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Sample records for route issue du

  1. Routing Issues in Opportunistic Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, Marco; Crowcroft, Jon; Giordano, Silvia; Hui, Pan; Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Passarella, Andrea

    The opportunistic networking idea stems from the critical review of the research field on Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET). After more than ten years of research in the MANET field, this promising technology still has not massively entered the mass market. One of the main reasons of this is nowadays seen in the lack of a practical approach to the design of infrastructure-less multi-hop ad hoc networks [186, 185]. One of the main approaches of conventional MANET research is to design protocols that mask the features of mobile networks via the routing (and transport) layer, so as to expose to higher layers an Internet-like network abstraction. Wireless networks’ peculiarities, such as mobility of users, disconnection of nodes, network partitions, links’ instability, are seen—as in the legacy Internet—as exceptions. This often results in the design of MANET network stacks that are significantly complex and unstable [107].

  2. Route selection issues for NWPA shipments

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C.V.; Harrison, I.G.

    1993-06-01

    Questions surrounding the designation of routes for the movement of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) have broad implications. Federal regulations prescribe rules to be applied in the selection of highway routes. In most cases, these rules will lead to a clear selection of one route between an origin and destination point. However, in other cases, strict application of the regulations does not result in a clear choice of a preferred route. The regulations also provide discretion to State governments and carriers to select alternative routes to enhance the safety of the shipment. Railroad shipments of radioactive materials are not subject to Federal routing regulations. Since the railroads operate on private property, it has been assumed that they know the best way to move freight on their system. This discretion, while desirable for addressing unique local safety concerns or for responding to temporary safety concerns such as road problems, weather conditions, or construction areas, leads to significant opportunity for misunderstandings and uneasiness on the part of local residents.

  3. Issues of Simulation-Based Route Assignment

    SciTech Connect

    Nagel, K.; Rickert, M.

    1999-07-20

    The authors use an iterative re-planning scheme with simulation feedback to generate a self-consistent route-set for a given street network and origin-destination matrix. The iteration process is defined by three parameters. They found that they have influence on the speed of the relaxation, but not necessarily on its final state.

  4. Issues in Security Service Discovery and Routing

    SciTech Connect

    Sholander, P.; Tarman, T.

    1999-04-07

    The Security Specification, Version 1.0 allows security services to be provided by many devices in a network. It correctly presumes that if a virtual circuit needs these security services, then network topology and device policy will act to ensure that the appropriate security services are applied to the virtual circuit. This contribution moves that the Security Service Discovery and Routing function be included in the Security Version 2.0 work scope.

  5. Social survey findings on en route noise annoyance issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, James M.

    1990-01-01

    Most surveys of residents' reactions to aircraft noise were conducted in the vicinity of airports. The findings in those surveys have supported planning and regulatory actions for the airport noise environment. Now, however, aircraft noise planning and regulations are being considered for a new environment, the en route environment. As policy makers search for bases for public policy in these new noise environments, it is appropriate to ask whether the same scientific evidence which supports airport noise policy can also support en route noise policy. Several aspects of that question are considered. An introduction establishes the scope of the present study and examines alternative study methodologies. Next, the selected study methodology is described and important assumptions are listed. The body of the paper then consists of the findings on en route issues. The final section presents findings on relevant research methods and considers priorities for further research.

  6. NEW DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT ISSUES: EMERGING DBP'S AND ALTERNATIVE ROUTES OF EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses current issues with drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs), which include emerging (unregulated) DBPs that can be formed at greater levels with alternative disinfectants (as compared to chlorine) and routes of human exposure (which include inhalation ...

  7. Fundamental lifetime mechanisms in routing protocols for wireless sensor networks: a survey and open issues.

    PubMed

    Eslaminejad, Mohammadreza; Razak, Shukor Abd

    2012-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks basically consist of low cost sensor nodes which collect data from environment and relay them to a sink, where they will be subsequently processed. Since wireless nodes are severely power-constrained, the major concern is how to conserve the nodes' energy so that network lifetime can be extended significantly. Employing one static sink can rapidly exhaust the energy of sink neighbors. Furthermore, using a non-optimal single path together with a maximum transmission power level may quickly deplete the energy of individual nodes on the route. This all results in unbalanced energy consumption through the sensor field, and hence a negative effect on the network lifetime. In this paper, we present a comprehensive taxonomy of the various mechanisms applied for increasing the network lifetime. These techniques, whether in the routing or cross-layer area, fall within the following types: multi-sink, mobile sink, multi-path, power control and bio-inspired algorithms, depending on the protocol operation. In this taxonomy, special attention has been devoted to the multi-sink, power control and bio-inspired algorithms, which have not yet received much consideration in the literature. Moreover, each class covers a variety of the state-of-the-art protocols, which should provide ideas for potential future works. Finally, we compare these mechanisms and discuss open research issues. PMID:23202008

  8. Supervisory control of Petri nets using routing functions: starvation avoidance issues.

    PubMed

    Alpan, G; Gaujal, B

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new point of view on supervisory control of Petri nets by using routing functions instead of the traditional control places. We first show the relation between the two notions. In the second part of the paper, we illustrate the use of routing functions by showing how to compute a routing function in order to avoid starvation in general Petri nets. This control uses a continuous version of the net and a description of the evolution of the net under the form of linear algebraic equations. As for the computational part, we use algebraic polynomial geometry in the continuous case and Diophantine equations for the discrete version of the Petri net under study. PMID:18252402

  9. Routes to 4-Hydroxynonenal: Fundamental Issues in the Mechanisms of Lipid Peroxidation*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Claus; Porter, Ned A.; Brash, Alan R.

    2008-01-01

    Although investigation of the toxicological and physiological actions of α/β-unsaturated 4-hydroxyalkenals has made great progress over the last 2 decades, understanding of the chemical mechanism of formation of 4-hydroxynonenal and related aldehydes has advanced much less. The aim of this review is to discuss mechanistic evidence for these non-enzymatic routes, especially of the underappreciated intermolecular pathways that involve dimerized and oligomerized fatty acid derivatives as key intermediates. These cross-molecular reactions of fatty acid peroxyls have also important implications for understanding of the basic initiation and propagation steps during lipid peroxidation and the nature of the products that arise. PMID:18285327

  10. Spinning of carbon nanotube fibres using the floating catalyst high temperature route: purity issues and the critical role of sulphur.

    PubMed

    Gspann, T S; Smail, F R; Windle, A H

    2014-01-01

    The CVD process for the spinning of carbon nanotube (CNT) fibres combines the nucleation, growth and aggregation of CNTs in the form of an aerogel with fibre spinning into a single process step. The optimisation of the process requires agility in multi-dimensional parameter space, so one tends to find parameter 'islands' where spinning is possible, while exploration tends to follow 'routes' through this space. Here, we follow two such routes, one of which drastically improves fibre purity, the other changes the nature of the nanotubes comprising the fibres from multiwall to single wall. In the first case there is only a modest enhancement of the mechanical properties, but in the second a very considerable improvement is seen. In terms of the conditions required to make fibres comprising predominately single wall CNTs, the key factor appears to be the rigorous control of the sulphur addition, in trace quantities, coupled with the availability of carbon atoms at the earliest stage after injection, typically in the range 400-500 °C. A model is presented for the role of sulphur in floating catalysts CNT synthesis. PMID:25341017

  11. La fréquence cardiaque au repos : Un indicateur pronostique modifiable du risque et des issues cardiovasculaires ?

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, J Malcolm; Fitchett, David H; Howlett, Jonathan G; Lonn, Eva M; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-01

    De plus en plus de données probantes tirées d’essais cliniques et d’études épidémiologiques indiquent qu’une fréquence cardiaque élevée au repos est un prédicteur d’événements cliniques. La preuve de sa cause et de son effet direct est limitée car les médicaments courants qui réduisent la fréquence cardiaque (p. ex., les bêtabloquants) ont de multiples mécanismes d’action. Une nouvelle catégorie de médicament, les inhibiteurs If sélectifs, est en cours d’exploration à titre de « pur » médicament réduisant la fréquence cardiaque, ce qui aidera à confirmer s’il existe un lien fortuit entre la fréquence cardiaque élevée et les issues cardiovasculaires. Le présent article analyse les données probantes selon lesquelles une fréquence cardiaque élevée est un facteur de risque cardiovasculaire ainsi que certains essais cliniques courants qui évaluent cette hypothèse.

