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Sample records for roundup tolerant fodder

  1. Long term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Clair, Emilie; Mesnage, Robin; Gress, Steeve; Defarge, Nicolas; Malatesta, Manuela; Hennequin, Didier; de Vendômois, Joël Spiroux

    2012-11-01

    The health effects of a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize (from 11% in the diet), cultivated with or without Roundup, and Roundup alone (from 0.1 ppb in water), were studied 2 years in rats. In females, all treated groups died 2-3 times more than controls, and more rapidly. This difference was visible in 3 male groups fed GMOs. All results were hormone and sex dependent, and the pathological profiles were comparable. Females developed large mammary tumors almost always more often than and before controls, the pituitary was the second most disabled organ; the sex hormonal balance was modified by GMO and Roundup treatments. In treated males, liver congestions and necrosis were 2.5-5.5 times higher. This pathology was confirmed by optic and transmission electron microscopy. Marked and severe kidney nephropathies were also generally 1.3-2.3 greater. Males presented 4 times more large palpable tumors than controls which occurred up to 600 days earlier. Biochemistry data confirmed very significant kidney chronic deficiencies; for all treatments and both sexes, 76% of the altered parameters were kidney related. These results can be explained by the non linear endocrine-disrupting effects of Roundup, but also by the overexpression of the transgene in the GMO and its metabolic consequences. PMID:22999595

  2. Answers to critics: Why there is a long term toxicity due to a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize and to a Roundup herbicide.

    PubMed

    Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Mesnage, Robin; Defarge, Nicolas; Gress, Steeve; Hennequin, Didier; Clair, Emilie; Malatesta, Manuela; de Vendômois, Joël Spiroux

    2013-03-01

    Our recent work (Séralini et al., 2012) remains to date the most detailed study involving the life-long consumption of an agricultural genetically modified organism (GMO). This is true especially for NK603 maize for which only a 90-day test for commercial release was previously conducted using the same rat strain (Hammond et al., 2004). It is also the first long term detailed research on mammals exposed to a highly diluted pesticide in its total formulation with adjuvants. This may explain why 75% of our first criticisms arising within a week, among publishing authors, come from plant biologists, some developing patents on GMOs, even if it was a toxicological paper on mammals, and from Monsanto Company who owns both the NK603 GM maize and Roundup herbicide (R). Our study has limits like any one, and here we carefully answer to all criticisms from agencies, consultants and scientists, that were sent to the Editor or to ourselves. At this level, a full debate is biased if the toxicity tests on mammals of NK603 and R obtained by Monsanto Company remain confidential and thus unavailable in an electronic format for the whole scientific community to conduct independent scrutiny of the raw data. In our article, the conclusions of long-term NK603 and Roundup toxicities came from the statistically highly discriminant findings at the biochemical level in treated groups in comparison to controls, because these findings do correspond in an blinded analysis to the pathologies observed in organs, that were in turn linked to the deaths by anatomopathologists. GM NK603 and R cannot be regarded as safe to date. PMID:23146697

  3. Ethanol production from fodder beet

    SciTech Connect

    Kosaric, M.; Wieczorek, A.; Kliza, S.

    1983-07-01

    Various yeasts such as two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces diastaticus, and Kluyveromyces marxianus were investigated for their ability to ferment fodder beet juice to alcohol. Juice extracted from fodder beet roots without any additives was used as a fermentation substrate. The fermentation kinetic parameters were determined and compared for each species of yeast tested. The best species for fodder beet juice fermentation was chosen and products obtained by fermentation of one hectare of fodder beet plants are given. (Refs. 8).

  4. Differential effects of glyphosate and roundup on human placental cells and aromatase.

    PubMed

    Richard, Sophie; Moslemi, Safa; Sipahutar, Herbert; Benachour, Nora; Seralini, Gilles-Eric

    2005-06-01

    Roundup is a glyphosate-based herbicide used worldwide, including on most genetically modified plants that have been designed to tolerate it. Its residues may thus enter the food chain, and glyphosate is found as a contaminant in rivers. Some agricultural workers using glyphosate have pregnancy problems, but its mechanism of action in mammals is questioned. Here we show that glyphosate is toxic to human placental JEG3 cells within 18 hr with concentrations lower than those found with agricultural use, and this effect increases with concentration and time or in the presence of Roundup adjuvants. Surprisingly, Roundup is always more toxic than its active ingredient. We tested the effects of glyphosate and Roundup at lower nontoxic concentrations on aromatase, the enzyme responsible for estrogen synthesis. The glyphosate-based herbicide disrupts aromatase activity and mRNA levels and interacts with the active site of the purified enzyme, but the effects of glyphosate are facilitated by the Roundup formulation in microsomes or in cell culture. We conclude that endocrine and toxic effects of Roundup, not just glyphosate, can be observed in mammals. We suggest that the presence of Roundup adjuvants enhances glyphosate bioavailability and/or bioaccumulation. PMID:15929894

  5. Differential Effects of Glyphosate and Roundup on Human Placental Cells and Aromatase

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Sophie; Moslemi, Safa; Sipahutar, Herbert; Benachour, Nora; Seralini, Gilles-Eric

    2005-01-01

    Roundup is a glyphosate-based herbicide used worldwide, including on most genetically modified plants that have been designed to tolerate it. Its residues may thus enter the food chain, and glyphosate is found as a contaminant in rivers. Some agricultural workers using glyphosate have pregnancy problems, but its mechanism of action in mammals is questioned. Here we show that glyphosate is toxic to human placental JEG3 cells within 18 hr with concentrations lower than those found with agricultural use, and this effect increases with concentration and time or in the presence of Roundup adjuvants. Surprisingly, Roundup is always more toxic than its active ingredient. We tested the effects of glyphosate and Roundup at lower nontoxic concentrations on aromatase, the enzyme responsible for estrogen synthesis. The glyphosate-based herbicide disrupts aromatase activity and mRNA levels and interacts with the active site of the purified enzyme, but the effects of glyphosate are facilitated by the Roundup formulation in microsomes or in cell culture. We conclude that endocrine and toxic effects of Roundup, not just glyphosate, can be observed in mammals. We suggest that the presence of Roundup adjuvants enhances glyphosate bioavailability and/or bioaccumulation. PMID:15929894

  6. Reforming the Kindergarten Round-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Susan Sidney

    1999-01-01

    Many schools host kindergarten roundups to facilitate children's transition from home to formal education. Roundups should not assess school readiness, but could be a valuable tool to help teachers' meet students' diverse needs. Roundups should open up parent-teacher communications, check for correctable learning impairments, and share meaningful…

  7. Review of Roundup Ready Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roundup Ready (RR) alfalfa is the first forage species commercially released with a genetically modified trait. While not needed by all farmers who grow alfalfa, RR alfalfa may allow some farmers to more effectively establish alfalfa and control certain weed problems. Gene flow potential in alfalf...

  8. Hybrid sugarbeets - fuel from fodder

    SciTech Connect

    Yarris, L.

    1980-05-01

    Plant geneticists at Utah University are exploring the possibility of developing a hybrid sugarbeet especially bred for use in making alcohol fuel. They are aiming at increasing sugar quantity in the beet without having to worry about the quality factors that affect sugar crystallization. A cross between European fodder beets and U.S. sugarbeets which would be resistant to curly top virus disease is envisaged.

  9. Preschool Roundup: Costly Rodeo or Primary Prevention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asbed, Ruth Alice; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Assessment of the Montgomery County (Maryland) preschool health roundup indicated that this standardized screening program is cost-effective for early identification of preschool children who will need health and/or educational intervention to achieve their maximum potential. (MJB)

  10. Roundup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intercom, 1970

    1970-01-01

    A brief review of the important resources, recent developments, and organizational activity in the field of world affairs, including arms control and disarmament; international organization and world order; aid, trade, and development; ethics and war. Many items mentioned are appropriate for use in the classroom. (Author/JB)

  11. Roundup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intercom, 1971

    1971-01-01

    This consists of several topical selections: World Affairs. General; Arms Control and Disarmament; International Organizations; Regional Problems and how they relate to World Stability; Air, Trade and Development; and Ethics and War. Each section covers organizational activity and resources. (JB)

  12. Effects of glyphosate and the glyphosate based herbicides Roundup Original(®) and Roundup Transorb(®) on respiratory morphophysiology of bullfrog tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Rissoli, Rafael Zanelli; Abdalla, Fabio Camargo; Costa, Monica Jones; Rantin, Francisco Tadeu; McKenzie, David John; Kalinin, Ana Lucia

    2016-08-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are widely used in agriculture and are commonly found in water bodies. Roundup Original(®) (RO) contains an isopropylamine glyphosate (GLY) salt containing the surfactant POEA, while Roundup Transorb R(®) (RTR) contains a potassium salt of GLY with unknown surfactants. Both contain different compositions of so-called "inert" ingredients, more toxic than glyphosate. Amphibian tadpoles often experience variations in O2 availability in their aquatic habitats; an ability to tolerate hypoxia can condition their survival and fitness. We evaluated the impacts of sublethal concentrations of GLY (1 mg L(-1)), RO (1 mg L(-1) GLY a.e) and RTR (1 mg L(-1) GLY a.e) on metabolic rate (V·O2 - mLO2 Kg1 h(-1)) of bullfrog tadpoles during normoxia and graded hypoxia, and related this to morphology of their skin, their major site of gas exchange. In control (CT) V·O2 remained unaltered from normoxia until 40 mmHg, indicating a critical O2 tension between 40 and 20 mmHg. GLY significantly reduced V·O2, possibly due to epidermal hypertrophy, which increased O2 diffusion distance to O2 uptake. In contrast, RTR increased V·O2 during hypoxia, indicating an influence of "inert" compounds and surfactants. V·O2 of RO did not differ from CT, suggesting that any increase in V·O2 caused by exposure was antagonized by epidermal hypertrophy. Indeed, all herbicides caused marked alterations in skin morphology, with cell and epithelium wall presenting hyperplasia or hypertrophy and chromatid rupture. In summary, GLY, RO and RTR exert different effects in bullfrog tadpoles, in particular the surfactants and inert compounds appear to influence oxygen uptake. PMID:27160633

  13. 77 FR 44120 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Roundup, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Roundup, MT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  14. 40 CFR 180.583 - Triticonazole; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Commodity Parts per million Grain, cereal, forage, fodder and straw, group 16, except rice 0.10 Grain, cereal, group 15, except rice 0.01 (b) Section 18 emergency exemptions. (c) Tolerances with...

  15. 40 CFR 180.646 - Ipconazole; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., undelinted seed 0.01 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder and straw, group 16, except rice 0.01 Grain, cereal group... Soybean, forage 0.01 Soybean, seed 0.01 (b) Section 18 emergency exemptions. (c) Tolerances with...

  16. 40 CFR 180.646 - Ipconazole; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., undelinted seed 0.01 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder and straw, group 16, except rice 0.01 Grain, cereal group... Soybean, forage 0.01 Soybean, seed 0.01 (b) Section 18 emergency exemptions. (c) Tolerances with...

  17. 40 CFR 180.646 - Ipconazole; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., undelinted seed 0.01 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder and straw, group 16, except rice 0.01 Grain, cereal group... Soybean, forage 0.01 Soybean, seed 0.01 (b) Section 18 emergency exemptions. (c) Tolerances with...

  18. 40 CFR 180.646 - Ipconazole; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., undelinted seed 0.01 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder and straw, group 16, except rice 0.01 Grain, cereal group... Soybean, forage 0.01 Soybean, seed 0.01 (b) Section 18 emergency exemptions. (c) Tolerances with...

  19. 76 FR 70890 - Fenamidone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... fenamidone in or on the cereal grains crop group 15, except rice and the forage, fodder, and straw of cereal grains crop group 16, except rice. Bayer Crop Science requested these tolerances under the Federal Food... Tolerance In the Federal Register of December 15, 2010 (75 FR 78240) (FRL- 8853-1), EPA issued a...

  20. Fodder beets as a feedstock for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, W.

    1981-09-01

    Fodder beets have been shown to be an attractive feedstock for alcohol production, yielding sufficient sugar to produce approximately 1000 gallons of alcohol per acre. Resistance to diseases found in a given region would have to be evaluated. Storage tests have demonstrated that beets can be stored long enough to make them of interest as a feedstock for alcohol production. Further testing is required to evaluate techniques for reducing sugar losses due to sprouting, respiration, and molding.

  1. Effects of Roundup formulations, nutrient addition, and Western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) on aquatic communities.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Rebecca L; Smith, Geoffrey R; Rettig, Jessica E

    2016-06-01

    Aquatic communities can be affected by herbicides, nutrient addition, and non-native fish species. We conducted a mesocosm experiment to examine the direct and interactive effects of three stressors: (1) Roundup formulations (Roundup Weed and Grass Killer(®) and Roundup Poison Ivy and Tough Brush Killer Plus(®)), (2) nutrient addition, and (3) the presence of the non-native Western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), on experimental pond communities. Roundup formulations had the most widespread effects on the zooplankton community, but effects varied between formulations and among taxa. The only significant effect of nutrient addition was a lowering of Daphnia abundance in the nutrient addition treatments. The abundances of Daphnia, mid-sized cladocerans, and total zooplankton were lowered by mosquitofish, but no other taxa showed significant mosquitofish effects. We found several two-way and three-way interactions among the stressors, but these varied among zooplankton taxa. Chlorophyll a levels were higher with nutrient addition but were not significantly affected by Roundup formulation or mosquitofish. Our results suggest toxicity of Roundup formulations varies among taxa, and Roundup formulations differ in their toxicity to zooplankton, but with no cascading effects on primary producers. In addition, interactions among stressors affected the zooplankton community. PMID:26944427

  2. Effects of glyphosate and its formulation, roundup, on reproduction in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Uren Webster, Tamsyn M; Laing, Lauren V; Florance, Hannah; Santos, Eduarda M

    2014-01-21

    Roundup and its active ingredient glyphosate are among the most widely used herbicides worldwide and may contaminate surface waters. Research suggests both Roundup and glyphosate induce oxidative stress in fish and may also cause reproductive toxicity in mammalian systems. We aimed to investigate the reproductive effects of Roundup and glyphosate in fish and the potential associated mechanisms of toxicity. To do this, we conducted a 21-day exposure of breeding zebrafish (Danio rerio) to 0.01, 0.5, and 10 mg/L (glyphosate acid equivalent) Roundup and 10 mg/L glyphosate. 10 mg/L glyphosate reduced egg production but not fertilization rate in breeding colonies. Both 10 mg/L Roundup and glyphosate increased early stage embryo mortalities and premature hatching. However, exposure during embryogenesis alone did not increase embryo mortality, suggesting that this effect was caused primarily by exposure during gametogenesis. Transcript profiling of the gonads revealed 10 mg/L Roundup and glyphosate induced changes in the expression of cyp19a1 and esr1 in the ovary and hsd3b2, cat, and sod1 in the testis. Our results demonstrate that these chemicals cause reproductive toxicity in zebrafish, although only at high concentrations unlikely to occur in the environment, and likely mechanisms of toxicity include disruption of the steroidogenic biosynthesis pathway and oxidative stress. PMID:24364672

  3. Cs-137 concentration in reindeer and its fodder plants.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, K; Rahola, T

    1989-09-01

    Radionuclides, especially the long-lived 137Cs (physical half-life 30 years), are accumulated efficiently in the northern, subarctic, lichen-reindeer-man foodchain. Until the Chernobyl accident the fallout nuclides studied originated from nuclear weapons tests. After this accident some fresh fallout was deposited in Finnish Lapland. Lichens grow very slowly and collect nutrients very efficiently from air, rain and snow. During winter the basic fodder plants for reindeer are lichens and some winter-green plants, shrubs and dry leaves. During the bare-ground season, the reindeer eat various grasses, herbs and leaves etc. Lichens constitute 30-50 per cent of the entire vegetable mass consumed by the reindeer in a year. The highest 137Cs-concentration 2500 Bq/kg dry weight was found in lichen in the middle of the 1960s. In 1985 the concentration had decreased to about 240 Bq/kg dry weight. After the Chernobyl accident the 137Cs-concentration in lichen varied from 200 to 2000 Bq/kg dry weight in Finnish Lapland. In reindeer fodder plant samples collected in the 1980s before the Chernobyl accident the 137Cs-concentration varied from 5 to 970 Bq/kg dry weight. The highest 137Cs-concentration in reindeer meat, about 2500 Bq/kg fresh weight, was found in 1965 and thereafter decreased to about 300 Bq/kg fresh weight in the winter before the Chernobyl accident. After the accident the mean 137Cs-concentration in reindeer meat from the 1986-87 slaughtering period was 720 Bq/kg fresh weight and in 1987-88, 630 Bq/kg fresh weight. PMID:2814447

  4. Effect of glyphosate application on foliar diseases in glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup herbicide, inhibits 5-enol-pyruvyl shikimate 3-phophate synthase (EPSPS), an enzyme found in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Plants engineered for glyphosate tolerance with a glyphosate-insensitive EPSPS take up and translocate the herbicide throughout the p...

  5. Qualitative PCR method for Roundup Ready soybean: interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Takashi; Kasahara, Masaki; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Futo, Satoshi; Sawada, Chihiro; Watai, Masatoshi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Kurosawa, Yasunori; Furui, Satoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Kitta, Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative methods based on PCR have been developed for genetically modified organisms (GMO). Interlaboratory studies were previously conducted for GMO quantitative methods; in this study, an interlaboratory study was conducted for a qualitative method for a GM soybean, Roundup Ready soy (RR soy), with primer pairs designed for the quantitative method of RR soy studied previously. Fourteen laboratories in Japan participated. Each participant extracted DNA from 1.0 g each of the soy samples containing 0, 0.05, and 0.10% of RR soy, and performed PCR with primer pairs for an internal control gene (Le1) and RR soy followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The PCR product amplified in this PCR system for Le1 was detected from all samples. The sensitivity, specificity, and false-negative and false-positive rates of the method were obtained from the results of RR soy detection. False-negative rates at the level of 0.05 and 0.10% of the RR soy samples were 6.0 and 2.3%, respectively, revealing that the LOD of the method was somewhat below 0.10%. The current study demonstrated that the qualitative method would be practical for monitoring the labeling system of GM soy in kernel lots. PMID:21391499

  6. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India

    PubMed Central

    Kotinagu, Korrapati; Krishnaiah, Nelapati

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to find the organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and organophosphorus pesticide (OPP) residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India. Materials and Methods: Fodder and milk samples collected from the six zones of Musi river belt, Hyderabad India were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector for OCP residues and pulsated flame photometric detector for the presence of OPP residues. Results: The gas chromatographic analysis of fodder samples of Zone 5 of Musi river showed the residues of dicofol at concentration of 0.07±0.0007 (0.071-0.077). Among organophosphorus compounds, dimetheoate was present in milk samples collected from Zone 6 at a level of 0.13±0.006 (0.111-0.167). The residues of OCPs, OPPs and cyclodies were below the detection limit in the remaining fodder and milk samples collected from Musi river belt in the present study. Conclusion: The results indicate that the pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples were well below the maximum residue level (MRL) values, whereas dicofol in fodder and dimethoate in milk were slightly above the MRL values specified by EU and CODEX. PMID:27047132

  7. Effect of weed management on quality of Roundup Ready Flex cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roundup Ready Flex cotton will be commercially available to growers in 2006. Alabama growers need information about this new technology under their growing conditions and weeds. Field trials were conducted at the Prattville Experiment Field, Prattville, AL and the Field Crops Unit, Shorter, AL in 20...

  8. GLYPHOSATE OVER-THE-TOP APPLICATION INFLUENCES BOLL DEVELOPMENT OF ROUNDUP READY COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton yield can be affected by several parameters including number of plants and bolls per unit area, seed per boll, and fibers per seed. Any factor that reduces these parameters could potentially reduce lint yield. To determine if glyphosate over-the-top applications affect fruiting on Roundup Rea...

  9. Impact of Roundup on the marine microbial community, as shown by an in situ microcosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Stachowski-Haberkorn, Sabine; Becker, Beatriz; Marie, Dominique; Haberkorn, Hansy; Coroller, Louis; de la Broise, Denis

    2008-09-29

    The effects of the herbicide Roundup (glyphosate) on natural marine microbial communities were assessed in a 7-day field experiment using microcosms. Bottles were maintained underwater at 6m depth, and 10% of their water content was changed every other day. The comparison of control microcosms and surrounding surface water showed that the microcosm system tested here can be considered as representative of the natural surrounding environment. A temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) was run on 16S and 18S rDNA-amplified extracts from the whole microbial community. Cluster analysis of the 16S gel showed differences between control and treatment fingerprints for Roundup at 1 microg L(-1) (ANOSIM, p=0.055; R=0.53), and 10 microg L(-1) (ANOSIM, p=0.086; R=0.40). Flow cytometry analysis revealed a significant increase in the prasinophyte-like population when Roundup concentration was increased to 10 microg L(-1). This study demonstrates that a disturbance was caused to the marine microbial community exposed to 1 microg L(-1) Roundup concentration, a value typical of those reported in coastal waters during a run-off event. PMID:18760491

  10. Optimum Timing for Spraying Out Greenbridge with Roundup to Control Rhizoctonia in Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field experiment was conducted in 2007 in a field at the ARS Palouse Conservation Farm with a high level of both R. solani and R. oryzae. Volunteer and weeds were allowed to grow over the winter, and plots were sprayed out with Roundup at 8 wks, 6 wks, 4 wks, 2 wks, 1 wk, and 2 days before plantin...

  11. 75 FR 68321 - Forage Genetics International; Supplemental Request for Partial Deregulation of Roundup Ready...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ...The Animal and Plant Inspection Service has received a supplemental request for ``partial deregulation'' from Forage Genetics International for the planting, harvesting, and movement interstate of Roundup Ready[reg] alfalfa under measures designed to ensure any risks posed by cultivation are mitigated. This notice seeks to inform interested or affected persons of the availability of the......

  12. Testing the interaction between analytical modules: an example with Roundup Ready® soybean line GTS 40-3-2

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The modular approach to analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) relies on the independence of the modules combined (i.e. DNA extraction and GM quantification). The validity of this assumption has to be proved on the basis of specific performance criteria. Results An experiment was conducted using, as a reference, the validated quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) module for detection of glyphosate-tolerant Roundup Ready® GM soybean (RRS). Different DNA extraction modules (CTAB, Wizard and Dellaporta), were used to extract DNA from different food/feed matrices (feed, biscuit and certified reference material [CRM 1%]) containing the target of the real-time PCR module used for validation. Purity and structural integrity (absence of inhibition) were used as basic criteria that a DNA extraction module must satisfy in order to provide suitable template DNA for quantitative real-time (RT) PCR-based GMO analysis. When performance criteria were applied (removal of non-compliant DNA extracts), the independence of GMO quantification from the extraction method and matrix was statistically proved, except in the case of Wizard applied to biscuit. A fuzzy logic-based procedure also confirmed the relatively poor performance of the Wizard/biscuit combination. Conclusions For RRS, this study recognises that modularity can be generally accepted, with the limitation of avoiding combining highly processed material (i.e. biscuit) with a magnetic-beads system (i.e. Wizard). PMID:20687918

  13. Subtle effects of herbicide use in the context of genetically modified crops: a case study with glyphosate (Roundup).

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Lynda G; Boutin, Céline

    2003-01-01

    Research on the effects of glyphosate and seed germination spans 30 years. Despite several studies reporting detrimental effects of the herbicide on seedling germination and growth, glyphosate is still being registered for use as a weed killer and preharvest desiccant. Its nonselective nature and low chance of species developing resistance has lead to the development of genetically modified crops tolerant to the herbicide which also raises concerns about increased reliance on herbicide use, and subtle ecological impact. This paper presents the result of a literature review on past studies mostly, on crop species, and the results of a new experiment performed with emphasis on noncrop species. The new experimental part attempted to determine whether glyphosate (Roundup) would have an effect on the germination and growth of the F1 generation of seeds produced by plants sprayed with the herbicide. It was designed to mirror spray drift which might affect noncrop plants in nontarget drift zones. Of the 11 species tested using treatments of 0% (control), 1%, 10% or 100% of a 890 g a.i./ha label rate solution sprayed near seed maturity, seven showed a significant effect of the glyphosate treatment on germination and/or growth characteristics. Results of this experiment together with several previous studies reviewed in this paper suggest that there are significant effects to keep in mind when using herbicides such as glyphosate as severe ecological changes could occur. PMID:12739874

  14. Determination of amino acids in fodders and raw materials using capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Komarova, N V; Kamentsev, J S; Solomonova, A P; Anufrieva, R M

    2004-02-01

    Two schemes were offered for analysis of amino acid contents in fodders and raw materials for mixed fodders by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The first variant provides express analysis of four technologically important amino acids (lysine, methionine, threonine, cystine) in borate buffer on characteristic absorption of aminogroup (190 nm), with limits of quantitation being on average 0.2%. The second scheme includes pre-capillary derivatization of amino acids using phenylisothiocyanate (PITC) and separation of phenylthiocarbamyl (PTC)-derivatives obtained by CZE with a detection on 254 nm, which allows to widen a list of detectable components up to 19 (without tryptophan) and significantly improve detection limits down to 0.01%. Acid hydrolysis was used for a sample preparation. The results of analysis of fodders were compared using such methods, as CZE, ion exchange chromatography (amino acid analyzer) and reversed-phase (RP)-HPLC (with gradient technique of elution). PMID:14698247

  15. Immunotoxicological, biochemical, and histopathological studies on Roundup and Stomp herbicides in Nile catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    PubMed Central

    Moustafa, Gihan G.; Shaaban, F. E.; Hadeed, A. H. Abo; Elhady, Walaa M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The current study was directed to investigate the immunotoxic and oxidative stress effects of Roundup and Stomp herbicides and their combination on Nile catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out on 120 fish that randomly divided into four equal groups with three replicates: The first group kept as control, the second group exposed to 1/2 96 h lethal concentration 50 (LC50) of Roundup, the third group exposed to 1/2 96 h LC50 of Stomp, and the fourth one exposed to a combination of Roundup and Stomp at previously-mentioned doses. The experiment was terminated after 15 days; blood samples were obtained at 1st, 8th, and 15th days of treatment where the sera were separated for estimation of antioxidant enzymes. Meanwhile, at 15th day of exposure part of blood was collected from all groups with an anticoagulant for evaluation of phagocytic activity, then the fish were sacrificed, and specimens from the liver of all groups were obtained for histopathological examination. Results: Our results indicated that both herbicides either individually or in combination elucidated significant decrease in phagocytic activity that was highly marked in group exposed to both herbicides. Furthermore, our data elicited an obvious elevation in the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Meanwhile, the data depicted reduction in levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Histopathological investigation of liver proved the aforementioned results. Conclusion: It could be concluded that either Roundup or Stomp alone cause significant deleterious effects on aquatic vertebrates. However, the use of their combination enhanced their toxic effects. Toxicity can end up in humans through the food chain. PMID:27397989

  16. Fodder Resource Uses and Assessment of Nitrogen Flows on Livestock Farming with Crop Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirahase, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Hisashi

    With understanding the livestock farming on cattle breeding practiced increasing of self-production of fodders by the farmland's operation as “Livestock Farming with crop production”, we investigated the utilizations of actual fodder resources and farmland for two selected different types of livestock farming systems: “Multiple Type” which practices cattle raising with fodder cultivation, and “Grazing Type” which practices grazing and fodder cultivation with similar feed self-sufficiency rates. We also prepared and compared material and nitrogen flow of both livestock farming systems. The amount of nitrogen flow is clearly different between the two types though feed self-sufficiency rates are at similar level. Moreover, we defined “Internal Nitrogen Rate (INR)” which indicates the rate of internal nitrogen use to total nitrogen use in cattle raising, “Internal Nitrogen Circulation Rate (NCR)” which indicates the ratio of nitrogen amount in internal circulation to the nitrogen amount introduced from outside, and Nitrogen Outflow Potential (Op), which is the balance of nitrogen amount between input to farmlands and uptake by plants, and analyzed the balance of the amounts of nitrogen flows in both livestock farming type. It is suggested that “Grazing type”, which had the values of relatively high NCR and absolutely low Op, was the livestock farming type with high rates of nitrogen procurement from the interregional farming and low risk of nitrogen outflow.

  17. [Yeast irrigation enhances the nutritional content in hydroponic green maize fodder].

    PubMed

    Bedolla-Torres, Martha H; Palacios Espinosa, Alejandro; Palacios, Oskar A; Choix, Francisco J; Ascencio Valle, Felipe de Jesús; López Aguilar, David R; Espinoza Villavicencio, José Luis; de Luna de la Peña, Rafael; Guillen Trujillo, Ariel; Avila Serrano, Narciso Y; Ortega Pérez, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irrigation with yeasts (Debaryomyces hansenii var. Fabry, Yarowia lipolytica YIBCS002, Yarowia lipolytica var. BCS and Candida pseudointermedia) on the final nutritional content of hydroponic green maize fodder (Zea Zea mays L.), applied at different fodder growth stages (1. seed-seedling stage, 2. seedling-plant 20cm, 3. during all the culture). Irrespective of the fodder growth stages at which they were applied, all yeasts tested enhanced the content of raw protein, lipids, ash, moisture and energy. The percentage of electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, sulphates, Ca and Mg) showed different responses depending on the kind of yeast applied; D. hansenii exhibited the highest increment in all electrolytes, except for phosphorous. We conclude that the addition of yeasts belonging to the genera Debaryomyces, Candida and Yarowia to the irrigation solution of hydroponic systems enhances the nutrient content of green fodder. This kind of irrigation can be applied to generate high commercial value cultures in limited spaces. PMID:26364185

  18. Organic vs. conventional fodder crops in the USA: A challenge for breeders?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fodder crops are becoming an increasingly important component of organic agriculture systems in the USA. However, due to wide array of production environments in the USA, the large number of species targeted by breeding programs, and the large demand for new and improved products for traditional ag...

  19. Effects of inoculum size on solid-phase fermentation of fodder beets for fuel ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, W.R.; Westby, C.A.

    1986-10-01

    This fuel ethanol study examined the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculum size on solid-phase fermentation of fodder beet pulp. A 5% inoculum (wt/wt) resulted in rapid yeast and ethanol (9.1% (vol/vol)) production. Higher inocula showed no advantages. Lower inocula resulted in lowered final yeast populations and increased fermentation times.

  20. Improved fodder tree management in the agroforestry systems of central and western Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Karki, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    Ten, three year old, fodder tree species were evaluated at four on-station and three on-farm sites in Nepal. Ficus semicordata (Buchattam. ex Sm.) growth was found to be significantly higher than the rest in diameter and dry foliage weight values. Species were significantly different in height, diameter, and foliage and wood growth. Sites were significantly different in total height growth only. On-farm species evaluation indicated that A. lakoocha and F. semicordata had significantly higher growth. Allometric regression equations were developed to predict foliage, total wood, and total biomass yield of F. semicordata, and B. variegata. Individual-tree models were developed. For B. variegata, diameter at 50 cm. and for F. semicordata, crown diameter and height gave the best fitted equations. Regression equations for three sites did not differ significantly. Therefore, data were pooled and a common model was estimated for each species. In on-farm regression models, height and crown diameter were the best predictors for F. semicordata and dbh gave the best fit for B. variegata. The models for the two species were used to construct regional fodder and fuelwood biomass tables. An improved crop-livestock-fodder agroforestry system was designed for a village in Nepal. Linear programming was used to demonstrate the use of a tool to optimize land allocation maximizing net returns while satisfying the supply of minimum needs of food, fodder, and fuelwood. The optimal solution indicated that, by improving the returns to labor and by applying more compost, the village should be able to increase the annual net farm returns from NRs. 2.94 million to NRs. 3.85 million. The food, fodder and fuelwood production levels were shown to increase by 17%, 130%, and 537% respectively. The labor and compost requirements were up by 138% and 59% respectively, over the five year period. The soil loss through run-off was estimated to decrease by about 15% over the same period.

  1. Acute toxicity and sublethal effects of the mixture glyphosate (Roundup Active) and Cosmo-Flux 411F to anuran embryos and tadpoles of four Colombian species.

    PubMed

    Henao Muñoz, Liliana Marcela; Montes Rojas, Claudia Marsela; Bernal Bautista, Manuel Hernando

    2015-03-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the world with application in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control, garden and aquatic environments. However, its use is highly controversial for the possible impact on not-target organisms, such as amphibians, which are vanishing at an alarming and rapid rate. Due to the high solubility in water and ionic nature, the glyphosate requires of surfactants to increase activity. In addition, for the control of coca (Erythroxylum coca) and agricultural weeds in Colombia, formulated glyphosate is mixed and sprayed with the adjuvant Cosmo-Flux 411F to increase the penetration and activity of the herbicide. This study evaluates the acute toxic and sublethal effects (embryonic development, tadpole body size, tadpole swimming performance) of the mixture of the formulated glyphosate Roundup Active and Cosmo-Flux 411F to anuran embryos and tadpoles of four Colombian species under 96h laboratory standard tests and microcosms, which are more similar to field conditions as they include soil, sand and macrophytes. In the laboratory, embryos and tadpoles of Engystomops pustulosus were the most tolerant (LC50 = 3904 microg a.e./L; LC50=2 799 pg a.e./L, respectively), while embryos and tadpoles of Hypsiboas crepitans (LC50=2 203 microg a.e./L; LC50=1424 microgg a.e./L, respectively) were the most sensitive. R. humboldti and R. marina presented an intermediate toxicity. Embryos were significantly more tolerant to the mixture than tadpoles, which could be likely attributed to the exclusion of chemicals by the embryonic membranes and the lack of organs, such as gills, which are sensitive to surfactants. Sublethal effects were observed for the tadpole body size, but not for the embryonic development and tadpole swimming performance. In microcosms, no toxicity (LC50 could not be estimated), or sublethal responses were observed at concentrations up to fourfold (14.76 kg glyphosate a.e./ha) the highest field application rate of 3

  2. Derivation of South African water quality guidelines for Roundup(®) using species sensitivity distribution.

    PubMed

    Mensah, Paul K; Palmer, Caroline G; Muller, Wilhelmine J

    2013-10-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are among the leading products used in South Africa to control weeds and invading alien plant species. Although these herbicides ultimately find their way into aquatic ecosystems, South Africa has no water quality guideline based on indigenous species to protect the country's aquatic biota against these biocides. In this study, South African water quality guidelines (SAWQGs) for Roundup(®) based on species sensitivity distribution (SSD) using indigenous aquatic biota were developed. Short-term and long-term toxicity tests were conducted with eight different aquatic species belonging to five different taxonomic groups. Static non-renewal experimental methods were employed for short-term lethal tests (≤4 days), and static renewal for long-term sublethal tests (≥4 days ≤21 days). LC50 values for animal exposure and EC50 values for algae were calculated using probit analysis and linear regression of transformed herbicide concentration as natural logarithm data against percentage growth inhibition, respectively. No effect concentration (NEC) was determined based on the dynamic energy budget model, using survival data. The LC50, EC50 and NEC values were used to develop species sensitivity distribution (SSD) concentrations for Roundup(®). Based on the SSD concentrations, the short-term and long-term SAWQGs for Roundup(®) were derived as 0.250 (0.106-0.589) mg/L, and 0.002 (0.000-0.021) mg/L, respectively. These WQGs may be useful in protecting South African aquatic life against transient or long-term exposure to glyphosate-based chemicals as part of integrated water resources management. PMID:23856119

  3. Comparative genotoxicity of the herbicides Roundup, Stomp and Reglone in plant and mammalian test systems.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Boyan D; Gadeva, Polina G; Benova, Donka K; Bineva, Maria V

    2006-11-01

    The genotoxicities of the herbicides Roundup (glyphosate), Stomp (pendimethaline) and Reglone (diquat), were compared in plant (Crepis capillaris L.) and mouse bone marrow test systems using chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei. Roundup did not induce chromosomal aberrations or micronuclei in either test system. Reglone also did not induce chromosomal aberrations in either test system; however, it increased micronucleus frequency in both plant cells and mouse bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs). The responses of the two test systems to Stomp were quite different. Stomp did not induce chromosomal aberrations in the plant cells, but increased their incidence in mouse cells; Stomp increased the frequency of micronuclei in both test systems. The induction of micronuclei in plant cells may have been due to the spindle-destroying effect of the herbicide, since all concentrations of Stomp produced C-mitoses. The increased chromosomal aberration frequency in mouse bone marrow cells observed at later sampling times after administration of Stomp into animals suggests that the induction of aberrations may be due to biosynthesis of genotoxic metabolites. This conclusion was supported by the coincidence between the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and of micronucleated PCEs in mouse cells. These data indicate that plant and animal assays are differentially responsive to some pesticides, and these differences may be due to metabolism and their responses to mitotic spindle disruption. PMID:16998229

  4. Utilization of waste products of dehydrated onion industry for production of fodder yeast by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ghonaim, S A; Abou-Zeid, A A; Abd El-Fattah, A F; Farid, M A

    1980-01-01

    One strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was selected from different yeasts, isolated from black strap molasses. This microorganism was cultivated on seven fermentation media for the production of protein. Medium I exhibited the highest potentiality for formation of protein. Therefore strain 1 of S. cerevisiae and medium I were used for further studies in the formation of protein. Factors controlling production of protein were explored. The required incubation period for the fermentation process was 72 hrs, while the initial pH value of the medium was 6.0. Sucrose supported the microorganism for higher production of protein (40.96%), while the best concentration of sucrose was shown to be 10.0 g/l. The best inorganic and organic nitrogen sources for protein formation were (NH4)2HPO4, (NH4)3PO4 and yeast extract, respectively. The best concentrations of (NH4)2HPO4 and yeast extract, supporting protein formation, were 5.0 g/l and 10.0 g/l, respectively. Addition of MgSO4, ZnSO4, ferrous ammonium sulphate, copper sulphate, biotin, Ca-pantothenate, thiamine, pyridoxine, and inositol to the synthetic medium did not markedly influence high level of protein formation. Glutamic acid was the best amino acid, supporting protein formation by S. cerevisiae. Onion juice was found to be a good medium, after deletion of inhibitory volatile sulphur organic compounds, for the production of protein by S. cerevisiae. Addition of (NH4)2HPO4 to the best concentration of onion juice assisted the onion medium in production of fodder yeast, containing high level of protein. Addition of MgSO4 to onion juice and (NH4)2HPO4 did not increase the total nitrogen of the biomass. Fodder yeast, produced by onion juice medium, contained more valuable ingredients than fodder yeast, produced by synthetic medium. PMID:6990654

  5. Effects of sodium meta bisulfite on diffusion fermentation of fodder beets for fuel ethanol production. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, W.R.; Westby, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors designed and tested a new process for converting fodder beets to ethanol: continuous diffusion-fermentation. This process utilizes the simultaneous diffusion-fermentation concept of the EX-FERM design; however, it overcomes the material handling problems inherent in that system by utilizing a counterflow tubular auger system. This process also eliminates the need for roller mills or presses and dryers which are required for alcohol recovery from solid phase fermentation. The latter is the only other currently feasible procedure for producing distillably worthwhile amounts of ethanol from fodder beets, sweet sorghum, and other similar feedstocks. Results on the use of sodium meta bisulfite (SMB) for contamination control with fermenting fodder beet cubes are reported.

