Aims We performed a systematic review of the literature to determine whether earlier surgical repair of acute rotator cuff tear (ARCT) leads to superior post-operative clinical outcomes. Methods The MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, controlled-trials.com and clinicaltrials.gov databases were searched using the terms: ‘rotator cuff’, or ‘supraspinatus’, or ‘infraspinatus’, or ‘teres minor’, or ‘subscapularis’ AND ‘surgery’ or ‘repair’. This gave a total of 15 833 articles. After deletion of duplicates and the review of abstracts and full texts by two independent assessors, 15 studies reporting time to surgery for ARCT repair were included. Studies were grouped based on time to surgery < 3 months (group A, seven studies), or > 3 months (group B, eight studies). Weighted means were calculated and compared using Student’s t-test. Results Group B had a significantly higher pre-operative Constant score (CS) (p < 0.001), range of movement in external rotation (p = 0.003) and abduction (p < 0.001) compared with group A. Both groups showed clinical improvement with surgical repair; group A had a significantly improved Constant score, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder score, abduction and elevation post-operatively (all p < 0.001). Group B had significantly improved Constant score (p < 0.001) and external rotation (p < 0.001) post-operatively. The mean Constant score improved by 33.5 for group A and by 27.5 for group B. Conclusion These findings should be interpreted with caution due to limitations and bias inherent to case-series. We suggest a trend that earlier time to surgery may be linked to better Constant score, and active range of movement in abduction and elevation. Additional prospective studies are required.
Mukovozov, I.; Byun, S.; Farrokhyar, F.; Wong, I.
Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…
Connors, G. Patrick
OBJECTIVE--To compare the effectiveness of arthroscopic surgery, a supervised exercise regimen, and placebo soft laser treatment in patients with rotator cuff disease (stage II impingement syndrome). DESIGN--Randomised clinical trial. SETTING--Hospital departments of orthopaedics and of physical medicine and rehabilitation. PATIENTS--125 patients aged 18-66 who had had rotator cuff disease for at least three months and whose condition was resistant to treatment. INTERVENTIONS--Arthroscopic subacromial decompression performed by two experienced surgeons; exercise regimen over three to six months supervised by one experienced physiotherapist; or 12 sessions of detuned soft laser treatment over six weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Change in the overall Neer shoulder score (pain during previous week and blinded evaluation of function and range of movement by one clinician) after six months. RESULTS--No differences were found between the three groups in duration of sick leave and daily intake of analgesics. After six months the difference in improvement in overall Neer score between surgery and supervised exercises was 4.0 (95% confidence interval -2 to 11) and 2.0 (-1.4 to 5.4) after adjustment for sex. The condition improved significantly compared with placebo in both groups given the active treatments. Treatment costs were higher for those given surgery (720 pounds v 390 pounds). CONCLUSIONS--Surgery or a supervised exercise regimen significantly, and equally, improved rotator cuff disease compared with placebo.
Brox, J I; Staff, P H; Ljunggren, A E; Brevik, J I
Purpose: Shoulder pain is a major musculoskeletal and economic concern in industrialized countries, with the rate of surgical failure reportedly higher in patients injured at work. The purposes of this study were (1) to examine the prevalence of identifiable causes of rotator cuff surgery failure and (2) to examine the relationship among the existence of these causes and outcome scores, patient expectations, and overall satisfaction. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of patients who experienced continued impairments following surgical treatment for work-related injuries. The primary outcome was a disease-specific measure, the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff (WORC) index. Patients were categorized into two groups based on the existence of an identifiable reason for surgical failure vs. no reason for failure, as demonstrated by clinical and radiologic investigations and decided upon by a shoulder surgeon and a physical therapist. Analyses included a t-test for independent sample means, linear regression, non-parametric Wilcoxon test, and Fisher's exact test. Results: Thirty-eight consecutive patients were included in the study, and 24 causes of surgical failure were identified in 19 patients (50%). Overall, patients with findings of failure were more disabled according to the total WORC index and had higher levels of symptoms, emotional difficulties, and limitations in sports and recreational activities. Expectations and satisfaction levels were not significantly different between groups. Conclusion: Our results indicate that 50% of patients who reported failed surgery had at least one reason to explain their ongoing symptoms, emotional difficulties, and functional limitations.
Lincoln, Sandra; Axelrod, Terry; Holtby, Richard
Background: Despite improvements in the clinical assessment of rotator cuff injuries, shortcomings exist in diagnosing rotator cuff tears.Purpose: To formulate a clinical rotator cuff functional index for predicting rotator cuff tears based on handheld dynamometer measurements for shoulder strength testing and to assess its ability to diagnose a rotator cuff tear.Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2.Methods: Preoperative
Daryl C. Osbahr; George A. C. Murrell
Background: Recent publications suggest that arthroscopic and open rotator cuff repairs have had comparable clinical results, although each technique has distinct advantages and disadvantages. National hospital and ambulatory surgery databases were reviewed to identify practice patterns for rotator cuff repair. Methods: The rates of medical visits for rotator cuff pathology, and the rates of open and arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, were examined for the years 1996 and 2006 in the United States. The national incidence of rotator cuff repairs and related data were obtained from inpatient (National Hospital Discharge Survey, NHDS) and ambulatory surgery (National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery, NSAS) databases. These databases were queried with use of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) procedure codes for arthroscopic (ICD-9 codes 83.63 and 80.21) and open (code 83.63 without code 80.21) rotator cuff repair. We also examined where the surgery was performed (inpatient versus ambulatory surgery center) and characteristics of the patients, including age, sex, and comorbidities. Results: The unadjusted volume of all rotator cuff repairs increased 141% in the decade from 1996 to 2006. The unadjusted number of arthroscopic procedures increased by 600% while open repairs increased by only 34% during this time interval. There was a significant shift from inpatient to outpatient surgery (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The increase in national rates of rotator cuff repair over the last decade has been dramatic, particularly for arthroscopic assisted repair.
Colvin, Alexis Chiang; Egorova, Natalia; Harrison, Alicia K.; Moskowitz, Alan; Flatow, Evan L.
Different types of rotator cuff injuries frequently present to Accident and Emergency departments and minor injury units but can be difficult to differentiate clinically. This brief case study describes the examination and diagnosis of related shoulder injuries, specifically rotator cuff tears/disruption and calcifying supraspinatus tendinitis. The relevant anatomy and current therapies for these injuries is also discussed to enable the emergency nurse practitioner to have a greater understanding of the theory surrounding their diagnosis and treatments. PMID:10893553
Crusher, R H
\\u000a Partial rotator cuff ruptures are not rare and occur mainly in the supraspinatus tendon and may extend to that of infraspinatus,\\u000a but rarely to the tendon of subscapularis. Isolated lesions in the tendons of infraspinatus, teres minor or subscapularis\\u000a are rare. Partial ruptures usually occur before the sixth decade of life and can be a cause of unexplained pain in
The evaluation of recurrent shoulder symptoms in patients who have had rotator cuff repair is a diagnostic challenge. Pain and limitation of motion may be caused by a recurrence of the rotator cuff tear. Arthrography is not considered to be helpful in postoperative cases, since it is false-positive in most of them. Pre-operative ultrasonography of the shoulder is regarded as a highly accurate diagnostic tool for rotator cuff tears. The diagnostic criteria used are: the continuity of the rotator cuff, its contour, its thickness and its echogenicity. Our study was aimed at determining which ultrasonographic criteria were significant for a retear. In addition, the "normal" postoperative sonographic appearance of the rotator cuff was established. Of 133 patients with a full thickness rotator cuff tear, 110 were evaluated 4-48 months (mean in 21 months) after surgery. A total of 85 cuffs were reconstructed, in 46 cases by direct suture, in 33 cases by suture to the major tubercle and in 6 cases by tendon transfer (Cofield technique). In 25 cases cuffs the could not be reconstructed. Subacromial decompression was performed routinely. The patients were evaluated clinically by range of movement, force and isometric and impingement tests. The subjective outcome was assessed by the algo-functional index of Patte. Ultrasonography was performed using a 7.5-MHz linear scanner. Each sonographic criterion was referred to the clinical and subjective findings. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the rotator cuffs that could not be reconstructed revealed non-visualization of the tendons. In 13 of the 85 patients in whom reconstruction of the cuff was possible a normal sonographic pattern was seen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1287844
Cammerer, U; Habermeyer, P; Plenk, A; Huber, R
? Several studies have noted that increasing age is a significant factor for diminished rotator cuff healing, while biomechanical studies have suggested the reason for this may be an inferior healing environment in older patients.? Larger tears and fatty infiltration or atrophy negatively affect rotator cuff healing.? Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, double-row repairs, performing a concomitant acromioplasty, and the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) do not demonstrate an improvement in structural healing over mini-open rotator cuff repairs, single-row repairs, not performing an acromioplasty, or not using PRP.? There is conflicting evidence to support postoperative rehabilitation protocols using early motion over immobilization following rotator cuff repair. PMID:24806015
Mall, Nathan A; Tanaka, Miho J; Choi, Luke S; Paletta, George A
Arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs have become the standard of treatment for all sizes of tears over the past several years. Current healing rates reported in the literature are quite good, but improving the healing potential of rotator cuff repairs remains a challenging problem. There has been an increase recently in the use of augmentation of rotator cuff repairs with xenografts or synthetics for large and massive tears. Biceps tenodesis is often indicated as part of the treatment plan while one is performing rotator cuff surgery. A subpectoral biceps tenodesis provides a source of autograft to augment rotator cuff repairs of all sizes. Two techniques are presented to augment rotator cuff repairs with a free biceps tendon autograft. This is a novel idea in an attempt to improve healing rates and long-term results of rotator cuff repairs of all sizes.
Obma, Padraic R.
The rotator cuff is under significant stress during overhead athletics, which can predictably lead to a certain spectrum of rotator cuff injuries in this population. Although the cause is often multifactorial; tensile overload, outlet impingement, and internal impingement are common causes of cuff pathologic conditions in this group. Identification of symptomatic rotator cuff disease can be challenging in the overhead athlete because abnormalities of the rotator cuff are common in asymptomatic throwers and rotator cuff pathologic conditions often occur in conjunction with other injuries. Although nonoperative options should be exhausted, surgical treatment is typically necessary for any rotator cuff tear for which conservative treatment fails. Tear thickness has been classically used to determine the surgical approach, with tears involving less than 50% of the tendon thickness treated with debridement and more substantial tears treated with formal repair. However, some authors and some noted surgeons with experience in managing this patient population have more recently advocated a higher threshold of tendon involvement before considering formal repair. Multiple repair options have been described, but few reports have focused specifically on the outcomes of rotator cuff surgery in overhead athletes. The limited available data do lead, however, to a few reasonable conclusions. Surgical results typically correlate with tear severity. Partial-thickness tears treated with arthroscopic debridement and management of concomitant pathologic conditions seem to have fairly good outcomes in the literature, with most athletes able to return to activity at their preinjury level. Full-thickness tears, however, have fared much more poorly in the overhead athlete, with largely dismal outcomes after surgical repair. What is abundantly clear is that further refinement of surgical options is necessary to improve patient outcomes after rotator cuff repair in this particularly challenging patient population and to allow more consistent return to sports. Identification of symptomatic rotator cuff disease can be challenging in the overhead athlete because abnormalities of the rotator cuff are common in asymptomatic throwers and rotator cuff pathologic conditions often occur in conjunction with other injuries. Although nonoperative options should be exhausted, surgical treatment is typically necessary for any rotator cuff tear for which conservative treatment fails. Tear thickness has been classically used to determine the surgical approach, with tears involving less than 50% of the tendon thickness treated with debridement and more substantial tears treated with formal repair. However, some authors and some noted surgeons with experience in managing this patient population have more recently advocated a higher threshold of tendon involvement before considering formal repair. Multiple repair options have been described, but few reports have focused specifically on the outcomes of rotator cuff surgery in overhead athletes. The limited available data do lead, however, to a few reasonable conclusions. Surgical results typically correlate with tear severity. Partial-thickness tears treated with arthroscopic debridement and management of concomitant pathologic conditions seem to have fairly good outcomes in the literature, with most athletes able to return to activity at their preinjury level. Full-thickness tears, however, have fared much more poorly in the overhead athlete, with largely dismal outcomes after surgical repair. What is abundantly clear is that further refinement of surgical options is necessary to improve patient outcomes after rotator cuff repair in this particularly challenging patient population and to allow more consistent return to sports. PMID:23040553
Economopoulos, Kostas J; Brockmeier, Stephen F
The arthroscopic approach for rotator cuff repair is extensively used worldwide. Different repairing procedures have evolved with the aim of restoring anatomy and function of rotator cuff tendon. Several studies have analyzed biomechanical factors to understand their influence on tendon to bone healing and improve repair configurations. From a biomechanical point of view, single-row anchor techniques are not able to restore all of the original footprint of the rotator cuff, and result in circumferential tension around the tendon. Transosseus simple suture repairs may have greater potential for healing at the tendon-bone interface, because they allow a larger insertion site area and better pressure characteristics. Biomechanically, double-row suture anchor repair increases the area of contact and the initial fixation strength, decreases the load for each suture loop, knot and anchor, and decreases the stress at each suture-cuff contact point. To optimize healing, transosseous-equivalent techniques have been developed. The oblique suture bridges allow greater pressurized contact, low profile, and interconnection between fixation points that permits to shear load. Clinical studies showed equivalent clinical results of single- and double-row suture anchor repair. However, to date, there are no randomized controlled trials on transosseous or transosseous-equivalent techniques for rotator cuff repair. Clearly, studies of higher levels of evidence, including large randomized trials, should be conducted. Future trials should use validated functional and clinical outcomes, adequate methodology, and be sufficiently powered. PMID:21986052
Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Franceschi, Francesco; Berton, Alessandra; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo
The rotator cuff has an important role in the stability and function of the glenohumeral joint. To understand the biomechanical proprieties of the rotator cuff, it is essential to understand the pathogenesis and effects of rotator cuff tears. The rotator cuff provides a stabilizing effect to the shoulder, because of compression of the humeral head against the glenoid cavity. The wide range of motion of the shoulder is allowed by the variety of rotational moments of the cuff muscles. Rotator cuff muscles action must be precisely coordinated to obtain the desired movement. Rotator cuff tendons are subjected to complex tension loads. The rotator cuff is also subjected to compressive loads. Upwardly directed humeral load squeezes the cuff between the humeral head and the coracoacromial arch. Extrinsic factors have always been considered among causes of cuff tears. However, evidence shows that acromial impingement is not the primary cause of rotator cuff tears. Tears of the rotator cuff change load distribution and determine a pattern that induces tear progression and extension. Progressive tears of the rotator cuff compromise glenohumeral stability and determine superior translation of the humeral head. PMID:21986041
Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Berton, Alessandra; Papapietro, Nicola; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo
By virtue of its anatomy and function, the rotator cuff is vulnerable to considerable morbidity, often necessitating surgical\\u000a intervention. The factors contributing to cuff disease can be divided into those extrinsic to the rotator cuff (most notably\\u000a impingement) and those intrinsic to the cuff (age-related degeneration, hypovascularity and inflammation amongst others).\\u000a In an era of emerging biologic interventions, our interventions
Hemang Yadav; Shane Nho; Anthony Romeo; John D. MacGillivray
Objectives The aim of this study was to determine whether there is any significant difference in temporal measurements of pain, function and rates of re-tear for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (RCR) patients compared with those patients undergoing open RCR. Methods This study compared questionnaire- and clinical examination-based outcomes over two years or longer for two series of patients who met the inclusion criteria: 200 open RCR and 200 arthroscopic RCR patients. All surgery was performed by a single surgeon. Results Most pain measurements were similar for both groups. However, the arthroscopic RCR group reported less night pain severity at six months, less extreme pain and greater satisfaction with their overall shoulder condition than the open RCR group. The arthroscopic RCR patients also had earlier recovery of strength and range of motion, achieving near maximal recovery by six months post-operatively whereas the open RCR patients took longer to reach the same recovery level. The median operative times were 40 minutes (20 to 90) for arthroscopic RCR and 60 minutes (35 to 120) for open RCR. Arthroscopic RCR had a 29% re-tear rate compared with 52% for the open RCR group (p < 0.001). Conclusions Arthroscopic RCR involved less extreme pain than open RCR, earlier functional recovery, a shorter operative time and better repair integrity.
Walton, J. R.; Murrell, G. A. C.
Acromioplasty is a well-described technique used throughout the wide spectrum of treatment options for shoulder impingement and rotator cuff pathology. Several randomized prospective studies have described clinical outcomes that are statistically similar when comparing patients undergoing rotator cuff repair either with or without concomitant acromioplasty. This article reviews the current evidence for use of acromioplasty in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome and during arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Despite recently published studies, more long-term data, especially with regard to failure rates and return-to-surgery rates over time, are needed to better determine the role of acromioplasty. PMID:24684915
Frank, Jonathan M; Chahal, Jaskarndip; Frank, Rachel M; Cole, Brian J; Verma, Nikhil N; Romeo, Anthony A
A histologically normal insertion site does not regenerate following rotator cuff tendon-to-bone repair, which is likely due to abnormal or insufficient gene expression and/or cell differentiation at the repair site. Techniques to manipulate the biologic events following tendon repair may improve healing. We used a sheep infraspinatus repair model to evaluate the effect of osteoinductive growth factors and BMP-12 on tendon-to-bone healing. Magnetic resonance imaging and histology showed increased formation of new bone and fibrocartilage at the healing tendon attachment site in the treated animals, and biomechanical testing showed improved load-to-failure. Other techniques with potential to augment repair site biology include use of platelets isolated from autologous blood to deliver growth factors to a tendon repair site. Modalities that improve local vascularity, such as pulsed ultrasound, have the potential to augment rotator cuff healing. Important information about the biology of tendon healing can also be gained from studies of substances that inhibit healing, such as nicotine and antiinflammatory medications. Future approaches may include the use of stem cells and transcription factors to induce formation of the native tendon-bone insertion site after rotator cuff repair surgery.
Initial fixation strength and failure mode for various rotator cuff reattachment techniques (variations of the McLaughlin technique) were evaluated. Repair methods included standard suture (control), reinforced suture [expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) patch and polydioxanone (PDS) tape augmentation] and stapling (nonarthroscopic and arthroscopic soft-tissue staples). The average strength of intact rotator cuff tissue (su praspinatus tendon) was also determined. The different rotator
E. Paul France; Lonnie E. Paulos; Chris D. Harner; Chris B. Straight
The rotator cuff mechanism is the primary stabiliser of the gleno-humeral joint and is vulnerable to considerable morbidity because of its anatomy and function. Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors are responsible for rotator cuff pathology, which is a disease spectrum ranging from inflammation to full thickness tears. The most notable extrinsic factors are impingement and demographic variables, whereas age-related degeneration
P. Hardy; S. Sanghavi
The purpose of this study was to devise and implement an accurate and reproducible method of measuring the area and dimensions of the rotator cuff tendon insertions and their distance from the articular surface. Twenty fresh-frozen cadaveric upper-extremity specimens were divided into 2 groups of 10. In group 1 the specimens were dissected, leaving only the most distal rotator cuff
Jeffrey R Dugas; Deirdre A Campbell; Russell F Warren; Bruce H Robie; Peter J Millett
Background Degenerative rotator cuff tears are increasing with the aging population, and healing is not uniform after surgery. Rotator\\u000a cuffs may show improved healing when biologic factors are added during surgery.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes We asked: (1) What cellular processes are involved in normal bone-to-tendon healing? (2) What approaches are being developed\\u000a in tendon augmentation? (3) What approaches are being developed with the addition
Emilie V. Cheung; Luz Silverio; John W. Sperling
For the past few decades, the repair of rotator cuff tears has evolved significantly with advances in arthroscopy techniques, suture anchors and instrumentation. From the biomechanical perspective, the focus in arthroscopic repair has been on increasing fixation strength and restoration of the footprint contact characteristics to provide early rehabilitation and improve healing. To accomplish these objectives, various repair strategies and construct configurations have been developed for rotator cuff repair with the understanding that many factors contribute to the structural integrity of the repaired construct. These include repaired rotator cuff tendon-footprint motion, increased tendon-footprint contact area and pressure, and tissue quality of tendon and bone. In addition, the healing response may be compromised by intrinsic factors such as decreased vascularity, hypoxia, and fibrocartilaginous changes or aforementioned extrinsic compression factors. Furthermore, it is well documented that torn rotator cuff muscles have a tendency to atrophy and become subject to fatty infiltration which may affect the longevity of the repair. Despite all the aforementioned factors, initial fixation strength is an essential consideration in optimizing rotator cuff repair. Therefore, numerous biomechanical studies have focused on elucidating the strongest devices, knots, and repair configurations to improve contact characteristics for rotator cuff repair. In this review, the biomechanical concepts behind current rotator cuff repair techniques will be reviewed and discussed.
Failure of rotator cuff repair is a well-documented problem. Successful repair is impeded by muscle atrophy, fat infiltration, devascularization, and scar tissue formation throughout the fibrocartilagenous transition zone. This case study exemplifies a technique to biologically augment rotator cuff healing. Clinically, pain and function improved. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging evaluation confirmed construct integrity. Biological enhancement of the healing process and physiologically based alterations in rehabilitation protocols can successfully treat complicated rotator cuff tears. Prospective studies with larger sample sizes and continued follow-up are necessary to assess the definitive efficacy of this treatment modality. PMID:22691639
Gordon, Nicole M; Maxson, Scott; Hoffman, James K
The cause of rotator cuff injuries in the young athlete has been described as an overuse injury related to internal impingement. Abduction coupled with external rotation is believed to impinge on the rotator cuff, specifically the supraspinatus, and lead to undersurface tears that can progress to full-thickness tears. This impingement is believed to be worsened with increased range of motion and instability in overhead athletes. A retrospective review of seven patients diagnosed with rotator cuff injuries was performed to better understand this shoulder injury pattern. The type of sport played, a history of trauma, diagnosis, treatment method, and outcome were noted. Six patients were male and one was a female. Baseball was the primary sport for four patients, basketball for one, gymnastics for one, and wrestling for one. The following injury patterns were observed: two patients tore their subscapularis tendon, two sustained avulsion fractures of their lesser tuberosity, one tore his rotator interval, one tore his supraspinatus, and one avulsed his greater tuberosity. Only four patients recalled a specific traumatic event. Three patients were treated with arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, three with miniopen repair, and one was treated with rehabilitation. Six of the seven patients returned to their preinjury level of sport after treatment. Rotator cuff tears are rare in the adolescent age group. The injury patterns suggest that acute trauma likely accounts for many rotator cuff tears and their equivalents in the young patient. Adolescents with rotator cuff tears reliably return to sports after treatment. The possibility of rotator cuff tears in skeletally immature athletes should be considered. The prognosis is very good once this injury is identified and treated. PMID:22668571
Weiss, Jennifer M; Arkader, Alexandre; Wells, Lawrence M; Ganley, Theodore J
Rotator cuff repair techniques continue to evolve in an effort to improve repair biomechanics, maximize the biologic environment for tendon healing, and ultimately improve patient outcomes. The arthroscopic transosseous-equivalent technique was developed to replicate the favorable tendon-bone contact area for healing seen in open transosseous tunnel repair. In this technical note and accompanying video, we present our all-arthroscopic transosseous-equivalent rotator cuff repair technique with a focus on technical pearls.
Lavery, Kyle P.; Rasmussen, Jeffrey F.; Dhawan, Aman
Rotator cuff tears are the leading cause of shoulder pain and shoulder-related disability accounting for 4.5 million physician visits in the United States annually. A careful history and structured physical examination are often sufficient for diagnosing rotator cuff disorders. We are not aware of a clinical review article that presents a structured physical examination protocol of the rotator cuff for the interested clinician. To fill this void, we present a physical examination protocol developed on the basis of review of prior literature and our clinical experience from dedicated shoulder practices. Our protocol includes range of motion testing using a goniometer, strength testing using a dynamometer, and select special tests. Among the many tests for rotator cuff disorders that have been described, we chose ones that have been more thoroughly assessed for sensitivity and specificity. This protocol can be used to isolate the specific rotator cuff tendon involved. The protocol can be typically completed in 15 minutes. We also discuss the clinical implications and limitations of the physical examination maneuvers described in our protocol. This protocol is thorough yet time-efficient for a busy clinical practice. It is useful in diagnosis of rotator cuff tears, impingement syndrome, and biceps pathology.
Jain, Nitin B.; Wilcox, Reginald; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Higgins, Laurence D.
Objective. When planning surgery in patients with rotator cuff tear, strength of bone at the tendon insertion and trabecular bone structure in the greater tuberosity are usually taken into consideration. We investigated radiographic changes in bone structure of the greater tuberosity in rotator cuff tears. Design. Twenty-two human cadaveric shoulders from subjects ranging from 55 to 75 years of age
Yebin Jiang; Jenny Zhao; Marnix T. van Holsbeeck; Michael J. Flynn; Xiaolong Ouyang; Harry K. Genant
Tears of the rotator cuff, both partial, and less commonly, full thickness, are relatively common in the throwing athlete. The rotator cuff is subjected to enormous stresses during repetitive overhead activity. The supraphysiological strains, especially when combined with pathology elsewhere in the kinetic chain, can lead to compromise of the cuff fabric, most commonly on the undersurface where tensile overload occurs. Exacerbation by a tight posterior capsular, anterior instability, and internal impingement render the cuff progressively compromised, with intrinsic shear stresses and undersurface fiber failure. Advances in imaging technology, including contrast magnetic resonance imaging, dynamic ultrasound, and arthroscopic visualization have enhanced our understanding of cuff pathology in this athletic population. Unfortunately, this has not yet translated into how to best approach these athletes to return them to their previous level of activity. Nonoperative management remains the mainstay for most throwers, with arthroscopic debridement an effective surgical option for those with refractory symptoms. Despite technological advances in cuff repair in the general population, comparable outcomes have not been achieved in high-level throwers. Widespread appreciation that securing the cuff operatively will likely end an athletes' throwing career has led to adopting a surgical approach that emphasizes debridement over repair for nearly all partial and full-thickness tears. Whether advances in surgical technique will ultimately permit definitive and lasting repairs that allow overhead throwers to return to their previous level of sports remains unknown at this time. PMID:24787724
Shaffer, Benjamin; Huttman, Daniel
This protocol describes a pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) to assess the clinical and cost effectiveness of arthroscopic and open surgery in the management of rotator cuff tears. This trial began in 2007 and was modified in 2010, with the removal of a non-operative arm due to high rates of early crossover to surgery. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:155–60.
Carr, A. J.; Rees, J. L.; Ramsay, C. R.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Gray, A.; Moser, J.; Dawson, J.; Bruhn, H.; Cooper, C. D.; Beard, D. J.; Campbell, M. K.
In order to determine the effects of friction and rubbing in the development of rotator cuff tear, we studied 160 shoulders of 80 cadavers (age at death 43–93 years, mean 69.3 years). Seventy-two cadavers were fixed with formalin and eight were fresh cadavers. The surface of the cuff and the undersurface of the acromion were observed macroscopically. Eight shoulders of
A. Hijioka; K. Suzuki; T. Nakamura; T. Hojo
This protocol describes a pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) to assess the clinical and cost effectiveness of arthroscopic and open surgery in the management of rotator cuff tears. This trial began in 2007 and was modified in 2010, with the removal of a non-operative arm due to high rates of early crossover to surgery. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:155-60. PMID:24845913
Carr, A J; Rees, J L; Ramsay, C R; Fitzpatrick, R; Gray, A; Moser, J; Dawson, J; Bruhn, H; Cooper, C D; Beard, D J; Campbell, M K
Rotator cuff pathology is a common cause of shoulder pain, and imaging plays a major role in the management of shoulder problems. General radiography may be useful as an initial screening test particularly in trauma and arthritis. Musculoskeletal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are the most suitable modalities for the investigation of the rotator cuff, having high sensitivities and specificities for full-thickness tears. Musculoskeletal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are less accurate in the detection of partial-thickness tears with greater observer variability. This article reviews the normal and pathologic imaging features of the rotator cuff and highlights the potential usefulness and limitations of various imaging modalities in the assessment of the tendon and the potential impact of imaging findings on clinical patient care. PMID:21822112
Gazzola, Steve; Bleakney, Robert R
Rotator cuff tear is a common medical condition. We introduce various suture methods that can be used for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, review the single row rotator cuff repair method with modified technique, and introduce the Ulsan-University (UU) stich. We compare the UU stitch with the modified Mason-Allen (MA) suture method. The UU stitch configuration is a simple alternative to the modified MA suture configuration for rotator cuff repair.
Ko, Sang-Hun; Shin, Seung-Myeong
The understanding of rotator cuff disease has increased exponentially since Codman drew attention to this pathology in the early 1900s. Although challenging, the surgical treatment of massive rotator cuff tears is rational, with treatment decisions based on physical examination, imaging, biologic, and patient factors. Arthroscopy can be used to treat ancillary pain generators, débride necrotic tissue, and possibly restore balance to the force couples about the shoulder. Tendon transfers may be effective in restoring functional strength to irreparable, ineffectual muscle units. Arthroplasty is both a primary treatment and a salvage option. PMID:20415384
Singh, Anshu; Jawa, Andrew; Morman, Monica; Sanofsky, Benjamin; Higgins, Laurence
The rotator cuff is formed by the subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor muscles. Together, these muscles help stabilize the glenohumeral joint by holding the head of the humerus in the glenoid cavity of the scapula. The tendinous insertions of the rotator cuff create tension within the capsule when these muscles contract, providing stability in the joint. The rotator cuff
Pathology of the rotator cuff is the cause of most common problems at the shoulder joint. Acute injuries are not as frequent as chronic cuff disease, but often they aggravate inflammatory or degenerative tendon alterations, even if they are of minor severity. Traumatic rotator cuff tears predominantly affect the supraspinatus tendon or the rotator interval. The subscapularis tendon is involved
Claudius Gückel; Andreas Nidecker
Background A familial predisposition to the development of rotator cuff tearing has been previously reported. Very little information exists on the development of global tendon dysfunction in patients with rotator cuff tears. The purpose of the current study was to determine the incidence of global tendon dysfunction as well as the need for surgery for tendon dysfunction in patients with rotator cuff tears and their family members and compare them to age-matched controls. Methods Ninety two patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears and 92 age-matched controls with no history of shoulder dysfunction or surgery responded to several questions regarding tendon diseases in themselves as well as their family members. Individuals were queried regarding the presence of tendon diseases other than the rotator cuff, the need for surgery on these other tendinopathies, the presence of family members having tendinopathies including rotator cuff disease, and the need for family members to have surgery for these problems. Chi-square analysis was performed to compare the incidences between cases and controls (P<0.05 was considered significant). Results The average age of patients in the rotator cuff tear group and control groups were 58.24±7.4 and 58.42±8.5 years, respectively (P=0.876). Results showed 32.3% of patients in the rotator cuff tear group reported that family members had a history of rotator cuff problems or surgery compared to only 18.3% of the controls (P=0.035), and 38.7% of patients in the rotator cuff tear group reported they had a history of other tendon problems compared to only 19.3% of individuals in the control group (P=0.005). Conclusion Individuals with rotator cuff tears report a higher incidence of family members having rotator cuff problems or surgery as well as a higher incidence of other tendinopathies compared to controls. This data further supports a familial predilection for the development of rotator cuff tearing and generalized tendinopathies.
Tashjian, Robert Z; Saltzman, Erik G; Granger, Erin K; Hung, Man
The prevalence of rotator cuff lesions is age-dependent and up to 19-32?% for full-thickness ruptures and 13-32?% for partial-thickness lesions respectively. The therapy of partial-thickness ruptures should be considered in accordance with the articular, bursal or intratendinous location of the lesion. The therapy of full-thickness ruptures should be applied in accordance with topography and area of defect, retraction, atrophy and fatty infiltration. These parameters are considered to be important prognostic factors for the intraoperative repairability and the success of the surgery. Symptomatic or chronically progredient partial-thickness lesions as well as full-thickness lesions should generally be treated by means of surgical reconstruction. No current scientific consensus exists regarding improved clinical outcome data after the surgical approach in mini-open or arthroscopic technique. Both procedures should meet the requirements of the Gerber criteria for rotator cuff reconstruction: high primary stability, reduction of micro-movements, minimized approach associated morbidity and persisting stability to enable the fibroblastic tendon-to-bone healing. Current studies revealed a potential improvement of the tendon-to-bone healing by the application of several biologic augmentations. At the moment, these additive procedures can be applied in revision situations and for complex rotator cuff lesions with low tendon quality. No high-level in-vivo investigations concerning the human shoulder exist in the current literature that show evidence-based improvements by the additively applied biologic augmentations for rotator cuff repair. PMID:24578118
Stein, T; Mehling, A P; Welsch, F
Background Rugby is an increasingly popular collision sport. A wide spectrum of injuries can be sustained during training and match play. Rotator cuff injury is uncommon in contact sports and there is little published literature on the treatment of rotator cuff tears in rugby players. Aims We therefore reviewed the results and functional outcomes of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in elite rugby players. Materials and Methods Eleven professional rugby players underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair at our hospital over a 2-year period. We collected data on these patients from the operative records. The patients were recalled for outcome scoring and ultrasound scans. Results There were seven rugby league players and four rugby union players, including six internationals. Their mean age was 25.7 years. All had had a traumatic episode during match play and could not return to the game after the injury. The mean time to surgery was 5 weeks. The mean width of the cuff tear was 1.8 cm. All were full- thickness cuff tears. Associated injuries included two Bankart lesions, one bony Bankart lesion, one posterior labral tear, and two 360° labral tears. The biceps was involved in three cases. Two were debrided and a tenodesis was performed in one. Repair was with suture anchors. Following surgery, all patients underwent a supervised accelerated rehabilitation programme. The final follow-up was at 18 months (range: 6–31 months) post surgery. The Constant scores improved from 44 preoperatively to 99 at the last follow-up. The mean score at 3 months was 95. The Oxford shoulder score improved from 34 to 12, with the mean third month score being 18. The mean time taken to return to full match play at the preinjury level was 4.8 months. There were no complications in any of the patients and postoperative scans in nine patients confirmed that the repairs had healed. Conclusion We conclude that full-thickness rotator cuff tears in the contact athlete can be addressed successfully by arthroscopic repair, with a rapid return to preinjury status.
Tambe, Amol; Badge, Ravi; Funk, Lennard
Summary Tendon tears of the rotator cuff show a high prevalence in today’s population. Patients suffer from permanent pain and disability, and surgical reconstruction may be the only possibility for abatement. The complex process of tendon-bone healing leads to mechanically inferior scar-tissue, which often results in retears or non-healing. In the current literature, factors such as patients age, sex and fatty muscle infiltration are highly correlated to the presence of rotator cuff tears and the incidence of retears. To improve the tendon tissue quality after surgical reconstructions biologically based strategies with use of growth factors arouse more and more interest in the last years. However, to optimize the treatment of rotator cuff tears the biological background of tears and retears must be investigated in more detail. This article will elucidate different aspects that have an impact on rotator cuff healing and give a brief insight in tendon/ligament cell culture and animal studies focusing on growth factor treatments.
Wildemann, Britt; Klatte, Franka
Although the incidence of partial-thickness rotator cuff tears (PTRCTs) was reported to be from 13% to 32% in cadaveric studies, the actual incidence is not yet known. The causes of PTRCTs can be explained by either extrinsic or intrinsic theories. Studies suggest that intrinsic degeneration within the rotator cuff is the principal factor in the pathogenesis of rotator cuff tears. Extrinsic causes include subacromial impingement, acute traumatic events, and repetitive microtrauma. However, acromially initiated rotator cuff pathology does not occur and extrinsic impingement does not cause pathology on the articular side of the tendon. An arthroscopic classification system has been developed based on the location and depth of the tear. These include the articular, bursal, and intratendinous areas. Both ultrasound and magnetic resonance image are reported with a high accuracy of 87%. Conservative treatment, such as subacromial or intra-articular injections and suprascapular nerve block with or without block of the articular branches of the circumflex nerve, should be considered prior to operative treatment for PTRCTs.
Summary Rotator cuff tears are common and are a frequent source of shoulder pain and disability. A wide variation in the prevalence of rotator cuff tears has been reported. The etiology of rotator cuff tear remains multifactorial and attempts to unify intrinsic and extrinsic theories tried to explain the etiopathogenesis of rotator cuff tears. Knowledge of the etiopathogenesis of rotator cuff tears is important to improve our therapies, surgical techniques and promote tendon repair. Several strategies have been proposed to enhance tendon healing and recently research has focused on regenerative therapies, such as Growth Factors (GFs) and Plasma Rich Platelet (PRP), with high expectations of success.
Giai Via, Alessio; De Cupis, Mauro; Spoliti, Marco; Oliva, Francesco
Musculotendinous transfers (MTT) of latissimus dorsi (LD) and teres major (TM), either in isolation or combination, have recently been advocated to treat irreparable rotator cuff tears. The purpose of this study was to (1) review the anatomy of the LD and TM neurovascular pedicles, and (2) undertake experimental MTT to humeral insertions of either supraspinatus or infraspinatus to evaluate tension
O. Schoierer; G. Herzberg; E. Berthonnaud; J. Dimnet; R. Aswad; A. Morin
The incidence of acromioplasty has increased dramatically in recent decades, but its role in rotator cuff surgery has been debated. Neer popularized the extrinsic theory of rotator cuff pathology, where mechanical compression of the coracoacromial arch leads to tearing of the rotator cuff. Under this theory, acromioplasty is advocated to modify acromial morphology as an essential part of rotator cuff surgery. Proponents of the intrinsic theory suggest rotator cuff tendons undergo degeneration through aging and overuse, and that bursectomy alone without acromioplasty is sufficient. There exist cadaveric studies, expert opinions, and numerous case series espousing both sides of the argument. Recently, however, numerous high-quality prospective randomized controlled trials have been published examining the role of acromioplasty. They have similar study design and randomization protocols, including groups of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with bursectomy and acromioplasty versus isolated bursectomy. The results have been consistent across all studies, with no difference in the outcomes of the acromioplasty and isolated bursectomy groups. Current evidence does not support the routine use of acromioplasty in the treatment of rotator cuff disease.
Shi, Lewis L.; Edwards, T. Bradley
A histologically normal insertion site does not regenerate following rotator cuff tendon-to-bone repair, which is likely due\\u000a to abnormal or insufficient gene expression and\\/or cell differentiation at the repair site. Techniques to manipulate the biologic\\u000a events following tendon repair may improve healing. We used a sheep infraspinatus repair model to evaluate the effect of osteoinductive\\u000a growth factors and BMP-12 on
David Kovacevic; Scott A. Rodeo
A prospective study of 40 shoulder arthroplasties in patients with rheumatoid arthritis was performed to evaluate the results of rotator cuff repair at the time of arthroplasty. A large cuff tear was present in 21 shoulders, and good repair of the cuff was performed in 9. In the other shoulders the repair was considered insufficient. All patients were clinically evaluated
P. M. Rozing; R. Brand
The objective of this paper is to quantify the fatty degeneration (infiltration) of rotator cuff muscles with a new spectroscopic FLASH (SPLASH) sequence. Before planned surgery (reconstruction or muscle transfer), 20 patients (13 men, 7 women; 35–75 years) with different stages of rotator cuff disease underwent an MR examination in a 1.5-T unit. The protocol consists of imaging sequences and
Werner Kenn; Dirk Böhm; Frank Gohlke; Christian Hümmer; Herbert Köstler; Dietbert Hahn
Transfer of the musculotendinous unit of the latissimus dorsi was performed in seven patients (5 men and 2 women, with a\\u000a mean age of 57 years) with irreparable rotator cuff tear who had had no previous surgery for cuff repair. Preoperatively,\\u000a the mean active shoulder motion was 86? in flexion, 74? in abduction and 22? in external rotation. One patient
F. Postacchini; S. Gumina; P. De Santis; R. Di Virgilio
The relative prevalence of various acromial shapes, appearance of the coracoacromial ligament and enthesophytes along the\\u000a inferior aspect of the acromioclavicular joint in patients with and without rotator cuff tears were evaluated. Of 76 patients\\u000a with clinical instability and impingement, 31 had a normal rotator cuff and 45 demonstrated a partial or full tear of the\\u000a supraspinatus tendon at surgery.
Timothy E. Farley; Christian H. Neumann; Lynne S. Steinbach; Steve A. Petersen
Subacromial decompression and debridement of partial-thickness bursal-sided rotator cuff tears are often reported with a high rate of unsatisfactory outcomes. We describe an arthroscopic procedure to repair partial-thickness bursal-sided rotator cuff tears without converting to a full-thickness tear in patients with a normal articular-sided rotator cuff and an A0B2 or A0B3 pattern of tear (minimum thickness of 25% to 75%).
Andrew B. Wolff; David P. Magit; Seth R. Miller; Jeff Wyman; Paul M. Sethi
Forty-one patients scheduled for shoulder surgery underwent computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination of their affected shoulder to verify whether fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles could reproducibly be assessed by CT or by MRI and whether the grading with the 2 methods was comparable. In addition, rotator cuff muscle cross-sectional areas were measured on parasagittal
Bruno Fuchs; Dominik Weishaupt; Marco Zanetti; Juerg Hodler; Christian Gerber
Background Degenerative rotator cuff tears are a significant cause of shoulder pain in the aging population. Rotator cuff repair surgery may be more successful when growth factors are delivered to the repair site. This study was designed to determine the cellular processes involved in normal bone-to-tendon healing and the current approaches used for biologic augmentation of rotator cuff repair. Methods This review focuses on animal studies of rotator cuff repair and early human trials. Results Regular bone-to-tendon healing forms a fibrous junction between tendon and bone that is markedly different from the original bone-to-tendon junction. Tendon augmentation with cellular components serves as scaffolding for endogenous fibroblastic cells and a possible source of growth factors and fibroblastic cells. Extracellular matrices provide a scaffold for incoming fibroblastic cells. However, research in extracellular matrices is not conclusive due to intermanufacturer variation and the lack of human subject research. Growth factors and platelet-rich plasma are established in other fields of research and show promise, but have not yet been rigorously tested in rotator cuff repair augmentation. Conclusions Rotator cuff repair can benefit from biologic augmentation. However, research in this field is still young and has not yet demonstrated that the benefits in healing rates are significant enough to merit regular clinical use. Randomized controlled trials will elucidate the use of biologic augmentation in rotator cuff repairs.
Cheung, Emilie V; Silverio, Luz; Yao, Jeffrey
Background Rotator-cuff pathology is the most common cause of pain and disability in the shoulder. Examining the combined effect of biological and societal factors on disability would potentially identify existing differences between men and women with rotator cuff pathology which would help to provide suggestions for better models of care. Purpose of this study was to determine the overall differences in disability between men and women and to examine the relationship between factors that represent sex (biological factors) and gender (non-biological factors) with disability and satisfaction with surgical outcome 6 months after rotator cuff surgery. Methods Patients with impingement syndrome and/or rotator cuff tear who underwent rotator cuff surgery completed the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff (WORC) index, the American Shoulder & Elbow Surgeons (ASES) assessment form, and the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) outcome measures prior to surgery and 6 months post-operatively. They also rated their satisfaction with surgery at their follow-up appointment. Results and Discussion One hundred and seventy patients entered into the study (85 men and 85 women). One hundred and sixty patients (94%) completed the 6-month assessment. Women reported more disability both prior to and after surgery. Disability at 6 months was associated with pain-limited range of motion, participation limitation, age and strength. Satisfaction with surgery was associated with level of reported disability, expectations for improved pain, pain-limited range of motion and strength. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that women with rotator cuff pathology suffer from higher levels of pre- and post-operative disability and sex and gender qualities contribute to these differences. Gender-sensitive approach will help to identify existing differences between men and women which will help to promote more effective and tailored care by health professionals.
