 years and over. Methods Between 1998 and 2009, 168 patients underwent operations. Five cases were excluded. The remaining 163 patients were stratified according to their age group: 65–69 years (49.1%), 70–74 (26.4%) and 75 years and over (24.5%). Their mean age was 71 years (range: 65–83). There were 63 male patients (38.7%). The mean length of time with pain, from the onset of symptoms to the surgery, was 23 months (range: 2 days to 240 months). Sixty-two patients (38%) reported histories of trauma and 26 (16%) reported that their pain worsened through exertion. Results From the UCLA criteria, 80.4% of the results were excellent, 16% good, 1.8% fair and 1.8% poor. Complications occurred in 11%. The final clinical result did not show any correlation with age progression, injury size or tendons affected. However, there was a significant association (p < 0.001) between the presence of trauma and larger injuries. The length of time between the onset of symptoms and the surgical procedure had a significant relationship (p < 0.027) with the postoperative results: the longer this time was, the worse the results were. Conclusion Arthroscopic treatment of rotator cuff injuries in patients aged 65 years and over presented excellent and good results in 96.4% of the cases, according to the UCLA assessment, with a low complication rate. Advanced age did not show any influence on the postoperative clinical evolution, but the earlier the surgical treatment was instituted, the better the results were. PMID:26229935

  20. Rotator cuff healing after continuous subacromial bupivacaine infusion: an in vivo rabbit study

    PubMed Central

    FRIEL, NICOLE A.; WANG, VINCENT M.; SLABAUGH, MARK A.; WANG, FANCHIA; CHUBINSKAYA, SUSAN; COLE, BRIAN J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of continuous subacromial bupivacaine infusion on supraspinatus muscle and rotator cuff tendon healing via gross, biomechanical, and histologic analyses. Methods Thirty-three New Zealand White rabbits underwent unilateral supraspinatus transection and rotator cuff repair (RCR). Rabbits were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: (1)RCR only, (2)RCR with continuous saline infusion for 48 hours, or (3)RCR with continuous 0.25% bupivacaine with epinephrine (1:200,000) infusion for 48 hours. Rabbits were sacrificed at either 2 (for histologic assessment) or 8 weeks post-operatively (for biomechanical and histologic assessment). Results Tensile testing showed significantly higher load to failure in intact tendons compared to repaired tendons (p<0.01); however, no statistical differences were detected among RCR only, RCR Saline, and RCR Bupivacaine groups. Histologically, the enthesis of repaired tendons showed increased cellularity and disorganized collagen fibers compared to intact tendons, with no differences between treatment groups. Muscle histology demonstrated scattered degenerative muscle fibers at 2 weeks in both RCR Saline and RCR Bupivacaine, but no degeneration was noted at 8 weeks. Conclusions The healing supraspinatus tendons exposed to bupivacaine infusion showed similar histologic and biomechanical characteristics compared to untreated and saline infused RCR groups. Muscle histology showed fiber damage at 2 weeks for both the saline and bupivacaine treated groups, with no apparent disruption at 8 weeks, suggesting a recovery process. Therefore, subacromial bupivacaine infusion in this rabbit rotator cuff model does not appear to impair muscle or tendon following acute injury and repair. Level Of Evidence Basic science study PMID:22818894

  1. A Prospective Evaluation of Survivorship of Asymptomatic Degenerative Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Keener, Jay D.; Galatz, Leesa M.; Teefey, Sharlene A.; Middleton, William D.; Steger-May, Karen; Stobbs-Cucchi, Georgia; Patton, Rebecca; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this prospective study was to report the long-term risks of rotator cuff tear enlargement and symptom progression associated with degenerative asymptomatic tears. Methods: Subjects with an asymptomatic rotator cuff tear in one shoulder and pain due to rotator cuff disease in the contralateral shoulder enrolled as part of a prospective longitudinal study. Two hundred and twenty-four subjects (118 initial full-thickness tears, fifty-six initial partial-thickness tears, and fifty controls) were followed for a median of 5.1 years. Validated functional shoulder scores were calculated (visual analog pain scale, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons [ASES], and simple shoulder test [SST] scores). Subjects were followed annually with shoulder ultrasonography and clinical evaluations. Results: Tear enlargement was seen in 49% of the shoulders, and the median time to enlargement was 2.8 years. The occurrence of tear-enlargement events was influenced by the severity of the final tear type, with enlargement of 61% of the full-thickness tears, 44% of the partial-thickness tears, and 14% of the controls (p < 0.05). Subject age and sex were not related to tear enlargement. One hundred subjects (46%) developed new pain. The final tear type was associated with a greater risk of pain development, with the new pain developing in 28% of the controls, 46% of the shoulders with a partial-thickness tear, and 50% of those with a full-thickness tear (p < 0.05). The presence of tear enlargement was associated with the onset of new pain (p < 0.05). Progressive degenerative changes of the supraspinatus muscle were associated with tear enlargement, with supraspinatus muscle degeneration increasing in 4% of the shoulders with a stable tear compared with 30% of the shoulders with tear enlargement (p < 0.05). Nine percent of the shoulders with a stable tear showed increased infraspinatus muscle degeneration compared with 28% of those in which the tear had enlarged (p = 0.07). Conclusions: This study demonstrates the progressive nature of degenerative rotator cuff disease. The risk of tear enlargement and progression of muscle degeneration is greater for shoulders with a full-thickness tear, and tear enlargement is associated with a greater risk of pain development across all tear types. Level of Evidence: Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:25609434

  2. Complete Fatty infiltration of intact rotator cuffs caused by suprascapular neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Leclere, Lance E; Shi, Lewis L; Lin, Albert; Yannopoulos, Paul; Higgins, Laurence D; Warner, Jon J P

    2014-05-01

    Suprascapular neuropathy is generally considered to be a diagnosis of exclusion, although it has been described in association with several activities and conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first description of suprascapular neuropathy with complete neurogenic fatty replacement in patients with intact rotator cuff tendons in the absence of traction or compression mechanisms. We present 4 cases of patients who presented with complete fatty infiltration of the supraspinatus (1 patient), infraspinatus (2 patients), and both (1 patient) resulting from suprascapular neuropathy. Each of these patients underwent arthroscopic suprascapular nerve decompression and subsequently had immediate improvement in pain and subjective shoulder value. PMID:24630957

  3. Assessment of function in patients with rotator cuff tears: Functional test versus self-reported questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Basar, Selda; Citaker, Seyit; Kanatli, Ulunay; Ozturk, Burak Yagmur; Kilickap, Sadettin; Kafa, Nihan K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The rotator cuff tears (RCT) are a well-known cause of shoulder pain and loss of upper extremity function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the upper extremity function using two different methods in patients with RCT and to determine the parameters that influence the upper extremity function. Materials and Methods: A sample of 38 patients (27-76 years; 10 men and 28 women) who were diagnosed with a chronic full-thickness RCT, confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), was studied. Upper extremity function was determined using Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (WORC) and 9 Hole Peg Test (9PEG). Other assessments included active range of motion (ROM), muscle strength, shoulder pain, and scapular dyskinesis. Results: There was a weak association between WORC scores and 9PEG. A statistically significant, negative relationship was found between 9PEG and ROM in supination, as well as muscle strength of shoulder extensors, adductors, internal and external rotators. Conclusions: In addition to the weak association between WORC and 9PEG, the difference between the parameters related to each method suggests that they should not be used interchangeably to determine the upper extremity function. We recommend the utilization of 9PEG instead of WORC in assessing the upper extremity function in the setting of loss of muscle strength. Level of Evidence: Level IV, Therapeutic study. PMID:25538429

  4. RADIOGRAPHIC STUDY ON THE ACROMION INDEX AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH ROTATOR CUFF TEARS

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Fregoneze, Marcelo; Santos, Pedro Doneux; Da Silva, Luciana Andrade; Menegassi Martel, Éder; Debom, Leandro Gervazoni; Andrade, Manoel Loyola; Checchia, Sérgio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the lateral projection of the acromion and rotator cuff tears (RCTs) in the Brazilian population. Methods: The lateral projection of the acromion was measured using anteroposterior radiographs of the shoulders, carried out with the glenoid cavity in absolute profile and the humeral head in the neutral position or with internal rotation. The acromion index (AI) was defined as the ratio between the distance from the plane of the glenoid cavity to the lateral edge of the acromion and the distance from the plane of the glenoid cavity to the lateral edge of the humeral head. This index was measured in 83 patients (mean age of 54 years) with RCTs and compared with a group of 28 individuals (mean age of 48 years) without RCTs. The presence or absence of RCTs was determined by means of magnetic resonance imaging. Results: The mean AI was 0.7194 for the patients with RCTs and 0.6677 for the individuals without RCTs, in the Brazilian population. This difference was statistically significant, with P < 0.001. Conclusion: A relationship can be established between AI and rotator cuff tears in the Brazilian population.

  5. Towards the development of a novel experimental shoulder simulator with rotating scapula and individually controlled muscle forces simulating the rotator cuff.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Daniel; Tomas, Daniel; Gossweiler, Lukas; Siegl, Walter; Osterhoff, Georg; Heinlein, Bernd

    2014-03-01

    A preclinical analysis of novel implants used in shoulder surgery requires biomechanical testing conditions close to physiology. Existing shoulder experiments may only partially apply multiple cycles to simulate postoperative, repetitive loading tasks. The aim of the present study was therefore the development of an experimental shoulder simulator with rotating scapula able to perform multiple humeral movement cycles by simulating individual muscles attached to the rotator cuff. A free-hanging, metallic humerus pivoted in a polyethylene glenoid is activated by tension forces of linear electroactuators to simulate muscles of the deltoideus (DELT), supraspinatus (SSP), infraspinatus/teres minor and subscapularis. The abductors DELT and SSP apply forces with a ratio of 3:1 up to an abduction angle of 85°. The rotating scapular part driven by a rotative electro actuator provides one-third to the overall arm abduction. Resulting joint forces and moments are measured by a 6-axis load cell. A linear increase in the DELT and SSP motors is shown up to a maximum of 150 and 50 N for the DELT and SSP, respectively. The force vector in the glenoid resulted in 253 N at the maximum abduction. The present investigation shows the contribution of individual muscle forces attached to the moving humerus to perform active abduction in order to reproducibly test shoulder implants. PMID:24170552

  6. Arthroscopic Changes of the Biceps Pulley in Rotator Cuff Tear and Its Clinical Significance in Relation to Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Chang Hyuk; Kim, Se Sik; Lee, Ju Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Background In the case of rotator cuff tears, the biceps pulley can be stressed by the unstable biceps tendon, and this can subsequently affect the stability of the subscapularis tendon. Therefore, it is important to distinguish between normal variations and lesions of the biceps pulley that affect anterosuperior lesions in cases of rotator cuff tears. Methods From January 2002 through November 2010, we observed biceps pulley and associated anterosuperior lesions in 589 of 634 cases (93%) of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, including 72 cases (12.2%) of small tears, 219 cases (37.2%) of medium tears, 134 cases (22.8%) of large tears, and 164 cases (27.8%) of massive tears. We classified normal stretched biceps pulleys as type I, stretched biceps pulleys with mild changes as type II, those with a partial tear as type III, and torn pulleys as type IV. Results We were able to classify 589 cases of biceps pulleys as type I, II, III, or IV associated lesions in rotator cuff tears. Type I was seen in 91 cases (15.4%), type II in 216 cases (36.7%), type III in 157 cases (26.7%), and type IV in 101 cases (17.1%); unidentified cases numbered 24 (4.1%). Nearly three-quarters, 73.3%, of the cases (432/589) had associated anterosuperior lesions, and combined treatment for the associated lesions was administered in 29.2% (172/589) of cases. Conclusions Biceps pulley lesions with more than partial tears were identified in 48% of rotator cuff tear cases. The incidence and severity of pulley lesions were related to the rotator cuff tear size, the status of the long head of the biceps tendon and subscapularis tendon lesion, and the treatment methods. PMID:26330960

  7. Shoulder muscle activation and coordination in patients with a massive rotator cuff tear: an electromyographic study.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, David H; Alizadehkhaiyat, Omid; Kemp, Graham J; Fisher, Anthony C; Roebuck, Margaret M; Frostick, Simon P

    2012-07-01

    Adaptive muscle activation strategies following a massive rotator cuff tear (MRCT) are inadequately understood, and the relationship among muscles during everyday activities has not been considered. Thirteen healthy subjects comprised the control group, and 11 subjects with a MRCT the patient group. Upper limb function was assessed using the Functional Impairment test-hand, neck, shoulder, and arm (FIT-HaNSA). Electromyography (EMG) was recorded from 13 shoulder muscles, comprising five muscle groups, during a shelf-lifting task. Mean FIT-HaNSA scores were significantly lower in MRCT patients (p≤0.001), reflecting a severe functional deficit. In MRCT patients, EMG signal amplitude was significantly higher for the biceps brachii-brachioradialis (p < 0.001), upper trapezius-serratus anterior (p= 0.025), muscle groups and for the latissimus dorsi (p = 0.010), and teres major (p=0.007) muscles. No significant differences in the correlation among muscle groups were identified, pointing to an unchanged neuromuscular strategy following a tear. In MRCT patients, a reorganization of muscle activation strategy along the upper limb kinetic chain is aimed at reducing demand on the glenohumeral joint. Increased activation of the latissimus dorsi and teres major muscles is an attempt to compensate for the deficient rotator cuff. Re-education towards an alternate neuromuscular control strategy appears necessary to restore function. PMID:22213234

  8. Stem cell therapy in the management of shoulder rotator cuff disorders.

    PubMed

    Valencia Mora, Maria; Ruiz Ibn, Miguel A; Daz Heredia, Jorge; Barco Laakso, Raul; Cullar, Ricardo; Garca Arranz, Mariano

    2015-05-26

    Rotator cuff tears are frequent shoulder problems that are usually dealt with surgical repair. Despite improved surgical techniques, the tendon-to-bone healing rate is unsatisfactory due to difficulties in restoring the delicate transitional tissue between bone and tendon. It is essential to understand the molecular mechanisms that determine this failure. The study of the molecular environment during embryogenesis and during normal healing after injury is key in devising strategies to get a successful repair. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can differentiate into different mesodermal tissues and have a strong paracrine, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory and angiogenic potential. Stem cell therapy is thus a potentially effective therapy to enhance rotator cuff healing. Promising results have been reported with the use of autologous MSC of different origins in animal studies: they have shown to have better healing properties, increasing the amount of fibrocartilage formation and improving the orientation of fibrocartilage fibers with less immunologic response and reduced lymphocyte infiltration. All these changes lead to an increase in biomechanical strength. However, animal research is still inconclusive and more experimental studies are needed before human application. Future directions include expanded stem cell therapy in combination with growth factors or different scaffolds as well as new stem cell types and gene therapy. PMID:26029341

  9. Early mobilisation following mini-open rotator cuff repair: a randomised control trial.

    PubMed

    Sheps, D M; Bouliane, M; Styles-Tripp, F; Beaupre, L A; Saraswat, M K; Luciak-Corea, C; Silveira, A; Glasgow, R; Balyk, R

    2015-09-01

    This study compared the clinical outcomes following mini-open rotator cuff repair (MORCR) between early mobilisation and usual care, involving initial immobilisation. In total, 189 patients with radiologically-confirmed full-thickness rotator cuff tears underwent MORCR and were randomised to either early mobilisation (n = 97) or standard rehabilitation (n = 92) groups. Patients were assessed at six weeks and three, six, 12 and 24 months post-operatively. Six-week range of movement comparisons demonstrated significantly increased abduction (p = 0.002) and scapular plane elevation (p = 0.006) in the early mobilisation group, an effect which was not detectable at three months (p > 0.51) or afterwards. At 24 months post-operatively, patients who performed pain-free, early active mobilisation for activities of daily living showed no difference in clinical outcomes from patients immobilised for six weeks following MORCR. We suggest that the choice of rehabilitation regime following MORCR may be left to the discretion of the patient and the treating surgeon. PMID:26330594

  10. Simultaneous acute rotator cuff tear and distal biceps rupture in a strongman competitor.

    PubMed

    George, Michael S

    2010-04-01

    Acute rotator cuff tear is commonly associated with tearing of the proximal biceps tendon, but has never been reported to occur simultaneously with a distal biceps tendon rupture. A 38-year-old right-hand-dominant strongman competitor attempted a 300-pound overhead axle press and experienced immediate pain in the right shoulder and elbow. He had no known systemic risk factors for tendon ruptures including hyperparathyroidism, hemodialysis, alcoholism, rheumatoid arthritis, statin medications, fluoroquinolones, and steroid use.Right shoulder magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a full-thickness supraspinatus tear with 3 cm of retraction. There was minimal fatty infiltration of the supraspinatus on the sagittal cuts consistent with acute rupture. The subscapularis was intact. The long head of the biceps tendon had mild medial subluxation but was completely within the bicipital groove. Right elbow MRI showed a complete distal biceps tendon rupture. Thirteen days after his injury, the patient underwent arthroscopic supraspinatus repair and proximal biceps tenodesis. Distal biceps tendon repair was performed using the modified 2-incision muscle-splitting technique. At 24-month follow-up, the patient was pain free and had returned to full activity including weightlifting but had not returned to strongman competition.This is the first report of simultaneous acute full thickness ruptures of the rotator cuff and distal biceps tendon. This case report underscores the importance of a complete physical examination and a high index of suspicion for additional concomitant injuries, particularly in athletes with unusually high stresses to the body. PMID:20415310

  11. A novel double-row rotator cuff repair exceeds strengths of conventional repairs.

    PubMed

    Burkhead, Wayne Z; Skedros, John G; O'Rourke, Peter J; Pierce, William A; Pitts, Todd C

    2007-08-01

    Double-row rotator cuff repairs are becoming popular because of their ability to improve initial ultimate failure load for full-thickness rotator cuff tears, especially in middle-aged to elderly patients. We hypothesized a quasi-double-row repair using a combination of transosseous sutures, anchors, and double knots (TOAK technique) would exceed the clinically relevant 250-N load threshold and the initial mean ultimate failure loads of anchor-only and transosseous suture-only fixation. In simulated full-thickness supraspinatus tears in cadavers (mean age, 62 years; range, 50-77 years), failure loads of two repair techniques were compared with a TOAK repair using sutures and bioabsorbable anchors. Radiographic densitometry was conducted on all humeral heads. Testing was performed at 6 mm per minute in 18 bones in the following three groups (n = 6 per group): (1) transosseous suture-only with weave-type stitch and single-knot fixation; (2) anchor-only with horizontal mattress stitch and single-knot fixation; and (3) TOAK. The mean ultimate failure load was 238 N for the transosseous suture-only group and 215 N for the anchor-only group. Although the bones had lower density, TOAK specimens failed at 55% to 67% higher loads (mean, 404 N) than the other groups. These data support further evaluation of the TOAK technique for full-thickness supraspinatus tears in middle-aged to elderly patients. PMID:17452913

  12. All-Suture Transosseous Repair for Rotator Cuff Tear Fixation Using Medial Calcar Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Aramberri-Gutiérrez, Mikel; Martínez-Menduiña, Amaia; Valencia-Mora, María; Boyle, Simon

    2015-01-01

    We describe an all-suture transosseous repair technique used in the management of rotator cuff tears by means of an all-suture anchor secured on the intra-articular side of the humeral calcar. The technique uses an anterior cruciate ligament guide to ensure accurate positioning of the tunnels, avoiding the articular cartilage and minimizing risk to the neurovascular structures. The distal end of the guide is inserted through a rotator interval portal and passed down to the axillary pouch. The proximal end of the guide is approximated to the greater tuberosity at the cuff footprint, and a complete transosseous tunnel is created with a 2.4-mm drill. An all-suture implant is inserted through this tunnel down to the calcar, and its deployment is visualized under arthroscopy. Gentle traction is applied to the anchor, resulting in a 4-mm concertina of the suture anchor that rests opposed to the medial cortex. The major advantage of this technique is the fixation strength gained from the biomechanically superior cortical bone of the calcar. Furthermore, this method permits greater preservation of bone surface area at the level of the footprint for a larger tendon-to-bone healing surface. This technique also provides an excellent alternative in revision situations. PMID:26052495

  13. Stem cell therapy in the management of shoulder rotator cuff disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Maria Valencia; Ibán, Miguel A Ruiz; Heredia, Jorge Díaz; Laakso, Raul Barco; Cuéllar, Ricardo; Arranz, Mariano García

    2015-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears are frequent shoulder problems that are usually dealt with surgical repair. Despite improved surgical techniques, the tendon-to-bone healing rate is unsatisfactory due to difficulties in restoring the delicate transitional tissue between bone and tendon. It is essential to understand the molecular mechanisms that determine this failure. The study of the molecular environment during embryogenesis and during normal healing after injury is key in devising strategies to get a successful repair. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can differentiate into different mesodermal tissues and have a strong paracrine, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory and angiogenic potential. Stem cell therapy is thus a potentially effective therapy to enhance rotator cuff healing. Promising results have been reported with the use of autologous MSC of different origins in animal studies: they have shown to have better healing properties, increasing the amount of fibrocartilage formation and improving the orientation of fibrocartilage fibers with less immunologic response and reduced lymphocyte infiltration. All these changes lead to an increase in biomechanical strength. However, animal research is still inconclusive and more experimental studies are needed before human application. Future directions include expanded stem cell therapy in combination with growth factors or different scaffolds as well as new stem cell types and gene therapy. PMID:26029341

  14. The Effect of Platelet-rich Fibrin Matrix on Rotator Cuff Healing in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Hasan, S; Weinberg, M; Khatib, O; Jazrawi, L; Strauss, E J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine if the application of platelet-rich fibrin matrix could improve regeneration of the tendon-bone insertion site in a rat rotator cuff repair model. 25 Lewis syngeneic rats underwent bilateral tenotomy and repair of the supraspinatus tendon. 10 separate rats were used for PRFM harvest. All left (control) shoulders underwent transosseous rotator cuff repair, while all right (treatment) shoulders were repaired similarly with PRFM augmentation. 9 rats were sacrificed at 2-weeks and ten at 4-weeks for biomechanical testing. 3 separate rats were sacrificed at 2-weeks and 4-weeks each for histologic analysis of the insertion site. At 2 weeks, the experimental group repairs were significantly stronger in ultimate load to failure (P=0.01), stress (P=0.03), and stiffness (P=0.03). Differences in biomechanical testing were not found between the groups at 4 weeks. Histological analysis revealed less collagen organization and cartilage formation at the insertion site in the experimental group. Semiquantitative histologic analysis confirmed our qualitative assessment of the specimens. PRFM does not recapitulate the native enthesis, but rather induces an exuberant and disordered healing response that is characterized by fibrovascular scar tissue. PMID:26509369

  15. PARot assessing platelet-rich plasma plus arthroscopic subacromial decompression in the treatment of rotator cuff tendinopathy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous platelet concentrate. It is prepared by separating the platelet fraction of whole blood from patients and mixing it with an agent to activate the platelets. In a clinical setting, PRP may be reapplied to the patient to improve and hasten the healing of tissue. The therapeutic effect is based on the presence of growth factors stored in the platelets. Current evidence in orthopedics shows that PRP applications can be used to accelerate bone and soft tissue regeneration following tendon injuries and arthroplasty. Outcomes include decreased inflammation, reduced blood loss and post-treatment pain relief. Recent shoulder research indicates there is poor vascularization present in the area around tendinopathies and this possibly prevents full healing capacity post surgery (Am J Sports Med36(6):11711178, 2008). Although it is becoming popular in other areas of orthopedics there is little evidence regarding the use of PRP for shoulder pathologies. The application of PRP may help to revascularize the area and consequently promote tendon healing. Such evidence highlights an opportunity to explore the efficacy of PRP use during arthroscopic shoulder surgery for rotator cuff pathologies. Methods/Design PARot is a single center, blinded superiority-type randomized controlled trial assessing the clinical outcomes of PRP applications in patients who undergo shoulder surgery for rotator cuff disease. Patients will be randomized to one of the following treatment groups: arthroscopic subacromial decompression surgery or arthroscopic subacromial decompression surgery with application of PRP. The study will run for 3years and aims to randomize 40 patients. Recruitment will be for 24months with final follow-up at 1year post surgery. The third year will also involve collation and analysis of the data. This study will be funded through the NIHR Biomedical Research Unit at the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN10464365 PMID:23758981

  16. Systematic Review of All-Arthroscopic Versus Mini-Open Repair of Rotator Cuff Tears: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Rongzhong; Wang, Sanrong; Wang, Yule; Qin, Xiaoxia; Sun, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare outcomes in patients with rotator cuff tears undergoing all-arthroscopic versus mini-open rotator cuff repair. A systematic review and meta-analysis of outcomes of all-arthroscopic repair versus mini-open repair in patients with rotator cuff repair was conducted. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were screened and included from systematic literature search for electronic databases including Medline, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, and CINAHL library was conducted from 1969 and 2015. A total of 18 comparative studies including 4 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were included. Pooled results indicate that there was no difference in the functional outcomes, range of motion, visual analog scale (VAS) score, and short-form 36 (SF-36) subscales. However, Constant-Murley functional score was found to be significantly better in patients with mini-open repair. However, the results of the review should be interpreted with caution due to small size and small number of studies contributing to analysis in some of the outcomes. All-arthroscopic and mini-open repair surgical techniques for the management of rotator cuff repair are associated with similar outcomes and can be used interchangeably based on the patient and rotator tear characteristics. PMID:26947557

  17. Are the good functional results from arthroscopic repair of massive rotator cuff injuries maintained over the long term?☆

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Santos, Pedro Doneux; da Silva, Luciana Andrade; do Val Sella, Guilherme; Checchia, Sérgio Luiz; Yonamine, Alexandre Maris

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether the good and excellent functional results from arthroscopic repair of massive rotator cuff tears are maintained over the long term. Methods From the sample of the study conducted by our group in 2006, in which we evaluated the functional results from arthroscopic repair of massive rotator cuff tears, 35 patients were reassessed, 8 years after the first evaluation. The inclusion criteria were that these patients with massive rotator cuff tears operated by means of an arthroscopic technique, who participated in the previous study and achieved good or excellent outcomes according to the UCLA criteria. Patients whose results were not good or excellent in the first evaluation according to the UCLA criteria were excluded. Results Among the 35 patients reassessed, 91% of them continued to present good and excellent results (40% excellent and 51% good), while 3% presented fair results and 6% poor results. The time interval between the first and second evaluations was 8 years and the minimum length of follow-up since the immediate postoperative period was 9 years (range: 9–17 years), with an average of 11.4 years. Conclusion The good and excellent results from arthroscopic repair of massive rotator cuff tears were mostly maintained (91%), with the same level of function and satisfaction, even though 8 years had passed since the first assessment, with a follow-up period averaging 11.4 years. PMID:26962491

  18. Expression of bioactive bone morphogenetic proteins in the subacromial bursa of patients with chronic degeneration of the rotator cuff

    PubMed Central

    Neuwirth, Jana; Fuhrmann, Renée AE; Veit, Amanda; Aurich, Matthias; Stonâns, Ilmars; Trommer, Tilo; Hortschansky, Peter; Chubinskaya, Susanna; Mollenhauer, Juergen A

    2006-01-01

    Degeneration of the rotator cuff is often associated with inflammation of the subacromial bursa and focal mineralization of the supraspinatus tendon. Portions of the supraspinatus tendon distant from the insertion site could transform into fibrous cartilage, causing rotator-cuff tears owing to mechanical instability. Indirect evidence is presented to link this pathology to ectopic production and secretion of bioactive bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) from sites within the subacromial bursa. Surgically removed specimens of subacromial bursa tissue from patients with chronic tears of the rotator cuff were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-PCR. Bioactive BMP was detected in bursa extracts by a bioassay based on induction of alkaline phosphatase in the osteogenic/myogenic cell line C2C12. Topical and differential expression of BMP-2/4 and BMP-7 mRNA and protein was found in bursa tissue. The bioassay of C2C12 cells revealed amounts of active BMP high enough to induce osteogenic cell types, and blocking BMP with specific antibodies or soluble BMP receptors Alk-3 and Alk-6 abolished the inductive properties of the extract. Sufficient information was gathered to explain how ectopic expression of BMP might induce tissue transformation into ectopic bone/cartilage and, therefore, promote structural degeneration of the rotator cuff. Early surgical removal of the subacromial bursa might present an option to interrupt disease progression. PMID:16719933

  19. Effect of Bone Mineral Density on Rotator Cuff Tear: An Osteoporotic Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaobin; Giambini, Hugo; Ben-Abraham, Ephraim; An, Kai-Nan; Nassr, Ahmad; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2015-01-01

    Introduction An increased bone mineral density (BMD) in the proximity to tendon insertion can improve rotator cuff repair and healing. However, how a decrease of BMD in the humeral head affects the biomechanical properties of the rotator cuff tendon is still unclear. Previous studies have demonstrated ovariectomy in animals to lead to osteoporosis and decreased BMD, and Teriparatide (PTH) administration to improve BMD and strength of bone. This study aimed to explore the correlation between humeral head BMD and infraspinatus (ISP) tendon insertion strength, and if an increase in bone quantity of the humeral head can improve the strength of the rotator cuff. Materials and Methods Eighteen New England white rabbits were divided into the 3 groups: Control, Ovariectomy-Saline (OVX-Saline), and Ovariectomy-PTH (OVX-PTH). The OVX-Saline group and the OVX-PTH were administered daily saline and Teriparatide injections for 8 weeks starting at 17 weeks of OVX. BMD of the humeral head was measured, the ISP tendon failure load was tested and the failure stress was calculated. One specimen from each group was used for histological analysis. Linear regression analysis was used to derive equations for the BMD and failure stress. Results Significant differences were observed in the measured humeral head BMD of the Control and OVX-PTH groups compared to the OVX-Saline group (P = 0.0004 and P = 0.0024, respectively). No significant difference was found in failure stress among the three groups, but an expected trend with the control group and OVX-PTH group presenting higher failure strength compared to the OVX-Saline group. BMD at the humeral head showed a positive linear correlation with stress (r2 = 0.54). Histology results showed the superiority in OVX-PTH group ISP enthesis compared to the OVX-Saline group. Conclusion Bone loss of the humeral head leads to decreased tendon/bone insertion strength of the infraspinatus tendon enthesis. Teriparatide administration can increase bone density of the humeral head and may improve the mechanical properties of the infraspinatus tendon enthesis. PMID:26466092

  20. Proteomics Perspectives in Rotator Cuff Research: A Systematic Review of Gene Expression and Protein Composition in Human Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sejersen, Maria Hee Jung; Frost, Poul; Hansen, Torben Bk; Deutch, Sren Rasmussen; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2015-01-01

    Background Rotator cuff tendinopathy including tears is a cause of significant morbidity. The molecular pathogenesis of the disorder is largely unknown. This review aimed to present an overview of the literature on gene expression and protein composition in human rotator cuff tendinopathy and other tendinopathies, and to evaluate perspectives of proteomics the comprehensive study of protein composition - in tendon research. Materials and Methods We conducted a systematic search of the literature published between 1 January 1990 and 18 December 2012 in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. We included studies on objectively quantified differential gene expression and/or protein composition in human rotator cuff tendinopathy and other tendinopathies as compared to control tissue. Results We identified 2199 studies, of which 54 were included; 25 studies focussed on rotator cuff or biceps tendinopathy. Most of the included studies quantified prespecified mRNA molecules and proteins using polymerase chain reactions and immunoassays, respectively. There was a tendency towards an increase of collagen I (11 of 15 studies) and III (13 of 14), metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 (6 of 12), -9 (7 of 7), -13 (4 of 7), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 (4 of 7), and vascular endothelial growth factor (4 of 7), and a decrease in MMP-3 (10 of 12). Fourteen proteomics studies of tendon tissues/cells failed inclusion, mostly because they were conducted in animals or in vitro. Conclusions Based on methods, which only allowed simultaneous quantification of a limited number of prespecified mRNA molecules or proteins, several proteins appeared to be differentially expressed/represented in rotator cuff tendinopathy and other tendinopathies. No proteomics studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria, although proteomics technologies may be a way to identify protein profiles (including non-prespecified proteins) that characterise specific tendon disorders or stages of tendinopathy. Thus, our results suggested an untapped potential for proteomics in tendon research. PMID:25879758

  1. On the impact of calcified deposits within the rotator cuff tendons in shoulders of patients with shoulder pain and dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Maier, M; Stbler, A; Schmitz, C; Lienemann, A; Khler, S; Drr, H R; Pfahler, M; Refior, H J

    2001-07-01

    We wanted to prove the hypothesis that calcified deposits within the rotator cuff tendons are merely an epiphenomenon of complex morphological alterations in the shoulders of patients with shoulder pain and dysfunction. The shoulders of 92 patients with calcified deposits within the rotator cuff tendons as noted on plain radiographs were investigated by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; mean age of patient 51.1 years), as well as the shoulders of 28 age- and sex-matched patients with similar clinical symptoms but without any signs of such calcified deposits on plain radiographs. The MRI protocol comprised a coronal, oblique, T1-weighted, spin-echo sequence, a T2-weighted, turbo spin-echo sequence, a sagittal, oblique, T2-weighted, turbo spin-echo sequence, and an axial, T1-weighted, spin-echo sequence. Furthermore, a coronal, oblique, short tau-inversion recovery sequence and a gradient echo sequence were used. The results were compared with data from healthy, asymptomatic volunteers as reported in the literature. The MRI investigations showed no substantial differences between patients with or without calcified deposits within the rotator cuff tendons, but distinct differences between such patients and healthy, asymptomatic volunteers. For patients with shoulder pain, shoulder dysfunction, and calcified deposits within the rotator cuff tendons, these calcified deposits are most probably not the main cause of the clinical symptoms. Rather, it seems to be useful to consider the results of MRI investigations whenever planning therapeutic procedures for patients with shoulder pain and dysfunction, irrespective of whether or not there are signs of calcified deposits within the rotator cuff tendons on plain radiographs. PMID:11510900

  2. Proximal humerus osteolysis after revision rotator cuff repair with bioabsorbable suture anchors.

    PubMed

    Park, Andrew Y; Hatch, Joshua D

    2011-03-01

    Biodegradable anchors were designed to provide secure fixation while allowing for later resorption and replacement by host tissue. First-generation implants degraded relatively rapidly and caused foreign-body reactions, synovitis, fragmentation, and osteolysis. Newer implants have similar complications. It is not known if the primary cause of the osteolysis is biological (precipitated by breakdown products of the polymer) or mechanical (caused by initial loss of implant stability). Case reports have described glenoid osteolysis around biodegradable suture anchor placement for shoulder stabilization, but up until now, to our knowledge, only 1 case of proximal humerus osteolysis has been reported for these implants. Here we describe a semicrystalline, poly-L-lactic acid bioabsorbable suture anchor failure after revision rotator cuff repair with subsequent humeral tuberosity osteolysis. PMID:21720602

  3. Extracting Information about the Rotator Cuff from Magnetic Resonance Images Using Deterministic and Random Techniques

    PubMed Central

    De Los Ros, F. A.; Paluszny, M.

    2015-01-01

    We consider some methods to extract information about the rotator cuff based on magnetic resonance images; the study aims to define an alternative method of display that might facilitate the detection of partial tears in the supraspinatus tendon. Specifically, we are going to use families of ellipsoidal triangular patches to cover the humerus head near the affected area. These patches are going to be textured and displayed with the information of the magnetic resonance images using the trilinear interpolation technique. For the generation of points to texture each patch, we propose a new method that guarantees the uniform distribution of its points using a random statistical method. Its computational cost, defined as the average computing time to generate a fixed number of points, is significantly lower as compared with deterministic and other standard statistical techniques. PMID:25650281

  4. Results of reconstruction of massive irreparable rotator cuff tears using a fascia lata allograft

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrios, Varvitsiotis; Athanasios, Papaspiliopoulos; Eleni, Antipa; Xenofon, Papacharalampous; George, Flevarakis; John, Feroussis

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the advances in surgical treatment options, massive rotator cuff (r-c) tears still represent a challenge for orthopedic surgeons. This study assesses the effectiveness of fascia lata allograft in reconstruction of massive and irreparable r-c tear and to evaluate the healing and functional outcomes. Materials and Methods: 68 patients (38 men, 30 women, mean age 64.9 years) with massive or irreparable r-c tears were treated with placement of fascia lata allograft to fill the defect between February 2006 and February 2010. At 43 months followup they were evaluated clinically using the constant score, preoperatively and postoperatively. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound were used postoperatively, to assess the integrity of the allograft at the repair site. Postoperatively, standard rehabilitation protocol was followed with gradual restoration. Results: Postoperative constant score increased from 32.5 preoperatively to 88.7 postoperatively. The most important was the pain relief from 2.4 preoperatively to 14.1 postoperatively and range of motion. The results of the MRI were not reliable, but the ultrasound was satisfactory. Finally, there was no infection or rejection of the graft in any of the patients. Conclusions: Despite advances in surgical methods, there is still not a universally accepted treatment for massive and irreparable rotator cuff tears, because the standard methods have dubious results, with excessive retear rates and poor outcomes, necessitating the need for new repair strategies. We documented significant clinical improvement using fascia lata allograft in the repair of massive irreparable r-c tear, acting as scaffold to bridge the defect, enhancing the healing at the repair site. PMID:26015630

  5. Clinical outcomes of arthroscopic single and double row repair in full thickness rotator cuff tears

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jong-Hun; Shafi, Mohamed; Kim, Weon-Yoo; Kim, Young-Yul

    2010-01-01

    Background: There has been a recent interest in the double row repair method for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair following favourable biomechanical results reported by some studies. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical results of arthroscopic single row and double row repair methods in the full-thickness rotator cuff tears. Materials and Methods: 22 patients of arthroscopic single row repair (group I) and 25 patients who underwent double row repair (group II) from March 2003 to March 2005 were retrospectively evaluated and compared for the clinical outcomes. The mean age was 58 years and 56 years respectively for group I and II. The average follow-up in the two groups was 24 months. The evaluation was done by using the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) rating scale and the shoulder index of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES). Results: In Group I, the mean ASES score increased from 30.48 to 87.40 and the mean ASES score increased from 32.00 to 91.45 in the Group II. The mean UCLA score increased from the preoperative 12.23 to 30.82 in Group I and from 12.20 to 32.40 in Group II. Each method has shown no statistical clinical differences between two methods, but based on the sub scores of UCLA score, the double row repair method yields better results for the strength, and it gives more satisfaction to the patients than the single row repair method. Conclusions: Comparing the two methods, double row repair group showed better clinical results in recovering strength and gave more satisfaction to the patients but no statistical clinical difference was found between 2 methods. PMID:20697485

  6. Atrophy, inducible satellite cell activation, and possible denervation of supraspinatus muscle in injured human rotator-cuff muscle.

    PubMed

    Gigliotti, Deanna; Leiter, Jeff R S; Macek, Bryce; Davidson, Michael J; MacDonald, Peter B; Anderson, Judy E

    2015-09-15

    The high frequency of poor outcome and chronic pain after surgical repair of shoulder rotator-cuff injury (RCI) prompted this study to explore the potential to amplify muscle regeneration using nitric oxide (NO)-based treatment. After preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biopsies of supraspinatus and ipsilateral deltoid (as a control) were collected during reparative surgery for RCI. Muscle fiber diameter, the pattern of neuromuscular junctions observed with alpha-bungarotoxin staining, and the ?:? subunit ratio of acetylcholine receptors in Western blots were examined in tandem with experiments to determine the in vitro responsiveness of muscle satellite cells to activation (indicated by uptake of bromodeoxyuridine, BrdU) by the NO-donor drug, isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN). Consistent with MRI findings of supraspinatus atrophy (reduced occupation ratio and tangent sign), fiber diameter was lower in supraspinatus than in deltoid. ISDN induced a significant increase over baseline (up to 1.8-fold), in the proportion of BrdU+ (activated) Pax7+ satellite cells in supraspinatus, but not in deltoid, after 40 h in culture. The novel application of denervation indices revealed a trend for supraspinatus muscle to have a higher ?:? subunit ratio than deltoid (P = 0.13); this ratio inversely with both occupancy ratio (P < 0.05) and the proportion of clusters at neuromuscular junctions (P = 0.05). Results implicate possible supraspinatus denervation in RCI and suggest NO-donor treatment has potential to promote growth in atrophic supraspinatus muscle after RCI and improve functional outcome. PMID:26135801

  7. Infusion Methods for Continuous Interscalene Brachial Plexus Block for Postoperative Pain Control after Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Gyeong Jo; Yoon, Ji Uk; Kim, Eun Jung; Baek, Seung Hoon; Ri, Hyun Su

    2015-01-01

    Background Infusion methods during regional analgesia using perineural catheters may influence the quality of postoperative analgesia. This study was conducted to compare the effects of combined or bolus-only infusion of 0.2% ropivacaine on the postoperative analgesia in interscalene brachial plexus block (ISBPB) with perineural catheterization. Methods Patients scheduled for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were divided into two groups, one that would receive a combined infusion (group C, n = 32), and one that would receive intermittent infusion (group I, n = 32). A perineural catheter was inserted into the interscalene brachial plexus (ISBP) using ultrasound (US) and nerve stimulation, and 10 ml of 0.2% ropivacaine was administered. After the operation, group C received a continuous infusion of 4 ml/h, and a 4 ml bolus with a lockout interval of 60 min. Group I received only a 4 ml bolus, and the lockout interval was 30 min. Postoperative pain by the numeric rating scale (NRS) and the forearm muscle tone by the manual muscle test (MMT) were checked and evaluated at the following timepoints: preoperative, and postoperative 1, 4, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h. Supplemental opioid requirements, total consumed dose of local anesthetic, and adverse effects were compared between the two groups. Results Sixty-four patients completed the study and the postoperative values such as operation time, time to discharge, and operation site were comparable. There were no differences in NRS scores and supplemental opioid requirements between the two groups. The MMT scores of group I at 4 and 12 h after surgery were significantly higher than those of group C (P < 0.05). The total consumed dose of local anesthetic was significantly lower in group I than in group C (P < 0.05). The adverse effects were not different between the groups. Conclusions The bolus-only administration of 0.2% ropivacaine provided a similar analgesic effect with a lower total volume of local anesthetic and decreased motor weakness compared to combined infusion. Therefore, bolus-only administration is an effective postoperative analgesic method in ISBPB with perineural catheterization after rotator cuff repair. PMID:26175882

  8. Effects of 8 Weeks Specific Physical Training on the Rotator Cuff Muscle Strength and Technique of Javelin Throwers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeyoung; Lee, Youngsun; Shin, Insik; Kim, Kitae; Moon, Jeheon

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] For maximum efficiency and to prevent injury during javelin throwing, it is critical to maintain muscle balance and coordination of the rotator cuff and the glenohumeral joint. In this study, we investigated the change in the rotator cuff muscle strength, throw distance and technique of javelin throwers after they had performed a specific physical training that combined elements of weight training, function movement screen training, and core training. [Subjects] Ten javelin throwers participated in this study: six university athletes in the experimental group and four national-level athletes in the control group. [Methods] The experimental group performed 8 weeks of the specific physical training. To evaluate the effects of the training, measurements were performed before and after the training for the experimental group. Measurements comprised anthropometry, isokinetic muscle strength measurements, the function movement screen test, and movement analysis. [Results] After the specific physical training, the function movement screen score and external and internal rotator muscle strength showed statistically significant increases. Among kinematic factors, only pull distance showed improvement after training. [Conclusion] Eight weeks of specific physical training for dynamic stabilizer muscles enhanced the rotator cuff muscle strength, core stability, throw distance, and flexibility of javelin throwers. These results suggest that specific physical training can be useful for preventing shoulder injuries and improving the performance for javelin throwers. PMID:25364111

  9. FUNCTIONAL EVALUATION OF PATIENTS WHO HAVE UNDERGONE ARTHROSCOPIC DEBRIDEMENT TO TREAT MASSIVE AND IRREPARABLE TEARS OF THE ROTATOR CUFF

    PubMed Central

    Veado, Marco Antônio de Castro; Rodrigues, Alessandro Ulhôa

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the results from patients who underwent arthroscopic debridement of extensive irreparable rotator cuff injuries. Methods: 27 patients were operated between 2003 and 2007, and 22 of them were evaluated. The surgical procedure consisted of arthroscopic debridement of the stumps of the tendons involved, bursectomy, removal of acromial osteophytes and, possibly, biceps tenotomy and tuberoplasty. Results: All the patients showed involvement of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons at the preoperative stage. In the postoperative evaluation, 14 patients had a complete teres minor muscle, and three had partial tears of the subscapularis tendon. There was an improvement in the UCLA criteria, from 15 preoperatively to 31 postoperatively. There was no improvement in muscle strength, but there was a reduction in the pain. Conclusion: Arthroscopic debridement is a recommended procedure for elderly patients with irreparable rotator cuff tears, good range of motion and low functional demand, when the main objective is to diminish pain.