  6. [Usefulness of an immunoassay test TRAIT for detection of genetically modified Roundup ready soybean in food products].

    PubMed

    Urbanek-Karłowska, B; Fonberg-Broczek, M; Sawilska-Rautenstrauch, D; Badowski, P; Jedra, M

    2001-01-01

    The test based on immunoassay TRAIT Test for the specific detection of Roundup Ready Soybean was used for reference material in the form of dried powdered soy beans contained 0, 0.3, 1.25, 2.5% of genetically modified material, for soy beans declared as Roundup Ready and for soy products from Warsaw market. The detection limit was approximately 0.1% GMO on dry weight basis. Experiment was also carried out on heated soybeans. The positive results was obtained since temperature was under 65 degrees C during 15 minutes of heating grounded beans; above this temperature specific protein was not recognisable by the antibody. The TRAIT Test should be regarded as a qualitative method and could be recommended for screening purposes. Investigation demonstrated that above mentioned test was useful for detection of protein of genetically modified soybean in unprocessed products. PMID:11878012

  7. Roadkill Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krakauer, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Fifth Grade Roadkill Study that was designed to make students aware of the types of animals, chiefly mammals, that live in the central piedmont area of North Carolina. Involves students taking a survey of roadkills. Enables students to learn about animals as well as become more familiar with the scientific process. (JRH)

  8. Roundworm Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Elaine

    1991-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students use microscopes to examine the diversity of the roundworm species that they obtained from water and soil samples. Discusses the role of roundworms in the ecosystem. Provides a lesson plan for teacher use that includes preparation information, materials needed, lesson procedures, and suggestions to extend the…

  9. Digital Roundup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    State policy is crucial to the spread of digital-learning opportunities at the elementary and secondary level. A review of recent legislative action reveals policies that are constantly in flux and differ quite markedly from one state to another. Some have hoped for model digital-learning legislation that could handle all the various issues…

  10. 40 CFR 180.481 - Prosulfuron; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Parts per million Grain, cereal, forage, fodder, and straw, group 16, except rice, fodder 0.01 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder, and straw, group 16, except rice, forage 0.10 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder, and straw, group 16, except rice, hay 0.20 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder, and straw, group 16, except...

  11. 40 CFR 180.481 - Prosulfuron; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Parts per million Grain, cereal, forage, fodder, and straw, group 16, except rice, fodder 0.01 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder, and straw, group 16, except rice, forage 0.10 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder, and straw, group 16, except rice, hay 0.20 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder, and straw, group 16, except...

  12. 40 CFR 180.481 - Prosulfuron; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Parts per million Grain, cereal, forage, fodder, and straw, group 16, except rice, fodder 0.01 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder, and straw, group 16, except rice, forage 0.10 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder, and straw, group 16, except rice, hay 0.20 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder, and straw, group 16, except...

  13. 40 CFR 180.481 - Prosulfuron; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Parts per million Grain, cereal, forage, fodder, and straw, group 16, except rice, fodder 0.01 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder, and straw, group 16, except rice, forage 0.10 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder, and straw, group 16, except rice, hay 0.20 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder, and straw, group 16, except...

  14. 40 CFR 180.481 - Prosulfuron; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Parts per million Grain, cereal, forage, fodder, and straw, group 16, except rice, fodder 0.01 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder, and straw, group 16, except rice, forage 0.10 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder, and straw, group 16, except rice, hay 0.20 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder, and straw, group 16, except...

  15. A fluorescence-based hydrolytic enzyme activity assay for quantifying toxic effects of Roundup® to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Ørsted, Michael; Roslev, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Daphnia magna is a widely used model organism for aquatic toxicity testing. In the present study, the authors investigated the hydrolytic enzyme activity of D. magna after exposure to toxicant stress. In vivo enzyme activity was quantified using 15 fluorogenic enzyme probes based on 4-methylumbelliferyl or 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin. Probing D. magna enzyme activity was evaluated using short-term exposure (24-48 h) to the reference chemical K2 Cr2 O7 or the herbicide formulation Roundup®. Toxicant-induced changes in hydrolytic enzyme activity were compared with changes in mobility (International Organization for Standardization standard 6341). The results showed that hydrolytic enzyme activity was quantifiable as a combination of whole body fluorescence of D. magna and the fluorescence of the surrounding water. Exposure of D. magna to lethal and sublethal concentrations of Roundup resulted in loss of whole body enzyme activity and release of cell constituents, including enzymes and DNA. Roundup caused comparable inhibition of mobility and alkaline phosphatase activity with median effective concentration values at 20 °C of 8.7 mg active ingredient (a.i.)/L to 11.7 mg a.i./L. Inhibition of alkaline phosphatase activity by Roundup was lowest at 14 °C and greater at 20 °C and 26 °C. The results suggest that the fluorescence-based hydrolytic enzyme activity assay (FLEA assay) can be used as an index of D. magna stress. Combining enzyme activity with fluorescence measurements may be applied as a simple and quantitative supplement for toxicity testing with D. magna. PMID:25809520

  16. Acute toxicity of Roundup® herbicide to three life stages of the freshwater shrimp Caridina nilotica (Decapoda: Atyidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensah, P. K.; Muller, W. J.; Palmer, C. G.

    Glyphosate based herbicides, including Roundup®, are frequently used in the chemical control of weeds and invading alien plant species in South Africa. These herbicides ultimately get into water courses directly or indirectly through processes such as drifting, leaching, surface runoff and foliar spray of aquatic nuisance plants. Despite their widespread use, no water quality guideline exists to protect indigenous South African freshwater organisms from the toxic effects of these herbicides. The toxicity of the herbicide Roundup® was assessed using three different life stages of the freshwater shrimp Caridina nilotica, a prevalent species in South African freshwater ecosystems. Neonate (<7 days post hatching (dph)), juvenile (>7 dph and <20 dph) and adult (>40 dph) shrimps were exposed to varying concentrations (1.5-50 mg/L acid equivalence (a.e.)) of the herbicide in 48 and 96 h acute toxicity tests in order to determine the most sensitive life-stage. The results showed neonates to be more sensitive to Roundup® than both juveniles and adults with mean 96 h LC 50 values of 2.5, 7.0 and 25.3 mg/L a.e. respectively. The estimated 96 h LC 50 of neonates is much lower than the application rate (20-30 mg/L a.e.), although the application’s impact will depend on the dilution rate of the applied concentration in the environment. All three life-stages of unexposed animals exhibited active and coordinated movement but exposed shrimps were erratic and slow in their movements, with neonates showing most of these behavioral irregularities. This study shows that low levels of the herbicide Roundup® may adversely affect C. nilotica health and survival. Thus, the herbicide should be carefully managed to minimize any negative impact on non-target freshwater organisms.

  17. Effect of Roundup® (glyphosate formulation) in the energy metabolism and reproductive traits of Hyalella castroi (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae).

    PubMed

    Dutra, Bibiana Kaiser; Fernandes, Felipe Amorim; Failace, Daniela Motta; Oliveira, Guendalina Turcato

    2011-01-01

    Roundup(®) (glyphosate formulation) is a nonselective and posts emergent herbicide used for controlling aquatic weeds and different concentrations are used in cultures around the world. The objective of this investigation was to examine the effects of Roundup(®) (glyphosate formulation) on the biochemical composition, levels of lipoperoxidation, Na(+)/K(+)ATPase activity and reproductive traits in the Hyalella castroi. Amphipods were collected in summer 2009, in the southern Brazilian highlands. In the laboratory, the animals were kept in aquariums under controlled conditions for 7 days, and after this period they were exposed to 0.36, 0.52, 1.08 and 2.16 mg/l of glyphosate for 7 days. After the period of exposure, the animals were immediately frozen for determination of glycogen, proteins, lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, levels of lipoperoxidation, and Na(+)/K(+)ATPase activity. During each day of the cultivation reproductive traits (number of reproductive pairs, ovigerous females and eggs in the marsupium) were observed. All concentrations of Roundup(®) induced significant decreases in all biochemical parameters and Na(+)/K(+)ATPase activity, and significant increase in lipoperoxidation levels. Showing this form a potentially toxic effect at very low concentrations, this pattern of results can lead to significant changes in trophic structure of limnic environments because these amphipods are important links in food chain in these habitats. PMID:21086158

  18. Tolerating Zero Tolerance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Brian N.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of zero tolerance dates back to the mid-1990s when New Jersey was creating laws to address nuisance crimes in communities. The main goal of these neighborhood crime policies was to have zero tolerance for petty crime such as graffiti or littering so as to keep more serious crimes from occurring. Next came the war on drugs. In federal…

  19. Genotoxicity induced by Roundup® (Glyphosate) in tegu lizard (Salvator merianae) embryos.

    PubMed

    Schaumburg, Laura G; Siroski, Pablo A; Poletta, Gisela L; Mudry, Marta D

    2016-06-01

    Environmental contaminants produce multiple adverse consequences at individual, population and ecosystem levels. High volumes of agrochemicals applied to great variety of crops, together with agricultural expansion, generate great concerns due to the impact for the environment and large risk implicated for wildlife. The lack of data on these threats is striking. The tegu lizard (Salvator merianae) is one of the species that live in environments under contaminant effects. Several characteristics allow proposing this species as a potential sentinel organism for the monitoring of pesticides in their habitat. The present study is the first report about genotoxicity in tegu lizard neonates after embryonic exposure to Roundup® (glyphosate 66.2%). The micronucleus test (MN), nuclear abnormalities (NAs) assay and comet assay (CA) were used as biomarkers of genotoxic effects induced in erythrocytes by topical exposure of the eggs to the glyphosate commercial formulation Roundup® (RU), in laboratory controlled conditions. A total of 96 eggs were distributed in six groups exposed to RU (50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600μg/egg), one positive control (PC; 200μg cyclophosphamide/egg) and one negative control (NC; distilled water). No teratogenic effects were observed in any of the exposed or control neonates. A significant increase in DNA damage was observed in all concentrations higher than 100μg/egg with respect to NC (p<0.05). However, no statistical differences were found in the frequencies of MN and NAs in any group exposed to RU compared to the NC. No statistically significant differences were found in the size of the lizards at birth or after six months post-exposure (p>0.05). Our results provide new information about the undesirable effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide formulations RU on this lizard species that inhabits areas permanently exposed to several pesticide formulations. We consider of utmost necessity a strict regulation of the agrochemical application

  20. [Detection and kinetic characterization of Candida tropicalis contamination during fodder yeast production].

    PubMed

    García Gutiérrez, Roxana; Otero Rambla, Miguel Angel; Fundora Toucet, Norka; Martínez Sánchez, Aidín; Saura Lauria, Gustavo; Casalot, Laurence

    2006-06-01

    Candida tropicalis was identified as the etiologic agent of a severe contamination detected on an industrial fodder yeast production at the Cuban eastern region. After a detailed diagnostic task on raw material carried out on different factory sections, protocols to identify the contamination source and to isolate the microorganism were proposed. The identification was by comparison of the internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS4 from 5.8S ribosomal DNA nucleotide sequences. In parallel, propagation of production strain, Candida utilis NRRL Y-660, at lab scale (2.5 l) was performed. Similar results to those observed in the factory concerning to its kinetic behavior in aerobic propagation with contaminated molasses, were detected at this level. The identification and primary kinetic characterization led to the implementation of sanitary and technological measures to bring production at its normal operational conditions as well as the application of prophylactic surveillance methodologies to avoid future contaminations. PMID:16854184

  1. [Detection of genetically modified soy (Roundup-Ready) in processed food products].

    PubMed

    Hagen, M; Beneke, B

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the application of a qualitative and a quantitative method of analysis to detect genetically modified RR-Soy (Roundup-Ready Soy) in processed foods is described. A total of 179 various products containing soy such as baby food and diet products, soy drinks and desserts, tofu and tofu products, soy based meat substitutes, soy protein, breads, flour, granules, cereals, noodles, soy bean sprouts, fats and oils as well as condiments were investigated following the pattern of the section 35 LMBG-method L 23.01.22-1. The DNA was extracted from the samples and analysed using a soybean specific lectin gene PCR as well as a PCR, specific for the genetic modification. Additional, by means of PCR in combination with fluorescence-detection (TaqMan 5'-Nuclease Assay), suspicious samples were subjected to a real-time quantification of the percentage of genetically modified RR-Soy. The methods of analysis proved to be extremely sensitive and specific in regard to the food groups checked. The fats and oils, as well as the condiments were the exceptions in which amplifiable soy DNA could not be detected. The genetic modification of RR-Soy was detected in 34 samples. Eight of these samples contained more than 1% of RR-Soy. It is necessary to determine the percentage of transgenic soy in order to assess whether genetically modified ingredients were deliberately added, or whether they were caused by technically unavoidable contamination (for example during transportation and processing). PMID:11153227

  2. Roundup effects on oxidative stress parameters and recovery pattern of Rhamdia quelen.

    PubMed

    de Menezes, Charlene Cavalheiro; da Fonseca, Milene Braga; Loro, Vânia Lúcia; Santi, Adriana; Cattaneo, Roberta; Clasen, Bárbara; Pretto, Alexandra; Morsch, Vera Maria

    2011-05-01

    Antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress indicators were evaluated in fish exposed to different concentrations of the herbicide Roundup 48% (Monsanto, St. Louis, MO): control (none), 0.45, or 0.95 mg/l. After exposure for 8 days to herbicide, fish were transferred to clean water for a recovery response period (also 8 days). Herbicide increased thiobarbituric acid reactive species in liver and muscle at the higher concentration and in the brain at both concentrations. Protein carbonyl in liver increased after exposure. Catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and ascorbic acid levels in liver did not change in fish exposed to both concentrations. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) levels decreased at both concentrations. The nonprotein thiol levels decreased at the 0.95 mg/l concentration. During the recovery period, some of the parameters that had altered, such as protein carbonyl content, later recovered. However, some enzymes reacted during this period, e.g., GST increased its activity, possibly indicating a compensatory response against the toxic conditions. In contrast, CAT and SOD activities decreased during the recovery period, indicating herbicide toxicity. Oxidative stress that occurred during the exposure period was likely due to the increased lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. The results concerning oxidative and antioxidant profiles indicate that short-term exposure to herbicide is capable of causing oxidative stress in fish tissues. PMID:20680259

  3. Sensitive and rapid detection of genetic modified soybean (Roundup Ready) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Luo, Yan; Tao, Ran; He, Ru; Jiang, Keyong; Wang, Baojie; Wang, Lei

    2009-11-01

    Using the LAMP method, a highly specific and sensitive detection system for genetically modified soybean (Roundup Ready) was designed. In this detection system, a set of four primers was designed by targeting the exogenous 35S epsps gene. Target DNA was amplified and visualized on agarose gel within 45 min under isothermal conditions at 65 degrees C. Without gel electrophoresis, the LAMP amplicon was visualized directly in the reaction tube by the addition of SYBR Green I for naked-eye inspection. The detection sensitivity of LAMP was 10-fold higher than the nested PCR established in our laboratory. Moreover, the LAMP method was much quicker, taking only 70 min, as compared with 300 min for nested PCR to complete the analysis of the GM soybean. Compared with traditional PCR approaches, the LAMP procedure is faster and more sensitive, and there is no need for a special PCR machine or electrophoresis equipment. Hence, this method can be a very useful tool for GMO detection and is particularly convenient for fast screening. PMID:19897926

  4. Presence of CP4-EPSPS Component in Roundup Ready Soybean-Derived Food Products

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Honghong; Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Changqing; Xiao, Xiao; Zhou, Xinghu; Xu, Sheng; Shen, Wenbiao; Huang, Ming

    2012-01-01

    With the widespread use of Roundup Ready soya (event 40-3-2) (RRS), the traceability of transgenic components, especially protein residues, in different soya-related foodstuffs has become an important issue. In this report, transgenic components in commercial soya (including RRS) protein concentrates were firstly detected by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot. The results illustrated the different degradation patterns of the cp4-epsps gene and corresponding protein in RRS-derived protein concentrates. Furthermore, western blot was applied to investigate the single factor of food processing and the matrix on the disintegration of CP4-EPSPS protein in RRS powder and soya-derived foodstuffs, and trace the degradation patterns during the food production chain. Our results suggested that the exogenous full length of CP4-EPSPS protein in RRS powder was distinctively sensitive to various heat treatments, including heat, microwave and autoclave (especially), and only one degradation fragment (23.4 kD) of CP4-EPSPS protein was apparently observed when autoclaving was applied. By tracing the protein degradation during RRS-related products, including tofu, tou-kan, and bean curd sheets, however, four degradation fragments (42.9, 38.2, 32.2 and 23.4 kD) were displayed, suggesting that both boiling and bittern adding procedures might have extensive effects on CP4-EPSPS protein degradation. Our results thus confirmed that the distinctive residues of the CP4-EPSPS component could be traced in RRS-related foodstuffs. PMID:22408431

  5. Remote sensing of canopy dynamics and biochemical variables estimation of fodder crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Suchit K.; Das, S. K.; Rai, A. K.

    2010-04-01

    Non-destructive monitoring and diagnosis of plant nitrogen (N) concentration status is necessary for precision in N management. Leaf -N and chlorophyll (Chl) concentration of fodder crops are important indicators of plant N status. Studies were conducted to determine the relationship between canopy hyperspectral reflectance (325 to 1075 nm) and Chl or N concentration in field grown fodder crops [bajra (Pennisetum typhoides, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) in Kharif season and oat (Avena sativa) in Rabi season] without and with recommended dose of nitrogen of different crops. Nitrogen fertilizer application mainly affected leaf reflectance at 575 and 623 nm in sorghum, 565 and 657 nm in bajra and 563 and 716 nm in oat. The reflectance ratio at R581/R397 (R2=0.46**) and R619/R462 nm (R2=0.79***) had the highest correlation with sorghum and bajra leaf N concentration respectively with greatest R2 values. However in oat single reflectance at R542 (R2=0.53**) had the highest correlation with leaf N concentration. Similarly, sorghum, bajra and oat leaf Chl concentration were highly correlated with R677/R527 (R2=0.63**), R688/R409 (R2=0.71***) and R695 (R2=0.56** ), respectively. A linear relationship was found between sorghum leaf N and a simple ratio at R581/R397 (Intercept=8.85, slope=-2.64, R2=0.44). Bajra leaf N concentration was associated closely with ratio of R619/ R462, (R2= 0.78***). Oat leaf N concentration could be best estimate through single reflectance at R695 (Slope=-0.48, Intercept=0.15; R2=0.56). Similarly sorghum, bajra and oat leaf Chl could be best-estimated using reflectance ratio of R677/R527, R615/R411 and R695, respectively. Thus our results suggest that spectral reflectance measurements hold promise for the assessment of some physiological parameter at the leaf level real time monitoring of sorghum and bajra N status and N fertilizer management.

  6. Evaluation of Factors Contributing to Excessive Nitrate Accumulation in Fodder Crops Leading to Ill-Health in Dairy Animals

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, P. K.; Bedi, G. K.; Meenakshi; Mahajan, V.; Sharma, S.; Sandhu, K. S.; Gupta, M. P.

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to estimate nitrate content in commonly used fodder crops, viz., berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum), bajra (Pennisetum glaucum), maize (Zea mays), oats (Avena sativa), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) and toriya (Brassica napus), collected from the fields of different villages of Punjab and farms of the university, and to evaluate the factors associated with nitrate accumulation in these crops. The nitrate level was highest in sorghum on dry matter basis, followed by oats and toriya, berseem, maize and bajra. The nitrate content was also determined in fodder samples harvested from young and mature stages and in different parts of plants. The stem part of forages had higher content than leaves; however, concentrations were low in mature crops as compared to immature ones. The environmental and soil factors associated with it are discussed and correlated with the experimental findings. PMID:21430916

  7. Determination of sulfur and chlorine in fodder by X-ray fluorescence spectral analysis and comparison with other analytical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nečemer, Marijan; Kump, Peter; Rajčevič, Marija; Jačimović, Radojko; Budič, Bojan; Ponikvar, Maja

    2003-07-01

    Sulfur and chlorine are essential elements in the metabolic processes of ruminants, and correct planning strategy of ruminant nutrition should provide a sufficient content of S and Cl in the animal's body. S and Cl can be found in various types of animal fodder in the form of organic compounds and minerals. In this work, the Cl and S content in forage was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), and its performance was then compared in parallel analyses by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and potentiometric methods. The results were compared and critically evaluated in order to assess the performance and capability of the XRF technique in analysis of animal fodder.

  8. Mycoflora and mycotoxin contamination of Roundup Ready soybean harvested in the Pampean Region, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Carolina E; González, Héctor H L; Salas, María Paula; Resnik, Silvia L; Pacin, Ana M

    2013-08-01

    A total of 89 freshly harvested soybean seed samples (Roundup Ready [transgenic] soybean cultivars) from the 2010/2011 crop season were collected from five locations in the Northern Pampean Region II, Argentina. These samples were analyzed for internal mycoflora, toxin production of isolated fungi, and for a range of mycotoxins. Mycotoxin analysis of aflatoxins (AFs), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (FBs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) was done by HPLC-FLD (high performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization), alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether with HPLC-UV (HPLC with UV detection), trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, fusarenon X, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol were analyzed by GC-ECD (gas chromatography with electron capture detector). Fungal colonization was more frequently found for samples from América, Saladillo and Trenque Lauquen than for samples from General Villegas and Trenel; a total of 1,401 fungal isolates were obtained from the soybean seeds. The most commonly identified fungal genera were Alternaria, Sclerotinia, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phomopsis and Fusarium. Alternaria alternata, A.tenuissima, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium citrinum, Fusarium verticillioides and F.semitectum were the predominant toxigenic fungal species. Mycotoxin production was confirmed for several isolates of toxigenic species, including Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, Alternaria alternata, A.tenuissima, Fusarium graminearum, F semitectum and F. verticillioides. In particular, the percentage of mycotoxigenic Alternaria alternata (100%), A.tenuissima (95%) and aflatoxigenic strains of A. flavus (57%) were remarkably high. Although none of the mycotoxins, AFs, ZEA, FBs, trichothecenes and OTA, were directly detected in samples of soybean seeds, the frequent presence of toxigenic fungal species indicates the risk of multiple mycotoxin contamination. PMID:23765598

  9. Continuous, farm-scale, solid-phase fermentation process for fuel ethanol and protein feed production from fodder beets

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, W.R.; Westby, C.A.; Dobbs, T.L.

    1984-01-01

    Fuel ethanol (95%) was produced from fodder beets in two farm-scale processes. In the first process, involving conventional submerged fermentation of the fodder beets in a mash, ethanol and a feed (PF) rich in protein, fat, and fiber were produced. Ethanol yields of 70 L/metric ton (17 gal/ton) were obtained; however, resulting beers had low ethanol concentrations )3-5% (v/v)). The high viscosity of medium and low sugar, beet mashes caused mixing problems which prevented any further increase of beet sugar in the mash. This severely limited the maximum attainable ethanol concentration during fermentation, thereby making the beer costly to distill into fuel ethanol and the process energy inefficient. In order to achieve distillably worthwhile ethanol concentrations of 8-10% (v/v), a solid phase fermentation process (continuous) was developed and tested. In preliminary trials, this system produced fermented pulp with over 8% (v/v) ethanol corresponding to an ethanol yield of 87 L/metric ton (21 gal/ton). Production costs with this novel process are $0.47/L ($1.77/gal) and the energy balance is 2.11. These preliminary cost estimates indicate that fodder beets are potentially competitive with corn as an ethanol feedstock. Additional research, however, is warranted to more precisely refine individual costs, energy balances and the actual value of the PF.

  10. 40 CFR 180.472 - Imidacloprid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Gooseberry 3.5 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder and straw, group 16, forage, except rice 7.0 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder and straw, group 16, hay, except rice 6.0 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder and straw, group 16, stover, except rice 0.30 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder and straw, group 16, straw, except rice...

  11. 40 CFR 180.472 - Imidacloprid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Gooseberry 3.5 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder and straw, group 16, forage, except rice 7.0 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder and straw, group 16, hay, except rice 6.0 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder and straw, group 16, stover, except rice 0.30 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder and straw, group 16, straw, except rice...

  12. Effect of Fodder Tree Species with Condensed Tannin Contents on In vitro Methane Production.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Ernestina Gutiérrez; Medina, Leonardo Hernández; Benavides, Liliana Márquez; Caratachea, Aureliano Juárez; Razo, Guillermo Salas; Burgos, Armin Javier Ayala; Rodríguez, Ruy Ortiz

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of fodder tree species (FTS) with condensed tannin contents: Cordia elaeagnoides, Platymiscium lasiocarpum, Vitex mollis, and Haematoxylon brasiletto, on in vitro methane (CH4) production at 24 h post incubation. The analysis was performed using the in vitro gas production technique, with three levels of inclusion/species: 600, 800, and 1,000 mg and with 4 replicates/species/level of inclusion. The substrate was incubated at 39°C, and the gas and CH4 production were recorded at 4, 8, 12, and 24 h post incubation. The data collected was analyzed through Pearson correlation, polinomial regression and fixed effects models. There were negative correlations between FTS-total gas volume (r = -0.40; p<0.001); FTS-volume of CH4 produced (r = -0.40; p<0.001) and between the inclusion level-volume of CH4 produced (r = -0.20; p<0.001). As well as a positive correlation between hours post incubation-total gas volume (r = 0.42; p<0.001) and between hours post incubation-volume of CH4 produced (r = 0.48; p<0.001). The FTS: C. elaeagnoides, V. mollis, and H. brasiletto have potential, in the three inclusion levels analyzed, to reduce CH4 emission on in vitro trials (>32.7%), taking into account the total CH4 production at 24 h of the forage used as reference (Avena sativa). It's suggested that C. elaeagnoides-according to its crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and condensed tannins content- is the best alternative within the FTS analyzed, for feeding ruminants and for the control of CH4 emissions during the dry season. PMID:26732330

  13. Effect of Fodder Tree Species with Condensed Tannin Contents on In vitro Methane Production

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, Ernestina Gutiérrez; Medina, Leonardo Hernández; Benavides, Liliana Márquez; Caratachea, Aureliano Juárez; Razo, Guillermo Salas; Burgos, Armin Javier Ayala; Rodríguez, Ruy Ortiz

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of fodder tree species (FTS) with condensed tannin contents: Cordia elaeagnoides, Platymiscium lasiocarpum, Vitex mollis, and Haematoxylon brasiletto, on in vitro methane (CH4) production at 24 h post incubation. The analysis was performed using the in vitro gas production technique, with three levels of inclusion/species: 600, 800, and 1,000 mg and with 4 replicates/species/level of inclusion. The substrate was incubated at 39°C, and the gas and CH4 production were recorded at 4, 8, 12, and 24 h post incubation. The data collected was analyzed through Pearson correlation, polinomial regression and fixed effects models. There were negative correlations between FTS-total gas volume (r = −0.40; p<0.001); FTS-volume of CH4 produced (r = −0.40; p<0.001) and between the inclusion level-volume of CH4 produced (r = −0.20; p<0.001). As well as a positive correlation between hours post incubation-total gas volume (r = 0.42; p<0.001) and between hours post incubation-volume of CH4 produced (r = 0.48; p<0.001). The FTS: C. elaeagnoides, V. mollis, and H. brasiletto have potential, in the three inclusion levels analyzed, to reduce CH4 emission on in vitro trials (>32.7%), taking into account the total CH4 production at 24 h of the forage used as reference (Avena sativa). It’s suggested that C. elaeagnoides-according to its crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and condensed tannins content- is the best alternative within the FTS analyzed, for feeding ruminants and for the control of CH4 emissions during the dry season. PMID:26732330

  14. Nutritional evaluation of organically grown fodders in lactating Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Singh, Sultan; Nag, Subir Kumar; Maity, Subhendu Bikash; Kushwaha, Badri Prasad

    2013-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional response of organically grown diets in buffaloes on nutrients utilization and nutrient efficiency for milk production. For this, ten milch Murrah buffaloes of average body weight (490.72 ± 6.65 kg), milk yield (8.13 ± 0.33 kg), and lactation stage (85 ± 5.28 days) were distributed in inorganic (InDg()) and organic dietary groups (OrDg) with five animals in each. Buffaloes of InDg and OgDg were fed sorghum hay-berseem fodder-concentrate mixture-based diets grown inorganically and organically, respectively. After 60 days of feeding, a digestion cum metabolism trial was conducted to assess feed intake, nutrient utilization, and N balance, while milk yield and composition were recorded fortnightly. DM, CP, digestible crude protein (DCP), and metabolizable energy (ME) intake (g/Kg w(0.75)) were similar in animals of InDg and OrDg. NDF, ADF, and hemicellulose digestibility were (P < 0.05) higher in animals on OrDg (59.20, 51.55, and 62.67) than InDg diet (54.57, 43.72, and 56.61 %), respectively. Urinary n loss (g/day) was (P < 0.05) lower in OrDg (67.23) than in InDg (83.55); however, milk N was comparable in animals of both dietary groups (47.36 vs 45.82 g/day). Nitrogen balance was higher in animals of OrDg (39.72) than in InDg (28.08). DCP, TDN, and ME values of both diets were similar. No effect of diet was observed on milk yield and its composition; however, increased lactation length decreased milk yield. Buffaloes on both diets had similar efficiency and conversion ratio of nutrients for milk production. Results revealed that diets (organically vs. inorganically grown) have no effect on milk yield and its composition; however, buffaloes on organic diet have higher fiber digestibility and low urinary N loss which did not affect the dietary nutrients efficiency and conversion ratio for milk production. PMID:22733348

  15. Contamination of soil, medicinal, and fodder plants with lead and cadmium present in mine-affected areas, Northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nawab, Javed; Khan, Sardar; Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Qamar, Zahir; Din, Islamud; Mahmood, Qaisar; Gul, Nayab; Huang, Qing

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in the soil and plants (medicinal and fodder) grown in chromite mining-affected areas, Northern Pakistan. Soil and plant samples were collected and analyzed for Pb and Cd concentrations using atomic absorption spectrometer. Soil pollution load indices (PLIs) were greater than 2 for both Cd and Pb, indicating high level of contamination in the study area. Furthermore, Cd concentrations in the soil surrounding the mining sites exceeded the maximum allowable limit (MAL) (0.6 mg kg(-1)), while the concentrations of Pb were lower than the MAL (350 mg kg(-1)) set by State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) for agriculture soil. The concentrations of Cd and Pb were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the soil of the mining-contaminated sites as compared to the reference site, which can be attributed to the dispersion of toxic heavy metals, present in the bed rocks and waste of the mines. The concentrations of Pb and Cd in majority of medicinal and fodder plant species grown in surrounding areas of mines were higher than their MALs set by World Health Organization/Food Agriculture Organization (WHO/FAO) for herbal (10 and 0.3 mg kg(-1), respectively) and edible (0.3 and 0.2 mg kg(-1), respectively) plants. The high concentrations of Cd and Pb may cause contamination of the food chain and health risk. PMID:26324064

  16. Multiple effects of a commercial Roundup® formulation on the soil filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans at low doses: evidence of an unexpected impact on energetic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Valérie; Oestreicher, Nathalie; Vélot, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Soil microorganisms are highly exposed to glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH), especially to Roundup® which is widely used worldwide. However, studies on the effects of GBH formulations on specific non-rhizosphere soil microbial species are scarce. We evaluated the toxicity of a commercial formulation of Roundup® (R450), containing 450 g/L of glyphosate (GLY), on the soil filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, an experimental model microorganism. The median lethal dose (LD50) on solid media was between 90 and 112 mg/L GLY (among adjuvants, which are also included in the Roundup® formulation), which corresponds to a dilution percentage about 100 times lower than that used in agriculture. The LOAEL and NOAEL (lowest- and no-observed-adverse-effect levels) associated to morphology and growth were 33.75 and 31.5 mg/L GLY among adjuvants, respectively. The formulation R450 proved to be much more active than technical GLY. At the LD50 and lower concentrations, R450 impaired growth, cellular polarity, endocytosis, and mitochondria (average number, total volume and metabolism). In contrast with the depletion of mitochondrial activities reported in animal studies, R450 caused a stimulation of mitochondrial enzyme activities, thus revealing a different mode of action of Roundup® on energetic metabolism. These mitochondrial disruptions were also evident at a low dose corresponding to the NOAEL for macroscopic parameters, indicating that these mitochondrial biomarkers are more sensitive than those for growth and morphological ones. Altogether, our data indicate that GBH toxic effects on soil filamentous fungi, and thus potential impairment of soil ecosystems, may occur at doses far below recommended agricultural application rate. PMID:27068896

  17. Lipid peroxidation in the freshwater shrimp Caridina nilotica as a biomarker of Roundup(®) herbicide pollution of freshwater systems in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mensah, P K; Palmer, C G; Muller, W J

    2012-01-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides used to control weeds and invading alien plant species in South Africa ultimately end up in freshwater ecosystems, but no South African environmental water quality guideline exists to regulate these bio-active chemicals. Ecotoxicological tests to assess the possibility of using lipid peroxidation (LPx) in Caridina nilotica as a potential biomarker of Roundup(®), a glyphosate-based herbicide, pollution were conducted. In two separate tests, 40 days post hatch shrimps were exposed to different concentrations of 4.3, 6.7, 10.5, 16.4, 25.6 and 40.0 mg/L in a 96 h acute toxicity test; and 2.2, 2.8, 3.4, 4.3 and 5.4 mg/L in a 21 d chronic toxicity test, using static-non renewal and static-renewal methods, respectively. Shrimp whole body LPx was estimated by thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) assay, performed by a malondialdehyde (MDA) reaction with 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) measured spectrophotometrically. Final MDA concentrations were expressed as nmol MDA produced/mg protein. Results showed that LPx was significantly lower in control animals than in animals exposed to different Roundup(®) concentrations, (p < 0.05). The present work provides an ecotoxicological basis for the possible use of LPx in Caridina nilotica as a biomarker for monitoring Roundup(®) pollution in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:22508130

  18. Salinity tolerance turfgrass: history and prospects.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Md Kamal; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor

    2013-01-01

    Land and water resources are becoming scarce and are insufficient to sustain the burgeoning population. Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stresses affecting agricultural productions across the world. Cultivation of salt-tolerant turfgrass species may be promising option under such conditions where poor quality water can also be used for these crops. Coastal lands in developing countries can be used to grow such crops, and seawater can be used for irrigation of purposes. These plants can be grown using land and water unsuitable for conventional crops and can provide food, fuel, fodder, fibber, resin, essential oils, and pharmaceutical products and can be used for landscape reintegration. There are a number of potential turfgrass species that may be appropriate at various salinity levels of seawater. The goal of this review is to create greater awareness of salt-tolerant turfgrasses, their current and potential uses, and their potential use in developing countries. The future for irrigating turf may rely on the use of moderate- to high-salinity water and, in order to ensure that the turf system is sustainable, will rely on the use of salt-tolerant grasses and an improved knowledge of the effects of salinity on turfgrasses. PMID:24222734

  19. Salinity Tolerance Turfgrass: History and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Md. Kamal; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor

    2013-01-01

    Land and water resources are becoming scarce and are insufficient to sustain the burgeoning population. Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stresses affecting agricultural productions across the world. Cultivation of salt-tolerant turfgrass species may be promising option under such conditions where poor quality water can also be used for these crops. Coastal lands in developing countries can be used to grow such crops, and seawater can be used for irrigation of purposes. These plants can be grown using land and water unsuitable for conventional crops and can provide food, fuel, fodder, fibber, resin, essential oils, and pharmaceutical products and can be used for landscape reintegration. There are a number of potential turfgrass species that may be appropriate at various salinity levels of seawater. The goal of this review is to create greater awareness of salt-tolerant turfgrasses, their current and potential uses, and their potential use in developing countries. The future for irrigating turf may rely on the use of moderate- to high-salinity water and, in order to ensure that the turf system is sustainable, will rely on the use of salt-tolerant grasses and an improved knowledge of the effects of salinity on turfgrasses. PMID:24222734

  20. Using growth measures in the freshwater shrimp Caridina nilotica as biomarkers of Roundup® pollution of South African freshwater systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensah, P. K.; Muller, W. J.; Palmer, C. G.