The repair integrity of rotator cuff tears, which are a common disorder, is influenced by many biologic, environmental, and surgical factors. Surgery for rotator cuff repairs has evolved significantly over the past decade. The technical goals of rotator cuff repair include achieving high initial fixation strength, minimizing gap formation, and maintaining mechanical stability until biologic healing occurs. A variety of surgical techniques have been established to capitalize on certain aspects of these tenets and have been shown to provide biomechanical and biologic benefits; however, overall clinical outcomes may be dependent on certain tear characteristics. It is important for orthopaedic surgeons to be familiar with the natural history of rotator cuff disease to understand the various repair strategies and techniques and the outcomes associated with these procedures. PMID:21553768
Provencher, Matthew T; Kercher, James S; Galatz, Leesa M; Elattrache, Neal S; Frank, Rachel M; Cole, Brian J
This study compared shoulder radiographs of patients with a documented rotator cuff tear with those of asymptomatic age-matched controls. Radiographs of 40 subjects with documented rotator cuff tears were evaluated along with similar films of 84 asymptomatic age-matched controls. Three radiographs were taken of each shoulder: (1) acromioclavicular joint view, (2) anterior-posterior view with 30 degrees of external rotation, and (3) supraspinatus outlet view. Two fellowship-trained radiologists interpreted 14 radiographic areas in a blinded fashion. Inspection of the greater tuberosity showed large positive abnormal ratings for sclerosis, osteophytes, subchondral cysts, and osteolysis. No association was noted between acromial morphology and rotator cuff tears. These results indicate that shoulder radiographs of subjects with a documented rotator cuff tear have greater tuberosity radiographic abnormalities that are not noted in asymptomatic subjects without a rotator cuff tear. No relationship was found between tear length and any of the degenerative conditions. PMID:12700562
Pearsall, Albert W; Bonsell, Shawn; Heitman, R J; Helms, Clyde A; Osbahr, Daryl; Speer, Kevin P
Twenty-three tennis players with a symptomatic full- thickness rotator cuff tear underwent anterior acro mioplasty and rotator cuff repair. There were 8 small tears (<1 cm), 5 moderate tears (1 to 3 cm), 2 large tears (3 to 5 cm), and 8 massive tears (>5 cm). The dominant shoulder was involved in all patients and all were unable to play
Louis U. Bigiliani; Jay Kimmel; Peter D. McCann; Ira Wolfe
Musculotendinous transfers (MTT) of latissimus dorsi (LD) and teres major (TM), either in isolation or combination, have recently been advocated to treat irreparable rotator cuff tears. The purpose of this study was to (1) review the anatomy of the LD and TM neurovascular pedicles, and (2) undertake experimental MTT to humeral insertions of either supraspinatus or infraspinatus to evaluate tension on their nutrient arteries in six positions of the arm. Twenty-six shoulders were studied, 22 of which had previously been injected with red latex. Gross dissection, using 4.3 x magnification when necessary, was followed by one MTT for each shoulder (11 LD, 6 TM, 9 combined). The anatomy of the LD and TM neurovascular pedicles was consistent with classic descriptions in 85% of cases; "medialisation" of the thoracodorsal artery was observed in 4 specimens. Tension on the teres major artery was not observed in 15 isolated or combined MTTs, while tension on the thoracodorsal artery in at least one arm position was observed in 60% of 20 isolated or combined MTTs. Three factors were found to be associated with tension: medialisation of the thoracodorsal artery, fixation onto the supraspinatus insertion, and 90 degrees abduction combined with internal rotation. The results suggest that tension on the thoracodorsal artery is possible under certain circumstances when an isolated LD or combined MTT is performed to treat irreparable rotator cuff tear. PMID:11462865
Schoierer, O; Herzberg, G; Berthonnaud, E; Dimnet, J; Aswad, R; Morin, A
Management of irreparable massive rotator cuff tears remains a challenging and controversial problem. Defining glenohumeral force relations may allow for the development of treatment strategies based on biomechanical principles. Five fresh-frozen adult human cadaveric shoulder specimens were dissected to determine fiber length, mass, and lever arm of (a) the 3 bellies of the deltoid and (b) the rotator cuff muscles (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis). From these data, physiologic cross-sectional areas and moment relations were calculated. These relations provide evidence for a balanced axial force couple between the anterior and posterior rotator cuff. Demonstration of an axial force couple across the glenohumeral joint may have clinical significance for treatment of irreparable massive rotator cuff tears and may explain why many patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears can regain acceptable shoulder function. PMID:12647876
Aluisio, Frank V; Osbahr, Daryl C; Speer, Kevin P
Background Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is described as being a successful procedure. These results are often derived from clinical general shoulder examinations, which are then classified as 'excellent', 'good', 'fair' or 'poor'. However, the cut-off points for these classifications vary and sometimes modified scores are used. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is performed to improve quality of life. Therefore, disease specific health-related quality of life patient-administered questionnaires are needed. The WORC is a quality of life questionnaire designed for patients with disorders of the rotator cuff. The score is validated for rotator cuff disease, but not for rotator cuff repair specifically. The aim of this study is to investigate reliability, validity and responsiveness of WORC in patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Methods/Design An approved translation of the WORC into Dutch is used. In this prospective study three groups of patients are used: 1. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair; 2. Disorders of the rotator cuff without rupture; 3. Shoulder instability. The WORC, SF-36 and the Constant Score are obtained twice before therapy is started to measure reliability and validity. Responsiveness is tested by obtaining the same tests after therapy.
Introduction Arthroscopic repair of the rotator cuff is a demanding surgery. Accurate placement of anchors is key to success. Case presentation A 38-year-old woman received arthroscopic repair of her rotator cuff using a double row suture anchor technique. Postoperatively, she developed impingement syndrome which resulted from vertical displacement of a suture anchor once the shoulder was mobilised. The anchor was removed eight weeks following initial surgery and the patient had an uneventful recovery. Conclusion Impingement syndrome following arthroscopic repair of the rotator cuffs using double row suture anchor has not been widely reported. This is the first such case where anchoring has resulted in impingement syndrome.
The goal of this article is to consolidate the International Society of Arthroscopy, Knee Surgery & Orthopaedic Sports Medicine (ISAKOS) Upper Extremity Committee's (UEC's) current knowledge on rotator cuff disease and management, as well as highlight key unresolved issues. The rotator cuff is an anatomically complex structure important for providing glenohumeral function and stability as part of a closed chain system. Current consensus suggests rotator cuff injuries are most accurately diagnosed, at levels similar to diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging, with a combination of cuff- and impingement-specific clinical tests. Updates in the understanding of acromion morphology, the insertional anatomy of the rotator cuff, and the role of suprascapular nerve release may require changes to current classification systems and surgical strategies. Although initial management focuses on nonoperative protocols, discussion continues on whether surgery for isolated impingement is clinically more beneficial than rehabilitation. However, clear indications have yet to be established for the use of single- versus double-row repair because evidence confirms neither is clinically efficacious than the other. Biceps tenodesis, however, in non-isolated cuff tears has proven more successful in addressing the etiology of shoulder pain and yields improved outcomes over tenotomy. Data reviewing the benefits of tendon transfers, shoulder prostheses, and mechanical scaffolds, as well as new research on the potential benefit of platelet-rich plasma, pluripotential stem cells, and gene therapies, will also be presented. PMID:24041864
Arce, Guillermo; Bak, Klaus; Bain, Gregory; Calvo, Emilio; Ejnisman, Benno; Di Giacomo, Giovanni; Gutierrez, Vicente; Guttmann, Dan; Itoi, Eiji; Ben Kibler, W; Ludvigsen, Tom; Mazzocca, Augustus; de Castro Pochini, Alberto; Savoie, Felix; Sugaya, Hiroyuki; Uribe, John; Vergara, Francisco; Willems, Jaap; Yoo, Yon Sik; McNeil, John W; Provencher, Matthew T
The Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound convened a panel of specialists from a variety of medical disciplines to reach a consensus about the recommended imaging evaluation of painful shoulders with clinically suspected rotator cuff disease. The panel met in Chicago, Ill, on October 18 and 19, 2011, and created this consensus statement regarding the roles of radiography, ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), CT arthrography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and MR arthrography. The consensus panel consisted of two co-moderators, a facilitator, a statistician and health care economist, and 10 physicians who have specialty expertise in shoulder pain evaluation and/or treatment. Of the 13 physicians on the panel, nine were radiologists who were chosen to represent a broad range of skill sets in diagnostic imaging, different practice types (private and academic), and different geographical regions of the United States. Five of the radiologists routinely performed musculoskeletal US as part of their practice and four did not. There was also one representative from each of the following clinical specialties: rheumatology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, orthopedic surgery, and nonoperative sports medicine. The goal of this conference was to construct several algorithms with which to guide the imaging evaluation of suspected rotator cuff disease in patients with a native rotator cuff, patients with a repaired rotator cuff, and patients who have undergone shoulder replacement. The panel hopes that these recommendations will lead to greater uniformity in rotator cuff imaging and more cost-effective care for patients suspected of having rotator cuff abnormality. © RSNA, 2013
Jacobson, Jon A.; Benson, Carol B.; Bancroft, Laura W.; Bedi, Asheesh; McShane, John M.; Miller, Theodore T.; Parker, Laurence; Smith, Jay; Steinbach, Lynne S.; Teefey, Sharlene A.; Thiele, Ralf G.; Tuite, Michael J.; Wise, James N.; Yamaguchi, Ken
Calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff is a common disorder; its underlying mechanism still remains unknown. Although details of the clinical presentation(s) and pathological changes which are associated with calcific tendinitis are available, conservative management of this condition remains a topic of debate. About 90% of the patients can be treated non – operatively, but as some are resistant to conservative treatment; newer techniques or surgery should be indicated. Rheumatologists and radiologists have often described this shoulder abnormality, leading to its progressive differentiation from other painful shoulder syndromes. The conservative treatment includes the use of non – steroidal anti – inflammatory agents, roentegen therapy, physical modalities for controlling the pain and for preventing loss of joint mobility, local steroid injections, and open or arthroscopic surgeries. Results of non – operative treatments have also been satisfactory. These include heat, cold, range of motion and pendulum exercises, diathermy, short – wave, and radiation therapy. Rest, immobilization with a sling, and oral non – steroidal and steroid anti – inflammatory medications have also been mentioned. This review aimed at looking at calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff with a wide vision in the light of modern advances; while at the same time, not disregarding the past experiences.
Kachewar, Sushil G; Kulkarni, Devidas S
Background Rotator cuff tears are a common cause of shoulder pain. There is an absence of information about symptomatic rotator cuffs from the patients’ perspective; this limits the information clinicians can share with patients and the information that patients can access via sources such as the internet. This study describes the experiences of people with a symptomatic rotator cuff, their symptoms, the impact upon their daily lives and the coping strategies utilised by study participants. Methods An interpretive phenomenological analysis approach was used. 20 participants of the UKUFF trial (The United Kingdom Rotator Cuff Surgery Trial) agreed to participate in in-depth semi-structured interviews about their experiences about living with a symptomatic rotator cuff tear. Interviews were digitally recorded and fully transcribed. Field notes, memos and a reflexive diary were used. Data was coded in accordance with interpretive phenomenological analysis. Peer review, code-recode audits and constant comparison of data, codes and categories occurred throughout. Results The majority of patients described intense pain and severely disturbed sleep. Limited movement and reduced muscle strength were described by some participants. The predominantly adverse impact that a symptomatic rotator cuff tear had upon activities of daily living, leisure activities and occupation was described. The emotional and financial impact and impact upon caring roles were detailed. Coping strategies included attempting to carry on as normally as possible, accepting their condition, using their other arm, using analgesics, aids and adaptions. Conclusions Clinicians need to appreciate and understand the intensity and shocking nature of pain that may be experienced by participants with known rotator cuff tears and understand the detrimental impact tears can have upon all areas of patient’s lives. Clinicians also need to be aware of the potential emotional impact caused by cuff tears and to ensure that patients needing help for conditions such as depression are speedily identified and provided with support, explanation and appropriate treatment.
Objective: To review current concepts of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of rotator cuff and impingement injuries in the athlete. Data Sources: The information we present was compiled from a review of classic and recently published material regarding rotator cuff and impingement injuries. These materials were identified through a search of a personal literature database compiled by the authors, as well as by selective searching of the MEDLINE. In addition, much of the information presented represents observations and opinions of the authors developed over 8 to 10 years of treating shoulder injuries in athletes. Data Synthesis: Biomechanics of the normal shoulder and pathophysiology of rotator cuff injuries in the athletic population are discussed, followed by a summary of the important diagnostic features of rotator cuff and impingement injuries. The principles of rehabilitation are extensively presented, along with indications and important technical aspects of selected surgical procedures. General principles and specific protocols of postoperative rehabilitation are also summarized. Conclusions/Recommendations: Rotator cuff and impingement injuries in the athletic population are multifactorial in etiology, exhibiting significant overlap with glenohumeral instability. Nonoperative treatment is successful in most athletic patients with rotator cuff and impingement injuries. When nonoperative treatment fails, arthroscopic surgical techniques such as rotator cuff repair and subacromial decompression may be successful in returning the athlete to competition. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12.Figure 13.
Williams, Gerald R.; Kelley, Martin
Surgical treatment of rotator cuff tears significantly reduces painful symptoms and improves functional capacity in many patients. However, despite recent advances, up to 25% of patients remain symptomatic after surgery. This has led to research into the reasons for these poor outcomes, including how to identify them with imaging methods and how to avoid them through new therapeutic approaches. Based on our clinical experience, we review the available treatment alternatives for rotator cuff tears, analyzing the main areas of controversy and the possible causes of unsatisfactory outcome after surgery. Furthermore, we review the expectations, difficulties, and requirements of diagnostic imaging in the follow-up of surgically treated rotator cuffs, with special emphasis on the MRI findings and their clinical impact. PMID:18275784
Mellado, J M; Calmet, J
This study compared shoulder radiographs of patients with a documented rotator cuff tear with those of asymptomatic age-matched controls. Radiographs of 40 subjects with documented rotator cuff tears were evaluated along with similar films of 84 asymptomatic age-matched controls. Three radiographs were taken of each shoulder: (1) acromioclavicular joint view, (2) anterior-posterior view with 30° of external rotation, and (3)
Albert W. Pearsall; Shawn Bonsell; R. J. Heitman; Clyde A. Helms; Daryl Osbahr; Kevin P. Speer
Sports medicine specialists are beginning to reexamine the causes and treatments of rotator cuff problems, questioning the role of primary impingement in a deficient or torn cuff and trying new surgical procedures as alternatives to the traditional open acromioplasty. (Author/CB)
Nash, Heyward L.
Despite recent technical advances, rotator cuff repair continues to have a high retear rate. Recent research focused on biologic augmentation of rotator cuff repair with platelet-rich plasma has shown mixed results, and use of an endogenous fibrin clot from either peripheral blood or bone marrow may have advantages over the use of platelet-rich plasma. This technique describes a method to make an endogenous fibrin clot and arthroscopically apply the fibrin clot to the superior surface of the rotator cuff repair site.
Proctor, Christopher S.
Selecting the most appropriate patients to refer for surgery is crucial for high-quality and efficient clinical care. However, there are no specific referral criteria to guide the referral of appropriate patients for rotator cuff repair surgery. The aim of the present study was to design robust surgical referral criteria for patients with degenerative rotator cuff tears using consensus methodology. A two-round Delphi questionnaire was undertaken with a nationally representative sample of 41 specialist shoulder surgeons experienced in rotator cuff repair. Surgical referral criteria for degenerative rotator cuff tear were developed where consensus of at least 70% agreement was achieved. The initial questionnaire consisted of 24 items. Consensus was reached on 14 items, including: severity of pain, functional limitation, the identification of fat atrophy, agreement that a course of physiotherapy should be attempted before surgical referral, and exclusion for those with an active frozen shoulder. However, there was no consensus with regard to the dimensions of the tear. The surgical referral criteria developed were novel and promising for patients with degenerative rotator cuff tears, and further research is required to examine their efficacy. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23949892
Griffiths, Stephanie; Yohannes, A M
Arthroscopic surgery versus supervised exercises in patients with rotator cuff disease (stage II impingement syndrome): a prospective, randomized, controlled study in 125 patients with a 2 1/2-year follow-up.
The effectiveness of arthroscopic surgery, supervised exercises, and placebo was compared in 125 patients with rotator cuff disease (impingement syndrome stage II) in a randomized clinical trial. The median age was 48 years, and the median duration of complications was 1 to 2 years. The treatments were arthroscopic subacromial decompression performed by 2 experienced surgeons, an exercise regimen supervised for 3 to 6 months by 1 experienced physiotherapist, or 12 sessions of detuned soft laser (placebo) for 6 weeks. The criterion for success was a Neer shoulder score > 80. Fifteen (50%) and 11 (22%) of the patients randomized to placebo and exercises, respectively, had surgery during the 2 1/2-year follow-up period and were classified as having failure with the treatments. The success rate was higher (P < .01) for patients randomized to surgery (26 of 38) and exercises (27 of 44) compared with the placebo group (7 of 28). The odds ratio for success after surgery compared with exercises was 1.5 (95% confidence interval 0.6 to 3.7; P = .49). Including all patients who underwent operation, the success rate in those not on sick leave (19 of 21) before surgery was higher compared with those on sick leave (18 of 36) (adjusted odds ratio 5.6 [1.2 to 29.2]). Similar results were observed for patients not receiving versus those receiving regular pain medication before surgery (adjusted odds ratio 4.2 [1.2 to 15.8]). PMID:10226960
Brox, J I; Gjengedal, E; Uppheim, G; Bøhmer, A S; Brevik, J I; Ljunggren, A E; Staff, P H
There have been technologic advances in the methods for repairing torn rotator cuffs. We compared the clinical and structural outcomes of three different forms of rotator cuff repair with up to 24 months’ followup.\\u000a We wished to assess how surgical technique affected clinical outcomes and see how these correlated to repair integrity. Three\\u000a cohorts of patients had repair of a symptomatic
Neal L. Millar; Xiao Wu; Robyn Tantau; Elizabeth Silverstone; George A. C. Murrell
Magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution ultrasound (US) are frequently used for the detection of rotator cuff tears. The diagnostic yield of US is influenced by several factors as technique, knowledge of the imaging characteristics of anatomic and pathologic findings and of pitfalls. The purpose of this article is to illustrates that the standardized high-resolution US examination of the shoulder covers the entire rotator cuff and correlates with MR imaging and anatomic sections. PMID:17196354
Rutten, Matthieu J C M; Maresch, Bas J; Jager, Gerrit J; Blickman, Johan G; van Holsbeeck, Marnix T
The objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the prevalence of the cystic changes at rotator cuff footprint on proximal humeral tuberosities and investigate their relationship with rotator cuff tears and patient age. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of 657 patients who underwent shoulder arthroscopy for treatment of rotator cuff disorders were reviewed to localize the cystic changes at anterior (supraspinatus insertion) and posterior (infraspinatus insertion) aspects of greater tuberosity (GT) and lesser tuberosity (subscapularis insertion). Preoperative MR reports as well as cyst size and locations on MR images were correlated with arthroscopic records of rotator cuff pathology (tear type, size, location and tendon involvement) and patient age. The prevalence of cystic changes was 9.1 % (60 patients) in the study population. Anterior GT cysts were found in 56 % of patients and were strongly associated with full-thickness (p < .001) and articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tears (p = .02). Posterior GT and lesser tuberosity cysts were found in 27 and 17 % of patients, respectively, and were not significantly related to rotator cuff tears, although there was an increased trend of posterior cysts in patients with infraspinatus tears (p = .09). A significant relation was found between patient age and the cyst size (p = .01), while none of the cyst localizations were statistically related to age. Anterior GT cysts were more common in this patient group and demonstrated a strong association with rotator cuff disorders regardless of age. Posterior GT and lesser tuberosity cysts were less common and showed no association with rotator cuff pathology or patient age. PMID:23748696
Suluova, Fatih; Kanatli, Ulunay; Ozturk, Burak Yagmur; Esen, Erdinc; Bolukbasi, Selcuk
Reliable intraoperative localization of the calcium deposit is the most demanding and often time-consuming part of arthroscopic surgery for calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff. A new technique is described to intraoperatively localize calcium deposits based on preoperative ultrasonographic identification and subsequent assignment to a defined quadrant lateral of the acromion edge. The technique requires only a partial subacromial bursectomy,
Peter Ogon; Michael Ogon; Alwin Jäger
Three elderly patients developed persistent hemarthrosis of the shoulder joint without having suffered injury. Complete tears of the rotator cuff, attrition of the undersurface of the acromion, and instability were noted in the affected shoulders. Synovial fluids examined from two patients contained many alizarin red S-positive microspheroids. The synovium obtained at surgery from two patients showed hypervascularity, vasodilatation, and severe
K. Ishikawa; T. Ohira; K. Morisawa
Rotator cuff disease impacts over 50% of the population over 60, with reports of incidence being as high as 90% within this population, causing pain and possible loss of function. The rotator cuff is composed of muscles and tendons that work in tandem to support the shoulder. Heavy use of these muscles can lead to rotator cuff tear, with the most common causes is age-related degeneration or sport injuries, both being a function of overuse. Tears ranges in severity from partial thickness tear to total rupture. Diagnostic techniques are based on physical assessment, detailed patient history, and medical imaging; primarily X-ray, MRI and ultrasonography are the chosen modalities for assessment. The final treatment technique and imaging modality; however, is chosen by the clinician is at their discretion. Ultrasound has been shown to have good accuracy for identification and measurement of full-thickness and partial-thickness rotator cuff tears. In this study, we report on the progress and improvement of our method of transduction and analysis of in situ measurement of rotator cuff biomechanics. We have improved the ability of the clinician to apply a uniform force to the underlying musculotendentious tissues while simultaneously obtaining the ultrasound image. This measurement protocol combined with region of interest (ROI) based image processing will help in developing a predictive diagnostic model for treatment of rotator cuff disease and help the clinicians choose the best treatment technique.
Pillai, Anup; Hall, Brittany N.; Thigpen, Charles A.; Kwartowitz, David M.
Rotator cuff disease is among the most common musculoskeletal disorders with high direct and indirect costs in industrialized countries. Not all rotator cuff tears are symptomatic. Genetics has recently been investigated as a factor involved in the pathogenesis of rotator cuff pathology. Genetic factors seem to be involved in symptom presentation and tear progression. As rotator cuff disease is multifactorial, no single gene is directly involved in the pathology. Phenotypic expression of genetic susceptibility manifests at the level of ultrastructure of the tendon. Predisposing genes may also operate through apoptosis and regenerative capacity. Studies on cellular and molecular biology are more numerous, but still incomplete, and recently have focussed on the role of apoptosis in tendinopathy, analyzing its key mediators and cellular changes. Oxidative stress is responsible for reduction of collagen synthesis. Biological investigations have identified recently new risk factors. Preliminary reports introduced the possible role of glucose as a risk factor for rotator cuff tear. Further studies are required to fully clarify the genetic and biological factors involved in rotator cuff tears. PMID:21986040
Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Berton, Alessandra; Papapietro, Nicola; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo
Rotator cuff tears (RCTs), the most common injury of the shoulder, are often accompanied by tears in the superior glenoid labrum. We evaluated whether superior humeral head (HH) motion secondary to RCTs and loading of the long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) are implicated in the development of this associated superior labral pathology. Additionally, we determined the efficacy of a finite element model (FEM) for predicting the mechanics of the labrum. The HH was oriented at 30° of glenohumeral abduction and neutral rotation with 50N compressive force. Loads of 0N or 22N were applied to the LHBT. The HH was translated superiorly by 5mm to simulate superior instability caused by RCTs. Superior displacement of the labrum was affected by translation of the HH (P<0.0001), position along the labrum (P<0.0001), and interaction between the location on the labrum and LHBT tension (P<0.05). The displacements predicted by the FEM were compared with mechanical tests from 6 cadaveric specimens and all were within 1 SD of the mean. A hyperelastic constitutive law for the labrum was a better predictor of labral behavior than the elastic law and insensitive to ±1 SD variations in material properties. Peak strains were observed at the glenoid-labrum interface below the LHBT attachment consistent with the common location of labral pathology. These results suggest that pathomechanics of the shoulder secondary to RCTs (e.g., superior HH translation) and LHBT loading play significant roles in the pathologic changes seen in the superior labrum. PMID:24636720
Hwang, Eunjoo; Carpenter, James E; Hughes, Richard E; Palmer, Mark L
There have been technologic advances in the methods for repairing torn rotator cuffs. We compared the clinical and structural outcomes of three different forms of rotator cuff repair with up to 24 months’ followup. We wished to assess how surgical technique affected clinical outcomes and see how these correlated to repair integrity. Three cohorts of patients had repair of a symptomatic rotator cuff tear using (1) an open technique (n = 49); (2) arthroscopic knotted (n = 53); or (3) arthroscopic knotless (n = 57) by one surgeon. Standardized patient- and examiner-determined outcomes were obtained preoperatively and at 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months, and 2 years postoperatively. Ultrasound studies were performed with a validated protocol at 6 months and 2 years postsurgery. Clinical outcomes were similar with the exception that the arthroscopic groups had, on average, 20% better American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores than the open group at 6 months and 2 years. Retear correlated with tear size and operation time and occurred more frequently after open repair (39%) than after arthroscopic knotted (25%) and arthroscopic knotless (16%) repair. An intact cuff on ultrasound corresponded to better results for supraspinatus strength, patient outcomes, and rotator cuff functional ability. Level of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Millar, Neal L.; Wu, Xiao; Tantau, Robyn; Silverstone, Elizabeth
Summary Historically, many causes have been proposed for rotator cuff conditions. The most prevalent theory is that the rotator cuff tendons, especially the supraspinatus, make contact with the acromion and coracoacromial ligament, resulting in pain and eventual tearing of the tendon. However, more recent evidence suggests that this concept does not explain the changes in rotator cuff tendons with age. The role of acromioplasty and coracoacromial ligament release in the treatment of rotator cuff disease has become questioned. Evidence now suggests that tendinopathy associated with aging may be a predominant factor in the development of rotator cuff degeneration. We propose that the overwhelming evidence favors factors other than “impingement” as the major cause of rotator cuff disease and that a paradigm shift in the way the development of rotator cuff pathology is conceptualized allows for a more comprehensive approach to the care of the patient with rotator cuff disease.
McFarland, Edward G.; Maffulli, Nicola; Del Buono, Angelo; Murrell, George A. C.; Garzon-Muvdi, Juan; Petersen, Steve A.
Historically, many causes have been proposed for rotator cuff conditions. The most prevalent theory is that the rotator cuff tendons, especially the supraspinatus, make contact with the acromion and coracoacromial ligament, resulting in pain and eventual tearing of the tendon. However, more recent evidence suggests that this concept does not explain the changes in rotator cuff tendons with age. The role of acromioplasty and coracoacromial ligament release in the treatment of rotator cuff disease has become questioned. Evidence now suggests that tendinopathy associated with aging may be a predominant factor in the development of rotator cuff degeneration. We propose that the overwhelming evidence favors factors other than "impingement" as the major cause of rotator cuff disease and that a paradigm shift in the way the development of rotator cuff pathology is conceptualized allows for a more comprehensive approach to the care of the patient with rotator cuff disease. PMID:24367779
McFarland, Edward G; Maffulli, Nicola; Del Buono, Angelo; Murrell, George A C; Garzon-Muvdi, Juan; Petersen, Steve A
Objectives The most prevalent disorders of the shoulder are related to the muscles of rotator cuff. In order to develop a mechanical method for the evaluation of the rotator cuff muscles, we created a database of isometric force generation by the rotator cuff muscles in normal adult population. We hypothesised the existence of variations according to age, gender and dominancy of limb. Methods A total of 400 healthy adult volunteers were tested, classified into groups of 50 men and women for each decade of life. Maximal isometric force was measured at standardised positions for supraspinatus, infraspinatus and subscapularis muscles in both shoulders in every person. Torque of the force was calculated and normalised to lean body mass. The profiles of mean torque-time curves for each age and gender group were compared. Results Our data showed that men gradually gained maximal strength in the fifth decade, and showed decreased strength in the sixth. In women the maximal strength was gained in the fourth decade with gradual decline to the sixth decade of life. The dominant arm was stronger in most of the tested groups. The torque profiles of the rotator cuff muscles in men at all ages were significantly higher than that in women. Conclusions We found previously unrecognised variations of rotator cuff muscles’ isometric strength according to age, gender and dominancy in a normal population. The presented data may serve as a basis for the future studies for identification of the abnormal patterns of muscle isometric strength in patients with pathology of the rotator cuff muscles. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2013;2:214–19.
Chezar, A.; Berkovitch, Y.; Haddad, M.; Keren, Y.; Soudry, M.; Rosenberg, N.
Although many studies report the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in rotator cuff tears, a paucity of data exists correlating the clinical severity of the disease with the implicated MMP levels. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the levels of expression of MMP-1, -3, -9 and -13 in patients with rotator cuff tears. We hypothesized that patients with clinically worse symptoms as measured by a standardized pain and function scale would have a higher expression of MMPs.Rotator cuff specimens were obtained from 16 consecutive patients undergoing rotator cuff repair. Total protein was extracted from these specimens and quantified. Equalized total protein extracts were used for performing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantitative determination of MMP-1, -3, -9 and -13. Preoperatively, the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Shoulder Rating Scale was administered to each patient. Statistical comparisons were performed using analysis of variance. The expression of MMP-13 was notably increased in the rotator cuff extracts of all patients (P=.02). In addition, MMP-13 levels showed a significant proportional correlation with the patient pain score as per their UCLA ratings (r=-0.5). Although higher MMP-9 levels were assayed, this was not statistically significant. Expression of MMP-1 and-3 was insignificant.Our data suggest a critical role for MMP-13 in rotator cuff tears; elevated levels are a possible indicator for an impending tear. Further studies with increased sample size are warranted to prove the possible use of MMP-13 as therapeutic targets that may be inhibited by anti-inflammatory agents to limit disease progression. PMID:22495845
Jacob, Jinny; Eisemon, Eric; Sheibani-Rad, Shahin; Patel, Archit; Jacob, Theresa; Choueka, Jack
The rotator cuff muscles maintain glenohumeral stability by compressing the humeral head into the glenoid. Disruption of the rotator cuff compromises concavity compression and can directly affect the loads on the glenohumeral joint. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of rotator cuff tears on the magnitude and direction of glenohumeral joint reaction forces during active shoulder
I. M Parsons; IV; Maria Apreleva; Freddie H. Fu; Savio L.-Y. Woo
Arthroscopic removal, now the main treatment option, has almost replaced open surgery for treatment of resistant calcific tendinitis. In some cases of chronic calcific tendinitis of the shoulder, the calcific materials are hard and adherent to the tendon. Removal of these materials can cause significant intratendinous tears between the superficial and deep layers of the degenerated rotator cuff. Thus far, there are no established surgical techniques for removing the calcific materials while ensuring cuff integrity. Good clinical results for rotator cuff repair were achieved by using an arthroscopic suture bridge technique in patients with long-standing calcific tendinitis. Intact rotator cuff integrity and recovery of signal change on follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scans were confirmed. This is a technical note about a surgical technique and its clinical results with a review of relevant published reports. PMID:24254453
Ji, Jong-Hun; Shafi, Mohamed; Moon, Chang-Yun; Park, Sang-Eun; Kim, Yeon-Jun; Kim, Sung-Eun
The use of shoulder manipulation in the treatment of frozen shoulder remains controversial. Humeral fractures and neurological damage are the risks associated with the procedure. A concern of causing a rotator cuff tear exists but the incidence of iatrogenic rotator cuff tears is not reported. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of shoulder manipulation for frozen shoulder on the integrity of the rotator cuff. In a prospective study, 32 consecutive patients (33 shoulders) with the diagnosis of frozen shoulder underwent manipulation of the shoulder under anaesthesia (MUA), 18 female and 15 males with mean age at manipulation of 503 years (range: 42-63). The average duration of symptoms before treatment was 6.2 months (range: 2-18 months). The patients were examined prior to the manipulation and at follow-up for combined shoulder range of motion, external and internal rotation and strength. All patients had an ultrasound assessment of the rotator cuff before and at 3 weeks after manipulation of the shoulder. Mean time between manipulation and last follow-up was 133 weeks. None of the patients had ultrasound findings of a rotator cuff tear, prior to the manipulation. In all patients the rotator cuff remained undamaged on ultrasound examination at 3 weeks after the procedure. The mean improvement in motion was 81.2 degrees (from 933 degrees pre-op to 174.5 degrees at last follow-up) for forward flexion; 102.6 degrees (from 68.8 degrees pre-op to 171.4 degrees at last follow-up) for abduction, 49.4 degrees (from 8.8 degrees pre-op to 58.2 degrees at last follow-up) for external rotation and 3.5 levels of internal rotation (range: 2 to 5 levels). These gains in motion were all highly significant (p < 0.0001). No fractures, dislocations or nerve palsies were observed. In this study, manipulation of the shoulder has not been associated with rotator cuff tears. If done properly the procedure appeared to be safe and to result in a marked improvement of range of movement and function. PMID:23926725
Atoun, Ehud; Funk, Lennard; Copland, Stephen A; Even, Tirtza; Levy, Ofer; Rath, Ehud
The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of indirect MR arthrography images obtained following intravenous contrast injection and conventional MR imaging in the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears. Twenty-four patients with clinically suspected rotator cuff disease were examined. Conventional MR images and post-contrast indirect MR arthrography images were obtained. All images were evaluated in a blinded fashion by two musculoskeletal radiologist. Results were than analyzed depending on surgical output. The correlation coefficient (Spearman rank correlation test) and the kappa values for agreement between surgery and imaging techniques were calculated. The correlation coefficients between indirect MR arthrography and surgery for reader 1 and reader 2 were 0.9137 and 0.9773, respectively. Whereas the agreement between conventional MR imaging and surgery was moderate (n = 0.383-0.571), the agreement between indirect MR arthrography and surgery was excellent (n = 0.873-0.936). We suggest the use of indirect MR arthrography technique when conventional MR images are equivocal in diagnosis of rotator cuff disease. PMID:11218024
Yagci, B; Manisali, M; Yilmaz, E; Ozkan, M; Ekin, A; Ozaksoy, D; Kovanlikaya, I
Despite improvements in the understanding of rotator cuff pathology and advances in surgical treatment options, repairs of chronic rotator cuff tears often re-tear or fail to heal after surgery. Hence, there is a critical need for new regenerative repair strategies that provide effective mechanical reinforcement of rotator cuff repair as well as stimulate and enhance the patient's intrinsic healing potential. This article will discuss and identify appropriate models for translating regenerative medicine therapies for rotator cuff repair. Animal models are an essential part of the research and development pathway; however, no one animal model reproduces all of the features of the human injury condition. The rat shoulder is considered the most appropriate model to investigate the initial safety, mechanism, and efficacy of biologic treatments aimed to enhance tendon-to-bone repair. Whereas large animal models are considered more appropriate to investigate the surgical methods, safety and efficacy of the mechanical—or combination biologic/mechanical—strategies are ultimately needed for treating human patients. The human cadaver shoulder model, performed using standard-of-care repair techniques, is considered the best for establishing the surgical techniques and mechanical efficacy of various repair strategies at time zero. While preclinical models provide a critical aspect of the translational pathway for engineered tissues, controlled clinical trials and postmarketing surveillance are also needed to define the efficacy, proper indications, and the method of application for each new regenerative medicine strategy.
Baker, Andrew Ryan; Iannotti, Joseph P.; McCarron, Jesse A.
Background Rotator cuff tendon tears represent a major component of reported orthopaedic injuries. In addition, more than one quarter of U.S. adults either currently have high cholesterol levels or have reduced their previously high cholesterol levels through the use of pharmaceuticals. Our clinical data have already linked hypercholesterolemia to full-thickness rotator cuff tears, and experimental data from our laboratory have shown effects on native tendon properties in multiple species. The objective of this study was to evaluate healing of supraspinatus tendons in our rat rotator cuff injury model. We hypothesized that tendon healing would be inferior in rats receiving a high-cholesterol diet for 6 months compared with those receiving standard chow. Methods All animals were subjected to a unilateral supraspinatus detachment and repair surgery, with contralateral limbs serving as within-animal comparative data. Animals continued their respective diet courses, and their supraspinatus tendons were biomechanically or histologically evaluated at 2, 4, and 8 weeks postoperatively. Results Biomechanical testing revealed a significant reduction in normalized stiffness in hypercholesterolemic rats compared with controls at 4 weeks after injury, whereas histologic analyses showed no significant differences in collagen organization, cellularity, or cell shape between groups. Conclusion On the basis of our findings, hypercholesterolemia may have a detrimental biomechanical effect on tendon healing in our rat rotator cuff injury and repair model. Level of evidence Basic Science Study, Animal Model.
Beason, David P.; Tucker, Jennica J.; Lee, Chang Soo; Edelstein, Lena; Abboud, Joseph A.; Soslowsky, Louis J.
Objective. To determine why certain tendon transfers are mechanically more effective than other tendon transfers for the treatment of a massive rotator cuff tear.Design. A tendon transfer procedure of latissimus dorsi, teres major or a combination of these two to the insertions of either teres minor, infraspinatus, supraspinatus, or subscapularis is simulated using a biomechanical musculoskeletal model of the upper
D. J. Magermans; E. K. J. Chadwick; H. E. J. Veeger; P. M. Rozing
Introduction. When using the double interval slide technique for arthroscopic repair of chronic large or massive rotator cuff tears, the posterior interval release is directed toward the scapular spine until the fat pad that protects the suprascapular nerve is reached. Injury to the suprascapular nerve can occur due to the nerve's proximity to the operative field. This study aimed to identify safe margins for avoiding injury to the suprascapular nerve. Materials and Methods. For 20 shoulders in ten cadavers, the distance was measured from the suprascapular notch to the glenoid rim, the articular margin of the rotator cuff footprint, and the lateral border of the acromion. Results. From the suprascapular notch, the suprascapular nerve coursed an average of 3.42?cm to the glenoid rim, 5.34?cm to the articular margin of the rotator cuff footprint, and 6.09?cm to the lateral border of the acromion. Conclusions. The results of this study define a safe zone, using anatomic landmarks, to help surgeons avoid iatrogenic injury to the suprascapular nerve when employing the double interval slide technique in arthroscopic repair of the rotator cuff.
Tom, James A.; Shah, Mitesh P.; Lee, Dan J.; Cerynik, Douglas L.; Amin, Nirav H.
This report documents the clinical, radiographic and histologic findings in a 46-year-old man with calcifying tendinitis in his left shoulder which progressed to rotator cuff tear. The patient had a 1-year history of repeated calcifying tendinitis before being referred to our hospital. On the initial visit, radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed calcium deposition localized in the supraspinatus tendon
Masafumi Gotoh; Fujio Higuchi; Ritsu Suzuki; Kensuke Yamanaka
We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 29 patients younger than 65 years at surgery treated with deltoid flap reconstruction for massive postero-superior rotator cuff tears. All tears involved supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons and were associated with tendon stump retraction to the glenoid rim, a preservable long biceps tendon, and an intact subscapularis tendon. Mean follow-up was 10.5 years. Patient satisfaction
Eric Vandenbussche; Moncef Bensaïda; Céline Mutschler; Thierry Dart; Bernard Augereau
It's unknown which-if any-historical factors are most useful for identifying rotator cuff tears, because no studies evaluating their accuracy with rotator cuff tears have been done. As for physical findings, no single physical examination finding is sensitive or specific enough to detect partial-thickness rotator cuff tears. The combination of the painful arc sign, drop-arm sign, and infraspinatus muscle strength test are helpful in detecting a full-thickness rotator cuff tear. A negative supraspinatus muscle strength test alone is sensitive enough to decrease the likelihood of a significant rotator cuff tear. PMID:20230738
Colsant, Brian; Sams, Richard; Paden, Shelley
Background Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair generally has a good clinical outcome but shoulder stiffness after surgery due to subacromial adhesion is one of the most common and clinically important complications. Sodium hyaluronate (HA) has been reported to be an anti-adhesive agent in a range of surgical procedures. However, there are few reports of the outcomes of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair of the shoulder. This study examined whether a subacromial injection of HA/carboxymethylated cellulose (CMC) affected the postoperative shoulder stiffness and healing of rotator cuff repair, as well as the safety of an injection. Methods Between January 2008 and May 2008, 80 consecutive patients with arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were enrolled. The patients were assigned randomly to the HA/CMC injection group (n = 40) or control group (n = 40). All patients were evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, passive range of motion at 2, 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12 months after surgery, and the functional scores at 6, 12 months postoperatively. Cuff healing was also evaluated using CT arthrography or ultrasonography at 6 or 12 months after surgery. Results The HA/CMC injection group showed faster recovery of forward flexion at 2 weeks postoperatively than the control group but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.09). There were no significant difference in pain VAS, internal rotation, external rotation and functional scores between two groups at each follow-up period. The functional scores improved 6 months after surgery in both groups but there were no differences between the two groups. The incidence of unhealed rotator cuff was similar in the two groups. There were no complications related to an injection of anti-adhesive agents including wound problems or infections. Conclusions A subacromial injection of an anti-adhesive agent after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair tended to produce faster recovery in forward flexion with no adverse effects on cuff healing. However, its anti-adhesive effects after rotator cuff repair should be considered carefully with further studies.
Oh, Chung Hee; Oh, Joo Han; Kim, Sae Hoon; Cho, Jae Hwan; Yoon, Jong Pil
Summary Rotator cuff tears are a common cause of pain and shoulder dysfunction. The prevalence of the rotator cuff tears increases with the age reaching the 80% in patients aged more than 80 year. Symptomatic shoulders usually are initially treated conservatively and then, in case of poor outcomes, with surgery. Different parameters are still used to decide between the conservative or surgical treatment in patients with rotator cuff tears. Aim of the current study is to characterize the various features used in decision making and to validate a “Prediction Score” that let us know which patients could have a good and stable outcome with non operative treatment. We enrolled 60 patients (mean age 52 years) with symptomatic rotator cuff tears who were assigned to conservative treatment and were evaluated at 6,9 and 12 months follow-up. We developed a score based on 18 clinical and radiographic parameters. 27 patients (“non conservative”) (45%) with a mean prediction score of 16.1 ± 1.7 interrupted the conservative treatment, while 33 patients (“conservative”) (55%) with an average prediction score of 11.3 ± 1.8 remained conservatively treated at last follow-up. The conservative patients were 14 years older than non conservative patients. According to the results of this study we identified a value of 13 points as a “cut-off” score to predict good results by conservative management of rotator cuff tear. These outcomes support the assumption that a predictive prognostic score may guarantee a rational approach in the management of subjects with RC tears, especially in elderly who continue to have the higher rate of recurrence and therefore could be well treated with standard conservative therapies.
Merolla, Giovanni; Paladini, Paolo; Saporito, Marco; Porcellini, Giuseppe
... rotator cu? tears. Advancements in surgical techniques for rotator cu? repair include less invasive procedures. While each of the ... Surgeons. The three techniques most commonly used for rotator cu? repair include traditional open repair, arthroscopic repair, and mini- ...
ABSTRACT Purpose: The objective of this study was to develop and examine the measurement properties of a shortened version of the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (WORC), the SHORTWORC, in individuals with rotator-cuff pathology. Methods: The study occurred in two stages, both using secondary analysis of existing data sets. The first stage used cross-sectional data from candidates for rotator-cuff surgery to develop the SHORTWORC. The second stage examined various measurement properties of the SHORTWORC by analyzing scores from the WORC, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons questionnaire, and the Constant–Murley score obtained from patients before and after rotator-cuff surgery. Approaches to validating the SHORTWORC included calculating the standard error of measurement (SEM) at an instant in time, performing a confirmatory factor analysis, correlating findings among the questionnaires, and examining differences between men and women. Sensitivity to change was investigated using standardized response mean and relative efficiency. Results: Data for 712 patients were used to develop the SHORTWORC, the final version of which consisted of 7 questions. Data for 166 patients (86 men, 80 women; mean age 57±11 years) were used for validation. The SEM based on internal consistency (SEMIC) was calculated as 7.43 SHORTWORC points. The SHORTWORC had similar convergent validity (r=0.72?0.82) and sensitivity to change (SRM=1.20 vs. 1.25, p>0.05) to the longer version. The relative efficiency of the SHORTWORC was 3.19 times that of the WORC (95% CI, 1.50–71.51) in discriminating men's from women's level of disability. Conclusions: The SHORTWORC has indicators of validity, relative efficiency, and sensitivity to change comparable to those of the original version but has a smaller response burden.
Stratford, Paul; Holtby, Richard
Summary. This review is based on 66 patients with partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff, verified at operation. Their average\\u000a age was 54 years, and all had symptoms of subacromial impingement. The duration of shoulder pain was for between 2 and 108\\u000a months (mean 11.4 months). Ultrasonography, arthrography and bursography were helpful in establishing the diagnosis. On exploration,\\u000a tears were
H. Fukuda; K. Hamada; T. Nakajima; N. Yamada; A. Tomonaga; M. Goto
OBJECTIVES--Rotator cuff tendinitis and lateral epicondylitis are common in clinical practice but the underlying pathology is poorly understood. The study examined both normal and biopsy tendon specimens histologically, to determine the mechanisms involved in tendon degeneration. METHODS--Rotator cuff tendons from 83 cadavers aged 11-94 and tendon biopsy specimens from 20 patients with lateral epicondylitis aged 27-56 years were examined histologically. RESULTS--The microscopic changes found in the tendon biopsies from the elbow were similar to those found in the cadaveric rotator cuff tendons. Abnormalities ranged from minor blood vessel wall changes and loss of tenocytes to calcification. The most frequent abnormality was glycosaminoglycan infiltration and fibrocartilaginous transformation. There appeared to be some sequence in the changes observed which were milder in younger patients. Only 17% of cadaver tendons, below the age of 39 were abnormal but abnormalities increase in later life to around 40-50%. CONCLUSIONS--There was an increasing incidence of degenerative changes in tendons with age. The changes observed in biopsy samples of common extensor tendons were the same as those seen in aged supraspinatus tendons, but these changes were not seen in control common extensor tendons. Images
Chard, M D; Cawston, T E; Riley, G P; Gresham, G A; Hazleman, B L
In an attempt to maximize stability by improving the lateral footprint compression of our repair in rotator cuff tears, we have been using a rotator cuff button (Arthrex, Naples, FL) passed through a transosseous tunnel as an anchor for our transosseous sutures. Our new innovation is to pass a rotator cuff button fully loaded with 4 strands around the central post, with 2 leading strands and 2 trailing strands on either end, through our transosseous tunnel. In this way, we can use the 4 central strands through our tunnel to obtain 2 good mattress sutures as a primary repair and the peripheral 4 strands passed around the lateral humerus as over sew mattress sutures to obtain good compression of the lateral tendon and so improve the footprint area. A double row equivalent is achieved. This technique has a good primary hold in the form of a device with proven history and avoids multiple anchors in the lateral humerus. Because it uses only a single fixation device, it is also significantly more economical. Theoretical risks to the axillary nerve or with osteoporosis have not been seen in practice. Tensioning the repair with suture passage through transosseous tunnels is readily achieved. PMID:18760216
Fox, Michael P; Auffarth, Alexander; Tauber, Mark; Hartmann, Andreas; Resch, Herbert
With advances in arthroscopic surgery, many techniques have been developed to increase the tendon-bone contact area, reconstituting a more anatomic configuration of the rotator cuff footprint and providing a better environment for tendon healing. We present a low-profile arthroscopic rotator cuff repair technique which uses suture bridges to optimize rotator cuff tendon-footprint contact area and mean pressure. A 5.5 mm Bio-Corkscrew suture anchor (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA), double-loaded with No. 2 FiberWire sutures (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA), is placed in the anteromedial aspect of the footprint. Two suture limbs from a single suture are both passed through a single anterior point in the rotator cuff. One suture limb is retrieved from the cannula. The second suture limb is passed through a single posterior point in the rotator cuff producing two points of fixation in the tendon, with a tendon bridge between them. The same suture limb is retrieved through the lateral portal, and then inserted into the bone by means of a Pushlock (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA), placed approximately 1.5-2 cm posterior to the first anchor. This second suture is passed again in the posterior aspect of the cuff. The limbs of the first suture are pulled to compress the tendon in the medial aspect of the footprint. The two free suture limbs are used to produce suture bridges over the tendon by means of a Pushlock (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA), placed 1 cm distal to the lateral edge of the footprint relative to the medially placed suture anchors anterior to posterior. This technique allows us to perform a low-profile (single pulley-suture bridges) repair for knotless double-row repair of the rotator cuff. PMID:21063885
Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Franceschi, Francesco; Spiezia, Filippo; Marinozzi, Andrea; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo
We assessed the clinical results, radiographic outcomes and complications of patients undergoing total shoulder replacement (TSR) for osteoarthritis with concurrent repair of a full-thickness rotator cuff tear. Between 1996 and 2010, 45 of 932 patients (4.8%) undergoing TSR for osteoarthritis underwent rotator cuff repair. The final study group comprised 33 patients with a mean follow-up of 4.7 years (3 months to 13 years). Tears were classified into small (10), medium (14), large (9) or massive (0). On a scale of 1 to 5, pain decreased from a mean of 4.7 to 1.7 (p = < 0.0001), the mean forward elevation improved from 99° to 139° (p = < 0.0001), and the mean external rotation improved from 20° (0° to 75°) to 49° (20° to 80°) (p = < 0.0001). The improvement in elevation was greater in those with a small tear (p = 0.03). Radiographic evidence of instability developed in six patients with medium or large tears, indicating lack of rotator cuff healing. In all, six glenoid components, including one with instability, were radiologically at risk of loosening. Complications were noted in five patients, all with medium or large tears; four of these had symptomatic instability and one sustained a late peri-prosthetic fracture. Four patients (12%) required further surgery, three with instability and one with a peri-prosthetic humeral fracture. Consideration should be given to performing rotator cuff repair for stable shoulders during anatomical TSR, but reverse replacement should be considered for older, less active patients with larger tears. PMID:24493188
Simone, J P; Streubel, P H; Sperling, J W; Schleck, C D; Cofield, R H; Athwal, G S
Background: Calcium deposits within the tendons of the rotator cuff are common and usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic cases that do not respond to nonoperative measures need removal of the calcium deposits.Purpose: In this study, the results of arthroscopic removal of the calcium deposits within the rotator cuff, without rotator cuff repair, are evaluated after a minimum 7-year follow-up. This may help
Mohamed Taha El Shewy
BACKGROUND: Disease-specific Quality Of Life (QOL) measures are devised to assess the impact of a specific disease across a spectrum of important domains of life. The purpose of this study was to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal construct validity (sensitivity to change) of two rotator cuff disease-specific measures, the Rotator Cuff-Quality Of Life (RC-QOL) and the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff
Helen Razmjou; Andrea Bean; Varda van Osnabrugge; Joy C MacDermid; Richard Holtby
Several intrinsic and extrinsic factors have been advocated in the pathogenesis of rotator cuff tears, but it is still unclear whether the origin of the tear is related to tendon degeneration itself or induced by several morphologic changes. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the acromial coverage of the humeral head and the presence of a cuff tear. We evaluated 148 shoulders, including 45 that underwent surgical rotator cuff repair (group I), 26 with documented rotator cuff tears treated conservatively (group II), and 77 with no cuff pathology as a control group (group III). The mean acromial coverage index was 0.68 in group I, 0.72 in group II, and 0.59 in group III, giving a highly significant difference (P < .0001) between the control group and both cuff tear groups. Patients with a cuff tear have a significantly higher acromial coverage index than the control group. PMID:17113323
Torrens, Carlos; López, Joan-Miquel; Puente, Isabel; Cáceres, Enrique
Treatment of concomitant long head of the biceps pathology in the setting of rotator cuff repair is often required. When a tenodesis of the biceps is used, additional anchors and surgical dissection are typically required. This adds additional surgical time, morbidity of additional surgical dissection, and additional anchor load and cost. We describe a novel technique for arthroscopic biceps tenodesis that uses the anterior lateral row anchor of a double-row rotator cuff repair to simultaneously secure the biceps tenodesis and rotator cuff tear. This technique provides a simple, reproducible, cost-effective means of performing a simultaneous biceps tenodesis and double-row rotator cuff repair.