  10. Skeletal muscle fibrosis and stiffness increase after rotator cuff tendon injury and neuromuscular compromise in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Sato, Eugene J; Killian, Megan L; Choi, Anthony J; Lin, Evie; Esparza, Mary C; Galatz, Leesa M; Thomopoulos, Stavros; Ward, Samuel R

    2014-09-01

    Rotator cuff tears can cause irreversible changes (e.g., fibrosis) to the structure and function of the injured muscle(s). Fibrosis leads to increased muscle stiffness resulting in increased tension at the rotator cuff repair site. This tension influences repairability and healing potential in the clinical setting. However, the micro- and meso-scale structural and molecular sources of these whole-muscle mechanical changes are poorly understood. Here, single muscle fiber and fiber bundle passive mechanical testing was performed on rat supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles with experimentally induced massive rotator cuff tears (Tenotomy) as well as massive tears with chemical denervation (Tenotomy + BTX) at 8 and 16 weeks post-injury. Titin molecular weight, collagen content, and myosin heavy chain profiles were measured and correlated with mechanical variables. Single fiber stiffness was not different between controls and experimental groups. However, fiber bundle stiffness was significantly increased at 8 weeks in the Tenotomy + BTX group compared to Tenotomy or control groups. Many of the changes were resolved by 16 weeks. Only fiber bundle passive mechanics was weakly correlated with collagen content. These data suggest that tendon injury with concomitant neuromuscular compromise results in extra-cellular matrix production and increases in stiffness of the muscle, potentially complicating subsequent attempts for surgical repair. PMID:24838823

  11. Retrospective study of sonographic findings in bone involvement associated with rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy: preliminary results of a case series*

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H.; Gregio-Junior, Everaldo; Lorenzato, Mario Muller

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study was aimed at investigating bone involvement secondary to rotator cuff calcific tendonitis at ultrasonography. Materials and Methods Retrospective study of a case series. The authors reviewed shoulder ultrasonography reports of 141 patients diagnosed with rotator cuff calcific tendonitis, collected from the computer-based data records of their institution over a four-year period. Imaging findings were retrospectively and consensually analyzed by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists looking for bone involvement associated with calcific tendonitis. Only the cases confirmed by computed tomography were considered for descriptive analysis. Results Sonographic findings of calcific tendinopathy with bone involvement were observed in 7/141 (~ 5%) patients (mean age, 50.9 years; age range, 42-58 years; 42% female). Cortical bone erosion adjacent to tendon calcification was the most common finding, observed in 7/7 cases. Signs of intraosseous migration were found in 3/7 cases, and subcortical cysts in 2/7 cases. The findings were confirmed by computed tomography. Calcifications associated with bone abnormalities showed no acoustic shadowing at ultrasonography, favoring the hypothesis of resorption phase of the disease. Conclusion Preliminary results of the present study suggest that ultrasonography can identify bone abnormalities secondary to rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy, particularly the presence of cortical bone erosion. PMID:26811551

  12. Comparison of the Tendon Damage Caused by Four Different Anchor Systems Used in Transtendon Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qing-Song; Liu, Sen; Zhang, Qiuyang; Xue, Yun; Ge, Dongxia; O'Brien, Michael J.; Savoie, Felix H.; You, Zongbing

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this study was to compare the damage to the rotator cuff tendons caused by four different anchor systems. Methods. 20 cadaveric human shoulder joints were used for transtendon insertion of four anchor systems. The Healix Peek, Fastin RC, Bio-Corkscrew Suture, and Healix Transtend anchors were inserted through the tendons using standard transtendon procedures. The areas of tendon damage were measured. Results. The areas of tendon damage (mean ± standard deviation, n = 7) were 29.1 ± 4.3 mm2 for the Healix Peek anchor, 20.4 ± 2.3 mm2 for the Fastin RC anchor, 23.4 ± 1.2 mm2 for the Bio-Corkscrew Suture anchor, 13.7 ± 3.2 mm2 for the Healix Transtend anchor inserted directly, and 9.1 ± 2.1 mm2 for the Healix Transtend anchor inserted through the Percannula system (P < 0.001 or P < 0.001, compared to other anchors). Conclusions. In a cadaver transtendon rotator cuff repair model, smaller anchors caused less damage to the tendon tissues. The Healix Transtend implant system caused the least damage to the tendon tissues. Our findings suggest that smaller anchors should be considered when performing transtendon procedures to repair partial rotator cuff tears. PMID:22811923

  13. Comparative analysis on arthroscopic sutures of large and extensive rotator cuff injuries in relation to the degree of osteopenia☆

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Alexandre; Atti, Vinícius; Agostini, Daniel Cecconi; Valin, Márcio Rangel; de Almeida, Nayvaldo Couto; Agostini, Ana Paula

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the results from arthroscopic suturing of large and extensive rotator cuff injuries, according to the patient's degree of osteopenia. Method 138 patients who underwent arthroscopic suturing of large and extensive rotator cuff injuries between 2003 and 2011 were analyzed. Those operated from October 2008 onwards formed a prospective cohort, while the remainder formed a retrospective cohort. Also from October 2008 onwards, bone densitometry evaluation was requested at the time of the surgical treatment. For the patients operated before this date, densitometry examinations performed up to two years before or after the surgical treatment were investigated. The patients were divided into three groups. Those with osteoporosis formed group 1 (n = 16); those with osteopenia, group 2 (n = 33); and normal individuals, group 3 (n = 55). Results In analyzing the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) scores of group 3 and comparing them with group 2, no statistically significant difference was seen (p = 0.070). Analysis on group 3 in comparison with group 1 showed a statistically significant difference (p = 0.027). Conclusion The results from arthroscopic suturing of large and extensive rotator cuff injuries seem to be influenced by the patient's bone mineral density, as assessed using bone densitometry. PMID:26229899

  14. ESRRB polymorphisms are associated with comorbidity of temporomandibular disorders and rotator cuff disease.

    PubMed

    Bonato, L L; Quinelato, V; Pinheiro, A daR; Amaral, M V G; de Souza, F N; Lobo, J C; Aguiar, D P; Augusto, L M M; Vieira, A R; Salles, J I; Cossich, V R A; Guimarães, J A M; de Gouvêa, C V D; Granjeiro, J M; Casado, P L

    2016-03-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are associated with comorbidity. Shoulder pain is among the symptoms associated with TMD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between TMD and rotator cuff disease (RCD) and related genetic aspects. All subjects underwent orofacial and shoulder examinations. The control group comprised 30 subjects with no pain. Affected subjects were divided into three groups: RCD (TMD-free, n=16), TMD (RCD-free, n=13), and TMD/RCD (patients with both RCD and TMD, n=49). A total of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ESRRB gene were investigated. A chemiluminescent immunoassay was used to measure estradiol levels. Surface electromyography recorded head and cervical muscle activity. The χ(2) test and Student t-test/Mann-Whitney test were used to assess the significance of nominal and continuous variables. A P-value of <0.05 was considered significant. TMD subjects were seven times more susceptible to RCD than controls. The rs1676303 TT (P=0.02) and rs6574293 GG (P=0.04) genotypes were associated with RCD and TMD, respectively. TMD/RCD subjects showed associations with rs4903399 (P=0.02), rs10132091 (P=0.02), and CTTCTTAG/CCTCTCAG (P=0.01) haplotypes and lower muscle activity. Estradiol levels were similar among groups. This study supports TMD as a risk factor for RCD. ESRRB haplotypes and low muscle activity are common biomechanical characteristics in subjects with both diseases. PMID:26584852

  15. Passive mobilization after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is not detrimental in the early postoperative period.

    PubMed

    De Roo, Pieter-Jan; Muermans, Stijn; Maroy, Mathieu; Linden, Patrick; Van den Daelen, Luc

    2015-09-01

    This prospective randomized study compares the clinical results of immediate passive mobilization versus delayed mobilization in the rehabilitation of rotator cuff repair during the early postoperative period. The mobilization group (79 patients) received immediate daily passive mobilization. The immobilization group (51 patients) was immobilized for 4 weeks until physiotherapy was started. Passive range of motion was noted preoperatively, at 6 weeks and 4 months. Strength was measured preoperatively and at 4?months. Constant-Murley, Simple Shoulder Test, SPADI and UCLA scores were noted at baseline and at 4 months. Ultrasonography was performed at 6?weeks to exclude early failures of repair. We noted no significant difference between the two groups regarding range of motion at 6?weeks and range of motion, strength and functional outcome scores at 4 months. Ultrasound didn't show a difference in healing at 6 w in either of both groups. Both rehabilitation protocols seem applicable as well as safe in the early post-operative phase. PMID:26435245

  16. The rotator cuff muscles have a direction specific recruitment pattern during shoulder flexion and extension exercises.

    PubMed

    Wattanaprakornkul, Duangjai; Cathers, Ian; Halaki, Mark; Ginn, Karen A

    2011-09-01

    A recent study has shown that posterior rotator cuff (RC) muscles are recruited at significantly higher levels than the anterior RC during shoulder flexion. It was proposed that the mechanism whereby the posterior RC muscles were providing shoulder stability during flexion was to counterbalance potential anterior humeral head translation caused by flexion torque producing muscles. This hypothesis implies that anterior RC activity should be higher than posterior RC activity during extension to prevent posterior humeral head translation. As the normal recruitment pattern of the RC during extension has not been established, the purpose of this study was to examine this hypothesis by comparing shoulder muscle activation levels and recruitment patterns during flexion and extension exercises. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from 9 shoulder muscles in 15 volunteers. Flexion and extension exercises were performed in prone at 20%, 50%, and 70% of each participant's maximal load. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine differences between exercises, muscles and loads, while Pearson's correlation analysis was used to relate mean EMG patterns. During extension subscapularis and latissimus dorsi were activated at higher levels than during flexion; during flexion, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, deltoid, trapezius, and serratus anterior were more highly activated than during extension. In addition, the pattern of activity in each muscle did not vary with load. These results support the hypothesis that during flexion and extension the RC muscles are recruited in a direction specific manner to prevent potential antero-posterior humeral head translation caused by torque producing muscles. PMID:21333595

  17. Comparison of ultrasonic suture welding and traditional knot tying in a rabbit rotator cuff repair model.

    PubMed

    Nho, Shane J; Cole, Brian J; Mazzocca, Augustus D; Williams, James M; Romeo, Anthony A; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Bach, Bernard R; Hallab, Nadim J

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate ultrasonic suture welding of monofilament suture in an animal model of rotator cuff repair with biomechanical and histologic analyses. We randomly assigned 46 shoulders in 23 rabbits to 1 of 3 treatment groups: sham-operated (n = 15), knotted (n = 15), and welded (n = 16). Supraspinatus defects were surgically created and acutely repaired with suture anchors loaded with either No. 2-0 Ethibond for knotted group or No. 2-0 nylon for welded shoulders. Eighteen weeks postoperatively, all animals were killed, and the shoulders underwent either biomechanical testing or histologic analysis. The maximum stress of the sham-operated group (20.6 N/mm2) was significantly greater than that of both the knotted (10.2 N/mm2) and welded (8.3 N/mm2) groups (P < .05), but no differences were observed between the knotted and welded groups. Although some histologic changes were noted, none was considered to be significant to distinguish either group. PMID:16979062

  18. ProSeal™ laryngeal mask airway cuff pressure changes with and without use of nitrous oxide during laparoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Bimla; Gupta, Rajat; Sehgal, Raminder; Koul, Archna; Sood, Jayashree

    2013-01-01

    Background: The ProSeal™ laryngeal mask (PLMA) is increasingly being used as an airway device for laparoscopic surgery. Its silicone cuff allows diffusion of nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and other gases with resultant rise in its intracuff pressure during anesthesia. The present study was designed to investigate the intracuff pressure changes during anesthesia with and without nitrous oxide in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery lasting up to two hours. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 2 and 3, undergoing general anesthesia with muscle paralysis, were randomized into two groups of 50 patients each to receive an anesthetic gas mixture containing either oxygen and nitrous oxide (group N) or oxygen and air (group A). Following insertion of an appropriate size PLMA, its cuff was inflated with air to an intracuff pressure of 45 mm Hg. The cuff pressure was measured every 10 minutes for the entire course of anesthesia. The position of the device was also assessed fiberoptically and postoperative airway complications were recorded. Results: The maximum intracuff pressure recorded in group N was 103 ± 4.7 mm Hg vs. 45.5 ± 1.5 mm Hg in group A. The percentage rise in cuff pressure every 10 minutes was also highly significant (P < 0.001) being maximum in first 10 min in group N. The incidence of postoperative airway complications was comparable between the two groups. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that the intracuff pressure of the PLMA increases progressively over time when the breathing gas mixture contains nitrous oxide. PMID:23493234

  19. Dose- and time-dependent effects of triamcinolone acetonide on human rotator cuff-derived cells

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Y.; Kokubu, T.; Mifune, Y.; Inui, A.; Sakata, R.; Muto, T.; Takase, F.; Kurosaka, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the appropriate dose and interval for the administration of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) in treating tendinopathy to avoid adverse effects such as tendon degeneration and rupture. Methods Human rotator cuff-derived cells were cultured using three media: regular medium (control), regular medium with 0.1 mg/mL of TA (low TA group), and with 1.0 mg/mL of TA (high TA group). The cell morphology, apoptosis, and viability were assessed at designated time points. Results In the low TA group, the cells became flattened and polygonal at seven days then returned to normal at 21 days. The cell apoptosis ratio and messenger ribonucleic acid expression of caspase-3, 7, 8, and 9 increased, and viability was reduced in the low and high groups at seven days. In the low TA group, apoptosis and viability returned to normal at 21 days, however, in the high TA group, the cell morphology, apoptosis ratio, caspase-3, 7, 8, and 9 and viability did not return by day 21. Re-administration was performed in the low TA group at 7-, 14-, and 21-day intervals, and cell viability did not return to the control level at the 7- and 14-day intervals. Conclusion A 0.1 mg/mL dose of TA temporarily decreased cell viability and increased cell apoptosis, which was recovered at 21 days, however, 1 mg/mL of TA caused irreversible damage to cell morphology and viability. An interval > three weeks was needed to safely re-administer TA. These findings may help determine the appropriate dose and interval for TA injection therapy. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:32834. PMID:25477418

  20. A Spectral Analysis of Rotator Cuff Musculature Electromyographic Activity: Surface and Indwelling

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, Daniel P.; Vanadurongwan, Bavornrat; Lenhoff, Mark W.; Cordasco, Frank A.; Chehab, Eric L.; Adler, Ronald S.; Henn, R. Frank; Hillstrom, Howard J.

    2010-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) of the shoulder girdle is commonly performed; however, EMG spectral properties of shoulder muscles have not been clearly defined. The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum power frequency, Nyquist rate, and minimum sampling rate for indwelling and surface EMG of the normal shoulder girdle musculature. EMG signals were recorded using indwelling electrodes for the rotator cuff muscles and surface electrodes for ten additional shoulder muscles in ten healthy volunteers. A fast Fourier transform was performed on the raw EMG signal collected during maximal isometric contractions to derive the power spectral density. The 95% power frequency was calculated during the ramp and plateau subphase of each contraction. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t tests. Indwelling EMG signals had more than twice the frequency content of surface EMG signals (p?

  1. Long-term functional evaluation of videoarthroscopic treatment of partial injuries of the rotator cuff?

    PubMed Central

    Godinho, Glaydson Gomes; Frana, Flvio de Oliveira; Freitas, Jos Mrcio Alves; Lago e Santos, Flvio Mrcio; Resende, Danilo Santos; Wageck, Joo Pedro Zambrano; Portela, Sara Fortes Barbosa

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the functional results from high and low-grade isolated partial lesions of the supraspinatus tendon of bursal and articular types, after arthroscopic treatment. Methods Sixty-four patients with isolated partial lesions of the supraspinatus tendon were evaluated. The mean length of follow-up was 76 months (range: 29193). The mean age was 59 years (range: 3682). The dominant side was affected in 44 patients (68.8%). There were 35 bursal lesions (54.7%) and 29 articular lesions (45.3%). We used the Ellman classification and characterized the lesions as low or high-grade according to whether they affected less than or more than 50% of the tendon thickness, respectively. Debridement was performed in 15 patients (23.5%), repair without completing the lesion in 11 (17%) and repair after completing the lesion in 38 (59.5%). The functional assessments on the patients were done using the Constant & Murley and UCLA scores. Results The mean Constant & Murley score among the patients with bursal lesions was 82.646.98 (range: 59.399) and among those with articular lesions, 83.577.58 (range: 6695), while the mean UCLA score in the bursal lesions was 33.372.85 (range: 2135) and in the articular lesions, 32.832.95 (range: 2235). Conclusion Videoarthroscopic treatment of partial lesions of the rotator cuff presents good or excellent results when the low-grade lesions are debrided and the high-grade lesions are completed and repaired. These results are maintained over the long term, with a high satisfaction rate and few complications. PMID:26229917

  2. Rotator cuff arthropathy: what functional results can be expected from reverse arthroplasty?☆

    PubMed Central

    Fávaro, Rodrigo Caldonazzo; Abdulahad, Michel; Filho, Salim Mussi; Valério, Rafael; Superti, Mauro José

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the functional results from reverse arthroplasty and its complications and relationships with types of injury. Methods Twenty-seven shoulders (26 women and one man) were treated. The patients were assessed using the UCLA functional scale. The implant used was the Delta Xtend Depuy® model. The injuries were classified using the Seebauer method for the degree of arthroplasty and the Nerot method for notching. Result The mean age was 77.4 years (range: 67–89) and the follow-up was 25.8 months (range: 6–51). The preoperative UCLA score was 10.1 (range: 6–15) and the postoperative UCLA score was 29.8 (range: 22–35), which was a statistically significant improvement (p < 0.001). According to the Seebauer classification, five patients were 1B, 19 were 2A and three were 2B. Fifteen cases presented complications (55.5%) and notching was the commonest of these, occurring in 14 patients (nine with grade 1 and five with grade 2), but this did not cause instability in any of them. Only one patient (3.7%) had a major complication, consisting of dislocation in the immediate postoperative period. Two patients (7.4%) said that they would undergo the procedure again. One patient (3.7%) underwent a revision procedure. Conclusion Reverse arthroplasty was shown to be an excellent option for treating patients with rotator cuff arthropathy, with a low rate of major complications. Notching was a frequent complication, but in the majority of the cases, it did not present clinical repercussions. PMID:26535197

  3. Patch-Augmented Latissimus Dorsi Transfer and Open Reduction-Internal Fixation of Unstable Os Acromiale for Irreparable Massive Posterosuperior Rotator Cuff Tear.

    PubMed

    Petri, Maximilian; Greenspoon, Joshua A; Bhatia, Sanjeev; Millett, Peter J

    2015-10-01

    Latissimus dorsi transfer is a reasonable treatment option for massive posterosuperior rotator cuff tears that can substantially improve chronically painful and dysfunctional shoulders. This report and accompanying video describe the treatment of an active 43-year-old man with severe pain and weakness in the right shoulder after 3 failed rotator cuff repairs. Preoperative imaging showed a massive posterosuperior rotator cuff tear retracted to the glenoid as well as a hypermobile os acromiale likely causing dynamic impingement and recurrent rotator cuff tears. After diagnostic arthroscopy, the latissimus tendon is harvested and augmented with a 3-mm human acellular dermal patch (ArthroFlex; Arthrex, Naples, FL). The native rotator cuff tissue is repaired as much as possible, and the latissimus tendon is passed underneath the deltoid and posterior to the teres minor. The patch-augmented tendon is then integrated into a double-row SpeedBridge repair of eight 4.75-mm BioComposite SwiveLock anchors (Arthrex). The bony surface of the os acromiale is prepared and then fixed to the acromion with 2 cannulated partially threaded screws and additional tension-band wiring. Postoperative rehabilitation initially focuses on early passive range of motion, followed by active and active-assisted motion and a biofeedback program starting at 6 weeks postoperatively. PMID:26697309

  4. Patch-Augmented Latissimus Dorsi Transfer and Open Reduction–Internal Fixation of Unstable Os Acromiale for Irreparable Massive Posterosuperior Rotator Cuff Tear

    PubMed Central

    Petri, Maximilian; Greenspoon, Joshua A.; Bhatia, Sanjeev; Millett, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Latissimus dorsi transfer is a reasonable treatment option for massive posterosuperior rotator cuff tears that can substantially improve chronically painful and dysfunctional shoulders. This report and accompanying video describe the treatment of an active 43-year-old man with severe pain and weakness in the right shoulder after 3 failed rotator cuff repairs. Preoperative imaging showed a massive posterosuperior rotator cuff tear retracted to the glenoid as well as a hypermobile os acromiale likely causing dynamic impingement and recurrent rotator cuff tears. After diagnostic arthroscopy, the latissimus tendon is harvested and augmented with a 3-mm human acellular dermal patch (ArthroFlex; Arthrex, Naples, FL). The native rotator cuff tissue is repaired as much as possible, and the latissimus tendon is passed underneath the deltoid and posterior to the teres minor. The patch-augmented tendon is then integrated into a double-row SpeedBridge repair of eight 4.75-mm BioComposite SwiveLock anchors (Arthrex). The bony surface of the os acromiale is prepared and then fixed to the acromion with 2 cannulated partially threaded screws and additional tension-band wiring. Postoperative rehabilitation initially focuses on early passive range of motion, followed by active and active-assisted motion and a biofeedback program starting at 6 weeks postoperatively. PMID:26697309

  5. A Comparison of Whole-Body Vibration and Resistance Training on Total Work in the Rotator Cuff

    PubMed Central

    Hand, Jason; Verscheure, Susan; Osternig, Louis

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Context: Whole-body vibration machines are a relatively new technology being implemented in the athletic setting. Numerous authors have examined the proposed physiologic mechanisms of vibration therapy and performance outcomes. Changes have mainly been observed in the lower extremity after individual exercises, with minimal attention to the upper extremity and resistance training programs. Objective: To examine the effects of a novel vibration intervention directed at the upper extremity as a precursor to a supervised, multijoint dynamic resistance training program. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA institution. Patients or Other Participants: Thirteen female student-athletes were divided into the following 2 treatment groups: (1) whole-body vibration and resistance training or (2) resistance training only. Intervention(s): Participants in the vibration and resistance training group used an experimental vibration protocol of 2 60 seconds at 4 mm and 50 Hz, in a modified push-up position, 3 times per week for 10 weeks, just before their supervised resistance training session. Main Outcome Measure(s): Isokinetic total work measurements of the rotator cuff were collected at baseline and at week 5 and week 10. Results: No differences were found between the treatment groups (P > .05). However, rotator cuff output across time increased in both groups (P < .05). Conclusions: Although findings did not differ between the groups, the use of whole-body vibration as a precursor to multijoint exercises warrants further investigation because of the current lack of literature on the topic. Our results indicate that indirectly strengthening the rotator cuff using a multijoint dynamic resistance training program is possible. PMID:19771284

  6. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ON THE RESULT FOR ARTHROSCOPIC ROTATOR CUFF SUTURE BETWEEN SMOKING AND NON-SMOKING PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Alexandre; Valin, Márcio Rangel; Zampieri, Rodrigo; Almeida, Nayvaldo Couto de; Roveda, Gilberto; Agostini, Ana Paula

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To comparatively analyze the results from arthroscopic rotator cuff suture between smoking and non-smoking patients. Methods: A group of 286 patients who underwent arthroscopic suturing of primary rotator cuff injuries between June 12, 2002, and May 14, 2008, was analyzed. The patients included in the study were evaluated using the UCLA scale, with a minimum follow-up of 12 months and average of 56.52 months. The variables studied were age, sex, side operated, dominance, profile of cigarette use and UCLA index. Results: This study evaluated a total of 205 patients. Mean age (p = 0.289) and sex (p = 0.124) were analyzed statistically between the smoking and non-smoking patients and the two groups were considered to be similar. The average UCLA score for the non-smoking patients (143) was 34 (32 to 35). The average UCLA score for the smoking patients (51) was 33 (29 to 35). There was no statistically significant difference in UCLA score (p = 0.123) between the smoking and non-smoking patients. For the purposes of statistical analysis, we grouped the small and medium tears (107) and compared these with the large and extensive tears (80), between smokers and non-smokers. There was no statistically significant difference using the Mann-Whitney test regarding the small and medium tears (p = 818). There was a statistically significant difference using the Mann-Whitney test regarding the large and extended tears, between the smoking and non-smoking patients, such that the non-smokers showed better UCLA scores (p = 0.038). Conclusion: The results from arthroscopic suturing of large and extensive rotator cuff injuries are inferior among smoking patients.

  7. A prospective multi-site registry study of a specific protocol of autologous bone marrow concentrate for the treatment of shoulder rotator cuff tears and osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Centeno, Christopher J; Al-Sayegh, Hasan; Bashir, Jamil; Goodyear, Shaun; Freeman, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Shoulder pain is a common musculoskeletal complaint in the general population. Bone marrow concentrate (BMC) injections offer promising potential as a minimally invasive approach for treatment of shoulder pain in degenerative disease. In this study, we investigated the clinical outcomes of the BMC injections for treatment of shoulder pain and disability due to osteoarthritis (OA) and rotator cuff tears in a treatment registry population. Methods A total of 115 shoulders in 102 patients were treated with autologous BMC injections for symptomatic OA at the glenohumeral joint and/or rotator cuff tears. Data were collected for factors potentially influencing outcome, including age, sex, body mass index, and the type of condition treated (ie, OA or rotator cuff tear). Clinical outcomes were assessed serially over time using the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand score (DASH), the numeric pain scale (NPS), and a subjective improvement rating scale. Baseline scores were compared to the most recent outcome scores at the time of the analysis and adjusted for demographic differences. We reported comparisons of pre- and post-treatment scores, the differences between osteoarthritis and rotator cuff groups, and the predictive effects on the clinical outcomes. Results At the most current follow-up assessment after treatment, the average DASH score decreased (improved) from 36.1 to 17.1 (P<0.001) and the average numeric pain scale value decreased (improved) from 4.3 to 2.4 (P<0.001). These changes were associated with an average subjective improvement of 48.8%. No differences were observed between outcomes among the shoulders treated for OA versus rotator cuff tears, nor did age, sex, or body mass index influence pain or functional outcomes. There were no significant treatment-related adverse events reported. Discussion We observed preliminarily encouraging results following BMC injections for shoulder OA and rotator cuff tears. These results serve as basis for the design of an adequately powered randomized controlled trial. PMID:26089699

  8. Identification of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies in tendons from patients with rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Figueiredo, Eduardo Antnio; Cohen, Carina; Loyola, Leonor Casilla; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Smith, Marlia Cardoso; de Castro Pochini, Alberto; Ejnisman, Benno; Cohen, Moises

    2015-01-01

    Rotator cuff tear is one of the most common causes of shoulder dysfunction. Gene expression analysis may be a useful tool for understanding tendon tears and the failure of cuff healing, and reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has become an effective method for such studies. However, this technique requires the use of suitable reference genes for data normalization. Here, we evaluate the suitability of six reference genes (18S, ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, HPRT1 and TBP) using samples from the rotator cuff tendons of 28 individuals with tendon tears (3 tendons regions) and 8 controls (2 tendon regions); for the tear patients, we evaluated ruptured and non-ruptured tendon samples. The stability of the candidate reference genes was determined using the NormFinder, geNorm, BestKeeper and DataAssist software packages. Overall, HPRT1 was the best single reference gene, and HPRT1+TBP composed the best pair and HPRT1+TBP+ACTB composed the best trio of reference genes from the analysis of different groups, including the simultaneous analysis of all tissue samples. To identify the optimal combination of reference genes, we evaluated the expression of COL1A1 and COL3A1, and no obvious differences were observed when using 2, 3 or 4 reference genes for most of the analyses. However, COL3A1 expression differed between ruptured and non-ruptured (posterior superior region) tendons of patients only when normalized by HPRT1+TBP+B2M and HPRT1+TBP. On the other hand, the comparison between these two groups using the best trio of reference genes (HPRT1+TBP+ACTB) and 4 reference genes did not revealed a significant difference in COL3A1 expression. Consequently, the use of suitable reference genes for a reliable gene expression evaluation by RT-qPCR should consider the type of tendon samples investigated. HPRT1+TBP+ACTB seems to be the best combination of reference genes for the analysis of involving different tendon samples of individuals with rotator cuff tears. PMID:25768100

  9. Initial fixation and cyclic loading stability of knotless suture anchors for rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Brown, Barrett S; Cooper, Andrew D; McIff, Terence E; Key, Vincent H; Toby, E Bruce

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the resistance to gapping and the mode of failure for 2 knotless suture anchor systems used for rotator cuff repair compared with the performance of a conventional titanium anchor system. Eight matched pairs of fresh-frozen humeri were dissected free of all soft tissues and scanned to measure bone mineral density (BMD). The suture anchor systems tested were the TwinFix 5.0 Titanium (Smith & Nephew, Andover, MA), Bioknotless RC (DePuy Mitek, Norwood, MA), and Magnum (Opus Medical, San Juan Capistrano, CA), and each was inserted into each humerus. Cyclic, tensile loading was applied through the suture loop for 5000 cycles, or until failure, by using a servohydraulic testing machine. Gapping distances, defined as increasing elongation of the bone/anchor/suture system, were continuously measured. Total cycles to failure and mechanism of failure were documented. Mean initial (first cycle) and final (last cycle) gapping distances were 3.81 mm and 5.36 mm for the TwinFix 5.0, 4.02 mm and 5.34 mm for the Bioknotless RC, and 3.56 mm and 4.98 mm for the Magnum anchors. No significant difference was detected among mean gap openings (P > .05). However, the Bioknotless RC had more early failures (5) than the other 2 implants (1 each), approaching significance (P = .07). Trials of the Bioknotless RC that did not fail early were found to have significantly less gap opening than the other 2 systems for both initial (1.89 mm vs 3.82 mm for the TwinFix 5.0 and 3.56 mm for the Magnum) and final (2.00 mm vs 4.68 mm for the TwinFix 5.0 and 4.24 mm for the Magnum) gap opening. BMD was a significant predictor of initial (P = .029) and final (P = .008) gap opening, whereas the site of anchor insertion was a significant predictor of final displacement. The Opus Magnum was comparable with a conventional suture anchor, but the Mitek Bioknotless RC showed a trend toward early failure. Biomechanical analysis of knotless suture anchor systems can demonstrate trends among implants in an experimental setting. Knowledge of these trends could influence implant selection. PMID:18036851

  10. The geyser sign and torn rotator cuff: clinical significance and pathomechanics.

    PubMed

    Craig, E V

    1984-12-01

    The geyser radiographic sign on shoulder arthrogram is characterized by leakage of dye from the glenohumeral joint into the subdeltoid bursa. The dye outlines the acromioclavicular joint. It is usually an indication of a full-thickness cuff tear of long duration. The clinical occurrence and pathomechanics of this finding indicate that repair is generally difficult. PMID:6499313

  11. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: analysis of technique and results at 2- and 3-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Tauro, J C

    1998-01-01

    We present 53 patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair and had a minimum of 2-year follow-up. Most tears were avulsions of the supraspinatus from the greater tuberosity, some with associated longitudinal tears. Longitudinal tears were repaired with a side-to-side suturing technique. Avulsion tears from the tuberosity were repaired using nonretrievable suture anchors. Traditional open-mobilization techniques, such as elevating the cuff off the glenoid neck and scapular fossa, and cutting the coraco-humeral ligament, were performed arthroscopically as needed. All repairs were performed using O-PDS or 1-PDS suture and a 7-mm suture punch for suture delivery. Both simple and mattress suture configurations were used. An anterolateral operative portal was used in most cases. A modified UCLA rating system that included additional points for abduction range of motion and strength was adapted for clinical evaluation in this study (maximum score, 45 points). The average preoperative rating was 17 (range, 9 to 26). The average postoperative rating was 41 (range, 16 to 45). There were 36 excellent (41 to 45 points), 13 good (36 to 40 points), 1 fair (30 to 35 points), and 3 poor (< 30 points) results. We have seen intraoperative but no cases of postoperative anchor pullout. The simple sutures performed as well as, and in some ways better than, mattress configurations. All fair and good results were with O-PDS. To perform an arthroscopic repair, the tear must be well visualized and mobilizable back to the tuberosity with only moderate tension. The anterolateral operative portal has been very useful because it allows better angle of entry for instruments and anchors and improved visualization in the subacromial space. The use of PDS and simple suture configurations has made the repair technically easier to perform with the instruments that are currently available. We do recommend 1-PDS suture because it breaks less easily even though it is slightly more difficult to deliver and tie. Arthroscopic cuff mobilization is relatively simple and has allowed us to repair larger tears. Based on our experience, arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is technically achievable and a superior alternative in selected cases for an experienced shoulder arthroscopist. Patients who underwent arthroscopic repairs had less scarring and shorter hospital stays and, we believe, less postoperative pain and easier rehabilitation compared with open repairs. PMID:9486332

  12. Effectiveness of Platelet-rich Plasma Injection for Rotator Cuff Tendinopathy: A Prospective Open-label Study

    PubMed Central

    Scarpone, Michael; Snell, Edward; DeMeo, Patrick; Ruppert, Kristine; Pritchard, Perry; Arbogast, Gennie; Wilson, John J.; Balzano, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Assess platelet rich plasma (PRP) injection for rotator cuff tendinopathy (RCT). Design: Prospective open label study with 1-year follow-up. Methods: Participants recruited from an outpatient sports medicine clinic had clinically and magnetic resonance image (MRI)demonstrated RCT refractory to physical therapy and corticosteroid injection. They received one ultrasound-guided injection of 3.0 mL of 1% xylocaine followed by 3.5 mL of PRP at the lesion and surrounding tendon. Primary outcome: 010 visual analog scale (VAS; baseline, 8, 12, and 52 weeks). Secondary outcomes: functional shoulder tests assessing rotator cuff strength and endurance (at baseline and 8 and 12 weeks), MRI severity (15 points [at baseline and 4 and 8 weeks]), and patient satisfaction (52 weeks). Results: Eighteen participants with 19 assessed shoulders reported VAS pain score improvement from 7.5 0.3 points to 0.5 0.3 points by week 12 and 0.4 0.2 (P = .0001) points at week 52. Functional outcomes significantly improved; the largest effect was seen in the external rotation test: 33.5 5.7 seconds to 62.6 7.2 seconds at week 12 (P = .0001). MRI appearance improved by 1 to 3 points in 16 of 18 assessed shoulders. Seventeen participants were completely satisfied (12) or satisfied (5). One participant was unsatisfied. Conclusions: A single ultrasound-guided, intralesional injection of PRP resulted in safe, significant, sustained improvement of pain, function, and MRI outcomes in participants with refractory RCT. Randomized multidisciplinary effectiveness trials that add ultrasound and validated clinical outcome measures are needed to further assess PRP for RCT. PMID:24416661

  13. Effect of mechanical stimulation on bone marrow stromal cell-seeded tendon slice constructs: a potential engineered tendon patch for rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ting-Wu; Sun, Yu-Long; Thoreson, Andrew R; Steinmann, Scott P; Amadio, Peter C; An, Kai-Nan; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2015-05-01

    Cell-based tissue engineered tendons have potential to improve clinical outcomes following rotator cuff repair, especially in large or massive rotator cuff tears, which pose a great clinical challenge. The aim of this study was to develop a method of constructing a functional engineered tendon patch for rotator cuff repair with cyclic mechanical stimulation. Decellularized tendon slices (DTSs) were seeded with BMSCs and subjected to cyclic stretching for 1, 3, or 7 days. The mechanical properties, morphologic characteristics and tendon-related gene expression of the constructs were investigated. Viable BMSCs were observed on the DTS after 7 days. BMSCs penetrated into the DTSs and formed dense cell sheets after 7 days of mechanical stretching. Gene expression of type I collagen, decorin, and tenomodulin significantly increased in cyclically stretched BMSC-DTS constructs compared with the unstrained control group (P < 0.05). The ultimate tensile strength and stiffness of the cyclically stretched tendon constructs were similar to the unstrained control group (P > 0.05). In conclusion, mechanical stimulation of BMSC-DTS constructs upregulated expression of tendon-related proteins, promoted cell tenogenic differentiation, facilitated cell infiltration and formation of cell sheets, and retained mechanical properties. The patch could be used as a graft to enhance the surgical repair of rotator cuff tears. PMID:25770996

  14. Preliminary investigation of a biological augmentation of rotator cuff repairs using a collagen implant: a 2-year MRI follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Bokor, Desmond John; Sonnabend, David; Deady, Luke; Cass, Ben; Young, Allan; Van Kampen, Craig; Arnoczky, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background the inability to restore the normal tendon footprint and limit strains on the repair site are thought to contribute to re-tearing following rotator cuff repair. The purpose of this study was to use a collagen implant to augment rotator cuff repairs through the restoration of the native tendon footprint and the induction of new tissue to decrease overall tendon strain. Methods repairs of full-thickness rotator cuff lesions in 9 adult patients were augmented with a novel collagen implant placed over the bursal surface of the repair. Tendon thickness and footprint anatomy were evaluated using MRI at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Clinical results were assessed using standard outcome metrics. Mean follow-up for all patients was 25.8 months. Results the implant induced significant new tissue formation in all patients by 3 months. This tissue matured over time and became indistinguishable from the underlying tendon. At 24 months all repairs remained intact and normal footprint anatomy of the tendon was restored in all patients. All clinical scores improved significantly over time. Conclusion the ability of a collagen implant to induce new host tissue formation and restore the normal footprint anatomy may represent a significant advancement in the biological augmentation and ultimate durability of rotator cuff repairs. PMID:26605186

  15. Tendon of the long head of the biceps originating from the rotator cuff – An uncommon anatomical variation: case report☆

    PubMed Central

    Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Esteves, Leonardo Roure; Figueiredo, Eduardo; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; de Castro Pochini, Alberto; Ejnisman, Benno

    2015-01-01

    Anatomical variations at the origin of the biceps tendon have been described by several authors, but occurrences of an origin in the supraspinatus are rare. It is unclear whether this variation might contribute toward pathological conditions of the shoulder. Our objective here was to describe a case of an anatomical variation in the origin of the tendon of the long head of the biceps. The clinical information, preoperative images and arthroscopic images relating to a patient with an aberrant origin of the long head of the biceps, which was observed during shoulder arthroscopy, were reviewed. In this case study, the origin of the biceps was found in the rotator cuff, without any origin from the supraglenoid tubercle or upper labrum. This variant did not seem to contribute toward the pathological condition of the shoulder, and standard treatment for the concomitant condition was sufficient for treating it. PMID:26962493

  16. The effects of a rotator cuff tear on activities of daily living in older adults: A kinematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Vidt, Meghan E; Santago, Anthony C; Marsh, Anthony P; Hegedus, Eric J; Tuohy, Christopher J; Poehling, Gary G; Freehill, Michael T; Miller, Michael E; Saul, Katherine R

    2016-02-29

    Rotator cuff tears (RCT) in older individuals may compound age-associated physiological changes and impact their ability to perform daily functional tasks. Our objective was to quantify thoracohumeral kinematics for functional tasks in 18 older adults (mean age=63.3±2.2), and compare findings from nine with a RCT to nine matched controls. Motion capture was used to record kinematics for 7 tasks (axilla wash, forward reach, functional pull, hair comb, perineal care, upward reach to 90°, upward reach to 105°) spanning the upper limb workspace. Maximum and minimum joint angles and motion excursion for the three thoracohumeral degrees of freedom (elevation plane, elevation, axial rotation) were identified for each task and compared between groups. The RCT group used greater minimum elevation angles for axilla wash and functional pull (p≤0.0124) and a smaller motion excursion for functional pull (p=0.0032) compared to the control group. The RCT group also used a more internally rotated maximum axial rotation angle than controls for functional reach, functional pull, hair comb, and upward reach to 105° (p≤0.0494). The most differences between groups were observed for axial rotation, with the RCT group using greater internal rotation to complete functional tasks, and significant differences between groups were identified for all three thoracohumeral degrees of freedom for functional pull. We conclude that older adults with RCT used more internal rotation to perform functional tasks than controls. The kinematic differences identified in this study may have consequences for progression of shoulder damage and further functional impairment in older adults with RCT. PMID:26879327

  17. Treatment of the calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff by ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle lavage. Two years prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Del Castillo-Gonzlez, Federico; Ramos-lvarez, Juan Jos; Rodrguez-Fabin, Guillermo; Gonzlez-Prez, Jos; Caldern-Montero, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Summary Purpose: to evaluate the short and long term effectiveness of ultrasonography (US)-guided percutaneous needle lavage in calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff. To study the evolution of the size of calcifications and pain in the two years after treatment. Methods: a 2 year longitudinal prospective study is carried out after applying the UGPL technique on a number of patients diagnosed with calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff. Clinical, ultrasound and radiology follow-up controls were performed, 3 months, 6 months, one year and two years after the treatment. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to assess the pain. The degree and point of pain is selected on a 10cm line, arranged horizontally or vertically. The 0 represents no pain and 10 represents worst pain. The population studied was made up of 121 patients that required our service as a result of suffering from a painful shoulder. Results: the pain (VAS) and the size of the calcification significantly decreased with the application of the technique (p< 0,001 in both cases) and regardless of the sex (p: 0.384 for pain and p: 0.578 for the size of the calcification). This occurred from the first check-up (3 months) and was maintained for two year. Conclusion: we consider this technique to be a valid alternative as a first-choice treatment of calcific tendinitis of the shoulder. The intervention is simple, cost-effective, does not require hospitalization, involves no complications, rehabilitation treatment is not required and it shows very few side effects without sequelae, significantly reducing the size of the calcification and pain in the majority of patients. PMID:25767776

  18. Ultrasound-Guided Myofascial Trigger Point Injection Into Brachialis Muscle for Rotator Cuff Disease Patients With Upper Arm Pain: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Mi Ri; Chang, Won Hyuk; Choi, Hyo Seon

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of trigger point injection into brachialis muscle for rotator cuff disease patients with upper arm pain. Methods A prospective, randomized, and single-blinded clinical pilot trial was performed at university rehabilitation hospital. Twenty-one patients clinically diagnosed with rotator cuff disease suspected of having brachialis myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) were randomly allocated into two groups. Effect of ultrasound (US)-guided trigger point injection (n=11) and oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (n=10) was compared by visual analog scale (VAS). Results US-guided trigger point injection of brachialis muscle resulted in excellent outcome compared to the oral NSAID group. Mean VAS scores decreased significantly after 2 weeks of treatment compared to the baseline in both groups (7.3 vs. 4.5 in the injection group and 7.4 vs. 5.9 in the oral group). The decrease of the VAS score caused by injection (ДVAS=-2.8) was significantly larger than caused by oral NSAID (ДVAS=-1.5) (p<0.05). Conclusion In patients with rotator cuff disease, US-guided trigger point injection of the brachialis muscle is safe and effective for both diagnosis and treatment when the cause of pain is suspected to be originated from the muscle. PMID:25379497

  19. Inhibition of 5-LOX, COX-1, and COX-2 Increases Tendon Healing and Reduces Muscle Fibrosis and Lipid Accumulation After Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Oak, Nikhil R.; Gumucio, Jonathan P.; Flood, Michael D.; Saripalli, Anjali L.; Davis, Max E.; Harning, Julie A.; Lynch, Evan B.; Roche, Stuart M.; Bedi, Asheesh; Mendias, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The repair and restoration of function after chronic rotator cuff tears are often complicated by muscle atrophy, fibrosis, and fatty degeneration of the diseased muscle. The inflammatory response has been implicated in the development of fatty degeneration after cuff injuries. Licofelone is a novel anti-inflammatory drug that inhibits 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), as well as cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 enzymes, which play important roles in inducing inflammation after injuries. While previous studies have demonstrated that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and selective inhibitors of COX-2 (coxibs) may prevent the proper healing of muscles and tendons, studies about bone and cartilage have demonstrated that drugs that inhibit 5-LOX concurrently with COX-1 and COX-2 may enhance tissue regeneration. Hypothesis After the repair of a chronic rotator cuff tear in rats, licofelone would increase the load to failure of repaired tendons and increase the force production of muscle fibers. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Rats underwent supraspinatus release followed by repair 28 days later. After repair, rats began a treatment regimen of either licofelone or a vehicle for 14 days, at which time animals were euthanized. Supraspinatus muscles and tendons were then subjected to contractile, mechanical, histological, and biochemical analyses. Results Compared with controls, licofelone-treated rats had a grossly apparent decrease in inflammation and increased fibro-cartilage formation at the enthesis, along with a 62% increase in the maximum load to failure and a 51 % increase in peak stress to failure. Licofelone resulted in a marked reduction in fibrosis and lipid content in supraspinatus muscles as well as reduced expression of several genes involved in fatty infiltration. Despite the decline in fibrosis and fat accumulation, muscle fiber specific force production was reduced by 23%. Conclusion The postoperative treatment of cuff repair with licofelone may reduce fatty degeneration and enhance the development of a stable bone-tendon interface, although decreases in muscle fiber specific force production were observed, and force production in fact declined. Clinical Relevance This study demonstrates that the inhibition of 5-LOX, COX-1, and COX-2 modulates the healing process of repaired rotator cuff tendons. Although further studies are necessary, the treatment of patients with licofelone after cuff repair may improve the development of a stable enthesis and enhance postoperative outcomes. PMID:25245131

  20. Calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder: arthroscopic needling versus complete calcium removal and rotator cuff repair. A prospective comparative study

    PubMed Central

    CASTAGNA, ALESSANDRO; DE GIORGI, SILVANA; GAROFALO, RAFFAELE; CONTI, MARCO; TAFURI, SILVIO; MORETTI, BIAGIO

    2015-01-01

    Purpose the aim of the present study was to verify the differences in the clinical outcomes of two arthroscopic techniques used to treat calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder: needling versus complete removal of the calcium deposit and tendon repair. Methods from September 2010 to September 2012, 40 patients with calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff were arthroscopically treated by the same surgeon using one of the two following techniques: needling (Group 1) and complete removal of the calcium deposit and tendon repair with suture anchors (Group 2). Both groups followed the same rehabilitation program. The two groups were compared at 6 and 12 months of follow-up for the presence of residual calcifications and for the following clinical outcomes: Constant score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Evaluation Form (ASES) shoulder score, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder rating scale, Simple Shoulder Test (SST) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Results all the clinical scores (Constant, ASES, UCLA, SST and VAS scores) improved significantly between baseline and postoperative follow-up, both at 6 and at 12 months. No differences at final follow-up were found between the two groups. Conclusions both the techniques were effective in solving the symptoms of calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder. Clinical scores improved in both groups. Residual calcifications were found in only a few cases and were always less than 10 mm. Level of evidence Level II, prospective comparative study. PMID:26904521

  1. Randomised clinical trial comparing the effects of acupuncture and a newly designed placebo needle in rotator cuff tendinitis.