    There has been global concern about the effect of toxic chemicals on aquatic biota due to the upsurge in contamination of aquatic ecosystems by these chemicals, which includes pesticides. Roundup® and other glyphosate-based herbicides are frequently used in the chemical control of weeds and invading alien plant species in South Africa. These bio-active chemicals ultimately get into water courses directly or indirectly through processes such as drifting, leaching, surface runoff and foliar spray of aquatic nuisance plants. However, there is no South African water quality guideline to protect indigenous freshwater non-target organisms from the toxic effects of glyphosate-based herbicides. This study evaluated the possible use of growth measures in Caridina nilotica as biomarkers of Roundup® pollution as part of developing glyphosate water quality guideline for the protection of aquatic life in South Africa. Using static-renewal methods in a 25-day growth toxicity test, 40 days post hatch shrimps were exposed to different sub-lethal Roundup® concentrations of 0.0 (control), 2.2, 2.8, 3.4, 4.3 and 5.4 mg/L. Shrimps were fed daily with TetraMin® flake food and test solutions changed every third day. Shrimp total lengths and wet weights were measured every fifth day. These data were used to determine the shrimp’s growth performance and feed utilization in terms of percent weight gain (PWG), percent length gain (PLG), specific growth rate (SGR), condition factor (CF), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE). Moulting was observed for 14 days and the data used to determine the daily moult rate for each concentration. Results of growth performance and food utilization indices showed that growth was significantly impaired in all exposed groups compared to control (p < 0.05). Moulting frequency was also higher in all exposed groups than in control (p < 0.05). Although all the tested growth measures proved to be possible

  1. Co-expression of G2-EPSPS and glyphosate acetyltransferase GAT genes conferring high tolerance to glyphosate in soybean

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Bingfu; Guo, Yong; Hong, Huilong; Jin, Longguo; Zhang, Lijuan; Chang, Ru-Zhen; Lu, Wei; Lin, Min; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Glyphosate is a widely used non-selective herbicide with broad spectrum of weed control around the world. At present, most of the commercial glyphosate tolerant soybeans utilize glyphosate tolerant gene CP4-EPSPS or glyphosate acetyltransferase gene GAT separately. In this study, both glyphosate tolerant gene G2-EPSPS and glyphosate degraded gene GAT were co-transferred into soybean and transgenic plants showed high tolerance to glyphosate. Molecular analysis including PCR, Sothern blot, qRT-PCR, and Western blot revealed that target genes have been integrated into genome and expressed effectively at both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, the glyphosate tolerance analysis showed that no typical symptom was observed when compared with a glyphosate tolerant line HJ06-698 derived from GR1 transgenic soybean even at fourfold labeled rate of Roundup. Chlorophyll and shikimic acid content analysis of transgenic plant also revealed that these two indexes were not significantly altered after glyphosate application. These results indicated that co-expression of G2-EPSPS and GAT conferred high tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate in soybean. Therefore, combination of tolerant and degraded genes provides a new strategy for developing glyphosate tolerant transgenic crops. PMID:26528311

  2. Fresh and preserved green fodder modify effects of urinary acidifiers on urine pH of horses.

    PubMed

    Goren, G; Fritz, J; Dillitzer, N; Hipp, B; Kienzle, E

    2014-04-01

    Hay stabilises urine pH in horses. It is unknown whether this is an effect of structure or of chemical composition. In this study, four ponies (230-384 kg body weight [BW]) were fed six different diets with either a structure or a composition similar to hay with and without acidifiers in a cross-over experimental design in amounts to maintain body weight with the following main compounds: Fresh grass (GRASS), alfalfa hay (ALF), grass cobs (COBS), grass silage (SIL), straw (STR) or extruded straw (STRe) for 2 to 10 days. Urine pH was measured in all trials, blood pH, blood base excess and bicarbonate as well as mineral balance were determined in GRASS, ALF, STR and STRe. In the trials with straw and extruded straw, urine pH decreased significantly (STR control: 7.8 ± 0.23, acidifier: 5.2 ± 0.38) when acidifiers were added, whereas in all other diets that were based on fresh or preserved green fodder, pH did not decrease below 7. Blood pH was similarly affected by diet and acidifiers. Acidifiers had little effect on the pre-prandial blood pH, only in diet STR there was a significant reduction in relation to control. Post-prandial blood pH was significantly reduced by acidifiers in all diets. Blood bicarbonate and base excess showed corresponding effects. Faecal and renal mineral excretion and apparent mineral digestibility were not systematically affected by diet or acidifiers except for chloride. Chloride added as inorganic chloride salt had an even better apparent digestibility than chloride originating from feed. Because only green plant material stabilised acid base balance, chlorophyll and its metabolites are discussed as potential mediators of the effect of green fodder on acid base balance. PMID:23551706

  3. Plant characterization of Roundup Ready 2 Yield ® soybean, MON 89788, for use in ecological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Horak, Michael J; Rosenbaum, Eric W; Kendrick, Daniel L; Sammons, Bernard; Phillips, Samuel L; Nickson, Thomas E; Dobert, Raymond C; Perez, Tim

    2015-04-01

    During the development of a genetically modified (GM) crop product, extensive phenotypic and agronomic data are collected to characterize the plant in comparison to a conventional control with a similar genetic background. The data are evaluated for potential differences resulting from the genetic modification process or the GM trait, and the differences--if any--are subsequently considered in the context of contributing to the pest potential of the GM crop. Ultimately, these study results and those of other studies are used in an ecological risk assessment of the GM crop. In the studies reported here, seed germination, vegetative and reproductive growth, and pollen morphology of Roundup Ready 2 Yield(®) soybean, MON 89788, were compared to those of A3244, a conventional control soybean variety with the same genetic background. Any statistically significant differences were considered in the context of the genetic variation known to occur in soybean and were evaluated as indicators of an effect of the genetic modification process and assessed for impact on plant pest (weed) characteristics and adverse ecological impact (ecological risk). The results of these studies revealed no effects attributable to the genetic modification process or to the GM trait in the plant that would result in increased pest potential or adverse ecological impact of MON 89788 compared with A3244. These results and the associated risk assessments obtained from diverse geographic and environmental conditions in the United States and Argentina can be used by regulators in other countries to inform various assessments of ecological risk. PMID:25248506

  4. Piezoelectric Sensor for Determination of Genetically Modified Soybean Roundup Ready® in Samples not Amplified by PCR

    PubMed Central

    Stobiecka, Magdalena; Cieśla, Jarosław M.; Janowska, Beata; Tudek, Barbara; Radecka, Hanna

    2007-01-01

    The chemically modified piezoelectrodes were utilized to develop relatively cheap and easy to use biosensor for determination of genetically modified Roundup Ready soybean (RR soybean). The biosensor relies on the immobilization onto gold piezoelectrodes of the 21-mer single stranded oligonucleotide (probes) related to 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene, which is an active component of an insert integrated into RR soybean genome. The hybridization reaction between the probe and the target complementary sequence in solution was monitored. The system was optimized using synthetic oligonucleotides, which were applied for EPSPS gene detection in DNA samples extracted from animal feed containing 30% RR soybean amplified by the PCR and nonamplified by PCR. The detection limit for genomic DNA was in the range of 4.7·105 numbers of genom copies contained EPSPS gene in the QCM cell. The properties such as sensitivity and selectivity of piezoelectric senor presented here indicated that it could be applied for the direct determination of genetically modified RR soybean in the samples non-amplified by PCR.

  5. Are You Ready for [a] Roundup?--What Chemistry Has to Do with Genetic Modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöpping, Bert

    2001-06-01

    Genetically modified crops are grown in most parts of the world nowadays. These transgenic plants have new properties such as herbicide tolerance or insect resistance that often cannot be introduced by conventional breeding. Using examples of very common transgenic varieties, the article explains how the knowledge of metabolic pathways and genetic information is used to design these plants and how the same knowledge is used to detect them. It reviews why detection of genetic modifications in plants has become necessary and describes the most common detection methods, from immunological assays to polymerase chain reaction and real-time detection.

  6. [The transfer of 90Sr and of 137Cs radionuclides in the chain of soil-fodder-animal products in the area contaminated as a consequence of the Chernobyl AES accident].

    PubMed

    Spirin, E V; Aleksakhin, R M; Kalmykov, M V; Ageets, V Iu; Averin, V S; Lazarev, N M; Cavellin, G D; Biesold, H

    2006-01-01

    The database on 137Cs and or 90Sr transfer factors in the soil-fodder-animal products chain compiled in the framework of the project "Radioecological Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident" under the French-German Initiative was analyzed. The 137Cs transfer factors were determined into 10 fodder types for farm animals. The 137Cs and 90Sr transfer from daily diet to milk is practically independent from milk yield and season and is about 0.83% and 0.16%. 137Cs transfer factor into beef (adult animals) is about to 2.4% from the daily uptake with fodder per 1 kg meat. PMID:16579548

  7. 40 CFR 180.586 - Clothianidin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., group 16, except rice, forage 0.35 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder and straw, group 16, except rice, hay 0.07 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder and straw, group 16, except rice, stover 0.1 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder and straw, group 16, except rice, straw 0.05 Grain, cereal, group 15, except rice 0.01 Grape...

  8. 40 CFR 180.586 - Clothianidin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and straw, group 16, except rice, forage 0.35 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder and straw, group 16, except rice, hay 0.07 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder and straw, group 16, except rice, stover 0.1 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder and straw, group 16, except rice, straw 0.05 Grain, cereal, group 15, except...

  9. 40 CFR 180.493 - Dimethomorph; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specified in the following table. Commodity Parts per million Expiration/revocation date Grain, cereal, forage, fodder and straw, group 16, forage 0.05 5/12/04 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder and straw, group 16, hay 0.10 5/12/04 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder and straw, group 16, stover 0.15 5/12/04 Grain,...

  10. Transplantation tolerance.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, Emma M; Game, David S; Lechler, Robert I

    2014-12-01

    Although transplantation has been a standard medical practice for decades, marked morbidity from the use of immunosuppressive drugs and poor long-term graft survival remain important limitations in the field. Since the first solid organ transplant between the Herrick twins in 1954, transplantation immunology has sought to move away from harmful, broad-spectrum immunosuppressive regimens that carry with them the long-term risk of potentially life-threatening opportunistic infections, cardiovascular disease, and malignancy, as well as graft toxicity and loss, towards tolerogenic strategies that promote long-term graft survival. Reports of "transplant tolerance" in kidney and liver allograft recipients whose immunosuppressive drugs were discontinued for medical or non-compliant reasons, together with results from experimental models of transplantation, provide the proof-of-principle that achieving tolerance in organ transplantation is fundamentally possible. However, translating the reconstitution of immune tolerance into the clinical setting is a daunting challenge fraught with the complexities of multiple interacting mechanisms overlaid on a background of variation in disease. In this article, we explore the basic science underlying mechanisms of tolerance and review the latest clinical advances in the quest for transplantation tolerance. PMID:24213880

  11. Are DNA-damaging effects induced by herbicide formulations (Roundup® and Garlon®) in fish transient and reversible upon cessation of exposure?

    PubMed

    Guilherme, S; Santos, M A; Gaivão, I; Pacheco, M

    2014-10-01

    Owing to the seasonality of crop cultivation and subsequent periodic/seasonal application of herbicides, their input to the aquatic systems is typically intermittent. Consequently, exposure of fish to this type of contaminants can be short and followed by a period of permanence in non-contaminated areas. Thus, the assessment of genotoxic endpoints in fish after removal of the contamination source appears as a crucial step to improve the knowledge on the dynamics of herbicide genotoxicity, as well as to determine the actual magnitude of risk posed by these agrochemicals. Therefore, the present study intended to shed light on the ability of fish to recover from the DNA damage induced by short-term exposures to the herbicide formulations Roundup(®) (glyphosate-based) and Garlon(®) (triclopyr-based) upon the exposure cessation. European eel (Anguilla anguilla) was exposed to the above commercial formulations for 3 days, and allowed to recover for 1, 7 and 14 days (post-exposure period). The comet assay was used to identify the DNA damage in blood cells during both exposure and post-exposure periods. As an attempt to clarify the DNA damaging mechanisms involved, an extra-step including the incubation of the nucleotides with DNA lesion-specific repair enzyme was added to the standard comet. The genotoxic potential of both herbicides was confirmed, concerning the exposure period. In addition, the involvement of oxidative DNA damage on the action of Roundup(®) (pointed out as pyrimidine bases oxidation) was demonstrated, while for Garlon(®) this damaging mechanism was less evident. Fish exposed to Garlon(®), though presenting some evidence towards a tendency of recovery, did not achieve a complete restoration of DNA integrity. In what concerns to Roundup(®), a recovery was evident when considering non-specific DNA damage on day 14 post-exposure. In addition, this herbicide was able to induce a late oxidative DNA damage (day 14). Blood cells of A. anguilla exposed to

  12. In vivo and in vitro effects of the herbicide Roundup(®) on developmental stages of the trematode Echinostoma paraensei.

    PubMed

    Monte, Tainá C de C; Garcia, Juberlan; Gentile, Rosana; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Carvalho; Souza, Joyce; Braga, Brunna V; Maldonado, Arnaldo

    2016-10-01

    The exposure of wildlife and humans to toxic residues of Roundup(®) through agricultural practices or the food chain has been reported since the herbicide was found contaminating rivers. Glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine acid, is a nonselective post-emergent herbicide and is formulated as an isopropylamine salt with the surfactant taloamine polyethoxylate (POEA) representing the commercial formulation of Roundup(®). There is little knowledge about the effects of the herbicide on helminth parasites, particularly those whose life cycle is related to water bodies. Here we investigated the effects of the Roundup(®) on the food-borne trematode Echinostoma paraensei in experimental conditions using different developmental stages (eggs, miracidia, cercariae, metacercariae, newly excysted larvae (NEL), helminths at seven days and helminths at fourteen days). Three different herbicide concentrations were tested based on concentrations typically applied in the field: 225, 450 and 900 mg/L. Specimens were analyzed in vitro for hatching miracidia, mortality and excystment rate of metacercariae and in vivo for parasitic load and egg production. There was a significant difference in the hatching miracidia rate only for the newly embryonated eggs. The mortality of specimens and excystment rate of metacercariae were concentration-dependent. There was a significant difference in the miracidia mortality with respect to concentration until 56.3 mg/L. The same effect was observed for cercariae, and mortality was observed from 15 min onwards at concentrations of 225-900 mg/L. At low concentrations, mortality was detected after 30 min. The effects of the herbicide concentration on NEL and on helminths at seven and fourteen days showed a significant difference after 24 h. There was no significant difference in parasitic load and egg production after infection of rodents with exposed metacercariae. All developmental stages of the trematode E. paraensei were affected by

  13. Development of one novel multiple-target plasmid for duplex quantitative PCR analysis of roundup ready soybean.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haibo; Yang, Litao; Guo, Jinchao; Li, Xiang; Jiang, Lingxi; Zhang, Dabing

    2008-07-23

    To enforce the labeling regulations of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), the application of reference molecules as calibrators is becoming essential for practical quantification of GMOs. However, the reported reference molecules with tandem marker multiple targets have been proved not suitable for duplex PCR analysis. In this study, we developed one unique plasmid molecule based on one pMD-18T vector with three exogenous target DNA fragments of Roundup Ready soybean GTS 40-3-2 (RRS), that is, CaMV35S, NOS, and RRS event fragments, plus one fragment of soybean endogenous Lectin gene. This Lectin gene fragment was separated from the three exogenous target DNA fragments of RRS by inserting one 2.6 kb DNA fragment with no relatedness to RRS detection targets in this resultant plasmid. Then, we proved that this design allows the quantification of RRS using the three duplex real-time PCR assays targeting CaMV35S, NOS, and RRS events employing this reference molecule as the calibrator. In these duplex PCR assays, the limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 10 and 50 copies, respectively. For the quantitative analysis of practical RRS samples, the results of accuracy and precision were similar to those of simplex PCR assays, for instance, the quantitative results were at the 1% level, the mean bias of the simplex and duplex PCR were 4.0% and 4.6%, respectively, and the statistic analysis ( t-test) showed that the quantitative data from duplex and simplex PCR had no significant discrepancy for each soybean sample. Obviously, duplex PCR analysis has the advantages of saving the costs of PCR reaction and reducing the experimental errors in simplex PCR testing. The strategy reported in the present study will be helpful for the development of new reference molecules suitable for duplex PCR quantitative assays of GMOs. PMID:18570432

  14. Utilization of fodder yeast and agro-industrial by-products in production of spores and biologically - active endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Salama, H S; Foda, M S; Selim, M H; El-Sharaby, A

    1983-01-01

    A number of newly-devised fermentation media were evaluated with respect to their ability to support sporulation and biosynthesis of endotoxins by strains of Bacillus thuringiensis that are biologically active against Spodoptera littoralis, Heliothis armigera, and Spodoptera exigua. Fodder yeast from dried cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae could be used as a complete mono-component medium for production of highly active spore-delta-endotoxin complexes from B. thur., vars. entomocidus, kurstaki and galleriae. Highest sporulation titers were obtained at 2% fodder yeast concentration with endotoxin yields ranging between 7 to 9 grams per liter of medium. Ground horse beans and kidney bean seeds could also be used successfully as complete media for sporulation and endotoxin production. Extracts of potato tubers and sweet potato roots were efficient media for active endotoxin production from B. thur. var. kurstaki, although the obtained yields were much lower than those produced in fodder yeast media. The utilization of fish meal, cotton seed meal, and residues of chicken from the slaughter-house as media for the production of endotoxins active against Spodoptera littoralis, was not successful. On the other hand, minced citrus peels, ground seeds of dates, and wheat bran could be successfully used in combination with fodder yeast as media for production of endotoxins, active against Heliothis armigera and Spodoptera exigua. Re-utilization of culture supernatants in a second fermentation cycle after supplementation with some nutrients gave promising results with some of the strains tested. The data obtained are discussed in view of their feasibility of application. PMID:6666415

  15. Intolerant tolerance.

    PubMed

    Khushf, G

    1994-04-01

    The Hyde Amendment and Roman Catholic attempts to put restrictions on Title X funding have been criticized for being intolerant. However, such criticism fails to appreciate that there are two competing notions of tolerance, one focusing on the limits of state force and accepting pluralism as unavoidable, and the other focusing on the limits of knowledge and advancing pluralism as a good. These two types of tolerance, illustrated in the writings of John Locke and J.S. Mill, each involve an intolerance. In a pluralistic context where the free exercise of religion is respected, John Locke's account of tolerance is preferable. However, it (in a reconstructed form) leads to a minimal state. Positive entitlements to benefits like artificial contraception or nontherapeutic abortions can legitimately be resisted, because an intolerance has already been shown with respect to those that consider the benefit immoral, since their resources have been coopted by taxation to advance an end that is contrary to their own. There is a sliding scale from tolerance (viewed as forbearance) to the affirmation of communal integrity, and this scale maps on to the continuum from negative to positive rights. PMID:8051515

  16. Religious Tolerance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue looks at three issues of religious tolerance. The first article examines a case recently decided by the United States Supreme Court on student-led prayers at school events. The second article explores the persecution suffered by members of the Mormon religion during the 19th century. The final article looks at Martin Luther and…

  17. Effect of sugar beet tubers as a partial replacer to green fodder on production performance and economics of lactating Surti buffaloes in lean period

    PubMed Central

    Sorathiya, L. M.; Patel, M. D.; Tyagi, K. K.; Fulsoundar, A. B.; Raval, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugar beet tubers as a replacer to green fodder on production performance and economics of lactating Surti buffaloes. Materials and Methods: This trial was conducted at the Livestock Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari. Twenty lactating Surti buffaloes in a changeover experimental design were selected to assess the effects of replacing green fodder with sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) tubers on production performance, economics of feeding sugar beet and blood biochemical profile. Half (50%) of the hybrid Napier was replaced with sliced sugar beet tubers in the ration of experimental animals. Results: Partial replacement of hybrid Napier with that of sugar beet tubers numerically improved dry matter intake, milk yield, 4% fat corrected milk and milk composition parameters such as fat, solid non-fat, protein and lactose, but not significantly. The blood parameters were in normal range and non-significant except that of glucose and triglycerides, which were increased in the sugar beet group. Replacing sugar beet tubers also proved to be cost-effective with improved net profit around Rs. 6.63/day. Conclusion: It can be concluded that 50% hybrid Napier fodder can be replaced with sugar beet tubers without any adverse effect on animal production performance, milk composition blood biochemical profile and economics of feeding. PMID:27046988

  18. Compositional differences in soybeans on the market: glyphosate accumulates in Roundup Ready GM soybeans.

    PubMed

    Bøhn, T; Cuhra, M; Traavik, T; Sanden, M; Fagan, J; Primicerio, R

    2014-06-15

    This article describes the nutrient and elemental composition, including residues of herbicides and pesticides, of 31 soybean batches from Iowa, USA. The soy samples were grouped into three different categories: (i) genetically modified, glyphosate-tolerant soy (GM-soy); (ii) unmodified soy cultivated using a conventional "chemical" cultivation regime; and (iii) unmodified soy cultivated using an organic cultivation regime. Organic soybeans showed the healthiest nutritional profile with more sugars, such as glucose, fructose, sucrose and maltose, significantly more total protein, zinc and less fibre than both conventional and GM-soy. Organic soybeans also contained less total saturated fat and total omega-6 fatty acids than both conventional and GM-soy. GM-soy contained high residues of glyphosate and AMPA (mean 3.3 and 5.7 mg/kg, respectively). Conventional and organic soybean batches contained none of these agrochemicals. Using 35 different nutritional and elemental variables to characterise each soy sample, we were able to discriminate GM, conventional and organic soybeans without exception, demonstrating "substantial non-equivalence" in compositional characteristics for 'ready-to-market' soybeans. PMID:24491722

  19. Transfer of nitrogen from a tropical legume tree to an associated fodder grass via root exudation and common mycelial networks.

    PubMed

    Jalonen, Riina; Nygren, Pekka; Sierra, Jorge

    2009-10-01

    Symbiotic dinitrogen fixation by legume trees represents a substantial N input in agroforestry systems, which may benefit the associated crops. Applying (15)N labelling, we studied N transfer via common mycelial networks (CMN) and root exudation from the legume tree Gliricidia sepium to the associated fodder grass Dichantium aristatum. The plants were grown in greenhouse in shared pots in full interaction (treatment FI) or with their root systems separated with a fine mesh that allowed N transfer via CMN only (treatment MY). Tree root exudation was measured separately with hydroponics. Nitrogen transfer estimates were based on the isotopic signature of N (delta(15)N) transferred from the donor. We obtained a range for estimates by calculating transfer with delta(15)N of tree roots and exudates. Nitrogen transfer was 3.7-14.0 and 0.7-2.5% of grass total N in treatments FI and MY, respectively. Root delta(15)N gave the lower and exudate delta(15)N the higher estimates. Transfer in FI probably occurred mainly via root exudation. Transfer in MY correlated negatively with grass root N concentration, implying that it was driven by source-sink relationships between the plants. The range of transfer estimates, depending on source delta(15)N applied, indicates the need of understanding the transfer mechanisms as a basis for reliable estimates. PMID:19552666

  20. Versatile synthesis of PHMB-stabilized silver nanoparticles and their significant stimulating effect on fodder beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Gusev, Alexander А; Kudrinsky, Alexey A; Zakharova, Olga V; Klimov, Alexey I; Zherebin, Pavel M; Lisichkin, George V; Vasyukova, Inna A; Denisov, Albert N; Krutyakov, Yurii A

    2016-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are well-known bactericidal agents. However, information about the influence of AgNPs on the morphometric parameters and biochemical status of most important agricultural crops is limited. The present study reports the influence of AgNPs stabilized with cationic polymer polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB) on growth, development, and biochemical status of fodder beet Beta vulgaris L. under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. PHMB-stabilized AgNPs were obtained via sodium borohydride reduction of silver nitrate in an aqueous solution. The average diameter of thus prepared AgNPs was 10 nm. It appears that the results of experiments with laboratory-grown beets in the nanosilver-containing medium, where germination of seeds and growth of roots were suppressed, do not correlate with the results of greenhouse experiments. The observed growth-stimulating action of PHMB-stabilized AgNPs can be explained by the change of activity of oxidases and, consequently, by the change of auxins amount in plant tissues. In beets grown in the presence of PHMB-stabilized AgNPs no negative deviations of biological parameters from normal values were registered. Furthermore, the SEM/EDS examination revealed no presence of silver in the tissues of the studied plants. PMID:26952409

  1. Determination of the herbicide glyphosate and its metabolite in biological specimens by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A case of poisoning by roundup herbicide.

    PubMed

    Hori, Yasushi; Fujisawa, Manami; Shimada, Kenji; Hirose, Yasuo

    2003-04-01

    In Japan, poisonings by the glyphosate (GLYP)-containing herbicide Roundup and the gluphosinate (GLUF)-based herbicide BASTA have been increasing since about 1987. We applied the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method of analysis, on which we have already reported in regard to the determination of the blood serum level of GLUF and its metabolite, for the determination of serum and urinary levels of GLYP and its metabolite aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA). Derivatization using N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide was completed at a temperature of 80 degrees C after 30 min, and the detection limit of GLYP was 10 pg using m/z 454 and that of AMPA was 1 pg using m/z 396. The full mass spectra of 100 pg GLYP and of 10 pg AMPA were obtained easily. In extractions for which the Isolute HAX cartridge was employed, the mean recovery rate of GLYP and AMPA added to serum to yield concentrations of 10-0.1 microg/mL (n = 5) was 91.6 +/- 10.6% (or better), whereas that of GLYP and AMPA added to urine to yield concentrations of 100-1.0 microg/mL (n = 10) was 93.3 +/- 6.6% (or better), both of which were good rates. Also, using this method of analysis, the presence of GLYP was identified in the full mass spectra obtained from the serum of a patient who may or may not have ingested Roundup. PMID:12731658

  2. A simple analytical method for dhurrin content evaluation in cyanogenic plants for their utilization in fodder and biofumigation.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Leoni, Onofrio; Malaguti, Lorena; Bernardi, Roberta; Lazzeri, Luca

    2011-08-10

    Cyanogenic plants have some potential as biocidal green manure crops in limiting several soilborne pests and pathogens. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and Sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor subsp. sudanense (P.) Stapf), in fact, contain the cyanogenic glucoside p-hydroxy-(S)-mandelonitrile-β-D-glucoside (dhurrin) as a substrate of its secondary defensive system able to release hydrogen cyanide following tissue lesions due to biotic or abiotic factors. Given that dhurrin content is correlated with the biofumigant efficacy of the plants, a high dhurrin content could be a positive character for utilization of sorghum and Sudangrass as biocidal green manure plants. For chemical characterization of the available germplasm, a simple, safe, and accurate method is necessary. In this paper, a new method for dhurrin analysis, based on methanol extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography, is reported and discussed. The feasibility of this analytical procedure was tested by evaluating dhurrin level in roots and stems during cultivation of four different sorghum and Sudangrass varieties in agronomic trials performed in 2008 in the Po valley (Italy). The dhurrin content ranged from 0.16 ± 0.04 to 7.14 ± 0.32 mg g(-1) on dried matter (DM) in stems and from 1.38 ± 0.02 to 6.57 ± 0.09 mg g(-1) on DM in roots, showing statistical differences among the tested germplasms that could be linked to the efficacy of their utilization as biofumigant plants. The method also opens new perspectives for the characterization of sorgum plants as fodder, for which the presence of dhurrin is considered to be negative for its well-known toxicity. PMID:21707058

  3. Functional traits as indicators of fodder provision over a short time scale in species-rich grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Ansquer, Pauline; Duru, Michel; Theau, Jean Pierre; Cruz, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Fodder provision in species-rich grasslands, i.e. herbage growth, proportion of leaf, and leaf and stem digestibility, is difficult to predict for short periods of time, such as between two defoliations or less. The value of two methods based on plant traits for evaluating these agronomic properties was examined. Methods One method is based on plant trait measurements on the plant community (leaf dry matter content, plant height, flowering date); the other is on vegetation composition expressed as plant functional types (acquisitive versus conservative PFTs) established by measuring leaf dry matter content on pure grass stands. The experiment consisted of 18 fields with three different defoliation regimes (combinations of cutting and grazing) and two levels of fertilization. To establish a growth curve over the first growth cycle, herbage was sampled about 10 times in spring. Key Results Coefficients of correlation between agronomic properties of the vegetation and its functional composition were higher when the latter was assessed through PFT and an indicator of the plant nutrient status (Ni) instead of measured plant traits. The date at which the ceiling yield occurred for the standing herbage mass or only the leaf component, which varied by up to 500 degree-days between treatments, and the leaf proportion, depended entirely on the PFT, and largely so for the leaf digestibility. The standing herbage mass at the time of ceiling yield depended only on Ni, or mainly so in the case of the daily herbage growth rate. Similar plant digestibility between plant communities was found at flowering time, although there were big differences in PFT composition. The shape of the growth curve was flatter when there was great functional diversity in the plant community. Conclusions The PFT composition and the Ni were more reliable than the plant functional traits measured in the field for evaluating herbage growth pattern and digestibility in spring. PMID

  4. Effect of replacing oat fodder with fresh and chopped oak leaves on in vitro rumen fermentation, digestibility and metabolizable energy

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, K.; Bhar, R.; Kannan, A.; Jadhav, R.V.; Singh, Birbal; Mal, and G.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing oat fodder (OF) with fresh oak leaves (FOL) or chopped oak leaves (COL) on rumen fermentation and digestibility through in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT). Materials and Methods: Nine different diets were prepared by mixing OF with oak leaves (either FOL or COL) in different ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100). The rations were evaluated through Hohenheim IVGPT with 200 mg substrate and 30 ml of buffered rumen liquor. All the syringes were incubated at 39°C for 24 h in buffered rumen liquor of cattle. After 24 h, the total gas production was recorded, and the contents were analyzed for in vitro methane production, protozoa no. and ammonia-N. Results: Chopping (p<0.01) reduced the tannin fractions as well as non-tannin phenol. Increase in levels of oak decreased total gas production, methane, organic matter (OM) digestibility, and metabolizable energy (ME) values. The polyphenol content of the substrate did not show any significant difference on the protozoal count. Conclusion: In vitro studies revealed that the addition of oak leaves reduced the methane production and ammonia nitrogen levels; however, it also decreased the OM digestibility and ME values linearly as the level of the oak leaves increased in the diet. Chopping was effective only at lower inclusion levels. Further studies, especially in vivo studies, are needed to explore the safe inclusion levels of oak leaves in the diet of ruminants. PMID:27047192

  5. Data on milk dioxin contamination linked with the location of fodder croplands allow to hypothesize the origin of the pollution source in an Italian valley.

    PubMed

    Desiato, Rosanna; Bertolini, Silvia; Baioni, Elisa; Crescio, Maria Ines; Scortichini, Giampiero; Ubaldi, Alessandro; Sparagna, Bruno; Cuttica, Giancarlo; Ru, Giuseppe

    2014-11-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) have similar toxic, endocrine-disrupting, and carcinogenic activity. They are classified as persistent organic pollutants accumulating in the environment and the tissues of living organisms. High concentrations of PCDD/F and dl-PCB have been detected in bovine milk collected in a Piedmont valley (Northwestern Italy) since 2004. This geographic study describes the local distribution of pollution from PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. Since their presence in animal products could be traced back to the ingestion of contaminated fodder, dioxin levels in cow milk were related to the distribution of fodder cropland parcels. Specifically, the aim of the study was to determine, through an exploratory approach, whether the contamination was consistent with one common point source of contamination or different scattered sources. Data for PCDD/F and dl-PCB concentrations in the bulk milk from 27 herds, sampled over a 4-year period (2004-2007), were matched to the georeferenced land parcels the dairy farmers used for growing fodder. Isopleth maps of dioxin concentrations were estimated with ordinary kriging. The highest level of pollution for both PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs was geographically juxtaposed: in both instances, the location of the local steel plant was within this extremely highly polluted area. The study results support the hypothesis for one common point source of contamination in the valley. The exploratory spatial analysis applied in this research may provide a valuable, novel approach to straightforward identification of a highly likely source of dioxin contamination of dairy products (even in the absence of top soil contamination data). PMID:25194902

  6. Modulative influence of lysozyme dimer on defence mechanisms in the carp (Cyprinus carpio) and European sheatfish (Silurus glanis) after suppression induced by herbicide Roundup.

    PubMed

    Terech-Majewska, E; Siwicki, A K; Szweda, W

    2004-01-01

    Immunomodulation is a commonly used method of prophylaxis in humans and animals. Lysozyme dimer (KLP-602) was used at a dose of 50 ug/kg b.w. in order to correct the immunosuppression caused by the action of herbicide glyphosate (Roundup- Monsanto), which was used in a single bath for 10 minutes in a concentration of 100 mg/l of water. The investigations were carried out on 2 species of fish: the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and european catfish (Silurus glanis L.). Herbicide glyphosate caused a decrease in metabolic and phagocytic activity (RBA and PKA) and in proliferative response stimulated by Con A and LPS in carp and european catfish. The immunosuppression sustained for about 2 weeks. The results obtained indicate the possibility of correction of immunosuppression applying lysozyme dimmer (KLP-602) after use of which, the level of the studied indexes increased. PMID:15230544

  7. Methane emissions from river buffaloes fed on green fodders in relation to the nutrient [corrected] intake and digestibility.

    PubMed

    Prusty, Sonali; Mohini, Madhu; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Kumar, Ajay; Datt, Chander

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen male Murrah buffalo calves (15-18 months, 227.98 ± 4.44 kg body weight) were distributed randomly in to three equal groups and fed solely on either berseem (G1), oats (G2), or chicory fodder (G3). A digestibility trial followed by methane measurement using SF6 tracer technique was conducted. No significant difference was observed in nutrient intake; however, crude protein (CP) intake was lower in G2 (0.35 kg) than G1 (0.7) and in G3 (0.71) and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC), and neutral detergent insoluble CP (NDICP) intake was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in G3 (1.54 and 0.31 kg) followed by G2 (1.27 and 0.2 kg) and G1 (1.06 and 0.18 kg). The digestible dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and ether extract intake was similar in all the groups, whereas the digestible CP and NFC intake was lower in G2 compared to G1 and G3. Chicory- and berseem-fed groups emitted 12.2 and 5.2 % less methane than oats-fed group. However, no significant difference was observed in the absolute methane loss and methane loss as percentage of energy intake (p > 0.05) among the groups. There was positive correlation between nutrient intake and total methane production. However, an inverse relationship was observed between total digestible carbohydrate intake and methane production (g/kg dry matter intake). The following regression equations were developed to estimate methane production: methane (g/kg BW) = 128.8553 + (167.7456 × dNDFI) + (216.32 × dCPI) - (40.3313 × dNFCI) and methane (g/d) = -1.7494 + (41.42 × NDFI) + (39.8686 × CPI) + (0.5197 × NFCI). PMID:23857630

  8. Influence of mode of storage and drying of fodder on thermophilic actinomycete aerocontamination in dairy farms of the Doubs region of France.

    PubMed Central

    Dalphin, J C; Pernet, D; Reboux, G; Martinez, J; Dubiez, A; Barale, T; Depierre, A

    1991-01-01

    Airborne contamination by thermophilic actinomycetes, micromycetes and Gram negative bacteria was determined on 34 dairy farms and related to fodder drying and storage methods. Eighteen farms had a barn drying system, eight with additional heating; the remaining 16 had traditional fodder storage methods. Three air samples were obtained for each farm with a six stage Andersen sampler. The thermophilic actinomycetes were identified as Streptomyces and the dominant micromycetes as Aspergillus spp; there was no relation between the levels of these organisms. There were fewer thermophilic actinomycete colonies per Petri dish (stage 5 on the Anderson sampler) on farms with barn drying than on those with traditional storage (median (range) 7 (0-2628) and 56 (4-2628) respectively). The three farms where no thermophilic actinomycetes were found had barn drying with heating and the four most modern farms had lower thermophilic actinomycete colony counts than the others (median (range) 3 (0-10) and 48 (0-2628)). The level of thermophilic actinomycetes and, to a lesser degree, of micromycetes was higher where the farmer had farmer's lung. Thermophilic actinomycetes of the genus Streptomyces are probably the antigens associated with farmer's lung in the Doubs, and modern farms with barn drying and heating furnish some protection against this disease. PMID:1948788

  9. Rangeland Research Roundup -1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Welcome to the inaugural edition of “Rangeland Research Roundup”. Please allow me to introduce myself and provide an overview of our rangeland research in this edition. My name is Justin Derner and I have been the Research Leader for the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Rangeland Resources...

  10. The Optical Disc Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbreath, Jeremy

    1993-01-01

    Provides an update on optical disk technology as a means of digital media storage and explains why it may become a standard storage technology for telemedia technology. Topics discussed include read-only formats; write-once formats, including WORM and CD-WORM; rewritable formats; videodiscs; and future possibilities. (LRW)

  11. Supreme Court Roundup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2005-01-01

    Reactions to the retirement of Justice Sandra Day O'Connor and debate over the president's replacement nomination, Judge John Roberts, Jr., of the D.C. Circuit, dominated this summer's Supreme Court recess. Subsequently, after Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist's death on September 3, 2005, President Bush nominated Roberts for the chief justice…

  12. Classroom Discipline. Research Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielefeldt, Talbot

    1989-01-01

    Recent research in classroom discipline tends to show that discipline is a by-product of effective instruction and classroom management. The five publications reviewed in this annotated bibliography explore aspects of the complex classroom environment that relate to student discipline. Walter Doyle's chapter on "Classroom Organization and…

  13. Storage research roundup

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With so much research being done in the areas of potato production, variety development, genetics, disease resistance and pest management it is easy to miss some of the research being done on potato storage. Below are highlights from a few of the noteworthy papers published recently that relate to t...