Levy, Jonathan C.
Surgical management of massive rotator cuff tears remains challenging, with failure rates ranging from 20% to 90%. Multiple different arthroscopic and open techniques have been described, but there is no current gold standard. Failure after rotator cuff repair is typically multifactorial; however, failure of tendon-footprint healing is often implicated. Patch augmentation has been described as a possible technique to augment the biology of rotator cuff repair in situations of compromised tendon quality and has shown promising short-term results. The purpose of this article is to describe our preferred surgical technique for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with patch augmentation.
Chalmers, Peter N.; Frank, Rachel M.; Gupta, Anil K.; Yanke, Adam B.; Trenhaile, Scott W.; Romeo, Anthony A.; Bach, Bernard R.; Verma, Nikhil N.
We conducted a study to determine whether intractable postoperative stiffness or deltoid damage results from primary arthroscopic anterior acromioplasty and mini-open repair of full-thickness tears of the superior rotator cuff. Eighty-three repairs (80 patients) were available for follow-up at a mean (range) of 57.2 (12-98) months. Range of motion at presentation and motion in contralateral shoulder at final follow-up were used for comparison. Significant improvements were seen in active forward elevation, passive forward elevation, and active external rotation at 90° abduction. Final motion in the operative and contralateral shoulders was similar. American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons shoulder index improved significantly (P<.0001) from 50.0 before surgery to 88.3 after surgery. Although 1 patient had a symptomatic retear that required revision surgery, there were no cases of intractable stiffness, and there were no cases of deltoid damage. PMID:22268017
Doppelt, Jason D; Neviaser, Robert J
The cause of pain following rotator cuff tear has not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate behavior and inflammatory cytokines in a rat unstabilized rotator cuff defect (UCD) model. Forty-five Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham; UCD; and stabilized rotator cuff defect (SCD). Gait analysis was examined using CatWalk. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin(IL)-1?, and IL-6 were measured within the subacromial bursa and the glenohumeral joint synovium at 21 and 56 days after surgery using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Stride length, print area and contact intensity in the UCD group was significantly lower than in the sham group after surgery. Stride length, print area and contact intensity in the SCD group was significantly higher than in the UCD group. In contrast, TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 in the UCD group was significantly higher than in the sham group at days 21 and 56. However, TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 in the SCD group was significantly lower than in the UCD group at days 21 and 56. The present results suggest that SCD is effective not only in improving shoulder function but also in reducing inflammatory cytokines, which may serve as one source of pain due to rotator cuff tear. PMID:24018624
Yamazaki, Hironori; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kenmoku, Tomonori; Ohtori, Seiji; Sasho, Takahisa; Miyagi, Masayuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Kamoda, Hiroto; Orita, Sumihisa; Sasaki, Yuu; Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Kijima, Takehiro; Takahashi, Kazuhisa
Objectives Rotator cuff tear is a common cause of shoulder diseases. Correct diagnosis of rotator cuff tears can save patients from further invasive, costly and painful tests. This study used predictive data mining and Bayesian theory to improve the accuracy of diagnosing rotator cuff tears by clinical examination alone. Methods In this retrospective study, 169 patients who had a preliminary diagnosis of rotator cuff tear on the basis of clinical evaluation followed by confirmatory MRI between 2007 and 2011 were identified. MRI was used as a reference standard to classify rotator cuff tears. The predictor variable was the clinical assessment results, which consisted of 16 attributes. This study employed 2 data mining methods (ANN and the decision tree) and a statistical method (logistic regression) to classify the rotator cuff diagnosis into “tear” and “no tear” groups. Likelihood ratio and Bayesian theory were applied to estimate the probability of rotator cuff tears based on the results of the prediction models. Results Our proposed data mining procedures outperformed the classic statistical method. The correction rate, sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve of predicting a rotator cuff tear were statistical better in the ANN and decision tree models compared to logistic regression. Based on likelihood ratios derived from our prediction models, Fagan's nomogram could be constructed to assess the probability of a patient who has a rotator cuff tear using a pretest probability and a prediction result (tear or no tear). Conclusions Our predictive data mining models, combined with likelihood ratios and Bayesian theory, appear to be good tools to classify rotator cuff tears as well as determine the probability of the presence of the disease to enhance diagnostic decision making for rotator cuff tears.
Lu, Hsueh-Yi; Huang, Chen-Yuan; Su, Chwen-Tzeng; Lin, Chen-Chiang
Rehabilitation post surgical repair of the rotator cuff is an important determinant of the quality of the healing process, and of the clinical and functional results. Techniques used have been reported to favor certain of those parameters at the expense of others. Several approaches have been proposed; none has reached a consensus yet. The level of evidence in the literature does not allow for definitive recommendations and elaborating a protocol relies on clinical experience as well as expert opinion, incorporating scientific data. An initial period of rest with limited passive motion emerges though as an approach suited to the treatment of most clinical situations. PMID:24693587
Holzer, Nicolas; Cunningham, Gregory; Duthon, Victoria; Graf, Véronique; Ziltener, Jean-Luc; Hoffmeyer, Pierre
Purpose Several techniques for arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff defects have been introduced over the past years. Besides established\\u000a techniques such as single-row repairs, new techniques such as double-row reconstructions have gained increasing interest.\\u000a The present article therefore provides an overview of the currently available literature on both repair techniques with respect\\u000a to several anatomical, biomechanical, clinical and structural endpoints.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Systematic
Stephan Pauly; Christian Gerhardt; Jianhai Chen; Markus Scheibel
It is now over a decade since the features defining a contractile dysfunction of the shoulder were first reported. Since this time, some progress has been made to better understand this mechanical syndrome. In response to these developments, this narrative review will explore current understanding in relation to pathology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of this syndrome with reference to literature specifically relating to contractile dysfunction but also literature relating to rotator cuff tendinopathy where necessary. The review not only identifies the strengths of the mechanical diagnosis and therapy approach with reference to a contractile dysfunction of the shoulder but also identifies where further progress needs to be made.
It is now over a decade since the features defining a contractile dysfunction of the shoulder were first reported. Since this time, some progress has been made to better understand this mechanical syndrome. In response to these developments, this narrative review will explore current understanding in relation to pathology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of this syndrome with reference to literature specifically relating to contractile dysfunction but also literature relating to rotator cuff tendinopathy where necessary. The review not only identifies the strengths of the mechanical diagnosis and therapy approach with reference to a contractile dysfunction of the shoulder but also identifies where further progress needs to be made. PMID:24179329
Background: Rotator cuff lesions are common in the community but reproducibility of tests for shoulder assessment has not been adequately appraised and there is no uniform approach to their use. Objective: To study interrater reproducibility of standard tests for shoulder evaluation among a rheumatology specialist, rheumatology trainee, and research nurse. Methods: 136 patients were reviewed over 12 months at a major teaching hospital. The three assessors examined each patient in random order and were unaware of each other's evaluation. Each shoulder was examined in a standard manner by recognised tests for specific lesions and a diagnostic algorithm was used. Between-observer agreement was determined by calculating Cohen's ? coefficients (measuring agreement beyond that expected by chance). Results: Fair to substantial agreement was obtained for the observations of tenderness, painful arc, and external rotation. Tests for supraspinatus and subscapularis also showed at least fair agreement between observers. 40/55 (73%) ? coefficient assessments were rated at >0.2, indicating at least fair concordance between observers; 21/55 (38%) were rated at >0.4, indicating at least moderate concordance between observers. Conclusion: The reproducibility of certain tests, employed by observers of varying experience, in the assessment of the rotator cuff and general shoulder disease was determined. This has implications for delegation of shoulder assessment to nurse specialists, the development of a simplified evaluation schedule for general practitioners, and uniformity in epidemiological research studies.
Ostor, A; Richards, C; Prevost, A; Hazleman, B; Speed, C
Magnetic resonance imaging makes it possible to inspect the status of the rotator cuff and the shape of the acromion. To clarify the relationship between acromial shapes and rotator cuff tears, we evaluated magnetic resonance images obtained in 192 shoulders. We classified the acromial shapes into 3 types: type I (flat), type II (curved), and type III (hooked). Among a
Mako Hirano; Junji Ide; Katsumasa Takagi
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of subcoracoid pectoralis major transfer for the treatment of irreparable anterosuperior rotator cuff tears. This type of tear involves complete rupture of the subscapularis in combination with either the supraspinatus alone or the supraspinatus and infraspinatus. These ruptures are characterised by a poor quality of the rotator cuff that does
Iosif Gavriilidis; Jörn Kircher; Petra Magosch; Sven Lichtenberg; Peter Habermeyer
Objective: To determine the prevalence and clinical impact of rotator cuff tears in asymptomatic volunteers. Materials and Methods: Sonographic examinations of the shoulder of 212 asymptomatic individuals between 18 and 85 years old were performed by a single experienced operator. The prevalence and location of complete rotator cuff tears were evaluated. The clinical assessment was based on the Constant Score.
N Schibany; H Zehetgruber; F Kainberger; C Wurnig; A Ba-Ssalamah; A. M Herneth; T Lang; D Gruber; M. J Breitenseher
Background: Suture bridge repair has been recognized to have superior biomechanical characteristics, as shown in previous biomechanical studies. However, it is not clear whether the tendon heals better in vivo after suture bridge repair.Purpose: To evaluate the clinical results and repair integrity after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair using a suture bridge technique for patients with rotator cuff tears.Study Design: Case
Nam Su Cho; Bong Gun Lee; Yong Girl Rhee
This study was undertaken to determine whether patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis and irreparable rotator cuff rupture can be treated successfully with the Grammont shoulder arthroplasty. Seven patients with rheumatoid arthritis (8 shoulders) with nonreconstructible rotator cuff lesions and Larsen stage-V radiographic changes of the glenoid and the humeral head underwent a Grammont reverse shoulder arthroplasty. The Constant score improved
Markus Rittmeister; Fridun Kerschbaumer
Background: Although many studies involving rotator cuff repair fixation have focused on ultimate fixation strength and ability to restore the tendon’s native footprint, no studies have characterized the stability of the repair with regard to motion between the tendon and repair site footprint.Hypothesis: Suture anchor fixation for rotator cuff repair has greater interface motion between tendon and bone than does
Christopher S. Ahmad; Andrew M. Stewart; Rolando Izquierdo; Louis U. Bigliani
Rotator cuff tears of the shoulder are a common cause of pain and disability. The successful repair of rotator cuff tendon tears depends on the time from onset of injury to the time of surgical repair. However, the effect of time from injury to repair remains poorly understood. A rat model was used to investigate the supraspinatus tendon organizational and
Jonathan A. Gimbel; Jonathan P. Van Kleunen; Samir Mehta; Stephanie M. Perry; Gerald R. Williams; Louis J. Soslowsky
Objective. To determine what the most effective tendon transfer is in the case of a dysfunctional rotator cuff.Design. A tendon transfer procedure of latissimus dorsi, teres major or a combination of these two to the insertions of either teres minor, infraspinatus, supraspinatus, or subscapularis is simulated using a biomechanical musculoskeletal model of the upper extremity.Background. Massive rotator cuff tears are
D. J. Magermans; E. K. J. Chadwick; H. E. J. Veeger; P. M. Rozing; F. C. T van der Helm
High-resolution ultrasonography (US) has gained increasing popularity as a diagnostic tool for assessment of the soft tissues in shoulder impingement syndrome. US is a powerful and accurate method for diagnosis of rotator cuff tears and other rotator cuff abnormalities, provided the examiner has a detailed knowledge of shoulder anatomy, uses a standardized examination technique, and has a thorough understanding of
M. J. C. M. Rutten; G. J. Jager; J. G. Blickman
The etiology of rotator cuff disease is multifactorial. One theory behind the high incidence of rotator cuff tears in the shoulder is that the supraspinatus/infraspinatus tendon contains a zone of relative avascularity in the area proximal to its insertion at the greater tuberosity. Tobacco smoking is known to contribute to microvascular disease, and it can be hypothesized that smoking tobacco further compromises the vascular supply to the supraspinatus/infraspinatus tendon, thus increasing the incidence of tendinous pathology in the rotator cuff. This article evaluates the rotator cuffs of 72 shoulders in 36 cadavers and compares the incidence of macroscopic and microscopic disease within the rotator cuff tendon. Microscopic evaluation of the accompanying lung tissue from the respective cadaver also was performed. As a result, we were able to determine the presence or absence of a smoking history or emphysema from each cadaver as it related to rotator cuff disease in the shoulder. Of the 36 shoulders that exhibited macroscopic rotator cuff tears, 23 were from cadavers with a history of smoking compared to only 13 from cadavers with no history of smoking. Furthermore, the presence of advanced microscopic rotator cuff pathology (Grade 3 or 4 fibrous degeneration) was more than twice as likely in the cadavers with a history of smoking (22/32) compared to only 10 of 32 shoulders from cadavers with no history of smoking. While none of this data was statistically significant due to the insufficient number of subject cadavers, strong trends were noted in these findings. PMID:16628997
Kane, Steven M; Dave, Amish; Haque, Abida; Langston, Kimber
Objective Although shoulder pain is often associated with rotator cuff tears, many tears are asymptomatic and are not the cause of the patient's pain. This may explain the persistence of symptoms in some patients despite technically successful rotator cuff repair. It has been proposed that rotator cuff tears cause pain through subdeltoid/subacromial bursal inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine whether bursal inflammation seen on MRI is associated with pain in patients with rotator cuff tears of the shoulder. Methods The shoulders of 255 patients were screened with ultrasound. 33 full-thickness rotator cuff tears (18 with shoulder pain and 15 without pain) were identified and subsequently studied using contrast-enhanced MRI of the shoulder. Enhancement of the subacromial bursa was scored independently by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Logistic regression was used to determine whether bursal enhancement was independently associated with pain. Results There was a significant association between pain and age, with greater likelihood of pain in younger patients. Bursal enhancement was common in both painful and painless tears. No statistically significant link between pain and bursal enhancement was seen, even after accounting for age. Conclusion Although enhancement of the subdeltoid/subacromial bursa was common, no evidence was found to support the hypothesis that bursal enhancement is associated with pain in rotator cuff tears. It is therefore unlikely to determine reliably which patients would benefit from rotator cuff repair. Advances in knowledge Bursal enhancement and thickening does not reliably correlate with symptoms or presence of rotator cuff tear.
Hodgson, R J; O'Connor, P J; Hensor, E M A; Barron, D; Robinson, P
Calcifying tendinitis of rotator cuff tendons is a common and painful condition caused by ectopic calcification in humans. To examine the involvement of osteopontin (OPN), a potent regulator of calcium deposition on connective tissues, localization and expression of OPN protein and messenger (m)RNA were investigated in human tissue samples of calcified rotator cuff tendons. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that OPN was localized
Eiji Takeuchi; Kazuomi Sugamoto; Takanobu Nakase; Takashi Miyamoto; Motoharu Kaneko; Tetsuya Tomita; Akira Myoui; Takahiro Ochi; Hideki Yoshikawa
During rotator cuff repairs, it is recommended that the hypovascular tissue edge be resected. To investigate rotator cuff tendon histopathology, we performed immunohistochemistry on 8 surgical and 6 cadaveric specimens. Hoechst nuclear stain and standard hematoxylin-eosin were used for morphologic analysis. Antibody to human von Willebrand factor tagged with fluorescein isothiocyanate, conjugated, was used to visualize vascularity, and antibody to
C. W Goodmurphy; J Osborn; E. J Akesson; S Johnson; V Stanescu; W. D Regan
High-resolution ultrasonography (US) has gained increasing popularity as a diagnostic tool for assessment of the soft tissues in shoulder impingement syndrome. US is a powerful and accurate method for diagnosis of rotator cuff tears and other rotator cuff abnormalities, provided the examiner has a detailed knowledge of shoulder anatomy, uses a standardized examination technique, and has a thorough understanding of the potential pitfalls, limitations, and artifacts. False-positive sonographic findings of rotator cuff tears can be caused by the technique (anisotropy, transducer positioning, acoustic shadowing by the deltoid septum), by the anatomy (rotator cuff interval, supraspinatus-infraspinatus interface, musculotendinous junction, fibrocartilaginous insertion), or by disease (criteria for diagnosis of rotator cuff tears, tendon inhomogeneity, acoustic shadowing by scar tissue or calcification, rotator cuff thinning). False-negative sonographic findings of rotator cuff tears can be caused by the technique (transducer frequency, suboptimal focusing, imaging protocol, transducer handling), by the anatomy (nondiastasis of the ruptured tendon fibers, posttraumatic obscuration of landmarks), by disease (tendinosis, calcifications, synovial proliferation, granulation or scar tissue, bursal thickening, massive rotator cuff tears), or by patient factors (obesity, muscularity, limited shoulder motion). PMID:16549619
Rutten, Matthieu J C M; Jager, Gerrit J; Blickman, Johan G
The purposes of this study were to determine the reliability of strength and self-reporting measures, the relationship of different strength measures to function, and the impact of rotator cuff pathology on patients’ quality of life. Patients with nonoperated rotator cuff pathology (n = 36) and unaffected control subjects (n = 48) were assessed by use of the LIDO dynamometer to
Joy C. MacDermid; Joanne Ramos; Darren Drosdowech; Ken Faber; Stuart Patterson
In the examination and rehabilitation of patients with shoulder injuries it is necessary to isolate the individ ual rotator cuff muscles as much as possible. We subscribe to the belief that, independent of the deltoid, the rotator cuff muscles can become fatigued, injured, or atrophied individually. Accordingly, we feel that these muscles must be considered separately during examination and rehabilitation.This
Frank W. Jobe; Diane Radovich Moynes
One hundred thirty-six patients with impingement syndrome and rotator cuff disease who were treated nonoperatively from 1987 to 1991 were reviewed to identify findings at initial presentation that correlated with final outcome. Mean followup was 20 months (range, 6-41 months). All patients received initial conservative treatment. The results were analyzed in 2 groups. Group I consisted of the entire 136 patients with a minimum 6-month followup. Group II consisted of a subgroup of 68 patients with at least an 18-month followup. The overall results in Group I were 66% excellent and good and 34% fair and poor. For Group II, the overall results were 76% excellent and good and 24% fair and poor. For the Group II patients, a distribution of clinical findings at the 6-month followup demonstrated only 46% excellent and good results, indicating that the clinical result improves significantly as followup duration increased. Patient characteristics and prognostic factors that were associated with an unfavorable clinical outcome included a rotator cuff tear > 1 cm2, a history of pretreatment clinical symptoms for > 1-year duration, and significant functional impairment at initial presentation. Factors not associated with clinical outcome included patient age, occupation, gender, associated instability, dominance, chronicity of onset, active range of motion, or specific treatment modalities. Early operative intervention is recommended for patients with poor prognostic factors to avoid a protracted clinical course. PMID:7955708
Bartolozzi, A; Andreychik, D; Ahmad, S
Purpose: This study evaluated retraction in the setting of acute rotator cuff tears and determined its effects on patient outcomes and tendon repair integrity. Materials and Methods: A total of 22 patients had surgery within 6 weeks or less from the time of injury. Fifteen of these patients were prospectively followed at a minimum of 2 years; average 40.5 months (range 24-69). Pre-operative objective and subjective outcomes were compared. Tendon repair integrity was assessed with ultrasound at a minimum of 1 year from surgery. The population was stratified into Group 1 (8 patients) with minimal intra-operative medial tendon retraction to the mid-line level of the humeral head and Group 2 (7 patients) with a large medial tendon retraction to the glenohumeral joint or greater. Results: The average time to surgery from the onset of symptoms was 27 days (range, 6-42). Post-operative motion increased significantly for external rotation and forward elevation, 77% of patients were pain free, 80% were completely satisfied, and 100% would have the surgery again. Group 1 (small retraction) versus Group 2 (large retraction) showed that post-operative pain levels, satisfaction, range of motion, strength, subjective shoulder value (95.4% vs. 92.3%), Constant Score (80.8 vs. 78.1), and American Society of Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (96.2 vs. 93.5) scores were not statistically different. Ultrasound showed a tendon repair integrity rate of 87%. 2 patients who did have a re-tear were in Group 2, yet had comparative outcomes. Conclusion: In acute rotator cuff tears, equal patient satisfaction, pain scores, range of motion, strength, and outcome measures should be expected with surgical repair despite the level of retraction. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic level IV
Butler, Bryan R.; Byrne, Abigail N.; Higgins, Laurence D.; Shah, Anup; Fowler, Rachel L.
The etiology of rotator cuff disease is likely multifactorial, including age-related degeneration and microtrauma and macrotrauma. The incidence of rotator cuff tears increases with aging with more than half of individuals in their 80s having a rotator cuff tear. Smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and genetics have all been shown to influence the development of rotator cuff tearing. Substantial full-thickness rotator cuff tears, in general, progress and enlarge with time. Pain, or worsening pain, usually signals tear progression in both asymptomatic and symptomatic tears and should warrant further investigation if the tear is treated conservatively. Larger (>1-1.5 cm) symptomatic full-thickness cuff tears have a high rate of tear progression and, therefore, should be considered for earlier surgical repair in younger patients if the tear is reparable and there is limited muscle degeneration to avoid irreversible changes to the cuff, including tear enlargement and degenerative muscle changes. Smaller symptomatic full-thickness tears have been shown to have a slower rate of progression, similar to partial-thickness tears, and can be considered for initial nonoperative treatment due to the limited risk for rapid tear progression. In both small full-thickness tears and partial-thickness tears, increasing pain should alert physicians to obtain further imaging as it can signal tear progression. Natural history data, along with information on factors affecting healing after rotator cuff repair, can help guide surgeons in making appropriate decisions regarding the treatment of rotator cuff tears. The management of rotator cuff tears should be considered in the context of the risks and benefits of operative versus nonoperative treatment. Tear size and acuity, the presence of irreparable changes to the rotator cuff or glenohumeral joint, and patient age should all be considered in making this decision. Initial nonoperative care can be safely undertaken in older patients (>70 years old) with chronic tears; in patients with irreparable rotator cuff tears with irreversible changes, including significant atrophy and fatty infiltration, humeral head migration, and arthritis; in patients of any age with small (<1 cm) full-thickness tears; or in patients without a full-thickness tear. Early surgical treatment can be considered in significant (>1 cm-1.5 cm) acute tears or young patients with full-thickness tears who have a significant risk for the development of irreparable rotator cuff changes. PMID:23040548
Tashjian, Robert Z
The purpose of this systematic review was to address the treatment of rotator cuff tears by applying tissue engineering approaches to improve tendon healing, specifically platelet rich plasma (PRP) augmentation, stem cells, and scaffolds. Our systematic search was performed using the combination of the following terms: “rotator cuff”, “shoulder”, “PRP”, “platelet rich plasma”, “stemcells”, “scaffold”, “growth factors”, and “tissue engineering”. No level I or II studies were found on the use of scaffolds and stem cells for rotator cuff repair. Three studies compared rotator cuff repair with or without PRP augmentation. All authors performed arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with different techniques of suture anchor fixation and different PRP augmentation. The three studies found no difference in clinical rating scales and functional outcomes between PRP and control groups. Only one study showed clinical statistically significant difference between the two groups at the 3-month follow up. Any statistically significant difference in the rates of tendon rerupture between the control group and the PRP group was found using the magnetic resonance imaging. The current literature on tissue engineering application for rotator cuff repair is scanty. Comparative studies included in this review suggest that PRP augmented repair of a rotator cuff does not yield improved functional and clinical outcome compared with non-augmented repair at a medium and long-term followup.
Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Loppini, Mattia; Berton, Alessandra; Spiezia, Filippo; Denaro, Vincenzo
Full-thickness tears to the rotator cuff can cause severe pain and disability. Untreated tears progress in size and are associated with muscle atrophy and an infiltration of fat to the area, a condition known as "fatty degeneration." To improve the treatment of rotator cuff tears, a greater understanding of the changes in the contractile properties of muscle fibers and the molecular regulation of fatty degeneration is essential. Using a rat model of rotator cuff injury, we measured the force generating capacity of individual muscle fibers and determined changes in muscle fiber type distribution that develop after a full thickness rotator cuff tear. We also measured the expression of mRNA and miRNA transcripts involved in muscle atrophy, lipid accumulation, and matrix synthesis. We hypothesized that a decrease in specific force of rotator cuff muscle fibers, an accumulation of type IIb fibers, and an upregulation in fibrogenic, adipogenic, and inflammatory gene expression occur in torn rotator cuff muscles. Thirty days following rotator cuff tear, we observed a reduction in muscle fiber force production, an induction of fibrogenic, adipogenic, and autophagocytic mRNA and miRNA molecules, and a dramatic accumulation of macrophages in areas of fat accumulation. PMID:22696414
Gumucio, Jonathan P; Davis, Max E; Bradley, Joshua R; Stafford, Patrick L; Schiffman, Corey J; Lynch, Evan B; Claflin, Dennis R; Bedi, Asheesh; Mendias, Christopher L
Summary Full-thickness tears to the rotator cuff can cause severe pain and disability. Untreated tears progress in size and are associated with muscle atrophy and an infiltration of fat to the area, a condition known as “fatty degeneration.” To improve the treatment of rotator cuff tears, a greater understanding of the changes in the contractile properties of muscle fibers and the molecular regulation of fatty degeneration is essential. Using a rat model of rotator cuff injury, we measured the force generating capacity of individual muscle fibers and determined changes in muscle fiber type distribution that develop after a full thickness rotator cuff tear. We also measured the expression of mRNA and miRNA transcripts involved in muscle atrophy, lipid accumulation, and matrix synthesis. We hypothesized that a decrease in specific force of rotator cuff muscle fibers, an accumulation of type IIb fibers, an upregulation in fibrogenic, adipogenic, and inflammatory gene expression occur in torn rotator cuff muscles. Thirty days following rotator cuff tear, we observed a reduction in muscle fiber force production, an induction of fibrogenic, adipogenic and autophagocytic mRNA and miRNA molecules, and a dramatic accumulation of macrophages in areas of fat accumulation.
Gumucio, Jonathan P; Davis, Max E; Bradley, Joshua R; Stafford, Patrick L; Schiffman, Corey J; Lynch, Evan B; Claflin, Dennis R; Bedi, Asheesh; Mendias, Christopher L
Background Clavicular hook plates are effective fixation devices for distal clavicle fractures and severe acromioclavicular joint dislocations. However, increasing number of studies has revealed that subacromial portion of the hook may induce acromial bony erosion, shoulder impingement, or even rotator cuff damage. By sonographic evaluation, we thus intended to determine whether the presence of hook plate may induce subacromial shoulder impingement and its relationship relative to surrounding subacromial structures. Methods We prospectively followed 40 patients with either distal clavicle fracture or acromioclavicular joint dislocation that had surgery using the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) clavicular hook plate. All patients were evaluated by monthly clinical and radiographic examinations. Static and dynamic musculoskeletal sonography examinations were performed at final follow-up before implant removal. Clinical results for pain, shoulder function, and range of motion were evaluated using Constant-Murley and Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) scores. Results Clinically, 15 out of 40 patients (37.5%) presented with subacromial impingement syndrome and their functional scores were poorer than the non-impinged patients. Among them, six patients were noted to have rotator cuff lesion. Acromial erosion caused by hook pressure developed in 20 patients (50%). Conclusions We demonstrated by musculoskeletal sonography that clavicular hook plate caused subacromial shoulder impingement and rotator cuff lesion. The data also suggest an association between hardware-induced impingement and poorer functional scores. To our knowledge, the only solution is removal of the implant after bony consolidation/ligamentous healing has taken place. Thus, we advocate the removal of the implant as soon as bony union and/or ligamentous healing is achieved.
Background The purpose of our study is to evaluate the clinical results of arthroscopic suture bridge repair for patients with rotator cuff tears. Methods Between January 2007 and July 2007, fifty-one shoulders underwent arthroscopic suture bridge repair for full thickness rotator cuff tears. The average age at the time of surgery was 57.1 years old, and the mean follow-up period was 15.4 months. Results At the last follow-up, the pain at rest improved from 2.2 preoperatively to 0.23 postoperatively and the pain during motion improved from 6.3 preoperatively to 1.8 postoperatively (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). The range of active forward flexion improved from 138.4° to 154.6°, and the muscle power improved from 4.9 kg to 6.0 kg (p = 0.04 and 0.019, respectively). The clinical results showed no significant difference according to the preoperative tear size and the extent of fatty degeneration, but imaging study showed a statistical relation between retear and fatty degeneration. The average Constant score improved from 73.2 to 83.79, and the average University of California at Los Angeles score changed from 18.2 to 29.6 with 7 excellent, 41 good and 3 poor results (p < 0.001 and p = 0.003, respectively). Conclusions The arthroscopic suture bridge repair technique for rotator cuff tears may be an operative method for which a patient can expect to achieve clinical improvement regardless of the preoperative tear size and the extent of fatty degeneration.
Yi, Jin Woong; Cho, Nam Su; Cho, Seung Hyun
Few case reports have described the surgical treatment of calcifying tendonitis of the subscapularis tendon. We present a case of symptomatic diffuse calcifying tendonitis involving the subscapularis and infraspinatus insertions that was difficult to detect arthroscopically. The patient was treated with arthroscopic incision of the tendinous insertions thorough removal of the calcific deposits and subsequent repair using a suture-anchor technique. Two years after the surgical procedure, the patient was completely pain-free and attained full range of motion. Radiographic evaluation performed 2 years after the procedure revealed no calcific deposits. We conclude that the combination of incision of the subscapularis and infraspinatus insertions, complete removal of the calcific deposits, and subsequent suture-anchor repair in an all-arthroscopic manner can lead to an excellent clinical outcome without compromising the functional integrity of the rotator cuff tendons.
Mitsui, Yasuhiro; Gotoh, Masafumi; Tanesue, Ryo; Shirachi, Isao; Shibata, Hideaki; Nakama, Kenjiro; Okawa, Takahiro; Higuchi, Fujio; Nagata, Kensei
Background Long head biceps (LHB) degeneration in combination with rotator cuff tears can be a source of chronic shoulder pain. LHB tenotomy is an approved surgical procedure for pain reduction and improvement of joint function, however, the pathophysiology of LHB degeneration is not fully understood. In the literature, neoangiogenesis in tendon tissue has previously been shown to be associated with tendon degeneration. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is an important inducer of neoangiogenesis. The hypotheses are first that an elevated VEGF expression and vessel density can be found in degenerated LHB tissue and second that there is a relation between VEGF expression, vessel density and the different types of rotator cuff tears. Methods LHB samples of 116 patients with degenerative rotator cuff tears were harvested during arthroscopic tenotomy. The samples were dehydrated and paraffin embedded. VEGF expression was determined using immunohistochemistry. Vessel density and vessel size were determined on Masson-Goldner stained tissue sections. On the basis of intraoperative findings, patients were assigned to 4 different groups (control group, partial thickness rotator cuff tear, full thickness rotator cuff tear and cuff arthropathy). Partial thickness rotator cuff tears were classified according to Ellman grade I-III, full thickness rotator cuff tears according to Bateman's classification (grade I-IV). The control group consisted of eight healthy tendon samples. Results VEGF expression in the LHB was significantly higher in the presence of rotator cuff tears than in healthy tendons (p < 0.05) whereas vessel density and vessel size were significantly higher in the LHB of patients with cuff arthropathy (p < 0.05). Furthermore, there was significantly higher VEGF expression in LHB samples from patients with articular-sided compared to bursal-sided partial thickness rotator cuff tears (p < 0.05). No significant dependence was found between VEGF expression, vessel size and vessel density in LHB of patients with full thickness rotator cuff tears and the extent of the cuff tear following Bateman's classification. Conclusion Elevated VEGF expression can be detected in degenerated LHB tissue. The quantity of VEGF expression and vessels are related to the extent of LHB degeneration.
We report two cases of a full-thickness rotator cuff tear followed by acromioclavicular cyst formation in patients with longstanding erosive polyarticular rheumatoid arthritis. One of the consequences of a ratator cuff tear is articular instability with upward migration of the humeral head. The ensuing chronic friction against the undersurface of the acromio-clavicular joint caused by arm movements can lead to
E. Selvi; R. De Stefano; E. Frati; S. Manganelli; S. Manca; R. Marcolongo
Given the high percentage of persistent rotator cuff defects, investigators have begun exploring techniques that use biologic adjuvants to recreate a biomechanically equivalent layer of connective tissue. To evaluate the efficacy of a mesenchymal stem cell, platelet-rich plasma, and dermal allograft construct, a histological comparison of native rotator cuff tissue and biologically enhanced rotator cuff tissue was performed. The evaluation indicated that this treatment modality in conjunction with an adjusted rehabilitation protocol may successfully recreate a transition zone and restore a synovial lining similar to native tissue. PMID:23276334
Protzman, Nicole M; Stopyra, Gary A; Hoffman, James K
Most arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs utilize suture passing devices placed through arthroscopic cannulas. These devices are limited by the size of the passing device where the suture is passed through the tendon. An alternative technique has been used in the senior author's practice for the past ten years, where sutures are placed through the rotator cuff tendon using percutaneous passing devices. This technique, dubbed the global percutaneous shuttling technique of rotator cuff repair, affords the placement of sutures from nearly any angle and location in the shoulder, and has the potential advantage of larger suture bites through the tendon edge. These advantages may increase the area of tendon available to compress to the rotator cuff footprint and improve tendon healing and outcomes. The aim of this study is to describe the global percutaneous shuttling (GPS) technique and report our results using this method. The GPS technique can be used for any full thickness rotator cuff tear and is particularly useful for massive cuff tears with poor tissue quality. We recently followed up 22 patients with an average follow up of 32 months to validate its usefulness. American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores improved significantly from 37 preoperatively to 90 postoperatively (P<0.0001). This data supports the use of the GPS technique for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Further biomechanical studies are currently being performed to assess the improvements in tendon footprint area with this technique. PMID:25002932
Vopat, Bryan G; Murali, Jothi; Gowda, Ashok L; Kaback, Lee; Blaine, Theodore
Rotator cuff pathology is the most common shoulder problem seen by orthopedic surgeons. Rotator cuff muscle fatty infiltration and muscle atrophy are common in larger tears and are considered predicting factors for the prognosis of cuff repair. Clinically, MRI is the gold standard in determining fatty infiltration and muscle atrophy; however, analysis for MRI imaging is primarily qualitative in nature with the results lacking further validation. We have recently developed a mouse model of rotator cuff tears. The goal of this study is to quantify and verify rotator cuff muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration using high-resolution MRI in our mouse model. The rotator cuff muscles were analyzed for fat using a triglyceride quantification assay (TQA), muscle volume was measured through water displacement (WD), and histology. The study revealed that MRI had a high correlation with fat as measured with histology and TQA (R(2) ?=098). MRI also correlated well with atrophy measured with WD and wet weight. This suggests that MRI is a reliable modality in evaluating the progression of fatty infiltration and muscle atrophy following rotator cuff tears in a small animal model. PMID:22991068
Samagh, Sanjum P; Kramer, Erik J; Melkus, Gerd; Laron, Dominique; Bodendorfer, Blake M; Natsuhara, Kyle; Kim, Hubert T; Liu, Xuhui; Feeley, Brian T
Most arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs utilize suture passing devices placed through arthroscopic cannulas. These devices are limited by the size of the passing device where the suture is passed through the tendon. An alternative technique has been used in the senior author’s practice for the past ten years, where sutures are placed through the rotator cuff tendon using percutaneous passing devices. This technique, dubbed the global percutaneous shuttling technique of rotator cuff repair, affords the placement of sutures from nearly any angle and location in the shoulder, and has the potential advantage of larger suture bites through the tendon edge. These advantages may increase the area of tendon available to compress to the rotator cuff footprint and improve tendon healing and outcomes. The aim of this study is to describe the global percutaneous shuttling (GPS) technique and report our results using this method. The GPS technique can be used for any full thickness rotator cuff tear and is particularly useful for massive cuff tears with poor tissue quality. We recently followed up 22 patients with an average follow up of 32 months to validate its usefulness. American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores improved significantly from 37 preoperatively to 90 postoperatively (P<0.0001). This data supports the use of the GPS technique for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Further biomechanical studies are currently being performed to assess the improvements in tendon footprint area with this technique.
Vopat, Bryan G.; Murali, Jothi; Gowda, Ashok L.; Kaback, Lee; Blaine, Theodore
Purpose: This study presents a retrospective case series of the clinical and structural outcomes (1.5 T MRI) of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with acellular human dermal graft reinforcement performed by a single surgeon in patients with large, massive, and previously repaired rotator cuff tears. Materials and Methods: Fourteen patients with mean anterior to posterior tear size 3.87 ± 0.99 cm (median 4 cm, range 2.5–6 cm) were enrolled in the study and were evaluated for structural integrity using a high-field (1.5 T) MRI at an average of 16.8 months after surgery. The Constant-Murley scores, the Flexilevel Scale of Shoulder Function (Flex SF), scapular plane abduction, and strength were analyzed. Results: MRI results showed that the rotator cuff repair was intact in 85.7% (12/14) of the patients studied. Two patients had a Sugaya Type IV recurrent tear (2 of 14; 14.3%), which were both less than 1 cm. The Constant score increased from a preoperative mean of 49.72 (range 13–74) to a postoperative mean of 81.07 (range 45–92) (P value = 0.009). Flexilevel Scale of Shoulder Function (Flex SF) Score normalized to a 100-point scale improved from a preoperative mean of 53.69 to a postoperative mean of 79.71 (P value = 0.003). The Pain Score improved from a preoperative mean of 7.73 to a postoperative mean of 13.57 (P value = 0.008). Scapular plane abduction improved from a preoperative mean of 113.64° to a postoperative mean of 166.43° (P value = 0.010). The strength subset score improved from a preoperative mean of 1.73 kg to a postoperative mean of 7.52 kg (P value = 0.006). Conclusions: This study presents a safe and effective technique that may help improve the healing rates of large, massive, and revision rotator cuff tears with the use of an acellular human dermal allograft. This technique demonstrated favorable structural healing rates and statistically improved functional outcomes in the near term. Level of Evidence: 4. Retrospective case series.
Partial or full tears of the rotator cuff (RC) result from injury or degeneration, and the incidence increases with age. Patients may experience significant disability, including work absenteeism and lost productivity. Patients who seek treatment for RC t...
We dissected 80 shoulders from 44 fresh cadavers to define variants of the coracoacromial ligament and their relationship to rotator cuff degeneration. The shapes and the geometric data of the ligaments were investigated, and the rotator cuffs of the cadavers were evaluated macroscopically. Five main types of coracoacromial ligaments were found: Y-shaped, broad band, quadrangular, V-shaped, and multiple-banded. The Y-shaped ligament was the most frequent type, with a frequency of 41.3%, and the V-shaped ligament (11.2%) has not been previously reported. Of the cadavers that were dissected bilaterally, 64% showed the same type of ligament. There was no statistical significance between rotator cuff degeneration and the type or geometric measurement of the ligament. However, the coracoacromial ligaments with more than 1 bundle showed significant association with rotator cuff degeneration with a longer lateral border and larger coracoid insertion. PMID:18036840
Kesmezacar, Hayrettin; Akgun, Isik; Ogut, Tahir; Gokay, Selim; Uzun, Ibrahim
This study draws attention to the association between intramuscular fluid collections occurring at the myo-tendinous junction of the rotator cuff secondary to longitudinal tears of their tendons. PMID:11903172
Coates, M H; Breidahl, W H; Marks, P
Objective To compare the effectiveness of ultrasound guided corticosteroid injection in the subacromial bursa with systemic corticosteroid injection in patients with rotator cuff disease.Design Double blind randomised clinical trial.Setting Outpatient clinic of a physical medicine and rehabilitation department in Oslo, Norway.Patients 106 patients with rotator cuff disease lasting at least three months.Interventions Ultrasound guided corticosteroid and lidocaine injection in the
Ole M Ekeberg; Erik Bautz-Holter; Einar K Tveitå; Niels G Juel; Synnøve Kvalheim; Jens I Brox
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of subcoracoid pectoralis major transfer for the treatment of irreparable\\u000a anterosuperior rotator cuff tears. This type of tear involves complete rupture of the subscapularis in combination with either\\u000a the supraspinatus alone or the supraspinatus and infraspinatus. These ruptures are characterised by a poor quality of the\\u000a rotator cuff that does
Iosif Gavriilidis; Jörn Kircher; Petra Magosch; Sven Lichtenberg; Peter Habermeyer
To evaluate the results of the treatment with medium-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in rotator cuff calcifying tendinitis. Fifty-four non-consecutive patients, who were referred to our institute for rotator cuff calcifying tendinitis, were managed with a standardized protocol in four sessions of medium-energy (0.11 mJ\\/mm2) ESWT administered with an electromagnetic lithotriptor. Pain was evaluated at the end of each session,
Biagio Moretti; Raffaele Garofalo; Stefania Genco; Vittorio Patella; Elyazid Mouhsine
Purpose. To determine the relative distribution of the locations of rotator cuff tears, and the sensitivity of anterior versus posterior\\u000a tears on MR images. Patients and methods. We identified 110 consecutive patients who had a shoulder MR and either a partial-thickness or a small full-thickness rotator\\u000a cuff tear diagnosed at arthroscopy. From the arthroscopy videotapes, we classified the tears as
M. J. Tuite; John R. Turnbull; John F. Orwin
Objective Humeral tuberosity cysts are a common finding, with previous reports suggesting they are related to rotator cuff tear or aging. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of cysts in the tuberosities of the humeral head and their relationship with rotator cuff tear and age.Design and patients Shoulder MR arthrograms were reviewed in 120 consecutive patients—83 males (mean
Martin Williams; Robert G. W. Lambert; Gian S. Jhangri; Michael Grace; Jay Zelaso; Ben Wong; Sukhvinder S. Dhillon
Background: Double-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs were developed to improve initial biomechanical strength of repairs to improve healing rates. Despite biomechanical improvements, failure of healing remains a clinical problem.Purpose: To evaluate the anatomical results after double-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with ultrasound to determine postoperative repair integrity and the effect of various factors on tendon healing.Study Design: Case series; Level
Robert Z. Tashjian; Anthony M. Hollins; Hyun-Min Kim; Sharlene A. Teefey; William D. Middleton; Karen Steger-May; Leesa M. Galatz; Ken Yamaguchi
The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of indirect MR arthrography images obtained following intravenous contrast\\u000a injection and conventional MR imaging in the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears. Twenty-four patients with clinically suspected\\u000a rotator cuff disease were examined. Conventional MR images and post-contrast indirect MR arthrography images were obtained.\\u000a All images were evaluated in a blinded fashion
B. Ya?c?; M. Manisal?; E. Yilmaz; M. Özkan; A. Ekin; D. Özaksoy; I. Kovanl?kaya
Background Differing levels of tendon retraction are found in full-thickness rotator cuff tears. The pathophysiology of tendon degeneration and retraction is unclear. Neoangiogenesis in tendon parenchyma indicates degeneration. Hypoxia inducible factor 1? (HIF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are important inducers of neoangiogenesis. Rotator cuff tendons rupture leads to fatty muscle infiltration (FI) and muscle atrophy (MA). The aim of this study is to clarify the relationship between HIF and VEGF expression, neoangiogenesis, FI, and MA in tendon retraction found in full-thickness rotator cuff tears. Methods Rotator cuff tendon samples of 33 patients with full-thickness medium-sized rotator cuff tears were harvested during reconstructive surgery. The samples were dehydrated and paraffin embedded. For immunohistological determination of VEGF and HIF expression, sample slices were strained with VEGF and HIF antibody dilution. Vessel density and vessel size were determined after Masson-Goldner staining of sample slices. The extent of tendon retraction was determined intraoperatively according to Patte's classification. Patients were assigned to 4 categories based upon Patte tendon retraction grade, including one control group. FI and MA were measured on standardized preoperative shoulder MRI. Results HIF and VEGF expression, FI, and MA were significantly higher in torn cuff samples compared with healthy tissue (p < 0.05). HIF and VEGF expression, and vessel density significantly increased with extent of tendon retraction (p < 0.05). A correlation between HIF/VEGF expression and FI and MA could be found (p < 0.05). There was no significant correlation between HIF/VEGF expression and neovascularity (p > 0.05) Conclusion Tendon retraction in full-thickness medium-sized rotator cuff tears is characterized by neovascularity, increased VEGF/HIF expression, FI, and MA. VEGF expression and neovascularity may be effective monitoring tools to assess tendon degeneration.