    PubMed

    Kleinhenz, J; Streitberger, K; Windeler, J; Gssbacher, A; Mavridis, G; Martin, E

    1999-11-01

    Acupuncture has gained increasing attention in the treatment of chronic pain. The lack of a satisfying placebo method has made it impossible to show whether needling is an important part of the method or whether the improvement felt by the patient is due to the therapeutic setting and psychological phenomena. Also, the effectiveness of acupuncture has not been demonstrated sufficiently. We treated 52 sportsmen with rotator cuff tendinitis in a randomised single-blind clinical trial using a new placebo-needle as control. Patients were treated for 4 weeks. The primary endpoint of the trial was the change in the modified Constant-Murley-score from the baseline. Assessment of the treatment outcome was made by experienced orthopaedists not informed of the treatment allocation. Acupuncture with penetration of the skin was shown to be more effective than a similar therapeutic setting with placebo needling in the treatment of pain. The acupuncture-group improved 19.2 Constant-Murley-score points (SD 16.1, range from -13 to 50), the control-group improved 8.37 points (SD 14.56, range from -20 to 41), (P=0.014; C.I. 2.3;19.4). This study showed that needling is an important part of the acupuncture effect in the treatment of chronic shoulder pain in athletes. No conclusions can be derived from this study concerning the importance of choosing points and the rules of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Using the new placebo method as control for other ailments could improve the evidence of specific acupuncture effects beyond pain treatment. PMID:10534595

  2. High-resolution ultrasound of rotator cuff and biceps reflection pulley in non-elite junior tennis players: anatomical study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tennis is believed to be potentially harmful for the shoulder, therefore the purpose of this study is to evaluate the anatomy of the rotator cuff and the coraco-humeral ligament (CHL) in a-symptomatic non-elite junior tennis players with high-resolution ultrasound (US). Methods From August 2009 to September 2010 n = 90 a-symptomatic non-elite junior tennis players (mean age ± standard deviation: 15 ± 3) and a control group of age- and sex- matched subjects were included. Shoulder assessment with a customized standardized protocol was performed. Body mass index, dominant arm, years of practice, weekly hours of training, racket weight, grip (Eastern, Western and semi-Western), kind of strings were recorded. Results Abnormalities were found at ultrasound in 14/90 (15%) players. Two players had supraspinatus tendinosis, two had subacromial impingement and ten had subacromial bursitis. CHL thickness resulted comparable in the dominant and non-dominant arms (11.3 ± 4.4 mm vs. 13 ± 4.2, p > 0.05). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that no association was present among CHL thickness and the variables evaluated. In the control group, abnormalities were found at ultrasound in 6/60 (10%) subjects (sub-acromial bursitis). No statistically significant differences between players and control group were found (p = 0.71). Conclusion In a-symptomatic non-elite junior tennis players only minor shoulder abnormalities were found. PMID:25034864

  3. Rotator Cuff Weakness Is Not a Risk Factor for First-Time Anterior Glenohumeral Instability

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Christopher J.; Cameron, Kenneth L.; Westrick, Richard B.; Posner, Matthew A.; Owens, Brett D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Shoulder instability is a common problem in young athletes and can lead to pain and decreased ability to participate in high-level activities. Little is known about the modifiable risk factors for glenohumeral joint instability. Hypothesis: Isometric shoulder strength at baseline would be a modifiable risk factor associated with subsequent first-time anterior instability events. Study Design: Cohort study. Methods: Study participants were freshmen entering the United States Military Academy in June 2006. All participants completed bilateral isometric strength evaluations with a hand-held dynamometer at baseline upon entry into the study. Variables measured included internal and external rotation at 0 (IR0, ER0) and internal and external rotation at 45 of abduction (IR45, ER45). All subjects were followed for subsequent glenohumeral joint instability events until graduation in May 2010. Independent t tests were used to analyze the data. Results: Baseline strength data were available for 1316 shoulders with no prior history of instability, of which 26 went on to have an acute first-time anterior shoulder instability event while the individuals were at the academy. There were no significant differences in mean strength between shoulders that did not go on to develop instability (uninjured; n = 1290) and those that did develop anterior instability (injured; n = 26). The mean strength values in pounds of force for uninjured and injured shoulders, respectively, were as follows: IR0 (49.80 vs 49.29; P = .88), ER0 (35.58 vs 33.66; P = .27), IR45 (47.38 vs 46.93; P = .88), and ER45 (40.08 vs 38.98; P = .59). Conclusion: No association was found between isometric shoulder strength measures at baseline and subsequent first-time anterior glenohumeral joint instability within the high-risk athletic population studied in this prospective cohort. PMID:26535230

  4. Lysylhydroxylation and non-reducible crosslinking of human supraspinatus tendon collagen: changes with age and in chronic rotator cuff tendinitis

    PubMed Central

    Bank, R.; TeKoppele, J.; Oostingh, G.; Hazleman, B.; Riley, G.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVESTo investigate age related and site specific variations in turnover and chemistry of the collagen network in healthy tendons as well as the role of collagen remodelling in the degeneration of the supraspinatus tendon (ST-D) in rotator cuff tendinitis.?METHODSCollagen content and the amount of hydroxylysine (Hyl), hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), lysylpyridinoline (LP), and the degree of non-enzymatic glycation (pentosidine) were investigated in ST-D and in normal human supraspinatus (ST-N) and biceps brachii tendons (BT-N) by high-performance liquid chromatography.?RESULTSIn BT-N, tendons that served as control tissue as it shows rarely matrix abnormalities, pentosidine levels rise linearly with age (20-90 years), indicating little tissue remodelling (resulting in an undisturbed accumulation of pentosidine). A similar accumulation was observed in ST-N up to 50years. At older ages, little pentosidine accumulation was observed and pentosidine levels showed large interindividual variability. This was interpreted as remodelling of collagen in normal ST after age 50years because of microruptures (thus diluting old collagen with newly synthesised collagen). All degenerate ST samples showed decreased pentosidine levels compared with age matched controls, indicating extensive remodelling in an attempt to repair the tendon defect. Collagen content and the amount of Hyl, HP, and LP of ST-N and BT-N did not change with age. With the exception of collagen content, which did not differ, all parameters were significantly (p<0.001) lower in BT-N. The ST-D samples had a reduced collagen content and had higher Hyl, HP, and LP levels than ST-N (p<0.001).?CONCLUSIONSInasmuch as Hyl, HP, and LP levels in ST-N did not change with age, tissue remodelling as a consequence of microruptures does not seem to affect the quality of the tendon collagen. On the other hand, the clearly different profile of post-translational modifications in ST-D indicates that the newly deposited collagen network in degenerated tendons is qualitatively different. It is concluded that in ST-D the previously functional and carefully constructed matrix is replaced by aberrant collagen. This may result in a mechanically less stable tendon; as the supraspinatus is constantly subjected to considerable forces this could explain why tendinitis is mostly of a chronic nature.?? Keywords: collagen; tendons; crosslinks; pentosidine PMID:10343538

  5. Rotator cuff exercises

    MedlinePLUS

    Shoulder exercises ... A key part in your recovery is doing exercises to make the muscles and tendons in your ... for everyday tasks or sports activities Before doing exercises at home, ask your doctor or physical therapist ...

  6. Rotator Cuff Repair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... healing to bone takes a minimum of six weeks, but if you keep somebody immobilized for that ... hit ground strokes fairly early, within 10-12 weeks. However, when it comes to the overhead activities, ...

  7. Rotator cuff repair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine: Principles and Practice. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ... Techniques of the Shoulder, Elbow, and Knee in Sports Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: 2013:chap 24.

  8. Rotator Cuff Exercises

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hint: This is like the backhand swing in tennis.) Lower the arm slowly. Repeat the exercise until ... Hint: This is like the forehand swing in tennis.) Lower the forearm slowly. Repeat the exercise until ...

  9. [Stress fracture of the scapular spine associated with rotator cuff dysfunction: Report of 3 cases and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Garca-Coiradas, J; Lpiz, Y; Marco, F

    2014-01-01

    Scapular spine stress fractures have been scarcely reported in the literature. Their pathomechanics, clinical course and treatment are not well established. We review 3 cases in 2 patients that were associated with cuff dysfunction. On follow-up, none of these fractures progressed to healing. Two of them needed osteosynthesis and bone grafting, and the third one became a painless non-union. The authors propose the combination of 3 factors as a reason for this lesion: a functionally impaired cuff, a greater activation of the muscles with origin and insertion in the spine-acromion and a fragile bone. As we believe that these fractures are unstable, and non-union would be expected, their surgical management is recommended. PMID:24821480

  10. Editorial Commentary: Results of Biplanar Fluoroscopy With 3-Dimensional Analysis in Patients With Rotator Cuff Tears Challenge the Concept of Superior Translation of the Humeral Head and Must Be Interpreted With Caution.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Kinematic analysis of patients with rotator cuff tears shows unexpected inferior, rather than superior, translation of the humeral head. This paradox challenges conventional thought, but limitations addressed by the authors temper the results and leave the question open for future study. PMID:26945951

  11. EVALUATION OF ANATOMICAL INTEGRITY USING ULTRASOUND EXAMINATION, AND FUNCTIONAL INTEGRITY USING THE CONSTANT & MURLEY SCORE, OF THE ROTATOR CUFF FOLLOWING ARTHROSCOPIC REPAIR

    PubMed Central

    Godinho, Glaydson Gomes; França, Flavio de Oliveira; Alves, Freitas José Marcio; Watanabe, Fábio Nagato; Nobre, Leonardo Oliveira; De Almeida Neto, Manoel Augusto; Mendes Da Silva, Marcos André

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the functional and anatomical results from surgical treatment via arthroscopy in cases of complete rupture of the rotator cuff, using ultrasound images and the Constant and Murley functional index to investigate the correlation between them. Methods: 100 patients (110 shoulders) were evaluated. The mean follow-up was 48.8 ± 33.28 months (12 to 141 months). The mean age was 60.25 ± 10.09 (36 to 81 years). Rupture of the supraspinal tendon alone occurred in 85 cases (77%), and in association with the infraspinatus in 20 cases (18%) and subscapularis in four shoulders (4%). An association of supraspinatus, infraspinatus and subscapularis lesions was found in one shoulder (1%). The lesions were classified according to DeOrio and Cofield scores as small/medium in 85 shoulders (77%) and large/extensive in 25 (23%). The clinical results were assessed in accordance with the Constant and Murley criteria. The ultrasound results relate to reports issued by different radiologists. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Student's t test, Pearson's correlation, Kruskal-Wallis correlation and logistic regression (significance: p < 0.05). Results: The mean Constant evaluation was 85.3 ± 10.06 in the normal shoulders and 83.96 ± 8.67 in the operated shoulders (p = 0.224). Excellent and good results were found in 74 shoulders (67%), satisfactory and moderate results in 32 (29%) and poor results in four (4%). The ultrasound evaluation showed 38 shoulders with re-rupture (35%) and absence of rupture in 71 (65%). Among the 74 shoulders (67%) with excellent/good results, 22 (30%) presented re-rupture in the ultrasound report (p = 0.294). Among the four shoulders (4%) with poor results, two (50%) presented reports of intact tendons (p = 0.294). Conclusion: There was no statistically valid correlation between the ultrasound diagnosis and the clinical evaluation of results among the patients who underwent arthroscopic repair to treat full tear lesions of the rotator cuff. The clinical results from the complete rotator cuff repairs via arthroscopy presented a high level of functional recovery (Constant 83.96), compared with the contralateral shoulder. The postoperative ultrasound reports presented a high percentage of re-rupture (35%). Postoperative strength was greater among the patients aged under 60 years (p = 0.002) and in cases of lesions less than or equal to 3 cm (p = 0.003).

  12. Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma and Bioactive Glass Powder for the Improvement of Rotator Cuff Tendon-to-Bone Healing in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yang; Dong, Yu; Chen, Shiyi; Li, Yunxia

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that a platelet-rich plasma (PRP) plus bioactive glass (BG) mixture could shorten the tendon-bone healing process in rotator cuff tendon repair, thirty mature male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups, Control, PRP, and PRP + BG. All groups underwent a surgical procedure to establish a rotator cuff tendon healing model. Mechanical examinations and histological assays were taken to verify the adhesion of the tendon-bone. Real-time PCR was adopted to analyze Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2). The maximum load-to-failure value in mechanical examinations was significantly higher in the PRP + BG group than that in the control group after six weeks (Control 38.73 ± 8.58, PRP 54.49 ± 8.72, PRP + BG 79.15 ± 7.62, p < 0.001), but it was not significantly different at 12 weeks (PRP 74.27 ± 7.74, PRP + BG 82.57 ± 6.63, p = 0.145). In histological assays, H&E (hematoxylin-eosin) staining showed that the interface between the tendon-bone integration was much sturdier in the PRP + BG group compared to the other two groups at each time point, and more ordered arranged tendon fibers can be seen at 12 weeks. At six weeks, the mRNA expression levels of BMP-2 in the PRP + BG group were higher than those in the other groups (PRP + BG 0.65 ± 0.11, PRP 2.284 ± 0.07, Control 0.12 ± 0.05, p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the mRNA expression levels of BMP-2 among the three groups at 12 weeks (p = 0.922, 0.067, 0.056). BMP-2 levels in PRP and PRP+BG groups were significantly lower at 12 weeks compared to six weeks (p = 0.006, <0.001).We found that the PRP + BG mixture could enhance tendon-bone healing in rotator cuff tendon repair. PMID:25464384

  13. The use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the treatment of trigger points that are associated with rotator cuff tendonitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Shenqiti, A.; Oldham, J.

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of LLLT in the treatment of trigger points (TrPs) that are associated with rotator cuff tendonitis. A double-blind randomized controlled trail was conducted. Sixty patients were randomly allocated to one of two groups: sham or laser therapy. The laser (Excel, Omega Universal Technologies Ltd, London, UK) parameters used were a wavelength of 820 nm, a power output of 100 mW, a frequency of 5000 Hz (modulated) and energy density of 32 J/cm2. The two groups received a course of 12 treatment sessions for four weeks (3 sessions per week). Pain, functional activities (as measured using the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index, SPADI), pressure pain threshold (PPT) and range of motion (ROM) were assessed pre and post treatment, with a three month follow-up assessment. Significant improvements in pain (p < 0.001) were observed for the laser group (6 cm median improvement on a 10 cm VAS) compared to the sham group (2 cm median improvement) immediately post treatment. The improvements in the laser group continued post treatment with a 7 cm median improvement observed at three month follow-up. Similar between group differences were observed for ROM (p < 0.01), functional activities (p <= 0.001) and PPT (p <= 0.05). The findings of the current study suggested that LLLT is effective in treating patients with TrPs associated with rotator cuff tendonitis, when using the parameters described. However, the mechanism of its action is not yet clear, and will require further investigation.

  14. Tracheal tube cuff pressure. Clinical use of the Cardiff Cuff Controller.

    PubMed

    Willis, B A; Latto, I P; Dyson, A

    1988-04-01

    Seventy-one adult patients (31 male, 40 female) who presented for surgery underwent orotracheal intubation with Portex Blue Line standard cuff disposable tubes (9-mm for males, 8-mm for females). The tracheal tube cuff was inflated by a trained assistant using a syringe and the initial cuff pressure measured; the minimum cuff pressure required to prevent respiratory gas leakage was also measured and the cuff pressure maintained above this pressure throughout the operation by means of the Cardiff Cuff Controller. Initial cuff pressure values averaged 11.9 kPa for males and 13.5 kPa for females compared with minimum cuff pressure values of 5.2 and 1.2 kPa, respectively. The differences between initial and minimum pressures were statistically highly significant (p much less than 0.001). It is concluded that the present method of inflation may lead to gross overinflation of tracheal tube cuffs and that cuff pressure monitoring may be performed simply by means of an electropneumatic controller. The difference in minimum cuff pressure between males and females suggests that the difference in tracheal size between the sexes is greater than the 9-mm to 8-mm difference in tracheal tube size. PMID:3377155

  15. A cuff inflator for tracheal tubes.

    PubMed

    Abdelatti, M O; Kamath, B S

    1997-08-01

    A simple automatic device to inflate the tracheal tube cuff during emergency tracheal intubation is described. It was tested in 60 patients undergoing elective surgery and found to be a useful and efficient adjunct. PMID:9291762

  16. Musculotendinous transfer as a treatment option for irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears: teres major or latissimus dorsi?

    PubMed

    Buijze, G A; Keereweer, S; Jennings, G; Vorster, W; Debeer, J

    2007-11-01

    Irreparable posterior cuff tears can cause pain and lack of shoulder function. Surgical treatment includes musculotendinous transfers of either latissimus dorsi (LD) or teres major (TM). This study aimed to give a detailed description of the morphology of these two muscles with particular regard to their suitability for use in transfers. Sixty-two shoulders in 31 cadaveric specimens (mean age 50 years) were dissected. The mean length of the TM was 13.7 cm at its superior edge while the distance from the muscle origin to the greater tuberosity (GT) was 19.2 cm. The tendon of the TM had a length of 1.5 cm, a width of 3.4 cm, and a thickness of 1.3 mm. The mean length of the LD was 26.0 cm and the distance from its origin to the GT was 32.9 cm. The mean length of the LD tendon was 5.2 cm, its width 2.9 cm, and its thickness 1.0 mm. The increased length required to achieve transfer was 47% (of the original length) for TM and 33% for LD. Both TM and LD could reach the GT with ease, according to the potential muscle excursions. Tension of the neurovascular bundle is more probable with LD because it enters the muscle relatively closer to the tendon. Problems with regard to reattachment may be more likely to occur in a transfer of the TM because of its short tendon. PMID:17948296

  17. Residual pelvic rotation after single-event multilevel surgery in spastic hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Chung, C Y; Lee, S H; Choi, I H; Cho, T-J; Yoo, W J; Park, M S

    2008-09-01

    Our aim in this retrospective study of 52 children with spastic hemiplegia was to determine the factors which affected the amount of residual pelvic rotation after single-event multilevel surgery. The patients were divided into two groups, those who had undergone femoral derotation osteotomy and those who had not. Pelvic rotation improved significantly after surgery in the femoral osteotomy group (p < 0.001) but not in the non-femoral osteotomy group. Multiple regressions identified the following three independent variables, which significantly affected residual pelvic rotation: the performance of femoral derotation osteotomy (p = 0.049), the pre-operative pelvic rotation (p = 0.003) and the post-operative internal rotation of the hip (p = 0.001). We concluded that there is a decrease in the amount of pelvic rotation after single-event multilevel surgery with femoral derotation osteotomy. However, some residual rotation may persist when patients have severe rotation before surgery. PMID:18757966

  18. Identification of a Very High Cuff Pressure by Manual Palpation of the External Cuff Balloon on an Endotracheal Tube.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, Pia; Eklund, Carolina; Hgqvist, Sandra

    2015-06-01

    The most common complication due to intubation is a high cuff pressure. A high cuff pressure can cause postanesthetic tracheal mucosal injuries in patients undergoing surgery. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe whether anesthetic nurses and anesthesiologists identified a very high cuff pressure by manual palpation of the external cuff balloon on an endotracheal tube. An airway device was intubated with an endotracheal tube cuffed to 95 cm H2O. Each participant palpated the external cuff balloon and then filled out a questionnaire, including estimation of the cuff pressure and user frequency of the cuff pressure manometer. The results showed that 89.1% estimated that the cuff pressure was high. Among the participants who rated the cuff pressure as high, 44.8% rated the pressure as quite high and 60.6% rated the pressure as very high. There was no significant relationship between profession and skill in identifying a very high cuff pressure (P = .843) or between work experience and skill in terms of identifying a very high cuff pressure (P = .816). These findings indicate that 10% of patients are at risk of tracheal erosion because of a high cuff pressure. PMID:26137758

  19. Imaging of the shoulder after surgery.

    PubMed

    McMenamin, Drew; Koulouris, George; Morrison, William B

    2008-10-01

    Postoperative imaging of the shoulder is challenging. This article reviews the radiologic evaluation following surgery for subacromial impingment, rotator cuff lesions and glenohumeral instability, including the common surgical procedures, the expected postoperative findings and potential complications. A specific emphasis is made on magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:18457932

  20. Tissue anchor use in arthroscopic glenohumeral surgery.

    PubMed

    Diduch, David R; Scanelli, John; Tompkins, Marc; Milewski, Matthew D; Carson, Eric; Ma, Shen-Ying Richard

    2012-07-01

    Arthroscopic surgery has become the mainstay of treatment of several common glenohumeral pathologies such as tears of the rotator cuff and labrum. Arthroscopic rotator cuff and labral repair provide outcomes comparable to those achieved with traditional open techniques, with the benefits of smaller incisions and less soft-tissue disruption. Development and improvement of tissue anchors and arthroscopic instrumentation has been integral to the increased popularity of arthroscopic glenohumeral repairs. Current anchors can be categorized by design and material composition. Awareness of the advantages and limitations of these implants may influence anchor selection. PMID:22751165

  1. Does a land-based compensatory strength-training programme influences the rotator cuff balance of young competitive swimmers?

    PubMed

    Batalha, Nuno; Raimundo, Armando; Tomas-Carus, Pablo; Paulo, João; Simão, Roberto; Silva, António J

    2015-11-01

    During the repeated execution of the swimming strokes, the shoulder adductor and internal rotator muscles have a tendency to become proportionally stronger when compared to their antagonist group. This can lead to muscle imbalances. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a compensatory training programme on the strength and balance of shoulder rotator muscles in young swimmers. A randomized controlled trial design was used. Forty male swimmers took part in the study and were randomly divided into two groups: an experimental group (n = 20) and a training group (n = 20). A control group (n = 16) of young sedentary male students was also evaluated. The experimental group subjects participated in a 16-week shoulder-strength programme with Thera-Band(®) elastic bands; the training group was restricted to aquatic training. Peak torque of shoulder internal rotator and external rotator (ER) was measured at baseline and after 16 weeks. Concentric action at 1.04 rad s(-1) (3 reps) and 3.14 rad s(-1) (20 reps) was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. The strength-training programme led to an improvement of the ER strength and shoulder rotator balance in the experimental group (data from both shoulders at 1.04 rad s(-1)). Moreover, concentric action at 3.14 rad s(-1) presented significant differences only for the dominant shoulder. Findings suggest that the prescribed shoulder-strengthening exercises could be a useful training option for young competitive swimmers. They can produce an increase in absolute strength values and greater muscle balance in shoulder rotators. PMID:26332051

  2. Endobronchial cuff pressures.

    PubMed

    Cobley, M; Kidd, J F; Willis, B A; Vaughan, R S

    1993-05-01

    In 20 adult patients (18 male) who presented for thoracotomy, the trachea was intubated using Mallinckrodt disposable double-lumen tubes (18 large and two medium). The endobronchial cuff was inflated by a trained operating department assistant using an air-filled syringe. The volume of air and the initial endobronchial cuff pressure were measured. The minimum cuff pressure required to prevent respiratory gas leakage from the isolated lung was measured also and maintained using the Cardiff Cuff Controller. Mean initial cuff pressure was 69.3 (SEM 6.0) mm Hg, whereas the mean minimum cuff pressure was 29.5 (4.0) mm Hg (P < 0.0001). The results suggest that the method described of inflating the endobronchial cuff may lead to overinflation and subsequent excessive pressure on the endobronchial wall. PMID:8318334

  3. Full thickness tears: retaining the cuff.

    PubMed

    Osti, Leonardo; Rizzello, Giacomo; Panasc, Manlio; Denaro, Vincenzo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2011-12-01

    Repair of rotator cuff tears is technically challenging. Full thickness rotator cuff tears have no potential for spontaneous healing, no reliable tendons substitutes are available, and their management is only partially understood. Many factors seem to contribute to the final outcome, and considerable variations in the decision-making process exist. For these reasons, decisions are often taken on the basis of surgeon's clinical experience. Accurate and prompt diagnosis is fundamental to guide correct management, and the tear pattern should be carefully evaluated to planning the most appropriate repair. PMID:22089291

  4. Rotator cuff - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... joint Good range of motion of your shoulder blade and upper spine No pain during certain physical ... abnormal movement of your shoulder joint and shoulder blade Returning to sports and other activity should be ...

  5. Saline-filled cuffs help prevent laser-induced polyvinylchloride endotracheal tube fires.

    PubMed

    Sosis, M B; Dillon, F X

    1991-02-01

    To determine whether the filling of tracheal tube cuffs with saline would decrease their combustibility during laser surgery, 20 polyvinylchloride tracheal tubes were studied. The cuffed end of each tracheal tube was inserted into the neck of an empty flask, and the tube and flask were flushed with oxygen for 5 min before cuff inflation. Ten tracheal tubes had their cuffs inflated with air, and 10 were inflated with saline. A Lasersonics LS880 CO2 laser, set to 5 W for five of each of the two types of filled cuffs and to 40 W for the other pair of five tubes, was fired continuously at the cuffs for up to 1 min. No combustion occurred at the 5-W setting. The times to cuff perforation when the laser was set at 5 W were (mean +/- SD) 1.00 +/- 0.83 and 4.21 +/- 3.91 s for the air- and saline-filled cuffs, respectively, a difference that was not statistically significant. The time to deflation of the saline-filled cuff (104.6 +/- 67.5 s) was, however, significantly longer than that of the air-filled cuff (2.59 +/- 1.97 s). When the tracheal tube cuffs were exposed to 40-W laser radiation, the cuff and adjacent tube shaft ignited in all cases when the cuffs were inflated with air, but only in one of five cases when the cuffs were filled with saline (P less than 0.05). The filling of tracheal tube cuffs with saline provides simple, moderately effective partial protection of the cuff of endotracheal tubes during CO2 laser airway surgery. PMID:1985502

  6. Obtaining Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Approval for International Rotations During Plastic Surgery Residency Training.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Donald R

    2015-06-01

    Global medicine and international rotations are becoming increasingly popular and relevant in training the next generation of Plastic Surgeons. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the American Board of Medical Specialties have started to address the issues that will ensure our residents are protected as well as ensuring that they gain a valuable educational experience. The principles and the process for getting an International Rotation approved by the Plastic Surgery Residency Review Committee are outlined in this article. PMID:26080131

  7. Arthroscopic Assessment of Intra-Articular Lesion after Surgery for Rotational Ankle Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Seung-Do; Gwak, Heui-Chul; Ha, Dong-Jun; Kim, Jong-Yup; Kim, Ui-Cheol; Jang, Yue-Chan

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to report findings of exploratory arthroscopic assessment performed in conjunction with removal of internal fixation device placed in the initial surgery for rotational ankle fracture. Methods A total of 53 patients (33 male, 20 female) who underwent surgery for rotational ankle fracture between November 2002 and February 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients gave consent to the exploratory arthroscopic surgery for the removal of internal fixation devices placed in the initial surgery. Lauge-Hansen classification system of ankle fractures was assessed for all patients. Intra-articular lesions (osteochondral lesion, loose body, and fibrosis) were evaluated via ankle arthroscopy. Comparative analysis was then performed between radiological classification of ankle fracture/patient's symptoms and arthroscopic findings. Results Lauge-Hansen classification system of ankle fractures included supination-external rotation type (n = 35), pronation-external rotation type (n = 9), and pronation-abduction type (n = 9). A total of 33 patients exhibited symptoms of pain or discomfort while walking whereas 20 exhibited no symptoms. Arthroscopic findings included abnormal findings around the syndesmosis area (n = 35), intra-articular fibrosis (n = 51), osteochondral lesions of the talus (n = 33), loose bodies (n = 6), synovitis (n = 13), and anterior bony impingement syndrome (n = 3). Intra-articular fibrosis was seen in 31 of symptomatic patients (93.9%). Pain or discomfort with activity caused by soft tissue impingement with meniscus-like intra-articular fibrosis were found in 19 patients. There was statistical significance (p = 0.02) between symptoms (pain and discomfort) and the findings of meniscus-like fibrosis compared to the group without any symptom. Conclusions Arthroscopic examination combined with treatment of intra-articular fibrosis arising from ankle fracture surgery may help improve surgical outcomes. PMID:26640633

  8. Vaginal Cuff Dehiscence in Robotic-Assisted Total Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kashani, Shabnam; Gallo, Taryn; Sargent, Anita; ElSahwi, Karim; Silasi, Dan-Arin

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the cumulative incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscence in robotic-assisted total hysterectomies in our patients and to provide recommendations to decrease the incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscence. Methods: This was an observational case series, Canadian Task Force Classification II-3 conducted at an academic and community teaching hospital. A total of 654 patients underwent robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy for both malignant and benign reasons from September 1, 2006 to March 1, 2011 performed by a single surgeon. The da Vinci Surgical System was used for robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy. Results: There were 3 cases of vaginal cuff dehiscence among 654 robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomies, making our cumulative incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscence 0.4%. The mean time between the procedures and vaginal cuff dehiscence was 44.3 d (6.3 wk). All patients were followed up twice after surgery, at 3 to 4 wk and 12 to 16 wk. Conclusion: In our study, the incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscence after robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy compares favorably to that of total abdominal and vaginal hysterectomy. Our study suggests that the incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscence is more likely related to the technique of colpotomy and vaginal cuff suturing than to robotic-assisted total hysterectomy per se. With proper technique and patient education, our vaginal dehiscence rate has been 0.4%, which is 2.5 to 10 times less than the previously reported vaginal cuff dehiscence rate in the literature. PMID:23484559

  9. [Complications related to implants in arthroscopic shoulder surgery].

    PubMed

    Lorbach, O; Wilmes, P; Brogard, P; Seil, R

    2008-11-01

    With the increase in shoulder arthroscopies are increased complications related to shoulder implants frequently used for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair and shoulder stabilisation. The biggest problem is malpositioning of the suture anchor, which might lead to persistent pain, serious cartilage damage, decreased range of motion, and failure of the reconstruction, resulting in revision surgery. Especially in osteoporotic bone, it is important to choose an implant that provides sufficient mechanical strength. Other possible complications are related to the sutures of the anchor. Suture damage or accidental removal of the sutures from the anchor could leave them useless in situ. Tangling of the sutures, especially in massive reconstructions of the rotator cuff, can lead the surgeon to switch to an open technique. Compared with metal implants, bioabsorbable implants have advantages concerning possible revision surgery. However, implant costs, anchor hole enlargement, and possible higher failure rates compared with metallic implants should be considered. A rare but serious complication is allergic reaction to the implant. PMID:18813907

  10. Are away rotations critical for a successful match in orthopaedic surgery?

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Keith; Weidner, Zachary; Ahn, Jaimo; Mehta, Samir

    2009-12-01

    Surveys have suggested one of the most important determinants of orthopaedic resident selection is completion of an orthopaedic clerkship at the program director's institution. The purpose of this study was to further elucidate the significance of visiting externships on the resident selection process. We retrospectively reviewed data for all medical students applying for orthopaedic surgery residency from six medical schools between 2006 and 2008, for a total of 143 applicants. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to compare students who matched successfully versus those who did not in terms of number of away rotations, United States Medical Licensing Examination scores, class rank, and other objective factors. Of the 143 medical students, 19 did not match in orthopaedics (13.3%), whereas the remaining 124 matched. On multiple logistic regression analysis, whether a student did more than one home rotation, how many away rotations a student performed, and United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 score were factors in the odds of match success. Orthopaedic surgery is one of the most competitive specialties in medicine; the away rotation remains an important factor in match success. PMID:19582529

  11. The impact of rotator cuff deficiency on structure, mechanical properties, and gene expression profiles of the long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT): Implications for management of the LHBT during primary shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kurdziel, Michael D; Moravek, James E; Wiater, Brett P; Davidson, Abigail; Seta, Joseph; Maerz, Tristan; Baker, Kevin C; Wiater, J Michael

    2015-08-01

    The long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) occupies a unique proximal intra-articular and distal extra-articular position within the human shoulder. In the presence of a rotator cuff (RC) tear, the LHBT is recruited into an accelerated role undergoing potential mechanical and biochemical degeneration. Intra-articular sections of the LHBT were harvested during primary shoulder arthroplasty from patients with an intact or deficient RC. LHBTs were stained (H&E, Alcian Blue) and subjected to histologic analysis using the semiquantitative Bonar scale and measurement of collagen orientation. LHBTs (n?=?12 per group) were also subjected to gene-expression analyses via an RT(2) -PCR Profiler Array quantifying 84 genes associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. LHBTs (n?=?18 per group) were biomechanically tested with both stress-relaxation and load-to-failure protocols and subsequently modeled with the Quasilinear Viscoelastic (QLV) and Structural-Based Elastic (SBE) models. While no histologic differences were observed, significant differences in mechanical testing, and viscoelastic modeling parameters were found. PCR arrays identified five genes that were differentially expressed between RC-intact and RC-deficient LHBT groups. LHBTs display signs of pathology regardless of RC status in the arthroplasty population, which may be secondary to both glenohumeral joint arthritis and the additional mechanical role of the LHBT in this population. PMID:25877256

  12. Comparison of Pressure Changes by Head and Neck Position between High-Volume Low-Pressure and Taper-Shaped Cuffs: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Mihara, Ryosuke; Imagawa, Kentaro; Hattori, Kazuo; Minami, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    The present study compared changes in cuff pressure by head and neck position between high-volume low-pressure (HVLP) and taper-shaped (taper) cuffs in a prospective randomized clinical trial. Methods. Forty patients were intubated using tracheal tubes with either HVLP (n = 20; HVLP group) or taper-shaped (n = 20; Taper group) cuffs. Initial cuff pressure was adjusted to 15, 20, or 25 cmH2O in the neutral position. Cuff pressure was evaluated after changing the head and neck positions to flexion, extension, and rotation. Results. Cuff pressure significantly increased with flexion in both HVLP and Taper groups at all initial cuff pressures. It significantly increased with extension in the HVLP group, but not in the Taper group. Cuff pressure did not significantly differ with rotation in either group and was significantly smaller in the Taper group during flexion and extension than in the HVLP group, regardless of initial cuff pressure. Conclusion. Cuff pressure changes with head and neck flexion and extension were smaller in the Taper group than in the HVLP group. Our results highlight the potential for taper cuffs to prevent excessive cuff pressure increases with positional changes in the head and neck. This trial is registered with UMIN000016119. PMID:26509152

  13. Femtosecond laser combined with non-chopping rotation phacoemulsification technique for soft-nucleus cataract surgery: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Lin, Haotian; Chen, Wan; Zhang, Bo; Xiang, Wu; Li, Jing; Chen, Weirong; Liu, Yizhi

    2016-01-01

    Soft-lens cataract surgeries are becoming increasingly common for cataract surgeons and chopping the soft nucleus using conventional techniques is problematic. We introduced a femtosecond laser combined with a non-chopping rotation phacoemulsification technique for soft-nucleus cataract surgery and evaluated the safety and efficacy of using this technique. Sixty-six patients with soft-nucleus cataracts ranging from grade 1~3 were divided into 3 groups based on nuclear staging. Those groups were further divided into three subgroups: femtosecond laser pretreatment combined with a non-chopping rotation phacoemulsification technique (subgroup 1), conventional manual cataract surgery with a non-chopping rotation technique (subgroup 2) and conventional manual cataract surgery with a quick-chop technique (subgroup 3).Patients were followed up at 1, 7, and 30 days after surgery. There was an 84.6% and a 63.34% reduction in ultrasound time and cumulative dissipated energy, respectively, between the subgroup 1 and the subgroup 3; and this was associated with a 36.1% and 29.7% reduction in endothelial cell loss and aqueous flare. There were no adverse events at the follow-up times. With its reduced ultrasound energy, endothelial cell loss and aqueous flare, the femtosecond laser pretreatment combined with a non-chopping rotation technique was more efficient than conventional manual cataract surgery for soft-nucleus cataracts. PMID:26728573

  14. Femtosecond laser combined with non-chopping rotation phacoemulsification technique for soft-nucleus cataract surgery: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Lin, Haotian; Chen, Wan; Zhang, Bo; Xiang, Wu; Li, Jing; Chen, Weirong; Liu, Yizhi

    2016-01-01

    Soft-lens cataract surgeries are becoming increasingly common for cataract surgeons and chopping the soft nucleus using conventional techniques is problematic. We introduced a femtosecond laser combined with a non-chopping rotation phacoemulsification technique for soft-nucleus cataract surgery and evaluated the safety and efficacy of using this technique. Sixty-six patients with soft-nucleus cataracts ranging from grade 1~3 were divided into 3 groups based on nuclear staging. Those groups were further divided into three subgroups: femtosecond laser pretreatment combined with a non-chopping rotation phacoemulsification technique (subgroup 1), conventional manual cataract surgery with a non-chopping rotation technique (subgroup 2) and conventional manual cataract surgery with a quick-chop technique (subgroup 3).Patients were followed up at 1, 7, and 30 days after surgery. There was an 84.6% and a 63.34% reduction in ultrasound time and cumulative dissipated energy, respectively, between the subgroup 1 and the subgroup 3; and this was associated with a 36.1% and 29.7% reduction in endothelial cell loss and aqueous flare. There were no adverse events at the follow-up times. With its reduced ultrasound energy, endothelial cell loss and aqueous flare, the femtosecond laser pretreatment combined with a non-chopping rotation technique was more efficient than conventional manual cataract surgery for soft-nucleus cataracts. PMID:26728573

  15. Posterior Pharyngeal Airway in Clockwise Rotation of Maxillomandibular Complex Using Surgery-first Orthognathic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Jin; Lee, Chang-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Background: Because obstructive sleep apnea is known to be an important preexisting factor causing chronic disease, many investigations have been done recently. There have been few reports regarding the posterior pharyngeal airway after clockwise rotation of maxillomandibular complex. Because the 2-jaw surgery in class III patients could cause obstructive sleep apnea or snoring, we investigated the posterior pharyngeal airway change of the clockwise maxillomandibular complex in the surgery-first orthognathic approach for the correction of class III dentofacial deformities. Methods: A cephalometric evaluation of 35 patients with skeletal class III deformity was performed preoperatively and postoperatively. Three measurements of the posterior pharyngeal airway space (nasopharynx, oropharynx, and hypopharynx) and hyoid bone positions (the distance from palatal plane to hyoid bone and the distance from mandibular plane to the hyoid bone) were evaluated and correlated with the skeletal movement of the jaws using imaging software (V-Ceph, Osstem, Seoul, Korea). Results: The preoperative airway space turned out to be enlarged in class III dentofacial deformities compared with those of normal persons. The preoperative P1, P2, and P3 in our cohort were increased and posterior nasal spine to hyoid bone and mandibular plane to hyoid bone were decreased compared with those of normal person’s data because the cohort consists of prognathic patients where the mandible is located in forward position. After 6 months, most values were nearly normal. Conclusion: Orthognathic surgery based on clockwise rotation of maxillomandibular complex did not cause severe posterior airway space changes at 6 months postoperation. PMID:26495198

  16. Special report: Occlusive cuff controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J. T.

    1975-01-01

    A mechanical occlusive cuff controller suitable for blood flow experiments in space shuttle flights is described. The device requires 115 volt ac power and a pressurized gas source. Two occluding cuff pressures (30 and 50 mmHg) are selectable by a switch on the front panel. A screw driver adjustment allows accurate cuff pressurization levels for under or oversized limbs. Two pressurization cycles (20 second and 2 minutes) can be selected by a front panel switch. Adjustment of the timing cycles is also available through the front panel. A pushbutton hand switch allows remote start of the cuff inflation cycle. A stop/reset switch permits early termination of the cycle and disabling of the controller to prevent inadvertent reactivation. Pressure in the cuff is monitored by a differential aneroid barometer. In addition, an electrocardiogram trigger circuit permits the initiation of the pressurization cycle by an externally supplied ECG cycle.