  12. L'Aventure du LHC

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Cette présentation s?adressera principalement aux personnes qui ont construit le LHC. La construction du LHC fut longue et difficile. De nombreux problèmes sont apparus en cours de route. Tous ont été résolus grâce au dévouement et à l?engagement du personnel et des collaborateurs. Je reviendrai sur les coups durs et les réussites qui ont marqués ces 15 dernières années et je vous montrerai combien cette machine, le fruit de vos efforts, est extraordinaire.

  13. L'Aventure du LHC

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-11

    Cette présentation s’adressera principalement aux personnes qui ont construit le LHC. La construction du LHC fut longue et difficile. De nombreux problèmes sont apparus en cours de route. Tous ont été résolus grâce au dévouement et à l’engagement du personnel et des collaborateurs. Je reviendrai sur les coups durs et les réussites qui ont marqués ces 15 dernières années et je vous montrerai combien cette machine, le fruit de vos efforts, est extraordinaire.

  14. "Recalculating Route".

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Can you imagine going to a doctor who uses a paper chart, sends you a bill on a ledger card, and handwrites a prescription? You wouldn't have a great deal of confidence that the clinical skills of the doctor were up to date. This would be an example of a doctor who did not "recalculate his or her route." This article provides 10 examples of adjustments that have been made in medicine where the route has been recalculated. PMID:26399043

  15. 75 numeros du "Bulletin suisse de linguistique appliquee," 1966-2002 (75 Issues of the "Swiss Bulletin for Applied Linguistics," 1966-2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthey, Marinette, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This special issue, written in French, is dedicated to highlighting the past 74 issues of the journal since its inception 35 years ago. The first article reflects on the journal's history and evolution, in particular with regard to volume, the distribution of languages (French, German Italian, and Raeto-Roman), the distribution of articles written…

  16. Approche de prise en charge du trouble du spectre de l’autisme

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Patrick F.; Thomas, Roger E.; Lee, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Se pencher sur les critères diagnostiques du trouble du spectre de l’autisme (TSA) comme les définit le Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux, cinquième édition (DSM-V), et concevoir une approche de prise en charge du TSA à l’aide du cadre CanMEDS–Médecine familiale (CanMEDS-MF). Sources d’information Le DSM-V, publié par l’American Psychiatric Association en mai 2013, énonce de nouveaux critères diagnostiques du TSA. Le cadre CanMEDS-MF du Collège des médecins de famille du Canada fournit un plan d’orientation pour la prise en charge complexe du TSA. Nous avons utilisé des données recueillies par le Centers for Disease Control and Prevention afin de déterminer la prévalence du TSA, ainsi que la revue systématique et méta-analyse détaillée effectuée par le National Institute for Health and Care Excellence du R.-U. pour ses lignes directrices sur le TSA dans le but d’évaluer les données probantes issues de plus de 100 interventions. Message principal Selon les données du Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, la prévalence du TSA se chiffrait à 1 sur 88 en 2008 aux États-Unis. La classification du TSA dans la quatrième édition du DSM incluait l’autisme, le syndrome d’Asperger, le trouble envahissant du développement et le trouble désintégratif de l’enfance. La dernière révision du DSM-V réunit tous ces troubles sous la mention TSA, avec différents niveaux de sévérité. La prise en charge du TSA est complexe; elle exige les efforts d’une équipe multidisciplinaire ainsi que des soins continus. Les rôles CanMEDS-MF fournissent un cadre de prise en charge. Conclusion Les médecins de famille sont au cœur de l’équipe de soins multidisciplinaire pour le TSA, et le cadre CanMEDS-MF tient lieu de plan détaillé pour guider la prise en charge d’un enfant atteint de TSA et aider la famille de cet enfant.

  17. Highway and interline transportation routing models

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.

    1994-06-01

    The potential impacts associated with the transportation of hazardous materials are important issues to shippers, carriers, and the general public. Since transportation routes are a central characteristic in most of these issues, the prediction of likely routes is the first step toward the resolution of these issues. In addition, US Department of Transportation requirements (HM-164) mandate specific routes for shipments of highway controlled quantities of radioactive materials. In response to these needs, two routing models have been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These models have been designated by DOE`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Transportation Management Division (DOE/EM) as the official DOE routing models. Both models, HIGHWAY and INTERLINE, are described.

  18. Roots/Routes: Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Dalene M.

    2009-01-01

    This narrative and poetic rendering acts as an articulation of a journey of many routes. It is a storying of critical research issues and events as performances of lived experience. It is a metissage of hybrid, but interrelated, themes that find cohesion through fragmentation and coalescence, severance, and regrowth. These themes are invoked by…

  19. 4. View northnorthwest along U.S. Route 202 toward dairy barn ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View north-northwest along U.S. Route 202 toward dairy barn and milk house, south and east sides - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Blue Ball Dairy Barn, Junction of U.S. Route 202 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  20. PHARMACOKINETICS OF OXYGENATE MIXES IN THE YOUNG AND ELDERLY HUMANS BY THE DERMAL ROUTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study will build on the recently completed study in which 15 young men were exposed to MTBE by three routes of exposure (oral, dermal, and inhalation). The dermal route of exposure was selected because it can be a significant portal of entry for environmental contaminants du...

  1. Lessons Learned: New Teachers Talk about Their Jobs, Challenges and Long-Range Plans. Issue No. 2. Working without a Net: How New Teachers from Three Prominent Alternate Route Programs Describe Their First Year on the Job

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochkind, Jonathan; Ott, Amber; Immerwahr, John; Doble, John; Johnson, Jean

    2007-01-01

    This report raises questions about the support given to new teachers who come to teaching through "alternate routes." It focuses on new teachers in high-needs schools, comparing the perspectives of those from traditional teacher education versus those from three alternate-route programs: Teach for America, Troops to Teachers and The New Teacher…

  2. Central East Pacific Flight Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Shon; Sridhar, Banavar; Kopardekar, Parimal; Cheng, Nadia

    2006-01-01

    With the introduction of the Federal Aviation Administration s Advanced Technology and Oceanic Procedures system at the Oakland Oceanic Center, a level of automation now exists in the oceanic environment to potentially begin accommodating increased user preferred routing requests. This paper presents the results of an initial feasibility assessment which examines the potential benefits of transitioning from the fixed Central East Pacific routes to user preferred routes. As a surrogate for the actual user-provided routing requests, a minimum-travel-time, wind-optimal dynamic programming algorithm was developed and utilized in this paper. After first describing the characteristics (e.g., origin airport, destination airport, vertical distribution and temporal distribution) of the westbound flights utilizing the Central East Pacific routes on Dec. 14-16 and 19-20, the results of both a flight-plan-based simulation and a wind-optimal-based simulation are presented. Whereas the lateral and longitudinal distribution of the aircraft trajectories in these two simulations varied dramatically, the number of simulated first-loss-of-separation events remained relatively constant. One area of concern that was uncovered in this initial analysis was a potential workload issue associated with the redistribution of traffic in the oceanic sectors due to thc prevailing wind patterns.