Ultrasonography (US) is a non-invasive method which can assess not only solid tissue organs but also soft tissues such as tendons and nerves. However, it has not been fully understood that US is a useful tool for the depiction of periarticular structure. We compared the diagnostic accuracies between US and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the patients with rotator cuff tear (RCT). Seventy patients, who underwent arthroscopic surgery, preoperative US and MRI examinations at Gifu University Hospital from January 2010 to April 2013 (49 male, 21 female, mean age 59.7 +/- 15.9) were included in this study. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of US and MRI were 94.3% and 94.3%, 95.8% and 97.9%, 90.9% and 84.6%, respectively, when the intraoperative finding was regarded as a gold standard. These results suggest that US is useful for the diagnosis of RCT as equal as MRI. PMID:24724424
Nabetani, Yosuke; Watanabe, Tsuneo; Terabayashi, Nobuo; Hirose, Ayumi; Nohisa, Yuzuru; Shinoda, Koichi; Furuta, Nobuyuki; Ito, Hiroyasu; Matsuoka, Toshio; Seishima, Mitsuru
566 patients with shoulder disease were treated at the Clinic of Orthopaedics at the University Hospital Olomouc. Of these, 181 were operated for ruptures of the rotator cuff (RC). They were categorised according to the Gschwend classification, age and gender(1). Laterality of the operated limb was also evaluated. Patients with ruptures larger than 4 cm were treated by open operation. 84 shoulders with ruptures classified as Gschwend I, II and IIIa -52 males and 32 females-were treated arthroscopically. The age of the operated patients ranged from 40-60 years. In both genders, the right shoulder was more often affected. Two operating techniques were used: 1) Transosseal refixation of the RC muscle tendons, using RC MITEK anchor implants, 2) "End to end" sutures, without implants(2-4). Operating time was reduced to 30-40 min. The operating results were evaluated according to the UCLA criteria- University of California Shoulder Rating Score(2). 45 patients achieved excellent results (53 %), 35 patients had good results (42 %), and 4 patients (5 %) obtained satisfactory results. None of the patients obtained poor results- a score of less than 20 was poor. Patients felt comfortable following the operation and none had any post-operational complications. The author is convinced, along with others, that arthroscopic suturing of RC ruptures classified I-IIIa allows for rupture treatment that in the past had to be treated by open technique(2-5). The deltoid muscle is not affected by arthroscopy. There is normalisation of the patient's movement, pain, force, and rotational stability is comparable to the healthy limb. Treatment time is reduced to a minimum and the patient may soon return to normal daily life. PMID:16601771
Holibka, Radomír; Kalina, Radim; Pach, Miroslav; R?zicková, Katherine
Background and purpose Extracellular matrix remodeling is altered in rotator cuff tears, partly due to altered expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors. It is unclear whether this altered expression can be traced as changes in plasma protein levels. We measured the plasma levels of MMPs and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) in patients with rotator cuff tears and related changes in the pattern of MMP and TIMP levels to the extent of the rotator cuff tear. Methods Blood samples were collected from 17 patients, median age 61 (39–77) years, with sonographically verified rotator cuff tears (partial- or full-thickness). These were compared with 16 age- and sex-matched control individuals with sonographically intact rotator cuffs. Plasma levels of MMPs and TIMPs were measured simultaneously using Luminex technology and ELISA. Results The plasma levels of TIMP-1 were elevated in patients with rotator cuff tears, especially in those with full-thickness tears. The levels of TIMP-1, TIMP-3, and MMP-9 were higher in patients with full-thickness tears than in those with partial-thickness tears, but only the TIMP-1 levels were significantly different from those in the controls. Interpretation The observed elevation of TIMP-1 in plasma might reflect local pathological processes in or around the rotator cuff, or a genetic predisposition in these patients. That the levels of TIMP-1 and of certain MMPs were found to differ significantly between partial and full-thickness tears may reflect the extent of the lesion or different etiology and pathomechanisms.
Background The isokinetic muscle performance test (IMPT) is a validated and objective method used to evaluate muscle function but it\\u000a is unknown whether it correlates with severity of rotator cuff tears.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes We asked whether peak torque and total work deficit on the IMPT correlated with the preoperative manual muscle test (MMT),\\u000a tear size, fatty degeneration (FD) of cuff, and postoperative cuff
Joo Han Oh; Jong Pil Yoon; Jae Yoon Kim; Chung Hee Oh
A distinct type of partial-thickness rotator cuff tear has been observed in overhead athletes, characterized by partial failure of the undersurface of the posterior supraspinatus and anterior infraspinatus tendons with intratendinous delamination. We present a technique of percutaneous intratendinous repair using nonabsorbable mattress sutures designed for the management of articular-side delaminated partial-thickness tears. After tear evaluation and preparation, the torn rotator cuff undersurface is held in a reduced position with a grasper through an anterolateral rotator interval portal while viewing intra-articularly. Two spinal needles are then placed percutaneously through the full thickness of the torn and intact rotator cuff. A polydioxanone suture is passed through each needle, retrieved out the anterior portal, and used to shuttle a single nonabsorbable No. 2 suture through the tissue, creating a mattress suture. Multiple mattress sutures can be placed as dictated by tear size and morphology, with suture retrieval and knot securing then proceeding in the subacromial space. We have adopted this approach with the goals of anatomically re-establishing the rotator cuff insertion and sealing the area of intratendinous delamination while preventing significant alteration to the anatomy of the rotator cuff insertion, which could lead to motion deficits, internal impingement, and potential tear recurrence. PMID:18657747
Brockmeier, Stephen F; Dodson, Christopher C; Gamradt, Seth C; Coleman, Struan H; Altchek, David W
. The collagen composition of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis tendons, which form part of the rotator cuff\\u000a of the shoulder, was determined. Tendons were obtained from adult, male beagle dogs and total collagen was estimated by measurement\\u000a of hydroxyproline. There was little variation in collagen content among the three major cuff tendons and the quantity approximated\\u000a that cited in
L. Fan; K. Sarkar; D. J. Franks; H. K. Uhthoff
Summary Rotator cuff repairs are commonly performed to reduce pain and restore function. Tears are also treated successfully without surgical intervention; however, the effect that a torn tendon has on the glenohumeral cartilage remains unknown. Clinically, a correlation between massive rotator cuff tears and glenohumeral arthritis has often been observed. This may be due to a disruption in the balance of forces at the shoulder, resulting in migration of the humeral head and subsequently, abnormal loading of the glenoid. Our lab previously demonstrated changes in ambulation and intact tendon mechanical properties following supraspinatus and infraspinatus rotator cuff tendon tears in a rat model. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of supraspinatus and infraspinatus rotator cuff tears on the glenoid cartilage. Nine rats underwent unilateral detachment of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons and were sacrificed after four weeks. Cartilage thickness significantly decreased in the antero-inferior region of injured shoulders. In addition, equilibrium elastic modulus significantly decreased in the center, antero-superior, antero-inferior, and superior regions. These results suggest that altered loading after rotator cuff injury may lead to damage to the joint with significant pain and dysfunction. Clinically, understanding the mechanical processes involved with joint damage will allow physicians to better advise patients.
Reuther, Katherine E.; Sarver, Joseph J.; Schultz, Susan M.; Lee, Chang Soo; Sehgal, Chandra M.; Glaser, David L.; Soslowsky, Louis J.
Background Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is one of the serious complications after surgical treatment of a rotator cuff tear. Both a measurement of body surface temperature and bone scintigraphy have been used as diagnostic tools for the early phase of CRPS.Unfortunately, few studies have been carried out that applied these methods to the patients after rotator cuff repair. Purposes To clarify both shoulder surface temperature and bone scintigraphy findings in patients with rotator cuff tears. Subjects and methods Subjects comprised patients with unilateral rotator cuff tears (five men and five women, mean age 61 years). For measurements of shoulder surface temperature, a Thermochron was attached to both shoulders. As for bone scintigraphy, intravenous injection of technetium-labelled hydroxymethylenebisphosphonic acid (99mTc-HMDP)was performed, and then images were taken with a gamma camera. Results During the measurements, the changes in body surface temperature for the affected and healthy shoulders remained within the standard deviation of the reference group. The intensity of radioisotope (RI) uptake for the affected shoulder joint was significantly increased compared to that for the healthy shoulder joint (P < 0.05). Conclusion RI uptake is increased in shoulders with rotator cuff tears, whereas shoulder surface temperature shows no differences on the affected and unaffected sides.
Background We retrospectively assessed the clinical outcomes and investigated risk factors influencing retear after arthroscopic suture bridge repair technique for rotator cuff tear through clinical assessment and magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA). Methods Between January 2008 and April 2011, sixty-two cases of full-thickness rotator cuff tear were treated with arthroscopic suture bridge repair technique and follow-up MRA were performed. The mean age was 56.1 years, and mean follow-up period was 27.4 months. Clinical and functional outcomes were assessed using range of motion, Korean shoulder score, Constant score, and UCLA score. Radiological outcome was evaluated with preoperative and follow-up MRA. Potential predictive factors that influenced cuff retear, such as age, gender, geometric patterns of tear, size of cuff tear, acromioplasty, fatty degeneration, atrophy of cuff muscle, retraction of supraspinatus, involved muscles of cuff and osteolysis around the suture anchor were evaluated. Results Thirty cases (48.4%) revealed retear on MRA. In univariable analysis, retear was significantly more frequent in over 60 years age group (62.5%) than under 60 years age group (39.5%; p = 0.043), and also in medium to large-sized tear than small-sized tear (p = 0.003). There was significant difference in geometric pattern of tear (p = 0.015). In multivariable analysis, only age (p = 0.036) and size of tear (p = 0.030) revealed a significant difference. The mean active range of motion for forward flexion, abduction, external rotation at the side and internal rotation at the side were significantly improved at follow-up (p < 0.05). The mean Korean shoulder score, Constant score, and UCLA score increased significantly at follow-up (p < 0.01). The range of motion, Korean shoulder score, Constant score, and UCLA score did not differ significantly between the groups with retear and intact repairs (p > 0.05). The locations of retear were insertion site in 10 cases (33.3%) and musculotendinous junction in 20 cases (66.7%; p = 0.006). Conclusions Suture bridge repair technique for rotator cuff tear showed improved clinical results. Cuff integrity after repair did not affect clinical results. Age of over 60 years and size of cuff tear larger than 1 cm were factors influencing rotator cuff retear after arthroscopic suture bridge repair technique.
Lee, Kwang Won; Bae, Kyoung Wan; Choy, Won Sik
Background and purpose Indications for acromioplasty are based on clinical symptoms and are generally supported by typical changes in acromial morphology on standard radiographs. We evaluated 5 commonly used radiographic parameters of acromial morphology and assessed the association between different radiographic characteristics on the one hand and subacromial impingement or rotator cuff tears on the other. Patients and methods We measured acromial type (Bigliani), acromial slope (AS), acromial tilt (AT), lateral acromial angle (LAA), and acromion index (AI) on standard radiographs from 50 patients with full-thickness supraspinatus tendon tears, 50 patients with subacromial impingement, and 50 controls without subacromial pathology. Results The acromial type according to Bigliani was not associated with any particular cuff lesion. A statistically significant difference between controls and impingement patients was found for AS. AT of controls was significantly smaller than that of impingement patients and cuff-tear patients. LAA of cuff-tear patients differed significantly from that of controls and impingement patients, but LAA of controls was not significantly different from that of impingement patients. Differences between impingement patients and cuff-tear patients were also significant. AI of controls was significantly lower than of impingement patients and of cuff-tear patients. A good correlation was found between acromial type and AS. Interpretation A low lateral acromial angle and a large lateral extension of the acromion were associated with a higher prevalence of impingement and rotator cuff tears. An extremely hooked anterior acromion with a slope of more than 43° and an LAA of less than 70° only occurred in patients with rotator cuff tears.
Background: Surgical repair of massive rotator cuff tears is associated with less favorable clinical results and a higher retear rate than repair of smaller tears, which is attributed to irreversible degenerative changes of the musculotendinous unit. Materials and Methods: During the study period, 25 consecutive patients with a massive rotator cuff tear were enrolled in the study and the tears were repaired with an open suture anchor repair technique. Preoperative and postoperative clinical assessments were performed with the Constant score, the simple shoulder test (SST) and a pain visual analog scale (VAS). At the final follow-up, rotator cuff strength measurement was evaluated and assessment of tendon integrity, fatty degeneration and muscle atrophy was done using a standardized magnetic resonance imaging protocol. Results: The mean follow-up period was 70 months. The mean constant score improved significantly from 42.3 to 73.1 points at the final follow-up. Both the SST and the pain VAS improved significantly from 5.3 to 10.2 points and from 6.3 to 2.1, respectively. The overall retear rate was 44% after 6 years. Patients with an intact repair had better shoulder scores and rotator cuff strength than those with a failed repair, and also the retear group showed a significant clinical improvement (each P<0.05). Rotator cuff strength in all testing positions was significantly reduced for the operated compared to the contralateral shoulder. Muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration of the rotator cuff muscles did not recover in intact repairs, whereas both parameters progressed in retorn cuffs. Conclusions: Open repair of massive rotator tears achieved high patient satisfaction and a good clinical outcome at the long-term follow-up despite a high retear rate. Also, shoulders with retorn cuffs were significantly improved by the procedure. Muscle atrophy and fatty muscle degeneration could not be reversed after repair and rotator cuff strength still did not equal that of the contralateral shoulder after 6 years. Level of evidence: Level IV
Bartl, Christoph; Kouloumentas, Pannos; Holzapfel, Konstantin; Eichhorn, Stefan; Wortler, Klaus; Imhoff, Andreas; Salzmann, Gian M
An impingement of the rotator cuff can be caused by chronic anterior instability of the shoulder joint. This particular disease is often found in athletes engaged in overhead motion in abduction\\/external rotation of the arm, such as in ball sports like volleyball or European handball, racket sports like tennis or badminton, or swimming. For those patients that cannot be cured
H.-G. Pieper; G. Quack; H. Krahl
In a vitro study we evaluated the influence of surgical technique on the postoperative tension of the supraspinatus tendon in rotator cuff ruptures. In ten shoulder specimens Hall-Effect Strain Gauge (HEST) were implanted in the supraspinatus tendon close to the insertion at the humerus. We documented the tension in specimens with intact rotator cuff as well as after reconstruction of small and large tears in different joint positions. In the specimens with an intact rotator cuff there was almost no tension registered. Only in adduction with external rotation and flexion we found slightly increased values. After reconstruction we found the highest tension in adduction, flexion, and external rotation of the humerus. Release of the coracohumeral ligament resulted in a decrease of tension in flexion and external rotation. Whereas in extension coracohumeral ligament release had no influence on the tension of the tendon. However, after complete capsule release the tension in extension also decreased. Clinical relevance: If mobilisation in cases of rotator cuff reconstruction is necessary we recommend first release of the coracohumeral ligament in small and moderate tears. In major tears a complete capsule release is necessary. During physical therapy in the early postoperative course, flexion in the adducted and externally rotated arm should be avoided. PMID:8212806
Jerosch, J; Castro, W H
Nine fresh-frozen, human cadaveric shoulders were el evated in the scapular plane in two different humeral rotations by applying forces along action lines of rotator cuff and deltoid muscles. Stereophotogrammetry deter mined possible regions of subacromial contact using a proximity criterion; radiographs measured acromio humeral interval and position of greater tuberosity. Con tact starts at the anterolateral edge of the
Evan L. Flatow; Louis J. Soslowsky; Jonathan B. Ticker; Robert J. Pawluk; Matthew Hepler; Jon Ark; Van C. Mow; Louis U. Bigliani
Aim: This study aims to measure strains on the different rotator cuff tendons simultaneously and demonstrate the effect of\\u000a supraspinatus tear on other cuff tendons with an intact glenohumeral joint.\\u000a \\u000a Methodology: Four fresh-frozen shoulders were tested on a purpose-built rig in preliminary tests. With 10 kg loaded at the\\u000a rotator cuff muscles, displacement variable reluctance transducers (DVRTs) were used to
J. M. Sheng; S. M. Chou; S. H. Tan; D. T. T. Lie; K. S. A. Yew
Evaluation of rotator cuff is a common indication for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning of the shoulder. Conventional MRI is the most commonly used technique, while magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography is reserved for certain cases. Rotator cuff disorders are thought to be caused by a combination of internal and external mechanisms. A well-structured MRI report should comment on the relevant anatomic structures including the acromial type and orientation, the presence of os acromiale, acromio-clavicular degenerative spurs and fluid in the subacromial subdeltoid bursa. In addition, specific injuries of the rotator cuff tendons and the condition of the long head of biceps should be accurately reported. The size and extent of tendon tears, tendon retraction and fatty degeneration or atrophy of the muscles are all essential components of a surgically relevant MRI report.
Tawfik, Ahmed M; El-Morsy, Ahmad; Badran, Mohamed Aboelnour
INTRODUCTION Concern exists regarding potential damage to the rotator cuff from repeated corticosteroid injections into the subacromial space. PATIENTS AND METHODS In this retrospective, case-controlled study, 230 consecutive patients presenting to three orthopaedic units with subacromial impingement and investigated as an end-point with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the shoulder were divided into groups having received less than three or three or more subacromial injections of corticosteroids. RESULTS With no significant difference in age and sex distribution, analysis by MRI showed no significant difference between the two groups in the incidence of rotator cuff tear (P < 1.0). CONCLUSIONS This suggests that corticosteroid use in patients with subacromial impingement should not be considered a causative factor in rotator cuff tears.
Bhatia, M; Singh, B; Nicolaou, N; Ravikumar, KJ
Backround Operative treatment of traumatic rotator cuff ruptures, i.e. ruptures with a predisposing traumatic event, is reported to yield superior results compared to operative treatment of non-traumatic, degenerative ruptures. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the difference of outcome, peroperative findings, and demographics after operative treatment of traumatic versus non-traumatic rotator cuff rupture. Methods A total of 306 consecutive shoulders with an operated rotator cuff rupture (124 traumatic and 182 non-traumatic) were followed up. Constant and Murley score, size of the rupture, and age of the patients were used as an outcome measure. Results A total of 112 traumatic and 167 non-traumatic rotator cuff rupture shoulders were available for 1-year follow-up (91%). Mean Constant and Murley score was preoperatively lower in the traumatic group (46 versus 52, P = 0.01). At 3 months postoperatively, Constant and Murley scores were 61 and 60 (P = 0.72) and at 1 year 73 and 77 (P = 0.03), respectively. Altogether 91% of the patients in the traumatic and 93% in the non-traumatic group were satisfied with the final outcome (P = 0.45). In 94% of traumatic and 95% of a non-traumatic cases the rupture involved the supraspinatus tendon. In the traumatic group the rupture was larger and involved more frequently the whole supraspinatus insertion area (41% versus 17%, P < 0.0001). Mean age of patients was 58 and 57 years, respectively. Conclusion Operative treatment of both traumatic and non-traumatic rotator cuff ruptures gives essentially good results. In our cohort, patients' recollection of predisposing trauma reflects the size of the rotator cuff rupture, but does not reflect the age of the patients.
Joukainen, Antti; Itala, Ari; Aarimaa, Ville
Purpose: Partial-thickness articular-sided rotator cuff tears have a multifactorial etiology and are associated with degeneration of the tendon. They are often described as an injury of the young athlete, although they are also found in the older population. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and associations of partial-thickness articular-sided tears in patients over the age of 35 years. Design: Retrospective Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of all arthroscopic procedures for rotator cuff pathology in patients over the age of 35 years over a 2-year period by a single surgeon was performed. The included patients were divided into two groups based on the arthroscopic findings: those with a partial-thickness articular-sided rotator cuff tear and those with pure tendinopathy. The groups were then compared to identify the associated pathology with the rotator cuff lesions. 2×2 contingency table analysis and unpaired Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis. Results: One hundred patients were included in the study of whom 62 had a partial articular-sided tear. Those with a partial articular-sided tear were older (P=0.0001), were more commonly associated with a documented injury (P=0.03), and more commonly had biceps degeneration (P=0.001) and synovitis (P=0.02) within the joint. Conclusion: Partial-thickness articular-sided tears are a common occurrence in patients requiring arthroscopic surgery for rotator cuff pathology over the age of 35 years. This probably reflects an injury in an already degenerate cuff. This would support the theory of intrinsic degeneration of the tendon in this age group and probably represent a different etiology to those seen in the young athletes. Level of Evidence: Level 3
Modi, Chetan S; Smith, Christopher D; Drew, Stephen J
Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of adding multiple channeling of the greater tuberosity on the structural\\u000a integrity of the repaired rotator cuff tendon.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Fifty-six consecutive patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair and postoperative computed tomography arthrography\\u000a (CTA) were included in this study; 31 consecutive patients that underwent conventional repair and 25 subsequent patients that
Chris Hyunchul Jo; Kang Sup Yoon; Ji Ho Lee; Seung Baik Kang; Jae Hyup Lee; Hyuk Soo Han; Seung Hwan Rhee; Ji Sun Shin
Objective: Arthroscopic reinsertion of the supraspinatus\\u000a and infraspinatus tendons by means of imitation of\\u000a an open trans osseous reinsertion technique.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Indications: Tears in the tendon cuffs of the supraspinatus\\u000a and infraspinatus muscles.\\u000a Patients < 75 years of age.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Contraindications: Retracted tendons that cannot be\\u000a sufficiently mobilized to provide a tension-free\\u000a reinsertion.\\u000a Tears of the tendon cuff of the subscapsularis muscle.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Surgical Technique: The free
Nicholas Matis; Clemens Hübner; Erwin Aschauer; Herbert Resch
The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of tissue hypoxia and apoptosis at different stages of tendinopathy and tears of the rotator cuff. We studied tissue from 24 patients with eight graded stages of either impingement (mild, moderate and severe) or tears of the rotator cuff (partial, small, medium, large and massive) and three controls. Biopsies were analysed using three immunohistochemical techniques, namely antibodies against HIF-1? (a transcription factor produced in a hypoxic environment), BNip3 (a HIF-1? regulated pro-apoptotic protein) and TUNEL (detecting DNA fragmentation in apoptosis). The HIF-1? expression was greatest in mild impingement and in partial, small, medium and large tears. BNip3 expression increased significantly in partial, small, medium and large tears but was reduced in massive tears. Apoptosis was increased in small, medium, large and massive tears but not in partial tears. These findings reveal evidence of hypoxic damage throughout the spectrum of pathology of the rotator cuff which may contribute to loss of cells by apoptosis. This provides a novel insight into the causes of degeneration of the rotator cuff and highlights possible options for treatment.
Benson, R. T.; McDonnell, S. M.; Knowles, H. J.; Rees, J. L.; Carr, A. J.; Hulley, P. A.
A randomized study of two types of conservative treatment of 78 shoulders in 78 patients with rotator cuff tears was performed. Twenty-five milligrams of sodium hyaluronate (SH) was injected into shoulders in one group (SH group) and 2 mg of dexamethasone was injected in the other group (steroid group). Injection of each drug was planned for once per week for
Yozo Shibata; Koji Midorikawa; Gen Emoto; Masatoshi Naito
The rotator cuff (RC) is comprised of four muscle-tendon units, which stabilize the humeral head within the shoulder joint and aid in powering the movement of the upper extremity. RC tears refer to a partial or full discontinuation of one or more of the m...
B. Vandermeer J. C. Seida J. R. Schouten L. Tjosvold S. S. Mousavi
Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is a common orthopedic procedure. This can be a technically challenging and frustrating procedure without adherence to basic principles and guidelines. The authors aim to present a concise treatment strategy for preoperative evaluation, surgical intervention, and postoperative care to achieve secure, anatomic, and reproducible repairs. [Orthopedics. 2014; 37(7):472-476.]. PMID:24992053
Johnson, Darren L; Lembach, Mark; Mair, Scott; Johnson, Darren L
We carried out a retrospective analysis of 17 total shoulder replacements using the reversed Delta III prosthesis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis of the glenohumeral joint complicated by rotator cuff dysfunction. Outcome was assessed using the Constant-Murley scoring system. In addition, general health status was assessed with the Short Form Health Survey and radiographical analysis of the prostheses undertaken. Mean
M. J. Woodruff; A. P. Cohen; J. G. Bradley
Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the in- fluence of radial shock wave therapy (RSWT) on the course of calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff. Material and Methods: 35 patients with a mean age of 47.5 years suffering for an average of 28 months from calcific tendinitis with a Gaertner type 2 calcium deposit with a mean
P. Magosch; S. Lichtenberg; P. Habermeyer
It is known that rotator cuff tears are sometimes accompanied by joint destruction. Our purpose was to elucidate the pathology with this condition. Thirty-two synovial fluid (SF) samples aspirated from the glenohumeral joints of patients with rotator cuff tears, including 7 with partial-thickness and 25 with full-thickness tears of the rotator cuff (10 massive and 15 isolated supraspinatus tendon (SSp) tears), were examined. Collagenase (MMP-1), stromelysin 1 (MMP-3), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) and carboxy-terminal type II procollagen peptide (pCOL Il-C) were measured in the SF using the respective sandwich enzyme immunoassays. Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) was also quantified with a cationic dye binding method using 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue. Levels of any molecules except pCOL II-C in the SF appeared to be higher in full-thickness tears than those in partial-thickness tears. Moreover, levels of MMP-1, MMP-3 and GAG in the SF were significantly higher in massive tears of the rotator cuff in comparison with those in isolated SSp tears. Such significance was not observed in the levels of TIMP-1 or pCOL II C in the SF. We examined the relation of those levels with operative findings or clinical parameters from full-thickness tears, and observed significant correlations of the tear size with the levels of MMP-1, MMP-3 and GAG in the SF. Although these marker molecules in SF do not always originate from cartilage, our results may indicate the potential for accelerated cartilage-degrading activity in the glenohumeral joint in massive tears of the rotator cuff. PMID:11518264
Yoshihara, Y; Hamada, K; Nakajima, T; Fujikawa, K; Fukuda, H
The reigning paradigm of musculoskeletal modeling is to construct deterministic models from parameters of an “average” subject and make predictions for muscle forces and joint torques with this model. This approach is limited because it does not perform well for outliers, and it does not model the effects of population parameter variability. The purpose of this study was to simulate variability in musculoskeletal parameters on glenohumeral external rotation strength in healthy normals, and in rotator cuff tear cases using a Monte Carlo model. The goal was to determine if variability in musculoskeletal parameters could quantifiably explain variability in glenohumeral external rotation strength. Multivariate Gamma distributions for musculoskeletal architecture and moment arm were constructed from empirical data. Gamma distributions of measured joint strength were constructed. Parameters were sampled from the distributions and input to the model to predict muscle forces and joint torques. The model predicted measured joint torques for healthy normals, subjects with supraspinatus tears, and subjects with infraspinatus–supraspinatus tears with small error. Muscle forces for the three conditions were predicted and compared. Variability in measured torques can be explained by differences in parameter variability.
Langenderfer, Joseph E.; Carpenter, James E.; Johnson, Marjorie E.; An, Kai-nan; Hughes, Richard E.
On the basis of a modified Constant scoring system, we compared outcomes for 16 patients who underwent latissimus dorsi transfer as a salvage reconstruction for a failed prior rotator cuff repair with outcomes for 6 patients who underwent a primary reconstruction for an irreparable cuff defect. There was a statistically significant difference in Constant score between groups, which measured 55%
Jon J. P. Warner; I. M. Parsons
There is a high rate of recurrent and residual tears after rotator cuff repair surgery. Recent cadaveric studies have provided surgeons with new knowledge about the anatomy of the supraspinatus tendon insertion. Traditional repair techniques fail to reproduce the area of the supraspinatus insertion, or footprint, on the greater tuberosity anatomically. Double-row suture anchor (DRSA) fixation is a new technique that has been developed to restore the supraspinatus footprint better. In this study, 3-dimensional mapping was used to determine the area of the footprint recreated with 3 different repair methods: a transosseous simple suture technique, fixation with a single row of suture anchors, and DRSA fixation. The DRSA fixation technique consistently reproduced 100% of the original supraspinatus footprint, whereas the single-row suture anchor fixation and transosseous simple suture techniques reproduced only 46% and 71% of the insertion site, respectively. Therefore, the footprint area of the DRSA fixation technique was significantly larger (P < .05) than that of the other 2 techniques. Furthermore, double-row fixation may provide a tendon-bone interface better suited for biologic healing and restoring normal anatomy. PMID:17126241
Meier, Steven W; Meier, Jeffrey D
Histologic sections from 12 en bloc surgical specimens were studied in order to clarify the pathogenesis of bursal-side rotator cuff tears (BSRCTs). The specimens consisted of the bony insertion, the partially torn area, and the musculotendinous junction of the supraspinatus tendon. There were eight men and four women, with an average age of 48.7 years. Trauma was noted in three instances. All patients exhibited clinical evidence of subacromial impingement, which was confirmed at surgery. Histologic sections were stained with azan or hematoxylin and eosin. All the tears developed from within 1 cm of the insertion. The depth of the tears varied from a superficial flap to a nearly full-thickness tear. Microscopically, the sections demonstrated several abnormalities in addition to degeneration. At the site of insertion and in the distal stump, local disruptions of the normal four layers of enthesis and areas of hypervascularity were observed in all sections. The proximal stumps were rounded, retracted, and avascular, with abundant chondrocytes. No active repair was noted in the proximal stumps. The pathogenesis of BSRCTs appears to be related to: (1) a combination of aging and precarious vascularity of the tendon, (2) repetitive movements of the arm at above-horizontal levels, (3) injury, and (4) especially subacromial-tendon impingement. PMID:2323150
Fukuda, H; Hamada, K; Yamanaka, K
Background Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair has become popular in the last few years because it avoids large skin incisions and deltoid detachment and dysfunction. Earlier arthroscopic single-row (SR) repair methods achieved only partial restoration of the original footprint of the tendons of the rotator cuff, while double-row (DR) repair methods presented many biomechanical advantages and higher rates of tendon-to-bone healing. However, DR repair failed to demonstrate better clinical results than SR repair in clinical trials. MR imaging at 3 Tesla, especially with intra-articular contrast medium (MRA), showed a better diagnostic performance than 1.5 Tesla in the musculoskeletal setting. The objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical and 3 Tesla MRA results in two groups of patients operated on for a medium-sized full-thickness rotator cuff tear with two different techniques. Methods The first group consisted of 20 patients operated on with the SR technique; the second group consisted of 20 patients operated on with the DR technique. All patients were evaluated at a minimum of 3?years after surgery. The primary end point was the re-tear rate at 3 Tesla MRA. The secondary end points were the Constant-Murley Scale (CMS), the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) scores, surgical time and implant expense. Results The mean follow-up was 40?months in the SR group and 38.9?months in the DR group. The mean postoperative CMS was 70 in the SR group and 68 in the DR group. The mean SST score was 9.4 in the SR group and 10.1 in the DR group. The re-tear rate was 60% in the SR group and 25% in the DR group. Leakage of the contrast medium was observed in all patients. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on 3 Tesla MRA in the evaluation of two different techniques of rotator cuff repair. DR repair resulted in a statistically significant lower re-tear rate, with longer surgical time and higher implant expense, despite no difference in clinical outcomes. We think that leakage of the contrast medium is due to an incomplete tendon-to-bone sealing, which is not a re-tear. This phenomenon could have important medicolegal implications. Level of evidence III. Treatment study: Case–control study.
We present the case of a 71-year-old man with a large acromioclavicular (AC) joint cyst successfully managed with surgical excision. AC joint cysts are soft tissue masses generally signifying underlying rotator cuff pathology. Traditionally, these cysts were identified with shoulder arthrography as a "geyser" of fluid escaping through the AC joint. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is today's preferred imaging modality; we describe the MRI equivalent of the "geyser sign," signifying synovial fluid escaping through the cuff defect, across the subacromial bursa, and decompressing superiorly through a degenerated AC joint. Surgical management is preferred for symptomatic cysts. Based on a review of limited retrospective case series, recommendations for management of these lesions are as follows. Repair of the rotator cuff is preferable whenever possible. In the case of an irreparable defect, good results can be achieved through excisional AC joint arthroplasty and resection of the cyst base. Aspiration of these cysts should not be attempted, due to the high recurrence rate and potential for a draining sinus. Hemiarthroplasty also may be effective in indirectly decompressing these cysts; but given the invasive nature of this procedure, it should be reserved for patients who are also symptomatic from cuff arthropathy. PMID:21869946
Cooper, H John; Milillo, Ralph; Klein, Devon A; DiFelice, Gregory S
Background: Hallmarks of the pathogenesis of rotator cuff disease (RCD) include an abnormal immune response, angiogenesis, and altered variables of vascularity. Degenerative changes enhance production of pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and vascular angiogenesis-related cytokines (ARC) that play a pivotal role in the immune response to arthroscopic surgery and participate in the pathogenesis of RCD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ARC profile, ie, interleukin (IL): IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and angiogenin (ANG), in human peripheral blood serum and correlate this with early degenerative changes in patients with RCD. Methods: Blood specimens were obtained from 200 patients with RCD and 200 patients seen in the orthopedic clinic for nonrotator cuff disorders. Angiogenesis imaging assays was performed using power Doppler ultrasound to evaluate variables of vascularity in the rotator cuff tendons. Expression of ARC was measured by commercial Bio-Plex Precision Pro Human Cytokine Assays. Results: Baseline concentrations of IL-1?, IL-8, and VEGF was significantly higher in RCD patients than in controls. Significantly higher serum VEGF levels were found in 85% of patients with RCD, and correlated with advanced stage of disease (r = 0.75; P < 0.0005), average microvascular density (r = 0.68, P < 0.005), and visual analog score (r = 0.75, P < 0.0002) in RCD patients. ANG and IL-10 levels were significantly lower in RCD patients versus controls. IL-1? and ANG levels were significantly correlated with degenerative tendon grade in RCD patients. No difference in IL-6 and bFGF levels was observed between RCD patients and controls. Patients with degenerative changes had markedly lower ANG levels compared with controls. Power Doppler ultrasound showed high blood vessel density in patients with tendon rupture. Conclusion: The pathogenesis of RCD is associated with an imbalance between pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and vascular ARC.
Savitskaya, Yulia A.; Izaguirre, Aldo; Sierra, Luis; Perez, Francisco; Cruz, Francisco; Villalobos, Enrique; Almazan, Arturo; Ibarra, Clemente
It is widely held that many differences among primate species in scapular morphology can be functionally related to differing demands on the shoulder associated with particular locomotor habits. This perspective is largely based on broad scale studies, while more narrow comparisons of scapular form often fail to follow predictions based on inferred differences in shoulder function. For example, the ratio of supraspinous fossa/infraspinous fossa size in apes is commonly viewed as an indicator of the importance of overhead use of the forelimb, yet paradoxically, the African apes, the most terrestrial of the great apes, have higher scapular fossa ratios than the more suspensory orangutan. The recent discovery of several nearly complete early hominin scapular specimens, and their apparent morphological affinities to scapulae of orangutans and gorillas rather than chimpanzees, has led to renewed interest in the comparative analysis of human and extant ape scapular form. To facilitate the functional interpretation of differences in ape scapulae, particularly in regard to relative scapular fossa size, we used electromyography (EMG) to document the activity patterns in all four rotator cuff muscles in orangutans and gibbons, comparing the results with previously published data for chimpanzees. The EMG results indicate that the distinctive contributions of each cuff muscle to locomotion are the same in the three ape species, failing to support inferences of differences in rotator cuff function based on relative scapular fossa size comparisons. It is also shown that relative scapular fossa size is not in fact a good predictor of either the relative masses or cross-sectional areas of the rotator cuff muscles in apes, and relative fossa size gives a false impression of the importance of individual cuff muscles to locomotor differences among apes. A possible explanation for the disparity between fossa and muscle size relates to the underappreciated role of the scapular spine in structural reinforcement of the blade. PMID:23968682
Larson, Susan G; Stern, Jack T
Comparison of Self-Report and Interview Administration Methods Based on the Brazilian Versions of the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire in Patients with Rotator Cuff Disorders
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to compare self-report and interview administration methods using the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (WORC) and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (DASH) in patients with rotator cuff disorders. METHODS: Thirty male and female patients over 18 years of age with rotator cuff disorders (tendinopathy or rotator cuff tear) and Brazilian Portuguese as their primary language were recruited for assessment via administration of the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index and and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire. A randomization method was used to determine whether the questionnaires would be self-reported (n=15) or administered by an interviewer (n=15). Pearson correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the correlation between the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index and and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire in each group. The t-test was used to determine whether the difference in mean questionnaire scores and administration time was statistically significant. For statistical analysis, the level of significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: The mean subject age was 55.07 years, ranging from 27 to 74 years. Most patients had a diagnosis of tendinopathy (n=21). With regard to level of schooling, the majority (n=26) of subjects had completed a college degree or higher. The mean questionnaire scores and administration times did not significantly differ between the two groups (p>0.05). There were statistically significant correlations (p<0.05) between Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index and and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire, and strong correlations were found between the questionnaires in both groups. CONCLUSION: There are no differences between the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire administration methods with regard to administration time or correlations between the questionnaires.
Lopes, Andrea Diniz; de Vilar e Furtado, Ricardo; da Silva, Cesar Augusto; Yi, Liu Chiao; Malfatti, Cristina Assumpcao; de Araujo, Silvana Antunes
Rotator cuff tears are a common condition causing pain and disability, but the relationships among clinical measures of shoulder function and measures of glenohumeral joint (GHJ) function are not well known. In the study reported here, dynamic in vivo GHJ motion was measured during abduction from biplane radiographs in 22 rotator cuff repair (RCR) patients and 36 control subjects. Isometric shoulder strength was measured and clinical outcomes were assessed using the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff (WORC) Index. Associations among WORC, GHJ motion, and several shoulder strength ratios were assessed with linear regression. An association was detected between higher ER/ABD (external rotation/coronal-plane abduction) strength ratio and a humerus positioned more inferiorly relative to the glenoid in control subjects and RCR patients. Higher ER/ABD strength ratio was also associated with better clinical outcome in RCR patients. These findings suggest a relationship between ER/ABD strength ratio and a more centrally located average superior/inferior contact center in RCR patients and control subjects. The ER/ABD strength ratio can be easily measured in a clinical setting and therefore can be used in larger studies to investigate its relation to clinical outcomes over time or perhaps to predict superior migration of the humeral head. PMID:24839628
Peltz, Cathryn D; Haladik, Jeffrey A; Hoffman, Scott E; McDonald, Michael; Ramo, Nicole; Moutzouros, Vasilios; Bey, Michael J
Background Many studies have attempted to correlate radiographic acromial characteristics with rotator cuff tears, but the results have not been conclusive. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between rotator cuff disease and development of symptoms with different radiographic acromial characteristics including shape, index, and presence of a spur. Materials and Methods The records of 216 patients enrolled in an ongoing prospective, longitudinal study investigating asymptomatic rotator cuff tears were reviewed. All patients underwent standardized radiographic evaluation, clinical evaluation, and shoulder ultrasonography at regularly scheduled surveillance visits. Three blinded observers reviewed all radiographs to determine the acromial morphology, presence and size of an acromial spur, and acromial index. These findings were analyzed to determine an association with the presence of a full-thickness rotator cuff tear. Results The three observers demonstrated poor agreement for acromial morphology, substantial agreement for the presence of an acromial spur, and excellent agreement for acromial index (kappa= 0.41, 0.65, and 0.86 respectively). The presence of an acromial spur was highly associated with the presence of a full-thickness rotator cuff tear (p=0.003) even after adjusting for age. No association was found between acromial index and rotator cuff disease (p=0.92). Conclusion The presence of an acromial spur is highly associated with the presence of a full-thickness rotator cuff tear in both the symptomatic and asymptomatic patient. The acromial morphology classification system is an unreliable method to assess the acromion. The acromial index shows no association with the presence of rotator cuff disease.
Hamid, Nady; Omid, Reza; Yamaguchi, Ken; Steger-May, Karen; Stobbs, Georgia; Keener, Jay D
Objective To investigate the efficacy of a programme of manual therapy and exercise treatment compared with placebo treatment delivered by physiotherapists for people with chronic rotator cuff disease.Design Randomised, participant and single assessor blinded, placebo controlled trial.Setting Metropolitan region of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.Participants 120 participants with chronic (>3 months) rotator cuff disease recruited through medical practitioners and from the community.Interventions
Kim Bennell; Elin Wee; Sally Coburn; Sally Green; Anthony Harris; Margaret Staples; Andrew Forbes; Rachelle Buchbinder
We wanted to prove the hypothesis that calcified deposits within the rotator cuff tendons are merely an epiphenomenon of\\u000a complex morphological alterations in the shoulders of patients with shoulder pain and dysfunction. The shoulders of 92 patients\\u000a with calcified deposits within the rotator cuff tendons as noted on plain radiographs were investigated by means of magnetic\\u000a resonance imaging (MRI; mean
M. Maier; A. Stäbler; C. Schmitz; A. Lienemann; S. Köhler; H. R. Dürr; M. Pfahler; H. J. Refior
Physical rehabilitation following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair has conventionally involved a 4- to 6-week period of immobilization; there are two schools of thought regarding activity level during this period. Some authors encourage early, more aggressive rehabilitation along with the use of a continuous passive motion device; others propose later, more conservative rehabilitation. Although some studies report trends in improved early range of motion, pain relief, and outcomes scores with aggressive rehabilitation following rotator cuff repair, no definitive consensus exists supporting a clinical difference resulting from rehabilitation timing in the early stages of healing. Rehabilitation timing does not affect outcomes after 6 to 12 months postoperatively. Given the lack of information regarding which patient groups benefit from aggressive rehabilitation, individualized patient care is warranted. PMID:24382874
Ross, David; Maerz, Tristan; Lynch, Jamie; Norris, Sarah; Baker, Kevin; Anderson, Kyle
Summary Purpose: simple tenotomy in the treatment of long head biceps (LHB) lesion offers good results, as well as tenotomy/tenodesis. Materials and methods: we prospectively evaluated 252 patients, divided into 3 groups, treated with rotator cuff repair associated with LHB tenotomy or 2 different types of tenodesis in cases where there had been a partial lesion of the LHB or instability of the bicipital groove. We ascertained whether there was residual pain and the presence of the “Popeye sign” in the post-operative stage. Results: patients who underwent tenotomy alone achieved an improvement on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Simple Shoulder Test (SST) and modified UCLA shoulder rating compared to patients who underwent LHB tenodesis. A positive Popeye sign is poorly perceived by patients. Conclusion: we considered the LHB tenotomy as treatment of choice for the rotator cuff surgical repair when there was an evident LHB lesion.
Biz, Carlo; Vinanti, Giovanni Battista; Rossato, Alberto; Arnaldi, Enrico; Aldegheri, Roberto
Despite advancements in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair techniques, achieving tendon-to-bone healing can be difficult in the setting of poor-quality tendon. Moreover, medial tendon tears or tears with lateral tendon loss may preclude standard techniques. Rip-stop suture configurations have been shown to improve load to failure compared with simple or mattress stitch patterns and may be particularly valuable in these settings. The purpose of this report is to describe a technical modification of a rip-stop rotator cuff repair that combines the advantages of a rip-stop suture (by providing resistance to tissue cutout) and a double row of load-sharing suture anchors (minimizing the load per anchor and therefore the load per suture within each anchor).
Denard, Patrick J.; Burkhart, Stephen S.
Massive, irreparable rotator cuff tears are a source of pain and disability. Although most rotator cuff tears can be completely repaired, a significant number are considered massive and irreparable. Numerous operative techniques have been described for the treatment of these kinds of tears including arthroscopic debridement, biceps tenotomy, tendon transfer, grafting, and reverse arthroplasty. We describe a surgical technique using a biodegradable subacromial balloon spacer (InSpace; OrthoSpace, Kfar Saba, Israel) implanted between the humeral head and acromion that permits smooth, frictionless gliding, restoring the shoulder biomechanics. The technique is easy to perform and is less invasive than the conventional surgical techniques available, and it may potentially serve as a bridging option in patients with massive, irreparable tears who are normally candidates for reverse arthroplasty.