  17. Rolling cuff flexible bellows

    DOEpatents

    Lambert, Donald R. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A flexible connector apparatus used to join two stiff non-deformable members, such as piping. The apparatus is provided with one or more flexible sections or assemblies each utilizing a bellows of a rolling cuff type connected between two ridge members, with the bellows being supported by a back-up ring, such that only the curved end sections of the bellows are unsupported. Thus, the bellows can be considered as being of a tube-shaped configuration and thus have high pressure resistance. The components of the flexible apparatus are sealed or welded one to another such that it is fluid tight.

  18. Endotracheal cuff pressure changes with change in position in neurosurgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Athiraman, UmeshKumar; Gupta, Rohit; Singh, Georgene

    2015-01-01

    Background: Placement of a cuffed endotracheal tube for the administration of general anesthesia is routine. The cuff of the endotracheal tube is inflated with air to achieve an adequate seal to prevent micro-aspiration. Over inflation of the cuff can decrease the mucosal perfusion, leading to pressure necrosis and nerve palsies. Inadequate seal can lead to micro aspiration. So the cuff pressure has to be monitored and kept within the prescribed limits of 20-30 cms of water. Aim of the Study: To observe the effect of different positions on the endotracheal cuff pressure in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures. Materials and Methods: This is an observational study conducted on 70 patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures in various positions. After intubation, the cuff pressure was checked with a cuff pressure manometer, Endotest (Teleflex Medical, Rush) and adjusted to be within the allowable pressure limits as is the routine practice. The cuff pressure was checked again at three time points after achieving the final position with the head on pins, at the end of the procedure and before extubation. Various factors such as the age, position, duration of surgery were studied. There were no major complications like aspiration, stridor or hoarseness of voice post extubation in any of the patients. Results: A significant decline in the cuff pressures were noted from the initial supine position to extubation (P < .001) in the supine group. Also a significant decline in the cuff pressures were found in the prone group from their initial intubated supine position to all the other three corresponding time points namely after final positioning (P < .001), at the end of the procedure (P < .001) and before extubation (P < .001). Conclusion: Cuff pressure has to be checked after achieving the final positioning of the patient and adjusted to the prescribed limits to prevent micro aspiration.

  19. Rotator Cuff and Shoulder Conditioning Program

    MedlinePLUS

    ... needed: Use an elastic stretch band of comfortable resistance. As the exercise becomes easier to perform, progress ... needed: Use an elastic stretch band of comfortable resistance. As the exercise becomes easier to perform, progress ...

  20. Rotator Cuff Tears: Surgical Treatment Options

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the likelihood of permanent stiffness or loss of motion. Most of the time, stiffness will improve with more aggressive therapy and exercise. • Tendon re-tear. There is a chance for re-tear following all types of repairs. The larger the tear, the higher ...

  1. Shoulder Impingement/Rotator Cuff Tendinitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... use their arms overhead for swimming, baseball, and tennis are particularly vulnerable. Those who do repetitive li ... may have pain when throwing or serving a tennis ball As the problem progresses, the symptoms increase: • ...

  2. Barbed Suture for Vaginal Cuff Closure in Laparoscopic Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Byron Cardoso; Riao, Giovanni; Hoyos, Luis R.; Otalora, Camila

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate whether the use of barbed suture for vaginal cuff closure is associated with a decrease in postoperative vaginal bleeding compared with cuff closure with polyglactin 910 in patients who have undergone laparoscopic hysterectomy. Methods: We performed a cohort study of patients who underwent laparoscopic hysterectomy between January 2008 and July 2012 by the minimally invasive gynecologic surgery division of the Gynecology, Obstetrics and Human Reproduction Department at Fundacin Santa Fe de Bogot University Hospital, Bogot, Colombia. Results: A total of 232 women were studied: 163 were in the polyglactin 910 group, and 69 were in the barbed suture group. The main outcome, postoperative vaginal bleeding, was documented in 53 cases (32.5%) in the polyglactin 910 group and in 13 cases (18.8%) in the barbed suture group (relative risk, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.340.9; P = .03). No statistically significant differences were found in other postoperative outcomes, such as emergency department admission, vaginal cuff dehiscence, infectious complications, and the presence of granulation tissue. Conclusion: In this study an inverse association was observed between the use of barbed suture for vaginal cuff closure during laparoscopic hysterectomy and the presence of postoperative vaginal bleeding. PMID:24680149

  3. Rotational Strength and Flexibility of the Knee Following Pes Anserinus Transplant Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanke, Daniel J.

    1978-01-01

    Results of this study indicate that there is no significant difference in degrees of rotation or rotational strength of the knee joint between surgical and nonsurgical limbs of rehabilitated subjects. (MM)

  4. Bleeding risk assessment using whole blood impedance aggregometry and rotational thromboelastometry in patients following cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Petricevic, Mate; Biocina, Bojan; Milicic, Davor; Konosic, Sanja; Svetina, Lucija; Leki?, Ante; Zdilar, Boris; Burcar, Ivan; Milosevic, Milan; Brahimaj, Rifat; Samardzic, Jure; Gasparovic, Hrvoje

    2013-11-01

    Excessive bleeding after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is risk factor for adverse outcomes after elective cardiac surgery (ECS). Differentiating between patients who bleed due to surgical issues and those whose excessive chest tube output (CTO) is due to coagulopathy, remains challenging. Bedside suitable tests to identify hemostatic disturbances and predict excessive bleeding are desirable. The study sought to evaluate prediction of excessive bleeding after ECS using two bedside suitable devices for platelet function and viscoelastic blood clot properties assessment. We enrolled 148 patients (105 male and 43 female) undergoing ECS in a prospective observational study. Patients were characterized as bleeders if their 24 h CTO exceeded the 75th percentile of distribution. Multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA, with ASPI, ADP and the TRAP test) and rotational thromboelastometry (TEM, with ExTEM, HepTEM and FibTEM test), were performed at three time points: preoperatively (T1), during CPB (T2), and after protamine administration (T3). The primary endpoint was CTO and the secondary endpoint was administration of blood products, 30-day and 1 year mortality. The best predictors of increased bleeding tendency were the tests performed after protamine administration (T3). At T3, patients characterized as bleeders had significantly lower MEA ASPI (median, 14 vs. 27 AUC, p = 0.004) and ADP test values (median, 22 vs. 41 AUC, p = 0.002) as well as TEM values expressed in maximum clot firmness after 30 min (MCF 30) for ExTEM (53 vs. 56 mm, p = 0.005), HepTEM (48 vs. 52 mm, p = 0.003) and FibTEM (8 vs. 11 mm, p < 0.001) test. 24 h CTO inversely correlated with both the MEA (ASPI test: r = -0.236, p = 0.004; ADP test: r = -0.299, p < 0.001), and TEM MCF 30 (ExTEM: r = -0.295, p < 0.001; HepTEM: -0.329, p < 0.001; FibTEM: -0.377, p < 0.001) test values. Our study showed that MEA and TEM are useful methods for prediction of excessive bleeding after ECS. In order to prevent excessive postoperative CTO, hemostatic interventions with timely and targeted blood component therapy according to MEA and TEM results should be considered. PMID:23341179

  5. Massive cuff tears treated with arthroscopically assisted latissimus dorsi transfer. Surgical technique.

    PubMed

    De Cupis, Vincenzo; De Cupis, Mauro

    2012-04-01

    Latissimus dorsi transfer is our preferred treatment for active disabled patients with a posterosuperior massive cuff tear. We present an arthroscopically assisted technique which avoids an incision through the deltoid obtaining a better and faster clinical outcome. The patient is placed in lateral decubitus. After the arthroscopic evaluation of the lesion through a posterior and a posterolateral portal, with the limb in traction we perform the preparation of the greater tuberosity of the humerus. We place the arm in abduction and internal rotation and we proceed to the harvest of the latissimus dorsi and the tendon preparation by stitching the two sides using very resistant sutures. After restoring limb traction, under arthroscopic visualization, we pass a curved grasper through the posterolateral portal by going to the armpit in the space between the teres minor and the posterior deltoid. Once the grasper has exited the access at the level of the axilla we fix two drainage transparent tubes, each with a wire inside, and, withdrawing it back, we shuttle the two tubes in the subacromial space. After tensioning the suture wires from the anterior portals these are assembled in a knotless anchor of 5.5 mm that we place in the prepared site on the greater tuberosity of the humerus. A shoulder brace at 15 of abduction and neutral rotation protect the patient for the first month post-surgery but physical therapy can immediately start. PMID:23738290

  6. Effect of cuff type on arterial occlusion.

    PubMed

    Loenneke, Jeremy P; Thiebaud, Robert S; Fahs, Christopher A; Rossow, Lindy M; Abe, Takashi; Bemben, Michael G

    2013-07-01

    Blood flow restriction (BFR) by itself or in combination with exercise has been shown to be beneficial for skeletal muscle. Despite most of the literature showing positive effects of BFR on skeletal muscle, not all studies show a benefit of BFR exercise compared with exercise without BFR. Some of the discrepancy can be explained by differences in methodology. For example, wide (135 cm) nylon cuffs result in arterial occlusion at a much lower pressure than narrow elastic (5 cm) cuffs. However, although it is evident that there are differences between elastic narrow (5 cm) cuffs and nylon wide (135 cm) cuffs, it is presently unclear whether or not there are differences between two cuffs of similar size (5 cm) but different material (nylon versus elastic). We hypothesized that although the cuffs are of similar size, there would be significant differences in arterial occlusion between two cuff materials. With the participants supine, in a randomized order, either the nylon (5 83 cm) or elastic (5 135 cm) cuffs were applied to the most proximal portion of each leg. Arterial blood flow was detected using a hand-held bidirectional Doppler probe placed on the posterior tibial artery. A paired sample t-test found no difference between cuff types for arterial occlusion pressure. In conclusion, arterial occlusion pressure is not different between two cuffs of a similar size but different material. This suggests that either elastic or nylon cuffs of the same width should restrict blood flow similarly at the same pressure during resting conditions. PMID:23692624

  7. Cuff width alters the amplitude envelope of wrist cuff pressure pulse waveforms.

    PubMed

    Jilek, Jiri; Stork, Milan

    2010-07-01

    The accuracy of noninvasive blood pressure (BP) measurement with any method is affected by cuff width. Measurement with a too narrow cuff overestimates BP and measurement with a too wide cuff underestimates BP. Automatic wrist cuff BP monitors use permanently attached narrow cuffs with bladders about 6 cm wide. Such narrow cuffs should result in under-cuffing for wrist circumferences larger than 15 cm. The objective of this qualitative study was to show that a narrow wrist cuff results in increased BP values when a cuff pulse amplitude ratio algorithm is used. According to the algorithm used in this study, systolic pressure (SBP) corresponds to the point of 50% of maximal amplitude; for diastolic pressure (DBP) the ratio is 70%. Data were acquired from 12 volunteers in the sitting position. The mean wrist circumference was 18 cm. The acquired cuff pulse data were used to compute SBP, mean pressure (MAP) and DBP. The mean values for a 6 cm cuff were SBP = 144 mmHg, MAP = 104 mmHg and DBP = 88 mmHg. The values for a 10 cm cuff were SBP = 128 mmHg, MAP = 93 mmHg and DBP = 78 mmHg. The reference BP values were SBP = 132 mmHg, MAP = 96 mmHg and DBP = 80 mmHg. All narrow (6 cm) cuff BP values were higher than wide (10 cm) cuff or reference BP values. The results indicate that wider wrist cuffs may be desirable for more accurate and reliable BP measurement with wrist monitors. PMID:20505218

  8. 21 CFR 882.5275 - Nerve cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nerve cuff. 882.5275 Section 882.5275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices 882.5275 Nerve cuff. (a) Identification. A nerve...

  9. Stimulation Stability and Selectivity of Chronically Implanted Multicontact Nerve Cuff Electrodes in the Human Upper Extremity

    PubMed Central

    Polasek, Katharine H.; Hoyen, Harry A.; Keith, Michael W.; Kirsch, Robert F.; Tyler, Dustin J.

    2010-01-01

    Nine spiral nerve cuff electrodes were implanted in two human subjects for up to three years with no adverse functional effects. The objective of this study was to look at the long term nerve and muscle response to stimulation through nerve cuff electrodes. The nerve conduction velocity remained within the clinically accepted range for the entire testing period. The stimulation thresholds stabilized after approximately 20 weeks. The variability in the activation over time was not different from muscle-based electrodes used in implanted functional electrical stimulation systems. Three electrodes had multiple, independent contacts to evaluate selective recruitment of muscles. A single muscle could be selectively activated from each electrode using single-contact stimulation and the selectivity was increased with the use of field steering techniques. The selectivity after three years was consistent with selectivity measured during the implant surgery. Nerve cuff electrodes are effective for chronic muscle activation and multichannel functional electrical stimulation in humans. PMID:19775987

  10. Rolling-cuff flexible bellows

    DOEpatents

    Lambert, D.R.

    1982-09-27

    A flexible connector apparatus used to join two stiff non-deformable members, such as piping, is described. The apparatus is provided with one or more flexible sections or assemblies each utilizing a bellows of a rolling cuff type connected between two ridge members, with the bellows being supported by a back-up ring, such that only the curved end sections of the bellows are unsupported. Thus, the bellows can be considered as being of a tube-shaped configuration and thus have high pressure resistance. The components of the flexible apparatus are sealed or welded one to another such that it is fluid tight.

  11. The microvascular anastomotic autogenous cuff.

    PubMed

    Harris, G D; Finseth, F; Buncke, H J

    1981-01-01

    A carefully controlled experimental study of the haemostasis time and the patency rates in microvascular anastomoses of the rat femoral artery shows very high patency rates in 0.8-1 mm vessels with only four sutures and with the use of anastomotic autogenous cuffs to provide immediate haemostasis. The "posterior-wall-first" technique of anastomosis was performed in all cases. Not only are fewer sutures required: vascular trauma is reduced, less foreign material is introduced at the site of anastomosis and the time to complete the anastomosis is reduced. The results of this study have obvious clinical applications. PMID:7006724

  12. Heat sink protection against lasering endotracheal cuffs.

    PubMed

    LeJeune, F E; Guice, C; LeTard, F; Marice, H

    1982-01-01

    The ignition of an endotracheal cuff by CO2 laser impaction has proved troublesome in several ignition sequences. Metal foil tape wrapped around the shaft of the tube will provide adequate protection for it, but the tape does not extend to the thin-walled cuff. When normal saline solution is used instead of air to fill the cuff, heat is rapidly conducted away from the wall and the cuff is prevented from reaching its kindling temperature. If penetration should occur, a fine jet of saline solution instantaneously sprays the field, extinguishing any early combustion. The reaction time of the surgeon or an assistant is not a factor in prevention of thermal injury, no new equipment is required and preparation time is minimal. PMID:6816125

  13. Rotationally actuated prosthetic helping hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, William E. (Inventor); Belcher, Jewell G., Jr. (Inventor); Carden, James R. (Inventor); West, Thomas W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A prosthetic device has been developed for below-the-elbow amputees. The device consists of a cuff, a stem, a housing, two hook-like fingers, an elastic band for holding the fingers together, and a brace. The fingers are pivotally mounted on a housing that is secured to the amputee's upper arm with the brace. The stem, which also contains a cam, is rotationally mounted within the housing and is secured to the cuff, which fits over the amputee's stump. By rotating the cammed stem between the fingers with the lower arm, the amputee can open and close the fingers.

  14. [Surgery].

    PubMed

    Roulin, D; Hbner, M; Demartines, N

    2013-01-16

    In 2012, an innovative approach for staged in situ liver transection was proposed that could allow for even more aggressive major hepatectomies. Otherwise, after 25 years, laparoscopy became "traditional" and other minimally invasive techniques continue to be developed but their indications deserve further investigation. Less aggressive treatment in non-complicated diverticulitis becomes more popular, and even antibiotic treatment has been challenged by a randomized study. In colorectal oncology, local resection or observation only seems to become a valuable approach in selected patients with complete response after neo adjuvant chemoradiation. Finally, enhanced recovery pathways (ERAS) have been validated and is increasingly accepted for colorectal surgery and ERAS principles are successfully applied in other surgical fields. PMID:23409643

  15. Handcrafted cuff manometers do not accurately measure endotracheal tube cuff pressure

    PubMed Central

    Annoni, Raquel; de Almeida, Antonio Evanir

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the agreement between two handcrafted devices and a cuff-specific manometer. Methods The agreement between two handcrafted devices adapted to measure tracheal tube cuff pressure and a cuff-specific manometer was tested on 79 subjects. The cuff pressure was measured with a commercial manometer and with two handcrafted devices (HD) assembled with aneroid sphygmomanometers (HD1 and HD2). The data were compared using Wilcoxon and Spearman tests, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and limit-of-agreement analysis. Results Cuff pressures assessed with handcrafted devices were significantly different from commercial device measurements (pressures were higher when measured with HD1 and lower with HD2). The ICCs between the commercial device and HD1 and HD2 were excellent (ICC = 0.8 p < 0.001) and good (ICC = 0.66, p < 0.001), respectively. However, the Bland- Altman plots showed wide limits of agreement between HD1 and HD2 and the commercial device. Conclusion The handcrafted manometers do not provide accurate cuff pressure measurements when compared to a cuff-specific device and should not be used to replace the commercial cuff manometers in mechanically ventilated patients. PMID:26376160

  16. Unusual Late Presentation of Hemophilia A in an Active Duty U.S. Marine Following Open Shoulder Surgery.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Bennett H; Minter, Alex R; McDonald, Lucas S

    2015-12-01

    Hemophilia A is clotting disorder affecting 8:100,000 males in the United States. It is an X-linked recessive genetic disorder, although about one-third of cases occur spontaneously without known family history. Because of the risk of uncontrolled hemorrhage on the battlefield, hemophilia and other bleeding disorders exclude individuals from service in the U.S. military. We report a case of an active duty U.S. Marine whose underlying diagnosis of Hemophilia A was discovered and treated by a multidisciplinary team of orthopedic surgeons and hematologists following recurrent hematomas after open rotator cuff surgery. The patient gave informed consent for publication. PMID:26633674

  17. Prehospital endotracheal intubation; need for routine cuff pressure measurement?

    PubMed

    Peters, Joost H; Hoogerwerf, Nico

    2013-10-01

    In endotracheal intubation, a secured airway includes an insufflated cuff distal to the vocal cords. High cuff pressures may lead to major complications occurring after a short period of time. Cuff pressures are not routinely checked after intubation in the prehospital setting, dealing with a vulnerable group of patients. We reviewed cuff pressures after intubation by Helicopter Emergency Medical Services and paramedics noted in a dispatch database. Initial cuff pressures are almost all too high, needing adjustment to be in the safe zone. Dutch paramedics lack manometers and, therefore, only few paramedic intubations are followed by cuff pressure measurements. We recommend cuff pressure measurements after all (prehospital) intubations and, therefore, all ambulances need to be equipped with cuff manometers. PMID:23100319

  18. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into...

  19. 21 CFR 868.5750 - Inflatable tracheal tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. 868.5750 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices 868.5750 Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. (a) Identification. An inflatable tracheal tube cuff is a device used to provide an airtight...

  20. 21 CFR 868.5750 - Inflatable tracheal tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. 868.5750 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices 868.5750 Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. (a) Identification. An inflatable tracheal tube cuff is a device used to provide an airtight...

  1. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into...

  2. 21 CFR 868.5750 - Inflatable tracheal tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. 868.5750 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices 868.5750 Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. (a) Identification. An inflatable tracheal tube cuff is a device used to provide an airtight...

  3. 21 CFR 868.5750 - Inflatable tracheal tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. 868.5750 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices 868.5750 Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. (a) Identification. An inflatable tracheal tube cuff is a device used to provide an airtight...

  4. 21 CFR 868.5750 - Inflatable tracheal tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. 868.5750 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices 868.5750 Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. (a) Identification. An inflatable tracheal tube cuff is a device used to provide an airtight...

  5. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into...

  8. FATTY MUSCLE INFILTRATION IN CUFF TEAR: PRE AND POST OPERATIVE EVALUATION BY MRI

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Santos, Pedro Doneux; da Silva, Luciana Andrade; Sella, Guilherme do Val; Miranda, Eduardo Régis de Alencar Bona; Zampieri, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the fatty infiltration and atrophy of the supraespinatus in the pre- and postoperative of a rotator cuff lesion (RCL), by MRI. Methods: Ten patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears who had undergone surgical arthroscopic rotator cuff repair between September and December 2011 were included. This is a prospective study, with analysis and comparison of fatty infiltration and atrophy of the supraespinatus. The occupation ratio was measured using the magic selection tool in Adobe Photoshop CS3(r) on T1 oblique sagittal Y-view MRI. Through Photoshop, the proportion occupied by the muscle belly regarding its fossae was calculated. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in the muscle ratio (p=0.013) comparing images pre and postoperative, analyzed by the Wilcoxon T test. Conclusion: The proportion of the supraspinal muscle above the pit increases in the immediate postoperative period, probably due to the traction exerted on the tendon at the time of repair. Level of Evidence II, Cohort Study.

  9. An in vitro comparison of tracheostomy tube cuffs

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Seamus; Haury, Frances; Jew, Korinne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Shiley Flexible adult tracheostomy tube with TaperGuard cuff has been designed through its geometry, materials, diameter, and wall thickness to minimize micro-aspiration of fluids past the cuff and to provide an effective air seal in the trachea while also minimizing the risk of excessive contact pressure on the tracheal mucosa. The cuff also has a deflated profile that may allow for easier insertion through the stoma site. This unique design is known as the TaperGuard cuff. The purpose of the observational, in vitro study reported here was to compare the TaperGuard taper-shaped cuff to a conventional high-volume low-pressure cylindrical-shaped cuff (Shiley Disposable Inner Cannula Tracheostomy Tube [DCT]) with respect to applied tracheal wall pressure, air and fluid sealing efficacy, and insertion force. Methods Three sizes of tracheostomy tubes with the two cuff types were placed in appropriately sized tracheal models and lateral wall pressure was measured via pressure-sensing elements on the inner surface. Fluid sealing performance was assessed by inflating the cuffs within the tracheal models (25 cmH2O), instilling water above the cuff, and measuring fluid leakage past the cuff. To measure air leak, tubes were attached to a test lung and ventilator, and leak was calculated by subtracting the average exhaled tidal volume from the average delivered tidal volume. A tensile test machine was used to measure insertion force for each tube with the cuff deflated to simulate clinical insertion through a stoma site. Results The average pressure exerted on the lateral wall of the model trachea was lower for the taper-shaped cuff than for the cylindrical cuff under all test conditions (P<0.05). The taper-shaped cuff also demonstrated a more even, lower pressure distribution along the lateral wall of the model trachea. The average air and fluid seal performance with the taper-shaped cuff was significantly improved, when compared to the cylindrical-shaped cuff, for each tube size tested (P<0.05). The insertion force for the taper-shaped cuff was ~40% less than that for the cylindrical-shaped cuff. Conclusion In a model trachea, the Shiley Flexible Adult tracheostomy tube with TaperGuard cuff, when compared to the Shiley Disposable Inner Cannula Tracheostomy tube with cylindrical cuff, exerted a lower average lateral wall pressure and a more evenly distributed pressure. In addition, it provided more effective fluid and air seals and required less force to insert. PMID:25960679

  10. Measuring tracheal tube cuff pressures--tool and technique.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, J R

    1981-01-01

    A three-part study identified factors essential to accurate determination of pressure exerted against the lateral wall of the trachea by three types of endotracheal tube cuffs. Part I compared 31 mercury sphygmomanometer measurements of tracheal cuff pressures to those of pressure-sensitive aneroid Portex manometer during simulated intubation and found 99.28% of mercury manometer readings accurate to within 2 mm Hg of Portex readings. Part II demonstrated that cuff compliance (i.e., the distensibility of the cuff material) influences such pressure determinations. Part III compared two methods of obtaining tracheal cuff pressure readings with the mercury sphygmomanometer during simulated intubation. Accurate measurement was made only with a stopcock system that simultaneously opened to the cuff, the manometer, and the inflator syringe and when a separate cuff distensibility factor was used in the computation. PMID:6909196

  11. A computed tomography based study on rotational alignment accuracy of the femoral component in total knee arthroplasty using computer-assisted orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    van der Linden-van der Zwaag, Henrica M J; Bos, Janneke; van der Heide, Huub J L; Nelissen, Rob G H H

    2011-06-01

    Rotation of the femoral component in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is of high importance in respect of the balancing of the knee and the patellofemoral joint. Though it is shown that computer assisted surgery (CAOS) improves the anteroposterior (AP) alignment in TKA, it is still unknown whether navigation helps in finding the accurate rotation or even improving rotation. Therefore the aim of our study was to evaluate the postoperative femoral component rotation on computed tomography (CT) with the intraoperative data of the navigation system. In 20 navigated TKAs the difference between the intraoperative stored rotation data of the femoral component and the postoperative rotation on CT was measured using the condylar twist angle (CTA). This is the angle between the epicondylar axis and the posterior condylar axis. Statistical analysis consisted of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plot. The mean intraoperative rotation CTA based on CAOS was 3.5 (range 2.4-8.6). The postoperative CT scan showed a mean CTA of 4.0 (1.7-7.2). The ICC between the two observers was 0.81, and within observers this was 0.84 and 0.82, respectively. However, the ICC of the CAOS CTA versus the postoperative CT CTA was only 0.38. Though CAOS is being used for optimising the position of a TKA, this study shows that the (virtual) individual rotational position of the femoral component using a CAOS system is significantly different from the position on a postoperative CT scan. PMID:20623282

  12. Cuff deflation: rehabilitation in critical care.

    PubMed

    Bach, John R; Gonalves, Miguel R; Rodriguez, Pedro Landete; Saporito, Louis; Soares, Luisa

    2014-08-01

    This is a case series of rehabilitation failures that resulted in severe reactive depression from patients unnecessarily bereft of verbal communication by being left to breathe or be ventilated via tracheostomy tubes, with or without inflated cuffs, for months to years. PMID:24879555

  13. Control device for prosthetic urinary sphincter cuff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinicke, Robert H. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A device for controlling flow of fluid to and from a resilient inflatable cuff implanted about the urethra to control flow of urine therethrough. The device comprises a flexible bulb reservoir and a control unit that includes a manually operated valve that opens automatically when the bulb is squeezed to force fluid into the cuff for closing the urethra. The control unit also includes a movable valve seat member having a relatively large area exposed to pressure of fluid in a chamber that is connected to the cuff and which moves to a position in which the valve member is unseated by an abutment when fluid pressure in the chamber exceeds a predetermined value to thereby relieve excess fluid pressure in the cuff. The arrangement is such that the valve element is held closed against the seat member by the full differential in fluid pressures acting on both sides of the valve element until the seat member is moved away from the valve element to thus insure positive closing of the valve element until the seat member is moved out of engagement with the valve element by excess pressure differential.

  14. A EWTD Compliant Rotation Schedule Which Protects Elective Training Opportunities Is Safe and Provides Sufficient Exposure to Emergency General Surgery: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, Andrew; Chohda, Ezzat; Sands, Carolyn; Ellul, Joseph; Khawaja, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Training opportunities have decreased dramatically since the introduction of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD). In order to maximise training we introduced a rotation schedule in which registrars do not work night shifts and elective training opportunities are protected. We aimed to determine the safety and effectiveness of this EWTD compliant rotation schedule in achieving exposure of trainees to acute general surgical admissions and operations. Methods. A prospective study of consecutive emergency surgical admissions over a 6-month period. Exposure to acute admissions and operative procedures and patient outcomes during day and night shifts was compared. Results. There were 1156 emergency admissions covering a broad range of acute conditions. Significantly more patients were admitted during the day shift and almost all emergency procedures were performed during the day shift (2.1 versus 0.3, p < 0.001). A registrar was the primary operating surgeon in 49% of cases and was directly involved in over 65%. There were no significant differences between patients admitted during the day and night shifts in mortality rate, length of stay, admission to ICU, requirement for surgery, or readmission rates. Conclusion. A EWTD compliant rotation schedule that protects elective training opportunities is safe for patients and provides adequate exposure to training opportunities in emergency surgery. PMID:26609544

  15. A EWTD Compliant Rotation Schedule Which Protects Elective Training Opportunities Is Safe and Provides Sufficient Exposure to Emergency General Surgery: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Emmanuel, Andrew; Chohda, Ezzat; Sands, Carolyn; Ellul, Joseph; Khawaja, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Training opportunities have decreased dramatically since the introduction of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD). In order to maximise training we introduced a rotation schedule in which registrars do not work night shifts and elective training opportunities are protected. We aimed to determine the safety and effectiveness of this EWTD compliant rotation schedule in achieving exposure of trainees to acute general surgical admissions and operations. Methods. A prospective study of consecutive emergency surgical admissions over a 6-month period. Exposure to acute admissions and operative procedures and patient outcomes during day and night shifts was compared. Results. There were 1156 emergency admissions covering a broad range of acute conditions. Significantly more patients were admitted during the day shift and almost all emergency procedures were performed during the day shift (2.1 versus 0.3, p < 0.001). A registrar was the primary operating surgeon in 49% of cases and was directly involved in over 65%. There were no significant differences between patients admitted during the day and night shifts in mortality rate, length of stay, admission to ICU, requirement for surgery, or readmission rates. Conclusion. A EWTD compliant rotation schedule that protects elective training opportunities is safe for patients and provides adequate exposure to training opportunities in emergency surgery. PMID:26609544

  16. Rotator Cuff Tendinitis and Tear (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Physiotherapy interventions for shoulder pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003; :CD004258. Buchbinder R, Green S, Youd JM. Corticosteroid injections for shoulder pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003; :CD004016. Topic 701 Version 9.0 GRAPHICS ...

  17. Treatment Options for Rotator Cuff Tears: A Guide for Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an “arthroscope” (a small tube attached to a camera and tiny surgical instruments) to repair the tear. ... top Accessibility Disclaimers EEO FOIA Inspector General HHS Digital Strategy Plain Writing Act Privacy Policy Electronic Policies ...

  18. Cerebrovascular effects of the thigh cuff maneuver.

    PubMed

    Panerai, R B; Saeed, N P; Robinson, T G

    2015-04-01

    Arterial hypotension can be induced by sudden release of inflated thigh cuffs (THC), but its effects on the cerebral circulation have not been fully described. In nine healthy subjects [aged 59 (9) yr], bilateral cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) was recorded in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), noninvasive arterial blood pressure (BP) in the finger, and end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) with nasal capnography. Three THC maneuvers were performed in each subject with cuff inflation 20 mmHg above systolic BP for 3 min before release. Beat-to-beat values were extracted for mean CBFV, BP, ETCO2 , critical closing pressure (CrCP), resistance-area product (RAP), and heart rate (HR). Time-varying estimates of the autoregulation index [ARI(t)] were also obtained using an autoregressive-moving average model. Coherent averages synchronized by the instant of cuff release showed significant drops in mean BP, CBFV, and RAP with rapid return of CBFV to baseline. HR, ETCO2 , and ARI(t) were transiently increased, but CrCP remained relatively constant. Mean values of ARI(t) for the 30 s following cuff release were not significantly different from the classical ARI [right MCA 5.9 (1.1) vs. 5.1 (1.6); left MCA 5.5 (1.4) vs. 4.9 (1.7)]. HR was strongly correlated with the ARI(t) peak after THC release (in 17/22 and 21/24 recordings), and ETCO2 was correlated with the subsequent drop in ARI(t) (19/22 and 20/24 recordings). These results suggest a complex cerebral autoregulatory response to the THC maneuver, dominated by myogenic mechanisms and influenced by concurrent changes in ETCO2 and possible involvement of the autonomic nervous system and baroreflex. PMID:25659488

  19. Mucosal cuff length to penile length ratio may affect the risk of premature ejaculation in circumcised males.

    PubMed

    Yuruk, E; Temiz, M Z; Colakerol, A; Muslumanoglu, A Y

    2016-03-01

    Data regarding the relation between premature ejaculation (PE) and post-circumcision mucosal cuff length are controversial. The aim of this study is to analyze the relation between post-circumcision mucosal cuff length/penile length ratio (MCR) and PE. After exclusion of patients with erectile dysfunction, penile deformity, history of penile surgery and severe lower urinary tract symptoms, 49 circumcised men with PE were included. The control group is constituted of 50 healthy volunteers with normal ejaculatory function. Self-estimated intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and premature ejaculation profile (PEP) measures of all subjects were recorded, and the MCRs of patients and controls were compared. The mean age of PE patients and controls was 35.82±7.73 (range 23-54) and 38.78±13.42 (range 19-71) years, respectively (P=0.183). Although mucosal cuff length was not associated with either self-estimated IELT (r=-0.185, P=0.067) or PEP (r=-0.098, P=0.336), there was a negative correlation between MCR and self-estimated IELT (r=-0.205, P=0.0001) and PEP measures (r=-0.308, P=0.002). The length of the mucosal cuff after circumcision may have an impact on ejaculatory function. Surgeons should avoid leaving excessive amount of mucosa during circumcision. PMID:26700215

  20. Intrafraction Prostate Translations and Rotations During Hypofractionated Robotic Radiation Surgery: Dosimetric Impact of Correction Strategies and Margins

    SciTech Connect

    Water, Steven van de; Valli, Lorella; Aluwini, Shafak; Lanconelli, Nico; Heijmen, Ben; Hoogeman, Mischa

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric impact of intrafraction prostate motion and the effect of robot correction strategies for hypofractionated CyberKnife treatments with a simultaneously integrated boost. Methods and Materials: A total of 548 real-time prostate motion tracks from 17 patients were available for dosimetric simulations of CyberKnife treatments, in which various correction strategies were included. Fixed time intervals between imaging/correction (15, 60, 180, and 360 seconds) were simulated, as well as adaptive timing (ie, the time interval reduced from 60 to 15 seconds in case prostate motion exceeded 3 mm or 2° in consecutive images). The simulated extent of robot corrections was also varied: no corrections, translational corrections only, and translational corrections combined with rotational corrections up to 5°, 10°, and perfect rotational correction. The correction strategies were evaluated for treatment plans with a 0-mm or 3-mm margin around the clinical target volume (CTV). We recorded CTV coverage (V{sub 100%}) and dose-volume parameters of the peripheral zone (boost), rectum, bladder, and urethra. Results: Planned dose parameters were increasingly preserved with larger extents of robot corrections. A time interval between corrections of 60 to 180 seconds provided optimal preservation of CTV coverage. To achieve 98% CTV coverage in 98% of the treatments, translational and rotational corrections up to 10° were required for the 0-mm margin plans, whereas translational and rotational corrections up to 5° were required for the 3-mm margin plans. Rectum and bladder were spared considerably better in the 0-mm margin plans. Adaptive timing did not improve delivered dose. Conclusions: Intrafraction prostate motion substantially affected the delivered dose but was compensated for effectively by robot corrections using a time interval of 60 to 180 seconds. A 0-mm margin required larger extents of additional rotational corrections than a 3-mm margin but resulted in lower doses to rectum and bladder.

  1. Frontal soft tissue analysis using a 3 dimensional camera following two-jaw rotational orthognathic surgery in skeletal class III patients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong Woo; Lee, Jang Yeol; Oh, Tae-Suk; Kwon, Soon Man; Yang, Sung Joon; Koh, Kyung Suk

    2014-04-01

    Although two dimensional cephalometry is the standard method for analyzing the results of orthognathic surgery, it has potential limits in frontal soft tissue analysis. We have utilized a 3 dimensional camera to examine changes in soft tissue landmarks in patients with skeletal class III dentofacial deformity who underwent two-jaw rotational setback surgery. We assessed 25 consecutive Asian patients (mean age, 22 years; range, 17-32 years) with skeletal class III dentofacial deformities who underwent two-jaw rotational surgery without maxillary advancement. Using a 3D camera, we analyzed changes in facial proportions, including vertical and horizontal dimensions, facial surface areas, nose profile, lip contour, and soft tissue cheek convexity, as well as landmarks related to facial symmetry. The average mandibular setback was 10.7 mm (range: 5-17 mm). The average SNA changed from 77.4 to 77.8, the average SNB from 89.2 to 81.1, and the average occlusal plane from 8.7 to 11.4. The mid third vertical dimension changed from 58.8 mm to 57.8 mm (p = 0.059), and the lower third vertical dimension changed from 70.4 mm to 68.2 mm (p = 0.0006). The average bigonial width decreased from 113.5 mm to 109.2 mm (p = 0.0028), the alar width increased from 34.7 mm to 36.1 mm (p-value = 0.0002), and lip length was unchanged. Mean mid and lower facial surface areas decreased significantly, from 171.8 cm(2) to 166.2 cm(2) (p = 0.026) and from 71.23 cm(2) to 61.9 cm(2) (p < 0.0001), respectively. Cheek convexity increased significantly, from 171.8 to 155.9 (p = 0.0007). The 3D camera was effective in frontal soft tissue analysis for orthognathic surgery, and enabled quantitative analysis of changes in frontal soft tissue landmarks and facial proportions that were not possible with conventional 2D cephalometric analysis. PMID:23870714

  2. Vaginal Cuff Dehiscence: Risk Factors and Associated Morbidities

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs Weizman, Noga; Einarsson, Jon I.; Wang, Karen C.; Vitonis, Allison F.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To evaluate whether the route and surgical technique by which hysterectomy is performed influence the incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscence. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of total hysterectomy cases performed at Brigham and Woman's Hospital or Faulkner Hospital during 2009 through 2011. Results: During the study period, 2382 total hysterectomies were performed; 23 of these (0.96%) were diagnosed with cuff dehiscence, and 4 women had recurrent dehiscence. Both laparoscopic (odds ratio, 23.4; P = .007) and robotic (odds ratio, 73; P = .0006) hysterectomies were associated with increased odds of cuff dehiscence in a multivariate regression analysis. The type of energy used during colpotomy, mode of closure (hand sewn, laparoscopic suturing, or suturing assisted by a device), and suture material did not differ significantly between groups; however, continuous suturing of the cuff was a protective factor (odds ratio, 0.24; P = .03). Women with dehiscence had more extensive procedures, as well as an increased incidence of additional major postoperative complications (17.4% vs 3%, P = .004). Conclusion: The rate of cuff dehiscence in our cohort correlates with the current literature. This study suggests that the risk of dehiscence is influenced mainly by the scope and complexity of the surgical procedure. It seems that different colpotomy techniques do not influence the rate of cuff dehiscence; however, continuous suturing of the cuff may be superior to interrupted suturing. PMID:25901104

  3. Magnitude of Interfractional Vaginal Cuff Movement: Implications for External Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Daniel J.; Michaletz-Lorenz, Martha; Goddu, S. Murty; Grigsby, Perry W.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To quantify the extent of interfractional vaginal cuff movement in patients receiving postoperative irradiation for cervical or endometrial cancer in the absence of bowel/bladder instruction. Methods and Materials: Eleven consecutive patients with cervical or endometrial cancer underwent placement of three gold seed fiducial markers in the vaginal cuff apex as part of standard of care before simulation. Patients subsequently underwent external irradiation and brachytherapy treatment based on institutional guidelines. Daily megavoltage CT imaging was performed during each external radiation treatment fraction. The daily positions of the vaginal apex fiducial markers were subsequently compared with the original position of the fiducial markers on the simulation CT. Composite dose-volume histograms were also created by summing daily target positions. Results: The average ({+-} standard deviation) vaginal cuff movement throughout daily pelvic external radiotherapy when referenced to the simulation position was 16.2 {+-} 8.3 mm. The maximum vaginal cuff movement for any patient during treatment was 34.5 mm. In the axial plane the mean vaginal cuff movement was 12.9 {+-} 6.7 mm. The maximum vaginal cuff axial movement was 30.7 mm. In the craniocaudal axis the mean movement was 10.3 {+-} 7.6 mm, with a maximum movement of 27.0 mm. Probability of cuff excursion outside of the clinical target volume steadily dropped as margin size increased (53%, 26%, 4.2%, and 1.4% for 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 cm, respectively.) However, rectal and bladder doses steadily increased with larger margin sizes. Conclusions: The magnitude of vaginal cuff movement is highly patient specific and can impact target coverage in patients without bowel/bladder instructions at simulation. The use of vaginal cuff fiducials can help identify patients at risk for target volume excursion.

  4. Tracheomegaly Secondary to Tracheotomy Tube Cuff in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Lim, Sang Chul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tracheomegaly has not been reported in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Herein, the authors report a case of tracheomegaly secondary to tracheotomy tube cuff in a patient with ALS. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an ALS patient with tracheomegaly and of tracheomegaly being associated with tracheotomy tube cuff and home tracheotomy mechanical ventilator. The clinician should consider the possibility of tracheomegaly in the differential diagnosis, if a patient with ALS develops repeat air leakage around the tracheotomy tube or rupture of tracheotomy tube cuff. PMID:26496301

  5. Effect of tear size, corticosteroids and subacromial decompression surgery on the hierarchical structural properties of torn supraspinatus tendons

    PubMed Central

    Tilley, J. M. R.; Murphy, R. J.; Chaudhury, S.; Czernuszka, J. T.; Carr, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The effects of disease progression and common tendinopathy treatments on the tissue characteristics of human rotator cuff tendons have not previously been evaluated in detail owing to a lack of suitable sampling techniques. This study evaluated the structural characteristics of torn human supraspinatus tendons across the full disease spectrum, and the short-term effects of subacromial corticosteroid injections (SCIs) and subacromial decompression (SAD) surgery on these structural characteristics. Methods Samples were collected inter-operatively from supraspinatus tendons containing small, medium, large and massive full thickness tears (n = 33). Using a novel minimally invasive biopsy technique, paired samples were also collected from supraspinatus tendons containing partial thickness tears either before and seven weeks after subacromial SCI (n = 11), or before and seven weeks after SAD surgery (n = 14). Macroscopically normal subscapularis tendons of older patients (n = 5, mean age = 74.6 years) and supraspinatus tendons of younger patients (n = 16, mean age = 23.3) served as controls. Ultra- and micro-structural characteristics were assessed using atomic force microscopy and polarised light microscopy respectively. Results Significant structural differences existed between torn and control groups. Differences were identifiable early in the disease spectrum, and increased with increasing tear size. Neither SCI nor SAD surgery altered the structural properties of partially torn tendons seven weeks after treatment. Conclusions These findings may suggest the need for early clinical intervention strategies for torn rotator cuff tendons in order to prevent further degeneration of the tissue as tear size increases. Further work is required to establish the long-term abilities of SCI and SAD to prevent, and even reverse, such degeneration. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:25261. PMID:25106417

  6. Outpatient vaginal cuff brachytherapy for endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Petereit, D. G.; Tannehill, S. P.; Grosen, E. A.; Hartenbach, E. M.; Schink, J. C.