  3. A Survey of Routing Protocols in Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bangash, Javed Iqbal; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Anisi, Mohammad Hossein; Khan, Abdul Waheed

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) constitute a subset of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) responsible for monitoring vital sign-related data of patients and accordingly route this data towards a sink. In routing sensed data towards sinks, WBSNs face some of the same routing challenges as general WSNs, but the unique requirements of WBSNs impose some more constraints that need to be addressed by the routing mechanisms. This paper identifies various issues and challenges in pursuit of effective routing in WBSNs. Furthermore, it provides a detailed literature review of the various existing routing protocols used in the WBSN domain by discussing their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:24419163

  4. "Cirque du Freak."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivett, Miriam

    2002-01-01

    Considers the marketing strategies that underpin the success of the "Cirque du Freak" series. Describes how "Cirque du Freak" is an account of events in the life of schoolboy Darren Shan. Notes that it is another reworking of the vampire narrative, a sub-genre of horror writing that has proved highly popular with both adult and child readers. (SG)

  5. Multicast Routing of Hierarchical Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shacham, Nachum

    1992-01-01

    The issue of multicast of broadband, real-time data in a heterogeneous environment, in which the data recipients differ in their reception abilities, is considered. Traditional multicast schemes, which are designed to deliver all the source data to all recipients, offer limited performance in such an environment, since they must either force the source to overcompress its signal or restrict the destination population to those who can receive the full signal. We present an approach for resolving this issue by combining hierarchical source coding techniques, which allow recipients to trade off reception bandwidth for signal quality, and sophisticated routing algorithms that deliver to each destination the maximum possible signal quality. The field of hierarchical coding is briefly surveyed and new multicast routing algorithms are presented. The algorithms are compared in terms of network utilization efficiency, lengths of paths, and the required mechanisms for forwarding packets on the resulting paths.

  6. State alternative route designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  7. State alternative route designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ``state routing agency,`` defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  8. Defining Dynamic Route Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelinski, Shannon; Jastrzebski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This poster describes a method for defining route structure from flight tracks. Dynamically generated route structures could be useful in guiding dynamic airspace configuration and helping controllers retain situational awareness under dynamically changing traffic conditions. Individual merge and diverge intersections between pairs of flights are identified, clustered, and grouped into nodes of a route structure network. Links are placed between nodes to represent major traffic flows. A parametric analysis determined the algorithm input parameters producing route structures of current day flight plans that are closest to todays airway structure. These parameters are then used to define and analyze the dynamic route structure over the course of a day for current day flight paths. Route structures are also compared between current day flight paths and more user preferred paths such as great circle and weather avoidance routing.

  9. The du Bois sign.

    PubMed

    Voelpel, James H; Muehlberger, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    According to the current literature, the term "du Bois sign" characterizes the condition of a shortened fifth finger as a symptom of congenital syphilis, Down syndrome, dyscrania, and encephalic malformation. Modern medical dictionaries and text books attribute the eponym to the French gynecologist Paul Dubois (1795-1871). Yet, a literature analysis revealed incorrect references to the person and unclear definitions of the term. Our findings showed that the origin of the term is based on observations made by the Swiss dermatologist Charles du Bois (1874-1947) in connection with congenital syphilis. In addition, a further eponymical fifth finger sign is closely associated with the du Bois sign. In conclusion, the du Bois sign has only limited diagnostic value and is frequently occurring in the normal healthy population. PMID:21263293

  10. Four Republican Presidential Candidates Debate Educational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Equity and Excellence, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Provides the transcript of a September 1987 debate on educational issues between Republican presidential candidates Jack Kemp and Pierre du Pont. Interspersed throughout the transcript are written responses to questions submitted to additional candidates Robert Dole and George Bush. (BJV)

  11. View southwest along Route Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing commercial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest along Route Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing commercial and residential buildings on the east and west sides of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  12. Contact Graph Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology of scheduled communication contacts in a network based on the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) architecture. It is designed to enable dynamic selection of data transmission routes in a space network based on DTN. This dynamic responsiveness in route computation should be significantly more effective and less expensive than static routing, increasing total data return while at the same time reducing mission operations cost and risk. The basic strategy of CGR is to take advantage of the fact that, since flight mission communication operations are planned in detail, the communication routes between any pair of bundle agents in a population of nodes that have all been informed of one another's plans can be inferred from those plans rather than discovered via dialogue (which is impractical over long one-way-light-time space links). Messages that convey this planning information are used to construct contact graphs (time-varying models of network connectivity) from which CGR automatically computes efficient routes for bundles. Automatic route selection increases the flexibility and resilience of the space network, simplifying cross-support and reducing mission management costs. Note that there are no routing tables in Contact Graph Routing. The best route for a bundle destined for a given node may routinely be different from the best route for a different bundle destined for the same node, depending on bundle priority, bundle expiration time, and changes in the current lengths of transmission queues for neighboring nodes; routes must be computed individually for each bundle, from the Bundle Protocol agent's current network connectivity model for the bundle s destination node (the contact graph). Clearly this places a premium on optimizing the implementation of the route computation algorithm. The scalability of CGR to very large networks remains a research topic

  13. ROUTE-SPECIFIC DOSIMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The capacity to perform route-to-route extrapolation of toxicity data is becoming increasingly crucial to the Agency, with a number of strategies suggested and demonstrated. One strategy involves using a combination of existing data and modeling approaches. This strategy propos...

  14. Automatic routing module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Janice A.

    1987-01-01

    Automatic Routing Module (ARM) is a tool to partially automate Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM) routing. For any accessible launch point or target pair, ARM creates flyable routes that, within the fidelity of the models, are optimal in terms of threat avoidance, clobber avoidance, and adherence to vehicle and planning constraints. Although highly algorithmic, ARM is an expert system. Because of the heuristics applied, ARM generated routes closely resemble manually generated routes in routine cases. In more complex cases, ARM's ability to accumulate and assess threat danger in three dimensions and trade that danger off with the probability of ground clobber results in the safest path around or through difficult areas. The tools available prior to ARM did not provide the planner with enough information or present it in such a way that ensured he would select the safest path.

  15. Tree-based shortest-path routing algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Y. H.; Ho, T. K.; Rad, A. B.; Lam, S. P. S.

    1998-12-01

    A tree-based shortest path routing algorithm is introduced in this paper. With this algorithm, every network node can maintain a shortest path routing tree topology of the network with itself as the root. In this algorithm, every node constructs its own routing tree based upon its neighbors' routing trees. Initially, the routing tree at each node has the root only, the node itself. As information exchanges, every node's routing tree will evolve until a complete tree is obtained. This algorithm is a trade-off between distance vector algorithm and link state algorithm. Loops are automatically deleted, so there is no count-to- infinity effect. A simple routing tree information storage approach and a protocol data until format to transmit the tree information are given. Some special issues, such as adaptation to topology change, implementation of the algorithm on LAN, convergence and computation overhead etc., are also discussed in the paper.

  16. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. PMID:26962031

  17. Routing Vehicles with Ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Wen Fang; Lee, Lai Soon; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Seow, Hsin Vonn

    Routing vehicles involve the design of an optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to serve a number of customers with known demands. This research develops an Ant Colony Optimization for the vehicle routing with one central depot and identical vehicles. The procedure simulates the behavior of real ants that always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source through a form of communication, pheromone trail. Finally, preliminary results on the learning of the algorithm testing on benchmark data set will be presented in this paper.

  18. Class network routing

    DOEpatents

    Bhanot, Gyan; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  19. Railroad Routing Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-01-05

    INTERLINE/PC is an interactive program designed to simulate the routing practices of the United States rail system. The rail industry is divided into a large number of independent competing companies. The INTERLINE data base represents these rail companies as 94 separate subnetworks. An additional two subnetworks represent navigable inland/intracoastal and deep draft marine routes. Interchange points between individual rail systems and waterway systems are also identified.