Savarese, Eugenio; Romeo, Rocco
The rotator cuff musculature imparts dynamic stability to the glenohumeral joint. In particular, the balance between the subscapularis anteriorly and the infraspinatus posteriorly, often referred to as the rotator cuff "force couple," is critical for concavity compression and concentric rotation of the humeral head. Restoration of this anterior-posterior force balance after chronic, massive rotator cuff tears may allow for deltoid compensation, but no in vivo studies have quantitatively demonstrated an improvement in shoulder function. Our goal was to determine if restoring this balance of forces improves shoulder function after two-tendon rotator cuff tears in a rat model. Forty-eight rats underwent detachment of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus. After four weeks, rats were randomly assigned to three groups: no repair, infraspinatus repair, and two-tendon repair. Quantitative ambulatory measures including medial/lateral forces, braking, propulsion, and step width were significantly different between the infraspinatus and no repair group and similar between the infraspinatus and two-tendon repair groups at almost all time points. These results suggest that repairing the infraspinatus back to its insertion site without repair of the supraspinatus can improve shoulder function to a level similar to repairing both the infraspinatus and supraspinatus tendons. Clinically, a partial repair of the posterior cuff after a two-tendon tear may be sufficient to restore adequate function. An in vivo model system for two-tendon repair of massive rotator cuff tears is presented. PMID:21308755
Hsu, Jason E; Reuther, Katherine E; Sarver, Joseph J; Lee, Chang Soo; Thomas, Stephen J; Glaser, David L; Soslowsky, Louis J
Background: Low-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy is an alternative treatment, with limited evidence for effectiveness, for calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff.Hypothesis: Objective localization of the calcium deposit by 3-dimensional, computer-assisted navigation reveals superior clinical and radiographic outcomes compared to localization through patient-to-therapist feedback.Study Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial; Level of evidence, 1.Methods: A prospective, randomized, single-blind study was carried
Manuel Sabeti-Aschraf; Ronald Dorotka; Alexandra Goll; Klemens Trieb
A distinct type of partial-thickness rotator cuff tear has been observed in overhead athletes, characterized by partial failure of the undersurface of the posterior supraspinatus and anterior infraspinatus tendons with intratendinous delamination. We present a technique of percutaneous intratendinous repair using nonabsorbable mattress sutures designed for the management of articular-side delaminated partial-thickness tears. After tear evaluation and preparation, the torn
Stephen F. Brockmeier; Christopher C. Dodson; Seth C. Gamradt; Struan H. Coleman; David W. Altchek
Objective. To determine whether there is a subset of young patients (<35 years) with acute, post-traumatic insults to the rotator cuff\\u000a which mimic the early stages of impingement. Design and patients. One hundred and ninety-seven consecutive shoulder MR images were retrospectively reviewed, and the results of 83 clinically\\u000a correlated. Two observers independently evaluated the location of intra-tendon signal and adjacent
Kert F. Anzilotti Jr.; M. E. Schweitzer; Marcilino Oliveri; P. J. Marone
Thirty-one female Sprague-Dawley rats were used to determine the effects of subacromial corticosteroid injections on the rotator\\u000a cuff. The injection technique was tested in 6 animals, which were excluded from the study. The remaining 25 rats were randomly\\u000a divided into three groups of 8 animals each; a single rat received no injections. Every other week for 8 weeks, one shoulder
Sercan Akpinar; Murat A. Hersekli; Huseyin Demirors; Reha N. Tandogan; Fazilet Kayaselcuk
Background It seems appropriate to assume, that for a full and strong global shoulder function a normally innervated and active deltoid muscle is indispensable. We set out to analyse the size and shape of the deltoid muscle on MR-arthrographies, and analyse its influence on shoulder function and its adaption (i.e. atrophy) for reduced shoulder function. Methods The fatty infiltration (Goutallier stages), atrophy (tangent sign) and selective myotendinous retraction of the rotator cuff, as well as the thickness and the area of seven anatomically defined segments of the deltoid muscle were measured on MR-arthrographies and correlated with shoulder function (i.e. active abduction). Included were 116 patients, suffering of a rotator cuff tear with shoulder mobility ranging from pseudoparalysis to free mobility. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to determine the distribution of the data before either Spearman or Pearson correlation and a multiple regression was applied to reveal the correlations. Results Our developed method for measuring deltoid area and thickness showed to be reproducible with excellent interobserver correlations (r?=?0.814–0.982). The analysis of influencing factors on active abduction revealed a weak influence of the amount of SSP tendon (r?=??0.25; p?0.01) and muscle retraction (r?=??0.27; p?0.01) as well as the stage of fatty muscle infiltration (GFDI: r?=??0.36; p?0.01). Unexpectedly however, we were unable to detect a relation of the deltoid muscle shape with the degree of active glenohumeral abduction. Furthermore, long-standing rotator cuff tears did not appear to influence the deltoid shape, i.e. did not lead to muscle atrophy. Conclusions Our data support that in chronic rotator cuff tears, there seems to be no disadvantage to exhausting conservative treatment and to delay implantation of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty, as the shape of deltoid muscle seems only to be influenced by natural aging, but to be independent of reduced shoulder motion.
We compared the outcomes of arthroscopically repaired rotator cuff tears in 28 patients older than 65 years (the over 65 group:\\u000a median age 70 years) with a control group of 28 patients younger than 65 years (the under 65 group: median age 57 years).\\u000a The groups were similar in regard to sex distribution, surgical technique, and post-operative rehabilitation programmes, but\\u000a different in age. After
Leonardo OstiRocco; Rocco Papalia; Angelo Del Buono; Vincenzo Denaro; Nicola Maffulli
Background Treatment of partial-thickness articular surface rotator cuff tears varies from simple débridement with or without an acromioplasty\\u000a to various repair techniques. These repair techniques have included in situ transtendinous methods, as well as completion\\u000a of the tear and repairing the full-thickness defect. The transtendinous techniques can be associated with stiffness and completing\\u000a the tear takes down normal intact tissue. Therefore,
Edwin E. Spencer Jr
Biomechanical studies are commonly used to validate new or modified rotator cuff repair techniques. Additional knots, more tendon suture passes, and obligatory suture management requirements are often the "cost" for improved biomechanical results. This cost can amount to increased technical difficulty and surgical times. However, technical ease or difficulty as a measurable variable has not been quantified. A basic measure for technical ease would allow surgeons the ability to objectively assess and compare rotator cuff repair practicality and potentially help in the design of future studies to standardize repair techniques alongside biomechanical measures. A proposed rotator cuff repair "technical efficiency ratio" is defined as follows: (No. of knots + No. of tendon suture passes + No. of suture limbs)/No. of pilot holes created. This can give a measure of "work" or utility achieved per fixation point created for a particular type of repair (e.g., single or double row), with a smaller number representing relatively more efficiency per anchor or fixation point used. If repairs validated in the laboratory are too cumbersome to perform in vivo from a practical standpoint, technical ease should be a prerequisite measure, and the success of a repair technique should not necessarily be based on biomechanics alone. PMID:23707185
Park, Maxwell C
Background Shoulder pain is one of the most common problems in ages older than 60 years of age. Rotator cuff pathology is the most common etiology of shoulder pain. Most of rotator cuff pathologies are treated conservatively in old ages and exercise therapy is not an accepted intervention for management of rotator cuff tear yet. Case presentation The case was a man of 53 years age with shoulder pain who had total tear of supraspinatus tendon and biceps tendinitis in the right shoulder. He had regularly gone swimming, mountain climbing and running in the last 10 years. The case was managed by exercise therapy for 3 months and physical modalities for 20 sessions. Shoulder pain and his function and right shoulder range of motion increased after 3 months. Para clinical findings did not change after treatment, though. The improvements continued 15 months after the beginning of the treatment. Conclusion Exercise therapy was very effective for improving pain and function in total tear of supraspinatus tendon and tendinitis of biceps.
Nejati, Parisa; Akbari, Faramarz
Rotator cuff tears are a major cause of morbidity. Following rotator cuff tears, muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration begin in the tissue, limiting repair potential and leading to a higher re-tear rate and a worse functional outcome. We evaluated whether fatty degeneration resulting from a complete supraspinatus tear with retraction is associated with an injury to the suprascapular nerve. Four skeletally mature New Zealand white rabbits were randomized to receive an index procedure on either their right or left shoulder with the opposite shoulder serving as a control. At the index procedure, the supraspinatus tendon was transected at its insertion and allowed to retract. At 3 months, the rabbits were euthanized, and both supraspinatus muscles were harvested. The specimens were then examined with confocal microscopy and histology. Atrophy was grossly visible in all four test muscles, and fatty infiltration was confirmed with osmium tetroxide staining. In all four rabbits, the degree of denervation (p?=?0.71) and partial denervation (p?=?0.91) was not significantly different between control and experimental muscle. Rotator cuff tear does not affect the motor endplate or innervation status of the supraspinatus. Fatty infiltration occurs independent of denervation of the supraspinatus. PMID:22836785
Gayton, J Christopher; Rubino, L Joseph; Rich, Mark M; Stouffer, Mark H; Wang, Qingbo; Boivin, Gregory P
Rotator cuff tears of the shoulder are a common cause of pain and disability. The successful repair of rotator cuff tendon tears depends on the time from onset of injury to the time of surgical repair. However, the effect of time from injury to repair remains poorly understood. A rat model was used to investigate the supraspinatus tendon organizational and mechanical property changes that occur with time post-injury to understand the natural injury response in the absence of repair. It was hypothesized that increased time post-injury would result in increased detrimental changes to tendon organizational and mechanical properties. Tendons were detached at the insertion on the humerus without repair and the quantitative organizational and mechanical properties were analyzed at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks post-detachment. Tendon detachment resulted in a dramatic decrease in mechanical properties initially followed by a progressive increase with time. The quantitative collagen fiber orientation results provided corroborating support to the mechanical property data. Based on similarities in histology and mechanical properties to rotator cuff tears in humans, the animal model presented here is promising for future investigations of the tendon's natural injury response in the absence of repair. PMID:15047003
Gimbel, Jonathan A; Van Kleunen, Jonathan P; Mehta, Samir; Perry, Stephanie M; Williams, Gerald R; Soslowsky, Louis J
Various suture anchors are available for rotator cuff repair. For arthroscopic application, a knotless anchor was developed to simplify the intra-operative handling. We compared the new knotless anchor (BIOKNOTLESStrade mark RC; DePuy Mitek, Raynham, MA) with established absorbable and titanium suture anchors (UltraSorbtrade mark and Super Revo 5mmtrade mark; ConMed Linvatec, Utica, NY). Each anchor was tested on 6 human cadaveric shoulders. The anchors were inserted into the greater tuberosity. An incremental cyclic loading was performed. Ultimate failure loads, anchor displacement, and mode of failure were recorded. The anchor displacement of the BIOKNOTLESStrade mark RC (15.3 +/- 5.3 mm) after the first cycle with 75 N was significantly higher than with the two other anchors (Super Revo 2.1 +/- 1.6 mm, UltraSorb: 2.7 +/- 1.1 mm). There was no significant difference in the ultimate failure loads of the 3 anchors. Although the Bioknotlesstrade mark RC indicated comparable maximal pullout strength, it bares the risk of losing contact between the tendon-bone-interface due to a significantly higher system displacement. Therefore, gap formation between the bone and the soft tissue fixation jeopardizes the repair. Bioknotlesstrade mark RC should be used in the lateral row only when a double row technique for rotator cuff repair is performed, and is not appropriate for rotator cuff repair if used on its own. PMID:18396417
Pietschmann, Matthias F; Froehlich, Valerie; Ficklscherer, Andreas; Wegener, Bernd; Jansson, Volkmar; Müller, Peter E
Background: Diagnostic evaluation of rotator cuff muscle quality is important to determine indications for potential operative repair. Ultrasonography has developed into an accepted and useful tool for evaluating rotator cuff tendon tears; however, its use for evaluating rotator muscle quality has not been well established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance and observer reliability of ultrasonography in grading fatty degeneration of the posterior and superior rotator cuff muscles. Methods: The supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor muscles were prospectively evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography in eighty patients with shoulder pain. The degree of fatty degeneration on MRI was graded by four independent raters on the basis of the modified Goutallier grading system. Ultrasonographic evaluation of fatty degeneration was performed by one of three radiologists with use of a three-point scale. The two scoring systems were compared to determine the diagnostic performance of ultrasonography. The interobserver and intraobserver reliability of MRI grading by the four raters were determined. The interobserver reliability of ultrasonography among the three radiologists was determined in a separate group of thirty study subjects. The weighted Cohen kappa, percentage agreement, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated. Results: The accuracy of ultrasonography for the detection of fatty degeneration, as assessed on the basis of the percentage agreement with MRI, was 92.5% for the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles and 87.5% for the teres minor. The sensitivity was 84.6% for the supraspinatus, 95.6% for the infraspinatus, and 87.5% for the teres minor. The specificity was 96.3% for the supraspinatus, 91.2% for the infraspinatus, and 87.5% for the teres minor. The agreement between MRI and ultrasonography was substantial for the supraspinatus and infraspinatus (kappa = 0.78 and 0.71, respectively) and moderate for the teres minor (kappa = 0.47). The interobserver reliability for MRI was substantial for the supraspinatus and infraspinatus (kappa = 0.76 and 0.77, respectively) and moderate for the teres minor (kappa = 0.59). For ultrasonography, the interobserver reliability was substantial for all three muscles (kappa = 0.71 for the supraspinatus, 0.65 for the infraspinatus, and 0.72 for the teres minor). Conclusions: The diagnostic performance of ultrasonography in identifying and grading fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles was comparable with that of MRI. Ultrasonography can be used as the primary diagnostic imaging modality for fatty changes in rotator cuff muscles. Level of Evidence: Diagnostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Wall, Lindley B.; Teefey, Sharlene A.; Middleton, William D.; Dahiya, Nirvikar; Steger-May, Karen; Kim, H. Mike; Wessell, Daniel; Yamaguchi, Ken
Background: Recent reports on concurrent arthroscopic rotator cuff and type II superior labral anterior posterior (SLAP) repair have raised concerns over postoperative stiffness and patient satisfaction. However, it is unclear if the observed stiffness relates to the repair of degenerative SLAP tears in older adults, the surgical technique, the postoperative rehabilitation, or to a combination of these factors. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome and repair integrity of concurrent arthroscopic rotator cuff and type II SLAP repair. Study Design: Case series. Methods: Of 11 patients identified, 7 had a full-thickness rotator cuff tear and 4 had a high-grade partial thickness tear that was completed. A cannula placed through the rotator cuff tear improved the trajectory for posterior suture anchor placement during SLAP repair. Postoperative rehabilitation employed continuous passive motion to prevent stiffness. Results: At minimum of 1-year follow-up, mean yes responses on the Simple Shoulder Test improved from 5.4 to 10.7 (out of 12; P < .01), and mean American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores improved from 40 to 87 (out of 100; P < .01). Mean forward elevation improved from 148° to 161° (P < .01) and external rotation from 58° to 67° (P < .01). Magnetic resonance imaging, obtained at most recent follow-up in 10 patients, demonstrated a healed SLAP tear in all patients and a persistent rotator cuff defect in 1 patient. Conclusions: Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair can be successfully combined with type II SLAP repair in relatively young patients who have sustained traumatic injury to their shoulders. Allowing early passive motion may help prevent postoperative stiffness without compromising rotator cuff healing.
Strickland, Justin P.; Fleckenstein, Cassie M.; Ducker, Al; Hasan, Samer S.
\\u000a Abstract Patients with posterosuperior cuff tears lose functional external rotation of the shoulder. Latissimus dorsi and teres major\\u000a transfer is performed to restore external rotation. Twenty patients with a mean age was 55.8 ± 6 years underwent this procedure\\u000a and were examined at averages of 24.7 (n = 17) and 70.6 (n = 13) months. Two patients did not improve presumably because of\\u000a failure of the transfer. The
Christian Gerhardt; Lars Lehmann; Sven Lichtenberg; Peter Magosch; Peter Habermeyer
Introduction Partial articular surface of the rotator cuff tendon tears has been recognized as a source of treatable shoulder pain and\\u000a a precursory pathology for full-thickness tendon tears. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is a possible surgical method of\\u000a treatment. Recent data have shown that the treating partial-thickness rotator cuff repairs with transtendon technique shows\\u000a good clinical outcome. The use of this
Jong-Hun Ji; Mohamed Shafi; Jae-Jung Jeong; Yeon Soo Lee; Edward G. McFarland; Tae-Kwen Kim; Jun-Young Chung
The collagen composition of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis tendons, which form part of the rotator cuff of the shoulder, was determined. Tendons were obtained from adult, male beagle dogs and total collagen was estimated by measurement of hydroxyproline. There was little variation in collagen content among the three major cuff tendons and the quantity approximated that cited in the literature for other tendons. However, the collagen content in the insertion zone of the supraspinatus tendon was significantly higher than in the tendon proper. NaCl fractionation of supraspinatus collagen indicated that type I was the predominant collagen but significant amounts of type III and possibly some type II and type V were also present. Interestingly, there appeared to be more type III collagen in the insertion zone than in the tendon proper, cyanogen bromide digestion and peptide mapping confirmed this finding. The differential collagen composition of the supraspinatus tendon may contribute to the high incidence of tear that is associated with this rotator cuff tendon. PMID:9262514
Fan, L; Sarkar, K; Franks, D J; Uhthoff, H K
Tendon augmentation grafts have the potential to facilitate the repair of massive or otherwise unrepairable rotator cuff tears. In our clinic, between 2009 and 2013, 25 patients underwent surgery to treat massive symptomatic rotator cuff tears with porcine dermal collagen patch. This study is a clinical and instrumental assessment of 9 patients with the longest follow-up. These patients were evaluated with Constant score, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Evaluation Form, ultrasound imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, and electromyography. The clinical evaluations have shown good outcomes. The magnetic resonance imaging results were comparable with those of the ultrasound scan. In all cases, we found covering of humeral head, centering of the humeral head, maintenance of the tropism of the supraspinatus, no appearance of fatty degeneration, no worse in cases with fatty degeneration. With the electromyographic examination a complete functional recovery was observed with the possibility of performing maximal contraction against resistance in all cases. We believe that porcine dermal collagen is effective as an augmentation graft in the treatment of chronic extensive rotator cuff tears, providing excellent pain relief with an improvement in active ranges of motion and strength. PMID:24526420
Giannotti, Stefano; Ghilardi, Marco; Dell'osso, Giacomo; Magistrelli, Luca; Bugelli, Giulia; Di Rollo, Frederica; Ricci, Giulia; Calabrese, Rosanna; Siciliano, Gabriele; Guido, Giulio
This prospective, randomized study was performed to evaluate the results of mini-open and arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in a comparative case series of patients followed for 24 months. A total of 125 patients were randomized to mini-open (Group I) or arthroscopic (Group II) rotator cuff repair at the time of surgical intervention. The University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) score, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) index, and muscle strength were measured to evaluate the clinical results, while magnetic resonance arthrography was used at 24-month follow-up to investigate the postoperative rotator cuff integrity. Fifty-three patients in Group I and 55 patients in Group II were available for evaluation at 24-month follow-up. At 24-month follow-up, the UCLA score, the ASES index, and muscle strength were statistically significantly increased in both groups postoperatively, while no significant difference was detected between the 2 groups. Intact rotator cuffs were investigated in 42 patients in Group I and 35 in Group II, and there was a significant difference in postoperative structural integrity between the two groups (P < 0.05). When analysis was limited to the patients with full-thickness tear, the muscle strength of the shoulder was significantly better in Group II, and the retearing rate was significantly higher in Group II. Based on the results obtained from this study, it can be indicated that arthroscopic and mini-open rotator cuff repair displayed substantially equal outcomes, except for higher retearing rate in the arthroscopic repair group. While for patients with full-thickness tear, arthroscopic rotator cuff repair displayed better shoulder strength and significantly higher retearing rate as compared to mini-open rotator cuff repair at 24-month follow-up. PMID:23812851
Zhang, Zhenxiang; Gu, Beibei; Zhu, Wei; Zhu, Lixian; Li, Qingsong
Objective After reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) external and internal rotation will often remain restricted. A postoperative alteration of the biomechanics in the remaining cuff is discussed as a contributing factor to these functional deficits. Methods In this study, muscle moment arms as well as origin-to-insertion distance (OID) were calculated using three-dimensional models of the shoulder derived from CT scans of seven cadaveric specimens. Results Moment arms for humeral rotation are significantly smaller for the cranial segments of SSC and all segments of TMIN in abduction angles of 30 degrees and above (p ? 0.05). Abduction moment arms were significantly decreased for all segments (p ? 0.002). OID was significantly smaller for all muscles at the 15 degree position (p ? 0.005), apart from the cranial SSC segment. Conclusions Reduced rotational moment arms in conjunction with the decrease of OID may be a possible explanation for the clinically observed impaired external and internal rotation.
Suture anchors are increasingly gaining importance in rotator cuff surgery. This means they will be gradually replacing transosseous sutures. The purpose of this study was to compare the stability of transosseous sutures with different suture anchors with regard to their pullout strength depending on bone density. By means of bone densitometry (CT scans), two groups of human humeral head specimens were determined: a healthy and a osteopenic bone group. Following anchor systems were being tested: SPIRALOK 5.0 mm (resorbable, DePuy Mitek), Super Revo 5 mm (titanium, Linvatec), UltraSorb (resorbable, Linvatec) and the double U-sutures with Orthocord USP 2 (partly resorbable, DePuy Mitek) and Ethibond Excel 2 (non-resorbable, Ethicon). The suture anchors/double U-sutures were inserted in the greater tuberosity 12 times. An electromechanical testing machine was used for cyclic loading with power increasing in stages. We recorded the ultimate failure loads, the system displacements and the modes of failure. The suture anchors tended to bring about higher ultimate failure loads than the transosseous double U-sutures. This difference was significant in the comparison of the Ethibond suture and the SPIRALOK 5.0 mm-both in healthy and osteopenic bone. Both the suture materials and the SPIRALOK 5.0 mm showed a significant difference in pullout strength on either healthy or osteopenic bone; the titanium anchor SuperRevo 5 mm and the tilting anchor UltraSorb did not show any significant difference in healthy or osteopenic bone. There was no significant difference concerning system displacement (healthy and osteopenic bone) between the five anchor systems tested. The pullout strength of transosseous sutures is neither on healthy nor on osteopenic bone higher than that of suture anchors. Therefore, even osteopenic bone does not constitute a valid reason for the surgeon to perform open surgery by means of transosseous sutures. The choice of sutures in osteopenic bone is of little consequence anyway since it is mostly the bone itself which is the limiting factor. PMID:18193198
Pietschmann, Matthias F; Fröhlich, Valerie; Ficklscherer, Andreas; Hausdorf, Jörg; Utzschneider, Sandra; Jansson, Volkmar; Müller, Peter E
Aim: To evaluate mid-term outcome in patients who underwent arthroscopic subacromial decompression (ASD) for shoulder impingement syndrome with intact and partially torn rotator cuffs. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 consecutive patients (83 shoulders) who underwent ASD for impingement syndrome between 2003 and 2006 were analyzed. Mean age was 57.1 years. Patients’ self-reported Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) for pain was collected prospectively and was used as an instrument to measure surgical outcome. Results: The mean initial and final OSS for patients with an intact rotator cuff was 26.1 and 40.3, respectively, at a mean follow up of 71.9 months (nearly 7 years). The mean initial and final OSS for patients with a partially torn articular sided tear was 22.6 and 41.9, respectively, at mean follow up of 70.7 months. Both groups showed significant sustained improvement (P < 0.0001). The mean improvement of OSS following ASD was statistically greater (P < 0.03) for partially torn rotator cuff group (19.3 points) as compared to those with normal rotator cuff (14.2 points). Conclusion: Patients with dual pathology (partial rotator cuff tear and impingement) appreciated a significantly greater improvement following ASD compared to those with impingement alone. Both groups of patients had a similar final outcome at a mid-term follow up. Level of Evidence: IV, retrospective study on consecutive series of patients.
Eid, Ahmed S.; Dwyer, Amitabh J.; Chambler, Andrew F. W.
Purpose Rotator cuff tear is the most common shoulder disease in patients with shoulder problems, but its prevalence is not well known. Methods We performed a health care check-up of locomotive organs in 664 residents (21.3% of the population) in one village. Ultrasonography on bilateral shoulders was performed in all the participants. Results One hundred and forty seven out of 664 subjects (22.1%) had full-thickness rotator cuff tears. The prevalence of tear in each decade was 0% in the 20s to 40s, 10.7% in the 50s, 15.2% in the 60s, 26.5% in the 70s, and 36.6% in the 80s. Symptomatic rotator cuff tears accounted for 34.7% of all tears and asymptomatic tears for 65.3%. The prevalence of asymptomatic rotator cuff tears was one-half of all tears in the 50s, whereas it accounted for two-thirds of those over the age of 60. The prevalence of tear was significantly greater in male than in female in the 50s and 60s, but not in the 70s and 80s. Conclusion The prevalence of rotator cuff tear in the general population was 22.1%, which increased with age. Asymptomatic tear was twice as common as symptomatic tear.
Minagawa, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Abe, Hidekazu; Fukuda, Masashi; Seki, Nobutoshi; Kikuchi, Kazuma; Kijima, Hiroaki; Itoi, Eiji
Clinically, rotator cuff tear (RCT) is among the most common shoulder pathologies. Despite significant advances in surgical techniques, the re-tear rate after rotator cuff (RC) repair remains high. Insufficient healing capacity is likely the main factor for reconstruction failure. This study reports on a basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-loaded electrospun poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) fibrous membrane for repairing RCT. Implantable biodegradable bFGF-PLGA fibrous membranes were successfully fabricated using emulsion electrospinning technology and then characterized and evaluated with in vitro and in vivo cell proliferation assays and repairs of rat chronic RCTs. Emulsion electrospinning fabricated ultrafine fibers with a core-sheath structure which secured the bioactivity of bFGF in a sustained manner for 3 weeks. Histological observations showed that electrospun fibrous membranes have excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. At 2, 4, and 8 weeks after in vivo RCT repair surgery, electrospun fibrous membranes significantly increased the area of glycosaminoglycan staining at the tendon-bone interface compared with the control group, and bFGF-PLGA significantly improved collagen organization, as measured by birefringence under polarized light at the healing enthesis compared with the control and PLGA groups. Biomechanical testing showed that the electrospun fibrous membrane groups had a greater ultimate load-to-failure and stiffness than the control group at 4 and 8 weeks. The bFGF-PLGA membranes had the highest ultimate load-to-failure, stiffness, and stress of the healing enthesis, and their superiority compared to PLGA alone was significant. These results demonstrated that electrospun fibrous membranes aid in cell attachment and proliferation, as well as accelerating tendon-bone remodeling, and bFGF-loaded PLGA fibrous membranes have a more pronounced effect on tendon-bone healing. Therefore, augmentation using bFGF-PLGA electrospun fibrous membranes is a promising treatment for RCT. PMID:24868155
Zhao, Song; Zhao, Jingwen; Dong, Shikui; Huangfu, Xiaoqiao; Li, Bin; Yang, Huilin; Zhao, Jinzhong; Cui, Wenguo
Clinically, rotator cuff tear (RCT) is among the most common shoulder pathologies. Despite significant advances in surgical techniques, the re-tear rate after rotator cuff (RC) repair remains high. Insufficient healing capacity is likely the main factor for reconstruction failure. This study reports on a basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-loaded electrospun poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) fibrous membrane for repairing RCT. Implantable biodegradable bFGF–PLGA fibrous membranes were successfully fabricated using emulsion electrospinning technology and then characterized and evaluated with in vitro and in vivo cell proliferation assays and repairs of rat chronic RCTs. Emulsion electrospinning fabricated ultrafine fibers with a core-sheath structure which secured the bioactivity of bFGF in a sustained manner for 3 weeks. Histological observations showed that electrospun fibrous membranes have excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. At 2, 4, and 8 weeks after in vivo RCT repair surgery, electrospun fibrous membranes significantly increased the area of glycosaminoglycan staining at the tendon–bone interface compared with the control group, and bFGF–PLGA significantly improved collagen organization, as measured by birefringence under polarized light at the healing enthesis compared with the control and PLGA groups. Biomechanical testing showed that the electrospun fibrous membrane groups had a greater ultimate load-to-failure and stiffness than the control group at 4 and 8 weeks. The bFGF–PLGA membranes had the highest ultimate load-to-failure, stiffness, and stress of the healing enthesis, and their superiority compared to PLGA alone was significant. These results demonstrated that electrospun fibrous membranes aid in cell attachment and proliferation, as well as accelerating tendon–bone remodeling, and bFGF-loaded PLGA fibrous membranes have a more pronounced effect on tendon–bone healing. Therefore, augmentation using bFGF–PLGA electrospun fibrous membranes is a promising treatment for RCT.
Zhao, Song; Zhao, Jingwen; Dong, Shikui; Huangfu, Xiaoqiao; Li, Bin; Yang, Huilin; Zhao, Jinzhong; Cui, Wenguo
Background Shoulder dysfunction is common and pathology of the rotator cuff tendons and subacromial bursa are considered to be a major cause of pain and morbidity. Although many hypotheses exist there is no definitive understanding as to the origin of the pain arising from these structures. Research investigations from other tendons have placed intra-tendinous neovascularity as a potential mechanism of pain production. The prevalence of neovascularity in patients with a clinical diagnosis of rotator cuff tendinopathy is unknown. As such the primary aim of this pilot study was to investigate if neovascularity could be identified and to determine the prevalence of neovascularity in the rotator cuff tendons and subacromial bursa in subjects with unilateral shoulder pain clinically assessed to be rotator cuff tendinopathy. The secondary aims were to investigate the association between the presence of neovascularity and pain, duration of symptoms, and, neovascularity and shoulder function. Methods Patients with a clinical diagnosis of unilateral rotator cuff tendinopathy referred for a routine diagnostic ultrasound (US) scan in a major London teaching hospital formed the study population. At referral patients were provided with an information document. On the day of the scan (on average, at least one week later) the patients agreeing to participate were taken through the consent process and underwent an additional clinical examination prior to undergoing a bilateral grey scale and colour Doppler US examination (symptomatic and asymptomatic shoulder) using a Philips HDI 5000 Sono CT US machine. The ultrasound scans were performed by one of two radiologists who recorded their findings and the final assessment was made by a third radiologist blinded both to the clinical examination and the ultrasound examination. The findings of the radiologists who performed the scans and the blinded radiologist were compared and any disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results Twenty-six patients agreed to participate and formed the study population. Of these, 6 subjects were not included in the final assessment following the pre-scan clinical investigation. This is because one subject had complete cessation of symptoms between the time of the referral and entry into the trial. Another five had developed bilateral shoulder pain during the same period. The mean age of the 20 subjects forming the study population was 50.2 (range 32-69) years (SD = 10.9) and the mean duration of symptoms was 22.6 (range .75 to 132) months (SD = 40.1). Of the 20 subjects included in the formal analysis, 13 subjects (65%) demonstrated neovascularity in the symptomatic shoulder and 5 subjects (25%) demonstrated neovascularity in the asymptomatic shoulder. The subject withdrawn due to complete cessation of symptoms was not found to have neovascularity in either shoulder and of the 5 withdrawn due to bilateral symptoms; two subjects were found to have signs of bilateral neovascularity, one subject demonstrated neovascularity in one shoulder and two subjects in neither shoulder. Conclusions This study demonstrated that neovascularity does occur in subjects with a clinical diagnosis of rotator cuff tendinopathy and to a lesser extent in asymptomatic shoulders. In addition, the findings of this investigation did not identify an association between the presence of neovascularity; and pain, duration of symptoms or shoulder function. Future research is required to determine the relevance of these findings.
Background The WORC is a quality of life questionnaire designed for patients with disorders of the rotator cuff, originally developed in English. The purpose of this study was to cross-culturally adapt the WORC for use in the Dutch population and to evaluate reliability, agreement and floor and ceiling effects of this Dutch version in a population of patients with rotator cuff disease. Methods Reliability was tested by measuring the Cronbach’s alpha for internal consistency and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for test-retest reliability. Agreement was measured using the Standard Error of Measurement (SEMagreement); and the smallest detectable change (SDC) was calculated based on the SEM. Pearson Correlations Coefficients were used to comparing the WORC with the RAND-36, the Constant Score and 11-point shoulder hindrance scale. Results Fifty-seven patients entered into this study of whom 50 were available for test-retest validation. The internal consistency of the Dutch WORC tested by Cronbach’s alpha was 0.95 for the total questionnaire. The ICC for the WORC is 0.91 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.85-0.95. Standard Error of Measurement was 6.0 points with a Smallest Detectable Change of 16.7 points on a 0-100 scale. Pearson Correlations Coefficients showed a significant positive correlation between the Dutch WORC and Constant Score (r?=?0.60) and a strong reversed correlation with the shoulder hindrance scale (r?=?-0.75). Conclusion The Dutch WORC seems to be a reliable health-related quality of life questionnaire for patients with rotator cuff disorders. Trial registration NCT01532492.
Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of continuous subacromial bupivacaine infusion on supraspinatus muscle and rotator cuff tendon healing via gross, biomechanical, and histologic analyses. Methods Thirty-three New Zealand White rabbits underwent unilateral supraspinatus transection and rotator cuff repair (RCR). Rabbits were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: (1)RCR only, (2)RCR with continuous saline infusion for 48 hours, or (3)RCR with continuous 0.25% bupivacaine with epinephrine (1:200,000) infusion for 48 hours. Rabbits were sacrificed at either 2 (for histologic assessment) or 8 weeks post-operatively (for biomechanical and histologic assessment). Results Tensile testing showed significantly higher load to failure in intact tendons compared to repaired tendons (p<0.01); however, no statistical differences were detected among RCR only, RCR Saline, and RCR Bupivacaine groups. Histologically, the enthesis of repaired tendons showed increased cellularity and disorganized collagen fibers compared to intact tendons, with no differences between treatment groups. Muscle histology demonstrated scattered degenerative muscle fibers at 2 weeks in both RCR Saline and RCR Bupivacaine, but no degeneration was noted at 8 weeks. Conclusions The healing supraspinatus tendons exposed to bupivacaine infusion showed similar histologic and biomechanical characteristics compared to untreated and saline infused RCR groups. Muscle histology showed fiber damage at 2 weeks for both the saline and bupivacaine treated groups, with no apparent disruption at 8 weeks, suggesting a recovery process. Therefore, subacromial bupivacaine infusion in this rabbit rotator cuff model does not appear to impair muscle or tendon following acute injury and repair. Level Of Evidence Basic science study
FRIEL, NICOLE A.; WANG, VINCENT M.; SLABAUGH, MARK A.; WANG, FANCHIA; CHUBINSKAYA, SUSAN; COLE, BRIAN J.
Background Chronic rotator cuff tears are often associated with pain or poor function. In a rat with only a detached supraspinatus tendon,\\u000a the tendon heals spontaneously which is inconsistent with how tears are believed to heal in humans.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes We therefore asked whether a combined supraspinatus and infraspinatus detachment in the rat would fail to heal and result\\u000a in a chronic injury
LeAnn M. Dourte; Stephanie M. Perry; Charles L. Getz; Louis J. Soslowsky
Purpose The aim of the study was to evaluate the histopathological changes that occur in the tendon and subacromial bursal tissue\\u000a in patients with rotator cuff tear trying to correlate these changes to their healing capability.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Eighty-four patients were clinically evaluated with the Constant Scale. Radiographs and MRI were performed preoperatively\\u000a and ultrasound were performed postoperatively. For each patient, a biopsy
C. Chillemi; V. Petrozza; L. Garro; B. Sardella; R. Diotallevi; A. Ferrara; A. Gigante; C. Di Cristofano; A. Castagna; C. Della Rocca
Purpose The aim of the study was to evaluate whether arthroscopic (ASC) repair of rotator cuff ruptures causes less postoperative\\u000a pain and better range of motion (ROM) in the early postoperative period than a mini-open (MO) technique.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Inclusion criteria were a rupture of the supraspinatus tendon with retraction with a maximum to the apex of the humeral head\\u000a and minor fatty
Philip Kasten; Christoph Keil; Thomas Grieser; Patric Raiss; Nikolaus Streich; Markus Loew
This paper describes a self-managed loaded exercise programme which has been designed to address the pain and disability associated with rotator cuff tendinopathy. The intervention has been developed with reference to current self-management theory and with reference to the emerging benefit of loaded exercise for tendinopathy. This self-managed loaded exercise programme is being evaluated within the mixed methods SELF study (ISRCTN 84709751) which includes a pragmatic randomised controlled trial conducted within the UK National Health Service. PMID:23480845
Littlewood, Chris; Malliaras, Peter; Mawson, Sue; May, Stephen; Walters, Stephen
Background and purpose The New Zealand white rabbit subscapularis tendon passes under a bony arch to insert on the lesser tubercle of the humerus in a manner analogous to the supraspinatus tendon in humans. We assessed whether this unique anatomy may provide a new animal model of the shoulder to improve our understanding of rotator cuff pathology. Methods The dimensions of the rotator cuff insertions (subscapularis, supraspinatus, and infraspinatus) were measured on 10 fresh frozen cadaveric New Zealand white rabbit shoulders. Mechanical testing was performed on 8 fresh frozen subscapularis insertions (4 matched pairs). Video analysis of the gait cycle was performed on 2 live animals. Results The origins, insertions, and innervations of the rabbit rotator cuff musculature are analogous to those in humans. However, the rabbit acromion is a rudimentary structure with only the infraspinatus and teres minor muscles passing beneath. Furthermore, at the point where the infraspinatus passes under the arch, it is muscular rather than tendinous. The anterior aspect of the glenohumeral joint contains an additional bony tunnel with its boundaries being the tuberculum supraglenoidale laterally, the coracoideus process superiorly, the tuberculum infraglenoidale inferiorly, and the coracobrachialis muscle medially. The origin of the rabbit subscapularis muscle resides on the anterior scapula. The subscapularis tendon then traverses this bony tunnel prior to its insertion on the lesser tubercle of the humerus. Video analysis and anatomic dissections confirmed excursion of the subscapularis tendon within this bony tunnel throughout the gait cycle. The subscapularis footprint on the proximal humerus measured 6.8 mm (SD 0.29) × 2.5 mm (SD 0.17). Mechanical testing of the subscapularis tendon showed the stiffness to range from 57 to 117 N/mm (SD 23). Ultimate yield ranged from 88 to 215 N (SD 518). The elastic modulus of the rabbit tendon was 56 MPa. 6 of the 8 subscapularis tendons failed at the tendon mid-substance; the other 2 failed at the bony insertion. Interpretation The unique anatomic architecture and the mechanical characteristics of the rabbit subscapularis muscle provide an opportunity to improve our understanding of rotator cuff pathology.
Grumet, Robert C; Hadley, Scott; Diltz, Matthew V; Lee, Thay Q
Suprascapular neuropathy is generally considered to be a diagnosis of exclusion, although it has been described in association with several activities and conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first description of suprascapular neuropathy with complete neurogenic fatty replacement in patients with intact rotator cuff tendons in the absence of traction or compression mechanisms. We present 4 cases of patients who presented with complete fatty infiltration of the supraspinatus (1 patient), infraspinatus (2 patients), and both (1 patient) resulting from suprascapular neuropathy. Each of these patients underwent arthroscopic suprascapular nerve decompression and subsequently had immediate improvement in pain and subjective shoulder value. PMID:24630957
Leclere, Lance E; Shi, Lewis L; Lin, Albert; Yannopoulos, Paul; Higgins, Laurence D; Warner, Jon J P
We determined on histologic examination the degree of degeneration at the insertion of 3 rotator cuff tendons in 76 cadaveric shoulders, 17 of which had a partial tear of the supraspinatus. Fiber thinning, the presence of granulation tissue, and incomplete tearing of fibers, all evidence of degeneration, were quantified separately for each tendon. Among the shoulders that were intact on macroscopy, no significant difference in degeneration score could be found. In all 3 tendons degeneration was more prominent on the articular sides compared with the bursal sides (P < .0001). The degeneration score of partially torn supraspinatus was significantly higher than that of the intact tendons (P < .0001). The extent of granulation tissue, 1 criterion of degeneration, seemed to contribute mostly to this difference. Intrinsic degeneration occurred foremost in the articular side of the rotator cuff and might constitute the primary cause of rotator cuff tearing. PMID:10633891
Sano, H; Ishii, H; Trudel, G; Uhthoff, H K
BACKGROUND: Differing levels of tendon retraction are found in full-thickness rotator cuff tears. The pathophysiology of tendon degeneration and retraction is unclear. Neoangiogenesis in tendon parenchyma indicates degeneration. Hypoxia inducible factor 1? (HIF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are important inducers of neoangiogenesis. Rotator cuff tendons rupture leads to fatty muscle infiltration (FI) and muscle atrophy (MA). The aim
Stefan Lakemeier; Johannes JA Reichelt; Thilo Patzer; Susanne Fuchs-Winkelmann; Juergen RJ Paletta; Markus D Schofer
Biceps tendon pathology is a common clinical problem often seen in conjunction with rotator cuff tears. A previous study found detrimental changes to biceps tendons in the presence of rotator cuff tears in a rat model. Therefore, the objective of this study was to utilize this model along with models of altered loading to investigate the effect of altered loading
Cathryn D. Peltz; Jason E. Hsu; Miltiadis H. Zgonis; Nicholas A. Trasolini; David L. Glaser; Louis J. Soslowsky
BACKGROUND: Subacromial impingement syndrome is a frequently observed disorder in orthopedic practice. Lasting symptoms and impairment may occur when a subsequent atraumatic rotator cuff rupture is also present. However, degenerative ruptures of the rotator cuff can also be observed in asymptomatic elderly individuals. Treatment of these symptomatic degenerative ruptures may be conservative or surgical. Acceptable results are reported for both
Frederik O Lambers Heerspink; Roy AG Hoogeslag; Ron L Diercks; Pepijn JM van Eerden; Inge van den Akker-Scheek; Jos JAM van Raay
The aim of this biomechanical study was to evaluate rotator cuff repair strength using different suture anchor techniques compared to conventional repair, taking into consideration the native strength of the supraspinatus tendon. Therefore, a defined defect of the supraspinatus was created in 50 freshly frozen cadaver specimen (group size n = 10; median age at death: 56 years). Five methods were employed for cuff repair: standard transosseous suture, modified transosseous suture with patch augmentation and three suture anchors (Acufex Wedge TAG, Acufex Rod TAG und Mitek GII). The maximum tensile load of the five techniques was: standard transosseous suture, 410 N; modified transosseous suture, 552 N; Wedge TAG, 207 N; Rod TAG, 217 N; Mitek GII, 186 N. The difference between the suture anchor and standard techniques were highly significant (P < 0.001). In this series, the Mitek Gll anchor showed the lowest anchor dislocation rate at 3% (n = 1). The Wedge TAG system had a dislocation rate of 27% (n = 8) and the Rod TAG system 43% (n = 13). Suture anchor techniques revealed about 20%, the standard technique 34% and its modification 60% of the hypothetically calculated native tendon strength. Compared to conventional transosseous suture techniques, the use of the suture anchors tested in this series does not significantly increase the primary fixation strength of rotator cuff repair. The metallic implant with two barbs (Mitek GII) seems to be superior to the polyacetal anchors when inserted into the spongiform bone of the greater tubercle. The considerably weaker repair strength needs to be taken into consideration in postoperative patient rehabilitation, especially after the use of suture anchors. PMID:11968555
Rickert, M; Witzel, U; Kölbel, R; Georgousis, H
Background Short- to medium-term rotator cuff repair reportedly relieves pain in 82% to 97% of patients and provides normal or almost\\u000a normal shoulder function in 82% to 92%. However, it is unknown whether pain relief and function persist long term.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes We asked whether, after rotator cuff repair or reconstruction, pain relief, ROM, shoulder strength, and function remained\\u000a over the long term.
Niclas Borgmästars; Mika Paavola; Ville Remes; Martina Lohman; Martti Vastamäki
We present a case of concurrent rotator cuff tear and axillary nerve palsy resulting from anterior dislocation of the shoulder and a large glenoid rim fracture—a “terrible tetrad.” A 61-year-old woman fell on her right shoulder. Radiographs showed anterior dislocation of the shoulder with a glenoid rim fracture, and an MRI two months after injury revealed a rotator cuff tear. Upon referral to our hospital, physical and electrophysiological examinations revealed axillary nerve palsy. The axillary nerve palsy was incomplete and recovering, and displacement of the glenoid rim fracture was minimal and already united; therefore, we surgically repaired only the rotator cuff tear three months after injury. The patient recovered satisfactorily following the operation. In patients whose axillary nerve palsy is recovering, surgeons should consider operating on rotator cuff tears in an attempt to prevent rotator cuff degeneration.