  14. Science Learning Centres Roundup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    A recent YouGov poll indicated that almost half of eight to 18-year-olds aspire to a career in science. The latest Association of Colleges enrolment survey indicates a large increase in uptake of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) at further education (FE) colleges. These reports, along with other findings that suggest an…

  15. Science Learning Centres Roundup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The national network of Science Learning Centres aims to raise the quality of science teaching from Key Stage 1 through post-16 (ages 5-19). Short courses are provided locally through the regional Science Learning Centres and longer, more intensive programmes are available at the National Science Learning Centre in York. There are a growing number…

  16. Supreme Court Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on two U.S. Supreme Court cases involving unreasonable searches and seizures: (1) Kyllo v. United States, No. 99-8508; and (2) Indianapolis v. Edmond, No. 99-1030. Includes information about the first case and the basis and decision of the second case. (CMK)

  17. Supreme Court Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses U.S. Supreme Court cases during the 2000-01 term. Focuses on federalism, such as the case Solid Waste Agency v. Army Corps of Engineers, No. 99-1178, and cases related to the U.S. Bill of Rights First Amendment, such as United States and Department of Agriculture v. United Foods, Inc., No. 00-276. (CMK)

  18. Hazardous Waste Roundup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Americans generate approximately 1.6 million tons of hazardous household waste every year. When most people think of hazardous waste, they generally think of materials used in construction, the defense industry, mining, manufacturing, and agriculture. Few people think of hazardous substances…

  19. Evaluating Principals. Research Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Carl

    1990-01-01

    Five recent studies included in this annotated bibliography highlight the diverse facets of an effective principal evaluation system. A technical report by Jerry W. Valentine and Michael L. Bowman includes a clinical instrument for assessing teachers' perception of principals' effectiveness. In a second report, Daniel L. Duke and Richard J.…

  20. Graphic Novels: A Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Katherine L.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews graphic novels for young adults, including five titles from "The Adventures of Tintin," a French series that often uses ethnic and racial stereotypes which reflect the time in which they were published, and "Wolverine," a Marvel comic character adventure. (Contains six references.) (LRW)

  1. Acetylcholinesterase activity in the freshwater shrimp Caridina nilotica as a biomarker of Roundup(®) herbicide pollution of freshwater systems in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mensah, P K; Muller, W J; Palmer, C G

    2012-01-01

    The use of Caridina nilotica whole-body acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity as a potential biomarker of Roundup(®) pollution of aquatic ecosystems was investigated. Forty days post hatch (dph) shrimps were exposed to different concentrations of 0.0, 4.3, 6.7, 10.5, 16.4, 25.6 and 40.0 mg/L in a 96 h acute toxicity test; and 0.0, 2.2, 2.8, 3.4, 4.3 and 5.4 mg/L in a 21 d chronic toxicity test. Whole-body AChE activities were determined at the end of the exposure periods by spectrophotometric assay of sample extract; activities were then normalized against protein contents in the samples and expressed in nanomoles of substrate hydrolyzed. Results of both tests showed that AChE activity was concentration-dependent. Mean AChE activities and standard deviations (±SD) for 96 h acute toxicity were 3.6239 (± 0.4185), 3.4157 (± 1.1842), 2.537 (± 1.3989), 2.4253 (± 1.4202), 2.4127 (± 1.9097), 2.0017 (± 1.1080) and 2.316 (± 0.4001) nmol/min/mg protein; while activity levels for 21 d test were 3.6907(± 0.3401), 2.8473 (± 0.713), 2.9134 (± 0.9879), 2.6738 (± 0.7117), 2.3019 (± 0.4464) and 2.1478 (± 0.864) nmol/min/mg protein. Reference basal AChE activity for 40 dph C. nilotica based on the two control groups was estimated as 3.6907 (± 0.3401) nmol/min/mg proteins. The present work provides ecotoxicological basis for the possible use of AChE activity in C. nilotica as a biomarker for monitoring Roundup(®) pollution in freshwater systems. PMID:22699346

  2. Breed effect between Mos rooster (Galician indigenous breed) and Sasso T-44 line and finishing feed effect of commercial fodder or corn.

    PubMed

    Franco, D; Rois, D; Vázquez, J A; Purriños, L; González, R; Lorenzo, J M

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this research was to study the Mos rooster breed growth performance, carcass, and meat quality. The breed effect (Mos vs. Sasso T-44) and finishing feed in the last month (fodder vs. corn) on animal growth, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty and amino acid profiles were studied using a randomized block design with initial weight as covariance. In total, 80 roosters (n = 30 of Sasso T-44 line and n = 50 of Mos breed) were used. They were separated by breed and allocated to 2 feeding treatment groups (concentrate and corn). Each feeding treatment group consisted of 15 and 25 roosters, for Sasso T-44 line and Mos breed, respectively. Finishing feeding did not affect growth parameters in the 2 genotypes of rooster tested (P > 0.05). Nonetheless, the comparison between both types of roosters led to significant differences in growth parameters (P < 0.05). Regarding carcass characteristics, no significant influences of finishing feeding treatment (P > 0.05) were found, and as expected, carcass weight clearly differed between genotypes due to the lower growth rate of Mos roosters. However, drumstick, thigh, and wing percentages were greater in the Mos breed than in the hybrid line. In color instrumental traits, roosters feeding with corn showed breast meat with significantly (P < 0.001) higher a* and b* values than those of cocks feeding with commercial fodder. Values of shear force were less than 2 kg for both genotypes, thus it can be classified as very tender meat. Finishing with corn significantly increased (P < 0.001) the polyunsaturated fatty acid content in the breast; the Mos breed had a polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio of 0.73. The amino acid profile of the indigenous breed was not similar to that of the commercial strain. Finishing feeding treatment had a greater influence than breed effect on amino acid profile. PMID:22252364

  3. Characterization of the ecological interactions of Roundup Ready 2 Yield® soybean, MON 89788, for use in ecological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Horak, Michael J; Rosenbaum, Eric W; Phillips, Samuel L; Kendrick, Daniel L; Carson, David; Clark, Pete L; Nickson, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    As part of an ecological risk assessment, Roundup Ready 2 Yield® soybean (MON 89788) was compared to a conventional control soybean variety, A3244, for disease and arthropod damage, plant response to abiotic stress and cold, effects on succeeding plant growth (allelopathic effects), plant response to a bacterial symbiont, and effects on the ability of seed to survive and volunteer in a subsequent growing season. Statistically significant differences between MON 89788 and A3244 were considered in the context of the genetic variation known to occur in soybean and were assessed for their potential impact on plant pest (weed) potential and adverse environmental impact. The results of these studies revealed no effects of the genetic modification that would result in increased pest potential or adverse environmental impact of MON 89788 compared with A3244. This paper illustrates how such characterization studies conducted in a range of environments where the crop is grown are used in an ecological risk assessment of the genetically modified (GM) crop. Furthermore, risk assessors and decision makers use this information when deciding whether to approve a GM crop for cultivation in-or grain import into-their country. PMID:26177011

  4. Development of a Rapid Point-of-Use DNA Test for the Screening of Genuity® Roundup Ready 2 Yield® Soybean in Seed Samples.

    PubMed

    Chandu, Dilip; Paul, Sudakshina; Parker, Mathew; Dudin, Yelena; King-Sitzes, Jennifer; Perez, Tim; Mittanck, Don W; Shah, Manali; Glenn, Kevin C; Piepenburg, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Testing for the presence of genetically modified material in seed samples is of critical importance for all stakeholders in the agricultural industry, including growers, seed manufacturers, and regulatory bodies. While rapid antibody-based testing for the transgenic protein has fulfilled this need in the past, the introduction of new variants of a given transgene demands new diagnostic regimen that allows distinguishing different traits at the nucleic acid level. Although such molecular tests can be performed by PCR in the laboratory, their requirement for expensive equipment and sophisticated operation have prevented its uptake in point-of-use applications. A recently developed isothermal DNA amplification technique, recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), combines simple sample preparation and amplification work-flow procedures with the use of minimal detection equipment in real time. Here, we report the development of a highly sensitive and specific RPA-based detection system for Genuity Roundup Ready 2 Yield (RR2Y) material in soybean (Glycine max) seed samples and present the results of studies applying the method in both laboratory and field-type settings. PMID:27314015

  5. Acute and chronic toxicity of Roundup Weathermax and Ignite 280 SL to larval Spea multiplicata and S. bombifrons from the Southern High Plains, USA.

    PubMed

    Dinehart, Simon K; Smith, Loren M; McMurry, Scott T; Smith, Philip N; Anderson, Todd A; Haukos, David A

    2010-08-01

    Pesticides have been implicated in widespread amphibian declines. We assessed acute and chronic toxicity of two widely used herbicides to larval New Mexico (Spea multiplicata) and Plains (S. bombifrons) spadefoots from cropland and native grassland playas. Roundup WeatherMAX (WM) toxicity estimates (48- and 216-h LC(50); 48-h LC(1)) for both species were similar to environmental concentrations expected from accidental overspray. Chronic (30-day) exposure to WM at predicted environmental concentrations (2.0 and 2.8 mg glyphosate acid equivalents/L) reduced survival of both species. Ignite 280 SL (IG) toxicity estimates (48-h LC(50) and LC(1)) for both species were above predicted environmental concentrations of 1.0 mg glufosinate/L. Chronic exposure to predicted environmental concentrations of IG did not reduce survival of either species. Toxicity test results suggest that at predicted environmental concentrations IG would not cause extensive mortalities among larval New Mexico and Plains spadefoots. However, WM may cause extensive mortality among larvae of these species. PMID:20541298

  6. Development of a Rapid Point-of-Use DNA Test for the Screening of Genuity® Roundup Ready 2 Yield® Soybean in Seed Samples

    PubMed Central

    Chandu, Dilip; Paul, Sudakshina; Parker, Mathew; Dudin, Yelena; King-Sitzes, Jennifer; Perez, Tim; Mittanck, Don W.; Shah, Manali; Glenn, Kevin C.; Piepenburg, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Testing for the presence of genetically modified material in seed samples is of critical importance for all stakeholders in the agricultural industry, including growers, seed manufacturers, and regulatory bodies. While rapid antibody-based testing for the transgenic protein has fulfilled this need in the past, the introduction of new variants of a given transgene demands new diagnostic regimen that allows distinguishing different traits at the nucleic acid level. Although such molecular tests can be performed by PCR in the laboratory, their requirement for expensive equipment and sophisticated operation have prevented its uptake in point-of-use applications. A recently developed isothermal DNA amplification technique, recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), combines simple sample preparation and amplification work-flow procedures with the use of minimal detection equipment in real time. Here, we report the development of a highly sensitive and specific RPA-based detection system for Genuity Roundup Ready 2 Yield (RR2Y) material in soybean (Glycine max) seed samples and present the results of studies applying the method in both laboratory and field-type settings. PMID:27314015

  7. 40 CFR 180.552 - Sulfosulfuron; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... on the raw agricultural commodities. Commodity Parts per million Cattle, fat 0.02 Cattle, meat 0.01 Cattle, meat byproducts 0.3 Goat, fat 0.02 Goat, meat 0.01 Goat, meat byproducts 0.3 Grass, forage, fodder and hay, group 17, forage 14 Grass, forage, fodder and hay, group 17, hay 25 Hog, fat 0.005...

  8. 40 CFR 180.552 - Sulfosulfuron; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... on the raw agricultural commodities. Commodity Parts per million Cattle, fat 0.02 Cattle, meat 0.01 Cattle, meat byproducts 0.3 Goat, fat 0.02 Goat, meat 0.01 Goat, meat byproducts 0.3 Grass, forage, fodder and hay, group 17, forage 14 Grass, forage, fodder and hay, group 17, hay 25 Hog, fat 0.005...

  9. 40 CFR 180.498 - Sulfentrazone; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., except soybean, subgroup 6C 0.15 Peanut 0.20 Peanut, meal 0.40 Peppermint, tops 0.30 Potato 0.15... (excluding sweet corn), Hulls 0.30 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder and atraw, group 16, except sweet corn; forage 0.2 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder and atraw, group 16, except sweet corn; hay 0.2 Grain,...

  10. 40 CFR 180.552 - Sulfosulfuron; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Cattle, meat byproducts 0.3 Goat, fat 0.02 Goat, meat 0.01 Goat, meat byproducts 0.3 Grass, forage, fodder and hay, group 17, forage 14 Grass, forage, fodder and hay, group 17, hay 25 Hog, fat 0.005...

  11. 40 CFR 180.552 - Sulfosulfuron; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Cattle, meat byproducts 0.3 Goat, fat 0.02 Goat, meat 0.01 Goat, meat byproducts 0.3 Grass, forage, fodder and hay, group 17, forage 14 Grass, forage, fodder and hay, group 17, hay 25 Hog, fat 0.005...

  12. 40 CFR 180.552 - Sulfosulfuron; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Cattle, meat byproducts 0.3 Goat, fat 0.02 Goat, meat 0.01 Goat, meat byproducts 0.3 Grass, forage, fodder and hay, group 17, forage 14 Grass, forage, fodder and hay, group 17, hay 25 Hog, fat 0.005...

  13. Normothermic central hypovolemia tolerance reflects hyperthermic tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Schlader, Zachary J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To test the hypothesis that those who are highly tolerant to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) while normothermic are also highly tolerant to this challenge while hyperthermic. Methods Sixty pairs of normothermic and hyperthermic LBNP tests to pre-syncope were evaluated. LBNP tolerance was quantified via the cumulative stress index (CSI), which is calculated as the sum of the product of the LBNP level and the duration of each level until test termination (i.e., 20 mmHg × 3 min + 30 mmHg × 3 min, etc.). CSI was compared between normothermic and hyperthermic trials. Internal and skin temperatures, heart rate, and arterial pressure were measured throughout. Results Hyperthermia reduced (P<0.001) CSI from 997 ± 437 to 303 ± 213 mmHg min. There was a positive correlation between normothermic and hyperthermic LBNP tolerance (R2 = 0.38; P<0.001). As a secondary analysis, the 20 trials with the highest LBNP tolerance while normothermic were identified (indicated as the HIGH group; CSI 1,467 ± 356 mmHg min), as were the 20 trials with the lowest normothermic tolerance (indicated as the LOW group; CSI 565 ± 166 mmHg min; P<0.001 between groups). While hyperthermia unanimously reduced CSI in both HIGH and LOW groups, in this hyperthermic condition CSI was ~threefold higher in the HIGH group (474 ± 226 mmHg min) relative to the LOW group (160 ± 115 mmHg min; P<0.001). Conclusions LBNP tolerance while hyperthermic is related to normothermic tolerance and, associated with this finding, those who have a high LBNP tolerance while normothermic remain relatively tolerant when hyperthermic. PMID:24700256

  14. Lactose tolerance tests

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrogen breath test for lactose tolerance ... Two common methods include: Lactose tolerance blood test Hydrogen breath test The hydrogen breath test is the preferred method. It measures the amount of hydrogen in the air you breathe out. ...

  15. Zero Tolerance in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henault, Cherry

    2001-01-01

    Questions the effectiveness of the widespread use of zero-tolerance policies enacted by school boards to punish students who violate weapon and drug rules. Suggests that enforcement of zero-tolerance policies has not been equitable. Reviews proposal for alternative to zero tolerance. (PKP)

  16. "Infectious" Transplantation Tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shixin; Cobbold, Stephen P.; Pope, Heather; Elliott, James; Kioussis, Dimitris; Davies, Joanna; Waldmann, Herman

    1993-02-01

    The maintenance of transplantation tolerance induced in adult mice after short-term treatment with nonlytic monoclonal antibodies to CD4 and CD8 was investigated. CD4^+ T cells from tolerant mice disabled naive lymphocytes so that they too could not reject the graft. The naive lymphocytes that had been so disabled also became tolerant and, in turn, developed the capacity to specifically disable other naive lymphocytes. This process of "infectious" tolerance explains why no further immunosuppression was needed to maintain long-term transplantation tolerance.

  17. The response of amphibian larvae to exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide (Roundup WeatherMax) and nutrient enrichment in an ecosystem experiment.

    PubMed

    Edge, Christopher; Thompson, Dean; Hao, Chunyan; Houlahan, Jeff

    2014-11-01

    Herbicides and fertilizers are widely used throughout the world and pose a threat to aquatic ecosystems. Using a replicated, whole ecosystem experiment in which 24 small wetlands were split in half with an impermeable barrier we tested whether exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide, Roundup WeatherMax™, alone or in combination with nutrient enrichment has an effect on the survival, growth or development of amphibians. The herbicide was applied at one of two concentrations (low=210 μg a.e./L, high=2880 μg a.e./L) alone and in combination with nutrient enrichment to one side of wetlands and the other was left as an untreated control. Each treatment was replicated with six wetlands, and the experiment was repeated over two years. In the high glyphosate and nutrient enrichment treatment the survival of wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) larvae was lower in enclosures placed in situ on the treated sides than the control sides of wetlands. However, these results were not replicated in the second year of study and they were not observed in free swimming wood frog larvae in the wetlands. In all treatments, wood frog larvae on the treated sides of wetlands were slightly larger (<10%) than those on the control side, but no effect on development was observed. The most dramatic finding was that the abundance of green frog larvae (Lithobates clamitans) was higher on the treated sides than the control sides of wetlands in the herbicide and nutrient treatments during the second year of the study. The results observed in this field study indicate that caution is necessary when extrapolating results from artificial systems to predict effects in natural systems. In this experiment, the lack of toxicity to amphibian larvae was probably due to the fact the pH of the wetlands was relatively low and the presence of sediments and organic surfaces which would have mitigated the exposure duration. PMID:25173748

  18. Acid tolerance in amphibians

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.A.

    1985-04-01

    Studies of amphibian acid tolerance provide information about the potential effects of acid deposition on amphibian communities. Amphibians as a group appear to be relatively acid tolerant, with many species suffering increased mortality only below pH 4. However, amphibians exhibit much intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, and some species are sensitive to even low levels of acidity. Furthermore, nonlethal effects, including depression of growth rates and increases in developmental abnormalities, can occur at higher pH.

  19. Sulfur tolerant anode materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    The goal of this program is the development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode which is more tolerant of sulfur contaminants in the fuel than the current state-of-the-art nickel-based anode structures. This program addresses two different but related aspects of the sulfur contamination problem. The primary aspect is concerned with the development of a sulfur tolerant electrocatalyst for the fuel oxidation reaction. A secondary issue is the development of a sulfur tolerant water-gas-shift reaction catalyst and an investigation of potential steam reforming catalysts which also have some sulfur tolerant capabilities. These two aspects are being addressed as two separate tasks.

  20. Frost tolerance in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When conducting studies to characterize and determine the underlying mechanisms for freezing tolerance, it is essential to take into account that the type and form of freezing injury varies with the species and its degree of freezing tolerance. There are at least seven different patterns of freezin...

  1. Moving Beyond Tolerance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirone, Bill

    2001-01-01

    Operating under the umbrella of the Santa Barbara County Education Office, the Beyond Tolerance Educational Center serves as a resource for educators. It provides county schools with information and programs that promote social awareness and tolerance while teaching kids the dangers of hatred and discrimination. (MLH)

  2. A Lesson in Tolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnt, Marlene

    2004-01-01

    This article describes one classroom's experience integrating a three-part lesson that focused on tolerance. In the lesson, students examined works by American folk-art painter Edward Hicks, researched quotes about tolerance in society, and applied calligraphy skills to an original composition.

  3. Maize aluminum tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize is one of the most economically important food crops grown on acid soils, where aluminum (Al) toxicity greatly limits crop yields. Considerable variation for Al tolerance exists in maize, and this variation has been exploited for many years by plant breeders to enhance maize Al tolerance. Curr...

  4. Tolerance Induction in Liver.

    PubMed

    Karimi, M H; Geramizadeh, B; Malek-Hosseini, S A

    2015-01-01

    Liver is an exclusive anatomical and immunological organ that displays a considerable tolerance effect. Liver allograft acceptance is shown to occur spontaneously within different species. Although in human transplant patients tolerance is rarely seen, the severity level and cellular mechanisms of transplant rejection vary. Non-paranchymal liver cells, including Kupffer cells, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, hepatic stellate cells, and resident dendritic cells may participate in liver tolerogenicity. The mentioned cells secret anti-inflammatory cytokines such as TGF-β and IL-10 and express negative co-stimulatory molecules like PD-L1 to mediate immunosuppression. Other mechanisms such as microchimerism, soluble major histocompatibility complex and regulatory T cells may take part in tolerance induction. Understanding the mechanisms involved in liver transplant rejection/tolerance helps us to improve therapeutic options to induce hepatic tolerance. PMID:26082828

  5. Identification, Characterization, and Expression Analysis of Cell Wall Related Genes in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, a Food, Fodder, and Biofuel Crop

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Krishan M.; Thu, Sandi W.; Balasubramanian, Vimal K.; Cobos, Christopher J.; Disasa, Tesfaye; Mendu, Venugopal

    2016-01-01

    Biomass based alternative fuels offer a solution to the world's ever-increasing energy demand. With the ability to produce high biomass in marginal lands with low inputs, sorghum has a great potential to meet second-generation biofuel needs. Despite the sorghum crop importance in biofuel and fodder industry, there is no comprehensive information available on the cell wall related genes and gene families (biosynthetic and modification). It is important to identify the cell wall related genes to understand the cell wall biosynthetic process as well as to facilitate biomass manipulation. Genome-wide analysis using gene family specific Hidden Markov Model of conserved domains identified 520 genes distributed among 20 gene families related to biosynthesis/modification of various cell wall polymers such as cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, and lignin. Chromosomal localization analysis of these genes revealed that about 65% of cell wall related genes were confined to four chromosomes (Chr. 1–4). Further, 56 tandem duplication events involving 169 genes were identified in these gene families which could be associated with expansion of genes within families in sorghum. Additionally, we also identified 137 Simple Sequence Repeats related to 112 genes and target sites for 10 miRNAs in some important families such as cellulose synthase, cellulose synthase-like, and laccases, etc. To gain further insight into potential functional roles, expression analysis of these gene families was performed using publically available data sets in various tissues and under abiotic stress conditions. Expression analysis showed tissue specificity as well as differential expression under abiotic stress conditions. Overall, our study provides a comprehensive information on cell wall related genes families in sorghum which offers a valuable resource to develop strategies for altering biomass composition by plant breeding and genetic engineering approaches.

  6. Antimicrobial Tolerance in Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Philip S

    2015-06-01

    The tolerance of microorganisms in biofilms to antimicrobial agents is examined through a meta-analysis of literature data. A numerical tolerance factor comparing the rates of killing in the planktonic and biofilm states is defined to provide a quantitative basis for the analysis. Tolerance factors for biocides and antibiotics range over three orders of magnitude. This variation is not explained by taking into account the molecular weight of the agent, the chemistry of the agent, the substratum material, or the speciation of the microorganisms. Tolerance factors do depend on the areal cell density of the biofilm at the time of treatment and on the age of the biofilm as grown in a particular experimental system. This suggests that there is something that happens during biofilm maturation, either physical or physiological, that is essential for full biofilm tolerance. Experimental measurements of antimicrobial penetration times in biofilms range over orders of magnitude, with slower penetration (>12 min) observed for reactive oxidants and cationic molecules. These agents are retarded through the interaction of reaction, sorption, and diffusion. The specific physiological status of microbial cells in a biofilm contributes to antimicrobial tolerance. A conceptual framework for categorizing physiological cell states is discussed in the context of antimicrobial susceptibility. It is likely that biofilms harbor cells in multiple states simultaneously (e.g., growing, stress-adapted, dormant, inactive) and that this physiological heterogeneity is an important factor in the tolerance of the biofilm state. PMID:26185072

  7. Tolerability and patient compliance.

    PubMed

    Roose, S P

    1999-01-01

    Currently available antidepressants interact with several types of receptors, which may explain both wanted and unwanted effects of these drugs. These effects are different and distinctive, and knowledge about them may help clinicians understand differences between compounds in terms of their tolerability profiles. Given roughly comparable efficacy, tolerability profile is the critical determinant in selecting an antidepressant medication for a particular patient. In addition, tolerability is inseparably linked to patient compliance, both in acute and long-term treatment, and ultimately to overall success of treatment. Refinement in pharmacologic profiles of all newly introduced antidepressants resulted in overall advantages in tolerability in comparison with older tricyclic compounds. However, differences in receptor interactions between antidepressants are directly reflected in tolerability (adverse event) profiles. Among new antidepressants, mirtazapine and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors share favorable overall tolerability and safety, especially with respect to low premature termination rates because of adverse events, cardiac safety, and safety in overdose. However, the different pharmacologic profile of mirtazapine is reflected in its different tolerability profile. Because of interactions with the histamine (H1) receptor, mirtazapine may be related to transient initial somnolence and weight gain in some patients. Its serotonin-2 (5-HT2)-blocking properties may account for lack of sexual dysfunction, insomnia, nervousness, and agitation. Mirtazapine's 5-HT3-blocking properties are unique among all currently available antidepressants and may account for lack of gastrointestinal adverse events. PMID:10446736

  8. Antimicrobial Tolerance in Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Philip S.

    2015-01-01

    The tolerance of microorganisms in biofilms to antimicrobial agents is examined through a meta-analysis of literature data. A numerical tolerance factor comparing the rates of killing in the planktonic and biofilm states is defined to provide a quantitative basis for the analysis. Tolerance factors for biocides and antibiotics range over three orders of magnitude. This variation is not explained by taking into account the molecular weight of the agent, the chemistry of the agent, the substratum material, or the speciation of the microorganisms. Tolerance factors do depend on the areal cell density of the biofilm at the time of treatment and on the age of the biofilm as grown in a particular experimental system. This suggests that there is something that happens during biofilm maturation, either physical or physiological, that is essential for full biofilm tolerance. Experimental measurements of antimicrobial penetration times in biofilms range over orders of magnitude, with slower penetration (>12 min) observed for reactive oxidants and cationic molecules. These agents are retarded through the interaction of reaction, sorption, and diffusion. The specific physiological status of microbial cells in a biofilm contributes to antimicrobial tolerance. A conceptual framework for categorizing physiological cell states is discussed in the context of antimicrobial susceptibility. It is likely that biofilms harbor cells in multiple states simultaneously (e.g., growing, stress-adapted, dormant, inactive) and that this physiological heterogeneity is an important factor in the tolerance of the biofilm state. PMID:26185072

  9. Composites Damage Tolerance Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    The Composite Damage Tolerance Workshop included participants from NASA, academia, and private industry. The objectives of the workshop were to begin dialogue in order to establish a working group within the Agency, create awareness of damage tolerance requirements for Constellation, and discuss potential composite hardware for the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) Upper Stage (US) and Crew Module. It was proposed that a composites damage tolerance working group be created that acts within the framework of the existing NASA Fracture Control Methodology Panel. The working group charter would be to identify damage tolerance gaps and obstacles for implementation of composite structures into manned space flight systems and to develop strategies and recommendations to overcome these obstacles.

  10. Radiation Tolerant Antifuse FPGA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jih-Jong; Cronquist, Brian; McCollum, John; Parker, Wanida; Katz, Rich; Kleyner, Igor; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The total dose performance of the antifuse FPGA for space applications is summarized. Optimization of the radiation tolerance in the fabless model is the main theme. Mechanisms to explain the variation in different products are discussed.

  11. [INABILITY TO TOLERATE COSMETICS].

    PubMed

    Piérard, G E; Piérard-Franchimont, C

    2016-05-01

    Inability to tolerate cosmetics can result from distinct mechanisms which appear as the so-called sensitive skin corresponding to one aspect of invisible dermatosis, or which corresponds to manifestations of a contact allergic or irritation dermatitis. PMID:27337844

  12. DNA damage tolerance.

    PubMed

    Branzei, Dana; Psakhye, Ivan

    2016-06-01

    Accurate chromosomal DNA replication is fundamental for optimal cellular function and genome integrity. Replication perturbations activate DNA damage tolerance pathways, which are crucial to complete genome duplication as well as to prevent formation of deleterious double strand breaks. Cells use two general strategies to tolerate lesions: recombination to a homologous template, and trans-lesion synthesis with specialized polymerases. While key players of these processes have been outlined, much less is known on their choreography and regulation. Recent advances have uncovered principles by which DNA damage tolerance is regulated locally and temporally - in relation to replication timing and cell cycle stage -, and are beginning to elucidate the DNA dynamics that mediate lesion tolerance and influence chromosome structure during replication. PMID:27060551

  13. Perceptual Tolerance Intersection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasilewski, Piotr; Peters, James F.; Ramanna, Sheela

    This paper elaborates on the introduction of perceptual tolerance intersection of sets as an example of a near set operation. Such operations are motivated by the need to consider similarities between digital images viewed as disjoint sets of points. The proposed approach is in keeping with work by E.C. Zeeman on tolerance spaces and visual perception and work by J.H. Poincaré on sets of similar sensations used to define representative spaces (aka tolerance spaces) such as visual, tactile and motile spaces. Perceptual tolerance intersection of sets is a direct consequence of recent work on near sets. The theory of perceptual set intersection has many practical applications such as a solution to the problem of how one goes about measuring the closeness of digital images. The main contribution of this article is a description-based approach to formulating perceptual set intersections between disjoint sets that resemble each other. A practical application of the proposed approach is the discovery of resemblances between sets of points in digital image regions that represent tolerance rough sets.

  14. Damage Tolerance of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Fracture control requirements have been developed to address damage tolerance of composites for manned space flight hardware. The requirements provide the framework for critical and noncritical hardware assessment and testing. The need for damage threat assessments, impact damage protection plans, and nondestructive evaluation are also addressed. Hardware intended to be damage tolerant have extensive coupon, sub-element, and full-scale testing requirements in-line with the Building Block Approach concept from the MIL-HDBK-17, Department of Defense Composite Materials Handbook.

  15. Fault tolerant linear actuator

    DOEpatents

    Tesar, Delbert

    2004-09-14

    In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

  16. Results of a 13-week safety assurance study with rats fed grain from corn rootworm-protected, glyphosate-tolerant MON 88017 corn.

    PubMed

    Healy, C; Hammond, B; Kirkpatrick, J

    2008-07-01

    Presented are the results of a 13-week rat feeding study with grain from MON 88017 corn (brand name YieldGard VT Rootworm/RR2), protected from feeding damage caused by corn rootworm and tolerant to glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup agricultural herbicides. Corn rootworm protection is accomplished through the introduction of cryBb1 coding sequence from Bacillus thuringiensis into the corn genome for in planta production of a bioactive form of Cry3Bb1 protein. Also included in the genome is the coding sequence for the CP4 EPSPS protein from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 that confers glyphosate herbicidal tolerance. MON 88017 was formulated into rodent diets at 11 or 33% (w/w) levels with its near isogenic control at a level of 33% (w/w). Additionally, six diets containing grain from different conventional (non-biotechnology-derived), reference hybrids were formulated, each at 33% (w/w) levels of one of six reference grains. All diets were nutritionally balanced and conformed to PMI specifications for Certified LabDiet 5002 (PMI Certified LabDiet 5002 is a registered trademark of Purina Mills, Inc.). The responses of rats fed diets containing MON 88017 were comparable to those of rats fed a diet containing grain from its near isogenic control. This study complements extensive agronomic, compositional, and farm animal feeding studies with MON 88017 grain, confirming that it is as safe and nutritious as grain from existing commercial corn hybrids. PMID:18492601

  17. Rangeland Research Roundup - October 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conducting rangeland research that is relevant for, and can be applied by, land managers is the core foundation for research projects involving the Rangeland Resources Research Unit. We are continually evaluating our research program to determine which research projects are meeting the needs of land...

  18. Bulk materials handling equipment roundup

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-07-15

    The article reports recent product developments in belt conveyors. Flexco Steel Lancing Co. (Flexco) has a range of light, portable maintenance tools and offers training modules on procedures for belt conveyor maintenance on its website www.flexcosafe.com. Siemens recently fitted a 19 km long conveyor belt drive system at a Texan aluminium plant with five 556-kW Simovent Masterdrive VC drives. Voith recently launched the TPKL-T turbo coupling for users who want an alignment-free drive solution. Belt cleaners newly on the market include the RemaClean SGB brush and ASGCO Manufacturing's Razor-Back with Spray bar. Continental Conveyor has introduced a new line of dead-shaft pulleys offering increased bearing protection. 6 photos.

  19. Tolerant (parallel) Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiNucci, David C.; Bailey, David H. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    In order to be truly portable, a program must be tolerant of a wide range of development and execution environments, and a parallel program is just one which must be tolerant of a very wide range. This paper first defines the term "tolerant programming", then describes many layers of tools to accomplish it. The primary focus is on F-Nets, a formal model for expressing computation as a folded partial-ordering of operations, thereby providing an architecture-independent expression of tolerant parallel algorithms. For implementing F-Nets, Cooperative Data Sharing (CDS) is a subroutine package for implementing communication efficiently in a large number of environments (e.g. shared memory and message passing). Software Cabling (SC), a very-high-level graphical programming language for building large F-Nets, possesses many of the features normally expected from today's computer languages (e.g. data abstraction, array operations). Finally, L2(sup 3) is a CASE tool which facilitates the construction, compilation, execution, and debugging of SC programs.

  20. Zero Tolerance Expulsions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    1999-01-01

    Most courts have flexibly interpreted the constitutional requirement of procedural and substantive due process in favor of zero-tolerance expulsion decisions. While being sensitive to community intolerance for threats to school safety (student possession of guns or drugs), school leaders should modulate development and enforcement of expulsion…

  1. Teaching Tolerance Magazine, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnes, Jim, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This magazine provides teachers with classroom learning materials to help children learn to be tolerant with others. Articles in the magazine are: "A Standard to Sustain" (Mary M. Harrison); "Let's Just Play" (Janet Schmidt); "Who's Helen Keller?" (Ruth Shagoury Hubbard); "Margins of Error" (Joe Parsons); "Out of the Shadows" (Elizabeth Hunt);…

  2. Pesticide tolerance in amphibians: induced tolerance in susceptible populations, constitutive tolerance in tolerant populations

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Jessica; Morehouse, Nathan I; Relyea, Rick

    2013-01-01

    The role of plasticity in shaping adaptations is important to understanding the expression of traits within individuals and the evolution of populations. With increasing human impacts on the environment, one challenge is to consider how plasticity shapes responses to anthropogenic stressors such as contaminants. To our knowledge, only one study (using mosquitoes) has considered the possibility of induced insecticide tolerance. Using populations of wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) located close to and far from agricultural fields, we discovered that exposing some populations of embryos and hatchlings to sublethal concentrations of the insecticide carbaryl induced higher tolerance to a subsequent lethal concentration later in life. Interestingly, the inducible populations were located >800 m from agricultural areas and were the most susceptible to the insecticide. In contrast, the noninducible populations were located close to agricultural areas and were the least susceptible. We also found that sublethal concentrations of carbaryl induced higher tadpole AChE concentrations in several cases. This is the first study to demonstrate inducible tolerance in a vertebrate species and the pattern of inducible and constitutive tolerance among populations suggests the process of genetic assimilation. PMID:24187585

  3. Cuphea tolerates clopyralid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cuphea is a new crop of temperate regions that produces seed oil with medium-chain length fatty acids, which can substitute for imported coconut and palm kernels oils. Only four herbicides are known to be tolerated by cuphea to date. More herbicides, especially POST products, are needed for continue...

  4. Biocide tolerance in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ortega Morente, Elena; Fernández-Fuentes, Miguel Angel; Grande Burgos, Maria José; Abriouel, Hikmate; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Gálvez, Antonio

    2013-03-01

    Biocides have been employed for centuries, so today a wide range of compounds showing different levels of antimicrobial activity have become available. At the present time, understanding the mechanisms of action of biocides has also become an important issue with the emergence of bacterial tolerance to biocides and the suggestion that biocide and antibiotic resistance in bacteria might be linked. While most of the mechanisms providing antibiotic resistance are agent specific, providing resistance to a single antimicrobial or class of antimicrobial, there are currently numerous examples of efflux systems that accommodate and, thus, provide tolerance to a broad range of structurally unrelated antimicrobials, both antibiotics and biocides. If biocide tolerance becomes increasingly common and it is linked to antibiotic resistance, not only resistant (even multi-resistant) bacteria could be passed along the food chain, but also there are resistance determinants that can spread and lead to the emergence of new resistant microorganisms, which can only be detected and monitored when the building blocks of resistance traits are understood on the molecular level. This review summarizes the main advances reached in understanding the mechanism of action of biocides, the mechanisms of bacterial resistance to both biocides and antibiotics, and the incidence of biocide tolerance in bacteria of concern to human health and the food industry. PMID:23340387

  5. Tolerance through Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Carolyn

    In this project, eighth grade students are exposed to black history, literature, music, and art to enhance the understanding of diversity and to establish an atmosphere of tolerance for diversity. Students are asked to choose a personality or significant historical event to research and present to the class. They focus on issues such as prejudice,…

  6. Zero Tolerance versus Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2000-01-01

    In a case involving questionable canine search-and-seizure practices, a circuit court upheld a school board's decision to terminate a teacher's contract. While touting zero tolerance, the board fired an honored teacher 3 years from retirement who may not have known about the marijuana cigarette in her car. (MLH)

  7. Glucose Tolerance and Hyperkinesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langseth, Lillian; Dowd, Judith

    Examined were medical records of 265 hyperkinetic children (7-9 years old). Clinical blood chemistries, hematology, and 5-hour glucose tolerance test (GTT) results indicated that hematocrit levels were low in 27% of the Ss, eosinophil levels were abnormally high in 86% of the Ss, and GTT results were abnormal in a maority of Ss. (CL)

  8. Validated Fault Tolerant Architectures for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, Jaynarayan H.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on validated fault tolerant architectures for space station are presented. Topics covered include: fault tolerance approach; advanced information processing system (AIPS); and fault tolerant parallel processor (FTPP).

  9. Implementing fault-tolerant sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzullo, Keith

    1989-01-01

    One aspect of fault tolerance in process control programs is the ability to tolerate sensor failure. A methodology is presented for transforming a process control program that cannot tolerate sensor failures to one that can. Additionally, a hierarchy of failure models is identified.

  10. Zero Tolerance Policies. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Much of this brief comes from the ERIC Digest on Zero Tolerance Policies (ERIC #: ED451579). State legislatures and school boards are adopting a growing number of zero-tolerance polices toward weapons, guns, and violence. Zero-tolerance polices are rules intended to address specific school-safety issues. Despite the controversies that it has…

  11. Abuse Tolerance Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Orendorff, Christopher J.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle R.; Allcorn, Eric

    2015-10-01

    As lithium-ion battery technologies mature, the size and energy of these systems continues to increase (> 50 kWh for EVs); making safety and reliability of these high energy systems increasingly important. While most material advances for lithium-ion chemistries are directed toward improving cell performance (capacity, energy, cycle life, etc.), there are a variety of materials advancements that can be made to improve lithium-ion battery safety. Issues including energetic thermal runaway, electrolyte decomposition and flammability, anode SEI stability, and cell-level abuse tolerance continue to be critical safety concerns. This report highlights work with our collaborators to develop advanced materials to improve lithium-ion battery safety and abuse tolerance and to perform cell-level characterization of new materials.