  20. Randomization and sampling issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geissler, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    The need for randomly selected routes and other sampling issues have been debated by the Amphibian electronic discussion group. Many excellent comments have been made, pro and con, but we have not reached consensus yet. This paper brings those comments together and attempts a synthesis. I hope that the resulting discussion will bring us closer to a consensus.

  1. Policy route certification: Requirements and techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Nessett, D. ); Solo, D. )

    1991-01-01

    The interconnection of separately administrated, autonomous communications networks into a large internetwork of global extent raises significant technical, managerial and security issues. Individual networks, or collections of networks, may exhibit different characteristics with respect to usage rules, cost, performance, and security services. In a large internetwork of autonomously administered constituent networks, clients of routing services may wish to obtain security and other service guarantees for their internetwork traffic. This paper analyzes requirements for these guarantees and suggests techniques to meet these requirements based on policy routing mechanisms.

  2. Collective network routing

    DOEpatents

    Hoenicke, Dirk

    2014-12-02

    Disclosed are a unified method and apparatus to classify, route, and process injected data packets into a network so as to belong to a plurality of logical networks, each implementing a specific flow of data on top of a common physical network. The method allows to locally identify collectives of packets for local processing, such as the computation of the sum, difference, maximum, minimum, or other logical operations among the identified packet collective. Packets are injected together with a class-attribute and an opcode attribute. Network routers, employing the described method, use the packet attributes to look-up the class-specific route information from a local route table, which contains the local incoming and outgoing directions as part of the specifically implemented global data flow of the particular virtual network.

  3. Route based forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuurendonk, I. W.; Wokke, M. J. J.

    2009-09-01

    Road surface temperatures can differ several degrees on a very short distance due to local effects. In order to get more insight in the local temperature differences and to develop safer gritting routes, Meteogroup has developed a system for route based temperature forecasting. The standard version of the road model is addressed to forecast road surface temperature and condition for a specific location. This model consists of two parts. First a physical part, based on the energy balance equations. The second part of the model performs a statistical correction on the calculated physical road surface temperature. The road model is able to create a forecast for one specific location. From infrared measurements, we know that large local differences in road surface temperature exist on a route. Differences can be up to 5 degrees Celsius over a distance of several hundreds of meters. Based on those measurements, the idea came up to develop a system that forecasts road surface temperature and condition for an entire route: route based forecasting. The route is split up in sections with equal properties. For each section a temperature and condition will be calculated. The main factors that influence the road surface temperature are modelled in this forecasting system: •The local weather conditions: temperature, dew point temperature, wind, precipitation, weather type, cloudiness. •The sky view: A very sheltered place will receive less radiation during daytime and emit less radiation during nighttime. For a very open spot, the effects are reversed. •The solar view: A road section with trees on the southern side, will receive less solar radiation during daytime than a section with tress on the southern side. The route based forecast shows by means of a clear Google Maps presentation which sections will be slippery at what time of the coming night. The final goal of this type of forecast, is to make dynamical gritting possible: a variable salt amount and a different

  4. Submarine cable route survey

    SciTech Connect

    Herrouin, G.; Scuiller, T.

    1995-12-31

    The growth of telecommunication market is very significant. From the beginning of the nineties, more and more the use of optical fiber submarine cables is privileged to that of satellites. These submarine telecommunication highways require accurate surveys in order to select the optimum route and determine the cable characteristics. Advanced technology tools used for these surveys are presented along with their implementation.

  5. Hydrologic Flood Routing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heggen, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses a short classroom-based BASIC program which routes stream flow through a system of channels and reservoirs. The program is suitable for analyses of open channel conveyance systems, flood detention reservoirs, and combinations of the two. (Author/JN)

  6. Fund allocation using capacitated vehicle routing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Darus, Maslina

    2014-09-01

    In investment fund allocation, it is unwise for an investor to distribute his fund into several assets simultaneously due to economic reasons. One solution is to allocate the fund into a particular asset at a time in a sequence that will either maximize returns or minimize risks depending on the investor's objective. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) provides an avenue to this issue. VRP answers the question on how to efficiently use the available fleet of vehicles to meet a given service demand, subjected to a set of operational requirements. This paper proposes an idea of using capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) to optimize investment fund allocation by employing data of selected stocks in the FTSE Bursa Malaysia. Results suggest that CRVP can be applied to solve the issue of investment fund allocation and increase the investor's profit.

  7. Weather routing in long-distance Mediterranean routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delitala, A. M. S.; Gallino, S.; Villa, L.; Lagouvardos, K.; Drago, A.

    2010-10-01

    The selection of ship routes based on modern weather forecasting is a mean of computing optimum shipping routes thereby increasing safety and comfort at sea, cutting down on transit time, and reducing fuel consumption. Further empirical research in the effectiveness of modern weather routing applications is required especially in applications concerning shorter routes in enclosed seas of limited geographical extent such as the Mediterranean Sea. The present study used two climatological simulations to test this state-of-the-art approach to ship routing. Simulations represented two theoretical routes: (1) a route between Italy and Greece and (2) a route between Cyprus and Italy. Both routes were analyzed across varying simulated climatic conditions and the results were compared with those of control routes. Furthermore, results were analyzed in terms of passenger and crew comfort, bunker consumption by ships, and time of crossing. The first simulation showed that weather routing would improve ship performance on 37% of days while the second simulation revealed that weather routing would support ship captains virtually all the time.

  8. Masked Proportional Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David

    2004-01-01

    Masked proportional routing is an improved procedure for choosing links between adjacent nodes of a network for the purpose of transporting an entity from a source node ("A") to a destination node ("B"). The entity could be, for example, a physical object to be shipped, in which case the nodes would represent waypoints and the links would represent roads or other paths between waypoints. For another example, the entity could be a message or packet of data to be transmitted from A to B, in which case the nodes could be computer-controlled switching stations and the links could be communication channels between the stations. In yet another example, an entity could represent a workpiece while links and nodes could represent, respectively, manufacturing processes and stages in the progress of the workpiece towards a finished product. More generally, the nodes could represent states of an entity and the links could represent allowed transitions of the entity. The purpose of masked proportional routing and of related prior routing procedures is to schedule transitions of entities from their initial states ("A") to their final states ("B") in such a manner as to minimize a cost or to attain some other measure of optimality or efficiency. Masked proportional routing follows a distributed (in the sense of decentralized) approach to probabilistically or deterministically choosing the links. It was developed to satisfy a need for a routing procedure that 1. Does not always choose the same link(s), even for two instances characterized by identical estimated values of associated cost functions; 2. Enables a graceful transition from one set of links to another set of links as the circumstances of operation of the network change over time; 3. Is preferably amenable to separate optimization of different portions of the network; 4. Is preferably usable in a network in which some of the routing decisions are made by one or more other procedure(s); 5. Preferably does not cause an

  9. Kyste hydatique primitif du sein

    PubMed Central

    Mouslik, Rabii; Settaf, Abdellatif; Elalami, Yacir; Lahnini, Hicham; Lahlou, Khalid; Chad, Bouziane

    2012-01-01

    Le kyste hydatique du sein est une parasitose rare même dans les pays endémiques. Nous rapportons une nouvelle observation d'une patiente de 30 ans qui présentait une masse du sein gauche. Le diagnostic de kyste hydatique du sein a été évoqué devant les données de l'examen clinique et de la mammographie couplée à l’échographie. Le geste chirurgical a consisté en une kystectomie. L'examen anatomopathologique de la pièce opératoire a confirmé le diagnostic. PMID:23133704

  10. Robustness of airline route networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  11. Fabrication Routes for Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic Composites (CFCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James A.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    1998-01-01

    The primary approaches used for fabrication of continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composite (CFCC) components have been reviewed. The CFCC fabrication issues related to fiber, interface, and matrix have been analyzed. The capabilities. advantages and limitations of the five matrix-infiltration routes have been compared and discussed. Today. the best fabrication route for the CFCC end-user is not clear and compromises need to be made depending on the details of the CFCC application. However, with time, this problem should be reduced as research continues to develop advanced CFCC constituents and fabrication routes.