Takase, Fumiaki; Inui, Atsuyuki; Mifune, Yutaka; Muto, Tomoyuki; Harada, Yoshifumi; Kokubu, Takeshi; Kurosaka, Masahiro
The objectives of this study were to use magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to evaluate the prevalence, size, location, and clinical relevance of tendon rerupture following complete repair of full-thickness rotator cuff tear (RCT). A total of 78 surgically proven full-thickness rotator cuff tears in 74 patients were retrospectively included in the study. Clinical assessment was performed using the University of California at Los Angeles score. Postoperative MR imaging was evaluated to determine prevalence, size, and location of tendon rerupture. At a mean 48.4 months' follow-up, 62 shoulders (79.5%) had favorable outcomes and 45 shoulders (57.6%) showed rerupture on MR imaging studies. Reruptures were significantly more prevalent among patients with intermediate-to-bad outcomes (81.3%), with surgically demonstrated two-tendon tears (78.9%) or three-tendon tears (100%), and with preoperative fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus muscle greater than 1 (91.6%). Reruptures were also significantly larger in those subgroups. Complete repair of RCT of all sizes may have favorable outcomes in a significant proportion of patients in spite of a high prevalence of reruptures. Preoperative tear size and degree of muscle fatty degeneration influence the prevalence and rerupture size. After repair of supraspinatus tears, reruptures tend to invade the posterior aspect of the tendon. PMID:16518655
Mellado, J M; Calmet, J; Olona, M; Ballabriga, J; Camins, A; Pérez del Palomar, L; Giné, J
To evaluate the results of the treatment with medium-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in rotator cuff calcifying tendinitis. Fifty-four non-consecutive patients, who were referred to our institute for rotator cuff calcifying tendinitis, were managed with a standardized protocol in four sessions of medium-energy (0.11 mJ/mm2) ESWT administered with an electromagnetic lithotriptor. Pain was evaluated at the end of each session, functional state of shoulder was assessed at 1 and 6 months after the end of procedure. All patients underwent radiographs and sonography imaging. No systemic or local complications. Thirty-eight patients (70%) reported satisfactory functional results. Radiographs and sonographs showed a disappearance of calcium deposit in 29 patients (54%) and in 19 patients (35%) it appeared to be reduced more than a half. A correlation was found between residual calcium deposit and the clinical outcome, but some patients showed a reduced pain without modification of calcium deposit. These results were unmodified at 6 months follow-up. Our protocol of medium-energy ESWT provides good results overall about pain modulation. PMID:15800753
Moretti, Biagio; Garofalo, Raffaele; Genco, Stefania; Patella, Vittorio; Mouhsine, Elyazid
Light and polarization microscopic appraisal of the pathways of fibers and blood vessels in the region of the rotator cuff shows branches of the suprascapular artery. These initially radiate into the insertion tendon parallel to the muscle fibers. They do not continue there, i.e. the vessel branches have blind endings, or they branch and anastomose with each other. Outliers of the transverse branch of the anterior circumflex artery of the humerus come from lateral (from the direction of the deltoid muscle). They pass from the bony insertion of the supraspinatus tendon into the tendon plate, but only run together with the fibers for a short distance. Consequently, a zone low in vessels or free of vessels can be constantly demonstrated under a magnifying glass in the course of the supraspinatus and to a small extent also of the infraspinatus in the fetus or neonate as well as in the adult in the region of the zone of interweaving of the tendinous muscle outlier with the capsule at length magnification. In the genesis of rotator cuff rupture, the presence of hypovascularity must be considered to be a predisposing factor which is present from birth onwards. It affects the clinical course during the process of aging as the point of least resistance in consequence of arteriosclerosis, collagen degeneration physiological wear and tear friction at the lower surface of the acromion and inflammatory swellings of the subacromial bursa. PMID:9214080
Katzer, A; Wening, J V; Becker-Männich, H U; Lorke, D E; Jungbluth, K H
Background This study examined whether changing the head position from neutral to side can affect expiratory tidal volume (TV) and cuff pressure when the appropriate sizes of a Proseal™ Laryngeal Mask Airway (PLMA)-depending on the body weight -are used in pediatric patients during pressure controlled ventilation (PCV). Methods Seventy-seven children (5-30 kg) were divided into three groups according to their body weight, PLMA#1.5 (group I, n = 24), #2 (group II, n = 26), and #2.5 (group III, n = 27). After anesthesia induction, a PLMA was placed with a cuff-pressure of 60 cmH2O. The TV and existence of leakage at the peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) of 20 cmH2O, and the appropriate PIP for TV 10 ml/kg were examined. Upon head rotation to the left side, the TV, PIP, cuff pressure changes, and the appropriate PIP to achieve a TV 10 ml/kg were evaluated. Results Head rotation of 45 degrees to the left side during PCV caused a significant increase in cuff pressure and a decrease in TV, and there was no definite leakage. Changes in PIP and TV were similar in the three groups. The cuff pressure increased but there was no significant difference between the three groups. Conclusions Although cuff pressure and TV of the PLMA were changed significantly after turning the head from the neutral position to the side, a re-adjustment of the cuff pressure and PIP to maintain a TV of 10 ml/kg can make the placed PLMA useful and successful in pediatric patients under general anesthesia.
Park, Hahck Soo; Kim, Youn Jin
Histologic sections from 17 en bloc surgical specimens were studied to clarify the pathogenesis of intratendinous tears of the rotator cuff. The specimens consisted of the bony insertion, the partially torn area, and the musculotendinous junction of the supraspinatus tendon. An intratendinous tear alone was present in two patients, and was associated with bursal side cuff tears in seven patients and joint side cuff tears in eight. There were 13 men and 4 women, whose average age was 49.8 years. Trauma was noted in all intratendinous tears and combined intratendinous and joint side cuff tears and in two of the seven patients who had intratendinous plus bursal side tears. All patients exhibited clinical evidence of subacromial impingement. Histologic sections were stained with azan and hematoxylin and eosin. Microscopically, the sections demonstrated several abnormalities in addition to degeneration. The intratendinous tears was located in the midlayer of the tendon in 15 specimens and eccentrically in two, the axis of which were parallel to tendon fibers in all. The intratendinous tears continued to local disruptions of the enthesis in 11 cases. The inner surface of the tear appeared smooth in 16 specimens. Despite the presence of granulation tissue and vessel proliferation near the intratendinous tears, there was no evidence of closure of the defect in any specimen. Intratendinous tears develop between superficial and deep layers of the degenerated rotator cuff. Shear within the tendon appears to be responsible in pathogenesis. Concomitant subacromial bursitis is very common. PMID:8020235
Fukuda, H; Hamada, K; Nakajima, T; Tomonaga, A
We explored the trends over time and the geographical variation in the use of subacromial decompression and rotator cuff repair in 152 local health areas (Primary Care Trusts) across England. The diagnostic and procedure codes of patients undergoing certain elective shoulder operations between 2000/2001 and 2009/2010 were extracted from the Hospital Episode Statistics database. They were grouped as 1) subacromial decompression only, 2) subacromial decompression with rotator cuff repair, and 3) rotator cuff repair only. The number of patients undergoing subacromial decompression alone rose by 746.4% from 2523 in 2000/2001 (5.2/100 000 (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.0 to 5.4) to 21 355 in 2009/2010 (40.2/100 000 (95% CI 39.7 to 40.8)). Operations for rotator cuff repair alone peaked in 2008/2009 (4.7/100 000 (95% CI 4.5 to 4.8)) and declined considerably in 2009/2010 (2.6/100 000 (95% CI 2.5 to 2.7)). Given the lack of evidence for the effectiveness of these operations and the significant increase in the number of procedures being performed in England and elsewhere, there is an urgent need for well-designed clinical trials to determine evidence of clinical effectiveness. PMID:24395314
Judge, A; Murphy, R J; Maxwell, R; Arden, N K; Carr, A J
Rotator cuff tendon tears are one of the most common shoulder injuries. Although surgical repair is typically beneficial, re-tearing of the tendons frequently occurs. It is generally accepted that healing is worse for chronic tears than acute tears, but the reasons for this are unknown. One potential cause may be the large tensions that are sometimes required to repair chronically
Jonathan A. Gimbel; Jonathan P. Van Kleunen; Spencer P. Lake; Gerald R. Williams; Louis J. Soslowsky
We determined on histologic examination the degree of degeneration at the insertion of 3 rotator cuff tendons in 76 cadaveric shoulders, 17 of which had a partial tear of the supraspinatus. Fiber thinning, the presence of granulation tissue, and incomplete tearing of fibers, all evidence of degeneration, were quantified separately for each tendon. Among the shoulders that were intact on
Hirotaka Sano; Hirotada Ishii; Guy Trudel; Hans K Uhthoff
Degeneration of the rotator cuff is often associated with inflammation of the subacromial bursa and focal mineralization of the supraspinatus tendon. Portions of the supraspinatus tendon distant from the insertion site could transform into fibrous cartilage, causing rotator-cuff tears owing to mechanical instability. Indirect evidence is presented to link this pathology to ectopic production and secretion of bioactive bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) from sites within the subacromial bursa. Surgically removed specimens of subacromial bursa tissue from patients with chronic tears of the rotator cuff were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-PCR. Bioactive BMP was detected in bursa extracts by a bioassay based on induction of alkaline phosphatase in the osteogenic/myogenic cell line C2C12. Topical and differential expression of BMP-2/4 and BMP-7 mRNA and protein was found in bursa tissue. The bioassay of C2C12 cells revealed amounts of active BMP high enough to induce osteogenic cell types, and blocking BMP with specific antibodies or soluble BMP receptors Alk-3 and Alk-6 abolished the inductive properties of the extract. Sufficient information was gathered to explain how ectopic expression of BMP might induce tissue transformation into ectopic bone/cartilage and, therefore, promote structural degeneration of the rotator cuff. Early surgical removal of the subacromial bursa might present an option to interrupt disease progression. PMID:16719933
Neuwirth, Jana; Fuhrmann, Renée A E; Veit, Amanda; Aurich, Matthias; Stonâns, Ilmars; Trommer, Tilo; Hortschansky, Peter; Chubinskaya, Susanna; Mollenhauer, Juergen A
Shoulder pain may occur as a secondary symptom to a wide range of conditions, including rotator cuff disorders, glenohumeral osteoarthritis, or adhesive capsulitis. One common factor linking these diseases is inflammation. Understanding the role of inflammation in shoulder disorders can help physicians to manage and treat these common problems. Here, I document a perspective on these pathologies of shoulder. PMID:19224130
Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional and anatomic results of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, and to analyze the factors affecting the integrity of arthroscopically repaired rotator cuff tears of the shoulder. Methods One hundred sixty-nine consecutive shoulders that underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, had a postoperative MRI evaluation and were followed for at least two years were enrolled in this study. The mean age was 57.6 years (range, 38 to 74 years) and the mean follow-up period was 39 months (range, 24 to 83 months). Results The rotator cuff was completely healed in 131 (77.5%) out of 169 shoulders and recurrent tears occurred in 38 shoulders (22.5%). At the last follow-up visit, the mean score for pain during motion was 1.53 (range, 0 to 4) in the completely healed group and 1.59 (range, 0 to 4) in the group with recurrent tears (p = 0.092). The average elevation strength was 7.87 kg (range, 4.96 to 11.62 kg) and 5.25 kg (range, 4.15 to 8.13 kg) and the mean University of California at Los Angeles score was 30.96 (range, 26 to 35) and 30.64 (range, 23 to 34), respectively (p < 0.001, p = 0.798). The complete healing rate was 87.8% in the group less than 50 years of age (49 shoulders), 79.4% in the group over 51 years but less than 60 years of age (68 shoulders), and 65.4% in the group over 61 years of age (52 shoulders, p = 0.049); it was 96.7% in the group with small-sized tears (30 shoulders), 87.3% in the group with medium-sized tears (71 shoulders), and 58.8% in the group with large-sized or massive tears (68 shoulders, p = 0.009). All of the rotator cuffs with a global fatty degeneration index of greater than two preoperatively had recurrent tears. Conclusions Arthroscopic repair of full-thickness rotator cuff tears led to a relatively high rate of recurrent defects. However, the minimum two-year follow up demonstrated excellent pain relief and improvement in the ability to perform the activities of daily living, despite the structural failures. The factors affecting tendon healing were the patient's age, the size and extent of the tear, and the presence of fatty degeneration in the rotator cuff muscle.
Cho, Nam Su
There are a number of reasons for failed rotator cuff tear repair. In such cases the suture-tendon interface seems to be the most vulnerable area, especially when tendon degeneration is present. We describe a new technique, the arthroscopic double-locked suture, that increases the tendon fixation and has the added benefit of being placed parallel to the blood vessels, therefore avoiding damage to the tendon vascularization. The suture may be achieved by use of knots or knotless anchors and suture passers, without the need for any additional instrumentation. The new technique is especially helpful in cases in which the tendon is retracted and degeneration is present, impeding the use of the double-row technique or its transosseous equivalents.
Miyazaki, Alberto N.; Zanella, Luiz A.Z.; La Salvia, Joao C.; Fregoneze, Marcelo; Santos, Pedro D.; da Silva, Luciana A.; Sella, Guilherme do Vall; Checchia, Sergio L.
A bursal- or joint-side incomplete thickness tearing of the rotator cuff is clinically important, because it is known that this tearing has the potential to develop into a complete tendon disruption. Normal cadaveric supraspinatus tendons were analyzed histologically and biomechanically to clarify the differences in pathomechanical causation of bursal- and joint-side incomplete tears. Histologically, the bursal-side layer was composed of tendon bundles with a decreasing muscular component toward the insertion. The joint-side layer was a complex of tendon, ligament, and joint capsule without transitional areas. Biomechanically, the bursal-side layer had greater deformation and tensile strength. When each layer was divided into three portions of equal length, the middle segment of the bursal-side layer elongated the most, whereas the entire joint-side layer increased evenly in length. We conclude that the joint-side layer is more vulnerable to a tensile load than the bursal-side layer. PMID:22959646
Nakajima, T; Rokuuma, N; Hamada, K; Tomatsu, T; Fukuda, H
Latissimus dorsi transfer is a well-established method for the treatment of posterosuperior massive irreparable rotator cuff tears. We propose using an arthroscopically assisted technique that avoids insult to the deltoid. With the patient in the lateral decubitus position, an L-shaped incision is made along the anterior belly of the latissimus muscle and then along the posterior axillary line. The latissimus and teres major are identified and separated. The tendon insertion of the latissimus is isolated, and a FiberWire traction suture (Arthrex, Naples, FL) is placed, facilitating dissection of the muscle to the thoracodorsal neurovascular pedicle and subsequent mobilization. The interval deep to the deltoid and superficial to the teres minor is developed into a subdeltoid tunnel for arthroscopic tendon transfer. The latissimus tendon is then transferred and stabilized arthroscopically to the lateral aspect of the infraspinatus and supraspinatus footprints by multiple suture anchors. PMID:23767006
Villacis, Diego; Merriman, Jarrad; Wong, Karlton; Rick Hatch, George F
There are a number of reasons for failed rotator cuff tear repair. In such cases the suture-tendon interface seems to be the most vulnerable area, especially when tendon degeneration is present. We describe a new technique, the arthroscopic double-locked suture, that increases the tendon fixation and has the added benefit of being placed parallel to the blood vessels, therefore avoiding damage to the tendon vascularization. The suture may be achieved by use of knots or knotless anchors and suture passers, without the need for any additional instrumentation. The new technique is especially helpful in cases in which the tendon is retracted and degeneration is present, impeding the use of the double-row technique or its transosseous equivalents. PMID:24904764
Miyazaki, Alberto N; Zanella, Luiz A Z; La Salvia, João C; Fregoneze, Marcelo; Santos, Pedro D; da Silva, Luciana A; Sella, Guilherme do Vall; Checchia, Sergio L
The purpose of this study was to determine the attitude of the members of the Flemish Elbow and Shoulder Surgeons Society (FLESSS) towards full-thickness tears of the rotator cuff and their treatment in their daily practice. A survey form was sent to 123 shoulder surgeons between January and March 2008. Seventy-three responses were returned, a 60% response rate. For 40% of the respondents, arthro-CT was the gold standard diagnostic method for assessment, 36% preferred arthro-MRI. Arthroscopic, mini-open and open cuff repair were preferred by 64%, 19% and 16% of the responders respectively. Fewer years in practice, a higher volume of shoulder operations and a higher volume of rotator cuff repairs were significantly correlated with a higher percentage of arthroscopic repairs (p > or = 0.001). With respect to the type of fixation, 91% preferred screw-type anchors, and of these 81% were metal anchors. Our results show that all-arthroscopic techniques are becoming the gold standard for the repair of full-thickness tears of the rotator cuff in Flanders. PMID:20306958
Luyckx, Thomas; Debeer, Philippe
Background: Many studies have compared different training methods for improving muscular performance, but more investigations need to be directed to the restoration of muscular imbalances. Objective: To determine the most effective training for altering strength ratios in the shoulder rotator cuff. Methods: Forty eight physical education students were randomly assigned to four groups (12 per group): (a) experimental group who carried out multijoint dynamic resistance training for shoulder internal and external rotation movement (pull ups or lat pull downs, overhead press, reverse pull ups, push ups) (MJDR group); (b) experimental group who exercised the same muscle group using dumbbells weighing 2 kg (isolated group); (c) experimental group who followed an isokinetic strengthening programme for the rotator cuff muscle group (isokinetic group); (d) control group who had no strength training. Testing was performed in the supine position with the glenohumeral joint in 90° of abduction in the coronal plane, with a range of motion of 0–90° of external rotation and 0–65° of internal rotation at angular velocities of 60, 120, and 180°/s. The test procedure was performed before and after the exercise period of six weeks. Results: One way analysis of variance found no differences between the groups for the initial tests. Analysis of variance with repeated measures showed that the strength ratios in all the experimental groups had altered after the exercise period, with the isokinetic group showing the most significant improvement. Conclusions: Isokinetic strengthening is the most effective method of altering strength ratios of the rotator cuff muscle.
Malliou, P; Giannakopoulos, K; Beneka, A; Gioftsidou, A; Godolias, G
The cost of numerous anchors in rotator cuff surgery is high from both an economic standpoint as well as a physiologic one. More anchors means increased cost and increased surgical time; additionally, the greater number of anchors placed, the greater the expense on the native bone that they inevitably replace. It is therefore in the surgeon's and patient's best interest to use the appropriate number of anchors, no more and no less, with the appropriate number being that which allows for strong, stable fixation with minimal gap formation and maximal healing potential and recovery. The transosseous equivalent repair technique described herein uses a single double-loaded bioabsorbable suture anchor placed along the medial border of the rotator cuff foot print and the humeral head articular cartilage margin followed by 1 pushlock (Arthrex, Naples, Florida) anchor placed laterally on the vertical aspect of the greater tuberosity. It is designed for small to medium "U"-shaped tears and for iatrogenically completed partial articular supraspinatus tendon avulsions of moderate to large size, the so-called PASTA lesion. The use of selective knot placement allows for the conversion of a linear construct into a "V" configuration, optimizing repair strength and allowing for earlier rehabilitation while maximizing the healing biology seen with increased footprint contact dimensions and less repair gap formation. PMID:19824586
Lewicky, Yuri M
Background The single-row and double-row fixation techniques have been widely used for rotator cuff tears. However, whether the double-row technique produces superior clinical or anatomic outcomes is still considered controversial. This study aims to use meta-analysis to compare the clinical and anatomical outcomes between the two techniques. Methods The Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane library databases were searched for relevant studies published before November 1, 2012. Studies clearly reporting a comparison of the single-row and double-row techniques were selected. The Constant, ASES, and UCLA scale systems and the rotator cuff integrity rate were evaluated. The weighted mean differences and relative risks were calculated using a fixed-effects or random-effects model. Results Eight studies were included in this meta-analysis. The weighted mean differences of the ASES (?0.84; P?=?0.04; I2?=?0%) and UCLA (?0.75; P?=?0.007; I2?=?0%) scales were significantly low in the single-row group for full-thickness rotator cuff tears. For tear sizes smaller than 3 cm, no significant difference was found between the groups no matter in Constant (P?=?0.95; I2?=?0%), ASES (P?=?0.77; I2?=?0%), or UCLA (P?=?0.24; I2?=?13%) scales. For tear sizes larger than 3 cm, the ASES (?1.95; P?=?0.001; I2?=?49%) and UCLA (?1.17; P?=?0.006; I2?=?0%) scales were markedly lower in the single-row group. The integrity of the rotator cuff (0.81; P?=?0.0004; I2?=?10%) was greater and the partial thickness retear rate (1.93; P?=?0.007; I2?=?10%) was less in the double-row group. Full-thickness retears showed no difference between the groups (P?=?0.15; I2?=?0%). Conclusion The meta-analysis suggests that the double-row fixation technique increases post-operative rotator cuff integrity and improves the clinical outcomes, especially for full-thickness rotator cuff tears larger than 3 cm. For tear sizes smaller than 3 cm, there was no difference in the clinical outcomes between the two techniques. Level of Evidence Level I.
Zhou, Jiaojiao; Yuan, Chaoqun; Chen, Kai; Cheng, Biao
This is a case report on excellent clinical outcome and neotendon infilling at one year follow up in a degenerative rotator cuff full thickness tear following percutaneous tenotomy and platelet rich plasma injection.
The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance artrography (MRA) for the detection and measurement of rotator cuff tears, using surgical findings as a standard. A total of 77 consecutive patients with suspected rotator cuff tears were prospectively studied with US and MRA. Rotator cuff tears were identified by US with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values of 92%, 45%, 91% and 50%, respectively, and by MRA with values of 97%, 82%, 97% and 82%, respectively. US was not reliable for differentiating between partial and full thickness tears. US and MRA underestimated the tear sizes by an average of 15 mm and 4 mm, respectively. Our results suggest that US could be used as a screening test to confirm a suspected rotator cuff tear. In patients with negative findings, an MRA should be considered for substantiation. PMID:20965645
Sipola, Petri; Niemitukia, Lea; Kröger, Heikki; Höfling, Imke; Väätäinen, Urho
Background Rotator-cuff surgery is well recognized to be a painful procedure. Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an arthroscopically placed perineural catheter at the scapular notch to provide a continuous block of the suprascapular nerve (continuous arthroscopically assisted suprascapular nerve block [ca-SSNB]) following arthroscopic rotator-cuff repair (ARCR). Materials and methods This level II, prospective, randomized, controlled trial without postoperative blinding included 40 patients, who had a 48-hour pain pump, with 0.2% ropivacaine infusion and a continuous rate of 3 mL/hour, placed via an arthroscopically placed catheter following ARCR with arthroscopic release of the superior transverse ligament: 21 patients had a ca-SSNB, and 19 patients had a continuous subacromial bursal block (SAB). The visual analog scale (at 6 hours and on the first, second, and third postoperative days) and the total number of additional pain-reduction attempts during the 3 postoperative days were calculated. Results The respective visual analog scale scores (mm) obtained from the ca-SSNB and SAB groups were 62.4 and 67.6 (P=0.73) before surgery, 9.1 and 19.4 (P=0.12) at 6 hours after surgery, 24.4 and 44.6 (P=0.019) on the first postoperative day, 19.4 and 40.4 (P=0.0060) on the second postoperative day, and 18.5 and 27.8 (P=0.21) on the third postoperative day. Total additional pain-reduction attempts recorded for the ca-SSNB and SAB groups during the 3 postoperative days were 0.3 times and 1.2 times (P=0.0020), respectively. Conclusion ca-SSNB was highly effective in controlling postoperative pain after ARCR.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of a competitive swim season on the strength, balance, and endurance of shoulder rotator cuff muscles in young swimmers. A repeated measures design was used with 3 measurements performed during the swim season. A swimmers group (n = 20) of young men with no dry land training and a sedentary group (n = 16) of male students with the same characteristics (age, body mass, height, and maturational state) were evaluated. In both groups, the peak torque of shoulder internal rotator (IRt) and external rotator (ERt) was assessed during preseason, midseason (16 weeks), and postseason (32 weeks). Concentric action at 60 and 180°·s(-1) was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. The ER/IR strength ratios and endurance ratios were also obtained. At 60°·s(-1), there were significant training effects in the IRt strength and ER/IR ratio on both shoulders. This trend was the same throughout the competitive season. The same trend was present at 180°·s(-1) because the training effects are seen primarily in IRt and ER/IR ratios. With respect to endurance ratios, within-group data were similar in ERt and IRt for both shoulders, with no significant differences between moments. However, between-group differences occurred mostly in the IRt. Results suggest that a competitive swim season favors the increase of muscular imbalances in the shoulder rotators of young competitive swimmers, mainly because of increased levels of IRt strength and endurance that are proportionally larger than those of their antagonists. A compensatory strength training program should be considered. PMID:23249824
Batalha, Nuno M; Raimundo, Armando M; Tomas-Carus, Pablo; Barbosa, Tiago M; Silva, António J
Tendinopathy and small partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff tendon are common presentations in sports medicine. No promising treatment has yet been established. Corticosteroid injections may improve symptoms in the short term but do not primarily treat the tendon pathology. Ultrasound-guided autologous tenocyte implantation (ATI) is a novel bioengineered treatment approach for treating tendinopathy. We report the first clinical case of ATI in a 20-year-old elite gymnast with a rotator cuff tendon injury. The patient presented with 12 months of increasing pain during gymnastics being unable to perform most skills. At 1 year after ATI the patient reported substantial improvement of clinical symptoms. Pretreatment and follow-up MRIs were reported and scored independently by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. Tendinopathy was improved and the partial-thickness tear healed on 3 T MRI. The patient was able to return to national-level competition. PMID:23314880
Wang, Allan W; Bauer, Stefan; Goonatillake, Matthew; Breidahl, William; Zheng, Ming-Hao
The purpose of this study was to describe the outcome after reversed Delta III shoulder prosthesis in patients with rheumatoid\\u000a arthritis (RA) and irreparable rotator cuff tear. Fifteen patients (17 joints) were prospectively analysed using the Constant-Murley\\u000a score (CS). Comprehensive outcome measure was carried out by means of four widely used questionnaires as well as clinical\\u000a and radiographic examinations at
Michael John; Géza Pap; Felix Angst; Matthias P. Flury; Sebastian Lieske; Hans-Kaspar Schwyzer; Beat Rene Simmen
Background: Rotator cuffs heal through a scar tissue interface after repair that makes them prone to failure. Scleraxis (Scx) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is thought to direct tendon development during embryogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine if the application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transduced with adenoviral-mediated scleraxis (Ad-Scx) could improve regeneration of the
Lawrence V. Gulotta; David Kovacevic; Jonathan D. Packer; Xiang Hua Deng; Scott A. Rodeo
Background:No study to date has isolated the anatomical nature of the transverse humeral ligament and its relationship to the biceps tendon and the anterosuperior portion of the rotator cuff.Hypothesis:There is no separate identifiable transverse humeral ligament, but rather the fibers covering the intertubercular groove are composed of a sling formed by fibers from the subscapularis and supraspinatus tendons.Study Design:Descriptive laboratory
Paul D. Gleason; Douglas P. Beall; Timothy G. Sanders; James L. Bond; Justin Q. Ly; Lorne L. Holland; Charles B. Pasque
Background: The precise results of arthroscopic transtendon repair of partial-thickness articular-side tears of the rotator cuff remain to be reported.Hypothesis: Arthroscopic transtendon repair is useful in patients with Ellman grade 3 (>6 mm) partial-thickness articular-side tears of the supraspinatus tendon.Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study and case series; Level of evidence, 4.Methods: In 43 cadaveric shoulders (mean age, 80 years; range,
Junji Ide; Satoshi Maeda; Katsumasa Takagi
This in vitro biomechanical study used cadaveric specimens to compare the rotator cuff repair fixation provided by BioCorkscrew\\u000a and Bioknotless RC suture anchors. Three cm wide by 1-cm long full-thickness supraspinatus defects were repaired using either\\u000a two BioCorkscrew suture anchors with combined vertical and horizontal mattress sutures (n = 7) or three Bioknotless RC suture anchors with simple sutures (n = 7). Therefore, the
Jennifer Tucker Ammon; John Nyland; Haw Chong Chang; Robert Burden; David N. M. Caborn
The aim of this study was to correlate sonographic abnormalities of the rotator cuff with clinical findings in veteran tennis players. One hundred fifty individuals playing competition-level tennis, aged from 35 to 77 years (mean age 55 years), underwent physical and US examinations of their shoulders. The US abnormalities found in the dominant shoulder were compared with those observed in the non-dominant
Jean-Louis Brasseur; Olivier Lucidarme; Marc Tardieu; Muriel Tordeur; Bernard Montalvan; Jacques Parier; Patrick Le Goux; Anne Gires; Philippe Grenier
Background: The contact pressure and contact area at the tendon-bone interface after the most commonly used rotator cuff repair methods have not been investigated.Hypothesis: There are no significant differences among the transosseous, the single-row suture anchor, and the double-row suture anchor techniques in terms of contact pressure, contact area, and pressure patterns at the tendon-bone interface.Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.Methods:
Yilihamu Tuoheti; Eiji Itoi; Nobuyuki Yamamoto; Nobutoshi Seki; Hidekazu Abe; Hiroshi Minagawa; Kyoji Okada; Yoichi Shimada
Background: There are few biomechanical studies regarding partial-thickness rotator cuff tears and subsequent repair.Hypothesis: Partial-thickness intra-articular supraspinatus tendon tears increase articular-sided tendon strain as they increase in size. Repair of these tears will return strain to the intact state.Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.Methods: Twenty fresh-frozen human cadaveric shoulders were prepared by dissecting to the supraspinatus tendon and leaving the native
Augustus D. Mazzocca; Lina M. Rincon; Robert W. OConnor; Elifho Obopilwe; Matthew Andersen; Lauren Geaney; Robert A. Arciero
Background: Rotator cuff reconstructions may be improved by adding growth factors, cells, or other biologic factors into the repair zone. This usually requires a biological carrier (scaffold) to be integrated into the construct and placed in the area of tendon-to-bone healing. This needs to be done without affecting the constructs mechanics.Hypothesis\\/Purpose: The hypothesis was that scaffold placement, as an interposition,
Knut Beitzel; David M. Chowaniec; Mary Beth McCarthy; Mark P. Cote; Ryan P. Russell; Elifho Obopilwe; Andreas B. Imhoff; Robert A. Arciero; Augustus D. Mazzocca
Shoulder pain may occur as a secondary symptom to a wide range of conditions, including rotator cuff disorders, glenohumeral\\u000a osteoarthritis, or adhesive capsulitis. One common factor linking these diseases is inflammation. Understanding the role of\\u000a inflammation in shoulder disorders can help physicians to manage and treat these common problems. Here, I document a perspective\\u000a on these pathologies of shoulder.
Background Rotator cuff repair re-tear rates range from 25-90% necessitating methods to improve repair strength. While numerous laboratory studies have compared single to double row fixation properties, little is known regarding regional (i.e., medial versus lateral) suture retention properties in both intact and torn tendons. Hypothesis A torn supraspinatus tendon will have reduced suture retention properties on the lateral aspect of the tendon compared to the more medial musculotendinous junction. Study Design Controlled Laboratory Study Methods Human supraspinatus tendons (torn and intact) were randomly assigned for suture retention mechanical testing, ultrastructural collagen fibril analysis, or histology following suture pullout testing. For biomechanical evaluation, sutures were placed either at the musculotendinous junction (medial) or 10 mm from the free margin (lateral), and tendons were elongated to failure. Collagen fibril assessments were performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results Intact tendons showed no regional differences with respect to suture retention properties. In contrast, among torn tendons the medial region exhibited significantly higher stiffness and work values relative to the lateral region. For the lateral region, work to 10 mm displacement (1592±261 N-mm) and maximum load (265±44 N) for intact tendons were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of torn tendons (1086±388 N-mm and 177±71 N, respectively). For medial suture placement, maximum load, stiffness and work of intact and torn tendons were similar (p>0.05). Regression analyses for the intact and torn groups revealed generally low correlations between donor age and the three biomechanical indices. For both intact and torn tendons, the mean fibril diameter and area density were greater in the medial region relative to the lateral (p?0.05). In the lateral tendon, but not the medial region, torn specimens showed a significantly lower fibril area fraction (48.3±3.8%) than intact specimens (56.7±3.6%, p<0.05). Conclusions Superior pullout resistance of medial placed sutures may provide a strain shielding effect for the lateral row following double row repair. Larger diameter collagen fibrils as well as greater fibril area fraction in the medial supraspinatus tendon may provide greater resistance to suture migration. Clinical Relevance While clinical factors such as musculotendinous integrity warrant strong consideration for surgical decision making, the present ultrastructural and biomechanical results appear to provide a scientific rationale for double-row rotator cuff repair where sutures are placed more medial at the muscle tendon junction.
Wang, Vincent M.; Wang, FanChia; McNickle, Allison G.; Friel, Nicole A.; Yanke, Adam B.; Chubinskaya, Susan; Romeo, Anthony A.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Cole, Brian J.
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the conventional method for determining the percentage of partial thickness rotator cuff tears to a method using an intra-articular depth guide. The clinical utility of the intra-articular depth guide was also examined. Methods. Partial rotator cuff tears were created in cadaveric shoulders. Exposed footprint, total tendon thickness, and percentage of tendon thickness torn were determined using both techniques. The results from the conventional and intra-articular depth guide methods were correlated with the true anatomic measurements. Thirty-two patients were evaluated in the clinical study. Results. Estimates of total tendon thickness (r = 0.41, P = 0.31) or percentage of thickness tears (r = 0.67, P = 0.07) using the conventional method did not correlate well with true tendon thickness. Using the intra-articular depth guide, estimates of exposed footprint (r = 0.92, P = 0.001), total tendon thickness (r = 0.96, P = 0.0001), and percentage of tendon thickness torn (r = 0.88, P = 0.004) correlated with true anatomic measurements. Seven of 32 patients had their treatment plan altered based on the measurements made by the intra-articular depth guide. Conclusions. The intra-articular depth guide appeared to better correlate with true anatomic measurements. It may be useful during the evaluation and development of treatment plans for partial thickness articular surface rotator cuff tears.
Carroll, Michael J.; More, Kristie D.; Sohmer, Stephen; Nelson, Atiba A.; Sciore, Paul; Boorman, Richard; Hollinshead, Robert; Lo, Ian K. Y.
Rotator cuff tears can cause irreversible changes (e.g., fibrosis) to the structure and function of the injured muscle(s). Fibrosis leads to increased muscle stiffness resulting in increased tension at the rotator cuff repair site. This tension influences repairability and healing potential in the clinical setting. However, the micro- and meso-scale structural and molecular sources of these whole-muscle mechanical changes are poorly understood. Here, single muscle fiber and fiber bundle passive mechanical testing was performed on rat supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles with experimentally induced massive rotator cuff tears (Tenotomy) as well as massive tears with chemical denervation (Tenotomy?+?BTX) at 8 and 16 weeks post-injury. Titin molecular weight, collagen content, and myosin heavy chain profiles were measured and correlated with mechanical variables. Single fiber stiffness was not different between controls and experimental groups. However, fiber bundle stiffness was significantly increased at 8 weeks in the Tenotomy?+?BTX group compared to Tenotomy or control groups. Many of the changes were resolved by 16 weeks. Only fiber bundle passive mechanics was weakly correlated with collagen content. These data suggest that tendon injury with concomitant neuromuscular compromise results in extra-cellular matrix production and increases in stiffness of the muscle, potentially complicating subsequent attempts for surgical repair. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 32:1111-1116, 2014. PMID:24838823
Sato, Eugene J; Killian, Megan L; Choi, Anthony J; Lin, Evie; Esparza, Mary C; Galatz, Leesa M; Thomopoulos, Stavros; Ward, Samuel R
Objectives. The objective of this study was to compare the damage to the rotator cuff tendons caused by four different anchor systems. Methods. 20 cadaveric human shoulder joints were used for transtendon insertion of four anchor systems. The Healix Peek, Fastin RC, Bio-Corkscrew Suture, and Healix Transtend anchors were inserted through the tendons using standard transtendon procedures. The areas of tendon damage were measured. Results. The areas of tendon damage (mean?±?standard deviation, n = 7) were 29.1?±?4.3?mm2 for the Healix Peek anchor, 20.4?±?2.3?mm2 for the Fastin RC anchor, 23.4?±?1.2?mm2 for the Bio-Corkscrew Suture anchor, 13.7?±?3.2?mm2 for the Healix Transtend anchor inserted directly, and 9.1 ± 2.1?mm2 for the Healix Transtend anchor inserted through the Percannula system (P < 0.001 or P < 0.001, compared to other anchors). Conclusions. In a cadaver transtendon rotator cuff repair model, smaller anchors caused less damage to the tendon tissues. The Healix Transtend implant system caused the least damage to the tendon tissues. Our findings suggest that smaller anchors should be considered when performing transtendon procedures to repair partial rotator cuff tears.
Zhang, Qing-Song; Liu, Sen; Zhang, Qiuyang; Xue, Yun; Ge, Dongxia; O'Brien, Michael J.; Savoie, Felix H.; You, Zongbing
Although rotator cuff (RC) tendinopathy is a frequent pathology of the shoulder, the real understanding of its aetiopathogenesis is still unclear. Several studies showed that RC tendinopathy is more frequent in patients with hyperglycemia, diabetes, obesity, or metabolic syndrome. This paper aims to evaluate the serum concentration of fibrinogen in patients with RC tears. Metabolic disorders have been related to high concentration of serum fibrinogen and the activity of fibrinogen has been proven to be crucial in the development of microvascular damage. Thus, it may produce progression of RC degeneration by reducing the vascular supply of tendons. We report the results of a cross-sectional frequency-matched case-control study comparing the serum concentration of fibrinogen of patients with RC tears with that of a control group of patients without history of RC tears who underwent arthroscopic meniscectomy. We choose to enrol in the control group patients with pathology of the lower limb with a likely mechanic, not metabolic, cause, different from tendon pathology. We found no statistically significant differences in serum concentration of fibrinogen when comparing patients with RC tears and patients who underwent arthroscopic meniscectomy (P = 0.5). Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of fibrinogen in RC disease.
Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Petrillo, Stefano; Berton, Alessandra; Spiezia, Filippo; Loppini, Mattia; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo
Although rotator cuff (RC) tendinopathy is a frequent pathology of the shoulder, the real understanding of its aetiopathogenesis is still unclear. Several studies showed that RC tendinopathy is more frequent in patients with hyperglycemia, diabetes, obesity, or metabolic syndrome. This paper aims to evaluate the serum concentration of fibrinogen in patients with RC tears. Metabolic disorders have been related to high concentration of serum fibrinogen and the activity of fibrinogen has been proven to be crucial in the development of microvascular damage. Thus, it may produce progression of RC degeneration by reducing the vascular supply of tendons. We report the results of a cross-sectional frequency-matched case-control study comparing the serum concentration of fibrinogen of patients with RC tears with that of a control group of patients without history of RC tears who underwent arthroscopic meniscectomy. We choose to enrol in the control group patients with pathology of the lower limb with a likely mechanic, not metabolic, cause, different from tendon pathology. We found no statistically significant differences in serum concentration of fibrinogen when comparing patients with RC tears and patients who underwent arthroscopic meniscectomy (P = 0.5). Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of fibrinogen in RC disease. PMID:24817887
Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Petrillo, Stefano; Berton, Alessandra; Spiezia, Filippo; Loppini, Mattia; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo
OBJECTIVE : The purpose of this study was to clinically evaluate patients who underwent Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair (RC) using the Modified Manson-Allen technique. METHODS : We evaluated 79 patients who underwent shoulder arthroscopy. The lesions were repaired using the modified Mason-Allen suture between 2003 and 2009, divided by Cofield classification and clinically evaluated by the scoring system of the University of Los Angeles (UCLA) in the pre- and postoperative periods. RESULTS : The evaluation of lesion sizes showed 7 small lesions (<1cm), 55 average lesions (1-3cm) and 17 large lesions (3-5cm), and in this last group there were 5 reruptures and the patients were reoperated by the same technique. Comparing the pre (14.1) and postoperative (32.6) values by UCLA system there was a significant improvement of score (142.3%), regardless of lesion size. The modified Mason-Allen suture provided satisfactory clinical results, regardless of lesion size, similar to those found in literature. The rerupture rate was high in large lesions. New suture techniques have been developed with the aim of reducing the incidence of rerupture. CONCLUSION : The modified Mason-Allen suture technique provided clinical improvement, regardless of lesion size. Level of Evidence IV, Cases Series.
Porto, Fernanda de Marchi Bosi; Alves, Marcelo Wiltemburg; de Andrade, Andre Luis Lugnani
We performed a biomechanical comparison of two rotator cuff repair techniques using fresh-frozen human cadavers. Nine pairs of cadaveric shoulders had standardized full-thickness tears made at the supraspinatus tendon insertion. One of each pair of the cadaveric shoulders was repaired by pulling the tendon into a bone trough in the humeral head using standard sutures. The remaining half of the pairs was repaired using anchor sutures. The repairs were tested using a servohydraulically operated material testing system. The anchor suture repair was significantly stronger than the standard suture technique irrespective of bone quality. Failure occurred predominantly through bone in the suture repairs and as a result of suture breakage in the anchor repairs. The anchors should be placed into the edge of the subchondral bone adjacent to the articular surface. The surgeon should direct the anchor so that the direction of the pull is approximately 90 degrees to the anchor, with the humerus at 30 degrees of abduction. PMID:8638752
Reed, S C; Glossop, N; Ogilvie-Harris, D J
Introduction The pathogenesis of rotator cuff disease (RCD) is complex and not fully understood. This systematic review set out to summarise the histological and molecular changes that occur throughout the spectrum of RCD. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature with specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results A total of 101 studies met the inclusion criteria: 92 studies used human subjects exclusively, seven used animal overuse models, and the remaining two studies involved both humans and an animal overuse model. A total of 58 studies analysed supraspinatus tendon exclusively, 16 analysed subacromial bursal tissue exclusively, while the other studies analysed other tissue or varying combinations of tissue types including joint fluid and muscle. The molecular biomarkers that were altered in RCD included matrix substances, growth factors, enzymes and other proteins including certain neuropeptides. Conclusions The pathogenesis of RCD is being slowly unravelled as a result of the significant recent advances in molecular medicine. Future research aimed at further unlocking these key molecular processes will be pivotal in developing new surgical interventions both in terms of the diagnosis and treatment of RCD.
Dean, B. J. F.; Franklin, S. L.; Carr, A. J.
Background: The ProSeal™ laryngeal mask (PLMA) is increasingly being used as an airway device for laparoscopic surgery. Its silicone cuff allows diffusion of nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and other gases with resultant rise in its intracuff pressure during anesthesia. The present study was designed to investigate the intracuff pressure changes during anesthesia with and without nitrous oxide in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery lasting up to two hours. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 2 and 3, undergoing general anesthesia with muscle paralysis, were randomized into two groups of 50 patients each to receive an anesthetic gas mixture containing either oxygen and nitrous oxide (group N) or oxygen and air (group A). Following insertion of an appropriate size PLMA, its cuff was inflated with air to an intracuff pressure of 45 mm Hg. The cuff pressure was measured every 10 minutes for the entire course of anesthesia. The position of the device was also assessed fiberoptically and postoperative airway complications were recorded. Results: The maximum intracuff pressure recorded in group N was 103 ± 4.7 mm Hg vs. 45.5 ± 1.5 mm Hg in group A. The percentage rise in cuff pressure every 10 minutes was also highly significant (P < 0.001) being maximum in first 10 min in group N. The incidence of postoperative airway complications was comparable between the two groups. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that the intracuff pressure of the PLMA increases progressively over time when the breathing gas mixture contains nitrous oxide.
Sharma, Bimla; Gupta, Rajat; Sehgal, Raminder; Koul, Archna; Sood, Jayashree
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcome and the tendon healing after arthroscopic double row rotator cuff repair of large and massive rotator cuff tears. Methods. 82 patients with a full-thickness large and massive rotator cuff tear underwent arthroscopic repair with double row technique. Results were evaluated by use of the UCLA, ASES, and Constant questionnaires, the Shoulder Strength Index (SSI), and range of motion. Follow-up time was 2 years. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies were performed on each shoulder preoperatively and 2 years after repair. Results. 100% of the patients were followed up. UCLA, ASES, and Constant questionnaires showed significant improvement compared with preoperatively (P < 0.001). Range of motion and SSI in flexion, abduction, and internal and external rotation also showed significant improvement (P < 0.001). MRI studies showed 24 cases of tear after repair (29%). Only 8 cases were a full-thickness tear. Conclusions. At two years of followup, in large and massive rotator cuff tears, an arthroscopic double row rotator cuff repair technique produces an excellent functional outcome and structural integrity.
Carbonel, Ignacio; Martinez, Angel A.; Aldea, Elisa; Ripalda, Jorge
Objective To investigate the relationship between the rotator cuff tear (RCT) and the muscle strength in hemiplegic side, and the effects of paralysis on the affected shoulders in hemiplegic patients. Methods A cross-sectional observational study performed in a university hospital was presented. The study enrolled 55 participants with hemiplegia of diverse degree of motor paresis, excluding those with bilateral lesions, history of major trauma or other co-existing musculoskeletal disorders of the shoulder. The main outcome measurements were muscle strength of the affected upper extremity (based on Medical Research Council scale), RCTs of the bilateral shoulders (by ultrasonography), and presence of shoulder pain, subluxation of the glenohumeral joint, passive range of motions, and subacromial spurs. Results Comparing each side of the shoulders, the prevalence of shoulder pain and supraspinatus muscle tear was higher (p<0.0001, p=0.007), and the range of motion was restricted (p<0.0001, p<0.0001, p<0.0001, p<0.0001) in the affected side. There was a significant trend toward higher prevalence of RCT and shoulder subluxation in the weaker shoulder (p=0.019, p<0.0001). In a multivariate analysis, Manual Muscle Test grade of less than three was an independent risk factor for RCT (p=0.025). Conclusion RCT in hemiplegia had a linear trend with muscle weakness in the affected side and the degree of weakness was an independent risk factor for the occurrence of RCT. In addition, shoulder pain, limitation of range of motions, and RCT were more frequent on the hemiplegic side of the shoulders. It is the first study to reveal a linear trend between RCT and upper extremity weakness and will provide physicians an insight to the management of RCTs in hemiplegic patients.