    1999-11-01

    Petereit DG, Tannehill SP, Grosen EA, Hartenbach EM, Schink JC. Outpatient vaginal cuff brachytherapy for endometrial cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and complications of postoperative high-dose-rate (HDR) vaginal-cuff brachytherapy (VCB) in patients with endometrial carcinoma. Between August 1989 to September 1997, 191 patients were treated postoperatively after a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH/BSO) with outpatient adjuvant HDR VCB for low-risk endometrial cancer (IB-84%, grade 1 or 2-96%). Patients were treated with 2 HDR fractions, delivered one week apart while under conscious sedation (16.2 Gy X 2 to the vaginal surface). All clinical endpoints were calculated using the Kaplan Meier method. The median time in the brachytherapy suite was 60 min in which no acute complications were observed. The 30-day morbidity and mortality rates were both 0%. With a median follow-up of 38 months (12-82 months), the 4-year survival, relapse-free survival, and vaginal-control rates were 95%, 98%, and 100%, respectively. One patient developed a colo-vaginal fistula at 5 years. Adjuvant HDR VCB in 2 outpatient insertions produced 100% vaginal control rates with minimal morbidity. The advantages of high dose-rate compared to low dose-rate vaginal brachytherapy include patient convenience, markedly shorter treatment times (1 h per insertion), and reduction in the cost and potential morbidity of hospitalization. HDR brachytherapy approach is a cost-effective alternative to either low-dose-rate brachytherapy or whole pelvic radiotherapy in carefully selected patients. PMID:11240811

  7. Continuous real time endotracheal tube cuff pressure waveform.

    PubMed

    Ganigara, Anuradha; Ramavakoda, Chandrika Y

    2014-08-01

    Endotracheal tube cuff pressure monitoring is one of the standard degrees of care afforded to anesthetized patients in the operative theater. Traditional pressure transducer when used to monitor cuff pressure provides real time continuous sine wave pressure waveform which has not been described in literature so far. This unique waveform needs to be further processed and evaluated to check its utility in airway pressure monitoring. PMID:24838549

  8. Mechanics of the occlusive arm cuff and its application as a volume sensor.

    PubMed

    Drzewiecki, G; Bansal, V; Karam, E; Hood, R; Apple, H

    1993-07-01

    Although a common medical instrument, the mechanical function of an occlusive arm cuff has not been fully described in an engineering sense. The occlusive arm cuff is examined here using a mathematical mechanics model and experimental measurements. Cuff stretch was modeled by a nonlinear pressure-volume function. Air compression was represented by Boyle's law. An apparatus was developed to measure pressure due to the air volume pumped into the cuff for fixed arm volume. Data were obtained for two different cuff designs, and reveal a nonlinear cuff pressure-volume relationship that could be represented accurately by the mathematical model. Calibration constants are provided for the two types of occlusive cuff. Thus, the cuff pressure was found to consist of a balance between that produced by stretch of the elastic cuff bladder and that of the compression of the air contained within the bladder. The use of the gas law alone was found to be inadequate to represent the cuff mechanics. When applying the cuff to measure change in arm volume, such as during plethysmography or oscillometry, it cannot be assumed that the cuff sensitivity is constant. More precisely, it was found that the occlusive cuff is a transducer with a volume sensitivity that increases with cuff pressure and volume until it becomes nearly constant at high levels of cuff pressure (150 mmHg). A hypothetical case of a linear elastic artery with constant pulse pressure was used as input to the cuff model to illustrate the change in cuff pressure oscillations that occurs while cuff pressure is released.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8244431

  9. Return to Sport Following Shoulder Surgery in the Elite Pitcher

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Joshua D.; Frank, Jonathan M.; Jordan, Mark A.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Romeo, Anthony A.; Gupta, Anil K.; Abrams, Geoffrey D.; McCormick, Frank M.; Bach, Bernard R.

    2013-01-01

    Context: The ability to return to elite pitching, performance, and clinical outcomes of shoulder surgery in elite baseball pitchers are not definitively established. Objective: To determine (1) the rate of return to sport (RTS) in elite pitchers following shoulder surgery, (2) postoperative clinical outcomes upon RTS, and (3) performance upon RTS and to compare RTS rates in different types of shoulder surgery. Data Sources: Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and checklist, Medline, SciVerse Scopus, SportDiscus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched. Study Selection: Levels I-IV evidence were eligible for inclusion if performance-based (eg, RTS) and/or clinical outcomebased reporting of outcomes were reported following surgical treatment of shoulder pathology in elite pitchers (major or minor league or collegiate). Data Extraction: Subject, shoulder, and pre- and postoperative performance-based variables of interest were extracted. All shoulder surgery types were potentially inclusive (eg, open, arthroscopic, rotator cuff, labrum, biceps, acromioclavicular joint, fracture). Study methodological quality was analyzed using the Modified Coleman Methodology Score (MCMS). Results: Six studies were analyzed (287 elite male pitchers [mean age, 27 years] who underwent shoulder surgery, with 99% on the dominant, throwing shoulder). MCMS was 38 (poor). Most pitchers were professional, with a mean career length of 6.58 years and postoperative clinical follow-up of 3.62 years. In 5 of 6 studies, multiple diagnoses were addressed concomitantly at surgery. Rate of RTS was 68% at mean 12 months following surgery. Twenty-two percent of Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers never RTS in MLB. Overall performance did improve following surgery; however, this did not improve to pre-injury levels. Conclusion: In this systematic review, the rate of return to elite baseball pitching following surgery was established. Performance tended to decrease prior to surgery and gradually improve postoperatively, though not reaching pre-injury levels of pitching. Level of Evidence: IV (systematic review of studies level I-IV evidence), therapeutic. PMID:24459557

  10. Simplified arthroscopic rotator interval capsule closure: an alternative technique.

    PubMed

    Lewicky, Yuri M; Lewicky, Roman T

    2005-10-01

    The anatomy of the "coracoid eclipse" of the rotator cuff, the rotator interval, has been studied extensively. Its importance in shoulder stability with respect to inferior and posterior translation has been described. Historically, open repairs for instability indirectly addressed interval lesions and closure based simply on the definition of the deltopectoral approach with its subscapularis advancement and capsular shift in a "pants-over-vest" manner. With results of arthroscopic repairs of glenohumeral instability approaching those of open procedures, the importance of simplification without sacrificing outcome has become a forefront in arthroscopic shoulder surgery. We present an alternative technique for interval closure by means of a 3/32-inch smooth Steinmann pin modified at its proximal and distal ends. A standard 3-portal technique consisting of the anterior superior portal, anterior mid-glenoid portal, and the posterior superior portal is used. The technique does not require the use of a suture shuttle nor does it require the placement of the arthroscope in the subacromial space for suture tying. A Tennessee slider knot is tied intra-articularly, thus allowing for tension modification before definitive alternate locking half-hitch placement. Intra-articular knot tying also allows for added security because suture slack is eliminated, thus avoiding air knots. PMID:16226667

  11. Cuff Sign a new maneuver for decision-making in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Basiri, Keivan; Abrishamkar, Saeid; Fatehi, Farzad; Ansari, Behnaz; Meamar, Rokhsareh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common entrapment neuropathy that results from compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel. In most patients, the diagnosis can be proposed based on patient history and clinical symptoms, with physical findings being attributed only in more severely affected patients. The purpose of this study is to introduce a reliable and accurate method for the proper selection of patients with mild carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), for surgery. Materials and Methods: Electerodiagnostic studies are performed before and after placement of the cuff of the sphygmomanometer at the arm (Cuff sign), at a mean arterial pressure, for three minutes. Thirty symptomatic patients with mild findings on electrodiagnostic studies and 49 asymptomatic control hands have been included. Results: Fifteen patients reported good pain relief on the first postoperative day (50%), which increased to 21 on the fouteenth postoperative day (70%). The sensory latency changes were significantly higher in the pain relief group, both on the first and fourteenth postoperative days. Conclusion: Considering the fact that cooperation of the patients is not necessary and the double effects of direct pressure and ischemia over the proximal parts of the median nerve leads to prolonged latencies, this test is a useful method for decision-making in patients with severe symptoms of CTS, despite the mild electrodiagnostic findings. PMID:25878998

  12. Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery in Female Professional Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Young, Simon W.; Safran, Marc R.; Dakic, Jodie; Nguyen, Michael L.; Stroia, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Recent publications have highlighted the relatively poor outcome of other overhead athletes, particularly baseball players, with regard to return to sports at the same or higher level after shoulder surgery. However, true assessment of their ability when returning to sport is not as clear. Further, ability to return to other overhead sports has not been reported. Our objective was to assess outcome and time to return to previous level of function following shoulder surgery in professional tennis players. Methods: The records of all female tennis players on the Women’s Tennis Association (WTA) professional circuit between January 2008 and June 2010 were reviewed to identify players who underwent shoulder surgery on their dominant (serving) shoulder. Details of the surgery including date, procedures performed, and complications were recorded. The primary outcomes were ability and time to return to professional play, and if they were able to return to their previous level of function, as determined by singles ranking. Pre and post-operative singles rankings were used to determine rate and completeness of return to preoperative function. Their highest ranking pre-injury, post operatively, and the time to return to pre-injury ranking were evaluated. Results: During the study period eight professional women tennis players from the WTA underwent shoulder surgery on their dominant arm. All surgery was performed arthroscopically, 7 out of 8 players had more than one procedure performed during the surgery. In total, 3 players underwent debridement of a partial rotator cuff tear and 2 players underwent repair of a complete supraspinatus tear. Three players had an anterior labral repair or reconstruction for anterior instability, and one player underwent repair of a SLAP lesion. Two players underwent neurolysis of a suprascapular nerve, and three players in total underwent a subacromial decompression. All players (100%) returned to professional play. The mean time to return to play was 6.7 months after surgery. However, only 25% (2 out of 8) players had achieved their pre-injury singles rank or better by 18 months post operatively. In total, three players returned to their pre-injury singles ranking, with their peak singles ranking being attained at a mean of 2.5 years post operatively. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that in professional female tennis players, a high return to play rate following arthroscopic shoulder surgery is also associated with a prolonged and often incomplete return to previous level of performance. Thus, counselling the patient to this fact is important to manage their expectations.

  13. Leakage of fluid around endotracheal tube cuffs: a cadaver study

    PubMed Central

    Lucius, Ralph; Ewald, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate the leakage of liquid past the cuffs of tracheal tubes in fresh frozen human heads. Methods Six truncated fresh frozen heads were used and intubated with 8.0 mm endotracheal tubes. The intracuff pressures tested were 30 and 100 cmH2O. Subsequently, 20 ml of each of two oral antiseptic rinses (0.2% chlorhexidine and octenidine [octenidol®, Schülke & Mayr GmbH, Norderstedt, Germany]) was applied for thirty seconds in the mouth. During the trial, leakage of the cuffs was examined. Results The sealing between the tracheal cuff and tracheal wall was leakage-proof for all tested intracuff pressures and all tested antiseptic rinses. However, approximately 5.6 ml and 1.8 ml leaked into the esophagus and remained as a cuff-puddle, respectively. Conclusions The sealing between an endotracheal tube cuff with an intracuff pressure of 30 cmH2O and the tracheal wall is leakage-proof during oral care with antiseptic rinsing. An increase of intracuff pressure to 100 cmH2O does not appear to be required. PMID:24363847

  14. Tracheal tube cuff inflation guided by pressure volume loop closure associated with lower postoperative cuff-related complications: Prospective, randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Almarakbi, Waleed A.; Kaki, Abdullah M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main function of an endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff is to prevent aspiration. High cuff pressure is usually associated with postoperative complications. We tried to compare cuff inflation guided by pressure volume loop closure (PV-L) with those by just to seal technique (JS) and assess the postoperative incidence of sore throat, cough and hoarseness. Materials and Methods: In a prospective, randomized clinical trial, 100 patients’ tracheas were intubated. In the first group (n = 50), ETT cuff inflation was guided by PV-L, while in the second group (n. = 50) the ETT cuff was inflated using the JS technique. Intracuff pressures and volumes were measured. The incidence of postoperative cuff-related complications was reported. Results: Demographic data and durations of intubation were comparable between the groups. The use of PV-L was associated with a lesser amount of intracuff air [4.05 (3.7-4.5) vs 5 (4.8-5.5), P < 0.001] and lower cuff pressure than those in the JS group [18.25 (18-19) vs 33 (32-35), P ≤ 0.001]. The incidence of postextubation cuff-related complications was significantly less frequent among the PV-L group patients as compared with the JS group patients (P ≤ 0.009), except for hoarseness of voice, which was less frequent among the PV-L group, but not statistically significant (P ≤ 0.065). Multiple regression models for prediction of intra-cuff pressure after intubation and before extubation revealed a statistically significant association with the technique used for cuff inflation (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: The study confirms that PV-L-guided ETT cuff inflation is an effective way to seal the airway and associates with a lower ETT cuff pressure and lower incidence of cuff-related complications. PMID:25191181

  15. Mini-Bentall Procedure: The "French Cuff" Technique.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tristan D

    2016-02-01

    This article describes how I perform a minimally invasive aortic root replacement, also known as the Mini-Bentall procedure. In particular, it highlights the details on howto perform the "French Cuff" technique to ensure anabsolute proximal annular hemostasis. Six consecutive patients underwent the Mini-Bentall procedure using the"French Cuff" technique. Five patients did not haveany transfusion and one patient had two pooled platelets. Five patients were extubated on table in the operating room and one patient was extubated 12 hours after the procedure. All patients were discharged home within 7 days after the procedure without any surgical complications. PMID:26777944

  16. A low-noise preamplifier for nerve cuff electrodes.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Mesut

    2005-12-01

    A single-stage, low-noise preamplifier is designed using the concept of noise matching for recordings of neural signal with cuff electrodes. The signal-to-noise ratio is approximately 1.6 times higher than that of a low-noise integrated amplifier (AMP-01) for a cuff impedance of 1.5 komega. The bandwidth is 230 Hz-8.25 kHz (Rs=2 komega), and the common-mode-rejection-ratio is 91.2 dB at 1 kHz. PMID:16425839

  17. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure...

  18. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure...

  19. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure...

  20. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure...

  1. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure...

  2. Dose-Response Evaluation of Braslet-M Occlusion Cuffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebert, Douglas; Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Ham, David; Hamilton, Douglas; Dulchavsky, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Braslet-M is a set of special elasticized thigh cuffs used by the Russian space agency to reduce the effects of the head-ward fluid shift during early adaptation to microgravity by sequestering fluid in the lower extremities. Currently, no imaging modalities are used in the calibration of the device, and the pressure required to produce a predictable physiological response is unknown. This investigation intends to relate the pressure exerted by the cuffs to the extent of fluid redistribution and commensurate physiological effects. Materials and Methods: Ten healthy subjects with standardized fluid intake participated in the study. Data collection included femoral and internal jugular vein imaging in two orthogonal planes, pulsed Doppler of cervical and femoral vessels and middle cerebral artery, optic nerve imaging, and echocardiography. Braslet-M cuff pressure was monitored at the skin interface using pre-calibrated pressure sensors. Using 6 and 30 head-down tilt in two separate sessions, the effect of Braslet-M was assessed while incrementally tightening the cuffs. Cuffs were then simultaneously released to document the resulting hemodynamic change. Results: Preliminary analysis shows correlation between physical pressure exerted by the Braslet-M device and several parameters such as jugular and femoral vein cross-sections, resistivity of the lower extremity vascular bed, and others. A number of parameters reflect blood redistribution and will be used to determine the therapeutic range of the device and to prevent unsafe application. Conclusion: Braslet-M exerts a physical effect that can be measured and correlated with many changes in central and peripheral hemodynamics. Analysis of the full data set will be required to make definitive recommendations regarding the range of safe therapeutic application. Objective data and subjective responses suggest that a safer and equally effective use of Braslet can be achieved when compared with the current non-imaging calibration techniques.

  3. Comparison of blood pressure measurements of anesthetized dogs obtained noninvasively with a cylindrical blood pressure cuff and an anatomically modified conical blood pressure cuff.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Sara J; da Cunha, Anderson F; Domingues, Michelle; Shelby, Amanda M; Stout, Rhett W; Acierno, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare blood pressure measured noninvasively with an oscillometric device that involved use of a novel conical cuff and a traditional cylindrical blood pressure cuff. ANIMALS 17 adult hound-type dogs. PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized, and a 20-gauge, 1.5-inch catheter was inserted in the median sacral artery. The catheter was attached to a pressure transducer via fluid-filled noncompliant tubing, and direct blood pressure was recorded with a multifunction monitor. A specially fabricated conical cuff was placed on the antebrachium. Four sets of direct and indirect blood pressure measurements were simultaneously collected every 2 minutes. Four sets of measurements were then obtained by use of a cylindrical cuff. RESULTS The cylindrical cuff met American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine consensus guidelines for validation of indirect blood pressure measurements for mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP), and diastolic arterial blood pressure (DAP). The conical cuff met the consensus guidelines for difference of paired measurements, SD, and percentages of measurements within 10 and 20 mm Hg of the value for the reference method, but it failed a correlation analysis. In addition, although bias for the conical cuff was less than that for the cylindrical cuff for SAP, MAP, and DAP measurements, the limits of agreement for the conical cuff were wider than those for the cylindrical cuff for SAP and MAP measurements. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE On the basis of results of this study, use of a conical cuff for oscillometric blood pressure measurement cannot be recommended. PMID:26709937

  4. Robotic surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Robot-assisted surgery; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery; Laparoscopic surgery with robotic assistance ... Robotic surgery is similar to laparoscopic surgery. It can be performed through smaller cuts than open surgery. ...

  5. Reliability of forced internal rotation and active internal rotation to assess lateral instability of the biceps pulley

    PubMed Central

    ARRIGONI, PAOLO; ROSE, GIACOMO DELLE; DAMBROSI, RICCARDO; ROTUNDO, GIORGIO; CAMPAGNA, VINCENZO; PIRANI, PIERGIORGIO; PANASC, MANLIO; PETRICCIOLI, DARIO; BERTONE, CELESTE; GRASSO, ANDREA; LATTE, CARMINE; COSTA, ALBERTO; VIOLA, GINO; DE GIORGI, SILVANA; PANELLA, ANTONELLO; PADUA, ROBERTO; BECCARINI, ALESSANDRO; SALCHER, BARBARA; OLIVIERI, MATTEO; MUGNAINI, MARCO; PANNONE, ANTONELLO; CEOLDO, CHIARA; LONGO, UMILE GIUSEPPE; DENARO, VINCENZO; CERCIELLO, SIMONE; PANNI, ALFREDO SCHIAVONE; AVANZI, PAOLO; ZORZI, CLAUDIO; RAGONE, VINCENZA; CASTAGNA, ALESSANDRO; RANDELLI, PIETRO

    2015-01-01

    Purpose the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between positive painful forced internal rotation (FIR) and lateral pulley instability in the presence of a pre-diagnosed posterosuperior cuff tear. The same investigation was conducted for painful active internal rotation (AIR). Methods a multicenter prospective study was conducted in a series of patients scheduled to undergo arthroscopic posterosuperior cuff repair. Pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH) was administered. The VAS score at rest, DASH score, and presence/absence of pain on FIR and AIR were recorded and their relationships with lesions of the lateral pulley, cuff tear patterns and shape of lesions were analyzed. Results the study population consisted of 115 patients (mean age: 55.1 years) recruited from 12 centers. The dominant arm was affected in 72 cases (62.6%). The average anteroposterior extension of the lesion was 1.61 cm. The mean preoperative VAS and DASH scores were 6.1 and 41.8, respectively. FIR and AIR were positive in 94 (81.7%) and 85 (73.9%) cases, respectively. The lateral pulley was compromised in 50 cases (43.4%). Cuff tears were partial articular in 35 patients (30.4%), complete in 61 (53%), and partial bursal in 19 (16.5%). No statistical correlation between positive FIR or AIR and lateral pulley lesions was detected. Positive FIR and AIR were statistically associated with complete lesions. Negative FIR was associated with the presence of partial articular tears. Conclusions painful FIR in the presence of a postero-superior cuff tear does not indicate lateral pulley instability. When a cuff tear is suspected, positive FIR and AIR are suggestive of full-thickness tear patterns while a negative FIR suggests a partial articular lesion. Level of evidence: level I, validating cohort study with good reference standards. PMID:26151035

  6. Cosmetic Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Body Looking and feeling your best Cosmetic surgery Cosmetic surgery Teens might have cosmetic surgery for a ... about my body? What are the risks of cosmetic surgery? top People who have cosmetic surgery face ...

  7. Velocity-selective recording from frog nerve using a multi-contact cuff electrode.

    PubMed

    Schuettler, Martin; Seetohul, Vipin; Taylor, John; Donaldson, Nick

    2006-01-01

    Obtaining neural information from nerve cuff recordings for use as feedback signals for neural prostheses is slowly becoming state-of-the-art. Traditional tripolar cuff recordings cannot provide information on the fiber type contributing to the compound electro neurogram. In order to get this data we employed a novel nerve cuff carrying eleven electrode contacts equally distributed along its axis. Connecting this cuff to a custom made low-noise ten-channel amplifier, a data acquisition system and applying some basic data processing routines, we were able to generate profiles that show, for the first time, the different propagation velocities that contribute to the whole nerve signal. PMID:17945748

  8. Rotational thromboelastometry and multiple electrode platelet aggregometry in four patients with abnormal routine coagulation studies before removal of epidural catheters after major surgery: a case series and research study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Routine coagulation tests have a low predictability for perioperative bleeding complications, and spinal hematoma after removal of epidural catheters is very infrequent. Thromboelastometry and point-of-care platelet aggregometry may improve hemostatic monitoring but have not been studied in the context of safety around epidural removal. Methods Twenty patients who received an epidural catheter for major thoracoabdominal and abdominal surgery were included prospectively. In addition to routine coagulation tests, rotational thromboelastometry and multiple electrode platelet aggregometry were carried out. Results A coagulation deficit was suggested by routine coagulation tests on the intended day of epidural catheter removal in four out of 20 patients. Prothrombin time-international normalized ratio was elevated to 1.5 in one patient (normal range: 0.9 to 1.2) while rotational thromboelastometry and multiple electrode platelet aggregometry parameters were within normal limits. Activated partial thromboplastin time was elevated to 47 to 50 seconds in the remaining three patients (normal range 28 to 45 seconds). Rotational thromboelastometry showed that one of the patients’ results was due to heparin effect: the clotting time with the HEPTEM® activator was 154 seconds as compared to 261 seconds with INTEM. The three remaining patients with prolonged routine coagulation test results had all received over 1L of hydroxyethyl starch (Venofundin®) and thrombosis prophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin (enoxaparin). Rotational thromboelastometry and multiple electrode platelet aggregometrygave normal or hypercoagulative signals in most patients. Conclusions This case series is new in that it examines rotational thromboelastometry and multiple electrode platelet aggregometry postoperatively in the context of epidural analgesia and shows that they may be clinically useful. These methods should be validated before they can be used for standard patient care. PMID:24377397

  9. Assessment of musculoskeletal pain sensitivity and temporal summation by cuff pressure algometry: a reliability study.

    PubMed

    Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Finocchietti, Sara; Handberg, Gitte; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-11-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain is linked with sensitization, and standardized methods for assessment are needed. This study investigated (1) the test-retest reliability of computer-controlled cuff-pressure algometry (pain thresholds and temporal pain summation) on the arm and leg and (2) conditioned pain modulation (CPM) assessed by cuff algometry. The influences of age and gender were evaluated. On 2 different days, cuff pain threshold (cPPT), cuff pain tolerance (cPTT), and temporal summation of pain (TSP) by visual analog scale scores to 10 repeated cuff stimulations at cPTT intensity, as well as pressure pain threshold with handheld pressure algometry, were assessed in 136 healthy subjects. In one session, cuff pain sensitivity was also assessed before and after cold pressor-induced CPM. Good-to-excellent intraclass correlations (0.60-0.90) were demonstrated for manual and cuff algometry, and no systematic bias between sessions was found for cPPT, cPTT, and TSP on the leg and for cPTT and TSP on the arm. Cuff pressure pain threshold and cPTT were higher in men compared with women (P < 0.05). Middle-aged subjects had higher pressure pain threshold, but lower cPPT and cPTT, compared with younger subjects (P < 0.05). Temporal summation of pain was increased in women compared with men (P < 0.05). Cuff algometry was sensitive to CPM demonstrated as increased cPPT and cPTT and reduced TSP (P < 0.05). Reliability and sensitivity of computer-controlled cuff algometry for pain assessment is comparable with manual pressure algometry and constitutes a user-independent method for assessment of pain. Difference in age-related pain sensitivity between manual and cuff algometry should be further investigated. PMID:26172551

  10. 76 FR 10578 - Cuffs Run Pumped Storage, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Cuffs Run Pumped Storage, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application... 18, 2010, Cuffs Run Pumped Storage, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Cuffs Run Pumped...

  11. [Endotest--a simple method for the monitoring of internal pressure of the tube cuff].

    PubMed

    Fsel, T; Altemeyer, K H; Mehrkens, H H

    1985-07-01

    The Endotest is a simple device for monitoring the cuff pressure of an endotracheal tube. No complications could be observed during a 6 month period of usage in the daily routine. We found the handling very good and cuff pressure monitoring very useful. PMID:4037290

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of Prosthetic Heart Valve Sewing Cuffs Coated With Minocycline and Rifampin

    PubMed Central

    Darouiche, Rabih O.; Fowler, Vance G.; Adal, Karim; Kielhofner, Marcia; Mansouri, David; Reller, L. Barth

    2002-01-01

    Prosthetic heart valve sewing cuffs coated with minocycline and rifampin exhibited in vitro zones of inhibition against all 52 tested clinical isolates responsible for prosthetic valve endocarditis. An in vitro elution study of these coated sewing cuffs demonstrated residual zones of inhibition against Staphylococcus epidermidis for at least 4 weeks. PMID:11796374

  13. Cuff dimension for children and adolescents: a study in a northeastern Brazilian city.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Thelma Leite de; Lopes, Marcos Venicos de Oliveira; Guedes, Nirla Gomes; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; Moreira, Rafaella Pessoa; Chaves, Emlia Soares

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to measure the arm circumferences (AC) and appropriated cuff sizes for children and adolescents and to relate these dimensions to specific age ranges. This is a cross-sectional study, developed in Fortaleza, Cear, Brazil, with 596 people between 6 and 17 years old. The AC was measured at the midpoint between the olecranon and the acromion. The selected cuff width followed the recommended ratio of 40% the AC. The more suitable cuff sizes were 7x14 cm, 8x16 cm and 9x18 cm, at 19.8%, 26.5% and 25%, respectively. A statistically significant association between AC and age range was found in both genders, as well as between the cuff and the age range, showing that the 7x14 cm (38.9%) and 8x16 cm (29.6%) cuffs were more suitable for children, and 8x16 cm (23.7%) and 9x18 cm (36.1 %) cuffs were better for adolescents. Adequate cuffs were concluded to be different from the standard cuffs used for children and adolescents. PMID:19061025

  14. Evaluation of tracheal cuff pressure variation in spontaneously breathing patients

    PubMed Central

    Plotnikow, Gustavo A; Roux, Nicolas; Feld, Viviana; Gogniat, Emiliano; Villalba, Dario; Ribero, Noelia Vairo; Sartore, Marisa; Bosso, Mauro; Quiroga, Corina; Leiva, Valeria; Scrigna, Mariana; Puchulu, Facundo; Distfano, Eduardo; Scapellato, Jose Luis; Intile, Dante; Planells, Fernando; Noval, Diego; Buirigo, Pablo; Jofr, Ricardo; Nielsen, Ernesto Daz

    2013-01-01

    Background: Most of the studies referring cuff tubes issues were conducted on intubated patients. Not much is known about the cuff pressure performance in chronically tracheostomized patients disconnected from mechanical ventilation. Objective: To evaluate cuff pressure (CP) variation in tracheostomized, spontaneously breathing patients in a weaning rehabilitation center. Materials and Methods: Experimental setup to test instruments in vitro, in which the gauge (TRACOE) performance at different pressure levels was evaluated in six tracheostomy tubes, and a clinical setupin which CP variation over 24 h, every 4 h, and for 6 days was measured in 35 chronically tracheostomized clinically stable, patients who had been disconnected from mechanical ventilation for at least 72 h. The following data were recorded: Tube brand, type, and size; date of the tube placed; the patient's body position; the position of the head; axillary temperature; pulse and respiration rates; blood pressure; and pulse oximetry. Results: In vitro difference between the initial pressure (IP) and measured pressure (MP) was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The difference between the IP and MP was significant when selecting for various tube brands (P < 0.05). In the clinical set-up, 207 measurements were performed and the CP was >30 cm H2O in 6.28% of the recordings, 20-30 cm H2O in 42.0% of the recordings, and <20 cm H2O in 51.69% of the recordings. Conclusion: The systematic CP measurement in chronically tracheostomized, spontaneously breathing patients showed high variability, which was independent of tube brand, size, type, or time of placement. Consequently, measurements should be made more frequently. PMID:24459624

  15. Effects of cuff width on arterial occlusion: implications for blood flow restricted exercise.

    PubMed

    Loenneke, Jeremy P; Fahs, Christopher A; Rossow, Lindy M; Sherk, Vanessa D; Thiebaud, Robert S; Abe, Takashi; Bemben, Debra A; Bemben, Michael G

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in cuff pressure which occludes arterial blood flow for two different types of cuffs which are commonly used in blood flow restriction (BFR) research. Another purpose of the study was to determine what factors (i.e., leg size, blood pressure, and limb composition) should be accounted for when prescribing the restriction cuff pressure for this technique. One hundred and sixteen (53 males, 63 females) subjects visited the laboratory for one session of testing. Mid-thigh muscle (mCSA) and fat (fCSA) cross-sectional area of the right thigh were assessed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Following the mid-thigh scan, measurements of leg circumference, ankle brachial index, and brachial blood pressure were obtained. Finally, in a randomized order, arterial occlusion pressure was determined using both narrow and wide restriction cuffs applied to the most proximal portion of each leg. Significant differences were observed between cuff type and arterial occlusion (narrow: 235 (42)mmHg vs. wide: 144 (17)mmHg; p=0.001, Cohen's D=2.52). Thigh circumference or mCSA/fCSA with ankle blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, explained the most variance in the cuff pressure required to occlude arterial flow. Wide BFR cuffs restrict arterial blood flow at a lower pressure than narrow BFR cuffs, suggesting that future studies account for the width of the cuff used. In addition, we have outlined models which indicate that restrictive cuff pressures should be largely based on thigh circumference and not on pressures previously used in the literature. PMID:22143843

  16. Effects of cuff width on arterial occlusion: implications for blood flow restricted exercise

    PubMed Central

    Fahs, Christopher A.; Rossow, Lindy M.; Sherk, Vanessa D.; Thiebaud, Robert S.; Abe, Takashi; Bemben, Debra A.; Bemben, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in cuff pressure which occludes arterial blood flow for two different types of cuffs which are commonly used in blood flow restriction (BFR) research. Another purpose of the study was to determine what factors (i.e., leg size, blood pressure, and limb composition) should be accounted for when prescribing the restriction cuff pressure for this technique. One hundred and sixteen (53 males, 63 females) subjects visited the laboratory for one session of testing. Mid-thigh muscle (mCSA) and fat (fCSA) cross-sectional area of the right thigh were assessed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Following the mid-thigh scan, measurements of leg circumference, ankle brachial index, and brachial blood pressure were obtained. Finally, in a randomized order, arterial occlusion pressure was determined using both narrow and wide restriction cuffs applied to the most proximal portion of each leg. Significant differences were observed between cuff type and arterial occlusion (narrow: 235 (42) mmHg vs. wide: 144 (17) mmHg; p = 0.001, Cohens D = 2.52). Thigh circumference or mCSA/fCSA with ankle blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, explained the most variance in the cuff pressure required to occlude arterial flow. Wide BFR cuffs restrict arterial blood flow at a lower pressure than narrow BFR cuffs, suggesting that future studies account for the width of the cuff used. In addition, we have outlined models which indicate that restrictive cuff pressures should be largely based on thigh circumference and not on pressures previously used in the literature. PMID:22143843

  17. Concomitant Correction of a Soft-Tissue Fenestration with Keratinised Tissue Augmentation By Using A Rotated Double-Pedicle Flap During Second-Stage Implant Surgery- A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Aileni Amarender; Kumar, P Anoop; Sailaja, Sistla; Chakravarthy, Yshs; Chandra, Rampalli Viswa

    2015-12-01

    Soft tissue deficiencies and defects around dental implants have been observed frequently. Soft-tissue defects after implant procedures originate from the process of modelling of periimplant mucosa and often cause aesthetic disharmony, food debris accumulation and soft tissue shrinkage. Periimplant mucogingival surgery focuses on creating an optimum band of keratinized tissue resulting in soft tissue architecture similar to the gingiva around natural teeth. A 23-year-old male reported to the Department of Periodontology with a complaint of gum soreness, foul smell and food accumulation at a site where a 3.75 x 11.5mm implant was placed previously. On clinical examination, fenestration of tissue above the cover screw was observed and there appeared to be a keratinized tissue of 1mm surrounding the implant. The case was managed by use of a rotated double-pedicle flap during second-stage implant surgery to correct the soft-tissue fenestration defect and to obtain a keratinized periimplant soft tissue. A periosteal bed was prepared by giving a horizontal incision at the mucogingival junction to a depth of 4 mm. Two split-thickness keratinized pedicles were dissected from the mesial and distal interproximal tissues near the implant. After rotation, both the pedicles were sutured to each other mid-buccally and the pedicles were rigidly immobilized with sutures. At 1 month, there was a 3mm band of stable and firm keratinized tissue over the underlying tissues. The procedure resulted in an aesthetic improvement due to enhanced soft tissue architecture and optimum integration between the peri-implant soft tissue and the final prosthesis. PMID:26816998

  18. Concomitant Correction of a Soft-Tissue Fenestration with Keratinised Tissue Augmentation By Using A Rotated Double-Pedicle Flap During Second-Stage Implant Surgery- A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Aileni Amarender; Kumar, P. Anoop; Sailaja, Sistla; Chakravarthy, Yshs

    2015-01-01

    Soft tissue deficiencies and defects around dental implants have been observed frequently. Soft-tissue defects after implant procedures originate from the process of modelling of periimplant mucosa and often cause aesthetic disharmony, food debris accumulation and soft tissue shrinkage. Periimplant mucogingival surgery focuses on creating an optimum band of keratinized tissue resulting in soft tissue architecture similar to the gingiva around natural teeth. A 23-year-old male reported to the Department of Periodontology with a complaint of gum soreness, foul smell and food accumulation at a site where a 3.75 x 11.5mm implant was placed previously. On clinical examination, fenestration of tissue above the cover screw was observed and there appeared to be a keratinized tissue of 1mm surrounding the implant. The case was managed by use of a rotated double-pedicle flap during second-stage implant surgery to correct the soft-tissue fenestration defect and to obtain a keratinized periimplant soft tissue. A periosteal bed was prepared by giving a horizontal incision at the mucogingival junction to a depth of 4 mm. Two split-thickness keratinized pedicles were dissected from the mesial and distal interproximal tissues near the implant. After rotation, both the pedicles were sutured to each other mid-buccally and the pedicles were rigidly immobilized with sutures. At 1 month, there was a 3mm band of stable and firm keratinized tissue over the underlying tissues. The procedure resulted in an aesthetic improvement due to enhanced soft tissue architecture and optimum integration between the peri-implant soft tissue and the final prosthesis. PMID:26816998

  19. In situ urethroplasty after artificial urinary sphincter cuff erosion.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Jordan A; Tausch, Timothy J; Morey, Allen F

    2015-02-01

    Artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) cuff erosion is a challenging complication traditionally managed with device removal and Foley catheter drainage. Urethral stricture can result secondary to the healing process, delaying AUS reimplantation. In situ urethroplasty (ISU) technique is a definitive repair at the time of device removal. Early results demonstrate a decreased rate of stricture formation compared to traditional management with little additional operative time and no additional complications. Patients undergoing ISU have less delay prior to AUS reimplantation, leading to possible benefit in health-related quality of life (HRQL) outcomes. PMID:26816810

  20. In situ urethroplasty after artificial urinary sphincter cuff erosion

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Jordan A.; Tausch, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) cuff erosion is a challenging complication traditionally managed with device removal and Foley catheter drainage. Urethral stricture can result secondary to the healing process, delaying AUS reimplantation. In situ urethroplasty (ISU) technique is a definitive repair at the time of device removal. Early results demonstrate a decreased rate of stricture formation compared to traditional management with little additional operative time and no additional complications. Patients undergoing ISU have less delay prior to AUS reimplantation, leading to possible benefit in health-related quality of life (HRQL) outcomes.

  1. Post-operative pulmonary complications after non-cardiothoracic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kelkar, Kalpana Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Post-operative pulmonary complications (PPCs) occur in 510% of patients undergoing non-thoracic surgery and in 22% of high risk patients. PPCs are broadly defined as conditions affecting the respiratory tract that can adversely influence clinical course of the patient after surgery. Prior risk stratification, risk reduction strategies, performing short duration and/or minimally invasive surgery and use of anaesthetic technique of combined regional with general anaesthesia can reduce the incidence of PPCs. Atelectasis is the main cause of PPCs. Atelectasis can be prevented or treated by adequate analgesia, incentive spirometry (IS), deep breathing exercises, continuous positive airway pressure, mobilisation of secretions and early ambulation. Pre-operative treatment of IS is more effective. The main reason for post-operative pneumonia is aspiration along the channels formed by longitudinal folds in the high volume, low pressure polyvinyl chloride cuffs of the endotracheal tubes. Use of tapered cuff, polyurethane cuffs and selective rather than the routine use of nasogastric tube can decrease chances of aspiration. Acute lung injury is the most serious PPC which may prove fatal. PMID:26556919

  2. Skeletal stability in orthognathic surgery: evaluation of methods of rigid internal fixation after counterclockwise rotation in patients with class II deformities.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Vanessa lvares de Castro; Neto, Antonio Irineu Trindade; Rebello, Ida Margarida Cruso Rocha; de Souza, Gustavo Mota Mascarenhas; Esteves, Lucas Senhorinho; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Zanetta-Barbosa, Darceny; do Prado, Clio Jesus

    2015-10-01

    Our aim was to assess the influence of internal fixation in skeletal stability on patients who had had counterclockwise rotation of the maxillomandibular complex and mandibular advancement procedures. We studied 60 records of 20 patients (14 female, 6 male), mean (range) age at operation 29 (16-50) years. The mean (range) postoperative follow-up was 15 (8-24) months. Sixty standard lateral cephalometric radiographs were randomly traced and digitised by one senior radiologist to estimate surgical and postoperative changes. Patients were divided into two groups, the first group (n=10) of which had fixation with only 2.0 system plates (2 plates with monocortical screws alone) and the second (n=10) of which had hybrid fixation (1 plate with monocortical screws and 2 or 3 bicortical bone screws). During operation the change in the mean occlusal plane with counterclockwise rotation was 9.4 (range -17.3 to -2.5mm). The maxilla moved forward and upward. All the anterior mandibular measurements had advanced horizontally, the mean (range) being 17 (6.4 to 9.9) mm for the pogonion, and 17.6 (6.0 to 30.7) mm for the menton. At the longest follow-up period, there were significant long-term changes, but these were clinically acceptable (<2mm). There was no significant difference between the two groups in postoperative stability or in the magnitude of the advancement and stability. PMID:26243384

  3. Cuff electrodes for very small diameter nerves -- prototyping and first recordings in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ordonez, Juan S; Pikov, Victor; Wiggins, Harvey; Patten, Craig; Stieglitz, Thomas; Rickert, J; Schuettler, Martin

    2014-01-01

    A fabrication method for cuff electrodes to interface small nerves was developed. Medical grade silicone rubber conforms the body of the cuff and insulation of the wires, platinum was used as metal for the embedded wiring and contacts. Planar electrode arrays where fabricated using a picosecond laser and then positioned into a carrying tube to provide the third dimension with the desired inner diameter ( 0.3-0.5 mm). The post preparation of the cuffs after structuring allows the fabrication of a stable self-closing flap that insulates the opening slit of the cuff without the need of extra sutures. Basic for the success of the cuff is the laser-based local thinning of both the silicone rubber and the metal at defined sections. This is critical to permit the PDMS' body to dominate the mechanical properties. Finite element modeling was applied to optimize the displacement ability of the cuff, leading to design capable of withstanding multiple implantation procedures without wire damage. Furthermore, the contact's surface was roughened by laser patterning to increase the charge injection capacity of Pt to 285 ?C/cm(2) measured by voltage transient detection during pulse testing. The cuff electrodes were placed on a small sympathetic nerve of an adult female Sprague-Dawley rat for recording of spontaneous and evoked neural activity in vivo. PMID:25571569

  4. Bone-prosthesis composite with rotating hinged-knee prosthesis in limb salvage surgery for high-grade sarcoma around the knee.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chien-Shun; Wu, Po-Kuei; Chen, Cheng-Fong; Chen, Wei-Ming; Liu, Chien-Lin; Chen, Tain-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    Bone prosthesis composite (BPC) had been widely-used in reconstruction after wide excision of malignant tumors around the knee. However, implant selection for BPC remains a dilemma. Forty-one patients with high-grade malignant bone tumors around the knee who underwent excision and reconstruction with BPC and rotating hinged knee (RHK) prosthesis were included. The mean follow-up time was 54 months (range, 31-78 months). The average Musculoskeletal Tumor Society Rating score was 93.4% (range, 73-100%). The mean range of motion was 125. Complications included 2 local recurrences, 2 nonunions, and 1 peri-prosthetic fracture. The reconstruction with BPC using the RHK prosthesis provided consistently good functional results with a low complication rate. The RHK prosthesis is a promising choice for BPC reconstruction. PMID:25155237

  5. Tracheomegaly Secondary to Tracheotomy Tube Cuff in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Lim, Sang Chul

    2015-10-01

    Tracheomegaly has not been reported in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Herein, the authors report a case of tracheomegaly secondary to tracheotomy tube cuff in a patient with ALS. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an ALS patient with tracheomegaly and of tracheomegaly being associated with tracheotomy tube cuff and home tracheotomy mechanical ventilator.The clinician should consider the possibility of tracheomegaly in the differential diagnosis, if a patient with ALS develops repeat air leakage around the tracheotomy tube or rupture of tracheotomy tube cuff. PMID:26496301

  6. Condensation of humidified air in the inflation line of a polyurethane cuff precludes correct continuous pressure monitoring during mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Spapen, Herbert; Moeyersons, Walter; Stiers, Wim; Desmet, Geert; Suys, Emiel

    2014-12-01

    Within continuously controlled limits of cuff pressure, an endotracheal tube cuff made of polyurethane (PU) prevents secretion inflow better than a conventional polyvinylchloride cuff. However, the temperature difference between ventilator gas and the air inside a PU cuff produces condensation droplets that accumulate in the cuff inflation canal. We investigated whether condensation influenced continuous cuff pressure monitoring. A PU-cuffed tube was placed into an artificial trachea and connected to a ventilator and test lung. An additional line was inserted at the distal cuff end to directly measure pressure inside the cuff. Methylene blue instillation via the inflation line mimicked condensation. Inspiratory (Pinsp) and expiratory (Pexp) pressures were continuously recorded. Six consecutive experiments were performed comparing pressures at baseline (T0) and at 24 h (T24). Shortly after dye instillation, pressures recorded at the inflation canal became permanently fixed at 25 cmH2O. In contrast, pressures measured directly in the cuff progressively decreased (mean Pinsp 30 3 vs. 20 2 cmH2O and mean Pexp 25 0 vs. 12 2 cmH2O, T0 vs. T24, both P < 0.05). Thus, condensation in the inflation line of a PU-cuffed tube renders continuous cuff pressure monitoring unreliable, thereby increasing the risk for microaspiration. PMID:24854520

  7. [Microbial contamination of cuffs lab coats during health care].