  12. Fabrication Routes for Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic Composites (CFCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James A.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    1998-01-01

    The primary approaches used for fabrication of continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composite (CFCC) components have been reviewed. The CFCC fabrication issues related to fiber, interface, and matrix have been analyzed. The capabilities, advantages and limitations of the five matrix-infiltration routes have been compared and discussed. Today, the best fabrication route for the CFCC end-user is not clear and compromises need to be made depending on the details of the CFCC application. However, with time, this problem should be reduced as research continues to develop advanced CFCC constituents and fabrication routes.

  13. VHDL Control Routing Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Venard, J.

    1995-07-10

    The control router simulates a backplane consisting of up to 16 slot. Slot 0, reserved for a control module (cr-ctrl), generates the system clocks and provides the serial interface to the Gating Logic. The remaining 15 slots (1-15) contain routing modules (cr mod), each having up to 64 serial inputs and outputs with FIFOs. Messages to be transmitted to the Control Router are taken from text files. There are currently 17 such source files. In the model, the serial output of each source is connected to multiple receivers, so that there are 8 identical messages transmitted to the router for each message file entry.

  14. New Routing Metrics for ADHOC Network Routing Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    The performance and reliability of Internet is measured using different quantities. When the quantities measured are essential and have wide range of acceptance then they are called metrics. Performance metrics enable comparison and selection among the alternatives. In computer networks, metrics are used to evaluate an application, protocol etc. Routing in adhoc networks is nontrivial. Routing protocols for adhoc networks are still evolving and there is need for continuous evaluation of them. In the literature existing, several routing protocols are evaluated using standard metrics under different conditions. This paper proposes new metrics for evaluation of routing protocols and uses them to evaluate the adhoc network routing protocols AODV, DSR, DSDV and TORA. Simulation environment is created using NS-2 simulator. Typical range of speeds, pause times and data rates are used. The results provide new insights in to the working of the routing protocols.

  15. Intelligent route surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoemaker, Robin; Sandbrink, Rody; van Voorthuijsen, Graeme

    2009-05-01

    Intelligence on abnormal and suspicious behaviour along roads in operational domains is extremely valuable for countering the IED (Improvised Explosive Device) threat. Local sensor networks at strategic spots can gather data for continuous monitoring of daily vehicle activity. Unattended intelligent ground sensor networks use simple sensing nodes, e.g. seismic, magnetic, radar, or acoustic, or combinations of these in one housing. The nodes deliver rudimentary data at any time to be processed with software that filters out the required information. At TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research) research has started on how to equip a sensor network with data analysis software to determine whether behaviour is suspicious or not. Furthermore, the nodes should be expendable, if necessary, and be small in size such that they are hard to detect by adversaries. The network should be self-configuring and self-sustaining and should be reliable, efficient, and effective during operational tasks - especially route surveillance - as well as robust in time and space. If data from these networks are combined with data from other remote sensing devices (e.g. UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles)/aerostats), an even more accurate assessment of the tactical situation is possible. This paper shall focus on the concepts of operation towards a working intelligent route surveillance (IRS) research demonstrator network for monitoring suspicious behaviour in IED sensitive domains.

  16. Enhanced PMIPv6 Route Optimization Handover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Seil; Kang, Namhi; Kim, Younghan; Yoon, Wonsik

    Packet delivery in Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) relies on an anchor node called LMA. All packets sent by a source node reach a receiver node via LMA, even though the two nodes attach to the same MAG. In some scenarios, PMIPv6 results in high delivery latency and processing costs due to this unnecessary detour. To address this issue, several PMIPv6 route optimization schemes have been proposed. However, high signaling costs and excessive delays remain when handover is performed. For this reason, we propose an enhanced PMIPv6 route optimization (EPRO) scheme. In addition, we analyze the performance of the EPRO. Analytical results indicate that the EPRO outperforms previous schemes in terms of signaling overhead and handover latency.

  17. VHDL Control Routing Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-07-10

    The control router simulates a backplane consisting of up to 16 slot. Slot 0, reserved for a control module (cr-ctrl), generates the system clocks and provides the serial interface to the Gating Logic. The remaining 15 slots (1-15) contain routing modules (cr mod), each having up to 64 serial inputs and outputs with FIFOs. Messages to be transmitted to the Control Router are taken from text files. There are currently 17 such source files. Inmore » the model, the serial output of each source is connected to multiple receivers, so that there are 8 identical messages transmitted to the router for each message file entry.« less

  18. Modelling Routes towards Learning Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tattersall, Colin; Janssen, Jose; van den Berg, Bert; Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to define the need for a route modelling language in e-learning, identifying requirements and candidate languages, before providing a recommended approach. Design/methodology/approach: Several sources of requirements are drawn from the literature then used to review available approaches to route modelling. The best…

  19. Producing gestures facilitates route learning.

    PubMed

    So, Wing Chee; Ching, Terence Han-Wei; Lim, Phoebe Elizabeth; Cheng, Xiaoqin; Ip, Kit Yee

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates whether producing gestures would facilitate route learning in a navigation task and whether its facilitation effect is comparable to that of hand movements that leave physical visible traces. In two experiments, we focused on gestures produced without accompanying speech, i.e., co-thought gestures (e.g., an index finger traces the spatial sequence of a route in the air). Adult participants were asked to study routes shown in four diagrams, one at a time. Participants reproduced the routes (verbally in Experiment 1 and non-verbally in Experiment 2) without rehearsal or after rehearsal by mentally simulating the route, by drawing it, or by gesturing (either in the air or on paper). Participants who moved their hands (either in the form of gestures or drawing) recalled better than those who mentally simulated the routes and those who did not rehearse, suggesting that hand movements produced during rehearsal facilitate route learning. Interestingly, participants who gestured the routes in the air or on paper recalled better than those who drew them on paper in both experiments, suggesting that the facilitation effect of co-thought gesture holds for both verbal and nonverbal recall modalities. It is possibly because, co-thought gesture, as a kind of representational action, consolidates spatial sequence better than drawing and thus exerting more powerful influence on spatial representation. PMID:25426624

  20. Dynamic Message Routing Using Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibler, Thorsten; Karastoyanova, Dimka; Leymann, Frank

    The Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) is composable middleware that provides applications with services such as message routing and transformation, service composition, dynamic discovery, transactional support, coordination, security features, and others. In an ESB supporting SOAP message exchange, routing algorithms typically follow the sequential SOAP message processing model, where SOAP headers are the main artefacts used to specify the message route and the processing of the payload by intermediaries along that route. This model supports neither alternative nor parallel message routes. In the case of a failing intermediary node this leads to a failure in the message delivery. Moreover, the execution order of services on SOAP message payloads at the intermediaries cannot be prescribed. In this paper, we demonstrate how these deficiencies of the SOAP message processing model can be addressed. We introduce an approach that allows for specifying SOAP message routing logic in terms of BPEL processes. We show that parallel and alternative routes for SOAP messages can be modelled and executed, and the order of services that process a message at intermediaries can be predefined to accommodate the correct processing sequence as required by the concrete application domain. Features like dynamic discovery of services and flexible service composition are leveraged to enable flexible SOAP message routing.