  12. Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch evaluates the ability of a structure to perform reliably throughout its service life in the presence of a defect, crack, or other form of damage. Such assessment is fundamental to the use of structural materials and requires an integral blend of materials engineering, fracture testing and analysis, and nondestructive evaluation. The vision of the Branch is to increase the safety of manned space flight by improving the fracture control and the associated nondestructive evaluation processes through development and application of standards, guidelines, advanced test and analytical methods. The Branch also strives to assist and solve non-aerospace related NDE and damage tolerance problems, providing consultation, prototyping and inspection services.

  13. Impurity tolerant electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Paffett, M.T.

    1990-01-01

    This project has two central goals. The primary research effort addresses fundamental aspects of Pt electrocatalyst poisoning by CO and an understanding of practical schemes for improving the CO tolerance of electrocatalytic materials. The second mission of this work is an attempt to address, on a fundamental level, the surface chemical properties that enhance the direct electrooxidation of methanol at binary Pt alloy electrode surfaces. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Drought Tolerance in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Prodhan, Zakaria Hossain; Faruq, Golam

    2013-01-01

    Drought is one of the most important phenomena which limit crops' production and yield. Crops demonstrate various morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses to tackle drought stress. Plants' vegetative and reproductive stages are intensively influenced by drought stress. Drought tolerance is a complicated trait which is controlled by polygenes and their expressions are influenced by various environmental elements. This means that breeding for this trait is so difficult and new molecular methods such as molecular markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping strategies, and expression patterns of genes should be applied to produce drought tolerant genotypes. In wheat, there are several genes which are responsible for drought stress tolerance and produce different types of enzymes and proteins for instance, late embryogenesis abundant (lea), responsive to abscisic acid (Rab), rubisco, helicase, proline, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and carbohydrates during drought stress. This review paper has concentrated on the study of water limitation and its effects on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses of wheat with the possible losses caused by drought stress. PMID:24319376

  15. Biocular image misalignment tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalich, Melvyn E.; Rash, Clarence E.; van de Pol, Corina; Rowe, Terri L.; Lont, Lisa M.; Peterson, R. David

    2003-09-01

    Biocular helmet-mounted display (HMD) design flexibility and cost are directly related to image misalignment tolerance standards. Currently recommended tolerance levels are based on highly variable data from a number of studies. This paper presents progress of an ongoing study to evaluate optometric measures sensitive to misalignment in partial-overlap biocular optical systems like that proposed for the Comanche RAH-66 helicopter helmet integrated display sighting system (HIDSS). Horizontal divergent and relative vertical misalignments (offsets) of see-through biocular symbology viewed against a simulated daytime background were chosen for this study. Misalignments within and just beyond current tolerance recommendations were evaluated using pre, pre and post, and during measures of visual performance. Data were obtained from seven experimental and four control subjects. The diplopia responses from experimental and control subjects were essentially the same. However, accommodative facility showed a rate decrement following exposure to both types of misalignment. Horizontal heterophorias showed definite post-misalignment increases. Subject responses to questionnaires universally indicated increased adaptation to (ease with) visual tasks over the testing period.

  16. Drought tolerance in wheat.

    PubMed

    Nezhadahmadi, Arash; Prodhan, Zakaria Hossain; Faruq, Golam

    2013-01-01

    Drought is one of the most important phenomena which limit crops' production and yield. Crops demonstrate various morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses to tackle drought stress. Plants' vegetative and reproductive stages are intensively influenced by drought stress. Drought tolerance is a complicated trait which is controlled by polygenes and their expressions are influenced by various environmental elements. This means that breeding for this trait is so difficult and new molecular methods such as molecular markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping strategies, and expression patterns of genes should be applied to produce drought tolerant genotypes. In wheat, there are several genes which are responsible for drought stress tolerance and produce different types of enzymes and proteins for instance, late embryogenesis abundant (lea), responsive to abscisic acid (Rab), rubisco, helicase, proline, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and carbohydrates during drought stress. This review paper has concentrated on the study of water limitation and its effects on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses of wheat with the possible losses caused by drought stress. PMID:24319376

  17. Damage tolerance for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, John W.

    1992-01-01

    The damage tolerance experience in the United States Air Force with military aircraft and in the commercial world with large transport category aircraft indicates that a similar success could be achieved in commuter aircraft. The damage tolerance process is described for the purpose of defining the approach that could be used for these aircraft to ensure structural integrity. Results of some of the damage tolerance assessments for this class of aircraft are examined to illustrate the benefits derived from this approach. Recommendations are given for future damage tolerance assessment of existing commuter aircraft and on the incorporation of damage tolerance capability in new designs.

  18. Real-time quantification of wild-type contaminants in glyphosate tolerant soybean

    PubMed Central

    Battistini, Elena; Noli, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    Background Trait purity is a key factor for the successful utilization of biotech varieties and is currently assessed by analysis of individual seeds or plants. Here we propose a novel PCR-based approach to test trait purity that can be applied to bulk samples. To this aim the insertion site of a transgene is characterized and the corresponding sequence of the wild-type (wt) allele is used as diagnostic target for amplification. As a demonstration, we developed a real-time quantitative PCR method to test purity of glyphosate tolerant (Roundup Ready®, RR) soybean. Results The soybean wt sequence at the RR locus was characterized and found to be highly conserved among conventional genotypes, thus allowing the detection of possibly any soybean non-trait contaminant. On the other hand, no amplification product was obtained from RR soybean varieties, indicating that the wt sequence is single copy and represents a suitable marker of conventional soybean presence. In addition, results obtained from the analysis of wt-spiked RR samples demonstrate that it is possible to use the real-time PCR assay to quantify the non-trait contamination with an acceptable degree of accuracy. Conclusion In principle this approach could be successfully applied to any transgenic event, provided that the wild-type sequence is conserved and single copy. The main advantages of the assay here described derive from its applicability to bulk samples, which would allow to increase the number of single seeds or plants forming the analytical sample, thus improving accuracy and throughput while containing costs. For these reasons this application of quantitative PCR could represent a useful tool in agricultural biotechnology. PMID:19267904

  19. Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Potts, M

    1994-12-01

    The removal of cell-bound water through air drying and the addition of water to air-dried cells are forces that have played a pivotal role in the evolution of the prokaryotes. In bacterial cells that have been subjected to air drying, the evaporation of free cytoplasmic water (Vf) can be instantaneous, and an equilibrium between cell-bound water (Vb) and the environmental water (vapor) potential (psi wv) may be achieved rapidly. In the air-dried state some bacteria survive only for seconds whereas others can tolerate desiccation for thousands, perhaps millions, of years. The desiccated (anhydrobiotic) cell is characterized by its singular lack of water--with contents as low as 0.02 g of H2O g (dry weight)-1. At these levels the monolayer coverage by water of macromolecules, including DNA and proteins, is disturbed. As a consequence the mechanisms that confer desiccation tolerance upon air-dried bacteria are markedly different from those, such as the mechanism of preferential exclusion of compatible solutes, that preserve the integrity of salt-, osmotically, and freeze-thaw-stressed cells. Desiccation tolerance reflects a complex array of interactions at the structural, physiological, and molecular levels. Many of the mechanisms remain cryptic, but it is clear that they involve interactions, such as those between proteins and co-solvents, that derive from the unique properties of the water molecule. A water replacement hypothesis accounts for how the nonreducing disaccharides trehalose and sucrose preserve the integrity of membranes and proteins. Nevertheless, we have virtually no insight into the state of the cytoplasm of an air-dried cell. There is no evidence for any obvious adaptations of proteins that can counter the effects of air drying or for the occurrence of any proteins that provide a direct and a tangible contribution to cell stability. Among the prokaryotes that can exist as anhydrobiotic cells, the cyanobacteria have a marked capacity to do so. One

  20. Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes.

    PubMed Central

    Potts, M

    1994-01-01

    The removal of cell-bound water through air drying and the addition of water to air-dried cells are forces that have played a pivotal role in the evolution of the prokaryotes. In bacterial cells that have been subjected to air drying, the evaporation of free cytoplasmic water (Vf) can be instantaneous, and an equilibrium between cell-bound water (Vb) and the environmental water (vapor) potential (psi wv) may be achieved rapidly. In the air-dried state some bacteria survive only for seconds whereas others can tolerate desiccation for thousands, perhaps millions, of years. The desiccated (anhydrobiotic) cell is characterized by its singular lack of water--with contents as low as 0.02 g of H2O g (dry weight)-1. At these levels the monolayer coverage by water of macromolecules, including DNA and proteins, is disturbed. As a consequence the mechanisms that confer desiccation tolerance upon air-dried bacteria are markedly different from those, such as the mechanism of preferential exclusion of compatible solutes, that preserve the integrity of salt-, osmotically, and freeze-thaw-stressed cells. Desiccation tolerance reflects a complex array of interactions at the structural, physiological, and molecular levels. Many of the mechanisms remain cryptic, but it is clear that they involve interactions, such as those between proteins and co-solvents, that derive from the unique properties of the water molecule. A water replacement hypothesis accounts for how the nonreducing disaccharides trehalose and sucrose preserve the integrity of membranes and proteins. Nevertheless, we have virtually no insight into the state of the cytoplasm of an air-dried cell. There is no evidence for any obvious adaptations of proteins that can counter the effects of air drying or for the occurrence of any proteins that provide a direct and a tangible contribution to cell stability. Among the prokaryotes that can exist as anhydrobiotic cells, the cyanobacteria have a marked capacity to do so. One

  1. Intelligent failure-tolerant control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of failure-tolerant control is presented, beginning with robust control, progressing through parallel and analytical redundancy, and ending with rule-based systems and artificial neural networks. By design or implementation, failure-tolerant control systems are 'intelligent' systems. All failure-tolerant systems require some degrees of robustness to protect against catastrophic failure; failure tolerance often can be improved by adaptivity in decision-making and control, as well as by redundancy in measurement and actuation. Reliability, maintainability, and survivability can be enhanced by failure tolerance, although each objective poses different goals for control system design. Artificial intelligence concepts are helpful for integrating and codifying failure-tolerant control systems, not as alternatives but as adjuncts to conventional design methods.

  2. Tolerability of hypertonic injectables.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei

    2015-07-25

    Injectable drug products are ideally developed as isotonic solutions. Often, hypertonic injectables may have to be marketed for a variety of reasons such as product solubilization and stabilization. A key concern during product formulation development is the local and systemic tolerability of hypertonic products upon injection. This report reviews and discusses the tolerability in terms of local discomfort, irritation, sensation of heat and pain, along with other observed side effects of hypertonicity in both in-vitro systems and in-vivo animal and human models. These side effects clearly depend on the degree of hypertonicity. The sensation of pain among different injection routes seems to follow this order: intramuscular>subcutaneous>intravenous or intravascular. It is recommended that the upper osmolality limit should be generally controlled under 600 mOsm/kg for drug products intended for intramuscular or subcutaneous injection. For drug products intended for intravenous or intravascular injection, the recommended upper limit should be generally controlled under 1,000 mOsm/kg for small-volume injections (≤ 100 mL) and 500 mOsm/kg for large-volume injections (>100mL). Several options are available for minimization of hypertonicity-induced pain upon product administration. PMID:26027488

  3. SFT: Scalable Fault Tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Petrini, Fabrizio; Nieplocha, Jarek; Tipparaju, Vinod

    2006-04-15

    In this paper we will present a new technology that we are currently developing within the SFT: Scalable Fault Tolerance FastOS project which seeks to implement fault tolerance at the operating system level. Major design goals include dynamic reallocation of resources to allow continuing execution in the presence of hardware failures, very high scalability, high efficiency (low overhead), and transparency—requiring no changes to user applications. Our technology is based on a global coordination mechanism, that enforces transparent recovery lines in the system, and TICK, a lightweight, incremental checkpointing software architecture implemented as a Linux kernel module. TICK is completely user-transparent and does not require any changes to user code or system libraries; it is highly responsive: an interrupt, such as a timer interrupt, can trigger a checkpoint in as little as 2.5μs; and it supports incremental and full checkpoints with minimal overhead—less than 6% with full checkpointing to disk performed as frequently as once per minute.

  4. Fault-tolerant processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A fault-tolerant, fiber optic interconnect, or backplane, which serves as a via for data transfer between modules. Fault tolerance algorithms are embedded in the backplane by dividing the backplane into a read bus and a write bus and placing a redundancy management unit (RMU) between the read bus and the write bus so that all data transmitted by the write bus is subjected to the fault tolerance algorithms before the data is passed for distribution to the read bus. The RMU provides both backplane control and fault tolerance.

  5. Comparative Expression Profiling of Desiccation Tolerant and Sensitive Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought tolerance and desiccation tolerance have often been cited as manifestations of the same mechanism: desiccation tolerance being the extreme form of drought tolerance. However, there is a fundamental difference between drought and desiccation tolerance; drought tolerance mechanisms include way...

  6. Fault Tolerant State Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Gary R.; Taft, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    State machines are commonly used to control sequential logic in FPGAs and ASKS. An errant state machine can cause considerable damage to the device it is controlling. For example in space applications, the FPGA might be controlling Pyros, which when fired at the wrong time will cause a mission failure. Even a well designed state machine can be subject to random errors us a result of SEUs from the radiation environment in space. There are various ways to encode the states of a state machine, and the type of encoding makes a large difference in the susceptibility of the state machine to radiation. In this paper we compare 4 methods of state machine encoding and find which method gives the best fault tolerance, as well as determining the resources needed for each method.

  7. [Radiation Tolerant Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Research work in the providing radiation tolerant electronics to NASA and the commercial sector is reported herein. There are four major sections to this report: (1) Special purpose VLSI technology section discusses the status of the VLSI projects as well as the new background technologies that have been developed; (2) Lossless data compression results provide the background and direction of new data compression pursued under this grant; (3) Commercial technology transfer presents an itemization of the commercial technology transfer; and (4) Delivery of VLSI to the Government is a solution and progress report that shows how the Government and Government contractors are gaining access to the technology that has been developed by the MRC.

  8. Tolerances in panoramic lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, Simon; Dallaire, Xavier

    2014-09-01

    Almost every aspect concerning the optical design of panoramic lenses brings new challenges to optical designers. Examples of these include ray tracing programs having problems finding the entrance pupil which is moving through the field-of-view, optimization, production particularities due to the shape of the lenses, and ways of tolerancing these systems having strong distortion. This last topic will be discussed in this paper. We will start from a historical perspective on the understanding of panoramic imagery. This will lead us to the modern panoramic imager called the Panomorph lens. We will discuss the particular case of the tolerance of the front surface (most of the time a freeform surface) and the impact on the image quality, both image footprint and field curvature. We will explain the behavior using first and second order approaches.

  9. Comparison of the forage and grain composition from insect-protected and glyphosate-tolerant MON 88017 corn to conventional corn (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    McCann, Melinda C; Trujillo, William A; Riordan, Susan G; Sorbet, Roy; Bogdanova, Natalia N; Sidhu, Ravinder S

    2007-05-16

    The next generation of biotechnology-derived products with the combined benefit of herbicide tolerance and insect protection (MON 88017) was developed to withstand feeding damage caused by the coleopteran pest corn rootworm and over-the-top applications of glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup herbicides. As a part of a larger safety and characterization assessment, MON 88017 was grown under field conditions at geographically diverse locations within the United States and Argentina during the 2002 and 2003-2004 field seasons, respectively, along with a near-isogenic control and other conventional corn hybrids for compositional assessment. Field trials were conducted using a randomized complete block design with three replication blocks at each site. Corn forage samples were harvested at the late dough/early dent stage, ground, and analyzed for the concentration of proximate constituents, fibers, and minerals. Samples of mature grain were harvested, ground, and analyzed for the concentration of proximate constituents, fiber, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, antinutrients, and secondary metabolites. The results showed that the forage and grain from MON 88017 are compositionally equivalent to forage and grain from control and conventional corn hybrids. PMID:17439144

  10. Pathways to Tolerance: Student Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Dorothy, Ed.; Stanhope, Victoria, Ed.

    Ideas for schools to support tolerance and celebrate student diversity are presented in this volume of reprinted articles. Titles include: (1) "One of Us, One of Them: Lessons in Diversity for a School Psychologist" (M. M. Chittooran); (2) "The Tolerance-in-Action Campaign" (H. M. Knoff); (3) "Immigrant Parents and the School" (R. Rhodes, D.…

  11. Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B.; Horie, Tomoaki; Luo, Wei; Xu, Guohua; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-06-01

    Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selectionmore » and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.« less

  12. Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B.; Horie, Tomoaki; Luo, Wei; Xu, Guohua; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-06-01

    Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selection and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.

  13. 40 CFR 180.628 - Chlorantraniliprole; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... grain fractions 640 Grape, raisin 5.0 Grass forage, fodder and hay, group 17 90 Guava 4.0 Herb subgroup 19A, dried leaves 90 Herb subgroup 19A, fresh leaves 25 Hog, fat 0.02 Hog, meat byproducts 0.02...

  14. 40 CFR 180.628 - Chlorantraniliprole; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., fodder and hay, group 17 90 Guava 4.0 Hare's ear mustard, seed 0.3 Herb subgroup 19A, dried leaves 90 Herb subgroup 19A, fresh leaves 25 Hog, fat 0.02 Hog, meat byproducts 0.02 Hop, dried cones 90...

  15. 40 CFR 180.669 - Picoxystrobin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... picoxystrobin, methyl (αE)-α-(methoxymethylene)-2- oxy]methyl]benzeneacetate. Commodity Parts permillion Barley, bran 0.5 Barley, grain 0.3 Cattle, fat 0.01 Cattle, meat 0.01 Cattle, meat byproducts 0.01 Corn, field..., cereal, forage, fodder, and straw, group 16, straw 2 Grain, cereal, group 15, except rice and barley...

  16. Comparative environmental impact assessment of herbicides used on genetically modified and non-genetically modified herbicide-tolerant canola crops using two risk indicators.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Danielle P; Kookana, Rai S; Miller, Rosalind B; Correll, Raymond L

    2016-07-01

    Canola (Brassica napus L.) is the third largest field crop in Australia by area sown. Genetically modified (GM) and non-GM canola varieties released or being developed in Australia include Clearfield® (imidazolinone tolerant), TT (triazine tolerant), InVigor® (glufosinate-ammonium tolerant), Roundup Ready® - RR® (glyphosate tolerant) and Hyola® RT® (tolerant to both glyphosate and triazine). We used two risk assessment approaches - the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) and the Pesticide Impact Rating Index (PIRI) - to compare the environmental risks associated with herbicides used in the canola varieties (GM and non-GM) that are currently grown or may be grown in the future. Risk assessments found that from an environmental impact viewpoint a number of herbicides used in the production of TT canola showed high relative risk in terms of mobility and ecotoxicity of herbicides. The EIQ field use rating values for atrazine and simazine in particular were high compared with those for glyphosate and trifluralin. Imazapic and imazapyr, which are only used in Clearfield® canola, had extremely low EIQ field use rating values, likely reflecting the very low application rates used for these chemicals (0.02 to 0.04kg/ha) compared with those used for atrazine and simazine (1.2 to 1.5kg/ha). The PIRI assessment showed that irrespective of the canola variety grown, trifluralin posed a high toxicity risk to fish (Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss), algae and Daphnia sp. While the replacement of trifluralin with propyzamide had little effect on the mobility score, it greatly decreased the ecotoxicity score to fish, algae and Daphnia sp. due to the lower LC50 values for propyzamide compared with trifluralin. This study has shown that based on likelihood of off-site transport of herbicides in surface water and potential toxicity to non-target organisms, the GM canola varieties have no advantage over non-herbicide tolerant (non HT) or Clearfield® canola. PMID:27039064

  17. [Immune tolerance after renal transplantation].

    PubMed

    Krajewska, Magdalena; Weyde, Wacław; Klinger, Marian

    2006-01-01

    Progress in immunosuppressive therapy has improved short-term survival of renal allografts by decreasing the frequency of acute rejections. However, the long-term survival of renal grafts has not improved. Transplanted kidneys are lost in the late period after transplantation as a result of vasculopathy and chronic rejection. Immunological tolerance means the lack of immunological activity towards certain antigens while the response towards others remains correct. The induction of immunological tolerance of donor antigens (transplant tolerance) is examined intensively to work out treatment methods which will allow prevention of chronic allograft rejection. The paper includes an overview of current knowledge on allograft tolerance. Immune response to alloantigens is described and the mechanisms of immunological tolerance induction (including clonal deletion, anergy connected with the microchimerism phenomenon, and active suppression caused by regulatory lymphocytes) are characterized. The role of dendritic cells in the process of inducing and maintaining tolerance is highlighted. Tolerance-inducing strategies in renal transplant recipients and clinically applied evaluation methods are presented. At present, optimizing recipient matching is used to decrease the risk of graft rejection. Hopefully, gene therapy will be possible in the near future. However, before introducing such a procedure into clinical studies, optimal therapy conditions and risk evaluation must be defined in tests on animals. PMID:16552396

  18. Contingencies promote delay tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ghaemmaghami, Mahshid; Hanley, Gregory P; Jessel, Joshua

    2016-09-01

    The effectiveness of functional communication training as treatment for problem behavior depends on the extent to which treatment can be extended to typical environments that include unavoidable and unpredictable reinforcement delays. Time-based progressive delay (TBPD) often results in the loss of acquired communication responses and the resurgence of problem behavior, whereas contingency-based progressive delay (CBPD) appears to be effective for increasing tolerance for delayed reinforcement. No direct comparison of TBPD and CBPD has, however, been conducted. We used single-subject designs to compare the relative efficacy of TBPD and CBPD. Four individuals who engaged in problem behavior (e.g., aggression, vocal and motor disruptions, self-injury) participated. Results were consistent across all participants, and showed lower rates of problem behavior and collateral responses during CBPD than during TBPD. The generality of CBPD treatment effects, including optimal rates of communication and compliance with demands, was demonstrated across a small but heterogeneous group of participants, reinforcement contingencies, and contexts. PMID:27449401

  19. 40 CFR 180.515 - Carfentrazone-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Rice, grain 1.3 Rice, hulls 3.5 Rice, straw 1.0 Rye, bran 0.80 Rye, flour 0.80 Safflower, seed 0.10....10 Almond, hulls 0.20 Atemoya 0.10 Avocado 0.10 Banana 0.20 Barley, bran 0.80 Barley, flour 0.80..., fodder and straw, group 16, stover 0.30 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder and straw, group 16, except...

  20. 40 CFR 180.515 - Carfentrazone-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Rice, grain 1.3 Rice, hulls 3.5 Rice, straw 1.0 Rye, bran 0.80 Rye, flour 0.80 Safflower, seed 0.10....10 Almond, hulls 0.20 Atemoya 0.10 Avocado 0.10 Banana 0.20 Barley, bran 0.80 Barley, flour 0.80..., fodder and straw, group 16, stover 0.30 Grain, cereal, forage, fodder and straw, group 16, except...

  1. Freeze-Tolerant Condensers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Christopher J.; Elkouhk, Nabil

    2004-01-01

    Two condensers designed for use in dissipating heat carried by working fluids feature two-phase, self-adjusting configurations such that their working lengths automatically vary to suit their input power levels and/or heat-sink temperatures. A key advantage of these condensers is that they can function even if the temperatures of their heat sinks fall below the freezing temperatures of their working fluids and the fluids freeze. The condensers can even be restarted from the frozen condition. The top part of the figure depicts the layout of the first condenser. A two-phase (liquid and vapor) condenser/vapor tube is thermally connected to a heat sink typically, a radiatively or convectively cooled metal panel. A single-phase (liquid) condensate-return tube (return artery) is also thermally connected to the heat sink. At intervals along their lengths, the condenser/vapor tube and the return artery are interconnected through porous plugs. This condenser configuration affords tolerance of freezing, variable effective thermal conductance (such that the return temperature remains nearly constant, independently of the ultimate sink temperature), and overall pressure drop smaller than it would be without the porous interconnections. An additional benefit of this configuration is that the condenser can be made to recover from the completely frozen condition either without using heaters, or else with the help of heaters much smaller than would otherwise be needed. The second condenser affords the same advantages and is based on a similar principle, but it has a different configuration that affords improved flow of working fluid, simplified construction, reduced weight, and faster recovery from a frozen condition.

  2. Accident tolerant fuel analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Curtis; Chichester, Heather; Johns, Jesse; Teague, Melissa; Tonks, Michael Idaho National Laboratory; Youngblood, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced ''RISMC toolkit'' that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional ''accident-tolerant'' (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant decision makers should propose and

  3. Fault-tolerant rotary actuator

    DOEpatents

    Tesar, Delbert

    2006-10-17

    A fault-tolerant actuator module, in a single containment shell, containing two actuator subsystems that are either asymmetrically or symmetrically laid out is provided. Fault tolerance in the actuators of the present invention is achieved by the employment of dual sets of equal resources. Dual resources are integrated into single modules, with each having the external appearance and functionality of a single set of resources.

  4. Exploiting Tolerance Processes in Transplantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldmann, Herman; Cobbold, Stephen

    2004-07-01

    The full potential of organ transplantation has not yet been realized because of the hazards associated with the long-term use of immunosuppressive drugs. Modern research into mechanisms of immune tolerance offers the promise of reprogramming the immune system, so as to harness the body's natural tolerance mechanisms in the service of graft acceptance. This would allow the minimization of immunosuppressive treatment and offers the prospect of eventually weaning transplant recipients off their drugs.

  5. Effects of feeding silage and grain from glyphosate-tolerant or insect-protected corn hybrids on feed intake, ruminal digestion, and milk production in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Donkin, S S; Velez, J C; Totten, A K; Stanisiewski, E P; Hartnell, G F

    2003-05-01

    Lactating dairy cows were used to determine effects of feeding glyphosate-tolerant or insect-protected corn hybrids on feed intake, milk production, milk composition, and ruminal digestibility. Corn resistant to European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) infestation (Bt-MON810), or its nontransgenic control (Bt-CON), were planted in alternating fields during two successive years. One-half of each strip was harvested for whole plant corn silage and the remainder was allowed to mature and harvested as grain. Effects of feeding diets containing either Bt-MON810 or Bt-CON grain and silage were determined in two experiments (1 and 2) conducted during successive years. In experiment 3, glyphosate-tolerant Roundup Ready corn (RR-GA21) or its nontransgenic control (RR-CON) corn were grown in alternating fields during one cropping season. Diets contained 42 to 60% corn silage and 20 to 34% corn grain from Bt-MON810, RR-GA21, or the appropriate nontransgenic counterpart; treatments were applied using a switchback design. Cows were fed ad libitum and milked twice daily. There were no differences for nutrient composition between silage sources or between grain sources within an experiment. Data for experiments 1 and 2 indicated similar dry matter intake (DMI), 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) production, and milk composition between Bt-MON810 and Bt-CON diets. There were no differences for DMI, 4% FCM production, and milk composition between RR-GA21 and RR-CON diets. There was no difference in ruminal degradability, determined separately for corn silage and corn grain, for RR-GA21 or Bt-MON810-hybrids compared with their respective controls. These data demonstrate equivalence of nutritional value and production efficiency for corn containing Bt-MON810 compared with its control and for RR-GA21 corn compared with its control. PMID:12778588

  6. 76 FR 5704 - Sulfentrazone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ...This regulation establishes tolerances for residues of sulfentrazone in or on multiple commodities. Additionally, this regulation deletes existing tolerances on commodities superseded by the establishment of crop subgroups. This regulation also deletes a time- limited tolerance on bean, succulent seed without pod (lima bean and cowpea), as the tolerance expired on December 31, 2007.......

  7. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    MedlinePlus

    Oral glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant; OGTT - non-pregnant; Diabetes - glucose tolerance test ... The most common glucose tolerance test is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Before the test begins, a sample of blood will be taken. You will then ...

  8. 78 FR 55635 - Prometryn; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ...This regulation establishes tolerances for residues of prometryn in or on succulent snap bean, dill oil, fresh dillweed leaves, and dried dillweed leaves. This regulation additionally removes the established tolerance with regional restrictions on dill, since it is superseded by the tolerance on fresh dillweed leaves. Interregional Research Project Number 4 (IR-4) requested these tolerances......

  9. Crop management and agronomic context of the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.

    PubMed

    Champion, G T; May, M J; Bennett, S; Brooks, D R; Clark, S J; Daniels, R E; Firbank, L G; Haughton, A J; Hawes, C; Heard, M S; Perry, J N; Randle, Z; Rossall, M J; Rothery, P; Skellern, M P; Scott, R J; Squire, G R; Thomas, M R

    2003-11-29

    The Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops (GMHT) were conducted in the UK from 2000 to 2002 on beet (sugar and fodder), spring oilseed rape and forage maize. The management of the crops studied is described and compared with current conventional commercial practice. The distribution of field sites adequately represented the areas currently growing these crops, and the sample contained sites operated at a range of management intensities, including low intensity. Herbicide inputs were audited, and the active ingredients used and the rates and the timings of applications compared well with current practice for both GMHT and conventional crops. Inputs on sugar beet were lower than, and inputs on spring oilseed rape and forage maize were consistent with, national averages. Regression analysis of herbicide-application strategies and weed emergence showed that inputs applied by farmers increased with weed densities in beet and forage maize. GMHT crops generally received only one herbicide active ingredient per crop, later and fewer herbicide sprays and less active ingredient (for beet and maize) than the conventional treatments. The audit of inputs found no evidence of bias. PMID:14561315

  10. Crop management and agronomic context of the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.

    PubMed Central

    Champion, G T; May, M J; Bennett, S; Brooks, D R; Clark, S J; Daniels, R E; Firbank, L G; Haughton, A J; Hawes, C; Heard, M S; Perry, J N; Randle, Z; Rossall, M J; Rothery, P; Skellern, M P; Scott, R J; Squire, G R; Thomas, M R

    2003-01-01

    The Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops (GMHT) were conducted in the UK from 2000 to 2002 on beet (sugar and fodder), spring oilseed rape and forage maize. The management of the crops studied is described and compared with current conventional commercial practice. The distribution of field sites adequately represented the areas currently growing these crops, and the sample contained sites operated at a range of management intensities, including low intensity. Herbicide inputs were audited, and the active ingredients used and the rates and the timings of applications compared well with current practice for both GMHT and conventional crops. Inputs on sugar beet were lower than, and inputs on spring oilseed rape and forage maize were consistent with, national averages. Regression analysis of herbicide-application strategies and weed emergence showed that inputs applied by farmers increased with weed densities in beet and forage maize. GMHT crops generally received only one herbicide active ingredient per crop, later and fewer herbicide sprays and less active ingredient (for beet and maize) than the conventional treatments. The audit of inputs found no evidence of bias. PMID:14561315

  11. Intelligent fault-tolerant controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Chien Y.

    1987-01-01

    A system with fault tolerant controls is one that can detect, isolate, and estimate failures and perform necessary control reconfiguration based on this new information. Artificial intelligence (AI) is concerned with semantic processing, and it has evolved to include the topics of expert systems and machine learning. This research represents an attempt to apply AI to fault tolerant controls, hence, the name intelligent fault tolerant control (IFTC). A generic solution to the problem is sought, providing a system based on logic in addition to analytical tools, and offering machine learning capabilities. The advantages are that redundant system specific algorithms are no longer needed, that reasonableness is used to quickly choose the correct control strategy, and that the system can adapt to new situations by learning about its effects on system dynamics.

  12. Fault-Tolerant Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Crowley, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    A compact, lightweight heat exchanger has been designed to be fault-tolerant in the sense that a single-point leak would not cause mixing of heat-transfer fluids. This particular heat exchanger is intended to be part of the temperature-regulation system for habitable modules of the International Space Station and to function with water and ammonia as the heat-transfer fluids. The basic fault-tolerant design is adaptable to other heat-transfer fluids and heat exchangers for applications in which mixing of heat-transfer fluids would pose toxic, explosive, or other hazards: Examples could include fuel/air heat exchangers for thermal management on aircraft, process heat exchangers in the cryogenic industry, and heat exchangers used in chemical processing. The reason this heat exchanger can tolerate a single-point leak is that the heat-transfer fluids are everywhere separated by a vented volume and at least two seals. The combination of fault tolerance, compactness, and light weight is implemented in a unique heat-exchanger core configuration: Each fluid passage is entirely surrounded by a vented region bridged by solid structures through which heat is conducted between the fluids. Precise, proprietary fabrication techniques make it possible to manufacture the vented regions and heat-conducting structures with very small dimensions to obtain a very large coefficient of heat transfer between the two fluids. A large heat-transfer coefficient favors compact design by making it possible to use a relatively small core for a given heat-transfer rate. Calculations and experiments have shown that in most respects, the fault-tolerant heat exchanger can be expected to equal or exceed the performance of the non-fault-tolerant heat exchanger that it is intended to supplant (see table). The only significant disadvantages are a slight weight penalty and a small decrease in the mass-specific heat transfer.

  13. Organ-specific Differences in Achieving Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Madariaga, Maria Lucia L.; Kreisel, Daniel; Madsen, Joren C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review When it comes to tolerance induction, kidney allografts behave differently from heart allografts which behave differently from lung allografts. Here, we examine how and why different organ allografts respond differently to the same tolerance induction protocol. Recent findings Allograft tolerance has been achieved in experimental and clinical kidney transplantation. However, inducing tolerance in experimental recipients of heart and lung allografts has proven to be more challenging. New protocols being developed in nonhuman primates based on mixed chimerism and co-transplantation of tolerogenic organs may provide mechanistic insights to help overcome these challenges. Summary Tolerance induction protocols that are successful in patients transplanted with “tolerance-prone” organs such as kidneys and livers will most likely not succeed in recipients of “tolerance-resistant” organs such as hearts and lungs. Separate clinical trials using more robust tolerance protocols will be required to achieve tolerance in heart and lung recipients. PMID:26147678

  14. Lessons on dehydration tolerance from desiccation tolerant plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extremophiles: organisms that thrive (a relative term) in environments where conditions are such that the majority of organisms cannot survive. This is not strictly true if one is describing desiccation-tolerant plants, as other plants do grow around them, but it is certainly true that they can surv...

  15. Statistical Tolerance and Clearance Analysis for Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Yi, C.

    1996-01-01

    Tolerance is inevitable because manufacturing exactly equal parts is known to be impossible. Furthermore, the specification of tolerances is an integral part of product design since tolerances directly affect the assemblability, functionality, manufacturability, and cost effectiveness of a product. In this paper, we present statistical tolerance and clearance analysis for the assembly. Our proposed work is expected to make the following contributions: (i) to help the designers to evaluate products for assemblability, (ii) to provide a new perspective to tolerance problems, and (iii) to provide a tolerance analysis tool which can be incorporated into a CAD or solid modeling system.

  16. Sugarcane Genotype Tolerance to Wireworms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp.) growers in Florida normally apply a soil insecticide at planting to limit wireworm (Melanotus communis Gyllenhall) damage to seed cane (vegetative plantings of stalks). The objective of this study was to measure the tolerance of eight commercial su...

  17. Biocatalysts with enhanced inhibitor tolerance

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Shihui; Linger, Jeffrey; Franden, Mary Ann; Pienkos, Philip T.; Zhang, Min

    2015-12-08

    Disclosed herein are biocatalysts for the production of biofuels, including microorganisms that contain genetic modifications conferring tolerance to growth and fermentation inhibitors found in many cellulosic feedstocks. Methods of converting cellulose-containing materials to fuels and chemicals, as well as methods of fermenting sugars to fuels and chemicals, using these biocatalysts are also disclosed.

  18. "Zero Tolerance" for Free Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hils, Lynda

    2001-01-01

    Argues that school policies of "zero tolerance" of threatening speech may violate a student's First Amendment right to freedom of expression if speech is less than a "true threat." Suggests a two-step analysis to determine if student speech is a "true threat." (PKP)

  19. Stepping Back from Zero Tolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne-Dianis, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Schools' use of zero tolerance policies has been increasing since the 1980s as part of a societal movement to crack down on drug abuse and violence among youth. But far from making schools safer, this harsh, inflexible approach to discipline has been eroding the culture of schools and creating devastating consequences for children, writes…

  20. Assessing Your Board's Risk Tolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John S.; Jarvis, William F.

    2014-01-01

    In the wake of the financial crisis, trustees of many endowed nonprofit institutions realized that their portfolio was riskier than they thought and their own ability to tolerate loss wasn't as strong as they imagined. What can board and investment committee members do to improve their ability to assess their--and their institution's--capacity for…

  1. B cells and immunological tolerance.

    PubMed

    Manjarrez-Orduño, Nataly; Quách, Tâm D; Sanz, Iñaki

    2009-02-01

    Work from multiple groups continues to provide additional evidence for the powerful and highly diverse roles, both protective and pathogenic, that B cells play in autoimmune diseases. Similarly, it has become abundantly clear that antibody-independent functions may account for the opposing influences that B cells exercise over other arms of the immune response and ultimately over autoimmunity itself. Finally, it is becoming apparent that the clinical impact of B-cell depletion therapy may be, to a large extent, determined by the functional balance between different B-cell subsets that may be generated by this therapeutic intervention. In this review, we postulate that our perspective of B-cell tolerance and our experimental approach to its understanding are fundamentally changed by this view of B cells. Accordingly, we first discuss current knowledge of B-cell tolerance conventionally defined as the censoring of autoantibody-producing B cells (with an emphasis on human B cells). Therefore, we discuss a different model that contemplates B cells not only as targets of tolerance but also as mediators of tolerance. This model is based on the notion that the onset of clinical autoimmune disease may require a B-cell gain-of-pathogenic function (or a B-cell loss-of-regulatory-function) and that accordingly, disease remission may depend on the restoration of the physiological balance between B-cell pathogenic and protective functions. PMID:19148217

  2. Developing Political Tolerance. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Patricia G.

    Political tolerance is the willingness to extend basic rights and civil liberties to persons and groups whose viewpoints differ from one's own. It is a central tenet of a liberal democracy. The individual rights and freedoms that U.S. citizens value encourage a wide array of ideas and beliefs, some of which may offend segments of the population.…

  3. Tolerance of snakes to hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillywhite, H. B.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    1996-01-01

    Sensitivity of carotid blood flow to increased gravitational force acting in the head-to-tail direction(+Gz) was studied in diverse species of snakes hypothesized to show adaptive variation of response. Tolerance to increased gravity was measured red as the maximum graded acceleration force at which carotid blood flow ceased and was shown to vary according to gravitational adaptation of species defined by their ecology and behavior. Multiple regression analysis showed that gravitational habitat, but not body length, had a significant effect on Gz tolerance. At the extremes, carotid blood flow decreased in response to increasing G force and approached zero near +1 Gz in aquatic and ground-dwelling species, whereas in climbing species carotid flow was maintained at forces in excess of +2 Gz. Tolerant (arboreal) species were able to withstand hypergravic forces of +2 to +3 Gz for periods up to 1 h without cessation of carotid blood flow or loss of body movement and tongue flicking. Data suggest that the relatively tight skin characteristic of tolerant species provides a natural antigravity suit and is of prime importance in counteracting Gz stress on blood circulation.