    PubMed

    Margarido, Carla Auxiliadora; Villas Boas, Tamires Monteiro; Mota, Valeria Siqueira; da Silva, Cristiane Karina Malvezzi; Poveda, Vanessa de Brito

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the bacterial contamination in lab coats worn by nursing students, before and after being worn in health care practices. A quantitative and descriptive study was carried out, in which the students' coats were collected, washed and ironed in a standardized way and wore for four hours in assistance activities. Subsequently, samples from the cuffs were collected with sterile cotton swabs in order to be incubated in order to analyze microbial growth through morphological analysis by Gram's Method and antibiogram. There was bacterial growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis in 50% of the collected samples and Staphylococcus aureus, found in patients with wounds in outpatient care, showed resistance to antibiotics such as Vancomycin, Chloramphenicol and Sulfonamides. The data demonstrated that the lab coats wore during assistance activities, even in short periods, are effectively contaminated by strains resistant to antibiotics and can potentially cause infection related to health care. PMID:24676079

  8. Fascicle-selective multi-contact cuff electrode.

    PubMed

    Rossel, Olivier; Soulier, Fabien; Coulombe, Jonathan; Bernard, Serge; Cathébras, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Neural recording is one of the main issues to be addressed in order to allow closed-loop functional electrical stimulation systems. Because each fascicle in nerves carry specific information, new sensors providing high spatial selectivity are required for chronic implantable devices. This work aims at evaluating the feasibility of a new device using a highly spatial-selective multi-contact cuff electrode. The proposed electrode configuration is evaluated based on simulations using a model of a nerve comprising multiple fascicles. Study of the electrode selectivity is done and compared with a state-of-the-art electrode designed for the same purpose and shows that activity of two fascicles separated by as little as 1 mm can be distinguished. Implementation challenges and perspectives for such electrodes are also discussed. PMID:22254969

  9. Cuff leakage, not paravalvular leakage, in the Carpentier Edwards PERIMOUNT Magna Ease aortic bioprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Shigehiko; Cho, Tomoki; Izubuchi, Ryo; Masuda, Munetaka

    2015-12-01

    Though the Carpentier Edwards PERIMOUNT Magna Ease valve is a bioprosthesis with documented excellent haemodynamics and easy implantability, this valve has a gap between the cobalt-chromium-nickel alloy stent and silicone sewing ring. This gap, which is widest just below each of the three commissural struts, lacks silicone and leaves the two-layer polytetrafluoroethylene fabric unsupported and unprotected. If the needle of a valve suture is placed in this structurally weak area of the sewing ring, the resultant fabric tear may result in a true cuff leakage, not the usual paravalvular leakage. We describe this pitfall in the context of a recent operation to alert surgeons everywhere that suture placement too close to the stent (missing the silicone sewing ring) can result in postoperative cuff leakage. We need to be very careful to include the silicone ring in each stitch to prevent injury to the valve cuff of this prosthesis and to avoid cuff leakage. PMID:26337338

  10. Experimental determination of compound action potential direction and propagation velocity from multi-electrode nerve cuffs.

    PubMed

    Rieger, R; Taylor, J; Comi, E; Donaldson, N; Russold, M; Mahony, C M O; McLaughlin, J A; McAdams, E; Demosthenous, A; Jarvis, J C

    2004-07-01

    Information extracted from whole-nerve electroneurograms, recorded using electrode cuffs, can provide signals to neuroprostheses. However, the amount of information that can be extracted from a single tripole is limited. This communication demonstrates how previously unavailable information about the direction of action potential propagation and velocity can be obtained using a multi-electrode cuff and that the arrangement acts as a velocity-selective filter. Results from in vitro experiments on frog nerves are presented. PMID:15234689

  11. Loss of rotator cuff tendon-to-bone interface pressure after reattachment using a suture anchor.

    PubMed

    Brassart, Nicolas; Sanghavi, Sanjay; Hansen, Ulrich N; Emery, Roger J; Amis, Andrew A

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the tendon-to-bone interface pressure, contact area, and force after reattaching a tendon to bone by use of a suture and suture anchor. Repairs were made in 8 ovine shoulders in vitro, by use of 3 suture types in each: Ethibond, polydioxanone, or Orthocord. A Tekscan pressure sensor was placed between the tendon and bone and monitored for 1 hour after the repair. The principal finding was a significant loss of approximately 60% of the contact parameters immediately after the suture was tied, followed by further significant loss over the next hour to a mean of only 14% of the initial readings. We concluded that pressure measurement systems that only record the initial maximum pressure would yield overly optimistic results for the actual repair pressure after the repair is completed. The Tekscan system, however, allowed us to monitor pressure reductions that occurred both during and after the repair. PMID:18504147

  12. [Neuralgic amyotrophy as the primary cause of shoulder pain in a patient with rotator cuff tear].

    PubMed

    Sahin, Ebru; Senocak, Ozlem; Bacako?lu, A Kadir; Oztura, Ibrahim; Gzm, Mehtap; Peker, Ozlen

    2009-01-01

    A 66-year-old woman with no history of trauma presented with severe shoulder pain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed rupture of the supraspinatus tendon, for which surgical treatment was considered. However, it was noted that shoulder pain was accompanied by weakness in the shoulder muscles, and the patient underwent electroneuromyographic examination, which revealed neuralgic amyotrophy. Following physical therapy and rehabilitation combined with appropriate medical therapy, her symptoms significantly improved. In cases with severe shoulder pain without a trauma history, characteristics of pain should be thoroughly analyzed and neuralgic amyotrophy considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:19448361

  13. Knotless single-row rotator cuff repair: a comparative biomechanical study of 2 knotless suture anchors.

    PubMed

    Efird, Chad; Traub, Shaun; Baldini, Todd; Rioux-Forker, Dana; Spalazzi, Jeffrey P; Davisson, Twana; Hawkins, Monica; McCarty, Eric

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the gap formation during cyclic loading, maximum repair strength, and failure mode of single-row full-thickness supraspinatus repairs performed using 2 knotless suture anchors with differing internal suture-retention mechanisms in a human cadaver model. Nine matched pairs of cadaver shoulders were used. Full-thickness tears were induced by detaching the supraspinatus tendon from the greater tuberosity. Single-row repairs were performed with either type I (Opus Magnum PI; ArthroCare, Austin, Texas) or type II (ReelX STT; Stryker, Mahwah, New Jersey) knotless suture anchors. The repaired tendon was cycled from 10 to 90 N for 500 cycles, followed by load to failure. Gap formation was measured at 5, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 cycles with a video digitizing system. Anchor type or location (anterior or posterior) had no effect on gap formation during cyclic loading regardless of position (anterior, P=.385; posterior, P=.389). Maximum load to failure was significantly greater (P=.018) for repairs performed with type II anchors (28862 N) compared with type I anchors (17939 N). Primary failure modes were anchor pullout and tendon tearing for type II anchors and suture slippage through the anchor for type I anchors. The internal ratcheting suture-retention mechanism of type II anchors may have helped this anchor outperform the suture-cinching mechanism of type I anchors by supporting significantly higher loads before failure and minimizing suture slippage, potentially leading to stronger repairs clinically. PMID:23937749

  14. Engaging needles: a simple technique for arthroscopic side-to-side rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Almazn, Arturo; Nieves, Jorge; Patio, Pal; Ruiz, Michell; Cruz, Francisco; Prez, Francisco Xavier; Ibarra, Clemente

    2006-04-01

    We propose that the tibial remnant of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is able to enhance the revascularization and cellular proliferation of the graft, to preserve proprioceptive function, and to acquire anatomic placement of the graft without roof impingement. Therefore, it seems reasonable to assume that preserving the tibial remnant as much as possible as a source of reinnervation, if technically possible without causing impingement, would be of potential benefit to the patient. Our surgical technique was developed to maximize the preservation of the tibial remnant. The distally attached semitendinosus and gracilis tendons are harvested using a tendon stripper. Once satisfactory placement of 2 guide pins convergently is done, create a closed-end socket in the lateral femoral condyle with an adequate sized curved curette. For anatomic placement of the graft, the tibial tunnel should be positioned within the boundaries of the normal ACL tibial remnant. The reamer must be advanced very carefully to minimize injury to the residual remnant at the intra-articular margin of the tibial tunnel. Penetration should stop at the base of the stump. The folded grafts are then pulled intra-articularly through the tibial tunnel, the tibial remnant, and the femoral socket by pulling sutures under arthroscopic visualization. The ACL tibial remnant is compacted by the tendon passage. The graft is secured proximally by tying sutures in the lateral femoral condyle and distally at the tibia with double staples using a belt-buckle method. The advantages of our technique include maximal preservation of the tibial remnant, no roof impingement from intrasynovial anatomic placement of the graft, the simplicity of the procedure, the minimal need for hardware or special instruments, the economic benefit, and the potential prevention of tibial tunnel enlargement by preventing synovial fluid leakage. PMID:16581461

  15. Bipolar Posterior Deltoid Transfer for Massive Rotator Cuff Tears: A Report on 2 Patients

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary: A transfer of the posterior deltoid innervated by the posterior branch of the axillary nerve and vascularized by the posterior circumflex humeral artery is described for irreparable tears of the supra- and infraspinatus muscle tendons. Functionally useful abduction and flexion were restored in 2 patients. PMID:26090280

  16. A hero's woe: rotator cuff tear after performing the Heimlich manoeuvre.

    PubMed

    Baker, Joseph F; Mullet, Hannan

    2010-07-01

    The Heimlich manoeuvre is well recognised worldwide as an emergency technique to clear an obstructed airway. The potential for serious injury to the choking victim is also well reported. We report the first case of significant musculoskeletal injury suffered by a rescuer performing the Heimlich manoeuvre. He eventually made a full recovery from his injury. However, we need to be aware of the possibility of injury in the rescuer as well as the rescued. PMID:20584966

  17. [Plastic and reconstructive surgery of the bronchial tree].

    PubMed

    Petrov, D; Dzhambazov, V; Goranov, E; Plochev, M

    1999-01-01

    Bronchoplastic and reconstructive operations (BPRO) are a major issue in the broad methodological spectrum of thoracic surgery. It is the aim of the study to analyze the indications, operative technique and results of such operations on the basis of experience gained in the Clinic of Thoracic Surgery over a 5-year period. A total of 19 patients (14 men and 5 women) at mean age 50.7 y (range 16 to 70 y) are operated. By histological variant of the tumor operated on, the patients are distributed as follows: carcinoid--4 cases, fibromas--1, squamous cell carcinoma--10, adenocarcinoma--1, bronchoalveolar carcinoma--1, small-cell carcinoma--1 and leiomyosarcoma--one. The reconstructive operations performed include: isolated bronchus resection--2, right upper lobectomy with cuff resection--7, right upper bilobectomy with cuff resection--2, left upper lobectomy with cuff resection--7 (in two instances in conjunction with angioplasty), and left lower lobectomy with cuff resection and angioplasty--one. No intraoperative and perioperative lethality (within 30 days) is recorded. An overweight female patient with diabetes hardly lending itself to compensation develops severe suppuration. In two instances serious concurrent complications necessitate reoperation. Overall postoperative hospital stay--20 days; without the 3 severe complications--12.8 days. One patient dies of brain metastases within 6 months of the intervention. The survivorship term in the remainder varies from 1 year to 4 years 9 months, averaging 31 months. There are no stenoses or granulations of the anastomoses requiring endoscopic treatment. Presumably, BPRO are an adequate therapeutic approach to patients presenting centrally located malignant and benign tumors. The results of their application in the series being examined are estimated as very good. PMID:11484251

  18. Pelvic Surgical Site Infections in Gynecologic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lachiewicz, Mark P.; Moulton, Laura J.; Jaiyeoba, Oluwatosin

    2015-01-01

    The development of surgical site infection (SSI) remains the most common complication of gynecologic surgical procedures and results in significant patient morbidity. Gynecologic procedures pose a unique challenge in that potential pathogenic microorganisms from the skin or vagina and endocervix may migrate to operative sites and can result in vaginal cuff cellulitis, pelvic cellulitis, and pelvic abscesses. Multiple host and surgical risk factors have been identified as risks that increase infectious sequelae after pelvic surgery. This paper will review these risk factors as many are modifiable and care should be taken to address such factors in order to decrease the chance of infection. We will also review the definitions, microbiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of pelvic SSIs after gynecologic surgery. PMID:25788822

  19. Clinical effects of thigh cuffs during a 7-day 6° head-down bed rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavy-Le Traon, Anne; Maillet, Alain; Vasseur Clausen, Pascale; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Alferova, Irina; Gharib, Claude; Fortrat, Jacques-Olivier

    2001-08-01

    Thigh cuffs are used by Russian cosmonauts to limit the fluid shift induced by space flight. A ground simulation using the head-down bed rest (HDBR) model was performed to assess the effects of thigh cuffs on clinical tolerance and orthostatic adaptation. 8 male healthy volunteers (32.4±1.9 years) participated twice in a 7-day HDBR — one time with thigh cuffs (worm daily from 9 am to 7 pm) (TC) and one time without (WTC). Orthostatic tolerance was assessed by a 10 minute stand test and by a LBNP test (5 min at -15, -30, -45 mmHg) before (BDC-1) and at the end of the HDBR period (R+1). Plasma volume was measured before and at the end of HDBR by the Evans blue dye dilution technique. Thigh cuffs limits headache due to fluid shift, as well as the loss in plasma volume (TC: -5.85±0.95%; WTC: -9.09±0.82%, p<0.05). The mean duration of the stand test (R+1) did not differ in the two group (TC 7.1±1.3 min; WTC 7.0±1.0 min). The increase in HR and decrease in diastolic blood pressure were slightly but significantly larger without thigh cuffs. Duration of the LBNP tests did not differ with thigh cuffs. Thigh cuffs limit the symptoms due to fluid shift and the loss in plasma volume. They partly reduced the increase in HR during orthostatic stress but had no effect on duration of orthostatic stress tests.

  20. Case Report of Multiple Tracheostomy Revisions due to Persistent, Recurrent Cuff Leak

    PubMed Central

    Azimi-Bolourian, Jian P.; Hanna, Issa A.; Williams, George W.

    2015-01-01

    This case is a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis who was unable to be separated from mechanical ventilator support and required a tracheostomy. The patient underwent an initial open tracheostomy utilizing flexible fiberoptic tracheoscopy (FFT) in the operating room (OR). Subsequently, he developed recurrent leaks in the tracheal tube cuff requiring multiple trips back to the operating room. The recurrent cuff leak occurred following each tube placement until the etiology of the leak was discovered during the fourth procedure. In the fourth procedure, the wound was explored more extensively, and it was found that there was a sharp, calcified, aberrant fragment of a tracheal cartilage ring protruding into the tracheal lumen, which was damaging the cuff of each tube. This fragment was not visible by multiple FFTs, nor was it visible in the wound by the surgeons until wider exploration of the wound occurred. The cartilage fragment was ultimately excised and the patient had no further cuff leaks. Aberrant tracheal cartilage should be on the differential diagnosis for cuff leaks subsequent to surgical tracheostomy (ST) or percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT). PMID:26240762

  1. Possibilities offered by implantable miniaturized cuff-electrodes for insect neurophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Hartbauer, Manfred; Krger, Thilo B.; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in microsystems technology led to a miniaturization of cuff-electrodes, which suggests these electrodes not just for long-term neuronal recordings in mammalians, but also in medium-sized insects. In this study we investigated the possibilities offered by cuff-electrodes for neuroethology using insects as a model organism. The implantation in the neck of a tropical bushcricket resulted in high quality extracellular nerve recordings of different units responding to various acoustic, vibratory, optical and mechanical stimuli. In addition, multi-unit nerve activity related to leg movements was recorded in insects walking on a trackball. A drawback of bi-polar nerve recordings obtained during tethered flight was overlay of nerve activity with large amplitude muscle potentials. Interestingly, cuff-electrode recordings were robust to withstand walking and flight activity so that good quality nerve recordings were possible even three days after electrode implantation. Recording multi-unit nerve activity in intact insects required an elaborate spike sorting algorithm in order to discriminate neuronal units responding to external stimuli from background activity. In future, a combination of miniaturized cuff-electrodes and light-weight amplifiers equipped with a wireless transmitter will allow the investigation of neuronal processes underlying natural behavior in freely moving insects. By this means cuff-electrodes may contribute to the development of realistic neuronal models simulating neuronal processes underlying natural insect behavior, such like mate choice and predator avoidance. PMID:23576843

  2. Adolescent hypertension identified with correct cuff and its cardiovascular and gestational problems after 29 years

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Sandra Regina Ramos; Arcuri, Edna Apparecida Moura; Isabella, Adriana Paula Jordo; Arcuri, Silvia Maria; Santos, Jair Lcio Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Objective to identify, in 2011, rates of hypertension, cardiovascular and gestational problems in subjects presenting high blood pressure in 1982, when correct cuff size was used, according to the American Heart Association Arm Circumference/Cuff Width ratio of 0.40. Methods high blood pressure was defined in 2011 as systolic = 115 mmHg and diastolic = 80mmHg, resulting in 20 subjects between 39 and 43 years old. (Risk Group). They were compared to 20 subjects from the original sample with lower blood pressure values (Control group). Results the rates of hypertension, cardiovascular and gestational problems were significantly higher (Fisher: p=0.02) in the Risk Group, with one case of cardiovascular death. Our findings arouse speculations about whether, if a proper cuff had been used in clinical practice, the complications and death could have been avoided. Conclusions data suggest compliance with the use of cuff width corresponding to 40% of arm circumference, despite polemics concerning cuff availability and difficulties of using many sizes. PMID:24553697

  3. Blood flow restriction: effects of cuff type on fatigue and perceptual responses to resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Loenneke, J P; Thiebaud, R S; Fahs, C A; Rossow, L M; Abe, T; Bemben, M G

    2014-06-01

    Blood flow restriction (BFR) combined with low load resistance training has been shown to result in muscle hypertrophy similar to that observed with higher loads. However, not all studies have found BFR efficacious, possibly due to methodological differences. It is presently unclear whether there are differences between cuffs of similar size (5 cm) but different material (nylon vs. elastic). The purpose was to determine if there are differences in repetitions to fatigue and perceptual ratings of exertion (RPE) and discomfort between narrow elastic and narrow nylon cuffs. Sixteen males and females completed three sets of BFR knee extension exercise in a randomized cross-over design using either elastic or nylon restrictive cuffs applied at the proximal thigh. There were no differences in repetitions to fatigue (marker of blood flow) or perceptual ratings between narrow elastic and narrow nylon cuffs. This data suggests that either elastic or nylon cuffs of the same width should cause similar degrees of BFR at the same pressure during resistance exercise. PMID:24901077

  4. Foot Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... not move. Fusions can be done with screws, plates or pins or a combination of these. Tendon Surgery: Surgery on the tendons can be performed for acute injuries such as ruptures but is also commonly done ...

  5. Turbinate surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Turbinectomy; Turbinoplasty; Turbinate reduction; Nasal airway surgery ... There are several types of turbinate surgery: Turbinectomy: All or part of the lower turbinate is taken out. This can be done in several different ways, but sometimes a ...

  6. After Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... side effects. There is usually some pain with surgery. There may also be swelling and soreness around ... the first few days, weeks, or months after surgery. Some other questions to ask are How long ...

  7. Cataract Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Prevention News Ask an Eye M.D. Espaol Cataracts What Are Cataracts? Cataract Symptoms Who Is at ... Lens Replacement and Cataract Surgery Cataract Vision Simulator Cataract Surgery Written by: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed by: Elena ...

  8. Cataract Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Cataracts Sections What Are Cataracts? Cataract Symptoms Who Is ... Lens Replacement and Cataract Surgery Cataract Vision Simulator Cataract Surgery Written by: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed by: Elena ...

  9. Improving time to continence after robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy: augmentation of the total anatomic reconstruction technique by adding dynamic detrusor cuff trigonoplasty and suprapubic tube placement.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Ashutosh K; Ali, Adnan; Ghareeb, George; Ludwig, Wesley; Metgud, Sheela; Theckumparampil, Nithin; Takenaka, Atsushi; Chugtai, Bilal; Shrivastava, Abhishek; Kaplan, Steve A; Leung, Robert; Paryani, Rahul; Grushow, Siobhan; Durand, Matthieu; Peyser, Alexandra; Chopra, Sameer; Harneja, Niyati; Lee, Richard K; Herman, Michael; Robinson, Brian; Shevchuck, Maria M

    2012-12-01

    After robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy, total anatomic reconstruction (TR) with the additions of a circumapical urethral dissection, a dynamic detrusor cuff trigonoplasty, and placement of a suprapubic catheter was performed in 49 patients from June to July 2012. Continence at 6 weeks after catheter removal was assessed for an initial group of 23 patients, and also at 2 weeks in an additional 26 patients who most recently had undergone surgery. Follow-up appointments and telephone interviews were used to assess pad use and continence. Of the initial 23 patients receiving the modified TR, 60.9% had 0 pad use at 6 weeks. By 2 weeks, 65.4% of the most recent 26 patients operated on achieved continence with 0-1 pad use. Preservation and reconstruction of the pelvic floor and supporting bladder structures leads to an earlier return of continence. These key steps need to be validated and confirmed in larger and randomized trials. PMID:23230868

  10. Fabrication and characterization of stimulus nerve cuff electrode with highly roughened surface for chronic implant.

    PubMed

    Yi Jae Lee; Kang-Il Song; Ji Yoon Kang; Soo Hyun Lee

    2015-08-01

    Nerve cuff electrodes for peripheral nerve prostheses are required chronically implanted electrodes which simultaneously stimulate and record nerve activity. It is inevitable challenge to investigate electrode material with low interfacial impedance and enhanced charge transfer capacity. In this study, stimulus nerve cuff electrodes on polyimide with Pt, conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), black Pt, and IrOx were fabricated and characterized. The electrochemical properties were investigated using cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and voltage transient measurements. From th experimental results, stimulus nerve cuff electrodes with black Pt showed the highest charge delivery capacity (80 times higher than Pt), charge injection capacity (6 times higher than Pt), and lowest interfacial impedance (3.8 times lower than Pt). PMID:26737026

  11. Arterial pressure: agreement between a brachial cuff-based device and radial tonometry

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chloe M.; Korolkova, Olga; Davies, Justin E.; Parker, Kim H.; Siggers, Jennifer H.; March, Katherine; Tillin, Therese; Chaturvedi, Nish; Hughes, Alun D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Aortic (central) blood pressure (BP) differs from brachial BP and may be a superior predictor of cardiovascular events. However, its measurement is currently restricted to research settings, owing to a moderate level of operator dependency. We tested a new noninvasive device in a large UK cohort. The device estimates central BP using measurements obtained with an upper arm cuff inflated to suprasystolic pressure. We compared these estimates with those obtained using radial tonometry as well as with invasively acquired measurements of aortic BP in a limited number of individuals. Methods: Consecutive cuff-based and tonometry-based estimates of the pressure waveform and the central BP were obtained from 1107 individuals (70??6 years). Short-term and long-term reproducibility studies were performed on 28 individuals. Simultaneous cuff-based and invasively measured pressure traces were acquired and compared in an additional six individuals (65??20 years). Results: Central systolic BP, as estimated by the cuff-based device, was found to be highly reproducible (coefficient of variation 4 and 8% for short and long-term reproducibility, respectively) and was comparable to that estimated by tonometry (average difference 3??6?mmHg, intraclass correlation coefficient?=?0.91). The cuff-based pressure waveforms were similar to those acquired invasively (cross-correlation coefficient 0.93), and the difference in the estimated central systolic BP was ?5??8?mmHg (P?=?0.2). Conclusion: Cuff-based devices show promise to simplify the measurement of central BP, whilst maintaining a similar fidelity to tonometry. This could lead to improved adoption of estimates of central BP in clinical practice. PMID:24379000

  12. Rotating Wavepackets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekner, John

    2008-01-01

    Any free-particle wavepacket solution of Schrodinger's equation can be converted by differentiations to wavepackets rotating about the original direction of motion. The angular momentum component along the motion associated with this rotation is an integral multiple of [h-bar]. It is an "intrinsic" angular momentum: independent of origin and…

  13. Rotating Wavepackets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekner, John

    2008-01-01

    Any free-particle wavepacket solution of Schrodinger's equation can be converted by differentiations to wavepackets rotating about the original direction of motion. The angular momentum component along the motion associated with this rotation is an integral multiple of [h-bar]. It is an "intrinsic" angular momentum: independent of origin and

  14. The effect of mucosal cuff shrinkage around dental implants during healing abutment replacement.

    PubMed

    Nissan, J; Zenziper, E; Rosner, O; Kolerman, R; Chaushu, L; Chaushu, G

    2015-10-01

    Soft tissue shrinkage during the course of restoring dental implants may result in biological and prosthodontic difficulties. This study was conducted to measure the continuous shrinkage of the mucosal cuff around dental implants following the removal of the healing abutment up to 60 s. Individuals treated with implant-supported fixed partial dentures were included. Implant data--location, type, length, diameter and healing abutments' dimensions--were recorded. Mucosal cuff shrinkage, following removal of the healing abutments, was measured in bucco-lingual direction at four time points--immediately after 20, 40 and 60 s. anova was used to for statistical analysis. Eighty-seven patients (49 women and 38 men) with a total of 311 implants were evaluated (120 maxilla; 191 mandible; 291 posterior segments; 20 anterior segments). Two-hundred and five (66%) implants displayed thick and 106 (34%) thin gingival biotype. Time was the sole statistically significant parameter affecting mucosal cuff shrinkage around dental implants (P < 0.001). From time 0 to 20, 40 and 60 s, the mean diameter changed from 4.1 to 4.07, 3.4 and 2.81 mm, respectively. The shrinkage was 1%, 17% and 31%, respectively. The gingival biotype had no statistically significant influence on mucosal cuff shrinkage (P = 0.672). Time required replacing a healing abutment with a prosthetic element should be minimised (up to 20/40 s), to avoid pain, discomfort and misfit. PMID:26132112

  15. Biomechanical and functional variation in rat sciatic nerve following cuff electrode implantation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nerve cuff electrodes are commonly and successfully used for stimulating peripheral nerves. On the other hand, they occasionally induce functional and morphological changes following chronic implantation, for reasons not always clear. We hypothesize that restriction of nerve mobility due to cuff implantation may alter nerve conduction. Methods We quantified acute changes in nerve-muscle electrophysiology, using electromyography, and nerve kinematics in anesthetized Sprague Dawley rat sciatic nerves during controlled hindlimb joint movement. We compared electrophysiological and biomechanical response in uncuffed nerves and those secured within a cuff electrode using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression analysis. Results Tethering resulting from cuff implantation resulted in altered nerve strain and a complex biomechanical environment during joint movement. Coincident with biomechanical changes, electromyography revealed significantly increased variability in the response of conduction latency and amplitude in cuffed, but not free, nerves following joint movement. Conclusion Our findings emphasize the importance of the mechanical interface between peripheral nerves and their devices on neurophysiological performance. This work has implications for nerve device design, implantation, and prediction of long-term efficacy. PMID:24758405

  16. Microvascular anastomosis using fibrin glue and venous cuff in rat carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Sacak, Bulent; Tosun, Ugur; Egemen, Onur; Sakiz, Damlanur; Ugurlu, Kemal

    2015-04-01

    Conventional anastomosis with interrupted sutures can be time-consuming, can cause vessel narrowing, and can lead to thrombosis at the site of repair. The amount of suture material inside the lumen can impair the endothelium of the vessel, triggering thrombosis. In microsurgery, fibrin sealants have the potential beneficial effects of reducing anastomosis time and promoting accurate haemostasis at the anastomotic site. However, there has been a general reluctance to use fibrin glue for microvascular anastomoses because the fibrin polymer is highly thrombogenic and may not provide adequate strength. To overcome these problems, a novel technique was defined for microvascular anastomosis with fibrin glue and a venous cuff. Sixty-four rats in two groups are included in the study. In the experimental group (n = 32), end-to-end arterial anastomosis was performed with two stay sutures, fibrin glue, and a venous cuff. In the control group (n = 32), conventional end-to-end arterial anastomosis was performed. Fibrin glue assisted anastomosis with a venous cuff took less time, caused less bleeding at the anastomotic site, and achieved a patency rate comparable to that provided by the conventional technique. Fibrin sealant assisted microvascular anastomosis with venous cuff is a rapid, easy, and reliable technique compared to the end-to-end arterial anastomosis. PMID:25529101

  17. Achieving a Safe Endotracheal Tube Cuff Pressure in the Prehospital Setting: Is It Time to Revise the Standard Cuff Inflation Practice?

    PubMed

    Carhart, Elliot; Stuck, Logan H; Salzman, Joshua G

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported unsafe endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff pressures (CP) in the prehospital environment. The purpose of this study was to identify an optimal cuff inflation volume (CIV) to achieve a safe CP (20-30 cmH2O). This observational study utilized 30 recently harvested ovine tracheae, which were warmed from refrigeration in a water bath at 85°F prior to testing. Each trachea was intubated with five different ETT sizes (6.0-8.0 mm), and each size tube was tested with six cuff inflation volumes (5-10 cc). The order of ETT size for each trachea and CIV for each size ETT was randomly pre-assigned. Data were descriptively summarized and categorized before mixed-effects logistic regression was used to determine optimal CIV. Only 113 CP measurements (12.6%, N = 900) were within the optimal range (M = 54.75 cmH2O, SD = 38.52), all of which resulted from a CIV 6 or 7 cc (61% and 39%, respectively). CIVs of 5 cc (n = 150) resulted in underinflation (<20 cmH2O) in all instances, while CIVs of 8, 9, or 10 cc (n = 150 each) resulted in overinflation (>30 cmH2O) in all instances, regardless of ETT size. The odds of achieving a safe CP were greater with CIV of 6 cc for tube sizes 6.0 (OR = 15.9, 95% CI = 3.85-65.58, p < 0.01) and 6.5 mm (OR = 3.16, 95% CI = 1.06-9.39, p = 0.039); however, there was no significant difference in the odds of achieving a safe CP between CIV of 6 and 7 cc for tube sizes 7.0, 7.5, or 8.0 mm. Neither trachea circumference (M = 7.11cm, SD = 0.40), nor tissue temperature (M = 81.32°F, SD = 0.93) were found to be significant predictors of CP (p = 0.20 and 0.81, respectively). Our study showed a high frequency of CP measurements outside of the desired norms. The CIV range of 6-7 cc resulted in the highest likelihood of achieving the desired cuff pressure range, while cuffs inflated with 8-10 cc resulted in dangerously high CPs in all instances. In the absence of a more ideal solution, the results of this study suggest that narrowing the recommended CIV from 5-10 cc to 6-7 cc might be a reasonable target for any tube size. PMID:26383171

  18. Measurement of brachial artery endothelial function using a standard blood pressure cuff.

    PubMed

    Maltz, Jonathan S; Tison, Geoffrey H; Alley, Hugh F; Budinger, Thomas F; Owens, Christopher D; Olgin, Jeffrey

    2015-11-01

    The integrity of endothelial function in major arteries (EFMA) is a powerful independent predictor of heart attack and stroke. Existing ultrasound-based non-invasive assessment methods are technically challenging and suitable only for laboratory settings. EFMA, like blood pressure (BP), is both acutely and chronically affected by factors such as lifestyle and medication. Consequently, laboratory-based measurements cannot fully gauge the effects of medical interventions on EFMA. EFMA and BP have, arguably, comparable (but complementary) value in the assessment of cardiovascular health. Widespread deployment of EFMA assessment is thus a desirable clinical goal. To this end, we propose a device based on modifying the measurement protocol of a standard electronic sphygmomanometer. The protocol involves inflating the cuff to sub-diastolic levels to enable recording of the pulse waveform before and after vasodilatory stimulus. The mechanical unloading of the arterial wall provided by the cuff amplifies the distension that occurs with each pulse, which is measured as a pressure variation in the cuff. We show that the height of the rising edge of each pulse is proportional to the change in lumen area between diastole and systole. This allows the effect of vasodilatory stimuli on the artery to be measured with high sensitivity. We compare the proposed cuff flow-mediated dilation (cFMD) method to ultrasound flow-mediated dilation (uFMD). We find significant correlation (r = 0.55, p = 0.003, N = 27) between cFMD- and uFMD-based metrics obtained when the release of a 5 min cuff occlusion is employed to induce endothelial stimulus via reactive hyperemia. cFMD is approximately proportional to the square of uFMD, representing a typical increase in sensitivity to vasodilation of 300-600%. This study illustrates the potential for an individual to conveniently measure his/her EFMA by using a low-cost reprogrammed home sphygmomanometer. PMID:26393958

  19. Unnecessary surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Leape, L L

    1989-01-01

    The extent of unnecessary surgery has been the object of considerable speculation and occasional wild accusation in recent years. Most evidence of the existence of unnecessary surgery, such as information from studies of geographic variations and the results of second surgical opinion programs, is circumstantial. However, results from the few studies that have measured unnecessary surgery directly indicate that for some highly controversial operations the fraction that are unwarranted could be as high as 30 percent. Most unnecessary surgery results from physician uncertainty about the effectiveness of an operation. Elimination of this uncertainty requires more efficient production and dissemination of scientific information about clinical effectiveness. In the absence of adequate data from scientific studies, the use of a consensus of expert opinion, disseminated by means of comprehensive practice guidelines, offers the best opportunity to identify and eliminate unnecessary surgery. PMID:2668237

  20. [Precise surgery].

    PubMed

    Dong, Jiahong; Zhang, Ning

    2015-05-01

    Surgery has passed through an intuitive and an empirical era and has now entered its modern phase. The enormous progress in biomedicine, the rise of evidence-based medicine and the consensus on the need for humanistic patient care, have laid a foundation for a new surgical paradigm. Based on a series of studies and practices, we advocated the concept of 'Precision Surgery'. It covers the entire operation-centered surgical practice. The strategy of precision surgery is to seek a balance of maximizing the removal of the target lesion, while maximizing the functional liver remnant and minimizing surgical invasiveness. We propose that the concept of precision surgery should be considered for wider application within liver surgery and various surgical fields, and finally realize the multi-objective optimization with certainty-based practice to ensure maximized recovery for each patient. PMID:26082243

  1. Rotational Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockett, Keith

    1988-01-01

    Demonstrates several objects rolling down a slope to explain the energy transition among potential energy, translational kinetic energy, and rotational kinetic energy. Contains a problem from Galileo's rolling ball experiment. (YP)

  2. Solar rotation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziembowski, W.

    Sunspot observations made by Johannes Hevelius in 1642 - 1644 are the first ones providing significant information about the solar differential rotation. In modern astronomy the determination of the rotation rate is done in a routine way by measuring positions of various structures on the solar surface as well as by studying the Doppler shifts of spectral lines. In recent years a progress in helioseismology enabled determination of the rotation rate in the layers inaccessible for direct observations. There are still uncertainties concerning, especially, the temporal variations of the rotation rate and its behaviour in the radiative interior. We are far from understanding the observations. Theoretical works have not yet resulted in a satisfactory model for the angular momentum transport in the convective zone.

  3. Brain surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  4. Plastic Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... procedure that can help smooth or camouflage severe acne scars) sometimes feel more comfortable with their appearance ... procedures teens choose include nose reshaping, ear surgery, acne and acne scar treatment, and breast reduction. previous ...

  5. Cosmetic Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... defect or cosmetic flaw that has diminished their self-esteem over time. It's important to remember that cosmetic ... can create both physical changes and changes in self-esteem. But if you are seeking surgery with the ...

  6. Rodding Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rods can be made of stainless steel or titanium. Regular rods do not expand. They have many ... v regular), the rod materials (stainless steel v titanium) and the age for a first rodding surgery. ...

  7. Considering Surgery?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... I should know about this surgery? Choosing a Surgeon Your primary care doctor may suggest a surgeon to you. Your state or local medical society can tell you about your surgeon's training. Try to choose a surgeon who operates ...

  8. Thyroid Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... thyroid surgery, requiring treatment with thyroid hormone (see Hypothyroidism brochure ). This is especially true if you had ... Radioactive Iodine Low Iodine Diet Thyroid Function Tests Hypothyroidism Hyperthyroidism Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine ...

  9. Heart Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Risks Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Aneurysm Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Heart Transplant Pacemakers Ventricular Assist Device Send a ... common type of heart surgery for adults is coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). During CABG, a healthy artery or vein ...

  10. Could "safe practice" be compromising safe practice? Should anesthetists have to deflate the cuff of the endotracheal tube before extubation?

    PubMed

    Priebe, Hans J

    2016-02-01

    Deflation of the cuff of the endotracheal tube (ETT) before tracheal extubation is considered mandatory and safe practice. However, there are potential shortcomings associated with this practice (e.g., aspiration around the uncuffed ETT, loss of positive airway pressure, difficulty in generating an effective cough at the time of extubation). By contrast, keeping the cuff inflated during extubation will minimize the risk of tracheal aspiration around the ETT, and it will reliably allow maintenance of positive airway pressure until extubation, effective lung recruitment before extubation, and generation of an effective cough during extubation. All of these factors might reduce the overall risk of immediate postextubation and postoperative respiratory and pulmonary complications. Mandatory monitoring of cuff pressure ensures a remaining rather small, highly compressible cuff volume around the ETT which is unlikely to carry per se the risk of producing laryngeal trauma. In my view, as the overall advantages of not deflating the cuff before extubation outweigh the disadvantages, anesthetists should not have to deflate the cuff of the ETT before extubation. Ultimately, only a randomized controlled trial will be able to assess the effect of such practice on patient outcome. PMID:26126979

  11. Bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Karmali, Shahzeer; Stoklossa, Carlene Johnson; Sharma, Arya; Stadnyk, Janet; Christiansen, Sandra; Cottreau, Danielle; Birch, Daniel W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To review the management of bariatric surgical patients. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched, as well as PubMed US National Library, from January 1950 to December 2009. Evidence was levels I, II, and III. MAIN MESSAGE Bariatric surgery should be considered for obese patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality who have not achieved adequate weight loss with lifestyle and medical management and who are suffering from the complications of obesity. Bariatric surgery can result in substantial weight loss, resolution of comorbid conditions, and improved quality of life. The patient’s weight-loss history; his or her personal accountability, responsibility, and comprehension; and the acceptable level of risk must be taken into account. Complications include technical failure, bleeding, abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting, excess loose skin, bowel obstruction, ulcers, and anastomotic stricture. Lifelong monitoring by a multidisciplinary team is essential. CONCLUSION Limited long-term success of behavioural and pharmacologic therapies in severe obesity has led to renewed interest in bariatric surgery. Success with bariatric surgery is more likely when multidisciplinary care providers, in conjunction with primary care providers, assess, treat, monitor, and evaluate patients before and after surgery. Family physicians will play a critical role in counseling patients about bariatric surgery and will need to develop skills in managing these patients in the long-term. PMID:20841586

  12. [Robotic surgery].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Portillo, Mucio; Valenzuela-Salazar, Carlos; Quiroz-Guadarrama, Csar David; Pachecho-Gahbler, Carlos; Rojano-Rodrguez, Martn

    2014-12-01

    Medicine has experienced greater scientific and technological advances in the last 50 years than in the rest of human history. The article describes relevant events, revises concepts and advantages and clinical applications, summarizes published clinical results, and presents some personal reflections without giving dogmatic conclusions about robotic surgery. The Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) defines robotic surgery as a surgical procedure using technology to aid the interaction between surgeon and patient. The objective of the surgical robot is to correct human deficiencies and improve surgical skills. The capacity of repeating tasks with precision and reproducibility has been the base of the robots success. Robotic technology offers objective and measurable advantages: -?Improving maneuverability and physical capacity during surgery. -?Correcting bad postural habits and tremor. -?Allowing depth perception (3D images). -?Magnifying strength and movement limits. -?Offering a platform for sensors, cameras, and instruments. Endoscopic surgery transformed conceptually the way of practicing surgery. Nevertheless in the last decade, robotic assisted surgery has become the next paradigm of our era. PMID:25643879

  13. Tennis elbow surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Lateral epicondylitis - surgery; Lateral tendinosis - surgery; Lateral tennis elbow - surgery ... Surgery to repair tennis elbow is usually an outpatient surgery. This means you will not stay in the hospital overnight. You will be ...