  1. Cri du Chat syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cerruti Mainardi, Paola

    2006-01-01

    The Cri du Chat syndrome (CdCS) is a genetic disease resulting from a deletion of variable size occurring on the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p-). The incidence ranges from 1:15,000 to 1:50,000 live-born infants. The main clinical features are a high-pitched monochromatic cry, microcephaly, broad nasal bridge, epicanthal folds, micrognathia, abnormal dermatoglyphics, and severe psychomotor and mental retardation. Malformations, although not very frequent, may be present: cardiac, neurological and renal abnormalities, preauricular tags, syndactyly, hypospadias, and cryptorchidism. Molecular cytogenetic analysis has allowed a cytogenetic and phenotypic map of 5p to be defined, even if results from the studies reported up to now are not completely in agreement. Genotype-phenotype correlation studies showed a clinical and cytogenetic variability. The identification of phenotypic subsets associated with a specific size and type of deletion is of diagnostic and prognostic relevance. Specific growth and psychomotor development charts have been established. Two genes, Semaphorin F (SEMAF) and δ-catenin (CTNND2), which have been mapped to the "critical regions", are potentially involved in cerebral development and their deletion may be associated with mental retardation in CdCS patients. Deletion of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, localised to 5p15.33, could contribute to the phenotypic changes in CdCS. The critical regions were recently refined by using array comparative genomic hybridisation. The cat-like cry critical region was further narrowed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and three candidate genes were characterised in this region. The diagnosis is based on typical clinical manifestations. Karyotype analysis and, in doubtful cases, FISH analysis will confirm the diagnosis. There is no specific therapy for CdCS but early rehabilitative and educational interventions improve the prognosis and considerable progress has been made in

  2. [Alternative routes for insulin administration].

    PubMed

    Lassmann-Vague, V

    1994-01-01

    Ideally, insulin administration should be done through portal route, with a precise kinetic. It should also lead to a reproducible biologic effect, with minimal side-effects and be acceptable for the majority of diabetic patients. Many alternative routes of insulin administration try to fulfill one or more of these criteria. Intraperitoneal route is already used with implantable pumps. It has proven safety and metabolic efficacy, particularly upon the reduction of severe hypoglycaemia. Nasal route could provide a rapid kinetic, but its long-term utilisation depends on improvement of bioavailability and studies of local toxicity. Results concerning intrabronchic insulin seem promising, but are still preliminary. In the future, the choice among these alternative routes of insulin administration will be guided by the development of a closed-loop system. PMID:8001707

  3. Multicultural Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Charrles; Kampfe, Charlene

    This chapter examines issues related to working with diverse populations with addictions. A brief history of multiculturalism and multicultural counseling is presented. Issues particular to the treatment of people with addictions are examined, as well as prevention and assessment issues. Substance abuse issues among people in the gay male and…

  4. Past tense route priming.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Shikora, Emily R; Balota, David A

    2013-03-01

    The present research examined whether lexical (whole word) or more rule-based (morphological constituent) processes can be locally biased by experimental list context in past tense verb inflection. In Experiment 1, younger and older adults completed a past tense inflection task in which list context was manipulated across blocks containing regular past tense verbs (e.g. REACH-REACHED) or irregular past tense verbs (TEACH-TAUGHT). Critical targets, consisting of half regular and half irregular verbs, were embedded within blocks and participants' inflection response latency and accuracy were assessed. The results yielded a cross-over interaction in response latencies for both young and older adults. In the regular context there was a robust regularity effect: regular target verbs were conjugated faster than irregular target verbs. In contrast, in the irregular context, irregular target verbs were conjugated faster than regular target verbs. Experiment 2 used the same targets but in the context of either standard nonwords or nonwords ending in "-ED" to test the possibility of a phonological basis for the effect. The effect of context was eliminated. The results support the notion that distinct processes in past tense verb production can be locally biased by list context and, as shown in Experiment 2, this route priming effect was not due to phonological priming. PMID:23291293

  5. Congestion control and routing over satellite networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jinhua

    Satellite networks and transmissions find their application in fields of computer communications, telephone communications, television broadcasting, transportation, space situational awareness systems and so on. This thesis mainly focuses on two networking issues affecting satellite networking: network congestion control and network routing optimization. Congestion, which leads to long queueing delays, packet losses or both, is a networking problem that has drawn the attention of many researchers. The goal of congestion control mechanisms is to ensure high bandwidth utilization while avoiding network congestion by regulating the rate at which traffic sources inject packets into a network. In this thesis, we propose a stable congestion controller using data-driven, safe switching control theory to improve the dynamic performance of satellite Transmission Control Protocol/Active Queue Management (TCP/AQM) networks. First, the stable region of the Proportional-Integral (PI) parameters for a nominal model is explored. Then, a PI controller, whose parameters are adaptively tuned by switching among members of a given candidate set, using observed plant data, is presented and compared with some classical AQM policy examples, such as Random Early Detection (RED) and fixed PI control. A new cost detectable switching law with an interval cost function switching algorithm, which improves the performance and also saves the computational cost, is developed and compared with a law commonly used in the switching control literature. Finite-gain stability of the system is proved. A fuzzy logic PI controller is incorporated as a special candidate to achieve good performance at all nominal points with the available set of candidate controllers. Simulations are presented to validate the theory. An effocient routing algorithm plays a key role in optimizing network resources. In this thesis, we briefly analyze Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite networks, review the Cross Entropy (CE

  6. Actes du colloque sur le bilinguisme, Universite de Neuchatel, 14/15 Septembre, 1981 (Proceedings of the Colloquium on Bilingualism, University of Neuchatel, September 14-15, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TRANEL, 1982

    1982-01-01

    This issue contains proceedings of a colloquium on linguistics at the University of Neuchatel: (1) "Propositions epistemologiques pour une etude du bilinguisme (Epistemological Propositions for a Study of Bilingualism)," by B. Py; (2) "Comment on di ca? Prolegomenes a une etude de la composante semantique du langage des migrants (How Do You Say…

  7. 14 CFR 121.95 - Route width.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Approval of Routes: Domestic and Flag Operations § 121.95 Route width... routes in the case of certificate holders conducting flag operations) have a width equal to...

  8. Reverse flood routing with the inverted Muskingum storage routing scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koussis, A. D.; Mazi, K.; Lykoudis, S.; Argiriou, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    This work treats reverse flood routing aiming at signal identification: inflows are inferred from observed outflows by orienting the Muskingum scheme against the wave propagation direction. Routing against the wave propagation is an ill-posed, inverse problem (small errors amplify, leading to large spurious responses); therefore, the reverse solution must be smoothness-constrained towards stability and uniqueness (regularised). Theoretical constrains on the coefficients of the reverse routing scheme assist in error control, but optimal grids are derived by numerical experimentation. Exact solutions of the convection-diffusion equation, for a single and a composite wave, are reverse-routed and in both instances the wave is backtracked well for a range of grid parameters. In the arduous test of a square pulse, the result is comparable to those of more complex methods. Seeding outflow data with random errors enhances instability; to cope with the spurious oscillations, the reversed solution is conditioned by smoothing via low-pass filtering or optimisation. Good-quality inflow hydrographs are recovered with either smoothing treatment, yet the computationally demanding optimisation is superior. Finally, the reverse Muskingum routing method is compared to a reverse-solution method of the St. Venant equations of flood wave motion and is found to perform equally well, at a fraction of the computing effort. This study leads us to conclude that the efficiently attained good inflow identification rests on the simplicity of the Muskingum reverse routing scheme that endows it with numerical robustness.