  4. Civic Tolerance among Honors Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Gordon; Shepherd, Gary

    2014-01-01

    As important as cognitive outcomes are in assessing the educational merits of honors programs, the authors ask whether honors programs affect the values and social attitudes of their students differently than other students: in particular, whether honors students are more or less tolerant than other students and, if so, in what ways and why. There…

  5. Promoting Tolerance in Preservice Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swearingen, Judith A.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a social science methods course where preservice teachers taught a unit on controversial topics involving tolerance and intolerance. Students were forbidden to lecture. Permitted methods included cooperative learning, inquiry, simulations, jackdaws, documents, and sociodrama. Student response was generally positive. (MJP)

  6. Toleration, Multiculturalism and Mistaken Belief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standish, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Doubts have been expressed about the virtue of toleration, especially in view of what some have seen as its complicity with a morality of anything goes. More rigorous arguments have been provided by Peter Gardner and Harvey Siegel against the relativism evident in certain versions of multiculturalism and in the new religious studies. This article…

  7. 75 FR 81878 - Imazosulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...This regulation establishes tolerances for residues of imazosulfuron in or on pepper, bell; pepper, non-bell; rice, grain; and tomato. Valent USA Corporation requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...

  8. Increased tolerance to humans among disturbed wildlife

    PubMed Central

    Samia, Diogo S. M.; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Nomura, Fausto; Rangel, Thiago F.; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2015-01-01

    Human disturbance drives the decline of many species, both directly and indirectly. Nonetheless, some species do particularly well around humans. One mechanism that may explain coexistence is the degree to which a species tolerates human disturbance. Here we provide a comprehensive meta-analysis of birds, mammals and lizards to investigate species tolerance of human disturbance and explore the drivers of this tolerance in birds. We find that, overall, disturbed populations of the three major taxa are more tolerant of human disturbance than less disturbed populations. The best predictors of the direction and magnitude of bird tolerance of human disturbance are the type of disturbed area (urbanized birds are more tolerant than rural or suburban populations) and body mass (large birds are more tolerant than small birds). By identifying specific features associated with tolerance, these results guide evidence-based conservation strategies to predict and manage the impacts of increasing human disturbance on birds. PMID:26568451

  9. 76 FR 50893 - Fluoxastrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ...This regulation establishes a tolerance for residues of fluoxastrobin in or on squash/cucumber subgroup 9B. Arysta LifeScience North America, LLC requested this tolerance under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...

  10. Urbanism, Migration, and Tolerance: A Reassessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Thomas C.

    1991-01-01

    Urbanism's impact on the personality may be stronger than previously thought. Finds that urban residence has a strong positive effect on tolerance. Migration also promotes tolerance, regardless of the size of the destination community. (DM)

  11. 78 FR 23497 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ...This regulation amends existing tolerances for residues of propiconazole in or on multiple commodities which are identified and discussed later in this document. Syngenta Crop Protection, LLC requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...

  12. 76 FR 69648 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ...This regulation establishes tolerances for residues of trifloxystrobin in or on alfalfa, forage and alfalfa, hay. Bayer CropScience requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1861 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Tolerances § 51.1861 Tolerances. In... percent for tomatoes which are green in color, when any term other than “Green” is specified....

  14. 76 FR 16308 - Dichlormid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...This regulation establishes tolerances for residues of dichlormid in or on field corn, pop corn, and sweet corn commodities. Dow AgroSciences requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...

  15. Chip level simulation of fault tolerant computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Chip-level modeling techniques in the evaluation of fault tolerant systems were researched. A fault tolerant computer was modeled. An efficient approach to functional fault simulation was developed. Simulation software was also developed.

  16. 7 CFR 51.2928 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apricots Tolerances § 51.2928 Tolerances. In order to allow for variations incident..., by count, of the apricots in any sample may be below the minimum size specified. Application...

  17. 7 CFR 51.2928 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apricots Tolerances § 51.2928 Tolerances. In order to allow for variations incident..., by count, of the apricots in any sample may be below the minimum size specified. Application...

  18. 7 CFR 51.2928 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apricots Tolerances § 51.2928 Tolerances. In... minimum size: Not more than 10 percent, by count, of the apricots in any sample may be below the...

  19. 7 CFR 51.2928 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apricots Tolerances § 51.2928 Tolerances. In order to allow for variations incident..., by count, of the apricots in any sample may be below the minimum size specified. Application...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2928 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apricots Tolerances § 51.2928 Tolerances. In... minimum size: Not more than 10 percent, by count, of the apricots in any sample may be below the...

  1. 77 FR 52246 - Clothianidin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ...This regulation establishes tolerances for residues of clothianidin in or on rice, grain at 0.01 ppm. Valent U.S.A. Corporation requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...

  2. Increased tolerance to humans among disturbed wildlife.

    PubMed

    Samia, Diogo S M; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Nomura, Fausto; Rangel, Thiago F; Blumstein, Daniel T

    2015-01-01

    Human disturbance drives the decline of many species, both directly and indirectly. Nonetheless, some species do particularly well around humans. One mechanism that may explain coexistence is the degree to which a species tolerates human disturbance. Here we provide a comprehensive meta-analysis of birds, mammals and lizards to investigate species tolerance of human disturbance and explore the drivers of this tolerance in birds. We find that, overall, disturbed populations of the three major taxa are more tolerant of human disturbance than less disturbed populations. The best predictors of the direction and magnitude of bird tolerance of human disturbance are the type of disturbed area (urbanized birds are more tolerant than rural or suburban populations) and body mass (large birds are more tolerant than small birds). By identifying specific features associated with tolerance, these results guide evidence-based conservation strategies to predict and manage the impacts of increasing human disturbance on birds. PMID:26568451

  3. A Developmental View of Children's Behavioral Tolerance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Joan S.; Safran, Stephen P.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of scores of 469 third to sixth graders on the Children's Tolerance Scale yielded significant grade level differences with older children generally the most tolerant. The more outer-directed behaviors were rated as most disturbing. (CL)

  4. 75 FR 75389 - Metrafenone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ...This regulation establishes tolerances for residues of metrafenone (3-bromo-6-methoxy-2-methylphenyl)(2,3,4-trimethoxy-6- methylphenyl)methanone in or on grapes. BASF Corporation requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...

  5. Cadmium-tolerant bacteria induce metal stress tolerance in cereals.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Akhtar, Muhammad Javed; Zahir, Zahir Ahmad; Naveed, Muhammad; Mitter, Birgit; Sessitsch, Angela

    2014-09-01

    Cadmium usually hampers plant growth, but bacterial inoculation may improve stress tolerance in plants to Cd by involving various mechanisms. The objective was to characterize and identify bacteria that improve plant growth under Cd stress and reduce Cd uptake. Cadmium-tolerant bacteria were isolated from rhizosphere soil, which was irrigated with tannery effluent, and six strains were selected as highly tolerant to Cd, showing minimum inhibitory concentration as 500 mg L(-1) or 4.45 mmol L(-1). These strains were identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis and functional analysis in regard to plant growth promotion characteristics. To determine their effect on cereal growth under Cd stress, seeds were inoculated with these strains individually and grown in soil contaminated with three Cd levels (0, 40 and 80 mg kg(-1)). Biomass production, relative water content (RWC), electrolyte leakage (ELL) and tissue Cd concentration were measured. Biomass of both cereals was inhibited strongly when exposed to Cd; however, bacterial inoculation significantly reduced the suppressive effect of Cd on cereal growth and physiology. The bacterial isolates belonged to the genera Klebsiella, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus and Serratia. Maize was more sensitive than wheat to Cd. Klebsiella sp. strain CIK-502 had the most pronounced effects in promoting maize and wheat growth and lowering Cd uptake under Cd stress. PMID:24849374

  6. Increasing ideological tolerance in social psychology.

    PubMed

    Inbar, Yoel; Lammers, Joris

    2015-01-01

    We argue that recognizing current ideological diversity in social psychology and promoting tolerance of minority views is just as important as increasing the number of non-liberal researchers. Increasing tolerance will allow individuals in the minority to express dissenting views, which will improve psychological science by reducing bias. We present four recommendations for increasing tolerance. PMID:26786671

  7. 76 FR 27256 - Saflufenacil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ...This regulation revises or removes certain established tolerances and establishes new tolerances for residues of saflufenacil in or on multiple commodities which are identified and discussed later in this document. BASF Corporation requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...

  8. 47 CFR 74.161 - Frequency tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequency tolerances. 74.161 Section 74.161... Technical Operation and Operators § 74.161 Frequency tolerances. The departure of the carrier frequency or frequencies of an experimental broadcast station must not exceed the tolerance specified in the instrument...

  9. 47 CFR 74.161 - Frequency tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequency tolerances. 74.161 Section 74.161... Technical Operation and Operators § 74.161 Frequency tolerances. The departure of the carrier frequency or frequencies of an experimental broadcast station must not exceed the tolerance specified in the instrument...

  10. 47 CFR 74.161 - Frequency tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency tolerances. 74.161 Section 74.161... Technical Operation and Operators § 74.161 Frequency tolerances. The departure of the carrier frequency or frequencies of an experimental broadcast station must not exceed the tolerance specified in the instrument...

  11. 47 CFR 74.561 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 74.561 Section 74.561... § 74.561 Frequency tolerance. In the bands above 944 MHz, the operating frequency of the transmitter shall be maintained in accordance with the following table: Frequency band (MHz) Tolerance as...

  12. 47 CFR 74.561 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 74.561 Section 74.561... § 74.561 Frequency tolerance. In the bands above 944 MHz, the operating frequency of the transmitter shall be maintained in accordance with the following table: Frequency band (MHz) Tolerance as...

  13. 47 CFR 74.464 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 74.464 Section 74.464....464 Frequency tolerance. For operations on frequencies above 25 MHz using authorized bandwidths up to... frequency of each station in compliance with the frequency tolerance requirements of § 90.213 of...

  14. 47 CFR 74.561 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 74.561 Section 74.561... § 74.561 Frequency tolerance. In the bands above 944 MHz, the operating frequency of the transmitter shall be maintained in accordance with the following table: Frequency band (MHz) Tolerance as...

  15. 47 CFR 74.464 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 74.464 Section 74.464....464 Frequency tolerance. For operations on frequencies above 25 MHz using authorized bandwidths up to... frequency of each station in compliance with the frequency tolerance requirements of § 90.213 of...

  16. 47 CFR 74.464 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 74.464 Section 74.464....464 Frequency tolerance. For operations on frequencies above 25 MHz using authorized bandwidths up to... frequency of each station in compliance with the frequency tolerance requirements of § 90.213 of...

  17. 47 CFR 74.464 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 74.464 Section 74.464....464 Frequency tolerance. For operations on frequencies above 25 MHz using authorized bandwidths up to... frequency of each station in compliance with the frequency tolerance requirements of § 90.213 of...

  18. 47 CFR 74.464 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 74.464 Section 74.464....464 Frequency tolerance. For operations on frequencies above 25 MHz using authorized bandwidths up to... frequency of each station in compliance with the frequency tolerance requirements of § 90.213 of...

  19. 47 CFR 74.561 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 74.561 Section 74.561... § 74.561 Frequency tolerance. In the bands above 944 MHz, the operating frequency of the transmitter shall be maintained in accordance with the following table: Frequency band (MHz) Tolerance as...

  20. 47 CFR 74.561 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 74.561 Section 74.561... § 74.561 Frequency tolerance. In the bands above 944 MHz, the operating frequency of the transmitter shall be maintained in accordance with the following table: Frequency band (MHz) Tolerance as...

  1. Zero Tolerance in Tennessee Schools: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Kim; Njie, Bintou; Detch, Ethel R.; Walton, Jason

    As required by Tennessee law, this report examines the state's zero-tolerance disciplinary data collected by the Tennessee Department of Education for school years 1999-00, 2000-01, and 2001-02. The first section displays statewide zero-tolerance statistics. The second section focuses on the zero-tolerance statistics of Tennessee's five major…

  2. Fault tolerant software modules for SIFT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, M.; Hecht, H.

    1982-01-01

    The implementation of software fault tolerance is investigated for critical modules of the Software Implemented Fault Tolerance (SIFT) operating system to support the computational and reliability requirements of advanced fly by wire transport aircraft. Fault tolerant designs generated for the error reported and global executive are examined. A description of the alternate routines, implementation requirements, and software validation are included.

  3. 7 CFR 51.3744 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Honey Dew and Honey Ball Type Melons Tolerances § 51.3744 Tolerances. In order to... following tolerances, by count, are provided as specified: (a) U.S. No. 1. 10 percent for melons in any lot... not more than 1 percent for melons affected by decay. (b) U.S. Commercial. 20 percent for melons...

  4. 7 CFR 51.3744 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Honey Dew and Honey Ball Type Melons Tolerances § 51.3744 Tolerances. In order to... following tolerances, by count, are provided as specified: (a) U.S. No. 1. 10 percent for melons in any lot... not more than 1 percent for melons affected by decay. (b) U.S. Commercial. 20 percent for melons...

  5. 7 CFR 51.3744 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Honey Dew and Honey Ball Type Melons Tolerances § 51.3744 Tolerances. In order to... following tolerances, by count, are provided as specified: (a) U.S. No. 1. 10 percent for melons in any lot... not more than 1 percent for melons affected by decay. (b) U.S. Commercial. 20 percent for melons...

  6. Toleration and Recognition: What Should We Teach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter Nigel

    2010-01-01

    Generally we think it good to tolerate and to accord recognition. Yet both are complex phenomena and our teaching must acknowledge and cope with that complexity. We tolerate only what we object to, so our message to students cannot be simply, "promote the good and prevent the bad". Much advocacy of toleration is not what it pretends to be. Nor is…

  7. 40 CFR 180.5 - Zero tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Definitions and Interpretative Regulations § 180.5 Zero tolerances. A zero tolerance means that no amount of the pesticide chemical may remain on the raw agricultural commodity when it is offered for shipment. A zero tolerance for a pesticide chemical in or on...

  8. 40 CFR 180.5 - Zero tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Definitions and Interpretative Regulations § 180.5 Zero tolerances. A zero tolerance means that no amount of the pesticide chemical may remain on the raw agricultural commodity when it is offered for shipment. A zero tolerance for a pesticide chemical in or on...

  9. 77 FR 72232 - Dodine; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... . II. Summary of Petitioned-for Tolerance In the Federal Register of August 22, 2012 (77 FR 50661) (FRL... establishing tolerances for residues of the fungicide dodine, (N- dodecyl guanidine acetate), in or on stone... group tolerances for stone fruits (group 12) and tree nuts (group 14) are established. That...

  10. 77 FR 28493 - Propylene Oxide; Tolerance Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ...EPA is establishing the tree nut crop group tolerance and separate tolerances on pistachio and pine nuts for both the fumigant propylene oxide and the reaction product from the use of propylene oxide, known as propylene chlorohydrin, to cover all registered uses on raw and processed nuts. Also, in accordance with current Agency practice, EPA is making minor revisions to tolerance expressions......

  11. 77 FR 49732 - Cyprodinil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ...This regulation establishes tolerances for residues of cyprodinil in or on multiple commodities which are identified and discussed later in this document, associated with Pesticide Petition (PP) 1E7854, and establishes a tolerance in or on leaf petioles subgroup 4B, associated with PP 1E7869. Interregional Research Project Number 4 (IR-4) and Syngenta Crop Protection requested the tolerances......

  12. 78 FR 8407 - Endosulfan; Pesticide Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... revoke all tolerances for endosulfan (76 FR 25281) (FRL-8870-4). Many of the tolerances were not proposed... accordingly, the tolerance was revoked on September 14, 2011 (76 FR 56648) (FRL-8883-9). The Zhejiang Chamber... defined in Executive Order 12866 entitled ``Regulatory Planning and Review'' (58 FR 51735, October 4,...

  13. 7 CFR 51.3150 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tolerances. 51.3150 Section 51.3150 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Nectarines Tolerances § 51.3150 Tolerances. In order to allow for variations.... No. 1 grades—(1) For defects at shipping point. 1 8 percent for nectarines which fail to meet...

  14. 7 CFR 51.886 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tolerances. 51.886 Section 51.886 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Tolerances § 51.886 Tolerances. (a) No... other than the allowances specified in § 51.888 or in the sampling and testing procedures of...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1546 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tolerances. 51.1546 Section 51.1546 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Tolerances § 51.1546 Tolerances. To allow for variations incident to... of 8 percent for potatoes in any lot which fail to meet the requirements for the grade:...

  16. Statistical computation of tolerance limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    Based on a new theory, two computer codes were developed specifically to calculate the exact statistical tolerance limits for normal distributions within unknown means and variances for the one-sided and two-sided cases for the tolerance factor, k. The quantity k is defined equivalently in terms of the noncentral t-distribution by the probability equation. Two of the four mathematical methods employ the theory developed for the numerical simulation. Several algorithms for numerically integrating and iteratively root-solving the working equations are written to augment the program simulation. The program codes generate some tables of k's associated with the varying values of the proportion and sample size for each given probability to show accuracy obtained for small sample sizes.

  17. Human tolerance to space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntoon, C. L.

    1989-01-01

    Medical studies of astronauts and cosmonauts before, during, and after space missions have identified several effects of weightlessness and other factors that influence the ability of humans to tolerate space flight. Weightlessness effects include space motion sickness, cardiovascular abnormalities, reduction in immune system function, loss of red blood cells, loss of bone mass, and muscle atrophy. Extravehicular activity (EVA) increases the likelihood that decompression sickness may occur. Radiation also gives reason for concern about health of crewmembers, and psychological factors are important on long-term flights. Countermeasures that have been used include sensory preadaptation, prebreathing and use of various air mixtures for EVA, loading with water and electrolytes, exercise, use of pharmacological agents and special diets, and psychological support. It appears that humans can tolerate and recover satisfactorily from at least one year of space flight, but a number of conditions must be further ameliorated before long-duration missions can be considered routine.

  18. Engineering alcohol tolerance in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Felix H.; Ghaderi, Adel; Fink, Gerald R.; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol toxicity in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae limits titer and productivity in the industrial production of transportation bioethanol. We show that strengthening the opposing potassium and proton electrochemical membrane gradients is a mechanism that enhances general resistance to multiple alcohols. Elevation of extracellular potassium and pH physically bolster these gradients, increasing tolerance to higher alcohols and ethanol fermentation in commercial and laboratory strains (including a xylose-fermenting strain) under industrial-like conditions. Production per cell remains largely unchanged with improvements deriving from heightened population viability. Likewise, up-regulation of the potassium and proton pumps in the laboratory strain enhances performance to levels exceeding industrial strains. Although genetically complex, alcohol tolerance can thus be dominated by a single cellular process, one controlled by a major physicochemical component but amenable to biological augmentation. PMID:25278607

  19. Some species tolerate ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-12-01

    Increasing carbon dioxide levels lead to rising ocean acidity, which can harm corals and many other species of ocean life. Acidification causes calcium carbonate, which corals usually need to build skeletons, to dissolve. “Every day, ocean acidification is taking up the weight of 6 million midsize cars' worth of carbon, said Nina Keul, a graduate student at the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Germany during a 7 December press conference at the AGU Fall Meeting. Somewhat surprising, though, is that some species are more tolerant of acidic conditions than scientists had expected. For instance, Keul exposed a species of foraminifera, Ammonia tepida, to seawater with varying acidity and varying carbonate ion concentrations. Previous studies had found that foraminifera growth declined with decreasing carbonate levels, but Keul's foraminifera continued to grow in the acidic conditions. She said that the mechanism that allows this species to tolerate the low carbonate conditions is as yet unknown.

  20. Fault tolerant control of spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godard

    Autonomous multiple spacecraft formation flying space missions demand the development of reliable control systems to ensure rapid, accurate, and effective response to various attitude and formation reconfiguration commands. Keeping in mind the complexities involved in the technology development to enable spacecraft formation flying, this thesis presents the development and validation of a fault tolerant control algorithm that augments the AOCS on-board a spacecraft to ensure that these challenging formation flying missions will fly successfully. Taking inspiration from the existing theory of nonlinear control, a fault-tolerant control system for the RyePicoSat missions is designed to cope with actuator faults whilst maintaining the desirable degree of overall stability and performance. Autonomous fault tolerant adaptive control scheme for spacecraft equipped with redundant actuators and robust control of spacecraft in underactuated configuration, represent the two central themes of this thesis. The developed algorithms are validated using a hardware-in-the-loop simulation. A reaction wheel testbed is used to validate the proposed fault tolerant attitude control scheme. A spacecraft formation flying experimental testbed is used to verify the performance of the proposed robust control scheme for underactuated spacecraft configurations. The proposed underactuated formation flying concept leads to more than 60% savings in fuel consumption when compared to a fully actuated spacecraft formation configuration. We also developed a novel attitude control methodology that requires only a single thruster to stabilize three axis attitude and angular velocity components of a spacecraft. Numerical simulations and hardware-in-the-loop experimental results along with rigorous analytical stability analysis shows that the proposed methodology will greatly enhance the reliability of the spacecraft, while allowing for potentially significant overall mission cost reduction.

  1. Software Fault Tolerance: A Tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2000-01-01

    Because of our present inability to produce error-free software, software fault tolerance is and will continue to be an important consideration in software systems. The root cause of software design errors is the complexity of the systems. Compounding the problems in building correct software is the difficulty in assessing the correctness of software for highly complex systems. After a brief overview of the software development processes, we note how hard-to-detect design faults are likely to be introduced during development and how software faults tend to be state-dependent and activated by particular input sequences. Although component reliability is an important quality measure for system level analysis, software reliability is hard to characterize and the use of post-verification reliability estimates remains a controversial issue. For some applications software safety is more important than reliability, and fault tolerance techniques used in those applications are aimed at preventing catastrophes. Single version software fault tolerance techniques discussed include system structuring and closure, atomic actions, inline fault detection, exception handling, and others. Multiversion techniques are based on the assumption that software built differently should fail differently and thus, if one of the redundant versions fails, it is expected that at least one of the other versions will provide an acceptable output. Recovery blocks, N-version programming, and other multiversion techniques are reviewed.

  2. Tolerance of Snakes to Hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillywhite, H. B.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Sensitivity of carotid blood flow to +Gz (head-to-tail) acceleration was studied in six species of snakes hypothesized to show varied adaptive cardiovascular responses to gravity. Blood flow in the proximal carotid artery was measured in 15 snakes before, during and following stepwise increments of +0.25Gz force produced on a 2.4 m diameter centrifuge. During centrifugation each snake was confined to a straight position within an individually- fitted acrylic tube with the head facing the center of rotation. We measured the centrifugal force at the tail of the snake in order to quantify the maximum intensity of force gradient promoting antero-posterior pooling of blood. Tolerance to increased gravity was quantified as the acceleration force at which carotid blood flow ceased. This parameter varied according to the gravitational adaptation of species defined by their ecology and behavior. At the extremes, carotid blood flow decreased in response to increasing gravity and approached zero near +1Gz in aquatic and ground-dwelling species, whereas in climbing species carotid flow was maintained at forces in excess of +2Gz. Surprisingly, tolerant (arboreal) species withstood hypergravic forces of +2 to +3 G. for periods up to 1 h without cessation of carotid blood flow or apparent loss of consciousness. Data suggest that relatively tight skin of the tolerant species provides a natural antigravity suit which is of prime importance in counteracting Gz stress on blood circulation.

  3. Tolerance bands for functional data.

    PubMed

    Rathnayake, Lasitha N; Choudhary, Pankaj K

    2016-06-01

    Often the object of inference in biomedical applications is a range that brackets a given fraction of individual observations in a population. A classical estimate of this range for univariate measurements is a "tolerance interval." This article develops its natural extension for functional measurements, a "tolerance band," and proposes a methodology for constructing its pointwise and simultaneous versions that incorporates both sparse and dense functional data. Assuming that the measurements are observed with noise, the methodology uses functional principal component analysis in a mixed model framework to represent the measurements and employs bootstrapping to approximate the tolerance factors needed for the bands. The proposed bands also account for uncertainty in the principal components decomposition. Simulations show that the methodology has, generally, acceptable performance unless the data are quite sparse and unbalanced, in which case the bands may be somewhat liberal. The methodology is illustrated using two real datasets, a sparse dataset involving CD4 cell counts and a dense dataset involving core body temperatures. PMID:26574904

  4. Extreme flooding tolerance in Rorippa.

    PubMed

    Akman, Melis; Bhikharie, Amit; Mustroph, Angelika; Sasidharan, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    Low oxygen stress imposed by floods creates a strong selection force shaping plant ecosystems in flood-prone areas. Plants inhabiting these environments adopt various adaptations and survival strategies to cope with increasing water depths. Two Rorippa species, R. sylvestris and R. amphibia that grow in naturally flooded areas, have high submergence tolerance achieved by the so-called quiescence and escape strategies, respectively. In order to dissect the molecular mechanisms involved in these strategies, we investigated submergence-induced changes in gene expression in flooded roots of Rorippa species. There was a higher induction of glycolysis and fermentation genes and faster carbohydrate reduction in R. amphibia, indicating a higher demand for energy potentially leading to faster mortality by starvation. Moreover, R. sylvestris showed induction of genes improving submergence tolerance, potentially enhancing survival in prolonged floods. Additionally, we compared transcript profiles of these 2 tolerant species to relatively intolerant Arabidopsis and found that only Rorippa species induced various inorganic pyrophosphate dependent genes, alternatives to ATP demanding pathways, thereby conserving energy, and potentially explaining the difference in flooding survival between Rorippa and Arabidopsis. PMID:24525961

  5. Parallel fault-tolerant robot control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, D. L.; Bennett, J. K.; Walker, I. D.

    1992-01-01

    A shared memory multiprocessor architecture is used to develop a parallel fault-tolerant robot controller. Several versions of the robot controller are developed and compared. A robot simulation is also developed for control observation. Comparison of a serial version of the controller and a parallel version without fault tolerance showed the speedup possible with the coarse-grained parallelism currently employed. The performance degradation due to the addition of processor fault tolerance was demonstrated by comparison of these controllers with their fault-tolerant versions. Comparison of the more fault-tolerant controller with the lower-level fault-tolerant controller showed how varying the amount of redundant data affects performance. The results demonstrate the trade-off between speed performance and processor fault tolerance.

  6. IRON-TOLERANT CYANOBACTERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR ASTROBIOLOGY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Igor I.; Allen, Carlton C.; Mummey, Daniel L.; Sarkisova, Svetlana A.; McKay, David S.

    2006-01-01

    The review is dedicated to the new group of extremophiles - iron tolerant cyanobacteria. The authors have analyzed earlier published articles about the ecology of iron tolerant cyanobacteria and their diversity. It was concluded that contemporary iron depositing hot springs might be considered as relative analogs of Precambrian environment. The authors have concluded that the diversity of iron-tolerant cyanobacteria is understudied. The authors also analyzed published data about the physiological peculiarities of iron tolerant cyanobacteria. They made the conclusion that iron tolerant cyanobacteria may oxidize reduced iron through the photosystem of cyanobacteria. The involvement of both Reaction Centers 1 and 2 is also discussed. The conclusion that iron tolerant protocyanobacteria could be involved in banded iron formations generation is also proposed. The possible mechanism of the transition from an oxygenic photosynthesis to an oxygenic one is also discussed. In the final part of the review the authors consider the possible implications of iron tolerant cyanobacteria for astrobiology.

  7. Janata biogas technology and fodder production

    SciTech Connect

    Neelakantan, S.

    1981-01-01

    An effective bio-gas program leads to efficient use of cow dung for gas recovery and partial supplement to plant nutrient requirements. Bio-gas program leads to improvement in rural living including rural sanitation. The Janata biogas plant designed by the State Planning Institute, Lucknow, based on biogas technology, has proved to be efficient and economical. This book contains the various papers presented at the seminar held to review this technology. The various topics covered are: Status of Biogas Program in India; Role of Extension Agencies in Developing Program of Energy Utilization; Introduction to Drumless Biogas Plant; Principles and Application of Anaerobic Fermentation and Biogas Production, Operational System of Gobar Gas in Rural India; Complete Recycling of Cattle Shed Wastes through Biogas Plant; Chemical Composition of Cattle Excreta and Its Manurial Value; Profitability of Biogas Plant; Biogas Production from Various Organic Wastes; Performance of Janata Biogas Plant and Biogas Utilization in Appliances; Utilization of Solar Energy for Domestic Purposes; and Conservation of Forages. Plant requirements and cost estimates have been given for several units.

  8. Macroevolutionary patterns of salt tolerance in angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Bromham, Lindell

    2015-01-01

    Background Halophytes are rare, with only 0·25 % of angiosperm species able to complete their life cycle in saline conditions. This could be interpreted as evidence that salt tolerance is difficult to evolve. However, consideration of the phylogenetic distribution of halophytes paints a different picture: salt tolerance has evolved independently in many different lineages, and halophytes are widely distributed across angiosperm families. In this Viewpoint, I will consider what phylogenetic analysis of halophytes can tell us about the macroevolution of salt tolerance. Hypothesis Phylogenetic analyses of salt tolerance have shown contrasting patterns in different families. In some families, such as chenopods, salt tolerance evolved early in the lineage and has been retained in many lineages. But in other families, including grasses, there have been a surprisingly large number of independent origins of salt tolerance, most of which are relatively recent and result in only one or a few salt-tolerant species. This pattern of many recent origins implies either a high transition rate (salt tolerance is gained and lost often) or a high extinction rate (salt-tolerant lineages do not tend to persist over macroevolutionary timescales). While salt tolerance can evolve in a wide range of genetic backgrounds, some lineages are more likely to produce halophytes than others. This may be due to enabling traits that act as stepping stones to developing salt tolerance. The ability to tolerate environmental salt may increase tolerance of other stresses or vice versa. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses suggest that enabling traits and cross-tolerances may make some lineages more likely to adapt to increasing salinization, a finding that may prove useful in assessing the probable impact of rapid environmental change on vegetation communities, and in selecting taxa to develop for use in landscape rehabilitation and agriculture. PMID:25452251

  9. Supreme Court's New Term. Supreme Court Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the issues addressed in the 2002 U.S. Supreme Court term, such as the First, Fourth, Eighth, and Fourteenth Amendments, cruel and unusual punishment, sex offender registries, fair housing, cross burning, jury selection, affirmative action, abortion protests, and copyrights and the public domain. (CMK)

  10. Mixed Media: A Roundup of Electronic Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, Frank Alan

    2002-01-01

    Presents multicultural materials that are useful for elementary, secondary, and college audiences. The selections represent quality electronic and microfilm products that can help educators, librarians, and researchers better understand ethnic and racial diversity nationally and internationally. Includes CD-ROM, CD/Web-based, Web-based, and…

  11. Electronic Roundup: Emerging Technologies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Byron

    2008-01-01

    The high rate of technological change that libraries are experiencing makes it seem that the future is closer than it used to be. Rather than having some notion of the future, particularly in emerging technologies, librarians need to be kept well informed and up-to-date in the potential uses of these technologies, especially those that apply to…

  12. Straining GOR tolerance determinations are a measure of G-duration not G-level tolerance.

    PubMed

    Burton, R R

    1999-03-01

    Straining gradual G onset rate (GOR) tolerances are considered by physiologists as a measure of G-level tolerance. Using recently developed G-level and G-duration mathematical models, it was found that straining GOR tolerances may well be a measure of tolerance to G-duration. G-duration tolerance was determined to be limited with the onset of fatigue and not cardiovascular insufficiency. G-level tolerances that were predicted using a mathematical model were higher than determined using straining GOR tolerance measurements of subjects on a centrifuge. Also the G-duration tolerance mathematical model showed that those centrifuge subjects had not expended all of their "energy reserve" during their sustained G exposure most probably because of the onset of fatigue. Even if they were able to use all of their potential energy reserve, their G-duration tolerance would not have allowed them to reach the maximum G-level predicted with the G-level tolerance model. It is therefore concluded that the straining GOR tolerance profile, with G onset rates of 0.1G/s, is not a measure of G-level tolerance, as has been assumed, but is a measure of G-duration tolerance. These findings have significant safety implications world-wide since this straining GOR profile is commonly used as a G-level tolerance fighter-pilot-selection determination; i.e. pilot selection standards for G-level tolerance are not a measure of G-level tolerance. In testing equipment design changes, the proper G tolerance profiles must be used to correctly measure its impact on G tolerance. PMID:11543406

  13. [High arsenic-tolerant fungi: their isolation and tolerant ability].

    PubMed

    Su, Shi-ming; Zeng, Xi-bai; Jiang, Xi-liang; Bai, Ling-yu; Li, Lian-fang; Zhang, Yan-rong

    2010-12-01

    A total of thirteen fungal strains with higher arsenic (As)-tolerance ability were isolated from six As-contaminated soil samples collected from the mining areas of Shimen County and Chenz-hou City in Hunan Province. Among the strains isolated, Penicillin janthinellum, Fusarium oxysporum, and Trichoderma asperellum had the highest As-tolerance ability, based on the morphological identification and phylogenetic analysis. Culture experiment showed that on the solid plates with 30,000, 30,000, and 20,000 mg x L(-1) of As, P. janthinellum, F. oxysporum, and T. asperellum had a better colony growth, and after cultured in the liquid medium with 0-50, 0-50, and 0-80 mg x L(-1) of As for 2 days, respectively, the dry mycelia masses of the three strains all increased with increasing As concentration. When the As concentration reached 50, 50, and 80 mg x L(-1), respectively, the fungal biomass of F. oxysporum, T. asperellum, and P. janthinellum increased significantly, compared with CK. High concentration As had no significant effects on the sporalation of the three fungal strains. PMID:21443013

  14. Split Immunological Tolerance to Trophoblast

    PubMed Central

    de Mestre, Amanda; Noronha, Leela; Wagner, Bettina; Antczak, Douglas F.

    2010-01-01

    Split immunological tolerance refers to states in which an individual is capable of mounting certain types of immune responses to a particular antigenic challenge, but is tolerant of the same antigen in other compartments of the immune system. This concept is applicable to the immunological relationship between mother and fetus, and particularly relevant in equine pregnancy. In pregnant mares, antibody responses to paternal foreign Major Histocompatibility Complex class I antigens are robust, while anti-paternal cytotoxic T cell responses are diminished compared to those mounted by non-pregnant mares. Here we compared the distribution of the major lymphocyte subsets, the percentage of lymphocytes expressing Interferon Gamma (IFNG) and Interleukin 4 (IL4) and the level of expression of the immunoregulatory transcription factor FOXP3 between pregnant and non-pregnant mares, and between peripheral blood and the endometrium during pregnancy. In a cohort of mares in which peripheral blood lymphocytes were tested during early pregnancy and in the non-pregnant state, there were only slight changes observed during pregnancy. In contrast, comparison of peripheral blood lymphocytes with lymphocytes isolated from the endometrial cups of pregnant mares revealed striking differences in lymphocyte sub-populations. The endometrial cups contained higher numbers of IFNG+ lymphocytes, and lower numbers of lymphocytes expressing IL4. The endometrial cup lymphocytes also had higher numbers of FOXP3+ cells compared to peripheral blood lymphocytes. Taken together, these results strengthen the evidence for a state of split tolerance to trophoblast, and furthermore define sharp differences in immune reactivity during equine pregnancy between peripheral blood lymphocytes and lymphocytes at the maternal-fetal interface. PMID:19876828

  15. Historical Overview of Immunological Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Ronald H.

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental property of the immune system is its ability to mediate self-defense with a minimal amount of collateral damage to the host. The system uses several different mechanisms to achieve this goal, which is collectively referred to as the “process of immunological tolerance.” This article provides an introductory historical overview to these various mechanisms, which are discussed in greater detail throughout this collection, and then briefly describes what happens when this process fails, a state referred to as “autoimmunity.” PMID:22395097

  16. Fault-tolerant parallel processor

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, R.E.; Lala, J.H. )

    1991-06-01

    This paper addresses issues central to the design and operation of an ultrareliable, Byzantine resilient parallel computer. Interprocessor connectivity requirements are met by treating connectivity as a resource that is shared among many processing elements, allowing flexibility in their configuration and reducing complexity. Redundant groups are synchronized solely by message transmissions and receptions, which aslo provide input data consistency and output voting. Reliability analysis results are presented that demonstrate the reduced failure probability of such a system. Performance analysis results are presented that quantify the temporal overhead involved in executing such fault-tolerance-specific operations. Empirical performance measurements of prototypes of the architecture are presented. 30 refs.