Yi, Youbin; Shim, Jae Seong; Kim, Keewon; Baek, So-Ra; Jung, Se Hee; Kim, Won
Electromyography (EMG) of the shoulder girdle is commonly performed; however, EMG spectral properties of shoulder muscles have not been clearly defined. The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum power frequency, Nyquist rate, and minimum sampling rate for indwelling and surface EMG of the normal shoulder girdle musculature. EMG signals were recorded using indwelling electrodes for the rotator cuff muscles and surface electrodes for ten additional shoulder muscles in ten healthy volunteers. A fast Fourier transform was performed on the raw EMG signal collected during maximal isometric contractions to derive the power spectral density. The 95% power frequency was calculated during the ramp and plateau subphase of each contraction. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t tests. Indwelling EMG signals had more than twice the frequency content of surface EMG signals (p?.001). Mean 95% power frequencies ranged from 495 to 560 Hz for indwelling electrodes and from 152 to 260 Hz for surface electrodes. Significant differences in the mean 95% power frequencies existed among muscles monitored with surface electrodes (p?=?.002), but not among muscles monitored with indwelling electrodes (p?=?.961). No significant differences in the 95% power frequencies existed among contraction subphases for any of the muscle-electrode combinations. Maximum Nyquist rate was 893 Hz for surface electrodes and 1,764 Hz for indwelling electrodes. Our results suggest that when recording EMG of shoulder muscles, the minimum sampling frequency is 1,340 Hz for surface electrodes and 2,650 Hz for indwelling electrodes. The minimum sampling recommendations are higher than the 1,000 Hz reported in many studies involving EMG of the shoulder. PMID:22294954
Backus, Sherry I; Tomlinson, Daniel P; Vanadurongwan, Bavornrat; Lenhoff, Mark W; Cordasco, Frank A; Chehab, Eric L; Adler, Ronald S; Henn, R Frank; Hillstrom, Howard J
Background The literature has shown good results with partial repairs of large and massive tears of rotator cuff but the role of factors that affect reparability is less clear. The purpose of this study was twofold, 1) to examine clinical outcomes following complete or partial repair of large or massive full-thickness rotator cuff tear, and 2) to explore the value of clinical and surgical factors in predicting reparability. Methods This was a secondary data analysis of consecutive patients with large or massive rotator cuff tear who required surgical treatment (arthroscopic complete or partial repair) and were followed up for two years. Disability measures included the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), the relative Constant-Murley score (CMS) and the shortened version of the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (ShortWORC). The relationship between predictors and reparability was examined through logistic regressions and chi-square statistics as appropriate. Within group change over time and between group differences in disability outcomes, range of motion and strength were examined by student’s T-tests and non-parametric statistics. Results One hundred and twenty two patients (41 women, 81 men, mean age 64, SD?=?9) were included in the analysis. There were 86 large (39 fully reparable, 47 partially reparable) and 36 (10 fully reparable, 26 partially reparable) massive tears. Reparability was not associated with age, sex, or pre-operative active flexion or abduction (p?>?0.05) but the fully reparable tear group showed a better pre-operative ASES score (p?=?0.01) and better active external rotation in neutral (p?=?0.01). Reparability was associated with tear shape (p?0.0001), size (p?=?0.002), and tendon quality (p?0.0001). Conclusions Reparability of large or massive tears is affected by a number of clinical and surgical factors. Patients whose tears could not be fully repaired showed a statistically significant improvement in range of motion, strength and disability at 2 years, although they had slightly inferior results compared to those with complete repairs.
Background To report the results of an arthroscopic percutaneous repair technique for partial-thickness tears of the anterosuperior cuff combined with a biceps lesion. Methods The inclusion criteria were evidence of the upper subscapularis tendon tear and an articular side partial-thickness tear of the supraspinatus tendon, degeneration of the biceps long head or degenerative superior labrum anterior-posterior, above lesions treated by arthroscopic percutaneous repair, and follow-up duration > 24 months after the operation. American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, constant score, the pain level on a visual analogue scale, ranges of motion and strength were assessed. Results The mean (± standard deviation) age of the 20 enrolled patients was 56.0 ± 7.7 years. The forward flexion strength increased from 26.3 ± 6.7 Nm preoperatively to 38.9 ± 5.1 Nm at final follow-up. External and internal rotation strength was also significantly increased (14.2 ± 1.7 to 19.1 ± 3.03 Nm, 12.3 ± 3.2 to 18.1 ± 2.8 Nm, respectively). Significant improvement was observed in ASES and constant scores at 3 months, 1 year and the time of final follow-up when compared with preoperative scores (p < 0.001). The mean subjective shoulder value was 86% (range, 78% to 97%). Conclusions The implementation of complete rotator cuff repair with concomitant tenodesis of the biceps long head using arthroscopic percutaneous repair achieved full recovery of normal rotator cuff function, maximum therapeutic efficacy, and patient satisfaction.
Kim, Do-Young; Lee, Sang-Soo; Seo, Eun-Min; Hwang, Jung-Taek; Kwon, Sun-Chang; Lee, Jae-Won
This study assessed the diagnostic test accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the detection of partial- and full-thickness rotator cuff tears in the adult population. A systematic review was conducted of the following electronic databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, AMED, ISI Web of Science, Current Controlled Trials, National Technical Information Service, the National Institute for Health Research Portfolio, the UK National Research Register Archive and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform database and reference lists of articles. All studies assessing the sensitivity and/or specificity of MRI for adult patients with suspected rotator cuff tear where surgical procedures were the reference standard were included in the study. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate pooled sensitivity, specificity, likelihood and diagnostic odds ratio values, and summary receiver operating characteristic plots were constructed. Forty-four studies were included. These included 2751 shoulders in 2710 patients. For partial-thickness rotator cuff tears, the pooled sensitivity and specificity values were 0.80 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-0.84] and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.94-0.97), respectively. For full-thickness tears, the sensitivity and specificity values were 0.91 (95% CI: 0.86-0.94) and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.96-0.98), respectively. While there was no substantial difference in diagnostic test accuracy between MRIs reviewed by general radiologists and those reviewed by musculoskeletal radiologists, higher-field-strength (3.0 T) MRI systems provided the greatest diagnostic test accuracy. PMID:22260933
Smith, Toby O; Daniell, Helena; Geere, Jo-Anne; Toms, Andoni P; Hing, Caroline B
Abstract Context: Whole-body vibration machines are a relatively new technology being implemented in the athletic setting. Numerous authors have examined the proposed physiologic mechanisms of vibration therapy and performance outcomes. Changes have mainly been observed in the lower extremity after individual exercises, with minimal attention to the upper extremity and resistance training programs. Objective: To examine the effects of a novel vibration intervention directed at the upper extremity as a precursor to a supervised, multijoint dynamic resistance training program. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA institution. Patients or Other Participants: Thirteen female student-athletes were divided into the following 2 treatment groups: (1) whole-body vibration and resistance training or (2) resistance training only. Intervention(s): Participants in the vibration and resistance training group used an experimental vibration protocol of 2 × 60 seconds at 4 mm and 50 Hz, in a modified push-up position, 3 times per week for 10 weeks, just before their supervised resistance training session. Main Outcome Measure(s): Isokinetic total work measurements of the rotator cuff were collected at baseline and at week 5 and week 10. Results: No differences were found between the treatment groups (P > .05). However, rotator cuff output across time increased in both groups (P < .05). Conclusions: Although findings did not differ between the groups, the use of whole-body vibration as a precursor to multijoint exercises warrants further investigation because of the current lack of literature on the topic. Our results indicate that indirectly strengthening the rotator cuff using a multijoint dynamic resistance training program is possible.
Hand, Jason; Verscheure, Susan; Osternig, Louis
Objectives To evaluate the prevalence, imaging characteristics and anatomical distribution of tears at the rotator cuff (RC) footprint\\u000a with MR arthrography (MR-A) of the shoulder.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods MR arthrograms obtained in 305 patients were retrospectively reviewed. Partial articular-sided supraspinatus tendon avulsions\\u000a (PASTA), concealed interstitial delaminations (CID), reverse PASTA lesions and full-thickness tears (FT) at the humeral tendon\\u000a insertion were depicted. Anatomical locations were
Christoph Schaeffeler; Dirk Mueller; Chlodwig Kirchhoff; Petra Wolf; Ernst J. Rummeny; Klaus Woertler
The aim of the study was to evaluate the time-zero mechanical and footprint properties of a suture-bridge technique for rotator\\u000a cuff repair in an animal model. Thirty fresh-frozen sheep shoulders were randomly assigned among three investigation groups:\\u000a (1) cyclic loading, (2) load-to-failure testing, and (3) tendon–bone interface contact pressure measurement. Shoulders were\\u000a cyclically loaded from 10 to 180 N and displacement
Mike H. BaumsMichael; Michael Geyer; Meike Büschken; Gottfried H. Buchhorn; Gunter Spahn; Hans-Michael Klinger
Background To prospectively evaluate patients who underwent a "mini-open" repair versus a completely arthroscopic technique for small to large size rotator cuff tears. Methods Fifty-two patients underwent "mini-open" or all arthroscopic repair of a full thickness tear of the rotator cuff. Patients who complained of shoulder pain and/or weakness and who had failed a minimum of 6 weeks of physical therapy and had at least one sub-acromial injection were surgical candidates. Pre and post-operative clinical evaluations included the following: 1) demographics; 2) Simple Shoulder Test (SST); 3) University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) rating scale; 4) visual analog pain assessment (VAS); and 5) pre-op SF12 assessment. Descriptive analysis was performed for patient demographics and for all variables. Pre and post outcome scores, range of motion and pain scale were compared using paired t-tests. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate any effect between dependent and independent variables. Significance was set at p is less than or equal to 0.05. Results There were 31 females and 21 males. The average follow-up was 50.6 months (27 – 84 months). The average age was similar between the two groups [arthroscopic x = 55 years/mini-open x = 58 years, p = 0.7]. Twenty-seven patients underwent arthroscopic repair and 25 underwent repair with a mini-open incision. The average rotator cuff tear size was 3.1 cm (range: 1–5 centimeters). There was no significant difference in tear size between the two groups (arthroscopic group = 2.9 cm/mini-open group = 3.2 cm, p = 0.3). Overall, there was a significant improvement from pre-operative status in shoulder pain, shoulder function as measured on the Simple Shoulder test and UCLA Shoulder Form. Visual analog pain improved, on average, 4.4 points and the most recent Short Shoulder Form and UCLA scores were 8 and 26 respectively. Both active and passive glenohumeral joint range of motion improved significantly from pre-operatively. Conclusion Based upon the number available, we found no statistical difference in outcome between the two groups, indicating that either procedure is efficacious in the treatment of small and medium size rotator cuff tears. Level of Evidence Type III
Pearsall, Albert W; Ibrahim, Khalid A; Madanagopal, Sudhakar G
Purpose Assessment of repair integrity and clinical outcome after arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff tears in double-row suture-bridge\\u000a technique with the use of a new knotless suture-anchor system.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods The first treated 25 patients with arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in the suture-bridge technique using a novel knotless\\u000a anchor and chain-link suture system were evaluated. Patients with isolated full-thickness supraspinatus tears were selected.
H. El-Azab; S. Buchmann; K. Beitzel; S. Waldt; Andreas B. Imhoff
This study evaluated the resistance to gapping and the mode of failure for 2 knotless suture anchor systems used for rotator cuff repair compared with the performance of a conventional titanium anchor system. Eight matched pairs of fresh-frozen humeri were dissected free of all soft tissues and scanned to measure bone mineral density (BMD). The suture anchor systems tested were the TwinFix 5.0 Titanium (Smith & Nephew, Andover, MA), Bioknotless RC (DePuy Mitek, Norwood, MA), and Magnum (Opus Medical, San Juan Capistrano, CA), and each was inserted into each humerus. Cyclic, tensile loading was applied through the suture loop for 5000 cycles, or until failure, by using a servohydraulic testing machine. Gapping distances, defined as increasing elongation of the bone/anchor/suture system, were continuously measured. Total cycles to failure and mechanism of failure were documented. Mean initial (first cycle) and final (last cycle) gapping distances were 3.81 mm and 5.36 mm for the TwinFix 5.0, 4.02 mm and 5.34 mm for the Bioknotless RC, and 3.56 mm and 4.98 mm for the Magnum anchors. No significant difference was detected among mean gap openings (P > .05). However, the Bioknotless RC had more early failures (5) than the other 2 implants (1 each), approaching significance (P = .07). Trials of the Bioknotless RC that did not fail early were found to have significantly less gap opening than the other 2 systems for both initial (1.89 mm vs 3.82 mm for the TwinFix 5.0 and 3.56 mm for the Magnum) and final (2.00 mm vs 4.68 mm for the TwinFix 5.0 and 4.24 mm for the Magnum) gap opening. BMD was a significant predictor of initial (P = .029) and final (P = .008) gap opening, whereas the site of anchor insertion was a significant predictor of final displacement. The Opus Magnum was comparable with a conventional suture anchor, but the Mitek Bioknotless RC showed a trend toward early failure. Biomechanical analysis of knotless suture anchor systems can demonstrate trends among implants in an experimental setting. Knowledge of these trends could influence implant selection. PMID:18036851
Brown, Barrett S; Cooper, Andrew D; McIff, Terence E; Key, Vincent H; Toby, E Bruce
Batalha, NM, Raimundo, AM, Tomas-Carus, P, Marques, MAC, and Silva, AJ. Does an in-season detraining period affect the shoulder rotator cuff strength and balance of young swimmers? J Strength Cond Res 28(7): 2054-2062, 2014-Imbalance in shoulder rotator muscles is a well-documented problem in swimmers, and it is important to implement land-based strength training programs. Meanwhile, the effects of a detraining period on swimmers' shoulder rotator muscles are unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of a strength training program and detraining on the strength and balance of shoulder rotator cuff muscles in young swimmers, despite the continuity of usual water training. An experimental group (n = 20) and a control group (n = 20) of young male swimmers with the same characteristics (age, body mass, height, training volume, and maturational state) were evaluated. In both groups, the peak torques of shoulder internal (IR) and external (ER) rotators were assessed during preseason, midseason (16 weeks), and postseason (32 weeks). The experimental group underwent a strength training regimen from baseline to 16 weeks and a detraining period from 16 to 32 weeks. Concentric action at 60°·s and 180°·s was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. The ER/IR strength ratios were obtained. At 60°·s, there were significant increments in IR strength and the ER/IR ratio in both shoulders. This trend was the same throughout the competitive season. The tendency was the same at 180°·s because training effects were noted primarily in IR and ER/IR ratios. Moreover, the absence of land-based strength training, from 16 to 32 weeks, revealed a reduction in the ER/IR ratio values in both shoulders. Our findings suggest that young swimmers' coaches should use dry-land strength training protocols, and that it is recommended that these should be conducted on a regular basis (during the whole season). PMID:24345974
Batalha, Nuno M; Raimundo, Armando M; Tomas-Carus, Pablo; Marques, Mário A C; Silva, António J
Comparison of Analgesic Efficacy between Single Interscalene Block Combined with a Continuous Intra-bursal Infusion of Ropivacaine and Continuous Interscalene Block after Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair
Background This study evaluated the effectiveness of a continuous interscalene block (CISB) by comparing it with that of a single interscalene block combined with a continuous intra-bursal infusion of ropivacaine (ISB-IB) after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Methods Patients who had undergone CISB (CISB group; n = 25) were compared with those who had undergone ISB-IB (ISB-IB group; n = 25) for more than 48 hours after surgery. The visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, motor and/or sensory deficit, supplementary analgesics and adverse effects were recorded. Results There were no significant differences between the postoperative VAS of the CISB and ISB-IB groups, except at 1 hour after surgery. Their supplementary analgesics of the two groups were similar. Transient motor weakness (52%) and sensory disturbance (40%) of the affected arm were observed in patients in the CISB group. The catheters came out accidentally in 22% of the CISB group but in only 4% of the ISB-IB group. Conclusions ISB-IB provides similar analgesia to CISB. However, the ISB-IB group had a lower incidence of neurological deficits and better catheter retention.
Oh, Joo Han; Kim, Sae Hoon; Lee, Pyung-Bok; Lee, Joon-Woo; Lee, Seok Jae
Background Long head biceps (LHB) degeneration, in combination with rotator cuff tears, can be a source of chronic shoulder pain. LHB tenotomy reduces pain and improves joint function although the pathophysiological context is not well understood. Tendon integrity depends on the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). It is unclear which of these enzymes contribute to LHB but we chose to study MMP 1, 3, and 9 and hypothesized that one or more of them may be altered in LHB, whether diagnosed preoperatively or intraoperatively. We compared expression of these MMPs in both LHB and healthy tendon samples. Methods LHB samples of 116 patients with degenerative rotator cuff tears were harvested during arthroscopic tenotomy. Patients were assigned to 4 groups (partial thickness tear, full thickness tear, cuff arthropathy, or control) based upon intraoperative findings. Partial and full thickness tears were graded according to Ellman and Bateman's classifications, respectively. MMP expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results MMP 1 and 9 expression was significantly higher in the presence of rotator cuff tears than in controls whereas MMP 3 expression was significantly decreased. MMP 1 and 9 expression was significantly higher in articular-sided than bursal-sided partial thickness tears. No significant association was found between MMP 1 and 9 expression and full thickness tears, and the extent of the cuff tear by Bateman's classification. Conclusion Increased MMP 1 and 9 expression, and decreased MMP 3 expression are found in LHB degeneration. There is a significant association between the size and location of a rotator cuff tear and MMP expression.
Summary We evaluated whether matrix metalloproteases and their inhibitors are involved in extracellular matrix remodelling and degradation of chronic rotator cuff tears. Tendon samples were harvested from 13 patients who underwent arthroscopic repair of a rotator cuff tear. Supraspinatus specimens were harvested en bloc from the arthroscopically intact middle portion of the tendon, more than 1 cm lateral to the torn edge, from the lateral edge of the tear, and from the superior margin of the macroscopically intact subscapularis tendon, used as control. The collagenases, the stromelysins, and the tissue inhibitors of metalloprotease arrays were analyzed blindly by multiplex sandwich ELISA in each specimen. Histological evidence of tendinopathy was present in all patients with a rotator cuff tear, but not in the macroscopically intact subscapularis tendon. There were significantly increased levels of MMP 1, MMP 2, MMP 3, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in all specimens examined, including the macroscopically intact portion of the supraspinatus tendon and the subscapularis (control specimens). The levels of specific matrix metalloproteases and their inhibitors are altered in torn rotator cuff tendons, but also in the macroscopically and histologically intact tendons. These changes extended medially to the site of tendon tear, and to other tendons.
Castagna, Alessandro; Cesari, Eugenio; Garofalo, Raffaele; Gigante, Antonio; Conti, Marco; Markopoulos, Nikolaos; Maffulli, Nicola
We evaluated whether matrix metalloproteases and their inhibitors are involved in extracellular matrix remodelling and degradation of chronic rotator cuff tears. Tendon samples were harvested from 13 patients who underwent arthroscopic repair of a rotator cuff tear. Supraspinatus specimens were harvested en bloc from the arthroscopically intact middle portion of the tendon, more than 1 cm lateral to the torn edge, from the lateral edge of the tear, and from the superior margin of the macroscopically intact subscapularis tendon, used as control. The collagenases, the stromelysins, and the tissue inhibitors of metalloprotease arrays were analyzed blindly by multiplex sandwich ELISA in each specimen. Histological evidence of tendinopathy was present in all patients with a rotator cuff tear, but not in the macroscopically intact subscapularis tendon. There were significantly increased levels of MMP 1, MMP 2, MMP 3, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in all specimens examined, including the macroscopically intact portion of the supraspinatus tendon and the subscapularis (control specimens). The levels of specific matrix metalloproteases and their inhibitors are altered in torn rotator cuff tendons, but also in the macroscopically and histologically intact tendons. These changes extended medially to the site of tendon tear, and to other tendons. PMID:24367772
Castagna, Alessandro; Cesari, Eugenio; Garofalo, Raffaele; Gigante, Antonio; Conti, Marco; Markopoulos, Nikolaos; Maffulli, Nicola
Abstract Introduction. Rotator cuff tears (RCT) are a common source of shoulder pain, with an incidence ranging between 5% and 40%. The influence of corticosteroid injections on the incidence of RCT remains unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of full-thickness RCT 12 weeks after a subacromial corticosteroid injection in patients with shoulder pain. Patients and method. We made a prospective, open-label study in patients with unilateral painful shoulder without previous local corticosteroid injection. Ultrasound assessments were made at the first (baseline) and last (Week 12) visits by an experienced radiologist. A rheumatologist did the clinical examination. Patients with full-thickness RCT at the first visit were excluded. All patients received a subacromial injection of triamcinolone acetate 40 mg. Results. One hundred and two patients with shoulder pain were initially evaluated: 49 (48%) were excluded due to full-thickness RCT on ultrasound assessment. Therefore, 53 patients completed the study (34 female, mean age 60.8 years, mean time of evolution 9.6 months). In the first ultrasound evaluation, 24 patients (45.3%) had a partial-thickness tear. At 12 weeks after the corticosteroid injection, 9 (17%) patients developed full-thickness RCT, 66.6% of which occurred in patients with previous partial-thickness RCT. Corticosteroid injection significantly improved symptoms (p = 0.0001 for pain VAS score) and range of motion (p = 0.002 for forward elevation and external rotation). Conclusions. Seventeen percent of patients with shoulder pain suffered a full-thickness RCT 12 weeks after subacromial corticosteroid injection. Corticosteroid injection is highly effective in improving clinical symptoms of rotator cuff tendinopathy at 12 weeks. PMID:24289196
Ramírez, Julio; Pomés, Isaac; Cabrera, Sonia; Pomés, Jaume; Sanmartí, Raimón; Cañete, Juan D
Calcific rotator cuff tendinopathy caused by symptomatic calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition is a well-established cause of shoulder pain. In refractory or acutely symptomatic cases, sonographically guided percutaneous lavage and aspiration can significantly reduce pain in approximately 60%-92% of cases. Although the complication rate of sonographically guided percutaneous lavage and aspiration is apparently low, needle clogging attributable to impacted calcific debris has been described by several authors and in our experience can occur in daily practice. Traditionally, an inability to relieve the obstruction via needle repositioning or increased syringe plunger pressure has required needle removal and replacement. In this article, we outline a simple technique that can be used to restore patency of the obstructed lavage needle without necessitating needle removal and replacement. PMID:23399296
Jelsing, Elena J; Maida, Eugene; Smith, Jay
Rotator cuff tendon tears are one of the most common shoulder injuries. Although surgical repair is typically beneficial, re-tearing of the tendons frequently occurs. It is generally accepted that healing is worse for chronic tears than acute tears, but the reasons for this are unknown. One potential cause may be the large tensions that are sometimes required to repair chronically torn tendons back to bone (i.e., repair tension). Therefore, the objective of this study was to utilize an animal model of chronic rotator cuff repairs to investigate the role of increased repair tension on tendon to bone healing. We hypothesized that an increase in repair tension would be related to detrimental changes to the healing insertion site. To test this hypothesis, the supraspinatus tendon of rats was surgically detached and then repaired immediately or after a delay of 2, 4, or 16 weeks. The repair tension was measured using a tensiometer and the mechanical properties, collagen organization, and protein expression of the healing insertion site were evaluated 4 and/or 16 weeks following repair. We found that the repair tension increased with time following detachment, and was related to a decrease in the failure properties and viscoelastic peak stress and an increase in cross-sectional area and stiffness of the insertion site. Therefore, repair tension should be minimized in the clinical setting. Future studies will include additional animal model studies involving the relationship between tension and muscle properties and a clinical study investigating the role of repair tension on repair failure. PMID:16600252
Gimbel, Jonathan A; Van Kleunen, Jonathan P; Lake, Spencer P; Williams, Gerald R; Soslowsky, Louis J
This study evaluates the sensory changes that occur in the operated hand after the use of the double-cuff tourniquet technique for up to 4 hours. Thirty patients whose hand operations lasted more than 2 hours were evaluated. Tourniquet time ranged between 2 hours and 4 hours, 17 minutes. Light touch, von Frey's aesthesiometry, vibratory sensation, and two-point discrimination were examined. Subjective overall sensation and postoperative edema were also assessed. Patients were evaluated the evening before operation, on the second postoperative day, and at every out-patient follow-up visit, until all examined parameters returned to normal. Of the patients 73% demonstrated clinically normal sensibility test results within 23 days after operation. In 80% of all patients, subjective sensibility of the operated hand was equal to the nonoperated hand within 1 week of operation. Ultimately, all patients (96%) but one, demonstrated normal sensibility test results and normal subjective sensibility. Postoperative edema developed in 53% of the patients; it subsided in less than 4 weeks. The double-cuff technique can prolong tourniquet time safely for up to 4 hours. PMID:3241048
Dreyfuss, U Y; Smith, R J
While rotator cuff repair is often successful at relieving pain, the repaired insertion site can fail. The repaired mechanical properties improved when the shoulder was immobilized in an animal model, but joint stiffness and range of motion were not evaluated. This study objective was to measure rotational mechanics before and after shoulders were immobilized following cuff injury/repair, not immobilized following cuff injury/repair, and immobilized without injury/repair. Humeral rotation was significantly less 4 and 8 weeks following injury/repair but did not decrease significantly when the injured/repaired shoulder was immobilized. Rotational stiffness increased significantly 4 and 8 weeks following injury/repair and was significantly greater at 4, but not 8, weeks when the injured/repaired shoulders were immobilized. This study demonstrates that the increase in joint stiffness caused by immobilizing an injured/repaired shoulder is transient and, therefore, does not outweigh the long-term benefits of immobilization on improved tendon to bone healing.
Sarver, Joseph J.; Peltz, Cathryn D.; Dourte, LeAnn; Reddy, Sudheer; Williams, Gerald R.; Soslowsky, Louis J.
Background The massive cuff stitch (MCS) is known to be a strong suture, suitable for rotator cuff repair. We modified this technique for massive cuff tears by employing a horizontal medial mattress suture from an anchor as well as a vertically crossing transosseous suture. Methods We included 42 patients with massive cuff tears suitable for repair: 22 were treated with the modified MCS (MCS group), and 20 with a simple transosseous suture (STS group). The range of motion (ROM), muscle strength, visual analog scale, and the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores were evaluated pre-operatively and 12 and 24 months post-operatively. The incidence of post-operative re-tears was examined at least 1 year post-operatively using Sugaya's classification. Results The ROM, muscle strength, degree of pain, and the JOA scores were much improved after surgery in both groups, and there was no significant intergroup difference throughout the pre- and post-operative periods. In contrast, post-operative MRI revealed a significantly lower re-tear rate in the MCS group than in the STS group (9.1% vs. 40%, P = 0.0296). Conclusions The techniques tested were comparable in terms of functional outcome after surgical repair of massive cuff tears; however, the modified MCS repair technique produced superior structural outcomes with a significantly lower re-tear rate.
Biomechanical evaluation of rotator cuff repairs in a sheep model: Suture anchors using arthroscopic Mason-Allen stitches compared with transosseous sutures using traditional modified Mason-Allen stitches
BackgroundThe optimal method for rotator cuff repair of the shoulder is not yet known. The aim of this study was to compare the time-dependent biomechanical properties of the traditional open transosseous suture technique and modified Mason-Allen stitches (group 1) versus the double-loaded suture anchors technique and so-called arthroscopic Mason-Allen stitches (group 2) in rotator cuff repair.
Hans-Michael Klinger; Gottfried H. Buchhorn; Gabert Heidrich; Enrico Kahl; Mike H. Baums
The advent of new arthroscopic devices has led to the development of novel techniques of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. However, failure to recognize specific technical aspects and improper application of these devices can lead to complications. We report a case of intra-articular protrusion of knotless anchors (PEEK PushLock SP, 4.5 x 18.5 mm; Arthrex, Naples, FL), used in the lateral row of a suture-bridging technique for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. This case draws attention to the increased length of such devices when compared with traditional suture anchors, the technical aspects of proper device use, the possible patient-related factors such as implant-patient size mismatch, and the importance of additional imaging for the investigation of failure to progress postoperatively. PMID:20141993
Wong, Andrew S; Kokkalis, Zinon T; Schmidt, Christopher C
During the past decade the evaluation of the rotator cuff in the management of proximal humeral fractures has received increasing attention. Different studies have investigated the pathomorphology, prevalence and impact of rotator cuff lesions on the outcome of non-operative or surgical treatment of proximal humeral fractures. Tendon defects, either chronic or trauma related, are observed mainly in the anterosuperior or posterosuperior aspect of the rotator cuff and present as partial- or full-thickness tears. Structural changes of the rotator cuff muscles including atrophy and fatty infiltration in the context of proximal humeral fractures have been inadequately investigated. The prevalence of coexisting rotator cuff pathology varies between 5 and greater than 50% depending on the method of evaluation, the fracture morphology and the age of the patient. The influence of a concomitant rotator cuff tear on the clinical outcome has not been conclusively investigated. However, different studies indicate that some lesions can be a source of persistent pain and functional deficit after conservative or surgical management of proximal humeral fractures. Therefore, a simultaneous repair of the rotator cuff defect during surgical reconstruction of the proximal humerus is indicated. PMID:22108771
BACKGROUND: Chronic rotator cuff pathology (CRCP) is a common shoulder condition causing pain and disability. Physiotherapy is often the first line of management for CRCP yet there is little conclusive evidence to support or refute its effectiveness and no formal evaluation of its cost-effectiveness. METHODS\\/DESIGN: This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial will involve 200 participants with CRCP recruited from medical practices,
Kim Bennell; Sally Coburn; Elin Wee; Sally Green; Anthony Harris; Andrew Forbes; Rachelle Buchbinder
The standard technique for restoring footprint after full-thickness tears of the rotator cuff includes double-row or transosseous-equivalent\\u000a techniques. However, the anatomically typical bird’s beak shape and profile of tendon insertion may not be originally restored\\u000a and biomechanics may be altered. In this report, the authors describe a technique that involves creating two intratendinous\\u000a stitches at different levels of the torn
Pierre Hepp; Thomas Engel; Georg Osterhoff; Bastian Marquass; Christoph Josten
Introduction Surgical repair of symptomatic, retracted rotator cuff tears unresponsive to non-operative treatments requires closure of\\u000a the tear without undue tension and reattaching the torn tendon to its former insertion site. In this study, the length of\\u000a the torn tendon edge was hypothesized to be longer than the length of the humeral insertion site. The objective of this study\\u000a was to
Utku Kandemir; Robert B. Allaire; Richard E. Debski; Thay Q. Lee; Patrick J. McMahon
Since its inauguration by Gerber in 1988, the latissimus dorsi transfer has become an established surgical option for non-reconstructable,\\u000a massive posterosuperior rotator cuff tears. We describe 26 consecutive patients, all of whom underwent a latissimus dorsi\\u000a transfer using a modified single incision mini-invasive Herzberg transfer. The primary focus of this paper was to compare\\u000a the applied clinical results of this
Lars J. Lehmann; Eckhard Mauerman; Thomas Strube; Katja Laibacher; Hanns-Peter Scharf
Biceps tendon pathology is a common clinical problem often seen in conjunction with rotator cuff tears. A previous study found detrimental changes to biceps tendons in the presence of rotator cuff tears in a rat model. Therefore, the objective of this study was to utilize this model along with models of altered loading to investigate the effect of altered loading on the initiation of these detrimental changes. We created supraspinatus and infraspinatus rotator cuff tears in the rat and followed these tears with either increased or decreased loading. Mechanical properties were determined along the length of the biceps tendon 4 and 8 weeks following injury. At the insertion site, stiffness increased with decreased loading, while detrimental changes were seen with increased loading 4 weeks following detachments. Increased loading resulted in decreased mechanical properties along the entire tendon length at both time points. Decreased loading resulted in both increased and decreased tendon properties at different regions of the tendon at 4 weeks, but by 8 weeks, there were no differences between decreased loading and detachment alone. We could not conclude where changes begin in the tendon with altered loading, but did demonstrate that regional differences exist. These results support that there is an effect of altered loading, as decreased loading resulted in variable changes at 4 weeks that were no different from detachment alone by 8 weeks, and increased loading resulted in detrimental properties along the entire length at both 4 and 8 weeks. PMID:20719313
Peltz, Cathryn D; Hsu, Jason E; Zgonis, Miltiadis H; Trasolini, Nicholas A; Glaser, David L; Soslowsky, Louis J
The objective of this study was to understand the effect of pre-repair rotator cuff chronicity on post-repair healing outcomes using a chronic and acute multi-tendon rat rotator cuff injury model. Full-thickness dual tendon injuries (supra- and infraspinatus) were created unilaterally in adult male Sprague Dawley rats, and left chronically detached for 8 or 16 weeks. After chronic detachment, tears were repaired and acute dual tendon injuries were created and immediately repaired on contralateral shoulders. Tissue level outcomes for bone, tendon, and muscle were assessed 4 or 8 weeks after repair using histology, microcomputed tomography, biomechanical testing, and biochemical assays. Substantial gap formation was seen in 35% of acute repairs and 44% of chronic repairs. Gap formation negatively correlated with mechanical and structural outcomes for both healing time points regardless of injury duration. Bone and histomorphometry, as well as biomechanics, were similar between acute and chronic injury and repair regardless of chronicity and duration of healing. This study was the first to implement a multi-tendon rotator cuff injury with surgical repair following both chronic and acute injuries. Massive tear in a rodent model resulted in gap formation regardless of injury duration which had detrimental effects on repair outcomes. PMID:24243733
Killian, Megan L; Cavinatto, Leonardo; Shah, Shivam A; Sato, Eugene J; Ward, Samuel R; Havlioglu, Necat; Galatz, Leesa M; Thomopoulos, Stavros
The study included 100 patients who underwent an arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. All patients suffered about a rotator cuff tear that was repaired arthroscopically with a suture anchor technique. Immediately postoperatively, patients were randomly allocated to one of two different postoperative physiotherapy regimens: passive self-assisted range of motion exercise (controls: 46 patients) versus passive self-assisted range of motion exercise associated with use of continuous passive motion (CPM) for a total of 2 h per day (experimental group: 54 patients), for 4 weeks. After this time, all the patients of both groups underwent the same physical therapy protocol. An independent examiner assessed the patients at 2.5, 6 and 12 months particularly about pain with the VAS scale (0-10) and the range of motion (ROM). Our findings show that postoperative treatment of an arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with passive self-assisted exercises associated with 2-h CPM a day provides a significant advantage in terms of ROM improvement and pain relief when compared to passive self-assisted exercise alone, at the short-term follow-up. No significant differences between the two groups were observed at 1 year postoperatively. PMID:20383685
Garofalo, Raffaele; Conti, Marco; Notarnicola, Angela; Maradei, Leonardo; Giardella, Antonio; Castagna, Alessandro
The rotator cuff assists in shoulder movement and provides dynamic stability to the glenohumeral joint. Specifically, the anterior–posterior (AP) force balance, provided by the subscapularis anteriorly and the infraspinatus and teres minor posteriorly, is critical for joint stability and concentric rotation of the humeral head on the glenoid. However, limited understanding exists of the consequences associated with disruption of the AP force balance (due to tears of both the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons) on joint function and joint damage. We investigated the effect of disrupting the APforce balance on joint function and joint damage in an overuse rat model. Twenty-eight rats underwent 4 weeks of overuse to produce a tendinopathic condition and were then randomized into two surgical groups: Detachment of the supraspinatus only or detachment of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons. Rats were then gradually returned to their overuse protocol. Quantitative ambulatory measures including medial/lateral, propulsion, braking, and vertical forces were significantly different between groups. Additionally, cartilage and adjacent tendon properties were significantly altered. These results identify joint imbalance as a mechanical mechanism for joint damage and demonstrate the importance of preserving rotator cuff balance when treating active cuff tear patients.
Reuther, Katherine E.; Thomas, Stephen J.; Tucker, Jennica J.; Sarver, Joseph J.; Gray, Chancellor F.; Rooney, Sarah I.; Glaser, David L.; Soslowsky, Louis J.
Background Preventing anatomic failure after rotator cuff repair (RCR) remains a challenge. Augmentation with a surgical mesh may permanently reinforce the repair and decrease failure rates. The purpose of this study is to assess the postoperative outcomes of open RCR augmented with a novel reticulated polycarbonate polyurethane patch. Materials and methods Ten patients with supraspinatus tendon tears underwent open RCR augmented with a polycarbonate polyurethane patch secured in a 6-point fixation construct placed over the repaired tendon. Patients were evaluated with preoperative and postoperative outcome measures, including the Simple Shoulder Test, visual analog pain scale, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons shoulder score, Cumulative Activities of Daily Living score, and University of California, Los Angeles shoulder scale, as well as range of motion. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate repair status. Results Patients showed significant improvements in visual analog pain scale, Simple Shoulder Test, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons shoulder scores at both 6 and 12 months postoperatively (P <.05 and P < .01, respectively). The University of California, Los Angeles postoperative score was good to excellent in 7 patients at 6 months and in 8 patients at 12 months. Range of motion in forward flexion, abduction, internal rotation, and external rotation was significantly improved at both 6 and 12 months postoperatively (P < .05 and P < .01, respectively). Magnetic resonance imaging at 12 months showed healing in 90%; one patient had a definitive persistent tear. We found no adverse events associated with the patch, including the absence of fibrosis, mechanical symptoms, or visible subacromial adhesions. Discussion The polycarbonate polyurethane patch was designed to support tissue in growth and enhance healing as shown by preclinical animal studies. Clinically, the patch is well tolerated and shows promising efficacy, with a 10% retear rate at the 12-month time point. Level of evidence Level IV, Case Series, Treatment Study.
Encalada-Diaz, Ivan; Cole, Brian J.; MacGillivray, John D.; Ruiz-Suarez, Michell; Kercher, James S.; Friel, Nicole A.; Valero-Gonzalez, Fernando
The purpose of this study was to describe the outcome after reversed Delta III shoulder prosthesis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and irreparable rotator cuff tear. Fifteen patients (17 joints) were prospectively analysed using the Constant-Murley score (CS). Comprehensive outcome measure was carried out by means of four widely used questionnaires as well as clinical and radiographic examinations at an average of 24.3 months postoperatively. The CS improved significantly from 19 to 59.5 points. The mental (MSC) and physical (PCS) component summary score of the Short Form 36 (SF-36) reached 108% and 77%, respectively, while the DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand) was 58% of a comparative norm population. Remaining deficits were documented by SPADI (Shoulder Pain and Disability; 54.4 points) and ASES (clinical and patient-orientated American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons; 84.3 and 61.3 points, respectively). No radiological signs of loosening were found, but scapular notching occurred in four cases. Reversed arthroplasty provides a substantial improvement of shoulder function in patients with RA. The high incidence of notching is of concern. PMID:19221749
John, Michael; Pap, Géza; Angst, Felix; Flury, Matthias P; Lieske, Sebastian; Schwyzer, Hans-Kaspar; Simmen, Beat Rene
Summary To determine if an absorbable collagen scaffold of high porosity would allow rapid tissue in-growth and permit the functional maturation and alignment of tendon-like tissue, scaffolds were sutured to the superficial surface of the infraspinatus tendons of adult sheep. Histology demonstrated complete ingrowth with fibrovascular tissue by 6 weeks and by 12 weeks the scaffold had induced the formation of a layer of dense, regularly-oriented collagenous tissue which significantly increased the thickness of the native tendon. This new tissue was well-integrated into the host tissues at both the bone interface and along the length of the tendon. At 26 weeks the scaffold was completely absorbed leaving a stable layer of mature tendon-like tissue over the surface of the host tendon which was still present at 52 weeks. The use of a reconstituted collagen scaffold consistently increased the thickness of a rotator cuff tendon by inducing the formation of a well-integrated and mature tendon-like tissue.
Van Kampen, Craig; Arnoczky, Steven; Parks, Patrick; Hackett, Eileen; Ruehlman, Dana; Turner, Anthony; Schlegel, Theodore
Background Tennis is believed to be potentially harmful for the shoulder, therefore the purpose of this study is to evaluate the anatomy of the rotator cuff and the coraco-humeral ligament (CHL) in a-symptomatic non-elite junior tennis players with high-resolution ultrasound (US). Methods From August 2009 to September 2010 n?=?90 a-symptomatic non-elite junior tennis players (mean age?±?standard deviation: 15?±?3) and a control group of age- and sex- matched subjects were included. Shoulder assessment with a customized standardized protocol was performed. Body mass index, dominant arm, years of practice, weekly hours of training, racket weight, grip (Eastern, Western and semi-Western), kind of strings were recorded. Results Abnormalities were found at ultrasound in 14/90 (15%) players. Two players had supraspinatus tendinosis, two had subacromial impingement and ten had subacromial bursitis. CHL thickness resulted comparable in the dominant and non-dominant arms (11.3?±?4.4 mm vs. 13?±?4.2, p?>?0.05). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that no association was present among CHL thickness and the variables evaluated. In the control group, abnormalities were found at ultrasound in 6/60 (10%) subjects (sub-acromial bursitis). No statistically significant differences between players and control group were found (p?=?0.71). Conclusion In a-symptomatic non-elite junior tennis players only minor shoulder abnormalities were found.
Background Platelet-rich products (PRP) are widely used for rotator cuff tears. However, whether platelet-rich products produce superior clinical or radiological outcomes is controversial. This study aims to use meta-analysis to compare clinical and radiological outcomes between groups with or without platelet-rich products. Methods The Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane library databases were searched for relevant studies published before April 20, 2013. Studies were selected that clearly reported a comparison between the use or not of platelet-rich products. The Constant, ASES, UCLA, and SST scale systems and the rotator cuff retear rate were evaluated. The weighted mean differences and relative risks were calculated using a fixed-effects model. Results Seven studies were enrolled in this meta-analysis. No significant differences were found for the Constant scale (0.73, 95% CI, ?1.82 to 3.27, P?=?0.58), ASES scale (?2.89, 95% CI, ?6.31 to 0.53, P?=?0.1), UCLA scale (?0.79, 95% CI, ?2.20 to 0.63, P?=?0.28), SST scale (0.34, 95% CI, ?0.01 to 0.69, P?=?0.05), and the overall rotator cuff retear rate (0.71, 95% CI, 0.48 to 1.05, P?=?0.08). Subgroup analysis according to the initial tear size showed a lower retear rate in small- and medium-sized tears (0.33, 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.91, P?=?0.03) after platelet-rich product application but no difference for large- and massive-sized tears (0.86, 95% CI, 0.60 to 1.23, P?=?0.42). Conclusion In conclusion, the meta-analysis suggests that the platelet-rich products have no benefits on the overall clinical outcomes and retear rate for the arthroscopic repair of full-thickness rotator cuff tears. However, a decrease occurred in the rate of retears among patients treated with PRP for small- and medium-sized rotator cuff tears but not for large- and massive-sized tears. Level of Evidence Level II
Zhang, Qiang; Ge, Heng'an; Zhou, Jiaojiao; Cheng, Biao
The repair of massive cuff defects by direct suture often is impossible. In these cases, a repair by musculo–tendineous flaps (latissimus-dorsi, pectoralis or deltoideus) is required. It was the goal of this study to evaluate the result of delta-flap repair in case of massive cuff defects with a diameter of 5 cm or more. Between 1998 and 2000 for all patients
Gunter Spahn; Stefan Kirschbaum; Hans Michael Klinger
Electromyography (EMG) of the shoulder girdle is commonly performed; however, EMG spectral properties of shoulder muscles\\u000a have not been clearly defined. The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum power frequency, Nyquist rate, and minimum\\u000a sampling rate for indwelling and surface EMG of the normal shoulder girdle musculature. EMG signals were recorded using indwelling\\u000a electrodes for the rotator
Sherry I. Backus; Daniel P. Tomlinson; Bavornrat Vanadurongwan; Mark W. Lenhoff; Frank A. Cordasco; Eric L. Chehab; Ronald S. Adler; R. Frank Henn III; Howard J. Hillstrom
We have compared three different methods of treating symptomatic non-traumatic tears of the supraspinatus tendon in patients above 55 years of age. A total of 180 shoulders (173 patients) with supraspinatus tendon tears were randomly allocated into one of three groups (each of 60 shoulders); physiotherapy (group 1), acromioplasty and physiotherapy (group 2) and rotator cuff repair, acromioplasty and physiotherapy (group 3). The Constant score was assessed and followed up by an independent observer pre-operatively and at three, six and twelve months after the intervention. Of these, 167 shoulders were available for assessment at one year (follow-up rate of 92.8%). There were 55 shoulders in group 1 (24 in males and 31 in females, mean age 65 years (55 to 79)), 57 in group 2 (29 male and 28 female, mean age 65 years (55 to 79)) and 55 shoulders in group 3 (26 male and 29 female, mean age 65 years (55 to 81)). There were no between-group differences in the Constant score at final follow-up: 74.1 (sd 14.2), 77.2 (sd 13.0) and 77.9 (sd 12.1) in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively (p = 0.34). The mean change in the Constant score was 17.0, 17.5, and 19.8, respectively (p = 0.34). These results suggest that at one-year follow-up, operative treatment is no better than conservative treatment with regard to non-traumatic supraspinatus tears, and that conservative treatment should be considered as the primary method of treatment for this condition. PMID:24395315
Kukkonen, J; Joukainen, A; Lehtinen, J; Mattila, K T; Tuominen, E K J; Kauko, T; Aärimaa, V
Previous experimental studies of failure of rotator cuff repair have involved single pull to ultimate load. Such an experimental design does not represent the cyclic loading conditions experienced in vivo. We created 1 x 2 cm rotator cuff defects in 16 cadaver shoulders, repaired each defect with three Mitek-RC suture anchors (Mitek Surgical Products, Inc, Westwood, MA) using simple sutures of No. 2 Ethibond, and cyclically loaded the repairs by a servohydraulic materials test system actuator at physiological rates and loads (rate of 33 mm/s, load 180 N). A progressive gap was noted in each specimen, for a 100% rate of failure of the repairs. The central suture always failed first and by the largest magnitude, confirming tension overload centrally. One specimen exhibited combined bone and tendon failure, but the other 15 specimens failed through the tendon. Overall, the repairs failed to 5 mm and 10 mm at an average of 61 cycles and 285 cycles, respectively. Half the specimens were less than 45 years of age and had a 5-mm and 10-mm failure at an average of 107 and 478 cycles, respectively. The other half were over 45 years of age and failed to 5 mm and 10 mm at an average of 17 and 91 cycles, respectively, indicating more rapid failure of the rotator cuff tendons in the older group, and this was statistically significant (P < or = .02). Comparison of suture anchor fixation in this study with transosseous bone tunnel fixation in a previous cyclic loading study at this institution indicates that bone fixation by suture anchors is significantly less prone to failure than bone fixation through bone tunnels (P = .0008). Changing the bone fixation from bone tunnels to suture anchors effectively transferred the weak link from bone to tendon. PMID:9442325
Burkhart, S S; Diaz Pagàn, J L; Wirth, M A; Athanasiou, K A
PURPOSE: Arthroscopic double-row (DR) suture anchor repair of rotator cuff tears has been shown to be superior to most single-row (SR) techniques with regard to footprint reconstruction, load to failure and tendon-to-bone contact pressures. The hypothesis of this study was that the greater contact pressures of DR techniques would compromise blood flow to a higher degree than SR repair. The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the effect of a DR and a SR technique on tendon blood flow in a sheep model. METHODS: Eighteen sheep underwent detachment and immediate repair of the infraspinatus tendon using either a Mason-Allen or a suture-bridge technique. Tendon blood flow was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry before detachment, immediately after repair and 12 weeks thereafter. Six regions of interest were measured, three over the lateral and three over the medial aspect of the footprint. RESULTS: Immediately after repair, tendon blood flow decreased significantly in both repair groups (P = 0.004). In the SR group, blood flow decreased by 100.1 arbitrary units (AU) (83.6 %) after repair, in the DR by 81.4 AU (90.5 %). Subgroup analysis showed blood flow over the lateral aspect of the footprint decreased by 126.3 AU (92.2 %) in the SR and 84.4 AU (90.9 %) in the DR group, whereas over the medial aspect, it decreased by 73.9 AU (72.0 %) in the SR and 78.5 AU (90.1 %) in the DR group. None of the differences between the groups were significant. At 12 weeks, measured blood flow in the DR group had increased to 90.1 AU (100.2 %) compared to the native tendons and was at 72.5 AU (60.5 %) for the SR group. Again, the difference between SR and DR group was not statistically significant (n.s.). Assessment for retears showed that 4 of 8 tendons (50 %) in the DR group and 3 of 9 tendons (33.3 %) in the SR group had to be classified as re-ruptures. CONCLUSION: Suture anchor repair leads to an intraoperative decrease in tendon blood flow regardless of the repair technique. A significant difference between SR and DR repair was not found. These findings indicate that tendon blood flow should not be a factor to determine the use of either repair technique over the other. PMID:23389559
Liem, Dennis; Dedy, Nicolas J; Hauschild, Gregor; Gosheger, Georg; Meier, Shirin; Balke, Maurice; Spiegel, Hans-Ulrich; Marquardt, Bjoern
... Therapist? About ASSH Hand Safety Fireworks Lawnmowers Snowblowers Pumpkin Carving Gardening Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Hand ... Therapist? About ASSH Hand Safety Fireworks Lawnmowers Snowblowers Pumpkin Carving Gardening Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Hand ...