  9. School Bus Routing and Scheduling: When to Use Computer-Assisted Methods and Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walcott, Wayne; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses issues concerning the use of computers in school bus scheduling and routing. Examines the advantages, technical considerations, and costs of changing to a computerized system. Offers a five-point approach toward implementation and includes a table of comparative data for routing and scheduling models for a typical school bus fleet. (IW)

  10. 76 FR 57910 - Regulated Navigation Area; Route 24 Bridge Construction, Tiverton and Portsmouth, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Route 24 Bridge Construction... waters of the Sakonnet River under and surrounding construction of the new Route 24 bridge that...

  11. Multipath routing in wireless sensor networks: survey and research challenges.

    PubMed

    Radi, Marjan; Dezfouli, Behnam; Abu Bakar, Kamalrulnizam; Lee, Malrey

    2012-01-01

    A wireless sensor network is a large collection of sensor nodes with limited power supply and constrained computational capability. Due to the restricted communication range and high density of sensor nodes, packet forwarding in sensor networks is usually performed through multi-hop data transmission. Therefore, routing in wireless sensor networks has been considered an important field of research over the past decade. Nowadays, multipath routing approach is widely used in wireless sensor networks to improve network performance through efficient utilization of available network resources. Accordingly, the main aim of this survey is to present the concept of the multipath routing approach and its fundamental challenges, as well as the basic motivations for utilizing this technique in wireless sensor networks. In addition, we present a comprehensive taxonomy on the existing multipath routing protocols, which are especially designed for wireless sensor networks. We highlight the primary motivation behind the development of each protocol category and explain the operation of different protocols in detail, with emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, this paper compares and summarizes the state-of-the-art multipath routing techniques from the network application point of view. Finally, we identify open issues for further research in the development of multipath routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. PMID:22368490

  12. Stop_times based Routing Protocol for VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moawad, Hafez; Shaaban, Eman; Taha Fayed, Zaki

    2013-11-01

    Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) is a special class of Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) where vehicles are considered as MANET nodes with wireless links. The key difference of VANET and MANET is the special mobility pattern and rapidly changeable topology. There has been significant interest in improving safety and traffic efficiency using VANET. The design of routing protocols in VANET is important and necessary issue for support the smart ITS. Existing routing protocols of MANET are not suitable for VANET. AOMDV is the most important on demand multipath routing protocol. This paper proposes SSD-AOMDV as VANET routing protocol. SSD-AOMDV improves AOMDV to suit VANET characteristics. SSD-AOMDV adds the mobility parameters: Stop_times, Speed and Direction to hop count as new AOMDV routing metric to select next hop during the route discovery phase. Stop_times metric is added to simulate buses mobility pattern and traffic lights at intersections. Simulation results show that SSD-AOMDV achieves better performance compared to AOMDV.

  13. Reverse flood routing with the inverted Muskingum storage routing scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koussis, A. D.; Mazi, K.; Lykoudis, S.; Argyriou, A.

    2010-09-01

    Motivation On occasion, flood related questions are posed in the reverse from the conventional sense, e.g.: Which inflow created the flow observed at cross-section X, or the flood profile observed along reach Y? This is a signal identification type problem (hydrologic forensics). A related question concerns the operation of a reservoir, via optimal outflow control, so as to minimise downstream flood damage. Solution of the aforementioned problems requires routing of floods in the upstream direction. This is an inverse problem, and as such it is not well posed. In routing against the wave propagation, small errors in the flow measurements, or rounding errors, are amplified leading to instability, i.e., to spurious, large changes in the response (inflow hydrograph). Therefore, for the reverse solution to be stable it must be constrained by a smoothness condition; this however does not ensure its uniqueness. Storage routing models as approximate diffusion wave models By appropriate choice of their parameter values, storage routing models approximate closely diffusion-wave (DW) behaviour, if dominant flood propagation mode is that of kinematic waves (KW), which is very often true. We solve the flood signal identification problem by reversing the Muskingum routing scheme. The Muskingum routing scheme derives from a first-order accurate FD discretisation of the KW equation yet yields second-order accurate DW solutions by matching the numerical diffusion coefficient of that KW equation solution scheme to the DW equation’s hydraulic diffusion coefficient. Formulation and testing of a reverse routing scheme based on Muskingum routing Theoretical analysis of the reversed Muskingum routing scheme yields nominal grid design rules; however, we study optimal grid design mainly by numerical experimentation. First, we reverse an exact outflow hydrograph (a single-wave solution of the convection-diffusion equation), and then demonstrate the scheme’s ability to reverse

  14. Protocol independent adaptive route update for VANET.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Asim; Ajmal, Sana; Qayyum, Amir

    2014-01-01

    High relative node velocity and high active node density have presented challenges to existing routing approaches within highly scaled ad hoc wireless networks, such as Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Efficient routing requires finding optimum route with minimum delay, updating it on availability of a better one, and repairing it on link breakages. Current routing protocols are generally focused on finding and maintaining an efficient route, with very less emphasis on route update. Adaptive route update usually becomes impractical for dense networks due to large routing overheads. This paper presents an adaptive route update approach which can provide solution for any baseline routing protocol. The proposed adaptation eliminates the classification of reactive and proactive by categorizing them as logical conditions to find and update the route. PMID:24723807

  15. Protocol Independent Adaptive Route Update for VANET

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Asim; Qayyum, Amir

    2014-01-01

    High relative node velocity and high active node density have presented challenges to existing routing approaches within highly scaled ad hoc wireless networks, such as Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Efficient routing requires finding optimum route with minimum delay, updating it on availability of a better one, and repairing it on link breakages. Current routing protocols are generally focused on finding and maintaining an efficient route, with very less emphasis on route update. Adaptive route update usually becomes impractical for dense networks due to large routing overheads. This paper presents an adaptive route update approach which can provide solution for any baseline routing protocol. The proposed adaptation eliminates the classification of reactive and proactive by categorizing them as logical conditions to find and update the route. PMID:24723807

  16. A Multi-Agent Framework for Packet Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Dayon; Zhang, Minji; Yang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been widely investigated in recent years. One of the fundamental issues in WSNs is packet routing, because in many application domains, packets have to be routed from source nodes to destination nodes as soon and as energy efficiently as possible. To address this issue, a large number of routing approaches have been proposed. Although every existing routing approach has advantages, they also have some disadvantages. In this paper, a multi-agent framework is proposed that can assist existing routing approaches to improve their routing performance. This framework enables each sensor node to build a cooperative neighbour set based on past routing experience. Such cooperative neighbours, in turn, can help the sensor to effectively relay packets in the future. This framework is independent of existing routing approaches and can be used to assist many existing routing approaches. Simulation results demonstrate the good performance of this framework in terms of four metrics: average delivery latency, successful delivery ratio, number of live nodes and total sensing coverage. PMID:25928063

  17. The Consistent Vehicle Routing Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Groer, Christopher S; Golden, Bruce; Edward, Wasil

    2009-01-01

    In the small package shipping industry (as in other industries), companies try to differentiate themselves by providing high levels of customer service. This can be accomplished in several ways, including online tracking of packages, ensuring on-time delivery, and offering residential pickups. Some companies want their drivers to develop relationships with customers on a route and have the same drivers visit the same customers at roughly the same time on each day that the customers need service. These service requirements, together with traditional constraints on vehicle capacity and route length, define a variant of the classical capacitated vehicle routing problem, which we call the consistent VRP (ConVRP). In this paper, we formulate the problem as a mixed-integer program and develop an algorithm to solve the ConVRP that is based on the record-to-record travel algorithm. We compare the performance of our algorithm to the optimal mixed-integer program solutions for a set of small problems and then apply our algorithm to five simulated data sets with 1,000 customers and a real-world data set with more than 3,700 customers. We provide a technique for generating ConVRP benchmark problems from vehicle routing problem instances given in the literature and provide our solutions to these instances. The solutions produced by our algorithm on all problems do a very good job of meeting customer service objectives with routes that have a low total travel time.