  17. Can crops tolerate acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, J.K.

    1989-11-01

    This brief article describes work by scientists at the ARS Air Quality-Plant Growth and Development Laboratory in Raleigh, North Carolina, that indicates little damage to crops as a result of acid rain. In studies with simulated acid rain and 216 exposed varieties of 18 crops, there were no significant injuries nor was there reduced growth in most species. Results of chronic and acute exposures were correlated in sensitive tomato and soybean plants and in tolerant winter wheat and lettuce plants. These results suggest that 1-hour exposures could be used in the future to screen varieties for sensitivity to acid rain.

  18. Noise tolerant spatiotemporal chaos computing

    SciTech Connect

    Kia, Behnam; Kia, Sarvenaz; Ditto, William L.; Lindner, John F.; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2014-12-01

    We introduce and design a noise tolerant chaos computing system based on a coupled map lattice (CML) and the noise reduction capabilities inherent in coupled dynamical systems. The resulting spatiotemporal chaos computing system is more robust to noise than a single map chaos computing system. In this CML based approach to computing, under the coupled dynamics, the local noise from different nodes of the lattice diffuses across the lattice, and it attenuates each other's effects, resulting in a system with less noise content and a more robust chaos computing architecture.

  19. Invertebrate responses to the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant and conventional spring crops. I. Soil-surface-active invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Brooks, D R; Bohan, D A; Champion, G T; Haughton, A J; Hawes, C; Heard, M S; Clark, S J; Dewar, A M; Firbank, L G; Perry, J N; Rothery, P; Scott, R J; Woiwod, I P; Birchall, C; Skellern, M P; Walker, J H; Baker, P; Bell, D; Browne, E L; Dewar, A J G; Fairfax, C M; Garner, B H; Haylock, L A; Horne, S L; Hulmes, S E; Mason, N S; Norton, L R; Nuttall, P; Randle, Z; Rossall, M J; Sands, R J N; Singer, E J; Walker, M J

    2003-11-29

    The effects of herbicide management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) beet, maize and spring oilseed rape on the abundance and diversity of soil-surface-active invertebrates were assessed. Most effects did not differ between years, environmental zones or initial seedbanks or between sugar and fodder beet. This suggests that the results may be treated as generally applicable to agricultural situations throughout the UK for these crops. The direction of the effects was evenly balanced between increases and decreases in counts in the GMHT compared with the conventional treatment. Most effects involving a greater capture in the GMHT treatments occurred in maize, whereas most effects involving a smaller capture were in beet and spring oilseed rape. Differences between GMHT and conventional crop herbicide management had a significant effect on the capture of most surface-active invertebrate species and higher taxa tested in at least one crop, and these differences reflected the phenology and ecology of the invertebrates. Counts of carabids that feed on weed seeds were smaller in GMHT beet and spring oilseed rape but larger in GMHT maize. In contrast, collembolan detritivore counts were significantly larger under GMHT crop management. PMID:14561318

  20. A Log-Scaling Fault Tolerant Agreement Algorithm for a Fault Tolerant MPI

    SciTech Connect

    Hursey, Joshua J; Naughton, III, Thomas J; Vallee, Geoffroy R; Graham, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    The lack of fault tolerance is becoming a limiting factor for application scalability in HPC systems. The MPI does not provide standardized fault tolerance interfaces and semantics. The MPI Forum's Fault Tolerance Working Group is proposing a collective fault tolerant agreement algorithm for the next MPI standard. Such algorithms play a central role in many fault tolerant applications. This paper combines a log-scaling two-phase commit agreement algorithm with a reduction operation to provide the necessary functionality for the new collective without any additional messages. Error handling mechanisms are described that preserve the fault tolerance properties while maintaining overall scalability.

  1. Heat acclimation and cross tolerance to hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Ely, Brett R; Lovering, Andrew T; Horowitz, Michal; Minson, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has suggested a potential for some of the physiological and cellular responses to heat acclimation to carry over to improved tolerance of the novel stresses of another environment. This cross-tolerance is evident in heat-acclimated animals that exhibit enhanced tolerance to either hypoxic or ischemic stress, and is primarily attributed to shared cellular stress response pathways. These pathways include Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) and Heat Shock Proteins (HSP). Whether these shared cellular stress response pathways translate to systemic cross-tolerance (improved exercise tolerance, reduced risk of environment-associated illness) has not been clearly shown, particularly in humans. This review highlights the HIF-1 and HSP pathways and their relationship with systemic acclimation responses, and further examines the potential cellular and systemic adaptations that may result in cross-tolerance between hot and hypoxic environments.

  2. Tolerance doses for treatment planning

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, J.T.

    1985-10-01

    Data for the tolerance of normal tissues or organs to (low-LET) radiation has been compiled from a number of sources which are referenced at the end of this document. This tolerance dose data are ostensibly for uniform irradiation of all or part of an organ, and are for either 5% (TD/sub 5/) or 50% (TD/sub 50/) complication probability. The ''size'' of the irradiated organ is variously stated in terms of the absolute volume or the fraction of the organ volume irradiated, or the area or the length of the treatment field. The accuracy of these data is questionable. Much of the data represents doses that one or several experienced therapists have estimated could be safely given rather than quantitative analyses of clinical observations. Because these data have been obtained from multiple sources with possible different criteria for the definition of a complication, there are sometimes different values for what is apparently the same endpoint. The data from some sources shows a tendancy to be quantized in 5 Gy increments. This reflects the size of possible round off errors. It is believed that all these data have been accumulated without the benefit of 3-D dose distributions and therefore the estimates of the size of the volume and/or the uniformity of the irradiation may be less accurate than is now possible. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  3. The fault-tolerant multiprocessor computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, T. B., III (Editor); Lala, J. H. (Editor); Goldberg, J. (Editor); Kautz, W. H. (Editor); Melliar-Smith, P. M. (Editor); Green, M. W. (Editor); Levitt, K. N. (Editor); Schwartz, R. L. (Editor); Weinstock, C. B. (Editor); Palumbo, D. L. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The development and evaluation of fault-tolerant computer architectures and software-implemented fault tolerance (SIFT) for use in advanced NASA vehicles and potentially in flight-control systems are described in a collection of previously published reports prepared for NASA. Topics addressed include the principles of fault-tolerant multiprocessor (FTMP) operation; processor and slave regional designs; FTMP executive, facilities, acceptance-test/diagnostic, applications, and support software; FTM reliability and availability models; SIFT hardware design; and SIFT validation and verification.

  4. Genomic and Genetic Approaches to Solvent Tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Eleftherios T. Papoutsakis

    2005-06-10

    The proposed research is to understand and exploit the molecular basis that determines tolerance of the industrially important anaerobic clostridia to solvents. Furthermore, we aim to develop general genomic and metabolic engineering strategies for understanding the molecular basis of tolerance to chemicals and for developing tolerant strains. Our hypothesis is that the molecular basis of what makes bacterial cells able to withstand high solvent concentrations can be used to metabolically engineer cells so that they can tolerate higher concentrations of solvents and related chemicals.

  5. Disentangling human tolerance and resistance against HIV.

    PubMed

    Regoes, Roland R; McLaren, Paul J; Battegay, Manuel; Bernasconi, Enos; Calmy, Alexandra; Günthard, Huldrych F; Hoffmann, Matthias; Rauch, Andri; Telenti, Amalio; Fellay, Jacques

    2014-09-01

    In ecology, "disease tolerance" is defined as an evolutionary strategy of hosts against pathogens, characterized by reduced or absent pathogenesis despite high pathogen load. To our knowledge, tolerance has to date not been quantified and disentangled from host resistance to disease in any clinically relevant human infection. Using data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study, we investigated if there is variation in tolerance to HIV in humans and if this variation is associated with polymorphisms in the human genome. In particular, we tested for associations between tolerance and alleles of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) genes, the CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), the age at which individuals were infected, and their sex. We found that HLA-B alleles associated with better HIV control do not confer tolerance. The slower disease progression associated with these alleles can be fully attributed to the extent of viral load reduction in carriers. However, we observed that tolerance significantly varies across HLA-B genotypes with a relative standard deviation of 34%. Furthermore, we found that HLA-B homozygotes are less tolerant than heterozygotes. Lastly, tolerance was observed to decrease with age, resulting in a 1.7-fold difference in disease progression between 20 and 60-y-old individuals with the same viral load. Thus, disease tolerance is a feature of infection with HIV, and the identification of the mechanisms involved may pave the way to a better understanding of pathogenesis. PMID:25226169

  6. Tolerating failures of continuous-valued sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzullo, Keith

    1990-01-01

    One aspect of fault tolerance in process control programs is the ability to tolerate sensor failure. A methodology for transforming a process control program that cannot tolerate sensor failures onto one that can is presented. Issues addressed include modifying specifications in order to accommodate uncertainty in sensor values and averaging sensor values in a fault tolerant manner. In addition, a hierarchy of sensor failure models is identified, and both the attainable accuracy and the run-time complexity of sensor averaging with respect to this hierarchy is discussed.

  7. Intestinal mucosal tolerance and impact of gut microbiota to mucosal tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A.; Bobryshev, Yuri V.; Kozarov, Emil; Sobenin, Igor A.; Orekhov, Alexander N.

    2015-01-01

    The mucosal barriers are very sensitive to pathogenic infection, thereby assuming the capacity of the mucosal immune system to induce protective immunity to harmful antigens and tolerance against harmless substances. This review provides current information about mechanisms of induction of mucosal tolerance and about impact of gut microbiota to mucosal tolerance. PMID:25628617

  8. 40 CFR 180.32 - Procedure for modifying and revoking tolerances or exemptions from tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... form specified in § 180.7(b) for submitting petitions, as applicable. (c) The procedures for completing... tolerances or exemptions from tolerances. 180.32 Section 180.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Procedural Regulations § 180.32 Procedure for modifying and revoking tolerances or exemptions...

  9. Strain tolerant microfilamentary superconducting wire

    DOEpatents

    Finnemore, D.K.; Miller, T.A.; Ostenson, J.E.; Schwartzkopf, L.A.; Sanders, S.C.

    1993-02-23

    A strain tolerant microfilamentary wire capable of carrying superconducting currents is provided comprising a plurality of discontinuous filaments formed from a high temperature superconducting material. The discontinuous filaments have a length at least several orders of magnitude greater than the filament diameter and are sufficiently strong while in an amorphous state to withstand compaction. A normal metal is interposed between and binds the discontinuous filaments to form a normal metal matrix capable of withstanding heat treatment for converting the filaments to a superconducting state. The geometry of the filaments within the normal metal matrix provides substantial filament-to-filament overlap, and the normal metal is sufficiently thin to allow supercurrent transfer between the overlapped discontinuous filaments but is also sufficiently thick to provide strain relief to the filaments.

  10. Tolerance of probiotics and prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Marteau, Philippe; Seksik, Philippe

    2004-07-01

    The clinical efficacy of probiotics and prebiotics has been proved in several clinical settings. The authors review their proved or potential side effects. Probiotics as living microorganisms may theoretically be responsible for 4 types of side effects in susceptible individuals: infections, deleterious metabolic activities, excessive immune stimulation, and gene transfer. Very few cases of infection have been observed. These occurred mainly in very sick patients who received probiotic drugs because of severe medical conditions. Prebiotics exert an osmotic effect in the intestinal lumen and are fermented in the colon. They may induce gaseousness and bloating. Abdominal pain and diarrhea only occur with large doses. An increase in gastroesophageal reflux has recently been associated with large daily doses. Tolerance depends on the dose and individual sensitivity factors (probably the presence of irritable bowel syndrome or gastroesophageal reflux), and may be an adaptation to chronic consumption. PMID:15220662

  11. Robot Position Sensor Fault Tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldridge, Hal A.

    1997-01-01

    Robot systems in critical applications, such as those in space and nuclear environments, must be able to operate during component failure to complete important tasks. One failure mode that has received little attention is the failure of joint position sensors. Current fault tolerant designs require the addition of directly redundant position sensors which can affect joint design. A new method is proposed that utilizes analytical redundancy to allow for continued operation during joint position sensor failure. Joint torque sensors are used with a virtual passive torque controller to make the robot joint stable without position feedback and improve position tracking performance in the presence of unknown link dynamics and end-effector loading. Two Cartesian accelerometer based methods are proposed to determine the position of the joint. The joint specific position determination method utilizes two triaxial accelerometers attached to the link driven by the joint with the failed position sensor. The joint specific method is not computationally complex and the position error is bounded. The system wide position determination method utilizes accelerometers distributed on different robot links and the end-effector to determine the position of sets of multiple joints. The system wide method requires fewer accelerometers than the joint specific method to make all joint position sensors fault tolerant but is more computationally complex and has lower convergence properties. Experiments were conducted on a laboratory manipulator. Both position determination methods were shown to track the actual position satisfactorily. A controller using the position determination methods and the virtual passive torque controller was able to servo the joints to a desired position during position sensor failure.

  12. 40 CFR 180.210 - Bromacil; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bromacil; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.210 Bromacil; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the...

  13. 40 CFR 180.144 - Cyhexatin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cyhexatin; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.144 Cyhexatin; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for...

  14. 40 CFR 180.315 - Methamidophos; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methamidophos; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.315 Methamidophos; tolerances for residues. (a) Tolerances are established for residues of...

  15. 40 CFR 180.299 - Dicrotophos; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dicrotophos; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.299 Dicrotophos; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues...

  16. 40 CFR 180.132 - Thiram; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thiram; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.132 Thiram; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the...

  17. 40 CFR 180.245 - Streptomycin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Streptomycin; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.245 Streptomycin; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established...

  18. 40 CFR 180.172 - Dodine; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dodine; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.172 Dodine; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the fungicide dodine...

  19. 40 CFR 180.243 - Propazine; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Propazine; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.243 Propazine; tolerances for residues. Tolerances are established for negligible residues (N)...

  20. 40 CFR 180.198 - Trichlorfon; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trichlorfon; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.198 Trichlorfon; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues...

  1. 40 CFR 180.231 - Dichlobenil; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dichlobenil; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.231 Dichlobenil; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the...

  2. 40 CFR 180.239 - Phosphamidon; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphamidon; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.239 Phosphamidon; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances (expressed as phosphamidon)...

  3. 40 CFR 180.114 - Ferbam; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ferbam; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.114 Ferbam; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the...

  4. 40 CFR 180.191 - Folpet; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Folpet; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.191 Folpet; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the fungicide folpet...

  5. 40 CFR 180.116 - Ziram; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ziram; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.116 Ziram; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the...

  6. 40 CFR 180.263 - Phosalone; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosalone; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.263 Phosalone; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues...

  7. 40 CFR 180.178 - Ethoxyquin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethoxyquin; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.178 Ethoxyquin; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance is established for residues...

  8. 40 CFR 180.304 - Oryzalin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oryzalin; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.304 Oryzalin; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the...

  9. 78 FR 44440 - Imazosulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ...This regulation establishes tolerances for residues of imazosulfuron in or on the melon subgroup 9A and the tuberous and corm subgroup 1C. Interregional Research Project Number 4 (IR-4) requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...

  10. 47 CFR 74.661 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 74.661 Section 74.661... Stations § 74.661 Frequency tolerance. Stations in this service shall maintain the carrier frequency of each authorized transmitter to within the following percentage of the assigned frequency....

  11. 47 CFR 74.661 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 74.661 Section 74.661... Stations § 74.661 Frequency tolerance. Stations in this service shall maintain the carrier frequency of each authorized transmitter to within the following percentage of the assigned frequency....

  12. 47 CFR 101.107 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 101.107 Section 101.107... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.107 Frequency tolerance. (a) The carrier frequency of each transmitter authorized in these services must be maintained within the following percentage of the reference...

  13. 47 CFR 78.111 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 78.111 Section 78.111... SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.111 Frequency tolerance. Stations in this service shall maintain the carrier frequency of each authorized transmitter to within the following percentage of the...

  14. 47 CFR 22.355 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 22.355 Section 22.355... Operational and Technical Requirements Technical Requirements § 22.355 Frequency tolerance. Except as otherwise provided in this part, the carrier frequency of each transmitter in the Public Mobile...

  15. 47 CFR 78.111 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 78.111 Section 78.111... SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.111 Frequency tolerance. Stations in this service shall maintain the carrier frequency of each authorized transmitter to within the following percentage of the...

  16. 47 CFR 74.1261 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 74.1261 Section 74.1261... FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1261 Frequency tolerance. (a) The licensee of an FM translator or... frequency at the output of the translator within 0.01 percent of its assigned frequency. (b) The licensee...

  17. 47 CFR 74.1261 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 74.1261 Section 74.1261... FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1261 Frequency tolerance. (a) The licensee of an FM translator or... frequency at the output of the translator within 0.01 percent of its assigned frequency. (b) The licensee...

  18. 47 CFR 22.355 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 22.355 Section 22.355... Operational and Technical Requirements Technical Requirements § 22.355 Frequency tolerance. Except as otherwise provided in this part, the carrier frequency of each transmitter in the Public Mobile...

  19. 47 CFR 74.661 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 74.661 Section 74.661... Stations § 74.661 Frequency tolerance. Stations in this service shall maintain the carrier frequency of each authorized transmitter to within the following percentage of the assigned frequency....

  20. 47 CFR 22.355 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 22.355 Section 22.355... Operational and Technical Requirements Technical Requirements § 22.355 Frequency tolerance. Except as otherwise provided in this part, the carrier frequency of each transmitter in the Public Mobile...

  1. 47 CFR 74.1261 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 74.1261 Section 74.1261... FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1261 Frequency tolerance. (a) The licensee of an FM translator or... frequency at the output of the translator within 0.01 percent of its assigned frequency. (b) The licensee...

  2. 47 CFR 22.355 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 22.355 Section 22.355... Operational and Technical Requirements Technical Requirements § 22.355 Frequency tolerance. Except as otherwise provided in this part, the carrier frequency of each transmitter in the Public Mobile...

  3. 47 CFR 78.111 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 78.111 Section 78.111... SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.111 Frequency tolerance. Stations in this service shall maintain the carrier frequency of each authorized transmitter to within the following percentage of the...

  4. 47 CFR 74.1261 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 74.1261 Section 74.1261... FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1261 Frequency tolerance. (a) The licensee of an FM translator or... frequency at the output of the translator within 0.01 percent of its assigned frequency. (b) The licensee...

  5. 47 CFR 101.107 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 101.107 Section 101.107... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.107 Frequency tolerance. (a) The carrier frequency of each transmitter authorized in these services must be maintained within the following percentage of the reference...

  6. 47 CFR 101.107 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 101.107 Section 101.107... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.107 Frequency tolerance. (a) The carrier frequency of each transmitter authorized in these services must be maintained within the following percentage of the reference...

  7. 47 CFR 78.111 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 78.111 Section 78.111... SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.111 Frequency tolerance. Stations in this service shall maintain the carrier frequency of each authorized transmitter to within the following percentage of the...

  8. 47 CFR 74.1261 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 74.1261 Section 74.1261... FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1261 Frequency tolerance. (a) The licensee of an FM translator or... frequency at the output of the translator within 0.01 percent of its assigned frequency. (b) The licensee...

  9. 47 CFR 74.661 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 74.661 Section 74.661... Stations § 74.661 Frequency tolerance. Stations in this service shall maintain the carrier frequency of each authorized transmitter to within the following percentage of the assigned frequency....

  10. 47 CFR 78.111 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 78.111 Section 78.111... SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.111 Frequency tolerance. Stations in this service shall maintain the carrier frequency of each authorized transmitter to within the following percentage of the...

  11. 47 CFR 74.661 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 74.661 Section 74.661... Stations § 74.661 Frequency tolerance. Stations in this service shall maintain the carrier frequency of each authorized transmitter to within the following percentage of the assigned frequency....

  12. 47 CFR 22.355 - Frequency tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency tolerance. 22.355 Section 22.355... Operational and Technical Requirements Technical Requirements § 22.355 Frequency tolerance. Except as otherwise provided in this part, the carrier frequency of each transmitter in the Public Mobile...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1404 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Tolerances § 51.1404 Tolerances. In order to allow the... are provided as specified: (a) U.S. No. 1—(1) For shell defects, by count. (i) 5 percent for pecans.... (2) For kernel defects, by count. (i) 12 percent for pecans with kernels which fail to meet...

  14. 75 FR 8261 - Flumioxazin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ...This regulation establishes tolerances for residues of flumioxazin in or on vegetable, cucurbit, group 9; leaf petioles subgroup 4B; and hop, dried cones. This regulation additionally deletes the existing tolerances on almond and melon, subgroup 9A, as they will be superseded by inclusion in tree nut group 14 and cucurbit vegetable group 9, respectively. Interregional Research Project Number 4......

  15. 7 CFR 51.2648 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Tolerances § 51.2648 Tolerances. In order to allow for variations..., are provided as specified: (a) For defects at shipping point 2 —(1) U.S. No. 1. 8 percent for cherries... more than one-half of 1 percent for cherries which are affected by decay. 2 Shipping point, as used...

  16. Political Socialization, Tolerance, and Sexual Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Patricia G.

    2002-01-01

    Key concepts in political socialization, tolerance, groups, rights and responsibilities can be used to understand the way in which young people struggle with sexual identity issues. Educators may promote greater tolerance for homosexuality among heterosexuals by situating sexual identity issues within a broader discussion of democratic principles.…

  17. Zero Tolerance Policies. ERIC Digest Number 146.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAndrews, Tobin

    State legislatures and school boards are adopting a growing number of zero-tolerance polices toward weapons, guns, and violence. Zero-tolerance polices are rules intended to address specific school-safety issues. They have arisen in part as a response to the threat of the withdrawal of federal funds under the 1994 Gun-Free Schools Act, and…

  18. 75 FR 40741 - Hexythiazox; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ...-5805. II. Summary of Petitioned-For Tolerance In the Federal Register of August 19, 2009 (74 FR 41898... notice in the Federal Register of March 17, 2010 (75 FR 12691) (FRL- 8813-7), revising the tolerance for... database does not show any evidence of treatment-related effects on the nervous system or the immune...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1214 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Peaches Tolerances § 51.1214 Tolerances. In order to allow for variations incident.... No. 1 grades—(1) For defects at shipping point. 1 10 percent of the peaches in any lot may fail to... percent for peaches which are affected by decay. 1 Shipping point, as used in these standards, means...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1214 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Peaches Tolerances § 51.1214 Tolerances. In... percent of the peaches in any lot may fail to meet the requirements of the specified grade: Provided, That... latter amount not more than 1 percent for peaches which are affected by decay. 1 Shipping point, as...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1214 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Peaches Tolerances § 51.1214 Tolerances. In... percent of the peaches in any lot may fail to meet the requirements of the specified grade: Provided, That... latter amount not more than 1 percent for peaches which are affected by decay. 1 Shipping point, as...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1214 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Peaches Tolerances § 51.1214 Tolerances. In order to allow for variations incident.... No. 1 grades—(1) For defects at shipping point. 1 10 percent of the peaches in any lot may fail to... percent for peaches which are affected by decay. 1 Shipping point, as used in these standards, means...

  3. Method of identifying plant pathogen tolerance

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Joseph R.; Staskawicz, Brian J.; Bent, Andrew F.; Innes, Roger W.

    1997-10-07

    A process for identifying a plant having disease tolerance comprising administering to a plant an inhibitory amount of ethylene and screening for ethylene insensitivity, thereby identifying a disease tolerant plant, is described. Plants identified by the foregoing process are also described.

  4. Tolerances of TTF-2 First Bunch Compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Emma, Paul J

    2003-08-08

    In bunch compressors for SASE-FEL facilities, the projected transverse emittance can be diluted by magnetic multipole component errors in dipoles and dipole misalignments as well as by coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). In this paper, we describe the multipole field tolerances and the misalignment tolerances of the first bunch compressor (BC2) for the TESLA Test Facility Phase-2 (TTF-2).

  5. 78 FR 68741 - Tebuconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    .... Summary of Petitioned-for Tolerance In the Federal Register of August 22, 2012 (77 FR 50661) (FRL-9358- 9... tolerances (76 FR 54127) (August 31, 2011) and its supporting documents. Subsequently, EPA considered the... Executive Order 12866, entitled ``Regulatory Planning and Review'' (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993)....

  6. Method of identifying plant pathogen tolerance

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, J.R.; Staskawicz, B.J.; Bent, A.F.; Innes, R.W.

    1997-10-07

    A process for identifying a plant having disease tolerance comprising administering to a plant an inhibitory amount of ethylene and screening for ethylene insensitivity, thereby identifying a disease tolerant plant, is described. Plants identified by the foregoing process are also described. 7 figs.

  7. 7 CFR 51.1404 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... injured by insects: And provided further, That included in this 6 percent tolerance not more than one-half of one percent shall be allowed for pecans with live insects inside the shell. (ii) In addition, 8... insects: And provided further, That included in this 7 percent tolerance not more than one-half of...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1404 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... injured by insects: And provided further, That included in this 6 percent tolerance not more than one-half of one percent shall be allowed for pecans with live insects inside the shell. (ii) In addition, 8... insects: And provided further, That included in this 7 percent tolerance not more than one-half of...

  9. Measuring freezing tolerance: Survival and regrowth assays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screening plants for freezing tolerance under tightly-controlled conditions is an invaluable technique for studying freezing tolerance and selecting for improved winterhardiness. Artificial freezing tests of cereal plants historically have used isolated crown and stem tissue prepared by “removing a...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1525 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Tolerances § 51.1525 Tolerances. In order to allow for....S. No. 1—(1) For defects of plums or prunes other than Italian type prunes at shipping point. 1 8... continental United States, the port of entry into the United States. (2) For defects of plums or prunes...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1525 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Tolerances § 51.1525 Tolerances. In order to allow for....S. No. 1—(1) For defects of plums or prunes other than Italian type prunes at shipping point. 1 8... continental United States, the port of entry into the United States. (2) For defects of plums or prunes...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1525 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Tolerances § 51.1525 Tolerances. In order to allow for....S. No. 1—(1) For defects of plums or prunes other than Italian type prunes at shipping point. 1 8... continental United States, the port of entry into the United States. (2) For defects of plums or prunes...

  13. Cold tolerance encoded in one SNP.

    PubMed

    Manishankar, Prabha; Kudla, Jörg

    2015-03-12

    Cold tolerance fundamentally affects world crop harvest. Ma et al. now identify a single-nucleotide polymorphism in a gene called COLD1 that confers cold tolerance in japonica rice. This study reveals important insights into agronomical traits that are essential for human nutrition. PMID:25768901

  14. Genetic Diversity for Aluminum Tolerance in Sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Significant genetic variation for aluminum (Al) tolerance in many plant species has allowed the development of cultivars that are high yielding on acidic, Al toxic soils. However, knowledge of intraspecific variation for Al tolerance control is needed in order to assess the potential for further Al ...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1214 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Peaches Tolerances § 51.1214 Tolerances. In order to allow for variations incident.... No. 1 grades—(1) For defects at shipping point. 1 10 percent of the peaches in any lot may fail to... percent for peaches which are affected by decay. 1 Shipping point, as used in these standards, means...

  16. Personality Correlates of Pain Perception and Tolerance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukin, Penny R.; Ray, A. Bartow

    1982-01-01

    Explored personality correlates of pain perception and tolerance in a nonmedical sample and setting. Results showed no significant correlations with personality measures and cold-pressor scores, but a significant relationship between pain tolerance and cognitive focus; those who focused on the experimental situation had much shorter tolerance…

  17. Elementary Teachers' Tolerance of Problem Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.; Safran, Joan S.

    1984-01-01

    A total of 46 teachers rated observable mild-to-moderate school-related problem behaviors in order to identify aspects of teacher tolerance specific to the elementary classroom. Findings indicated that behaviors least tolerated are other-directed or disruptive; self- or teacher-directed behaviors elicited less negative ratings. (RH)

  18. Differences in Teacher Tolerance: An Illusory Phenomena?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Regular and special educators (92) completed the Teacher Tolerance Scale to identify group differences in tolerance for behavior problems commonly found in the regular class. Analysis of variance indicated no significant differences between groups. Of 11 behavioral clusters, the most outer-directed behaviors (Negative Aggressive, Poor Peer…

  19. Stress tolerant crops from nitrogen fixing trees

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, R.; Saunders, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    Notes are given on the nutritional quality and uses of: pods of Geoffroea decorticans, a species tolerant of saline and limed soils and saline water; seeds of Olneya tesota which nodulates readily and fixes nitrogen and photosynthesizes at low water potential; and pods of Prosopis chilensis and P. tamarugo which tolerate long periods without rain. 3 references.

  20. 40 CFR 180.31 - Temporary tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... advance deposit to cover fees as provided in § 180.33. (c) To obtain a temporary tolerance, a requestor... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temporary tolerances. 180.31 Section 180.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE...

  1. 76 FR 3026 - Fluazinam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ...-5805. II. Summary of Petitioned-For Tolerance In the Federal Register of August 19, 2009 (74 FR 41898... (75 FR 26662) (FRL-8824-5), EPA published a Final Rule establishing tolerances for residues of the... (75 FR 26662) (FRL-8824-5) Federal Register. Therefore, EPA concludes that there is a...

  2. 7 CFR 51.2336 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tolerances. 51.2336 Section 51.2336 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Kiwifruit § 51.2336 Tolerances. In order to allow for variations incident to proper... U.S. No. 1. (1) For defects at shipping point. 2 8 percent for fruit which fail to meet...

  3. 7 CFR 51.346 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples for Processing Tolerances § 51.346 Tolerances. When a lot of apples is required to meet one of the U.S. grades, the apples shall not be further advanced in maturity than... apples which fail to meet the requirements of the grade: Provided, That included in this amount not...

  4. 7 CFR 51.306 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Tolerances § 51.306 Tolerances. In order to allow for variations incident to..., and U.S. No. 1 Hail grades: 10 percent of the apples in any lot may fail to meet the requirements of the grade, but not more than one-half of this amount, or 5 percent, shall be allowed for apples...

  5. 7 CFR 51.306 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Tolerances § 51.306 Tolerances. In order to allow for variations incident to..., and U.S. No. 1 Hail grades: 10 percent of the apples in any lot may fail to meet the requirements of the grade, but not more than one-half of this amount, or 5 percent, shall be allowed for apples...

  6. 7 CFR 51.346 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples for Processing Tolerances § 51.346 Tolerances. When a lot of apples is required to meet one of the U.S. grades, the apples shall not be further...) For defects. 10 percent for apples which fail to meet the requirements of the grade: Provided,...

  7. 7 CFR 51.346 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples for Processing Tolerances § 51.346 Tolerances. When a lot of apples is required to meet one of the U.S. grades, the apples shall not be further advanced in maturity than... apples which fail to meet the requirements of the grade: Provided, That included in this amount not...

  8. 7 CFR 51.306 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Tolerances § 51.306 Tolerances. In order to allow for variations incident to..., and U.S. No. 1 Hail grades: 10 percent of the apples in any lot may fail to meet the requirements of the grade, but not more than one-half of this amount, or 5 percent, shall be allowed for apples...

  9. 7 CFR 51.346 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples for Processing Tolerances § 51.346 Tolerances. When a lot of apples is required to meet one of the U.S. grades, the apples shall not be further...) For defects. 10 percent for apples which fail to meet the requirements of the grade: Provided,...

  10. 7 CFR 51.306 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Tolerances § 51.306 Tolerances. In...: (1) U.S. Extra Fancy, U.S. Fancy, U.S. No. 1, and U.S. No. 1 Hail grades: 10 percent of the apples in... 5 percent, shall be allowed for apples which are seriously damaged, including therein not more...

  11. 7 CFR 51.346 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples for Processing Tolerances § 51.346 Tolerances. When a lot of apples is required to meet one of the U.S. grades, the apples shall not be further advanced in maturity than... apples which fail to meet the requirements of the grade: Provided, That included in this amount not...

  12. 7 CFR 51.306 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Tolerances § 51.306 Tolerances. In...: (1) U.S. Extra Fancy, U.S. Fancy, U.S. No. 1, and U.S. No. 1 Hail grades: 10 percent of the apples in... 5 percent, shall be allowed for apples which are seriously damaged, including therein not more...

  13. Fault-tolerant software - Experiment with the sift operating system. [Software Implemented Fault Tolerance computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brunelle, J. E.; Eckhardt, D. E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Results are presented of an experiment conducted in the NASA Avionics Integrated Research Laboratory (AIRLAB) to investigate the implementation of fault-tolerant software techniques on fault-tolerant computer architectures, in particular the Software Implemented Fault Tolerance (SIFT) computer. The N-version programming and recovery block techniques were implemented on a portion of the SIFT operating system. The results indicate that, to effectively implement fault-tolerant software design techniques, system requirements will be impacted and suggest that retrofitting fault-tolerant software on existing designs will be inefficient and may require system modification.

  14. Authentic tolerance: between forbearance and acceptance.

    PubMed

    Von Bergen, C W; Von Bergen, Beth A; Stubblefield, Claire; Bandow, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Promoting tolerance is seen as a key weapon in battling prejudice in diversity and multicultural training but its meaning has been modified recently. The classical definition of tolerance meant that others are entitled to their opinions and have the right to express them and that even though one may disagree with them, one can live in peace with such differences. In recent years, however, tolerance has come to mean that all ideas and practices must be accepted and affirmed and where appreciation and valuing of differences is the ultimate virtue. Such a neo-classical definition has alienated many who value equality and justice and limits the effectiveness of diversity initiatives that teach the promotion of tolerance. The authors offer authentic tolerance as an alternative, incorporating respect and civility toward others, not necessarily approval of their beliefs and behavior. All persons are equal, but all opinions and conduct are not equal. PMID:23362691

  15. Mechanism of boron tolerance in soil bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Iftikhar; Fujiwara, Toru

    2010-01-01

    Boron (B) is toxic to living cells at levels above a certain threshold. We isolated several B-tolerant bacterial strains from soil samples and studied them for possible mechanisms of B tolerance. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and comparative phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the isolates belong to the following 6 genera: Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Lysinibacillus, Algoriphagus, Gracilibacillus, and Bacillus. These isolates exhibited B-tolerance levels of 80, 100, 150, 300, 450, and 450 mmol/L, respectively, whilst maintaining a significantly lower intracellular B concentration than in the medium. Statistical analysis showed a negative correlation between the protoplasmic B concentration and the degree of tolerance to a high external B concentration. The kinetic assays suggest that the high B efflux and (or) exclusion are the tolerance mechanisms against a high external B concentration in the isolated bacteria. PMID:20130690

  16. Induced tolerance from a sublethal insecticide leads to cross-tolerance to other insecticides.

    PubMed

    Hua, Jessica; Jones, Devin K; Relyea, Rick A

    2014-04-01

    As global pesticide use increases, the ability to rapidly respond to pesticides by increasing tolerance has important implications for the persistence of nontarget organisms. A recent study of larval amphibians discovered that increased tolerance can be induced by an early exposure to low concentrations of a pesticide. Since natural systems are often exposed to a variety of pesticides that vary in mode of action, we need to know whether the induction of increased tolerance to one pesticide confers increased tolerance to other pesticides. Using larval wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus), we investigated whether induction of increased tolerance to the insecticide carbaryl (AChE-inhibitor) can induce increased tolerance to other insecticides that have the same mode of action (chlorpyrifos, malathion) or a different mode of action (Na(+)channel-interfering insecticides; permethrin, cypermethrin). We found that embryonic exposure to sublethal concentrations of carbaryl induced higher tolerance to carbaryl and increased cross-tolerance to malathion and cypermethrin but not to chlorpyrifos or permethrin. In one case, the embryonic exposure to carbaryl induced tolerance in a nonlinear pattern (hormesis). These results demonstrate that that the newly discovered phenomenon of induced tolerance also provides induced cross-tolerance that is not restricted to pesticides with the same mode of action. PMID:24579768

  17. 40 CFR 180.415 - Aluminum tris (O-ethylphosphonate); tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Lingonberry 40 None Nut, macadamia 0.20 None Onion, green 10.0 None Pea, succulent 0.3 None Pineapple 0.1 None Pineapple, fodder 0.1 None Pineapple, forage 0.1 None Onion, bulb 0.5 None Salal 40 None Strawberry 75...

  18. 7 CFR 51.2079 - Application of tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Application of Tolerances § 51.2079 Application of tolerances. The tolerances for the foregoing grades are applied to the entire lot of...

  19. 7 CFR 51.2079 - Application of tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Application of Tolerances § 51.2079 Application of tolerances. The tolerances for the foregoing grades are applied to the entire lot of...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2079 - Application of tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Application of Tolerances § 51.2079 Application of tolerances. The tolerances for the foregoing grades are applied to the entire lot of...

  1. 40 CFR 180.239 - Phosphamidon; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 180.239 Section 180.239 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 180.239 Phosphamidon; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances (expressed as phosphamidon) for... 18 emergency exemptions. (c) Tolerances with regional registrations. (d) Indirect or...