This study described the three-dimensional shoulder motion during the arm elevation in individuals with isolated acromioclavicular osteoarthritis (ACO) and ACO associated with rotator cuff disease (RCD), as compared to controls. Seventy-four participants (ACO=23, ACO+RCD=25, Controls=26) took part of this study. Disability was assessed with the DASH, three-dimensional kinematics were collected during arm elevation in the sagittal and scapular planes, and pain was assessed with the 11-point numeric pain rating scale. For each kinematic variable and demographic variables, separate linear mixed-model 2-way ANOVAs were performed to compare groups. Both ACO groups had higher DASH and pain scores. At the scapulothoracic joint, the isolated ACO group had greater internal rotation than control, and the ACO+RCD group had greater upward rotation than both other groups. At the sternoclavicular joint, both groups with ACO had less retraction, and the isolated ACO group had less elevation and posterior rotation. At the acromioclavicular joint, the isolated ACO group had greater upward rotation, and both ACO groups had greater posterior tilting. Patients with ACO had altered shoulder kinematics, which may represent compensatory responses to reduce pain and facilitate arm motion during arm elevation and lowering. PMID:24877751
Sousa, Catarina de Oliveira; Camargo, Paula Rezende; Ribeiro, Ivana Leão; Reiff, Rodrigo Bezerra de Menezes; Michener, Lori Ann; Salvini, Tania Fátima
Tendinopathy is a term used to describe a painful tendon disorder but despite being a well-recognised clinical presentation, a definitive understanding of the pathoaetiology of rotator cuff tendinopathy remains elusive. Current explanatory models, which relate to peripherally driven nocioceptive mechanisms secondary to structural abnormality, or failed healing, appear inadequate on their own in the context of current literature. In light of these limitations this paper presents an extension to current models that incorporates the integral role of the central nervous system in the pain experience. The role of the central nervous system (CNS) is described and justified along with a potential rationale to explain the favourable response to loaded therapeutic exercises demonstrated by previous studies. This additional consideration has the potential to offer a useful way to explain pain to patients, for clinicians to prescribe appropriate therapeutic management strategies and for researchers to advance knowledge in relation to this clinically challenging problem. PMID:23932100
Littlewood, Chris; Malliaras, Peter; Bateman, Marcus; Stace, Richmond; May, Stephen; Walters, Stephen
The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of LLLT in the treatment of trigger points (TrPs) that are associated with rotator cuff tendonitis. A double-blind randomized controlled trail was conducted. Sixty patients were randomly allocated to one of two groups: sham or laser therapy. The laser (Excel, Omega Universal Technologies Ltd, London, UK) parameters used were a wavelength of 820 nm, a power output of 100 mW, a frequency of 5000 Hz (modulated) and energy density of 32 J/cm2. The two groups received a course of 12 treatment sessions for four weeks (3 sessions per week). Pain, functional activities (as measured using the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index, SPADI), pressure pain threshold (PPT) and range of motion (ROM) were assessed pre and post treatment, with a three month follow-up assessment. Significant improvements in pain (p < 0.001) were observed for the laser group (6 cm median improvement on a 10 cm VAS) compared to the sham group (2 cm median improvement) immediately post treatment. The improvements in the laser group continued post treatment with a 7 cm median improvement observed at three month follow-up. Similar between group differences were observed for ROM (p < 0.01), functional activities (p <= 0.001) and PPT (p <= 0.05). The findings of the current study suggested that LLLT is effective in treating patients with TrPs associated with rotator cuff tendonitis, when using the parameters described. However, the mechanism of its action is not yet clear, and will require further investigation.
Al-Shenqiti, A.; Oldham, J.
Background Shoulder pain is the third most common reason for consultation with a physiotherapist and up to 26% of the general population might be expected to experience an episode at any one time. Disorders of the shoulder muscles and tendons (rotator cuff) are thought to be the commonest cause of this pain. The long-term outcome is frequently poor despite treatment. This means that many patients are exposed to more invasive treatment, e.g. surgery, and/or long-term pain and disability. Patients with this disorder typically receive a course of physiotherapy which might include a range of treatments. Specifically the value of exercise against gravity or resistance (loaded exercise) in the treatment of tendon disorders is promising but appears to be under-used. Loaded exercise in other areas of the body has been favourably evaluated but further investigation is needed to evaluate the impact of these exercises in the shoulder and particularly the role of home based or supervised exercise versus usual treatment requiring clinic attendance. Methods/Design A single-centre pragmatic unblinded parallel group randomised controlled trial will evaluate the effectiveness of a self-managed loaded exercise programme versus usual clinic based physiotherapy. A total of 210 study participants with a primary complaint of shoulder pain suggestive of a rotator cuff disorder will be recruited from NHS physiotherapy waiting lists and allocated to receive a programme of self-managed exercise or usual physiotherapy using a process of block randomisation with sealed opaque envelopes. Baseline assessment for shoulder pain, function and quality of life will be undertaken with the Shoulder Pain & Disability Index, the Patient Specific Functional Scale and the SF-36. Follow-up evaluations will be completed at 3, 6 and 12?months by postal questionnaire. Both interventions will be delivered by NHS Physiotherapist’s. An economic analysis will be conducted from an NHS and Personal Social Services perspective to evaluate cost-effectiveness and a qualitative investigation will be undertaken to develop greater understanding of the experience of undertaking or prescribing exercise as a self-managed therapy. Trial registration number ISRCTN84709751
We hypothesized that botulinumneurotoxin A (BoNtA) positively influences tissue characteristics at the re-insertion site when used as an adjuvant prior to rotator cuff repair. One hundred and sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either a BoNtA or saline-injected control group. BoNtA or saline solution was injected into the supraspinatus muscle one week prior to repair of an artificially created supraspinatus tendon defect. Post-operatively, one subgroup was immobilized using a cast on the operated shoulder while the other had immediate mobilization. Histologically, the fibrocartilage transition zone was more prominent and better organized in the BoNtA groups when compared to the saline control group. In the immediately mobilized BoNtA groups significantly more collagen 2 at the insertion was detected than in the control groups (p<0.05). Fiber orientation of all BoNtA groups was better organized and more perpendicular to the epiphysis compared with control groups. Tendon stiffness differed significantly (p<0.05) between casted BoNtA and casted saline groups. Tendon viscoelasticity was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the immobilized saline groups no matter if repaired with increased or normal repair load. The results of this study suggest that reduction of load at the healing tendon-to-bone interface leads to improved repair tissue properties. PMID:24409812
Ficklscherer, A; Scharf, M; Hartl, T K; Schröder, C; Milz, S; Roßbach, B P; Gülecyüz, M F; Pietschmann, M F; Müller, P E
Rotator cuff tears are a common clinical problem that can result in pain and disability. Previous studies in a rat model showed enhanced tendon to bone healing with postoperative immobilization. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of postimmobilization activity level on insertion site properties and joint mechanics in a rat model. Our hypothesis was that exercise following a short period of immobilization will cause detrimental changes in insertion site properties compared to cage activity following the same period of immobilization, but that passive shoulder mechanics will not be affected. We detached and repaired the supraspinatus tendon of 22 Sprague-Dawley rats, and the injured shoulder was immobilized postoperatively for 2 weeks. Following immobilization, rats were prescribed cage activity or exercise for 12 weeks. Passive shoulder mechanics were determined, and following euthanasia, tendon cross-sectional area and mechanical properties were measured. Exercise following immobilization resulted in significant decreases compared to cage activity in range of motion, tendon stiffness, modulus, percent relaxation, and several parameters from both a structurally based elastic model and a quasi-linear viscoelastic model. Therefore, we conclude that after a short period of immobilization, increased activity is detrimental to both tendon mechanical properties and shoulder joint mechanics, presumably due to increased scar production. PMID:20058271
Peltz, Cathryn D; Sarver, Joseph J; Dourte, Leann M; Würgler-Hauri, Carola C; Williams, Gerald R; Soslowsky, Louis J
Is there an association between the individual anatomy of the scapula and the development of rotator cuff tears or osteoarthritis of the glenohumeral joint?: A radiological study of the critical shoulder angle.
We hypothesised that a large acromial cover with an upwardly tilted glenoid fossa would be associated with degenerative rotator cuff tears (RCTs), and conversely, that a short acromion with an inferiorly inclined glenoid would be associated with glenohumeral osteoarthritis (OA). This hypothesis was tested using a new radiological parameter, the critical shoulder angle (CSA), which combines the measurements of inclination of the glenoid and the lateral extension of the acromion (the acromion index). The CSA was measured on standardised radiographs of three groups: 1) a control group of 94 asymptomatic shoulders with normal rotator cuffs and no OA; 2) a group of 102 shoulders with MRI-documented full-thickness RCTs without OA; and 3) a group of 102 shoulders with primary OA and no RCTs noted during total shoulder replacement. The mean CSA was 33.1° (26.8° to 38.6°) in the control group, 38.0° (29.5° to 43.5°) in the RCT group and 28.1° (18.6° to 35.8°) in the OA group. Of patients with a CSA > 35°, 84% were in the RCT group and of those with a CSA < 30°, 93% were in the OA group. We therefore concluded that primary glenohumeral OA is associated with significantly smaller degenerative RCTs with significantly larger CSAs than asymptomatic shoulders without these pathologies. These findings suggest that individual quantitative anatomy may imply biomechanics that are likely to induce specific types of degenerative joint disorders. PMID:23814246
Moor, B K; Bouaicha, S; Rothenfluh, D A; Sukthankar, A; Gerber, C
Background and purpose Rotational osteotomies are usually necessary to correct pronounced rotational deformities in ambulant children with cerebral palsy. The effects of soft tissue surgery on such deformities are unclear. In this retrospective study, we determined whether multilevel soft tissue surgery, performed to correct deformities in the sagittal plane, would also have an effect on rotational parameters. Patients and methods We examined 28 ambulant children with spastic diplegia with an average age of 12 (7–19) years. They underwent multilevel soft tissue surgery (with 6 surgical procedures per child on average). 3-dimensional gait analysis was performed preoperatively and at an average follow-up of 1–2 years. The indications for surgery were abnormalities in the sagittal plane. Gait analysis data from healthy children were used in defining normal ranges of kinematic variables. For assessment of changes in the transverse plane, the angles of foot progression, hip rotation, and pelvic rotation were studied. Results The transverse plane kinematic results showed no statistically significant postoperative changes when the preoperative parameters were within the normal range (within 2 SD of the mean of the normal material). In limbs where the preoperative values were abnormal (more than 2 SD above the normal mean), there was a mean reduction in internal foot progression of 12° (p = 0.01) and a mean reduction in external pelvic rotation of 6° (p = 0.02). The effect was more pronounced in children under 12 years of age. Internal hip rotation was not significantly reduced. Interpretation When the preoperative rotational parameters were abnormal, multilevel soft tissue surgery resulted in improved transverse plane kinematics. This could be of importance in preoperative decision making, especially when there is doubt as to whether to include rotational osteotomies in multilevel operations in younger children.
In order to clarify the function of the tendinous portion of the long head of biceps brachii, intra-articular lesions of the glenoid labrum and the bicipital long head were investigated on 100 shoulder joints in 50 cadavers. From the point of anatomical features, the glenoid cavity is deepened and widened by the glenoid labrum, and the bicipital long head, which arises from the superior glenoid labrum, covers the humeral head anterosuperiorly and stabilizes the humeral head in the glenoid cavity. The pathological changes of the glenoid labrum with cuff tear (46 joints) included hypertrophy, fraying and erosion, while the bicipital long head was widened and flattened. These pathological changes progressed in company with the extension of the cuff tear. From these results, it is concluded that the intra-articular elements, such as the glenoid labrum and the bicipital long tendon play significant roles as glenohumeral stabilizers. PMID:2723500
Suprascapular nerve and rotator cuff function are intimately connected. The incidence of suprascapular neuropathy has been increasing due to improved understanding of the disease entity and detection methods. The nerve dysfunction often results from a traction injury or compression, and a common cause is increased tension on the nerve from retracted rotator cuff tears. Suprascapular neuropathy should be considered as a diagnosis if patients exhibit posterosuperior shoulder pain, atrophy or weakness of supraspinatus and infraspinatus without rotator cuff tear, or massive rotator cuff with retraction. Magnetic resonance imaging and electromyography studies are indicated to evaluate the rotator cuff and function of the nerve. Fluoroscopically guided injections to the suprascapular notch can also be considered as a diagnostic option. Nonoperative treatment of suprascapular neuropathy can be successful, but in the recent decade there is increasing evidence espousing the success of surgical treatment, in particular arthroscopic suprascapular nerve decompression. There is often reliable improvement in shoulder pain, but muscle atrophy recovery is less predictable. More clinical data are needed to determine the role of rotator cuff repair and nerve decompression in the same setting.
Shi, Lewis L.; Freehill, Michael T.; Yannopoulos, Paul; Warner, Jon J. P.
To determine whether the filling of tracheal tube cuffs with saline would decrease their combustibility during laser surgery, 20 polyvinylchloride tracheal tubes were studied. The cuffed end of each tracheal tube was inserted into the neck of an empty flask, and the tube and flask were flushed with oxygen for 5 min before cuff inflation. Ten tracheal tubes had their cuffs inflated with air, and 10 were inflated with saline. A Lasersonics LS880 CO2 laser, set to 5 W for five of each of the two types of filled cuffs and to 40 W for the other pair of five tubes, was fired continuously at the cuffs for up to 1 min. No combustion occurred at the 5-W setting. The times to cuff perforation when the laser was set at 5 W were (mean +/- SD) 1.00 +/- 0.83 and 4.21 +/- 3.91 s for the air- and saline-filled cuffs, respectively, a difference that was not statistically significant. The time to deflation of the saline-filled cuff (104.6 +/- 67.5 s) was, however, significantly longer than that of the air-filled cuff (2.59 +/- 1.97 s). When the tracheal tube cuffs were exposed to 40-W laser radiation, the cuff and adjacent tube shaft ignited in all cases when the cuffs were inflated with air, but only in one of five cases when the cuffs were filled with saline (P less than 0.05). The filling of tracheal tube cuffs with saline provides simple, moderately effective partial protection of the cuff of endotracheal tubes during CO2 laser airway surgery. PMID:1985502
Sosis, M B; Dillon, F X
Surveys have suggested one of the most important determinants of orthopaedic resident selection is completion of an orthopaedic clerkship at the program director's institution. The purpose of this study was to further elucidate the significance of visiting externships on the resident selection process. We retrospectively reviewed data for all medical students applying for orthopaedic surgery residency from six medical schools between 2006 and 2008, for a total of 143 applicants. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to compare students who matched successfully versus those who did not in terms of number of away rotations, United States Medical Licensing Examination scores, class rank, and other objective factors. Of the 143 medical students, 19 did not match in orthopaedics (13.3%), whereas the remaining 124 matched. On multiple logistic regression analysis, whether a student did more than one home rotation, how many away rotations a student performed, and United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 score were factors in the odds of match success. Orthopaedic surgery is one of the most competitive specialties in medicine; the away rotation remains an important factor in match success. PMID:19582529
Baldwin, Keith; Weidner, Zachary; Ahn, Jaimo; Mehta, Samir
There are few clear guidelines on the proper use of tourniquets in pediatric surgery, in particular on how to set the tourniquet pressure, how to select the most appropriate cuff, and whether to use some type of soft padding beneath the cuff for limb protection. The authors could find only one published study specifically addressing pediatric cuff pressures, and no studies showing what types of cuff and/or padding create the smoothest skin surface under the cuff. Of 46 pediatric orthopaedic surgeons surveyed, 44 use a tourniquet 4.6 times per week on average and 2 have discontinued their use as a result of complications. To set cuff pressure, 13 of 44 use a standard value, 14 of 44 base pressure on age, extremity, and size, and 17 of 44 base cuff pressure on blood pressure. Thirty-four of 44 use skin protection under the cuff, but damage to the skin is common, accounting for 21 of the 67 reported complications. Nerve (15/67) and muscle (8/67) complications, related to both pressure and tourniquet time, were also reported. Using a molding and digital measurement technique, the authors compared the maximum wrinkle heights and the sums of all wrinkle heights in the skin surface under four different cuff/padding configurations. In a total of 44 trials on the upper arms and thighs of two healthy child volunteers, one type of pediatric cuff with a matching limb-protection sleeve designed and recommended by the manufacturer (Delfi) produced significantly fewer, less severe pinches and wrinkles in the skin surface than a second type of tourniquet cuff (Zimmer) with or without two layers of commonly available cast padding, and a third type (Kidde) with padding. With the second type of cuff, using cast padding reduced skin wrinkling compared to applying the same cuff on unprotected skin. In view of the survey, clinical literature, and results of this study, a guideline for use of pediatric tourniquets is proposed. PMID:11521040
Tredwell, S J; Wilmink, M; Inkpen, K; McEwen, J A
Background To prevent endothelium and nerve lesions, tracheal tube and laryngeal mask cuff pressure is to be maintained at a low level and yet be high enough to secure air sealing. Method In a prospective quality-control study, 201 patients undergoing surgery during anaesthesia (without the use of nitrous oxide) were included for determination of the cuff pressure of the tracheal tubes and laryngeal masks. Results In the 119 patients provided with a tracheal tube, the median cuff pressure was 30 (range 8 - 100) cm H2O and the pressure exceeded 30 cm H2O (upper recommended level) for 54 patients. In the 82 patients provided with a laryngeal mask, the cuff pressure was 95 (10 - 121) cm H2O and above 60 cm H2O (upper recommended level) for 56 patients and in 34 of these patients, the pressure exceeded the upper cuff gauge limit (120 cm H2O). There was no association between cuff pressure and age, body mass index, type of surgery, or time from induction of anaesthesia to the time the cuff pressure was measured. Conclusion For maintenance of epithelia flow and nerve function and at the same time secure air sealing, this evaluation indicates that the cuff pressure needs to be checked as part of the procedures involved in induction of anaesthesia and eventually checked during surgery.
...Cuff spreader. (a) Identification. A cuff spreader is a device used to install tracheal tube cuffs on tracheal or tracheostomy tubes. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket...
The microdebrider is a common tool used in endoscopic sinus surgery for removing polypoid and sinonasal tissue. It uses rotating blades and an integrated suction device for controlled removal of tissue under video-endoscopic visualization. To our knowledge, the application of the microdebrider for endoscopic removal of skull base tumors has not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the utility of the rotation-suction microdebrider as a tool for endoscopic endonasal removal of solid and fibrous skull base tumors. Thirty-two patients underwent endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery where the rotation-suction microdebrider was used as the primary tool for tumor removal and debulking. Pathologies included a variety of anterior skull base meningiomas, sinonasal skull base malignancies, juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas, schwannomas, and other skull base lesions. Gross total and near total removal was achieved in 87.5% (28/32) of patients, and subtotal removal was performed in 12.5% (4/32) of patients. The microdebrider allowed efficient debulking and removal of solid and fibrous tumors, such as meningiomas, that were not responsive to standard ultrasonic aspiration. There were no complications of orbital or neurovascular injury, or thermal injury to the nostril. The rotation-suction microdebrider is a useful tool for endoscopic endonasal removal of skull base tumors. This is particularly useful for solid and fibrous tumors that are not responsive to standard ultrasonic aspiration. For intracranial tumors, it is critical to remain inside the tumor capsule during debulking so as to avoid injury to the surrounding neurovascular structures. PMID:24060626
Patel, Smruti K; Husain, Qasim; Kuperan, Arjuna B; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Liu, James K
A rotator cuff tear causes morphologic changes in rotator cuff muscles and tendons and reduced shoulder strength. The mechanisms by which these changes affect joint strength are not understood. This study's purpose was to empirically determine rotation moment arms for subregions of supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and for teres minor, and to test the hypothesis that subregions of the cuff tendons increase
Joseph E. Langenderfer; Cameron Patthanacharoenphon; James E. Carpenter; Richard E. Hughes
In vitro study on high rotation (up to over 300,000 rpm) deep removal (up to 150 microm) of ceramic prostheses, made of a machinable ceramic, Vita Mark II, was performed in dental surgery using a high-speed dental handpiece. Dental clinical removal relevance, including tangential and normal grinding forces, specific grinding energy, and surface roughness, was investigated to establish the relationships among the surgery parameters, chip geometry, and fracture mechanism. The results show that both the tangential and normal grinding forces increased with increases in both depth of cut and maximum undeformed chip thickness, but decreased with an increase in grinding speed. Specific grinding energy decreased with increase in the depth of cut and the maximum undeformed chip thickness, but increased with an increase in grinding speed. Surface roughness and morphology appeared to be independent of the increases in depth of cut, grinding speed, and maximum chip thickness. The limitation for deep removal using the dental handpiece was found that the operation at the depth of cut of 150 microm or beyond resulted in a huge normal force exertion of 3 N with a great variation. The microfracture, the lateral fracture, and the ductile microcutting were found to occur simultaneously in dental surgery to remove the ceramic prostheses. PMID:17238163
Yin, L; Han, Y G; Song, X F; Li, J; Wang, H
A mechanical occlusive cuff controller suitable for blood flow experiments in space shuttle flights is described. The device requires 115 volt ac power and a pressurized gas source. Two occluding cuff pressures (30 and 50 mmHg) are selectable by a switch on the front panel. A screw driver adjustment allows accurate cuff pressurization levels for under or oversized limbs. Two pressurization cycles (20 second and 2 minutes) can be selected by a front panel switch. Adjustment of the timing cycles is also available through the front panel. A pushbutton hand switch allows remote start of the cuff inflation cycle. A stop/reset switch permits early termination of the cycle and disabling of the controller to prevent inadvertent reactivation. Pressure in the cuff is monitored by a differential aneroid barometer. In addition, an electrocardiogram trigger circuit permits the initiation of the pressurization cycle by an externally supplied ECG cycle.
Baker, J. T.
An 86-year-old female with a history of right rotator cuff injury was admitted for arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia. There were no remarkable immediate postoperative complications. However, while recovering in the general ward, she developed dyspnea with hypoxia. She was immediately treated with oxygen, and antibiotics after pneumomediastinum was confirmed on both chest x-ray and chest computed tomography. Subcutaneous emphysema on either face or neck followed by arthroscopic shoulder surgery was common, but pneumomediastinum with hypoxia is a rare but extremely dangerous complication. Thus we would like to report our case and its pathology, the diagnosis, the treatment and prevention, with literature review.
Kim, Hae-Kyoung; Ko, Eun-Sung; Kim, Jee-Young; Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Jae-Yun
A flexible connector apparatus used to join two stiff non-deformable members, such as piping. The apparatus is provided with one or more flexible sections or assemblies each utilizing a bellows of a rolling cuff type connected between two ridge members, with the bellows being supported by a back-up ring, such that only the curved end sections of the bellows are unsupported. Thus, the bellows can be considered as being of a tube-shaped configuration and thus have high pressure resistance. The components of the flexible apparatus are sealed or welded one to another such that it is fluid tight.
Lambert, Donald R. (Livermore, CA)
Inherent disadvantages of reverse shoulder arthroplasty designs based on the Grammont concept have raised a renewed interest in less-medialised designs and techniques. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) with the fully-constrained, less-medialised, Bayley-Walker prosthesis performed for the treatment of rotator-cuff-deficient shoulders with glenohumeral arthritis. A total of 97 arthroplasties in 92 patients (53 women and 44 men, mean age 67 years (standard deviation (sd) 10, (49 to 85)) were retrospectively reviewed at a mean follow-up of 50 months ((sd 25) (24 to 96)). The mean Oxford shoulder score and subjective shoulder value improved from 47 (sd 9) and 24 points (sd 18) respectively before surgery to 28 (sd 11) and 61 (sd 24) points after surgery (p < 0.001). The mean pain at rest decreased from 5.3 (sd 2.8) to 1.5 (sd 2.3) (p < 0.001). The mean active forward elevation and external rotation increased from 42(°)(sd 30) and 9(°) (sd 15) respectively pre-operatively to 78(°) (sd 39) and 24(°) (sd 17) post-operatively (p < 0.001). A total of 20 patients required further surgery for complications; 13 required revision of components. No patient developed scapular notching. The Bayley-Walker prosthesis provides reliable pain relief and reasonable functional improvement for patients with symptomatic cuff-deficient shoulders. Compared with other designs of RSA, it offers a modest improvement in forward elevation, but restores external rotation to some extent and prevents scapular notching. A longer follow-up is required to assess the survival of the prosthesis and the clinical performance over time. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:936-42. PMID:24986948
Middleton, C; Uri, O; Phillips, S; Barmpagiannis, K; Higgs, D; Falworth, M; Bayley, I; Lambert, S
Introduction: Application of oxidized regenerated cellulose is commonly performed in laparoscopy to achieve hemostasis during surgery. The appearance of an abscess resembles oxidized regenerated cellulose, causing imaging studies to be difficult to interpret. Case Description: We describe the cases of 3 patients who underwent oxidized regenerated cellulose placement during laparoscopic gynecologic surgery. They subsequently presented with signs and symptoms resembling an abscess. Computed tomographic imaging can be challenging to interpret in such cases; radiologic findings can be used to differentiate between the characteristics of oxidized regenerated cellulose and those of abscess formation on the vaginal cuff. Discussion: Oxidized regenerated cellulose has an appearance that often mimics postsurgical abscess formation. There are distinct characteristics that distinguish both findings. It is essential that patients' records accurately describe the presence and location of regenerated oxidized cellulose when placed intraoperatively, and this information must be relayed to the interpreting radiologist to facilitate medical diagnosis and guide clinical management.
Harkins, Gerald; Dykes, Thomas; Gockley, Allison; Davies, Matthew
A study of bilateral shoulder muscle activity during the golf swing was undertaken using electromyography and high-speed photography. Understanding of the muscle firing patterns could lead to injury prevention and development of appropriate training and condition ing regimens. The swings of seven adult male right- handed professional golfers without shoulder problems were examined. Indwelling electrodes were inserted into the supraspinatus,
Frank W. Jobe; Diane R. Moynes; Daniel J. Antonelli
Aims and Objectives: We assessed the clinical impact of goal-directed coagulation management based on rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) in patients undergoing emergent cardiovascular surgical procedures. Materials and Methods: Over a 2-year period, data from 71 patients were collected prospectively and blood samples were obtained for coagulation testing. Administration of packed red blood cells (PRBC) and hemostatic products were guided by an algorithm using ROTEM-derived information and hemoglobin level. Based on the amount of PRBC transfused, two groups were considered: High bleeders (?5 PRBC; HB) and low bleeders (<5 PRBC; LB). Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, unpaired t-test and analysis of variance as appropriate. Results: Pre-operatively, the HB group (n = 31) was characterized by lower blood fibrinogen and decreased clot amplitude at ROTEM compared with the LB group (n = 40). Intraoperatively, larger amounts of fibrinogen, fresh frozen plasma and platelets were required to normalize the coagulation parameters in the HB group. Post-operatively, the incidence of major thromboembolic and ischemic events did not differ between the two groups (<10%) and the observed in-hospital mortality was significantly less than expected by the Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity (POSSUM score, 22% vs. 35% in HB and 5% vs. 13% in LB group). Conclusions: ROTEM-derived information is helpful to detect early coagulation abnormalities and to monitor the response to hemostatic therapy. Early goal-directed management of coagulopathy may improve outcome after cardiovascular surgery. PMID:24732608
Sartorius, Danièle; Waeber, Jean-Luc; Pavlovic, Gordana; Frei, Angela; Diaper, John; Myers, Patrick; Cassina, Tiziano; Licker, Marc
Conventional, low-residual-volume intratracheal cuffs exert possible trachea damaging pressures at ground level and definitely damaging pressures upon ascent to 8,000 ft. Also, these cuffs exert excessively high pressures with decompression to 35,000 ft. ...
D. L. Stoner J. P. Cooke
Background and Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate whether the use of barbed suture for vaginal cuff closure is associated with a decrease in postoperative vaginal bleeding compared with cuff closure with polyglactin 910 in patients who have undergone laparoscopic hysterectomy. Methods: We performed a cohort study of patients who underwent laparoscopic hysterectomy between January 2008 and July 2012 by the minimally invasive gynecologic surgery division of the Gynecology, Obstetrics and Human Reproduction Department at Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá University Hospital, Bogotá, Colombia. Results: A total of 232 women were studied: 163 were in the polyglactin 910 group, and 69 were in the barbed suture group. The main outcome, postoperative vaginal bleeding, was documented in 53 cases (32.5%) in the polyglactin 910 group and in 13 cases (18.8%) in the barbed suture group (relative risk, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.34–0.9; P = .03). No statistically significant differences were found in other postoperative outcomes, such as emergency department admission, vaginal cuff dehiscence, infectious complications, and the presence of granulation tissue. Conclusion: In this study an inverse association was observed between the use of barbed suture for vaginal cuff closure during laparoscopic hysterectomy and the presence of postoperative vaginal bleeding.
Medina, Byron Cardoso; Riano, Giovanni; Hoyos, Luis R.; Otalora, Camila
Massive rotator cuff tears may not be primarily repairable with salvage options not necessarily providing acceptable results. Extrinsic tendon transfer is a significant undertaking with prolonged rehabilitation and variable outcome. A novel technique for the reconstruction of massive tears, not amenable to primary repair, by performing a transfer of the intrinsic posterior rotator cuff onto an intact, tenodesed long head of biceps tendon acting as a scaffold for the intrinsic transfer is described. The clinical results at short to medium term in 17 initial patients are presented. Encouraging results from this study suggest that this is a viable option for the management of massive rotator cuff tears with an intact posterior cuff with results equal or superior to other reconstructive techniques.
Fletcher, Matt D. A.
Results of this study indicate that there is no significant difference in degrees of rotation or rotational strength of the knee joint between surgical and nonsurgical limbs of rehabilitated subjects. (MM)
Blanke, Daniel J.
Background Musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremity are common reasons for patients to seek care and undergo ambulatory surgery. The objective of our study was to assess the overall and age-adjusted utilization rates of rotator cuff repair, shoulder arthroscopy performed for indications other than rotator cuff repair, carpal tunnel release, and wrist arthroscopy performed for indications other than carpal tunnel release in the United States. We also compared demographics, indications, and operating room time for these procedures. Methods We used the 2006 National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery to estimate the number of procedures of interest performed in the United States in 2006. We combined these data with population size estimates from the 2006 U.S. Census Bureau to calculate rates per 10,000 persons. Results An estimated 272,148 (95% confidence intervals (CI)?=?218,994, 325,302) rotator cuff repairs, 257,541 (95% CI?=?185,268, 329,814) shoulder arthroscopies excluding those for cuff repairs, 576,924 (95% CI?=?459,239, 694,609) carpal tunnel releases, and 25,250 (95% CI?=?17,304, 33,196) wrist arthroscopies excluding those for carpal tunnel release were performed. Overall, carpal tunnel release had the highest utilization rate (37.3 per 10,000 persons in persons of age 45–64 years; 38.7 per 10,000 persons in 65–74 year olds, and; 44.2 per 10,000 persons in the age-group 75 years and older). Among those undergoing rotator cuff repairs, those in the age-group 65–74 had the highest utilization (28.3 per 10,000 persons). The most common indications for non-cuff repair related shoulder arthroscopy were impingement syndrome, periarthritis, bursitis, and instability/SLAP tears. Non-carpal tunnel release related wrist arthroscopy was most commonly performed for ligament sprains and diagnostic arthroscopies for pain and articular cartilage disorders. Conclusions Our data shows substantial age and demographic differences in the utilization of these commonly performed upper extremity ambulatory procedures. While over one million upper extremity procedures of interest were performed, evidence-based clinical indications for these procedures remain poorly defined.
Summary Latissimus dorsi transfer is our preferred treatment for active disabled patients with a posterosuperior massive cuff tear. We present an arthroscopically assisted technique which avoids an incision through the deltoid obtaining a better and faster clinical outcome. The patient is placed in lateral decubitus. After the arthroscopic evaluation of the lesion through a posterior and a posterolateral portal, with the limb in traction we perform the preparation of the greater tuberosity of the humerus. We place the arm in abduction and internal rotation and we proceed to the harvest of the latissimus dorsi and the tendon preparation by stitching the two sides using very resistant sutures. After restoring limb traction, under arthroscopic visualization, we pass a curved grasper through the posterolateral portal by going to the armpit in the space between the teres minor and the posterior deltoid. Once the grasper has exited the access at the level of the axilla we fix two drainage transparent tubes, each with a wire inside, and, withdrawing it back, we shuttle the two tubes in the subacromial space. After tensioning the suture wires from the anterior portals these are assembled in a knotless anchor of 5.5 mm that we place in the prepared site on the greater tuberosity of the humerus. A shoulder brace at 15° of abduction and neutral rotation protect the patient for the first month post-surgery but physical therapy can immediately start.
De Cupis, Vincenzo; De Cupis, Mauro
Latissimus dorsi tendon transfer is a method for surgical treatment of massive irreparable posterosuperior cuff tears. It partially restores active anteflexion, external rotation, and function of the shoulder but does not significantly increase strength of the shoulder. It is contraindicated in case of pseudoparalytic shoulder; associated irreparable subscapularis tear, deltoid palsy, and in case of associated osteoarthritis, as an isolated procedure. Results are inferior when performed as a secondary procedure compared with a primary procedure. However, latissimus dorsi tendon transfer is an attractive solution to improve shoulder mobility and function of young and non osteoarthritic patients whose previous surgical treatment of massive postero-superior irreparable rotator cuff tear failed. As a primary procedure, latissimus dorsi tendon transfer competes with debridement, biceps tenotomy, and partial cuff repair. In association with reverse shoulder arthroplasty, it restores active external rotation in osteoarthritic patients with active external rotation deficit. New arthroscopic assisted techniques might improve results in the future. PMID:24458942
Grimberg, Jean; Kany, Jean
Surveys have suggested one of the most important determinants of orthopaedic resident selection is completion of an orthopaedic\\u000a clerkship at the program director’s institution. The purpose of this study was to further elucidate the significance of visiting\\u000a externships on the resident selection process. We retrospectively reviewed data for all medical students applying for orthopaedic\\u000a surgery residency from six medical schools
Keith Baldwin; Zachary Weidner; Jaimo Ahn; Samir Mehta
A flexible connector apparatus used to join two stiff non-deformable members, such as piping, is described. The apparatus is provided with one or more flexible sections or assemblies each utilizing a bellows of a rolling cuff type connected between two ridge members, with the bellows being supported by a back-up ring, such that only the curved end sections of the bellows are unsupported. Thus, the bellows can be considered as being of a tube-shaped configuration and thus have high pressure resistance. The components of the flexible apparatus are sealed or welded one to another such that it is fluid tight.
Background Despite good results of primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA), the number of revision total knee arthroplasties (rTKAs) is rising. Proper implant position is essential, since malposition leads to worse clinical outcome. In rTKA most anatomical landmarks have disappeared because of extensive bone loss, making it more difficult to adequately implant the knee prosthesis. In primary TKA, computer-assisted surgery (CAS) leads to better prosthetic alignment than mechanical navigation guides. Literature about the use of CAS in rTKA is scarce though, and the effect on rotational prosthetic alignment has not been investigated yet. Hence the primary objective of this study is to compare rotational prosthetic alignment when using CAS in rTKA compared to a mechanical navigation guide. Secondary objectives are to compare prosthetic alignment in the coronal and sagittal planes. It is hypothesized that CAS leads to better rotational, coronal and sagittal prosthetic alignment when used during rTKA. Methods/Design A prospective clinical intervention study with use of a historical control group will be conducted. Forty-four patients with a minimum age of 18 to be admitted for CAS-rTKA between September 2012 and September 2015 will be included in the intervention group. Forty-four patients with a minimum age of 18 who underwent rTKA with the use of a mechanical navigation guide between January 2002 and April 2012 will form the historical control group. Both groups will be matched according to gender and type of revision prosthesis. Rotational prosthesis alignment will be evaluated using a CT-scan of the knee joint. Discussion Proper implant position is essential, since malposition leads to worse clinical outcome. Several studies show a significantly positive influence of CAS on prosthetic alignment in primary TKA, but literature about the use of CAS in rTKA is limited. The purpose of this study is thus to investigate the influence of CAS during rTKA on postoperative prosthetic alignment, compared to mechanical navigation guides. Trial registration Netherlands National Trial Register NTR3512
Summary: Twenty fresh frozen cadaver shoulders were dissected in order to study the rotator cable-crescent complex. The rotator crescent is a term that we have used to describe the thin, crescent-shaped sheet of rotator cuff com- prising the distal portions of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus insertions. The crescent was found to be bounded on its proximal margin by a thick
Blood pressure cuff dimensions directly affect accuracy of blood pressure measurements. For accurate blood pressure measurements, the width of the cuff must be proportional to arm circumference. A cuff that is too narrow results in falsely high blood pressure values, and a cuff that is too wide results in falsely low values. Some blood pressure standards permit a single width cuff regardless of arm circumference. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether 12?cm single width cuffs currently permitted by the British Hypertension Society (BHS) standard are sufficiently accurate to pass the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI), BHS, and European Society of Hypertension (ESH) International Protocol (IP1) Working Group standards for accuracy. Each of 101 subjects was tested sequentially with both a single and a proportional width cuff in random order. Auscultatory blood pressure was determined by 2 observers using a double binaural stethoscope. Accuracy was determined by comparing the resulting differences with the AAMI, BHS, and IP1 standards for accuracy. The single width blood pressure cuff failed the AAMI accuracy standards for both systolic blood pressure on large arms and diastolic blood pressure on small and large arms, and overall. The single width cuffs, also, failed the BHS accuracy standards for diastolic BP. In conclusion, these single width cuffs could result in a significant number of people being misdiagnosed and mistreated for hypertension. Therefore, to avoid 'cuff hypertension' and 'cuff hypotension', the cuff width should be proportional to arm circumference. PMID:21048776
Andrews, Jeffrey C; Dewitt, Blake; Czerwien, Terry E; Bijelic, Miro; Latman, Neal S
In endotracheal intubation, a secured airway includes an insufflated cuff distal to the vocal cords. High cuff pressures may lead to major complications occurring after a short period of time. Cuff pressures are not routinely checked after intubation in the prehospital setting, dealing with a vulnerable group of patients. We reviewed cuff pressures after intubation by Helicopter Emergency Medical Services and paramedics noted in a dispatch database. Initial cuff pressures are almost all too high, needing adjustment to be in the safe zone. Dutch paramedics lack manometers and, therefore, only few paramedic intubations are followed by cuff pressure measurements. We recommend cuff pressure measurements after all (prehospital) intubations and, therefore, all ambulances need to be equipped with cuff manometers. PMID:23100319
Peters, Joost H; Hoogerwerf, Nico
The goal of this study is to evaluate relapse after orthognathic surgery of skeletal class III with anterior open bite depending on the posterior impaction and mandibular counterclockwise rotation. Patients (n = 29) were divided into two groups according to the change of mandibular occlusal plane angle (MnOP): Group A had a clockwise change of MnOP > 0° (n = 11) and Group B had a counterclockwise change of MnOP < -2° (n = 18). Lateral cephalograms were analyzed preoperatively, and at immediate stage, six weeks, six months, and one year after surgery. One year after surgery, the stability of the maxilla was good in both groups. Upward movement of the mandible was observed six weeks after surgery due to mandibular autorotation. The amount of mean relapse was small, although a significant difference was observed horizontally between groups. Group B demonstrated more forward movement of B point, pogonion, and menton than Group A (p < 0.05). SNB angle increased in both groups (p < 0.05). At one year follow up, good occlusal stability was observed in both groups with positive overbite. Our study suggested that bimaxillary procedures with clockwise and counterclockwise rotation of mandibular occlusal planes for correction of mandibular prognathism with anterior open bite appeared to be relatively stable procedures. PMID:24954529
Kor, Hok Sim; Yang, Hoon Joo; Hwang, Soon Jung
This is a case series of rehabilitation failures that resulted in severe reactive depression from patients unnecessarily bereft of verbal communication by being left to breathe or be ventilated via tracheostomy tubes, with or without inflated cuffs, for months to years. PMID:24879555
Bach, John R; Gonçalves, Miguel R; Rodriguez, Pedro Landete; Saporito, Louis; Soares, Luisa
Recently, three-dimensional (3D) rotational x-ray imaging has been combined with navigation technology, enabling direct 3D navigation for minimally invasive image guided interventions. In this study, phantom experiments are used to determine the accuracy of such a navigation set-up for a mobile C-arm with propeller motion. After calibration of the C-arm system, the accuracy is evaluated by pinpointing divots on a special-purpose phantom with known geometry. This evaluation is performed both with and without C-arm motion in between calibration and registration for navigation. The variation caused by each of the individual transformations in the calibration and registration process is also studied. The feasibility of direct navigation on 3D rotational x-ray images for functional endoscopic sinus surgery has been evaluated in a cadaver navigation experiment. Navigation accuracy was approximately 1.0 mm, which is sufficient for functional endoscopic sinus surgery. C-arm motion in between calibration and registration slightly degraded the registration accuracy by approximately 0.3 mm. Standard deviations of each of the transformations were in the range 0.15-0.31 mm. In the cadaver experiment, the navigation images were considered in good correspondence with the endoscopic images by an experienced ENT surgeon. Availability of 3D localization information provided by the navigation system was considered valuable by the ENT surgeon.
van de Kraats, Everine B.; Carelsen, Bart; Fokkens, Wytske J.; Boon, Sjirk N.; Noordhoek, Niels; Niessen, Wiro J.; van Walsum, Theo
... tuberosity, I think there's ample evidence from basic science work and from also clinical work that double- ... least that it's multifactorial. We know from basic science for people like Christian Gerber and many others ...
The skin is incised 1 to 2 cm distal to the lateral portal. A transosseous tunnel is created through the greater tuberosity by a sharp penetrator, entering 1.5 to 2 cm distal to the top of the greater tuberosity. The penetrator exits medially, between the tip of the greater tuberosity and the articular surface of the humeral head, in the middle of the footprint. The first anchor, a 5-mm Spiralok (DePuy Mitek, Norwood, MA) is placed at the penetrator's exit site on the footprint. Using a specially designed suture leader, the lateral limb of the suture in the anchor, which passes through the previously created transosseous tunnel, is taken from the anchor and pulled out. The other suture end is passed through the supraspinatus tendon. The second suture, placed superficially in the anchor, is passed from the anchor through the supraspinatus tendon, as a mattress suture. If more anchors are required, the procedure should be repeated. The transosseous suture limb and the suture limb that is passed through the supraspinatus tendon are tied through the lateral portal. The knot tying is then performed with a sliding Delimar knot. The mattress suture, passing through the supraspinatus tendon, is tied through the anterior lateral portal. The knot tying procedure is repeated depending on the number of anchors. PMID:16651169
Cicak, Nikola; Klobucar, Hrvoje; Bicanic, Goran; Trsek, Denis
A rotator cuff tear causes morphologic changes in rotator cuff muscles and tendons and reduced shoulder strength. The mechanisms by which these changes affect joint strength are not understood. This study's purpose was to empirically determine rotation moment arms for subregions of supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and for teres minor, and to test the hypothesis that subregions of the cuff tendons increase their effective moment arms through connections to other subregions. Tendon excursions were measured for full ranges of rotation on 10 independent glenohumeral specimens with the humerus abducted in the scapular plane at 10 and 60 degrees . Supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons were divided into equal width subregions. Two conditions were tested: tendon divided to the musculotendinous junction, and tendon divided to the insertion on the humerus. Moment arms were determined from tendon excursion via the principle of virtual work. Moment arms for the infraspinatus (p < 0.001) and supraspinatus (p < 0.001) were significantly greater when the tendon was only divided to the musculotendinous junction versus division to the humeral head. Moment arms across subregions of infraspinatus (p < 0.001) and supraspinatus (p < 0.001) were significantly different. A difference in teres minor moment arm was not found for the two cuff tendon conditions. Moment arm differences between muscle subregions and for tendon division conditions have clinical implications. Interaction between cuff regions could explain why some subjects retain strength after a small cuff tear. This finding helps explain why a partial cuff repair may be beneficial when a complete repair is not possible. Data presented here can help differentiate between cuff tear cases that would benefit from cuff repair and cases for which cuff repair might not be as favorable. PMID:16779813
Langenderfer, Joseph E; Patthanacharoenphon, Cameron; Carpenter, James E; Hughes, Richard E