  14. Earth Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  15. A device for emulating cuff recordings of action potentials propagating along peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Robert; Schuettler, Martin; Chuang, Sheng-Chih

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes a device that emulates propagation of action potentials along a peripheral nerve, suitable for reproducible testing of bio-potential recording systems using nerve cuff electrodes. The system is a microcontroller-based stand-alone instrument which uses established nerve and electrode models to represent neural activity of real nerves recorded with a nerve cuff interface, taking into consideration electrode impedance, voltages picked up by the electrodes, and action potential propagation characteristics. The system emulates different scenarios including compound action potentials with selectable propagation velocities and naturally occurring nerve traffic from different velocity fiber populations. Measured results from a prototype implementation are reported and compared with in vitro recordings from Xenopus Laevis frog sciatic nerve, demonstrating that the electrophysiological setting is represented to a satisfactory degree, useful for the development, optimization and characterization of future recording systems. PMID:24760928

  16. Repeated Tracheostomy Tube Cuff Rupture Due to Tracheobronchopathia Osteochondroplastica: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nikandish, Reza; Fallahi, Mahammad Javad; Ziaian, Beezhan; Iranpour, Pooya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica (TPO) is a rare benign disorder of the lower part of the trachea and the upper part of the main bronchi. Case Report: A case of tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica (TPO) diagnosed at the time of intubation in an intensive care unit due to difficulty when advancing the endotracheal tube beyond the vocal cords, is reported. A problem was encountered which had not been reported previously in TPO: repeated cuff rupture at the time of surgical tracheostomy occurred possibly because of bony and cartilaginous tissue located in the tracheal wall. Conclusion: In addition to difficulty of intubation, TPO may cause tracheostomy tube cuff rupture, which could be explained due to bonny calcification in the tracheal wall. PMID:26568943

  17. Effect of Alpine ski boot cuff release on knee joint force during the backward fall.

    PubMed

    Benoit, D L; Lamontagne, M; Greaves, C; Liti, A; Cerulli, G

    2005-01-01

    The modern rigid alpine ski boot has been associated with an increase in severe knee joint injuries. A new design that allows the rear portion of the upper cuff of the boot (rear spoiler) to open when a posterior directed force is applied to it (similar to when a skier falls back on the ski) is investigated. Motion analysis was combined with kinetic measures to estimate the shear and compressive forces at the knee joint using a link-segment model while subjects fell backward to provoke ski boot cuff release. The rear spoiler opening was found to reduce anterior cruciate ligament directed shear force while increasing compressive force at the joint. We conclude that both compressive force and reduced anterior cruciate directed shear force have been associated with protective mechanisms at the knee joint. This occurred over a very brief period of time, however, and the influence this may have on knee injury prevention is discussed. PMID:16440506

  18. On the identification of sensory information from mixed nerves by using single-channel cuff electrodes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several groups have shown that the performance of motor neuroprostheses can be significantly improved by detecting specific sensory events related to the ongoing motor task (e.g., the slippage of an object during grasping). Algorithms have been developed to achieve this goal by processing electroneurographic (ENG) afferent signals recorded by using single-channel cuff electrodes. However, no efforts have been made so far to understand the number and type of detectable sensory events that can be differentiated from whole nerve recordings using this approach. Methods To this aim, ENG afferent signals, evoked by different sensory stimuli were recorded using single-channel cuff electrodes placed around the sciatic nerve of anesthetized rats. The ENG signals were digitally processed and several features were extracted and used as inputs for the classification. The work was performed on integral datasets, without eliminating any noisy parts, in order to be as close as possible to real application. Results The results obtained showed that single-channel cuff electrodes are able to provide information on two to three different afferent (proprioceptive, mechanical and nociceptive) stimuli, with reasonably good discrimination ability. The classification performances are affected by the SNR of the signal, which in turn is related to the diameter of the fibers encoding a particular type of neurophysiological stimulus. Conclusions Our findings indicate that signals of acceptable SNR and corresponding to different physiological modalities (e.g. mediated by different types of nerve fibers) may be distinguished. PMID:20423488

  19. Association of Oversized Tracheal Tubes and Cuff Overinsufflation With Postintubation Tracheal Ruptures

    PubMed Central

    Sudhoff, Tobias H.; Seidl, Rainer O.; Estel, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Postintubation tracheal ruptures (PTR) are rare but cause severe complications. Our objective was to investigate the tracheal pattern of injury resulting from cuff inflation of the tracheal tube, to study the two main factors responsible for PTR (cuff overinsufflation and inapplicable tube sizes), and to explain the context, why small women are particularly susceptible to PTR. Methods Experimental study performed on 28 fresh human laryngotracheal specimens (16 males, 12 females) within 24 hours post autopsy. Artificial ventilation was simulated by using an underwater construction and a standard tracheal tube. Tube sizes were selected according to our previously published nomogram. Tracheal lesions were detected visually and tracheal diameters measured. The influence of body size, sex difference and appropriate tube size were investigated according to patient height. Results In all 28 cases, the typical tracheal lesion pattern was a longitudinal median rupture of the posterior trachea. Appropriate tube sizes according to body size caused PTR with significantly higher cuff pressure when compared with oversized tubes. An increased risk of PTR was found in shorter patients, when oversized tubes were used. Sex difference did not have any significant influence. Conclusion This experimental model provides information about tracheal patterns in PTR for the first time. The model confirms by experiment the observations of case series in PTR patients, and therefore emphasizes the importance of correct tube size selection according to patient height. This minimizes the risk of PTR, especially in shorter patients, who have an increased risk of PTR when oversized tubes are used. PMID:26622963

  20. Optimal care and design of the tracheal cuff in the critically ill patient.

    PubMed

    Jaillette, Emmanuelle; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Artigas, Antonio; Nseir, Saad

    2014-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of non-invasive ventilation and high-flow nasal-oxygen therapy, intubation is still performed in a large proportion of critically ill patients. The aim of this narrative review is to discuss recent data on long-term intubation-related complications, such as microaspiration, and tracheal ischemic lesions. These complications are common in critically ill patients, and are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Recent data suggest beneficial effects of tapered cuffed tracheal tubes in reducing aspiration. However, clinical data are needed in critically ill patients to confirm this hypothesis. Polyurethane-cuffed tracheal tubes and continuous control of cuff pressure could be beneficial in preventing microaspiration and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). However, large multicenter studies are needed before recommending their routine use. Cuff pressure should be maintained between 20 and 30 cmH2O to prevent intubation-related complications. Tracheal ischemia could be prevented by manual or continuous control of cuff pressure. PMID:24572178

  1. Laparoscopic Transvesical Resection of an En Bloc Bladder Cuff and Distal Ureter during Nephroureterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Giannakopoulos, Stilianos; Toufas, George; Dimitriadis, Charalampos; Giannopoulos, Stavros; Kalaitzis, Christos; Bantis, Athanasios; Patris, Emmanuel; Touloupidis, Stavros

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The most appropriate technique for excising the distal ureter and bladder cuff during laparoscopic nephroureterectomy is still debated. We report our experience with a pure laparoscopic transvesical method that duplicates the long-standing open transvesical approach. Materials and Methods. Seven men and three women diagnosed with upper tract transitional cell carcinoma were treated with this procedure. Three intravesical ports were inserted, and pneumovesicum was established at 12 mmHg. Transvesical laparoscopic circumferential detachment of the bladder cuff and en bloc mobilization of the last centimeters of the distal ureter were performed, followed by the closure of the bladder defect. Subsequently, a nephrectomy was performed either laparoscopically or using an open flank approach. Results. The median age was 68.5 years. The procedure was completed uneventfully in all cases. The median operating time for distal ureter excision was 82.5 minutes (range 55–120). No complications directly related to the pneumovesicum method were recorded. The median follow-up period was 31 months (range 12–55). During the follow-up period, two patients (20%) died from the disease, and a bladder tumor developed in three cases (30%). Conclusion. The laparoscopic transvesical resection of the en bloc bladder cuff and distal ureter is a reliable, effective, and oncologically safe technique, at least in the midterm. PMID:23049475

  2. Optimal care and design of the tracheal cuff in the critically ill patient

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of non-invasive ventilation and high-flow nasal-oxygen therapy, intubation is still performed in a large proportion of critically ill patients. The aim of this narrative review is to discuss recent data on long-term intubation-related complications, such as microaspiration, and tracheal ischemic lesions. These complications are common in critically ill patients, and are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Recent data suggest beneficial effects of tapered cuffed tracheal tubes in reducing aspiration. However, clinical data are needed in critically ill patients to confirm this hypothesis. Polyurethane-cuffed tracheal tubes and continuous control of cuff pressure could be beneficial in preventing microaspiration and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). However, large multicenter studies are needed before recommending their routine use. Cuff pressure should be maintained between 20 and 30 cmH2O to prevent intubation-related complications. Tracheal ischemia could be prevented by manual or continuous control of cuff pressure. PMID:24572178

  3. Selectivity for specific cardiovascular effects of vagal nerve stimulation with a multi-contact electrode cuff.

    PubMed

    Ordelman, Simone C M A; Kornet, Lilian; Cornelussen, Richard; Buschman, Hendrik P J; Veltink, Peter H

    2013-01-01

    The cardiovascular system can be influenced by electrically stimulating the vagal nerve. Selectivity for specific cardiac fibers may be limited when stimulating at the cervical level. Our objective was to increase effectiveness and selectivity for cardiovascular effects of vagal nerve stimulation by using local bipolar stimulation in one nerve cross section using a multi-contact cuff instead of less localized stimulation using a tripolar ring electrode. Both types of cuff electrodes were compared with respect to their relative effects on R-R interval (RRI), P-Q interval (PQI), left ventricular contractility (LVC), and left ventricular pressure (P(LV)) in seven pigs. Stimulation using the optimal bipolar configuration on the multi-contact cuff significantly affected RRI, PQI, LVC, and P(LV), whereas stimulation with the ring electrode only significantly affected RRI and PQI. The cardiovascular parameters that could be significantly influenced varied between the bipolar configurations. These novel findings may be relevant for optimizing electrode configurations for clinical cardiac applications of vagal nerve stimulation. PMID:22987542

  4. Biomechanical response in the ankle to stimulation of lumbosacral nerve roots with spiral cuff multielectrode--preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Bosnjak, R; Dolenc, V V; Kralj, A

    1999-09-01

    Biomechanical response in the ankle to tetanic stimulation of the lumbosacral root was investigated to assess the potential for lower limb functional neurostimulation. Myotomal response in the leg was measured as the three-dimensional isometric torque in the ankle after extradural tetanic stimulation of the L3-S1 roots exposed surgically for herniated disc removal in five patients. The cuff multielectrode was employed to investigate functional topography of the roots by monopolar, bipolar, and tripolar electrode configurations. Four response patterns in the direction of three-dimensional torque vectors were observed. The L-5 and S-1 roots had the same response pattern, but S-1 roots produced stronger torques. Dorsiflexion torque was not obtained by stimulation of L-5 roots despite coactivation of the tibial anterior and peroneal muscles. Dorsiflexion torques were produced only by stimulating the L-4 roots. More selective bipolar and tripolar stimulations recruited force at higher thresholds and less gain. Additionally, some muscles were not activated by tripolar stimulation of the same root. In one L-4 root, the torque at lower electrical threshold was replaced by inverse torque at higher threshold, providing indirect evidence that different muscles may have motoneuron populations that differ in diameter or location within the root. Although dorsiflexion and plantarflexion torques are functional per se, they are accompanied by foot inversion and leg rotation torques (as well as proximal muscle contractions). Further experimental investigations on direct extradural stimulation of lumbosacral roots, either single or in combination, are recommended to explore the potential of lumbosacral nerve root stimulation for restoration of leg function. PMID:10563116

  5. [Metabolic surgery].

    PubMed

    Jurowich, C; Germer, C T; Seyfried, F; Thalheimer, A

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2 is constantly rising worldwide and is one of the most threatening global health and health economic problems. Whereas bariatric surgery is well established in the treatment of morbid obesity, the surgical treatment options for type 2 diabetes mellitus alone are still under discussion (metabolic surgery). Bariatric procedures differ considering weight loss and influencing associated comorbidities. Detailed knowledge of available surgical treatment options for morbid obesity, the risks and requirements of laparoscopic skills, effectiveness and, as far as already known, mechanisms of action are crucial for appropriate implementation. PMID:22695815

  6. [Foreskin surgery].

    PubMed

    Kolehmainen, Maija; Taskinen, Seppo; Ossi, Lindell

    2010-01-01

    Balanitis, phimosis and foreskin adhesions are common indications for foreskin surgery during childhood. In phimosis, the foreskin cannot be drawn behind the glans penis because of the narrow external opening of the former. It is important to be able to distinguish between physiologic and pathologic phimosis, since their treatment is different. In adulthood, the need for surgery can be caused by phimosis, a difficult sequel of paraphimosis, recurrent inflammations of the glans penis and foreskin, diseases and cancers of the skin as well as difficulties at intercourse due to the shortness of the frenulum of the prepuce of the penis. PMID:20405611

  7. Carotid artery surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... through the catheter around the blocked area during surgery. Your carotid artery is opened. The surgeon removes ...

  8. Does primary brachial plexus surgery alter palliative tendon transfer surgery outcomes in children with obstetric paralysis?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The surgical management of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy can generally be divided into two groups; early reconstructions in which the plexus or affected nerves are addressed and late or palliative reconstructions in which the residual deformities are addressed. Tendon transfers are the mainstay of palliative surgery. Occasionally, surgeons are required to utilise already denervated and subsequently reinnervated muscles as motors. This study aimed to compare the outcomes of tendon transfers for residual shoulder dysfunction in patients who had undergone early nerve surgery to the outcomes in patients who had not. Methods A total of 91 patients with obstetric paralysis-related shoulder abduction and external rotation deficits who underwent a modified Hoffer transfer of the latissimus dorsi/teres major to the greater tubercle of the humerus tendon between 2002 and 2009 were retrospectively analysed. The patients who had undergone neural surgery during infancy were compared to those who had not in terms of their preoperative and postoperative shoulder abduction and external rotation active ranges of motion. Results In the early surgery groups, only the postoperative external rotation angles showed statistically significant differences (25 degrees and 75 degrees for total and upper type palsies, respectively). Within the palliative surgery-only groups, there were no significant differences between the preoperative and postoperative abduction and external rotation angles. The significant differences between the early surgery groups and the palliative surgery groups with total palsy during the preoperative period diminished postoperatively (p < 0.05 and p > 0.05, respectively) for abduction but not for external rotation. Within the upper type palsy groups, there were no significant differences between the preoperative and postoperative abduction and external rotation angles. Conclusions In this study, it was found that in patients with total paralysis, satisfactory shoulder abduction values can be achieved with tendon transfers regardless of a previous history of neural surgery even if the preoperative values differ. PMID:21489264

  9. Arthroscopic Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Arthroscopic surgery (or microsurgery) is a significant breakthrough in treating knee injuries. Its applications range from basic diagnosis to arthroscopic menisectomy, although its use in some procedures is still highly controversial. Many surgeons perform the diagnostic procedure, but follow this with the conventional surgical approach.

  10. Preprosthetic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Ephros, Hillel; Klein, Robert; Sallustio, Anthony

    2015-08-01

    Preprosthetic oral and maxillofacial surgery has changed dramatically over the last 3 decades. Surgical preparation for dentures has been displaced by site development for implants. Nonetheless, there is still a role to play for several preprosthetic procedures. In this article, historical context is provided, enduring concepts are reviewed, and procedures that remain relevant are described and discussed. PMID:26231818

  11. Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Weisse, Allen B.

    2011-01-01

    Well into the first decades of the 20th century, medical opinion held that any surgical attempts to treat heart disease were not only misguided, but unethical. Despite such reservations, innovative surgeons showed that heart wounds could be successfully repaired. Then, extracardiac procedures were performed to correct patent ductus arteriosus, coarctation of the aorta, and tetralogy of Fallot. Direct surgery on the heart was accomplished with closed commissurotomy for mitral stenosis. The introduction of the heart-lung machine and cardiopulmonary bypass enabled the surgical treatment of other congenital and acquired heart diseases. Advances in aortic surgery paralleled these successes. The development of coronary artery bypass grafting greatly aided the treatment of coronary heart disease. Cardiac transplantation, attempts to use the total artificial heart, and the application of ventricular assist devices have brought us to the present day. Although progress in the field of cardiovascular surgery appears to have slowed when compared with the halcyon times of the past, substantial challenges still face cardiac surgeons. It can only be hoped that sufficient resources and incentive can carry the triumphs of the 20th century into the 21st. This review covers past developments and future opportunities in cardiac surgery. PMID:22163121

  12. Arthroscopic Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Arthroscopic surgery (or microsurgery) is a significant breakthrough in treating knee injuries. Its applications range from basic diagnosis to arthroscopic menisectomy, although its use in some procedures is still highly controversial. Many surgeons perform the diagnostic procedure, but follow this with the conventional surgical approach.…

  13. [Glaucoma and retinal surgery].

    PubMed

    Mller, M; Geerling, G; Zierhut, M; Klink, T

    2010-05-01

    In the therapeutic approach to complex glaucomas different initial situations were considered: pre-existing glaucoma, induction of glaucoma after vitreoretinal surgery and antiglaucomatous procedures. In pre-existing glaucoma and after filtering surgery maintenance of the filtering bleb requires a vitreoretinal approach for conjunctiva preservation with techniques such as pneumatic retinopexy or small gauge vitrectomy. After vitreoretinal surgery an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) is common. Secondary glaucoma may occur after scleral buckling and after vitrectomy with or without gas or silicone oil tamponade as well as after application of steroids. Angle closure glaucoma after scleral buckling develops because of congestion and anterior rotation of the ciliary body. Vitreous tamponades with expansive or saturated gases may cause angle-closure glaucoma with or without pupillary blockage and may critically shorten ocular perfusion. Postoperative checks, immediate action and a ban on boarding aircraft over the period of intraocular gas tamponade prevent permanent damage to the eye. The majority of secondary glaucomas can effectively be controlled by topical medication and adequate postoperative posture of the patient. Besides the temporary use of systemic antiglaucomatous medication or laser therapy, very rarely in cases of massive swelling or overfill, a direct intervention, such as partial gas or silicone oil removal is required. A prophylactic inferior peripheral iridectomy prevents pupillary blockage in aphakic eyes with intraocular tamponade. In cases of heavy silicone oil use, the peripheral iridectomy is placed in the superior position. Nd:YAG laser application will regulate IOP in cases of occlusion. Secondary glaucoma due to silicone oil emulsification overload is treated by trabecular meshwork aspiration and lavage. In refractory glaucoma repetitive cyclophotocoagulation and drainage implants represent an approved method for long-term IOP regulation. The underlying cause of secondary glaucoma after vitreoretinal surgery is often multifactorial in nature and may benefit from an exact analysis for an adequate and successful treatment regimen. PMID:20454902

  14. Atrial Fibrillation Surgery - Maze Procedure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a Thoracic Surgeon? Adult Cardiac Surgery What is Pediatric Heart Disease? What is Risk Adjustment? Valve Repair/Replacement Surgery Esophageal Surgery Lung/Thoracic Surgery Aneurysm Surgery Arrhythmia Surgery Atrial Fibrillation Surgery - Maze Procedure ...

  15. Local perivascular delivery of anti-restenotic agents from a drug-eluting poly(epsilon-caprolactone) stent cuff.

    PubMed

    Pires, Nuno M M; van der Hoeven, Barend L; de Vries, Margreet R; Havekes, Louis M; van Vlijmen, Bart J; Hennink, Wim E; Quax, Paul H A; Jukema, J Wouter

    2005-09-01

    The introduction of drug-eluting stents (DES) to prevent in-stent restenosis is one of the major advances in interventional cardiology. Currently many types of DES are under evaluation for effectiveness and safety, a time-consuming and difficult procedure in humans. An animal model that allows rapid evaluation of the present and upcoming therapeutic approaches to prevent in-stent restenosis is most valuable and still lacking. Here, a perivascular cuff to induce restenosis was constructed of a poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) formulation suitable for the controlled delivery of drugs. Placing the PCL cuff around the femoral artery, in vivo, resulted in reproducible restenosis-like lesions containing predominantly smooth muscle-actin positive cells. Loading the cuff with the anti-restenotic compounds paclitaxel and rapamycin resulted, in vitro, in a sustained and dose-dependent release for at least 3 weeks. Paclitaxel- and rapamycin-eluting PCL cuffs placed around the femoral artery of mice in vivo significantly reduced intimal thickening by 76 +/- 2% and 75 +/- 6%, respectively, at 21 days. Perivascular sustained release of both anti-restenotic agents is restricted to the cuffed vessel segment with no systemic adverse effects or effect on cuffed contralateral femoral arteries. Drug-eluting PCL cuffs provide an easy and rapid tool to evaluate anti-restenotic agents to be used in combination with the DES strategies. PMID:15814137

  16. Cardiac and Vascular Responses to Thigh Cuffs and Respiratory Maneuvers on Crewmembers of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Garcia, Kathleen; Ebert, Douglas; Whitson, Peggy A.; Feiveson, Alan; Alferova, Irina V.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Matveev, Vladimir P.; Bogomolov, Valery V.; Duncan, J. Michael

    2011-01-01

    The transition to microgravity eliminates the hydrostatic gradients in the vascular system. The resulting fluid redistribution commonly manifests as facial edema, engorgement of the external neck veins, and a decrease in leg diameter. This experiment examined the responses to modified Valsalva and Mueller maneuvers measured by cardiac and vascular ultrasound (ECHO) in a baseline steady state and during preload reduction introduced with thigh occlusion cuffs used as a counter-measure device (Braslet cuffs) measured by cardiac and vascular ultrasound examinations. Methods: Nine International Space Station crewmember subjects (Expeditions 16 - 20) were examined in 15 experiment sessions 101 +/- 46.days after launch (mean +/- SD; 33 - 185). Twenty Seven cardiac and vascular parameters were obtained with/without respiratory maneuvers before and after tightening of the Braslet cuffs. Results: Non-physicians performed diagnostic-quality cardiac and vascular ultrasound examinations using remote guidance. Three of 27 combinations of maneuvers and Braslet or Braslet alone were identified as being significant changed when compared to baseline. Eleven of 81 differences between combinations of Mueller, Valsalva or baseline were significant and related to cardiac preload reduction or increase in lower extremity venous volume. Conclusions: Acute application of Braslet occlusion cuffs causes lower extremity fluid sequestration and exerts commensurate measurable effects on cardiac performance in microgravity. Ultrasound techniques to measure the hemodynamic effects of thigh cuffs in combination with respiratory maneuvers may serve as an invaluable tool in determining the volume status of the cardiac patient at the 'microgravity bedside'.

  17. Improvement of signal-to-interference ratio and signal-to-noise ratio in nerve cuff electrode systems.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jun-Uk; Song, Kang-Il; Han, Sungmin; Lee, Soo Hyun; Kim, Jinseok; Kang, Ji Yoon; Hwang, Dosik; Suh, Jun-Kyo Francis; Choi, Kuiwon; Youn, Inchan

    2012-06-01

    Cuff electrodes are effective for chronic electroneurogram (ENG) recording while minimizing nerve damage. However, the ENG signals are usually contaminated by electromyogram (EMG) activity from the surrounding muscles, stimulus artifacts produced by the electrical stimulation and noise generated in the first stage of the neural signal amplifier. This paper proposed a new cuff electrode to reduce the interference from EMG signals and stimulus artifacts. As a result, when an additional middle electrode was placed at the center of the cuff electrode, a significant improvement in the signal-to-interference ratio was achieved at 11% for the EMG signals and 12% for the stimulus artifacts when compared to a conventional tripolar cuff. Furthermore, a new low-noise amplifier was proposed to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The circuit was designed based on a noise analysis to minimize the noise, and the results show that the total noise of the amplifier was below 1??V for a cuff impedance of 1 k? and a frequency bandwidth of 300 to 5000 Hz. PMID:22551721

  18. Refractive corneal surgery - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Nearsightedness surgery - discharge; Refractive surgery - discharge; LASIK - discharge; PRK - discharge ... You had refractive corneal surgery to help improve your vision. This surgery uses a laser to reshape your cornea. It corrects mild-to-moderate nearsightedness, ...

  19. Scoliosis surgery - child

    MedlinePLUS

    Spinal curvature surgery - child; Kyphoscoliosis surgery - child; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - child; VATS - child ... Before surgery, your child will receive general anesthesia. This will make ... and unable to feel pain during the operation. During ...

  20. Lung Carcinoid Tumor: Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for lung carcinoid tumor symptoms Surgery to treat lung carcinoid tumors Surgery is the main treatment for ... often be cured by surgery alone. Types of lung surgery Different operations can be used to treat ( ...

  1. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topic Radiation therapy for breast cancer Surgery for breast cancer Most women with breast cancer have some ... the most common types of breast cancer surgery. Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) This type of surgery removes ...

  2. Bloodless surgery in geriatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Salvatore; Di Matteo, Filippo; Sorrenti, Salvatore; Greco, Roberto; Nardi, Matteo; Favoriti, Pasqualino; De Antoni, Enrico; Filippini, Angelo; Catania, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In bloodless surgery a series of measures has to be implemented to reduce the perioperative need for transfusion of whole blood or its components. Jehovah's Witness are the most representative group of patients opting for bloodless surgery as their faith follows strict believes that prohibits receiving blood. Geriatric patients requiring bloodless surgery are even more delicate and represent a challenge for surgeons. The physiological response of the over 65 year population to decreased hemoglobin level is slower and less effective than in young and adult patients. Herby we describe the perioperative protocol implemented in our surgical Department offered to geriatric Jehovah's Witness patients. Preoperative optimization of the patients is the key step in the preparation period. Intraoperative anesthetic and surgical measures are also required along with a strict postoperative follow-up. From our experience, bloodless surgery is feasible in the geriatric population as long as it is performed in specialized centers where a multidisciplinary team is prepared to specifically manage this scenario. Rigorous patients selection and preparation are mandatory. PMID:25183638

  3. Difficulty with cuff deflation of reinforced tracheal tube caused by inflation line occlusion with silk thread ligation and fixation.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Sayoko; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Imai, Eriko; Kawamata, Mikito

    2015-01-01

    A reinforced tracheal tube, ligated with silk threads, was inserted into a tracheostomy orifice and fixed to the skin. The cuff inflation line of the reinforced tracheal tube became occluded. Reinforced 'armoured' tracheal tubes have a spiral of wire embedded into the wall of the tube to give strength and flexibility, and may be sharply bent without compromising the tube lumen. The tracheal cuff attached to the tube is inflated by injecting air through a narrow-diameter tube welded to the outside of the tracheal tube. When a reinforced tracheal tube is ligated and fixed with silk threads, it should be confirmed whether the tracheal tube cuff can be deflated and inflated after fixation. Moreover, because occlusion can be eliminated by removing all silk threads used to ligate a tracheal tube, they should be removed before extubation. PMID:25743860

  4. Robot-Assisted Minimally Invasive Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Operation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Most people rotate through and they do fine. Robotic surgery requires a little bit of expertise and ... physician assistant is [Aaron Murstoka]. Head nurse of robotics is [Sara Harrick]. And the rest of these ...

  5. Drinking citrus fruit juice inhibits vascular remodeling in cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Arika; Asayama, Rie; Mogi, Masaki; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Kan-No, Harumi; Tsukuda, Kana; Chisaka, Toshiyuki; Wang, Xiao-Li; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Iwanami, Jun; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2015-01-01

    Citrus fruits are thought to have inhibitory effects on oxidative stress, thereby attenuating the onset and progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease; however, there are few reports assessing their effect on vascular remodeling. Here, we investigated the effect of drinking the juice of two different citrus fruits on vascular neointima formation using a cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model. Male C57BL6 mice were divided into five groups as follows: 1) Control (water) (C), 2) 10% Citrus unshiu (CU) juice (CU10), 3) 40% CU juice (CU40), 4) 10% Citrus iyo (CI) juice (CI10), and 5) 40% CI juice (CI40). After drinking them for 2 weeks from 8 weeks of age, cuff injury was induced by polyethylene cuff placement around the femoral artery. Neointima formation was significantly attenuated in CU40, CI10 and CI40 compared with C; however, no remarkable preventive effect was observed in CU10. The increases in levels of various inflammatory markers including cytokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1?, and tumor necrosis factor-? in response to vascular injury did not differ significantly between C, CU10 and CI10. The increases in cell proliferation and superoxide anion production were markedly attenuated in CI10, but not in CU10 compared with C. The increase in phosphorylated ERK expression was markedly attenuated both in CU10 and CI10 without significant difference between CU10 and CI10. Accumulation of immune cells did not differ between CU10 and CI10. These results indicate that drinking citrus fruit juice attenuates vascular remodeling partly via a reduction of oxidative stress. Interestingly, the preventive efficacy on neointima formation was stronger in CI than in CU at least in part due to more prominent inhibitory effects on oxidative stress by CI. PMID:25692290

  6. Design, fabrication and evaluation of a conforming circumpolar peripheral nerve cuff electrode for acute experimental use

    PubMed Central

    Foldes, Emily L.; Ackermann, D. Michael; Bhadra, Niloy; Kilgore, Kevin L.; Bhadra, Narendra

    2011-01-01

    Nerve cuff electrodes are a principle tool of basic and applied electro-neurophysiology studies and are championed for their ability to achieve good nerve recruitment with low thresholds. We describe the design and method of fabrication for a novel circumpolar peripheral nerve electrode for acute experimental use. This cylindrical cuff-style electrode provides approximately 270 degrees of radial electrode contact with a nerve for each of an arbitrary number of contacts, has a profile that allows for simple placement and removal in an acute nerve preparation, and is designed for adjustment of the cylindrical diameter to ensure a close fit on the nerve. For each electrode, the electrical contacts were cut from 25 µm platinum foil as an array so as to maintain their positions relative to each other within the cuff. Lead wires were welded to each intended contact. The structure was then molded in silicone elastomer, after which the individual contacts were electrically isolated. The final electrode was curved into a cylindrical shape with an inner diameter corresponding to that of the intended target nerve. The positions of these contacts were well maintained during the molding and shaping process and failure rates during fabrication due to contact displacements were very low. Established electrochemical measurements were made on one electrode to confirm expected behavior for a platinum electrode and to measure the electrode impedance to applied voltages at different frequencies. These electrodes have been successfully used for nerve stimulation, recording, and conduction block in a number of different acute animal experiments by several investigators. PMID:21187115

  7. Instantaneous centers of rotation in dorsi/plantar flexion movements of posterior-type plastic ankle-foot orthoses.

    PubMed

    Sumiya, T; Suzuki, Y; Kasahara, T; Ogata, H

    1997-07-01

    Hingeless plastic ankle-foot orthoses (PAFOs) achieve ankle motion by flexing about the ankle joint. Instantaneous centers of rotation (ICRs) in dorsi- and plantarflexion movements, used as a measure of PAFO axes of movement, were measured to evaluate their fit to ankle motion. Thirty different PAFOs were fabricated and their stiffness modified in three stages. They were dorsi- and plantarflexed 16 degrees at 2 degrees-intervals using an original device. Displacement of two marks on the lateral calf-cuff were traced photographically, and ICRs were determined by plotting intersections of vertical bisectors for each displacement. The ICRs converged on the junction between the calf shell and the shoe insert. They deviated posteriorly from the anatomical ankle axis and caused the calf-cuff to move up-down during dorsi- and plantarflexion movements. However, this poor fit of the PAFO to ankle motion can be sufficiently compensated for by fastening straps more loosely. PMID:9239620

  8. Repair of large supraspinatus rotator-cuff defects by infraspinatus and subscapularis tendon transfers in a cadaver model

    PubMed Central

    Kasten, Philip; Loew, Markus

    2006-01-01

    Transosseous repair of a supraspinatus tendon (SSP) defect (Patte size II) can be difficult if the tendon is retracted and the muscle atrophied. In this situation alternatives are margin convergence techniques, local tendon transfers or distant tendon transfers in massive tears. The object of this study was to compare two local tendon transfers in terms of the feasibility of the shift, the area covered by the shift and the force needed to accomplish the shift. Thirteen fresh-frozen cadaver shoulders were used. First a supraspinatus defect extending to the apex of the humeral head (Patte size II) was created. Transosseous repair was attempted with the infraspintus (ISP) and with the subscapularis (SCP) in all cases; repair was successful in all ISP cases, while use of the SCP resulted in a successful repair in only 8 of the 13 (61.5%). A significantly (P=0.012) larger defect area was covered by the ISP transfer than by the SCP shift: 89.78.5% versus 31.231.1% of the original defect, respectively. The tensile force needed to accomplish the shift was significantly (P=0.004) lower when the ISP was used (1511N) than with the SCP (37.115N). In this cadaver model the ISP shift proved more favourable than the SCP shift for covering a Patte size II SSP defect. PMID:16691385

  9. Rotating Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  10. Cuff inflation to aid nasotracheal intubation using the C-MAC videolaryngoscope.

    PubMed

    Baddoo, H K; Phillips, B J

    2011-06-01

    A preliminary report is presented of a technique for using the C-MAC videolaryngoscope to carry out nasopharyngeal intubations. The main thrust of the technique is that cuff inflation of the endotracheal tube is used to lift the endotracheal tube off the posterior pharyngeal wall and thus direct it towards the glottis. The technique was used successfully in 5 consecutive patients needing nasotracheal intubation. Indeed a couple of these patients might have been difficult to intubate using conventional laryngoscopy. The full technique is described together with pictures at the various stages of intubation. PMID:21857727

  11. Arthroscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Marquez, R A

    1992-03-01

    The first examination of a knee joint was in 1918 by the Japanese surgeon Takagi. Since this first attempt at joint space surgery, numerous advances have been made in arthroscopic design, video imaging, instrumentation, and the adoption of laser energy devices. As a result, diagnostic and therapeutic arthroscopy is currently performed in every major joint space in the body. Recently, clinical investigators have begun exploring the potential of endoscopic examination of small joint spaces, such as the temporomandibular joint. Also on the horizon are scopes and instruments to intervene therapeutically in the spinal canal. PMID:1341511

  12. Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To conduct an evidence-based analysis of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery. Background Obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) of at last 30 kg/m2.1 Morbid obesity is defined as a BMI of at least 40 kg/m2 or at least 35 kg/m2 with comorbid conditions. Comorbid conditions associated with obesity include diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemias, obstructive sleep apnea, weight-related arthropathies, and stress urinary incontinence. It is also associated with depression, and cancers of the breast, uterus, prostate, and colon, and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Obesity is also associated with higher all-cause mortality at any age, even after adjusting for potential confounding factors like smoking. A person with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 has about a 50% higher risk of dying than does someone with a healthy BMI. The risk more than doubles at a BMI of 35 kg/m2. An expert estimated that about 160,000 people are morbidly obese in Ontario. In the United States, the prevalence of morbid obesity is 4.7% (1999–2000). In Ontario, the 2004 Chief Medical Officer of Health Report said that in 2003, almost one-half of Ontario adults were overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2) or obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). About 57% of Ontario men and 42% of Ontario women were overweight or obese. The proportion of the population that was overweight or obese increased gradually from 44% in 1990 to 49% in 2000, and it appears to have stabilized at 49% in 2003. The report also noted that the tendency to be overweight and obese increases with age up to 64 years. BMI should be used cautiously for people aged 65 years and older, because the “normal” range may begin at slightly above 18.5 kg/m2 and extend into the “overweight” range. The Chief Medical Officer of Health cautioned that these data may underestimate the true extent of the problem, because they were based on self reports, and people tend to over-report their height and under-report their weight. The actual number of Ontario adults who are overweight or obese may be higher. Diet, exercise, and behavioural therapy are used to help people lose weight. The goals of behavioural therapy are to identify, monitor, and alter behaviour that does not help weight loss. Techniques include self-monitoring of eating habits and physical activity, stress management, stimulus control, problem solving, cognitive restructuring, contingency management, and identifying and using social support. Relapse, when people resume old, unhealthy behaviour and then regain the weight, can be problematic. Drugs (including gastrointestinal lipase inhibitors, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and appetite suppressants) may be used if behavioural interventions fail. However, estimates of efficacy may be confounded by high rates of noncompliance, in part owing to the side effects of the drugs. In addition, the drugs have not been approved for indefinite use, despite the chronic nature of obesity. The Technology Morbidly obese people may be eligible for bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery for morbid obesity is considered an intervention of last resort for patients who have attempted first-line forms of medical management, such as diet, increased physical activity, behavioural modification, and drugs. There are various bariatric surgical procedures and several different variations for each of these procedures. The surgical interventions can be divided into 2 general types: malabsorptive (bypassing parts of the gastrointestinal tract to limit the absorption of food), and restrictive (decreasing the size of the stomach so that the patient is satiated with less food). All of these may be performed as either open surgery or laparoscopically. An example of a malabsorptive technique is Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Examples of restrictive techniques are vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG) and adjustable gastric banding (AGB). The Ontario Health Insurance Plan (OHIP) Schedule of Benefits for Physician Services includes fee code “S120 gastric bypass or partition, for morbid obesity” as an insured service. The term gastric bypass is a general term that encompasses a variety of surgical methods, all of which involve reconfiguring the digestive system. The term gastric bypass does not include AGB. The number of gastric bypass procedures funded and done in Ontario, and funded as actual out-of-country approvals,2 is shown below. Number of Gastric Bypass Procedures by Fiscal Year: Ontario and Actual Out-of-Country (OOC) Approvals Data from Provider Services, MOHLTC Courtesy of Provider Services, Ministry of Health and Long Term Care Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat reviewed the literature to assess the effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery to treat morbid obesity. It used its standard search strategy to retrieve international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles from selected databases. The interventions of interest were bariatric surgery and, for the controls, either optimal conventional management or another type of bariatric procedure. The outcomes of interest were improvement in comorbid conditions (e.g., diabetes, hypertension); short- and long-term weight loss; quality of life; adverse effects; and economic analysis data. The databases yielded 15 international health technology assessments or systematic reviews on bariatric surgery. Subsequently, the Medical Advisory Secretariat searched MEDLINE and EMBASE from April 2004 to December 2004, after the search cut-off date of April, 2004, for the most recent systematic reviews on bariatric surgery. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria. One of those 10 was the Swedish Obese Subjects study, which started as a registry and intervention study, and then published findings on people who had been enrolled for at least 2 years or at least 10 years. In addition to the literature review of economic analysis data, the Medical Advisory Secretariat also did an Ontario-based economic analysis. Summary of Findings Bariatric surgery generally is effective for sustained weight loss of about 16% for people with BMIs of at least 40 kg/m2 or at least 35 kg/m2 with comorbid conditions (including diabetes, high lipid levels, and hypertension). It also is effective at resolving the associated comorbid conditions. This conclusion is largely based on level 3a evidence from the prospectively designed Swedish Obese Subjects study, which recently published 10-year outcomes for patients who had bariatric surgery compared with patients who received nonsurgical treatment. (1) Regarding specific procedures, there is evidence that malabsorptive techniques are better than other banding techniques for weight loss and resolution of comorbid illnesses. However, there are no published prospective, long-term, direct comparisons of these techniques available. Surgery for morbid obesity is considered an intervention of last resort for patients who have attempted first-line forms of medical management, such as diet, increased physical activity, behavioural modification, and drugs. In the absence of direct comparisons of active nonsurgical intervention via caloric restriction with bariatric techniques, the following observations are made: A recent systematic review examining the efficacy of major commercial and organized self-help weight loss programs in the United States concluded that the evidence to support the use of such programs was suboptimal, except for one trial on Weight Watchers. Furthermore, the programs were associated with high costs, attrition rates, and probability of regaining at least 50% of the lost weight in 1 to 2 years. (2) A recent randomized controlled trial reported 1-year outcomes comparing weight loss and metabolic changes in severely obese patients assigned to either a low-carbohydrate diet or a conventional weight loss diet. At 1 year, weight loss was similar for patients in each group (mean, 2–5 kg). There was a favourable effect on triglyceride levels and glycemic control in the low-carbohydrate diet group. (3) A decision-analysis model showed bariatric surgery results in increased life expectancy in morbidly obese patients when compared to diet and exercise. (4) A cost-effectiveness model showed bariatric surgery is cost-effective relative to nonsurgical management. (5) Extrapolating from 2003 data from the United States, Ontario would likely need to do 3,500 bariatric surgeries per year. It currently does 508 per year, including out-of-country surgeries. PMID:23074460

  13. Laparoscopic Surgery - What Is It?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Laparoscopic Surgery - What is it? Laparoscopic Surgery - What is it? Laparoscopic Surgery - What is it? | ASCRS Alternate Titles: Trocar Used in Surgery WHAT IS LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY? Laparoscopic or “minimally invasive” surgery is ...

  14. Selection of muscle and nerve-cuff electrodes for neuroprostheses using customizable musculoskeletal model.

    PubMed

    Blana, Dimitra; Hincapie, Juan G; Chadwick, Edward K; Kirsch, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    Neuroprosthetic systems based on functional electrical stimulation aim to restore motor function to individuals with paralysis following spinal cord injury. Identifying the optimal electrode set for the neuroprosthesis is complicated because it depends on the characteristics of the individual (such as injury level), the force capacities of the muscles, the movements the system aims to restore, and the hardware limitations (number and type of electrodes available). An electrode-selection method has been developed that uses a customized musculoskeletal model. Candidate electrode sets are created based on desired functional outcomes and the hard ware limitations of the proposed system. Inverse-dynamic simulations are performed to determine the proportion of target movements that can be accomplished with each set; the set that allows the most movements to be performed is chosen as the optimal set. The technique is demonstrated here for a system recently developed by our research group to restore whole-arm movement to individuals with high-level tetraplegia. The optimal set included selective nerve-cuff electrodes for the radial and musculocutaneous nerves; single-channel cuffs for the axillary, suprascapular, upper subscapular, and long-thoracic nerves; and muscle-based electrodes for the remaining channels. The importance of functional goals, hardware limitations, muscle and nerve anatomy, and surgical feasibility are highlighted. PMID:23881765

  15. Human Cadaver Material in Preclinical Oral Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, H. Dexter; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A University of Michigan dental school curriculum for oral surgery that uses human cadaver heads is described. Selection, preparation, and laboratory use of the materials are outlined. Faculty and students have received the sequence well and found it prepared them for clinical rotation. (MSE)

  16. Continuous and Noninvasive Recording of Cardiovascular Parameters with the Finapres Finger Cuff Enhances Undergraduate Student Understanding of Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Yvonne; Choate, Julia

    2012-01-01

    The Finapres finger cuff recording system provides continuous calculations of beat-to-beat variations in cardiac output (CO), total peripheral resistance, heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP). This system is unique in that it allows experimental subjects to immediately, continuously, and noninvasively visualize changes in CO at rest and during

  17. Continuous and Noninvasive Recording of Cardiovascular Parameters with the Finapres Finger Cuff Enhances Undergraduate Student Understanding of Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Yvonne; Choate, Julia

    2012-01-01

    The Finapres finger cuff recording system provides continuous calculations of beat-to-beat variations in cardiac output (CO), total peripheral resistance, heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP). This system is unique in that it allows experimental subjects to immediately, continuously, and noninvasively visualize changes in CO at rest and during…

  18. Chronic stability and selectivity of four-contact spiral nerve-cuff electrodes in stimulating the human femoral nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, L. E.; Tyler, D. J.; Anderson, J. S.; Triolo, R. J.

    2009-08-01

    This study describes the stability and selectivity of four-contact spiral nerve-cuff electrodes implanted bilaterally on distal branches of the femoral nerves of a human volunteer with spinal cord injury as part of a neuroprosthesis for standing and transfers. Stimulation charge threshold, the minimum charge required to elicit a visible muscle contraction, was consistent and low (mean threshold charge at 63 weeks post-implantation: 23.3 8.5 nC) for all nerve-cuff electrode contacts over 63 weeks after implantation, indicating a stable interface with the peripheral nervous system. The ability of individual nerve-cuff electrode contacts to selectively stimulate separate components of the femoral nerve to activate individual heads of the quadriceps was assessed with fine-wire intramuscular electromyography while measuring isometric twitch knee extension moment. Six of eight electrode contacts could selectively activate one head of the quadriceps while selectively excluding others to produce maximum twitch responses of between 3.8 and 8.1 N m. The relationship between isometric twitch and tetanic knee extension moment was quantified, and selective twitch muscle responses scaled to between 15 and 35 N m in tetanic response to pulse trains with similar stimulation parameters. These results suggest that this nerve-cuff electrode can be an effective and chronically stable tool for selectively stimulating distal nerve branches in the lower extremities for neuroprosthetic applications.

  19. Comparative analysis of transverse intrafascicular multichannel, longitudinal intrafascicular and multipolar cuff electrodes for the selective stimulation of nerve fascicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badia, Jordi; Boretius, Tim; Andreu, David; Azevedo-Coste, Christine; Stieglitz, Thomas; Navarro, Xavier

    2011-06-01

    The selection of a suitable nerve electrode for neuroprosthetic applications implies a trade-off between invasiveness and selectivity, wherein the ultimate goal is achieving the highest selectivity for a high number of nerve fascicles by the least invasiveness and potential damage to the nerve. The transverse intrafascicular multichannel electrode (TIME) is intended to be transversally inserted into the peripheral nerve and to be useful to selectively activate subsets of axons in different fascicles within the same nerve. We present a comparative study of TIME, LIFE and multipolar cuff electrodes for the selective stimulation of small nerves. The electrodes were implanted on the rat sciatic nerve, and the activation of gastrocnemius, plantar and tibialis anterior muscles was recorded by EMG signals. Thus, the study allowed us to ascertain the selectivity of stimulation at the interfascicular and also at the intrafascicular level. The results of this study indicate that (1) intrafascicular electrodes (LIFE and TIME) provide excitation circumscribed to the implanted fascicle, whereas extraneural electrodes (cuffs) predominantly excite nerve fascicles located superficially; (2) the minimum threshold for muscle activation with TIME and LIFE was significantly lower than with cuff electrodes; (3) TIME allowed us to selectively activate the three tested muscles when stimulating through different active sites of one device, both at inter- and intrafascicular levels, whereas selective activation using multipolar cuff (with a longitudinal tripolar stimulation configuration) was only possible for two muscles, at the interfascicular level, and LIFE did not activate selectively more than one muscle in the implanted nerve fascicle.