  2. Heritable pollution tolerance in a marine invader.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Louise A; Brooks, Rob; Johnston, Emma L

    2011-10-01

    The global spread of fouling invasive species is continuing despite the use of antifouling biocides. Furthermore, previous evidence suggests that non-indigenous species introduced via hull fouling may be capable of adapting to metal-polluted environments. Using a laboratory based toxicity assay, we investigated tolerance to copper in the non-indigenous bryozoan Watersipora subtorquata from four source populations. Individual colonies were collected from four sites within Port Hacking (Sydney, Australia) and their offspring exposed to a range of copper concentrations. This approach, using a full-sib, split-family design, tests for a genotype by environment (G×E) interaction. Settlement and complete metamorphosis (recruitment) were measured as ecologically relevant endpoints. Larval sizes were also measured for each colony. Successful recruitment was significantly reduced by the highest copper concentration of 80μgL(-1). While there was no difference in pollution tolerance between sites, there was a significant G×E interaction, with large variation in the response of colony offspring within sites. Larval size differed significantly both between sites and between colonies and was positively correlated with tolerance. The high level of variation in copper tolerance between colonies suggests that there is considerable potential within populations to adapt to elevated copper levels, as tolerance is a heritable trait. Also, colonies that produce large larvae are more tolerant to copper, suggesting that tolerance may be a direct consequence of larger size. PMID:21295292

  3. Software fault tolerance in computer operating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyer, Ravishankar K.; Lee, Inhwan

    1994-01-01

    This chapter provides data and analysis of the dependability and fault tolerance for three operating systems: the Tandem/GUARDIAN fault-tolerant system, the VAX/VMS distributed system, and the IBM/MVS system. Based on measurements from these systems, basic software error characteristics are investigated. Fault tolerance in operating systems resulting from the use of process pairs and recovery routines is evaluated. Two levels of models are developed to analyze error and recovery processes inside an operating system and interactions among multiple instances of an operating system running in a distributed environment. The measurements show that the use of process pairs in Tandem systems, which was originally intended for tolerating hardware faults, allows the system to tolerate about 70% of defects in system software that result in processor failures. The loose coupling between processors which results in the backup execution (the processor state and the sequence of events occurring) being different from the original execution is a major reason for the measured software fault tolerance. The IBM/MVS system fault tolerance almost doubles when recovery routines are provided, in comparison to the case in which no recovery routines are available. However, even when recovery routines are provided, there is almost a 50% chance of system failure when critical system jobs are involved.

  4. 75 FR 44184 - Aluminum tris(O-ethylphosphonate), Butylate, Chlorethoxyfos, Clethodim, et al.; Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... for aluminum tris(O-ethylphosphonate) on pineapple fodder and forage because they are not considered... to revoke the tolerances for aluminum tris(O- ] ethylphosphonate) on pineapple fodder and forage... on the commodity. Because pineapple, fodder and pineapple, forage are no longer considered by...

  5. Oral Tolerance: Therapeutic Implications for Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Ana M. C.; Weiner, Howard L.

    2006-01-01

    Oral tolerance is classically defined as the suppression of immune responses to antigens (Ag) that have been administered previously by the oral route. Multiple mechanisms of tolerance are induced by oral Ag. Low doses favor active suppression, whereas higher doses favor clonal anergy/deletion. Oral Ag induces Th2 (IL-4/IL-10) and Th3 (TGF-β) regulatory T cells (Tregs) plus CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells and LAP+T cells. Induction of oral tolerance is enhanced by IL-4, IL-10, anti-IL-12, TGF-β, cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), Flt-3 ligand, anti-CD40 ligand and continuous feeding of Ag. In addition to oral tolerance, nasal tolerance has also been shown to be effective in suppressing inflammatory conditions with the advantage of a lower dose requirement. Oral and nasal tolerance suppress several animal models of autoimmune diseases including experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), uveitis, thyroiditis, myasthenia, arthritis and diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse, plus non-autoimmune diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, colitis and stroke. Oral tolerance has been tested in human autoimmune diseases including MS, arthritis, uveitis and diabetes and in allergy, contact sensitivity to DNCB, nickel allergy. Positive results have been observed in phase II trials and new trials for arthritis, MS and diabetes are underway. Mucosal tolerance is an attractive approach for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases because of lack of toxicity, ease of administration over time and Ag-specific mechanism of action. The successful application of oral tolerance for the treatment of human diseases will depend on dose, developing immune markers to assess immunologic effects, route (nasal versus oral), formulation, mucosal adjuvants, combination therapy and early therapy. PMID:17162357

  6. The bioenergetics of salt tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Packer, L.

    1991-01-01

    The aims of this project was to try to understand the adaptive mechanisms that organisms develop in order to respond to a sudden transformation in their environment to a salt shock.'' To study this problem we used a fresh water oxygenic photosynthetic cyanobacterium known as Synecoccus 6311. This organism suffers injury after this sudden exposure to high concentrations of sodium chloride equivalent to or even higher than that in sea water. Yet they are able to re-establish their photosynthetic activity which is partially injured and return to virtually normal growth rates. Identification of the temporal sequence of changes involved in adaptation to this stress was the rationale. Indeed this project employed a wide variety of biochemical and biophysical methods, including electron spin resonance techniques and nuclear magnetic resonance to study the bioenergetics and transport mechanisms, growth and energy changes in these organisms and how the structural components of the cells changed in response to adaptation to growth at high salinity. The problem has relevance for higher plants because most of the arable farmland in the world is already under use and that which is not used is usually in salite environments. Hence, understanding basic mechanisms of salt tolerance is a fundamental biological problem with great applications for bioproductivity and agriculture.

  7. Cocaine tolerance in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Søvik, Eirik; Cornish, Jennifer L; Barron, Andrew B

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly invertebrates are being used to investigate the molecular and cellular effects of drugs of abuse to explore basic mechanisms of addiction. However, in mammals the principle factors contributing to addiction are long-term adaptive responses to repeated drug use. Here we examined whether adaptive responses to cocaine are also seen in invertebrates using the honey bee model system. Repeated topical treatment with a low dose of cocaine rendered bees resistant to the deleterious motor effects of a higher cocaine dose, indicating the development of physiological tolerance to cocaine in bees. Cocaine inhibits biogenic amine reuptake transporters, but neither acute nor repeated cocaine treatments caused measurable changes in levels of biogenic amines measured in whole bee brains. Our data show clear short and long-term behavioural responses of bees to cocaine administration, but caution that, despite the small size of the bee brain, measures of biogenic amines conducted at the whole-brain level may not reveal neurochemical effects of the drug. PMID:23741423

  8. Radiation-tolerant imaging device

    DOEpatents

    Colella, N.J.; Kimbrough, J.R.

    1996-11-19

    A barrier at a uniform depth for an entire wafer is used to produce imaging devices less susceptible to noise pulses produced by the passage of ionizing radiation. The barrier prevents charge created in the bulk silicon of a CCD detector or a semiconductor logic or memory device from entering the collection volume of each pixel in the imaging device. The charge barrier is a physical barrier, a potential barrier, or a combination of both. The physical barrier is formed by an SiO{sub 2} insulator. The potential barrier is formed by increasing the concentration of majority carriers (holes) to combine with the electron`s generated by the ionizing radiation. A manufacturer of CCD imaging devices can produce radiation-tolerant devices by merely changing the wafer type fed into his process stream from a standard wafer to one possessing a barrier beneath its surface, thus introducing a very small added cost to his production cost. An effective barrier type is an SiO{sub 2} layer. 7 figs.

  9. Radiation-tolerant imaging device

    DOEpatents

    Colella, Nicholas J.; Kimbrough, Joseph R.

    1996-01-01

    A barrier at a uniform depth for an entire wafer is used to produce imaging devices less susceptible to noise pulses produced by the passage of ionizing radiation. The barrier prevents charge created in the bulk silicon of a CCD detector or a semiconductor logic or memory device from entering the collection volume of each pixel in the imaging device. The charge barrier is a physical barrier, a potential barrier, or a combination of both. The physical barrier is formed by an SiO.sub.2 insulator. The potential barrier is formed by increasing the concentration of majority carriers (holes) to combine with the electron's generated by the ionizing radiation. A manufacturer of CCD imaging devices can produce radiation-tolerant devices by merely changing the wafer type fed into his process stream from a standard wafer to one possessing a barrier beneath its surface, thus introducing a very small added cost to his production cost. An effective barrier type is an SiO.sub.2 layer.

  10. Fault Tolerant Homopolar Magnetic Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Ming-Hsiu; Palazzolo, Alan; Kenny, Andrew; Provenza, Andrew; Beach, Raymond; Kascak, Albert

    2003-01-01

    Magnetic suspensions (MS) satisfy the long life and low loss conditions demanded by satellite and ISS based flywheels used for Energy Storage and Attitude Control (ACESE) service. This paper summarizes the development of a novel MS that improves reliability via fault tolerant operation. Specifically, flux coupling between poles of a homopolar magnetic bearing is shown to deliver desired forces even after termination of coil currents to a subset of failed poles . Linear, coordinate decoupled force-voltage relations are also maintained before and after failure by bias linearization. Current distribution matrices (CDM) which adjust the currents and fluxes following a pole set failure are determined for many faulted pole combinations. The CDM s and the system responses are obtained utilizing 1D magnetic circuit models with fringe and leakage factors derived from detailed, 3D, finite element field models. Reliability results are presented vs. detection/correction delay time and individual power amplifier reliability for 4, 6, and 7 pole configurations. Reliability is shown for two success criteria, i.e. (a) no catcher bearing contact following pole failures and (b) re-levitation off of the catcher bearings following pole failures. An advantage of the method presented over other redundant operation approaches is a significantly reduced requirement for backup hardware such as additional actuators or power amplifiers.

  11. The bioenergetics of salt tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Packer, L.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this project was to try to understand the adaptive mechanisms that organisms develop in order to respond to a sudden transformation in their environment to a salt shock.'' To study this problem we used a fresh water oxygenic photosynthetic cyanobacterium known as Synecoccus 6311. This organism suffers injury after this sudden exposure to high concentrations of sodium chloride equivalent to or even higher than that in sea water. Yet they are able to re-establish their photosynthetic activity which is partially injured and return to virtually normal growth rates. Identification of the temporal sequence of changes involved in adaptation to this stress was the rationale. Indeed this project employed a wide variety of biochemical and biophysical methods, including electron spin resonance techniques and nuclear magnetic resonance to study the bioenergetics and transport mechanisms, growth and energy changes in these organisms and how the structural components of the cells changed in response to adaptation to growth at high salinity. The problem has relevance for higher plants because most of the arable farmland in the work is already under use and that which is not used is usually in salite environments. Hence, understanding basic mechanisms of salt tolerance is a fundamental biological problem with great applications for bioproductivity and agriculture. 18 refs.

  12. Fault-tolerant PACS server

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Fei; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.; Zhou, Michael Z.; Zhang, Jianguo; Zhang, X. C.; Mogel, Greg T.

    2002-05-01

    Failure of a PACS archive server could cripple an entire PACS operation. Last year we demonstrated that it was possible to design a fault-tolerant (FT) server with 99.999% uptime. The FT design was based on a triple modular redundancy with a simple majority vote to automatically detect and mask a faulty module. The purpose of this presentation is to report on its continuous developments in integrating with external mass storage devices, and to delineate laboratory failover experiments. An FT PACS Simulator with generic PACS software has been used in the experiment. To simulate a PACS clinical operation, image examinations are transmitted continuously from the modality simulator to the DICOM gateway and then to the FT PACS server and workstations. The hardware failures in network, FT server module, disk, RAID, and DLT are manually induced to observe the failover recovery of the FT PACS to resume its normal data flow. We then test and evaluate the FT PACS server in its reliability, functionality, and performance.

  13. 40 CFR 176.11 - Duration of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specified by the Administrator. (b) Unless extended, tolerances will automatically expire and be revoked...) The Administrator may revoke a tolerance at any time if the Administrator determines that...

  14. 40 CFR 180.432 - Lactofen; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Lactofen; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide... for residues of the herbicide lactofen, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on...

  15. 40 CFR 180.432 - Lactofen; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Lactofen; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide... for residues of the herbicide lactofen, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on...

  16. 40 CFR 180.432 - Lactofen; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Lactofen; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide... for residues of the herbicide lactofen, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on...

  17. 40 CFR 180.432 - Lactofen; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Lactofen; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide... for residues of the herbicide lactofen, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on...

  18. An aircraft sensor fault tolerant system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Lancraft, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    The design of a sensor fault tolerant system which uses analytical redundancy for the Terminal Configured Vehicle (TCV) research aircraft in a Microwave Landing System (MLS) environment was studied. The fault tolerant system provides reliable estimates for aircraft position, velocity, and attitude in the presence of possible failures in navigation aid instruments and onboard sensors. The estimates, provided by the fault tolerant system, are used by the automated guidance and control system to land the aircraft along a prescribed path. Sensor failures are identified by utilizing the analytic relationship between the various sensor outputs arising from the aircraft equations of motion.

  19. Mechanisms Underlying Induction of Tolerance to Foods.

    PubMed

    Berin, M Cecilia; Shreffler, Wayne G

    2016-02-01

    Oral tolerance refers to a systemic immune nonresponsiveness to antigens first encountered by the oral route, and a failure in development of this homeostatic process can result in food allergy. Clinical tolerance induced by allergen immunotherapy is associated with alterations in immune mechanisms relevant to the allergic response, including reduction of basophil reactivity, induction of IgG4, loss of effector Th2 cells, and induction of Tregs. The relative contribution of these immune changes to clinical tolerance to foods, and the duration of these immune changes after termination of immunotherapy, remains to be identified. PMID:26617229

  20. Failure tolerant operation of kinematically redundant manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Christopher L.; Maciejewski, Anthony A.

    1994-01-01

    Redundant manipulators may compensate for failed joints with their additional degrees of freedom. In this paper such a manipulator is considered fault tolerant if it can guarantee completion of a task after any one of its joints has failed. This fault tolerance of kinematically redundant manipulators is insured here. Methods to analyze the manipulator's work space find regions inherently suitable for critical tasks because of their high level of failure tolerance. Constraints are then placed on the manipulator's range of motion to guarantee completion of a task.

  1. Concatenated codes for fault tolerant quantum computing

    SciTech Connect

    Knill, E.; Laflamme, R.; Zurek, W.

    1995-05-01

    The application of concatenated codes to fault tolerant quantum computing is discussed. We have previously shown that for quantum memories and quantum communication, a state can be transmitted with error {epsilon} provided each gate has error at most c{epsilon}. We show how this can be used with Shor`s fault tolerant operations to reduce the accuracy requirements when maintaining states not currently participating in the computation. Viewing Shor`s fault tolerant operations as a method for reducing the error of operations, we give a concatenated implementation which promises to propagate the reduction hierarchically. This has the potential of reducing the accuracy requirements in long computations.

  2. Damage Tolerance of Large Shell Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnetyan, L.; Chamis, C. C.

    1999-01-01

    Progressive damage and fracture of large shell structures is investigated. A computer model is used for the assessment of structural response, progressive fracture resistance, and defect/damage tolerance characteristics. Critical locations of a stiffened conical shell segment are identified. Defective and defect-free computer models are simulated to evaluate structural damage/defect tolerance. Safe pressurization levels are assessed for the retention of structural integrity at the presence of damage/ defects. Damage initiation, growth, accumulation, and propagation to fracture are included in the simulations. Damage propagation and burst pressures for defective and defect-free shells are compared to evaluate damage tolerance. Design implications with regard to defect and damage tolerance of a large steel pressure vessel are examined.

  3. [Individual pressure tolerance--a "target" pressure?].

    PubMed

    Bogdănici, C; Vancea, P P

    1999-01-01

    In literature there are many meanings for the limit between normal and pathological intraocular pressure: "normative pressure", "critic pressure", "individual tolerance pressure" and "target pressure". The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that these terms are synonymous. PMID:10756882

  4. 78 FR 32146 - Triforine; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ...-for Tolerance In the Federal Register of November 9, 2011 (76 FR 69690) (FRL- 9325-1), EPA issued a... and alkaline phosphatase levels. Toxicity was not observed in a rat 21-day dermal toxicity study...

  5. How Microbes Tolerate Ethanol and Butanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New robust biocatalysts are needed to depolymerize or hydrolyze recalcitrant heterogeneous lignocellulosic biomass polymers into monomers and to convert the mixed substrates into biofuels. The ideal biocatalysts should be able to tolerate inhibitory compounds released from biomass hydrolysis and in...

  6. Causal learning about tolerance and sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Rottman, Benjamin Margolin; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

    2010-01-01

    We introduce two abstract, causal schemata used during causal learning. (1) Tolerance is when an effect diminishes over time, as an entity is repeatedly exposed to the cause (e.g., a person becoming tolerant to caffeine). (2) Sensitization is when an effect intensifies over time, as an entity is repeatedly exposed to the cause (e.g., an antidepressant becoming more effective through repeated use). In Experiment 1, participants observed either of these cause–effect data patterns unfolding over time and exhibiting the tolerance or sensitization schemata. Participants inferred stronger causal efficacy and made more confident and more extreme predictions about novel cases than in a condition with the same data appearing in a random order over time. In Experiment 2, the same tolerance/sensitization scenarios occurred either within one entity or across many entities. In the many-entity conditions, when the schemata were violated, participants made much weaker inferences. Implications for causal learning are discussed. PMID:19966253

  7. 7 CFR 51.1861 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States... green in color, when any term other than “Green” is specified. Application of Tolerances...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1861 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States... green in color, when any term other than “Green” is specified. Application of Tolerances...

  9. Glucose screening and tolerance tests during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy (OGTT); Glucose challenge test - pregnancy ... For the glucose screening test: You do not need to prepare or change your diet in any way. You will be asked to drink a ...

  10. Fault-tolerant communication channel structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkalai, Leon (Inventor); Chau, Savio N. (Inventor); Tai, Ann T. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Systems and techniques for implementing fault-tolerant communication channels and features in communication systems. Selected commercial-off-the-shelf devices can be integrated in such systems to reduce the cost.

  11. Temperature tolerance of bloater (Coregonus hoyi)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Rottiers, Donald V.; Brown, Edward H.

    1970-01-01

    Juvenile and young adult bloaters (Coregonus hoyi) were tested for tolerance to high temperatures. The ultimate upper lethal temperature of juvenile bloaters (26.75 C) appeared to be slightly higher than that of young adult bloaters, but was similar to that of juvenile ciscoes,Coregonus artedii (26.0 C), the only other North American coregonine for which a detailed description of temperature tolerance has been published.Regression equations are given that permit estimation of the thermal tolerance when the lethal temperatures are incompletely known. The estimated thermal tolerance of juvenile bloaters (617 units) was slightly less than that of the brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis; 625 units), but was higher than that of other Salmonidae.

  12. Study of fault-tolerant software technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slivinski, T.; Broglio, C.; Wild, C.; Goldberg, J.; Levitt, K.; Hitt, E.; Webb, J.

    1984-01-01

    Presented is an overview of the current state of the art of fault-tolerant software and an analysis of quantitative techniques and models developed to assess its impact. It examines research efforts as well as experience gained from commercial application of these techniques. The paper also addresses the computer architecture and design implications on hardware, operating systems and programming languages (including Ada) of using fault-tolerant software in real-time aerospace applications. It concludes that fault-tolerant software has progressed beyond the pure research state. The paper also finds that, although not perfectly matched, newer architectural and language capabilities provide many of the notations and functions needed to effectively and efficiently implement software fault-tolerance.

  13. Reconfigurable fault tolerant avionics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, M. M.; Asami, K.; Cho, Mengu

    This paper presents the design of a reconfigurable avionics system based on modern Static Random Access Memory (SRAM)-based Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) to be used in future generations of nano satellites. A major concern in satellite systems and especially nano satellites is to build robust systems with low-power consumption profiles. The system is designed to be flexible by providing the capability of reconfiguring itself based on its orbital position. As Single Event Upsets (SEU) do not have the same severity and intensity in all orbital locations, having the maximum at the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and the polar cusps, the system does not have to be fully protected all the time in its orbit. An acceptable level of protection against high-energy cosmic rays and charged particles roaming in space is provided within the majority of the orbit through software fault tolerance. Check pointing and roll back, besides control flow assertions, is used for that level of protection. In the minority part of the orbit where severe SEUs are expected to exist, a reconfiguration for the system FPGA is initiated where the processor systems are triplicated and protection through Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) with feedback is provided. This technique of reconfiguring the system as per the level of the threat expected from SEU-induced faults helps in reducing the average dynamic power consumption of the system to one-third of its maximum. This technique can be viewed as a smart protection through system reconfiguration. The system is built on the commercial version of the (XC5VLX50) Xilinx Virtex5 FPGA on bulk silicon with 324 IO. Simulations of orbit SEU rates were carried out using the SPENVIS web-based software package.

  14. Reconfigurable Fault Tolerance for FPGAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The invention allows a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) or similar device to be efficiently reconfigured in whole or in part to provide higher capacity, non-redundant operation. The redundant device consists of functional units such as adders or multipliers, configuration memory for the functional units, a programmable routing method, configuration memory for the routing method, and various other features such as block RAM, I/O (random access memory, input/output) capability, dedicated carry logic, etc. The redundant device has three identical sets of functional units and routing resources and majority voters that correct errors. The configuration memory may or may not be redundant, depending on need. For example, SRAM-based FPGAs will need some type of radiation-tolerant configuration memory, or they will need triple-redundant configuration memory. Flash or anti-fuse devices will generally not need redundant configuration memory. Some means of loading and verifying the configuration memory is also required. These are all components of the pre-existing redundant FPGA. This innovation modifies the voter to accept a MODE input, which specifies whether ordinary voting is to occur, or if redundancy is to be split. Generally, additional routing resources will also be required to pass data between sections of the device created by splitting the redundancy. In redundancy mode, the voters produce an output corresponding to the two inputs that agree, in the usual fashion. In the split mode, the voters select just one input and convey this to the output, ignoring the other inputs. In a dual-redundant system (as opposed to triple-redundant), instead of a voter, there is some means to latch or gate a state update only when both inputs agree. In this case, the invention would require modification of the latch or gate so that it would operate normally in redundant mode, and would separately latch or gate the inputs in non-redundant mode.

  15. Alkaline tolerant dextranase from streptomyces anulatus

    DOEpatents

    Decker, Stephen R.; Adney, William S.; Vinzant, Todd B.; Himmel, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    A process for production of an alkaline tolerant dextranase enzyme comprises culturing a dextran-producing microorganism Streptomyces anulatus having accession no. ATCC PTA-3866 to produce an alkaline tolerant dextranase, Dex 1 wherein the protein in said enzyme is characterized by a MW of 63.3 kDa and Dex 2 wherein its protein is characterized by a MW of 81.8 kDa.

  16. 77 FR 66723 - Fluazinam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ...This regulation establishes tolerances for residues of fluazinam in or on melon subgroup 9A and pepper/eggplant subgroup 8- 10B, associated with pesticide petition (PP) 1E7959; and soybean, seed and soybean, hulls, associated with PP 2F7977. Interregional Research Project Number 4 (IR-4) and ISK Biosciences Corporation requested the tolerances associated with PPs 1E7959 and 2F7977,......

  17. Spacecraft electronics design for radiation tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, R.D.

    1988-11-01

    Spacecraft electronics design for radiation tolerance is a complex subject, involving a detailed understanding of environment, component hardening, and design susceptibility. This paper describes current design practices and discusses future trends in spacecraft electronics which are likely to alter traditional approaches. A summary of radiation effects and radiation tolerance requirements typically levied on spacecraft designs is provided. Methods of dealing with radiation are then described, followed with testability issues.

  18. 7 CFR 51.628 - Tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 51 1 2 22 2 3 3 33 3 4 4 4 54 5 5 5 55 5 Very serious U.S. Fancy. damage U.S. No. 1. 4 3 5 7 8 10 11... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tolerances. 51.628 Section 51.628 Agriculture... § 51.628 Tolerances. In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling in...

  19. Vancomycin tolerance in Gram-positive cocci.

    PubMed

    Moscoso, Miriam; Domenech, Mirian; García, Ernesto

    2011-12-01

    Vancomycin, a glycopeptide antimicrobial agent, represents the last line of defence against a wide range of multi-resistant Gram-positive pathogens such as enterococci, staphylococci and streptococci. However, vancomycin-resistant enterococci and staphylococci, along with vancomycin-tolerant clinical isolates, are compromising the therapeutic efficacy of vancomycin. It is conceivable that tolerance may emerge during prolonged vancomycin use. It has not been until recently, however, that the molecular basis of this tolerance began to be understood. Superoxide anions might be involved in the bactericidal activity of vancomycin in enterococci, and recent evidence suggests that the stringent response is partly responsible for vancomycin tolerance in Enterococcus faecalis. The mechanism of vancomycin tolerance in Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae is sometimes associated with a reduction of autolysin activity. Vancomycin tolerance in S. aureus and S. pneumoniae also appears to be somehow related with the two-component regulatory systems linked to cell envelope stress, although the precise molecular regulatory pathways remain poorly defined. PMID:23761352

  20. Plant salt tolerance: adaptations in halophytes

    PubMed Central

    Flowers, Timothy J.; Colmer, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Most of the water on Earth is seawater, each kilogram of which contains about 35 g of salts, and yet most plants cannot grow in this solution; less than 0·2 % of species can develop and reproduce with repeated exposure to seawater. These ‘extremophiles’ are called halophytes. Scope Improved knowledge of halophytes is of importance to understanding our natural world and to enable the use of some of these fascinating plants in land re-vegetation, as forages for livestock, and to develop salt-tolerant crops. In this Preface to a Special Issue on halophytes and saline adaptations, the evolution of salt tolerance in halophytes, their life-history traits and progress in understanding the molecular, biochemical and physiological mechanisms contributing to salt tolerance are summarized. In particular, cellular processes that underpin the ability of halophytes to tolerate high tissue concentrations of Na+ and Cl−, including regulation of membrane transport, their ability to synthesize compatible solutes and to deal with reactive oxygen species, are highlighted. Interacting stress factors in addition to salinity, such as heavy metals and flooding, are also topics gaining increased attention in the search to understand the biology of halophytes. Conclusions Halophytes will play increasingly important roles as models for understanding plant salt tolerance, as genetic resources contributing towards the goal of improvement of salt tolerance in some crops, for re-vegetation of saline lands, and as ‘niche crops’ in their own right for landscapes with saline soils. PMID:25844430

  1. Polyamines and abiotic stress tolerance in plants

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Sarvajeet Singh

    2010-01-01

    Environmental stresses including climate change, especially global warming, are severely affecting plant growth and productivity worldwide. It has been estimated that two-thirds of the yield potential of major crops are routinely lost due to the unfavorable environmental factors. On the other hand, the world population is estimated to reach about 10 billion by 2050, which will witness serious food shortages. Therefore, crops with enhanced vigour and high tolerance to various environmental factors should be developed to feed the increasing world population. Maintaining crop yields under adverse environmental stresses is probably the major challenge facing modern agriculture where polyamines can play important role. Polyamines (PAs)(putrescine, spermidine and spermine) are group of phytohormone-like aliphatic amine natural compounds with aliphatic nitrogen structure and present in almost all living organisms including plants. Evidences showed that polyamines are involved in many physiological processes, such as cell growth and development and respond to stress tolerance to various environmental factors. In many cases the relationship of plant stress tolerance was noted with the production of conjugated and bound polyamines as well as stimulation of polyamine oxidation. Therefore, genetic manipulation of crop plants with genes encoding enzymes of polyamine biosynthetic pathways may provide better stress tolerance to crop plants. Furthermore, the exogenous application of PAs is also another option for increasing the stress tolerance potential in plants. Here, we have described the synthesis and role of various polyamines in abiotic stress tolerance in plants. PMID:20592804

  2. Ischemic tolerance: the mechanisms of neuroprotective strategy.

    PubMed

    Lehotský, Jan; Burda, Jozef; Danielisová, Viera; Gottlieb, Miroslav; Kaplán, Peter; Saniová, Beata

    2009-12-01

    The phenomenon of ischemic tolerance perfectly describes this quote "What does not kill you makes you stronger." Ischemic pre- or postconditioning is actually the strongest known procedure to prevent or reverse neurodegeneration. It works specifically in sensitive vulnerable neuronal populations, which are represented by pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region. However, tolerance is effective in other brain cell populations as well. Although, its nomenclature is "ischemic" tolerance, the tolerant phenotype can also be induced by other stimuli that lead to delayed neuronal death (intoxication). Moreover, the recent data have proven that this phenomenon is not limited to application of sublethal stimuli before the lethal stress but reversed arrangement of events, sublethal stress after lethal insult, is rather equally effective. A very important term is called "cross conditioning." Cross conditioning is the capability of one stressor to induce tolerance against another. So, since pre- or post-conditioners can be used plenty of harmful stimuli, hypo- or hyperthermia and some physiological compounds, such as norepinephrine, bradykinin. Delayed neuronal death is the slow development of postischemic neurodegeneration. This allows an opportunity for a great therapeutic window of 2-3 days to reverse the cellular death process. Moreover, it seems that the mechanisms of ischemic tolerance-delayed postconditioning could be used not only after ischemia but also in some other processes leading to apoptosis. PMID:19943353

  3. 40 CFR 180.116 - Ziram; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ziram; tolerances for residues. 180.116 Section 180.116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.116 Ziram; tolerances for residues. (a)...

  4. 40 CFR 180.114 - Ferbam; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ferbam; tolerances for residues. 180.114 Section 180.114 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.114 Ferbam; tolerances for residues. (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 180.101 - Specific tolerances; general provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Specific tolerances; general provisions. 180.101 Section 180.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.101 Specific tolerances;...

  6. 40 CFR 180.380 - Vinclozolin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinclozolin; tolerances for residues. 180.380 Section 180.380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.380 Vinclozolin; tolerances for residues....

  7. 40 CFR 180.588 - Quinoxyfen; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quinoxyfen; tolerances for residues. 180.588 Section 180.588 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.588 Quinoxyfen; tolerances for residues....

  8. 40 CFR 180.433 - Fomesafen; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fomesafen; tolerances for residues. 180.433 Section 180.433 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.433 Fomesafen; tolerances for residues....

  9. 40 CFR 180.380 - Vinclozolin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vinclozolin; tolerances for residues. 180.380 Section 180.380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.380 Vinclozolin; tolerances for residues....

  10. 40 CFR 180.651 - Imazosulfuron; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Imazosulfuron; tolerances for residues. 180.651 Section 180.651 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.651 Imazosulfuron; tolerances for...

  11. 40 CFR 180.416 - Ethalfluralin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ethalfluralin; tolerances for residues. 180.416 Section 180.416 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.416 Ethalfluralin; tolerances for...

  12. 40 CFR 180.111 - Malathion; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Malathion; tolerances for residues. 180.111 Section 180.111 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.111 Malathion; tolerances for residues....

  13. 40 CFR 180.555 - Trifloxystrobin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trifloxystrobin; tolerances for residues. 180.555 Section 180.555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.555 Trifloxystrobin; tolerances...

  14. 40 CFR 180.448 - Hexythiazox; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hexythiazox; tolerance for residues. 180.448 Section 180.448 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.448 Hexythiazox; tolerance for residues....

  15. 40 CFR 180.110 - Maneb; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maneb; tolerances for residues. 180.110 Section 180.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.110 Maneb; tolerances for residues. (a)...

  16. 40 CFR 180.261 - Phosmet; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosmet; tolerances for residues. 180.261 Section 180.261 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.261 Phosmet; tolerances for residues. (a)...

  17. 40 CFR 180.225 - Phosphine; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphine; tolerances for residues. 180.225 Section 180.225 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.225 Phosphine; tolerances for residues....

  18. 40 CFR 180.361 - Pendimethalin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pendimethalin; tolerances for residues. 180.361 Section 180.361 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.361 Pendimethalin; tolerances for...

  19. 40 CFR 180.259 - Propargite; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Propargite; tolerances for residues. 180.259 Section 180.259 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.259 Propargite; tolerances for residues....

  20. 40 CFR 180.332 - Metribuzin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metribuzin; tolerances for residues. 180.332 Section 180.332 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.332 Metribuzin;tolerances for residues....

  1. 40 CFR 180.544 - Methoxyfenozide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methoxyfenozide; tolerances for residues. 180.544 Section 180.544 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.544 Methoxyfenozide; tolerances...

  2. 40 CFR 180.412 - Sethoxydim; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sethoxydim; tolerances for residues. 180.412 Section 180.412 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.412 Sethoxydim; tolerances for residues....

  3. 40 CFR 180.565 - Thiamethoxam; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Thiamethoxam; tolerances for residues. 180.565 Section 180.565 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.565 Thiamethoxam; tolerances for residues....

  4. 40 CFR 180.269 - Aldicarb; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aldicarb; tolerances for residues. 180.269 Section 180.269 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.269 Aldicarb; tolerances for residues....

  5. 40 CFR 180.206 - Phorate; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phorate; tolerances for residues. 180.206 Section 180.206 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.206 Phorate; tolerances for residues. (a)...

  6. 40 CFR 180.475 - Difenoconazole; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Difenoconazole; tolerances for residues. 180.475 Section 180.475 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.475 Difenoconazole; tolerances...

  7. 40 CFR 180.262 - Ethoprop; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethoprop; tolerances for residues. 180.262 Section 180.262 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.262 Ethoprop; tolerances for residues....

  8. 40 CFR 180.204 - Dimethoate; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dimethoate; tolerances for residues. 180.204 Section 180.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.204 Dimethoate; tolerances for residues....

  9. 40 CFR 180.470 - Acetochlor; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acetochlor; tolerances for residues. 180.470 Section 180.470 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.470 Acetochlor; tolerances for residues....

  10. 40 CFR 180.328 - Napropamide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Napropamide; tolerances for residues. 180.328 Section 180.328 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.328 Napropamide; tolerances for residues....

  11. 40 CFR 180.328 - Napropamide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Napropamide; tolerances for residues. 180.328 Section 180.328 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.328 Napropamide; tolerances for residues....

  12. 40 CFR 180.574 - Fluazinam; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fluazinam; tolerances for residues. 180.574 Section 180.574 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.574 Fluazinam; tolerances for residues....

  13. 40 CFR 180.292 - Picloram; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Picloram; tolerances for residues. 180.292 Section 180.292 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.292 Picloram; tolerances for residues....

  14. 40 CFR 180.581 - Iprovalicarb; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iprovalicarb; tolerances for residues. 180.581 Section 180.581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.581 Iprovalicarb; tolerances for residues....

  15. 40 CFR 180.581 - Iprovalicarb; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iprovalicarb; tolerances for residues. 180.581 Section 180.581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.581 Iprovalicarb; tolerances for residues....

  16. 40 CFR 180.581 - Iprovalicarb; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iprovalicarb; tolerances for residues. 180.581 Section 180.581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.581 Iprovalicarb; tolerances for residues....

  17. 40 CFR 180.292 - Picloram; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Picloram; tolerances for residues. 180.292 Section 180.292 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.292 Picloram; tolerances for residues....

  18. 40 CFR 180.643 - Uniconazole; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Uniconazole; tolerances for residues. 180.643 Section 180.643 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.643 Uniconazole; tolerances for residues....

  19. 40 CFR 180.207 - Trifluralin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trifluralin; tolerances for residues. 180.207 Section 180.207 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.207 Trifluralin; tolerances for residues....

  20. 40 CFR 180.207 - Trifluralin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trifluralin; tolerances for residues. 180.207 Section 180.207 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.207 Trifluralin; tolerances for residues....

  1. 40 CFR 180.643 - Uniconazole; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Uniconazole; tolerances for residues. 180.643 Section 180.643 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.643 Uniconazole; tolerances for residues....

  2. 40 CFR 180.114 - Ferbam; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ferbam; tolerances for residues. 180.114 Section 180.114 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.114 Ferbam; tolerances for residues. (a)...

  3. 40 CFR 180.116 - Ziram; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ziram; tolerances for residues. 180.116 Section 180.116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.116 Ziram; tolerances for residues. (a)...

  4. 40 CFR 180.101 - Specific tolerances; general provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specific tolerances; general provisions. 180.101 Section 180.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.101 Specific tolerances;...

  5. 40 CFR 180.623 - Flufenoxuron; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flufenoxuron; tolerances for residues. 180.623 Section 180.623 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.623 Flufenoxuron; tolerances for residues....

  6. 40 CFR 180.403 - Thidiazuron; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Thidiazuron; tolerances for residues. 180.403 Section 180.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.403 Thidiazuron; tolerances for residues....

  7. 40 CFR 180.608 - Spirodiclofen; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Spirodiclofen; tolerances for residues. 180.608 Section 180.608 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.608 Spirodiclofen; tolerances for...

  8. 40 CFR 180.494 - Pyridaben; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pyridaben; tolerance for residues. 180.494 Section 180.494 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.494 Pyridaben; tolerance for residues....

  9. 40 CFR 180.257 - Chloroneb; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chloroneb; tolerances for residues. 180.257 Section 180.257 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.257 Chloroneb; tolerances for residues....

  10. 40 CFR 180.287 - Amitraz; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amitraz; tolerances for residues. 180.287 Section 180.287 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.287 Amitraz; tolerances for residues. (a)...

  11. 40 CFR 180.360 - Asulam; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Asulam; tolerance for residues. 180.360 Section 180.360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.360 Asulam; tolerance for residues. (a)...

  12. 40 CFR 180.611 - Pinoxaden; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pinoxaden; tolerances for residues. 180.611 Section 180.611 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.611 Pinoxaden; tolerances for residues....

  13. 75 FR 68214 - Flubendiamide; Pesticide Tolerances; Technical Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 50914) (FRL-8836-2). V. Congressional Review Act The Congressional Review Act, 5 U.S.C. 801... incorrect tolerance values for the established tolerances for corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn...(a)(1) provides an incorrect tolerance value for the established tolerances for corn, field, grain...

  14. 40 CFR 180.291 - Pentachloronitrobenzene; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... residues. 180.291 Section 180.291 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.291 Pentachloronitrobenzene; tolerance for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established...

  15. 40 CFR 180.457 - Bitertanol; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bitertanol; tolerances for residues. 180.457 Section 180.457 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.457 Bitertanol; tolerances for residues....

  16. 40 CFR 180.245 - Streptomycin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Streptomycin; tolerances for residues. 180.245 Section 180.245 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.245 Streptomycin; tolerances for residues....

  17. 40 CFR 180.651 - Imazosulfuron; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Imazosulfuron; tolerances for residues. 180.651 Section 180.651 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.651 Imazosulfuron; tolerances for...

  18. 40 CFR 180.588 - Quinoxyfen; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Quinoxyfen; tolerances for residues. 180.588 Section 180.588 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.588 Quinoxyfen; tolerances for residues....

  19. 40 CFR 180.433 - Fomesafen; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fomesafen; tolerances for residues. 180.433 Section 180.433 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.433 Fomesafen; tolerances for residues....

  20. 40 CFR 180.380 - Vinclozolin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vinclozolin; tolerances for residues. 180.380 Section 180.380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.380 Vinclozolin; tolerances for residues....