  20. Chronic stability and selectivity of four-contact spiral nerve-cuff electrodes in stimulating the human femoral nerve

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, L E; Tyler, D J; Anderson, J S; Triolo, R J

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the stability and selectivity of four-contact spiral nerve-cuff electrodes implanted bilaterally on distal branches of the femoral nerves of a human volunteer with spinal cord injury as part of a neuroprosthesis for standing and transfers. Stimulation charge threshold, the minimum charge required to elicit a visible muscle contraction, was consistent and low (mean threshold charge at 63 weeks post-implantation: 23.3 8.5 nC) for all nerve-cuff electrode contacts over 63 weeks after implantation, indicating a stable interface with the peripheral nervous system. The ability of individual nerve-cuff electrode contacts to selectively stimulate separate components of the femoral nerve to activate individual heads of the quadriceps was assessed with fine-wire intramuscular electromyography while measuring isometric twitch knee extension moment. Six of eight electrode contacts could selectively activate one head of the quadriceps while selectively excluding others to produce maximum twitch responses of between 3.8 and 8.1 Nm. The relationship between isometric twitch and tetanic knee extension moment was quantified, and selective twitch muscle responses scaled to between 15 and 35 Nm in tetanic response to pulse trains with similar stimulation parameters. These results suggest that this nerve-cuff electrode can be an effective and chronically stable tool for selectively stimulating distal nerve branches in the lower extremities for neuroprosthetic applications. PMID:19602729

  1. Model-based analysis and design of nerve cuff electrodes for restoring bladder function by selective stimulation of the pudendal nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Alexander R.; Grill, Warren M.

    2013-06-01

    Objective. Electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve (PN) is being developed as a means to restore bladder function in persons with spinal cord injury. A single nerve cuff electrode placed on the proximal PN trunk may enable selective stimulation of distinct fascicles to maintain continence or evoke micturition. The objective of this study was to design a nerve cuff that enabled selective stimulation of the PN. Approach. We evaluated the performance of both flat interface nerve electrode (FINE) cuff and round cuff designs, with a range of FINE cuff heights and number of contacts, as well as multiple contact orientations. This analysis was performed using a computational model, in which the nerve and fascicle cross-sectional positions from five human PN trunks were systematically reshaped within the nerve cuff. These cross-sections were used to create finite element models, with electric potentials calculated and applied to a cable model of a myelinated axon to evaluate stimulation selectivity for different PN targets. Subsequently, the model was coupled to a genetic algorithm (GA) to identify solutions that used multiple contact activation to maximize selectivity and minimize total stimulation voltage. Main results. Simulations did not identify any significant differences in selectivity between FINE and round cuffs, although the latter required smaller stimulation voltages for target activation due to preserved localization of targeted fascicle groups. Further, it was found that a ten contact nerve cuff generated sufficient selectivity for all PN targets, with the degree of selectivity dependent on the relative position of the target within the nerve. The GA identified solutions that increased fitness by 0.7-45.5% over single contact activation by decreasing stimulation of non-targeted fascicles. Significance. This study suggests that using an optimal nerve cuff design and multiple contact activation could enable selective stimulation of the human PN trunk for restoration of bladder function.

  2. Robotic Surgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal Positioning, or AESOP, was developed by Computer Motion, Inc. under a SBIR contract from the Jet Propulsion Lab. AESOP is a robotic endoscopic positioning system used to control the motion of a camera during endoscopic surgery. The camera, which is mounted at the end of a robotic arm, previously had to be held in place by the surgical staff. With AESOP the robotic arm can make more precise and consistent movements. AESOP is also voice controlled by the surgeon. It is hoped that this technology can be used in space repair missions which require precision beyond human dexterity. A new generation of the same technology entitled the ZEUS Robotic Surgical System can make endoscopic procedures even more successful. ZEUS allows the surgeon control various instruments in its robotic arms, allowing for the precision the procedure requires.

  3. Burn surgery.

    PubMed

    Tenenhaus, Mayer; Rennekampff, Hans Oliver

    2007-10-01

    The challenges posed by thermal injury often are daunting emotionally and physically for the survivor, family, and staff. Morbidity and mortality have improved with advances in emergent and multidisciplinary care; the establishment of dedicated burn centers; and increased education, prevention, and experience. The role of surgery in the treatment of these complex injury patterns continues to evolve, incorporating refined concepts of tissue preservation, wound bed preparation, and early attention to functional and esthetic parameters. Societal reintegration, psychosocial support, and new pain control strategies have dramatically improved the quality of life for our patients during and after the acute course of care. With improved survivability and a changing demographic, fundamental reconstructive surgical principles have found increased applicability and are instituted at the time of admission whenever possible. PMID:17967624

  4. Electromyography of 3 Scapular Muscles: A Comparative Analysis of The Cuff Link Device and a Standard Push-Up

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, W Steven; Campbell, Brian M; Swartz, Erik E; Armstrong, Charles W

    2008-01-01

    Context: The Cuff Link is a closed kinetic chain rehabilitation apparatus for the upper extremity. Limited research has established its effectiveness to elicit muscle activation of the scapular muscles. Objective: To determine if scapular muscle activation differs in response to 2 upper extremity closed kinetic chain exercises: Cuff Link and standard push-up. Design: A single-group, repeated-measures design. Setting: Controlled laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-eight healthy individuals (13 women: age  =  19.69 ± 1.55 years, height  =  167.44 ± 9.52 cm, mass  =  61.00 ± 8.79 kg; 15 men: age  =  22.00 ± 3.91 years, height  =  181.44 ± 6.60 cm, mass  =  82.36 ± 13.23 kg) with no history of shoulder or low back injury volunteered to participate in this study. Intervention(s): Participants performed 10 trials of complete revolutions on the Cuff Link and 10 full–weight-bearing push-ups. We controlled trial velocity and randomized order. Trunk and shoulder positions were normalized to the participant's height. Using surface electromyography, we recorded muscle activity of the serratus anterior, middle trapezius, and lower trapezius. Rectified and smoothed electromyography data for the serratus anterior, middle trapezius, and lower trapezius were normalized as a percentage of the maximal voluntary isometric contractions (%MVIC). Main Outcome Measure(s): Mean muscle activity of the serratus anterior, middle trapezius, and lower trapezius. We used paired-samples t tests to analyze the mean data for each condition. The α level was adjusted to .016 to avoid a type I error. Results: Middle trapezius %MVIC was greater during push-ups (27.01 ± 20.40%) than during use of the Cuff Link (11.49 ± 9.46%) (P  =  .001). Lower trapezius %MVIC was greater during push-ups (36.07 ± 18.99%) than during use of the Cuff Link (16.29 ± 8.64%) (P  =  .001). There was no difference in %MVIC for the serratus anterior between conditions. Conclusions: The push-up demonstrated greater middle trapezius and lower trapezius activation levels compared with the Cuff Link. However, the push-up had a high participant failure rate. Because serratus anterior activation levels were similar, the Cuff Link may be an appropriate alternative for individuals lacking the upper body strength to perform a push-up. PMID:18833308

  5. [Minimally invasive surgery and robotic surgery: surgery 4.0?].

    PubMed

    Feußner, H; Wilhelm, D

    2016-03-01

    Surgery can only maintain its role in a highly competitive environment if results are continuously improved, accompanied by further reduction of the interventional trauma for patients and with justifiable costs. Significant impulse to achieve this goal was expected from minimally invasive surgery and, in particular, robotic surgery; however, a real breakthrough has not yet been achieved. Accordingly, the new strategic approach of cognitive surgery is required to optimize the provision of surgical treatment. A full scale integration of all modules utilized in the operating room (OR) into a comprehensive network and the development of systems with technical cognition are needed to upgrade the current technical environment passively controlled by the surgeon into an active collaborative support system (surgery 4.0). Only then can the true potential of minimally invasive surgery and robotic surgery be exploited. PMID:26801753

  6. Abdominal wall surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Abdominal wall surgery is a procedure that improves the appearance of flabby, stretched-out abdominal (belly) muscles and skin. ... mini-tummy tuck to more extensive surgery. Abdominal wall surgery is not the same as liposuction, which ...

  7. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Weight Loss Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Weight Loss Surgery Print ... Any Risks and Side Effects? What Is Weight Loss Surgery? For some people, being overweight is about ...

  8. Stomach Cancer: Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Next Topic Chemotherapy for stomach cancer Surgery for stomach cancer Surgery is often part of the treatment for ... cancer. The 3 main types of surgery for stomach cancer Endoscopic resection: Resection refers to cutting out a ...

  9. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... epicondylitis surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... long as you are told. This helps ensure tennis elbow will not return. You may be prescribed ...

  10. Types of Heart Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... heart surgery that is becoming more common is robotic-assisted surgery. For this surgery, a surgeon uses a computer to control surgical tools on thin robotic arms. The tools are inserted through small incisions ...

  11. Open heart surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and surgery is done on the heart muscle, valves, arteries, or other parts of the heart (such ... heart is still beating. Related topics include: Aortic valve surgery -- minimally invasive Aortic valve surgery -- open Atrial ...

  12. Laser surgery - skin

    MedlinePLUS

    Surgery using a laser ... used is directly related to the type of surgery being performed and the color of the tissue ... Laser surgery can be used to: Close small blood vessels to reduce blood loss Remove warts , moles , sunspots, and ...

  13. Arteries Stiffen With Age, but Can Retain an Ability to Become More Elastic With Applied External Cuff Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chengyu; Zheng, Dingchang; Murray, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract It is accepted that arterial compliance decreases with age, with changes in the arterial pulse shape measured at the periphery. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between arterial transmural pressure changes and changes in peripheral finger pulse shape characteristics for both older and younger subjects. Finger photoplethysmographic pulses were recorded noninvasively from the right index fingers of 100 healthy normotensive subjects. Their median age was 43 years (range 20–71 years) allowing two distinct age groups to be compared (older group ≥45 and younger group < 45 years). Arterial transmural pressures on the whole right arm were reduced with a 50 cm long cuff inflated to 10, 20, 30, and 40 mmHg. Pulse maximum amplitude and rise time were calculated for each age group, and for each cuff pressure level. Gradual and significant decreases in both pulse maximum amplitude and rise time were found with increasing cuff pressure for both age groups. With an external cuff pressure of 40 mmHg, there was an average maximum amplitude and rise time decrease of 27.1% (P < 0.001) and 7.5% (P < 0.001) respectively. The changes in the older group were significantly greater than those in the younger group for maximum amplitude (30.3% vs 24.4%, P = 0.006), but not for rise time (8.0% vs 6.7%, P = 0.23). Our results show that arterial compliance of the arm artery increases with reduced transmural pressure for both older and younger groups, and demonstrate that the aged arm artery can become more elastic with applied external cuff pressure. PMID:26469929

  14. Effects of cuff inflation and deflation on pulse transit time measured from ECG and multi-wavelength PPG.

    PubMed

    Jing Liu; Yao Li; Xiao-Rong Ding; Wen-Xuan Dai; Yuan-Ting Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Pulse transit time (PTT), which refers to the time it takes a pulse wave to travel between two arterial sites is a promising index for cuff-less blood pressure (BP) estimation, as well as non-invasive assessment of arterial functions. However, it has not been investigated whether PTTs measured from ECG and different wavelength PPG are equally affected by the arterial status. Furthermore, comparison between the changes of different PTTs can provide enlightenment on the hardware implementation of the PTT-based BP estimation method. This work mainly studied the changes of PTTs calculated from electrocardiogram (ECG) and multi-wavelength photoplethysmogram (PPG) after exerting cuff pressure on the upper arm. A four-channel PPG acquisition system was developed to collect the multi-wavelength PPG signals of red, yellow, green and blue light at the fingertip simultaneously. Ten subjects participated in the experiment and their PTTs measured from different PPG and ECG signals before and after exerting cuff pressure were compared. This study found that within one minute after the four-minute cuff inflation and deflation process, the PTT measured from ECG and yellow PPG experienced a significant increase (p<;0.05) while the PTT from ECG and blue PPG had no statistical difference (p>0.9) compared with that before exerting cuff pressure. This indicates that PTTs calculated from different wavelength PPG have different recoverability from smooth muscle relaxation. Another interesting finding is that the PTT calculated from ECG and yellow PPG had a strong correlation (|r|>0.7) with the time difference between yellow PPG and other PPG signals, which implies the potential of the time difference between yellow PPG and other PPGs as a complementary to PTT-based model for blood pressure estimation. PMID:26737652

  15. Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    2014 Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Statistics Cosmetic Procedure Trends 2014 Plastic Surgery Statistics Report Please credit the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PLASTIC SURGEONS when citing statistical data or using ...

  16. Alternative Refractive Surgery Procedures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology ...

  17. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology ...

  18. [Evolution on rotation manipulation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi

    2013-07-01

    Through review of ancient literature, the developing history of rotation manipulation is traced, various rotation manipulation techniques in different historical periods are analyzed, and evolution process of rotation manipulation is also summarized. It is found that uni-direction rotation was mainly adopted before the establishment of the Republic of China (1911). Influenced by Japanese technique, back and fro rotation took place of the uni-direction rotation, and became the mainstay of the rotation manipulations. However, it is held that the uni-direction rotation has stronger stimulative effects as well as soft tissue relaxation effect, which can be applied for treatment of various diseases. PMID:24032195

  19. Teaching Surgery to Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, W. Brian

    2012-01-01

    Teaching the discipline of surgery to medical students depends on the practicing clinical surgeon assuming the role of educator. The amount of surgical knowledge to impart and technical skill to train are ever increasing as the duration of time students spend on surgical rotations is decreasing. The intent of this article is to assist those surgeons with minimal formal training in educational methods to enhance their teaching skills. Traditional large-group lecture, small-group sessions, and mentoring are reviewed with special emphasis on medical simulation. PMID:23997667

  20. Model-based ankle joint angle tracing by cuff electrode recordings of peroneal and tibial nerves.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chou-Ching K; Ju, Ming-Shaung; Cheng, Hang-Shing

    2007-04-01

    The main goal of the present study was to estimate the ankle joint angle from the peroneal and tibial electroneurography (ENG) recordings. Two single-channel cuff electrodes for recording ENG were placed on the proximal part of rabbit peroneal and tibial nerves respectively and static positioning and ramp-and-hold stretches were performed to characterize the static and dynamic ENG responses. An ENG model, consisting of static and dynamic parts, was constructed to relate ENG to ankle angle trajectory and an inverse ENG model was derived to predict ankle angle. The results showed that the new model could accurately estimate large-range ankle angles during and after ramp-and-hold movements. Our study provides a basis for implementing joint angle tracing without using artificial angle sensors. PMID:17273879

  1. Re-expansion of refractory atelectasis using a bronchofiberscope with a balloon cuff.

    PubMed

    Harada, K; Mutsuda, T; Saoyama, N; Taniki, T; Kimura, H

    1983-12-01

    For the re-expansion of refractory atelectasis, it is necessary to remove sputum in the airway and to deliver the intrabronchial positive pressure to the atelectatic lobe in order to overcome the critical opening pressure of the alveoli. Selective intrabronchial air insufflation is effective for this purpose, because with this procedure, endobronchial pressure in the atelectatic region can be selectively increased without elevation of the pleural surface pressure in the surrounding region of the lung. The inflator devised consisted of a flexible bronchofiberscope with a small balloon cuff at the distal end; through the fiberscope air was insufflated into the atelectatic lung. Using our procedure, we successfully performed intrabronchial insufflation in 14 of 15 patients with atelectasis, who had failed to respond to conventional therapy. In six patients, atelectasis recurred, and the same treatment was successfully performed again. PMID:6641307

  2. Fibre-selective recording from the peripheral nerves of frogs using a multi-electrode cuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuettler, Martin; Donaldson, Nick; Seetohul, Vipin; Taylor, John

    2013-06-01

    Objective. We investigate the ability of the method of velocity selective recording (VSR) to determine the fibre types that contribute to a compound action potential (CAP) propagating along a peripheral nerve. Real-time identification of the active fibre types by determining the direction of action potential propagation (afferent or efferent) and velocity might allow future neural prostheses to make better use of biological sensor signals and provide a new and simple tool for use in fundamental neuroscience. Approach. Fibre activity was recorded from explanted Xenopus Laevis frog sciatic nerve using a single multi-electrode cuff that records whole nerve activity with 11 equidistant ring-shaped electrodes. The recorded signals were amplified, delayed against each other with variable delay times, added and band-pass filtered. Finally, the resulting amplitudes were measured. Main Result. Our experiments showed that electrically evoked frog CAP was dominated by two fibre populations, propagating at around 20 and 40 m/s, respectively. The velocity selectivity, i.e. the ability of the system to discriminate between individual populations was increased by applying band-pass filtering. The method extracted an entire velocity spectrum from a 10 ms CAP recording sample in real time. Significance. Unlike the techniques introduced in the 1970s and subsequently, VSR requires only a single nerve cuff and does not require averaging to provide velocity spectral information. This makes it potentially suitable for the generation of highly-selective real-time control-signals for future neural prostheses. In our study, electrically evoked CAPs were analysed and it remains to be proven whether the method can reliably classify physiological nerve traffic. The work presented here was carried out at the laboratories of the Implanted Devices Group, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, UK.

  3. Electrochemical and Electrophysiological Performance of Platinum Electrodes Within the Ninety-Nine-Electrode Stimulating Nerve Cuff.

    PubMed

    Pe?lin, Polona; Mehle, Andra; Karpe, Bla; Rozman, Janez

    2015-10-01

    The trend in neural prostheses using selective nerve stimulation for electrical stimulation therapies is headed toward single-part systems having a large number of working electrodes (WEs), each of which selectively stimulate neural tissue or record neural response (NR). The present article reviews the electrochemical and electrophysiological performance of platinum WE within a ninety-nine-electrode spiral cuff for selective nerve stimulation and recording of peripheral nerves, with a focus on the vagus nerve (VN). The electrochemical properties of the WE were studied in vitro using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. The equivalent circuit model (ECM) of the interface between the WE and neural tissue was extracted from the EIS data and simulated in the time domain using a preset current stimulus. Electrophysiological performance of in-space and fiber-type highly selective vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) was tested using an isolated segment of a porcine VN and carotid artery as a reference. A quasitrapezoidal current-controlled pulse (stimulus) was applied to the VN or arterial segment using an appointed group of three electrodes (triplet). The triplet and stimulus were configured to predominantly stimulate B-fibers and minimize the stimulation of A-fibers. The EIS results revealed capacitive charge transfer predominance, which is a highly desirable property. Electrophysiological performance testing indicated the potential existence of certain parameters and waveforms of the stimulus for which the contribution of the A-fibers to the NR decreased slightly and that of the B-fibers increased slightly. Findings show that the design of the stimulating electrodes, based on the EIS and ECM results, could act as a useful tool for nerve cuff development. PMID:26471140

  4. How do stars rotate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woehl, H.

    1982-08-01

    Theories of stellar rotation are discussed. The discovery of sunspots and their use in determining rotation rates is explained along with use of spectroscopy, in particular the Doppler effect, in determining rates, and the differential rotation of the sun is discussed with some mathematics. The most important theories of differential solar rotation are presented: differential viscosity in the convection zone, interaction of convective cells with rotating gas, and the influence of the Coriolis force. The relationship of stellar rotational velocity to spectral type is shown and explained, and methods of determining stellar rotation are discussed, including relating variations in stellar activity to variations in starspot spectra, and analyzing spectral profiles with Fourier transforms.

  5. Glenohumeral Rotational Motion and Strength and Baseball Pitching Biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Wendy J.; Kaufman, Kenton R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Addressing loss of shoulder range of motion and rotator cuff weakness in injury-prevention programs might be an effective strategy for preventing throwing arm injuries in baseball pitchers. However, the influence of these clinical measures on pitching biomechanics is unclear. Objective: To evaluate the relationships among clinical measures of shoulder rotational motion and strength and 3-dimensional pitching biomechanics and to evaluate the presence of coupling between the shoulder and the elbow during pitching to provide insight into the influence of clinical shoulder characteristics on elbow biomechanics. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Biomechanics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 27 uninjured male high school baseball pitchers (age ?=? 16 1.1years, height ?=? 183 7cm, mass ?=? 83 12kg). Main Outcome Measure(s): Clinical measures included shoulder internal- and external-rotation range of motion and peak isometric internal- and external-rotator strength. Three-dimensional upper extremity biomechanics were assessed as participants threw from an indoor pitching mound to a target at regulation distance. Linear regressions were used to assess the influence of clinical measures on the peak shoulder internal and external rotation moments and the peak elbow-adduction moment. Results: We found a positive relationship between clinically measured internal-rotator strength and shoulder external-rotation moment (R2 ?=? 0.181, P ?=? .04) during pitching. We also noted an inverse relationship between clinically measured external-rotation motion and the elbow-adduction moment (R2 ?=? 0.160, P ?=? .04) and shoulder internal-rotation moment (R2 ?=? 0.250, P ?=? .008) during pitching. We found a positive relationship between peak shoulder internal-rotation moment and the peak elbow-adduction moment (R2 ?=? 0.815, P < .001) during pitching. Conclusions: This study provides insight into the effects of shoulder strength and motion on pitching biomechanics and how these clinical measures might contribute to throwing arm injuries in the baseball pitcher. A relationship also was identified between peak shoulder and elbow moments in the throwing arm during pitching, providing biomechanical support for addressing clinical shoulder characteristics as a potential strategy for preventing elbow injury. PMID:22892405

  6. Advanced Nail Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Haneke, Eckart

    2011-01-01

    Six techniques not yet widely known or used in the dermatologic surgery of the nails are briefly described. Small-to-medium-sized tumours of the proximal nail fold (PNF) can be excised and the defect repaired with advancement or rotation flaps. A superficial biopsy technique of the matrix for the diagnosis of longitudinal brown streaks in the nail, which allows rapid histological diagnosis of the melanocyte focus to be performed, is described here. Because the excision is very shallow and leaves the morphogenetic connective tissue of the matrix intact, the defect heals without scarring. Laterally positioned nail tumours can be excised in the manner of a wide lateral longitudinal nail biopsy. The defect repair is performed with a bipedicled flap from the lateral aspect of the distal phalanx. Malignant tumours of the nail organ often require its complete ablation. These defects can be covered by a full-thickness skin graft, reversed dermal graft, or cross-finger flap. The surgical correction of a split nail is often difficult. The cicatricial tissue of the matrix and PNF have to be excised and the re-attachment of these wounds prevented. The matrix defect has to be excised and sutured or covered with a free matrix graft taken either from the neighbouring area or from the big toe nail. PMID:22279381

  7. Rotational Preference in Gymnastics

    PubMed Central

    Heinen, Thomas; Jeraj, Damian; Vinken, Pia M.; Velentzas, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    In gymnastics, most skills incorporate rotations about one or more body axes. At present, the question remains open if factors such as lateral preference and/or vestibulo-spinal asymmetry are related to gymnast’s rotational preference. Therefore, we sought to explore relationships in gymnast’s rotation direction between different gymnastic skills. Furthermore, we sought to explore relationships between rotational preference, lateral preference, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry. In the experiment n = 30 non-experts, n = 30 near-experts and n = 30 experts completed a rotational preference questionnaire, a lateral preference inventory, and the Unterberger-Fukuda Stepping Test. The results revealed, that near-experts and experts more often rotate rightward in the straight jump with a full turn when rotating leftward in the round-off and vice versa. The same relationship was found for experts when relating the rotation preference in the handstand with a full turn to the rotation preference in the straight jump with a full turn. Lateral preference was positively related to rotational preference in non-expert gymnasts, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry was positively related to rotational preference in experts. We suggest, that gymnasts should explore their individual rotational preference by systematically practicing different skills with a different rotation direction, bearing in mind that a clearly developed structure in rotational preference between different skills may be appropriate to develop more complex skills in gymnastics. PMID:23486362

  8. Rotational preference in gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Heinen, Thomas; Jeraj, Damian; Vinken, Pia M; Velentzas, Konstantinos

    2012-06-01

    In gymnastics, most skills incorporate rotations about one or more body axes. At present, the question remains open if factors such as lateral preference and/or vestibulo-spinal asymmetry are related to gymnast's rotational preference. Therefore, we sought to explore relationships in gymnast's rotation direction between different gymnastic skills. Furthermore, we sought to explore relationships between rotational preference, lateral preference, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry. In the experiment n = 30 non-experts, n = 30 near-experts and n = 30 experts completed a rotational preference questionnaire, a lateral preference inventory, and the Unterberger-Fukuda Stepping Test. The results revealed, that near-experts and experts more often rotate rightward in the straight jump with a full turn when rotating leftward in the round-off and vice versa. The same relationship was found for experts when relating the rotation preference in the handstand with a full turn to the rotation preference in the straight jump with a full turn. Lateral preference was positively related to rotational preference in non-expert gymnasts, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry was positively related to rotational preference in experts. We suggest, that gymnasts should explore their individual rotational preference by systematically practicing different skills with a different rotation direction, bearing in mind that a clearly developed structure in rotational preference between different skills may be appropriate to develop more complex skills in gymnastics. PMID:23486362

  9. Effect of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning on Acute Kidney Injury in Nondiabetic Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: A Secondary Analysis of 2 Small Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, Vinod; Laing, Chris M.; Ludman, Andrew; Yellon, Derek M.; Hausenloy, Derek

    2010-01-01

    Background Novel treatment strategies are required to reduce the development of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. In this respect, remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC), a phenomenon in which transient nonlethal ischemia applied to an organ or tissue protects another organ or tissue from subsequent lethal ischemic injury, is a potential renoprotective strategy. Study Design Secondary analysis of 2 randomized trials. Setting & Participants 78 consenting selected nondiabetic patients in a university teaching hospital undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery recruited to 2 previously reported randomized studies. Intervention RIPC consisted of three 5-minute cycles of right forearm ischemia, induced by inflating a blood pressure cuff on the upper arm to 200 mm Hg, with an intervening 5 minutes of reperfusion, during which time the cuff was deflated. The control consisted of placing an uninflated cuff on the arm for 30 minutes. Outcomes AKI measured using Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria, duration of hospital stay, in-hospital and 30-day mortality. Results Numbers of participants with AKI stages 1, 2, and 3 were 1 (3%), 3 (8%), and 0 in the intervention group compared with 10 (25%), 0, and 0 in the control group, respectively (P = 0.005). The decrease in AKI was independent of the effect of concomitant aortic valve replacement and cross-clamp times, which were distributed unevenly between the 2 groups. Limitations Retrospective analysis of data. More patients in the RIPC group underwent concomitant aortic valve replacement with CABG; although we have corrected statistically for this imbalance, it remains an important confounding variable. Conclusions RIPC induced using transient forearm ischemia decreased the incidence of AKI in nondiabetic patients undergoing elective CABG surgery in this retrospective analysis. A large prospective clinical trial is required to study this effect and clinical outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. PMID:20974511

  10. Imaging in gynecologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Mettler, Liselotte; Sammur, Wael; Alkatout, Ibrahim; Schollmeyer, Thoralf

    2011-03-01

    The technical development of instruments for endoscopic surgery started in the field of gynecology. In the early 1970s, with the improvement of optics and instruments for laparoscopic surgery, gyne-endoscopic surgery developed and set milestones for all other surgical fields. However, the general surgeons propagated the advantages of 2D or 3D imaging surgery much better than the conservative gynecologists. Surgery on a 2D screen without direct vision is regarded as more advantageous than open surgery and has achieved wide acceptance. Several schools of gynecologic endoscopy in Europe (in Kiel, Giessen, Clermont Ferrand and Strasbourg) have set guidelines for gyne-endoscopic surgery. Our catalog of indications in the areas of gyne-endoscopic surgery, published in 2002, reveals the broad application of these techniques today. 3D vision, robotic instruments and systems, such as the da Vinci() Surgical System from Intuitive Surgical, Inc. (CA, USA), round up the picture of endoscopic surgery. The advantages of endoscopic surgery over open surgery (more precision, less trauma, less postoperative pain, shorter hospital stays and a faster recovery period) are becoming more accepted. The present healthcare systems and hospital administrations understand the challenges of imaging in surgery, particularly in endoscopic surgery. PMID:21410349

  11. Modification of surgery equipment for ovine surgery.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, W D

    1994-01-01

    Surgery equipment was modified for ovine surgery. Pre- and postoperative holding pens were designed to meet the specific requirements of sheep. A hydraulic trolley lift was constructed and operating tables fitted with spilltrays. A gag was made to protect Magill tubing and the indifferent electrode was altered for electrosurgery. For fluoroscopy a flexible table was constructed to accommodate sheep. PMID:8049178

  12. Position indicating, rotating boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dibble, A. C.; Gibson, F. W.; Padelt, J. R.; Saunders, W. S.

    1972-01-01

    Universal multiplanar position indicating, rotating boom for mounting various instruments or sensors is described. Boom is telescoping, and apparatus is capable of 3 types of rotation controlled by electric motors. Movement may be continuous or incremental.

  13. Power Harvesting from Rotation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicone, Carmen; Feng, Z. C.

    2008-01-01

    We show the impossibility of harvesting power from rotational motions by devices attached to the rotating object. The presentation is suitable for students who have studied Lagrangian mechanics. (Contains 2 figures.)

  14. Bariatric Surgery Misconceptions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from depression or anxiety and to have lower self-esteem and overall quality of life than someone who ... is a Candidate for Bariatric Surgery? Childhood and Adolescent Obesity Find a Provider Benefits of Bariatric Surgery ...

  15. Ear Plastic Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Plastic Surgery Ear Plastic Surgery Patient Health Information ... they may improve appearance and self-confidence. Can Ear Deformities Be Corrected? Formation of the ear during ...

  16. Plastic Surgery for Teenagers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or severe acne and scarring. Teens frequently gain self-esteem and confidence when their physical problems are corrected. ... art as a helpful index of anxiety and self-esteem with plastic surgery. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 2002. ...

  17. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you ... caused by obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food ...

  18. Breast augmentation surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may need mammograms or breast x-rays before surgery. The plastic surgeon will do a routine breast exam. Several ... Gabriel A. Breast augmentation. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 2.

  19. American Board of Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Feedback Joint Pathway - General & Thoracic Surgery Specialty Definition Vascular Surgery Training Pathways Related Policies Credit for Foreign Medical Education Early Specialization Program Exam Admissibility Policy Leave Policy Readmissibility Policy ...

  20. Alternative Refractive Surgery Procedures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ask When Considering LASIK Alternative Refractive Surgery Procedures Alternative Refractive Surgery Procedures Dec. 12, 2015 Today's refractive ... that releases controlled amounts of radio frequency (RF) energy, instead of a laser, to apply heat to ...

  1. Surgery for Bone Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topic Radiation therapy for bone cancer Surgery for bone cancer Surgery is the primary (main) treatment for ... filled by bone grafts or by bone cement. Bone cement: The bone cement PMMA (polymethylmethyacrylate) starts out ...

  2. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    In coronary artery disease (CAD), the arteries that supply blood and oxygen to your heart muscle grow hardened and narrowed. ... these treatments don't help, you may need coronary artery bypass surgery. The surgery creates a new path ...

  3. Concerns about cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    De Sousa, Avinash

    2007-01-01

    This article looks at some ethical challenges in cosmetic surgery. Enhancement versus therapy, risks, patient autonomy, beneficence and informed consent are issues that need to be considered when considering cosmetic surgery in today's world. PMID:18630237

  4. Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Fisher J, Higdon KK. Reduction mammoplasty. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ... Maxwell GP, Gabriel A. Breast augmentation. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  5. Rotations with Rodrigues' Vector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina, E.

    2011-01-01

    The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears…

  6. Rotations with Rodrigues' Vector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina, E.

    2011-01-01

    The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears

  7. Rotating stall suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Franklin K. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Rotating stall in an axial-flow compressor is suppressed by the positioning of a fixed inlet flow divider in the annular inlet flow passage upstream of the compressor. The inlet flow divider is aligned with the flow of fluid through the duct and acts to block or interfere with any rotating wave in the inlet and thereby suppresses rotating stall in the compressor.

  8. Robotic liver surgery.

    PubMed

    Leung, Universe; Fong, Yuman

    2014-10-01

    Robotic surgery is an evolving technology that has been successfully applied to a number of surgical specialties, but its use in liver surgery has so far been limited. In this review article we discuss the challenges of minimally invasive liver surgery, the pros and cons of robotics, the evolution of medical robots, and the potentials in applying this technology to liver surgery. The current data in the literature are also presented. PMID:25392840

  9. Robotic liver surgery

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Universe

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgery is an evolving technology that has been successfully applied to a number of surgical specialties, but its use in liver surgery has so far been limited. In this review article we discuss the challenges of minimally invasive liver surgery, the pros and cons of robotics, the evolution of medical robots, and the potentials in applying this technology to liver surgery. The current data in the literature are also presented. PMID:25392840

  10. Nonabsorbable-suture-induced osteomyelitis: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Cheng Hong; Russell, Nick C; Sharpe, Tom

    2012-01-01

    We are reporting a case of nonabsorbable suture-induced osteomyelitis in patient who had an open rotator cuff repair with nonabsorbable Ethibond anchor suture. Patient in this case presented with very subtle clinical features of osteomyelitis of the left proximal humerus 15 years after initial rotator cuff repair surgery. Literature had shown that deep infection following rotator cuff repairs, although rare, can be easily missed and can cause severe complications. Absorbable suture had been demonstrated to be more superior, in terms of rate of deep infection, as compared to nonabsorbable suture when used in rotator cuff repair surgery. Both absorbable and nonabsorbable suture had been demonstrated to have similar mechanical properties by several different studies. The case demonstrated that initial presentation of deep infection can be subtle and easily missed by clinicians and leads to further complications. PMID:23259121

  11. Pediatric heart surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Heart surgery - pediatric; Heart surgery for children; Acquired heart disease; Heart valve surgery - children ... There are many kinds of heart defects. Some are minor, and others are more serious. Defects can occur inside the heart or in the large blood vessels ...

  12. Infection after hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Eberlin, Kyle R; Ring, David

    2015-05-01

    Postoperative infections are uncommon after hand surgery. Infection can delay recovery and contribute to scarring and stiffness. Measures intended to reduce the risk of infection after hand surgery include hand washing, skin preparation, sterile technique, and prophylactic antibiotics. The role of prophylactic antibiotics for small, clean, elective hand surgery procedures lasting less than 2 hours is debated. PMID:25934209

  13. Visceral surgery and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Germain, A; Brunaud, L

    2010-06-01

    With an incidence of 950,000 pregnancies per year in France, the likelihood of seeing one or more surgical abdominal diseases during pregnancy is high. The goal of this update was to describe the management of four different settings in the pregnant woman: colorectal cancer, laparoscopic surgery, gastrointestinal emergency surgery, and bariatric surgery. PMID:20813621

  14. Successful incorporation of robotic surgery into gynecologic oncology fellowship training

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Pamela T.; Iglesias, David; Munsell, Mark F.; Frumovitz, Michael; Westin, Shannon N.; Nick, Alpa M.; Schmeler, Kathleen M.; Ramirez, Pedro T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The increasing role of robotic surgery in gynecologic oncology may impact fellowship training. The purpose of this study was to review the proportion of robotic procedures performed by fellows at the console, and compare operative times and lymph node yields to faculty surgeons. Methods A prospective database of women undergoing robotic gynecologic surgery has been maintained since 2008. Intra-operative datasheets completed include surgical times and primary surgeon at the console. Operative times were compared between faculty and fellows for simple hysterectomy (SH), bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO), pelvic (PLND) and paraaortic lymph node dissection (PALND) and vaginal cuff closure (VCC). Lymph nodes counts were also compared. Results Times were recorded for 239 SH, 43 BSOs, 105 right PLNDs, 104 left PLNDs, 34 PALND and 269 VCC. Comparing 2008 to 2011, procedures performed by the fellow significantly increased; SH 16% to 83% (p<0.001), BSO 7% to 75% (p=0.005), right PLND 4% to 44% (p<0.001), left PLND 0% to 56% (p<0.001), and VCC 59% to 82% (p=0.024). Console times (min) were similar for SH (60vs. 63, p= 0.73), BSO (48 vs. 43, p=0.55), and VCC (20 vs. 22, p=0.26). Faculty times (min) were shorter for PLND (right 26 vs. 30, p=0.04, left 23 vs. 27, p=0.02). Nodal counts were not significantly different (right 7 vs. 8, p=0.17 or left 7 vs. 7, p=0.87). Conclusions Robotic surgery can be successfully incorporated into gynecologic oncology fellowship training. With increased exposure to robotic surgery, fellows had similar operative times and lymph node yields as faculty surgeons. PMID:24055616

  15. Visualizing molecular unidirectional rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kang; Song, Qiying; Gong, Xiaochun; Ji, Qinying; Pan, Haifeng; Ding, Jingxin; Zeng, Heping; Wu, Jian

    2015-07-01

    We directly visualize the spatiotemporal evolution of a unidirectional rotating molecular rotational wave packet. Excited by two time-delayed polarization-skewed ultrashort laser pulses, the cigar- or disk-shaped rotational wave packet is impulsively kicked to unidirectionally rotate as a quantum rotor which afterwards disperses and exhibits field-free revivals. The rich dynamics can be coherently controlled by varying the timing or polarization of the excitation laser pulses. The numerical simulations very well reproduce the experimental observations and intuitively revivify the thoroughgoing evolution of the molecular rotational wave packet of unidirectional spin.

  16. Perivascular biodegradable microneedle cuff for reduction of neointima formation after vascular injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Ju; Park, Seung Hyun; Lee, Ji Yong; Joo, Hyun Chel; Jang, Eui Hwa; Youn, Young-Nam; Ryu, WonHyoung

    2014-10-28

    Restenosis often occurs at the site of vascular grafting and may become fatal for patients. Restenosis at anastomosis sites is due to neointimal hyperplasia (NH) and difficult to treat with conventional treatments. Such abnormal growth of smooth muscle cells in tunica media of vascular tissue can be reduced by delivering anti-proliferation drugs such as paclitaxel (PTX) to the inner vascular layer. Drug eluting stents (DES) or drug eluting balloon (DEB) have been developed to treat such vascular diseases. However, they are less efficient in drug delivery due to the drug loss to blood stream and inadequate to be applied to re-stenotic area in the presence of stent or anastomosis sites. Recently, we have introduced microneedle cuff (MNC) as perivascular delivery devices to achieve high delivery efficiency to tunica media. In this study, we investigated in vivo microneedle insertion and efficacy in treating NH using a rabbit balloon injury model. Microneedle shape was optimized for reliable insertion into tunica media layer. Uniform distribution of PTX in tunica media delivered by MNC devices was also confirmed. Animal study demonstrated significant NH reduction by MNC treatments and much higher delivery efficiency than flat type devices. PMID:25025286

  17. Motion control of the ankle joint with a multiple contact nerve cuff electrode: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Joo; Durand, Dominique M

    2014-08-01

    The flat interface nerve electrode (FINE) has demonstrated significant capability for fascicular and subfascicular stimulation selectivity. However, due to the inherent complexity of the neuromuscular skeletal systems and nerve-electrode interface, a trajectory tracking motion control algorithm of musculoskeletal systems for functional electrical stimulation using a multiple contact nerve cuff electrode such as FINE has not yet been developed. In our previous study, a control system was developed for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) musculoskeletal systems with little prior knowledge of the system. In this study, more realistic computational ankle/subtalar joint model including a finite element model of the sciatic nerve was developed. The control system was tested to control the motion of ankle/subtalar joint angles by modulating the pulse amplitude of each contact of a FINE placed on the sciatic nerve. The simulation results showed that the control strategy based on the separation of steady state and dynamic properties of the system resulted in small output tracking errors for different reference trajectories such as sinusoidal and filtered random signals. The proposed control method also demonstrated robustness against external disturbances and system parameter variations such as muscle fatigue. These simulation results under various circumstances indicate that it is possible to take advantage of multiple contact nerve electrodes with spatial selectivity for the control of limb motion by peripheral nerve stimulation even with limited individual muscle selectivity. This technology could be useful to restore neural function in patients with paralysis. PMID:24939581

  18. Fascicular anatomy of human femoral nerve: Implications for neural prostheses using nerve cuff electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Kenneth J.; Pinault, Gilles C. J.; Neville, Jennifer J.; Syed, Ishaq; Davis, John A.; Jean-Claude, Jesse; Triolo, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical interventions to restore standing or stepping by using nerve cuff stimulation require a detailed knowledge of femoral nerve neuroanatomy. We harvested eight femoral nerves with all distal branches and characterized the branching patterns and diameters. The fascicular representation of each distal nerve was identified and traced proximally to create fascicle maps of the compound femoral nerve in four cadaver specimens. Distal nerves were consistently represented as individual fascicles or distinct groups of fascicles in the compound femoral nerve. Branch-free length of the compound femoral nerve was 1.50 +/− 0.47 cm (mean +/− standard deviation). Compound femoral nerve cross sections were noncircular with major and minor diameters of 10.50 +/− 1.52 mm and 2.30 +/− 0.63 mm, respectively. In vivo intraoperative measurements in six subjects were consistent with cadaver results. Selective stimulation of individual muscles inner-vated by the femoral nerve may therefore be possible with a single neural prosthesis able to selectively stimulate individual groups of fascicles. PMID:20104420

  19. Improved Measurement of Blood Pressure by Extraction of Characteristic Features from the Cuff Oscillometric Waveform

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Pooi Khoon; Ng, Siew-Cheok; Jassim, Wissam A.; Redmond, Stephen J.; Zilany, Mohammad; Avolio, Alberto; Lim, Einly; Tan, Maw Pin; Lovell, Nigel H.

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel approach to improve the estimation of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) from oscillometric waveform data using variable characteristic ratios between SBP and DBP with mean arterial pressure (MAP). This was verified in 25 healthy subjects, aged 28 ± 5 years. The multiple linear regression (MLR) and support vector regression (SVR) models were used to examine the relationship between the SBP and the DBP ratio with ten features extracted from the oscillometric waveform envelope (OWE). An automatic algorithm based on relative changes in the cuff pressure and neighbouring oscillometric pulses was proposed to remove outlier points caused by movement artifacts. Substantial reduction in the mean and standard deviation of the blood pressure estimation errors were obtained upon artifact removal. Using the sequential forward floating selection (SFFS) approach, we were able to achieve a significant reduction in the mean and standard deviation of differences between the estimated SBP values and the reference scoring (MLR: mean ± SD = −0.3 ± 5.8 mmHg; SVR and −0.6 ± 5.4 mmHg) with only two features, i.e., Ratio2 and Area3, as compared to the conventional maximum amplitude algorithm (MAA) method (mean ± SD = −1.6 ± 8.6 mmHg). Comparing the performance of both MLR and SVR models, our results showed that the MLR model was able to achieve comparable performance to that of the SVR model despite its simplicity. PMID:26087370

  20. Cuff-Free Blood Pressure Estimation Using Pulse Transit Time and Heart Rate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruiping; Jia, Wenyan; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Sclabassi, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that the pulse transit time (PTT), the interval between the peak of the R-wave in electrocardiogram (ECG) and the fingertip photoplethysmogram (PPG), is related to arterial stiffness, and can be used to estimate the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). This phenomenon has been used as the basis to design portable systems for continuously cuff-less blood pressure measurement, benefiting numerous people with heart conditions. However, the PTT-based blood pressure estimation may not be sufficiently accurate because the regulation of blood pressure within the human body is a complex, multivariate physiological process. Considering the negative feedback mechanism in the blood pressure control, we introduce the heart rate (HR) and the blood pressure estimate in the previous step to obtain the current estimate. We validate this method using a clinical database. Our results show that the PTT, HR and previous estimate reduce the estimated error significantly when compared to the conventional PTT estimation approach (p<0.05). PMID:26213717