  18. W.E.B. DuBois's Challenge to Scientific Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Carol M.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes that a direct and authoritative challenge to the scientific racism of the late eighteenth and early twentieth centuries was urgently needed, and was one of the leading rhetorical contributions of W.E.B. DuBois. Specifically examines three issues: social Darwinism, the eugenics movement, and psychologists' measurement of intelligence.…

  19. Student Profile, College of DuPage, Fall 1986-1989. Topical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Gary

    Prepared to provide staff with a more comprehensive profile of the student body of the College of DuPage (COD), Illinois, this report looks at changes in the student body and its increasing diversity over the last 5 years, and raises issues for staff discussion and planning. The report is divided into 18 sections, each consisting of an…

  20. 76 FR 78968 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook and DuPage Counties, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... Federal Highway Administration Federal Aviation Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cook and Du... (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Revised Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY: The FHWA and FAA are issuing this notice to advise the public that a Tier Two Environmental...

  1. 77 FR 2774 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement: Fond du Lac...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ...The FHWA is issuing this notice to advise the public that a limited scope Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) will be prepared for the proposed capacity improvements to Wisconsin Highway 23 from U.S. Highway 151 to County Highway P in Fond du Lac and Sheboygan Counties,...

  2. Issues Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sando, Joe S.

    A program for teaching techniques of critical thinking on issues concerning American Indians was developed for students at Albuquerque Indian School. It was designed to include not only the students but also their families with learning activities that required consultation in search of answers or understanding. The first issue presented sought to…

  3. Impact of wire topology on channel routing

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, J.R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Channel routing is a method that has been widely used to overcome the inherent difficulties in the routing stage of automated VLSI chip and printed circuit board design. Almost all previous work on channel routing has restricted the wires to paths that are strictly monotonic (i.e., paths that do not backtrack in either the horizontal or vertical direction). The impact on single layer channel routing of wire topologies that provide considerably more wire routing flexibility than has previously been allowed is addressed here. A hierarchy of routing classes stemming from these generalized wire topologies is defined. It is shown that each of the routing classes is applicable to both the two row routing scenario (river routing) and the single row routing scenario. The routing classes are examined to see if the flexibility provided by the new wire types is useful for single row routing. Global routing under the channel routing scenario is briefly examined. In particular, a simplistic two layer global channel routing problem is shown to be NP-complete using two separate optimization criteria.

  4. Routing Algorithm Exploits Spatial Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okino, Clayton; Jennings, Esther

    2004-01-01

    A recently developed routing algorithm for broadcasting in an ad hoc wireless communication network takes account of, and exploits, the spatial relationships among the locations of nodes, in addition to transmission power levels and distances between the nodes. In contrast, most prior algorithms for discovering routes through ad hoc networks rely heavily on transmission power levels and utilize limited graph-topology techniques that do not involve consideration of the aforesaid spatial relationships. The present algorithm extracts the relevant spatial-relationship information by use of a construct denoted the relative-neighborhood graph (RNG).

  5. Next-Generation WDM Network Design and Routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Danny H. K.; Bensaou, Brahim

    2003-08-01

    Call for Papers The Editors of JON are soliciting papers on WDM Network Design and Routing. The aim in this focus issue is to publish original research on topics including - but not limited to - the following: - WDM network architectures and protocols - GMPLS network architectures - Wavelength converter placement in WDM networks - Routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) in WDM networks - Protection and restoration strategies and algorithms in WDM networks - Traffic grooming in WDM networks - Dynamic routing strategies and algorithms - Optical Burst Switching - Support of Multicast - Protection and restoration in WDM networks - Performance analysis and optimization in WDM networks Manuscript Submission To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON, indicating "WDM Network Design" in the "Comments" field of the online submission form. For all other questions relating to this focus issue, please send an e-mail to jon@osa.org, subject line "WDM Network Design." Additional information can be found on the JON website: http://www.osa-jon.org/submission/. Schedule Paper Submission Deadline: November 1, 2003 Notification to Authors: January 15, 2004 Final Manuscripts to Publisher: February 15, 2004 Publication of Focus Issue: February/March 2004

  6. Next-Generation WDM Network Design and Routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Danny H. K.; Bensaou, Brahim

    2003-10-01

    Call for Papers The Editors of JON are soliciting papers on WDM Network Design and Routing. The aim in this focus issue is to publish original research on topics including - but not limited to - the following: - WDM network architectures and protocols - GMPLS network architectures - Wavelength converter placement in WDM networks - Routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) in WDM networks - Protection and restoration strategies and algorithms in WDM networks - Traffic grooming in WDM networks - Dynamic routing strategies and algorithms - Optical burst switching - Support of multicast - Protection and restoration in WDM networks - Performance analysis and optimization in WDM networks Manuscript Submission To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON, indicating "WDM Network Design" in the "Comments" field of the online submission form. For all other questions relating to this focus issue, please send an e-mail to jon@osa.org, subject line "WDM Network Design." Additional information can be found on the JON website: http://www.osa-jon.org/submission/. Schedule - Paper Submission Deadline: November 1, 2003 - Notification to Authors: January 15, 2004 - Final Manuscripts to Publisher: February 15, 2004 - Publication of Focus Issue: February/March 2004

  7. Next-Generation WDM Network Design and Routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Danny H. K.; Bensaou, Brahim

    2003-09-01

    Call for Papers The Editors of JON are soliciting papers on WDM Network Design and Routing. The aim in this focus issue is to publish original research on topics including - but not limited to - the following: - WDM network architectures and protocols - GMPLS network architectures - Wavelength converter placement in WDM networks - Routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) in WDM networks - Protection and restoration strategies and algorithms in WDM networks - Traffic grooming in WDM networks - Dynamic routing strategies and algorithms - Optical burst switching - Support of multicast - Protection and restoration in WDM networks - Performance analysis and optimization in WDM networks Manuscript Submission To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON, indicating "WDM Network Design" in the "Comments" field of the online submission form. For all other questions relating to this focus issue, please send an e-mail to jon@osa.org, subject line "WDM Network Design." Additional information can be found on the JON website: http://www.osa-jon.org/submission/. Schedule - Paper Submission Deadline: November 1, 2003 - Notification to Authors: January 15, 2004 - Final Manuscripts to Publisher: February 15, 2004 - Publication of Focus Issue: February/March 2004

  8. FAA/NASA En Route Noise Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Clemans A. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    Aircraft community noise annoyance is traditionally a concern only in localities near airports. The proposed introduction of large commercial airplanes with advanced turboprop propulsion systems with supersonic propellers has given rise to concerns of noise annoyance in areas previously considered not to be impacted by aircraft noise. A symposium was held to assess the current knowledge of factors important to the impact of en route noise and to aid in the formulation of FAA and NASA programs in the area. Papers were invited on human response to aircraft noise in areas with low ambient noise levels, aircraft noise heard indoors and outdoors, aircraft noise in recreational areas, detection of propeller and jet aircraft noise, and methodological issues relevant to the design of future studies.

  9. Capacitated arc routing problem and its extensions in waste collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadzli, Mohammad; Najwa, Nurul; Luis, Martino

    2015-05-01

    Capacitated arc routing problem (CARP) is the youngest generation of graph theory that focuses on solving the edge/arc routing for optimality. Since many years, operational research devoted to CARP counterpart, known as vehicle routing problem (VRP), which does not fit to several real cases such like waste collection problem and road maintenance. In this paper, we highlighted several extensions of capacitated arc routing problem (CARP) that represents the real-life problem of vehicle operation in waste collection. By purpose, CARP is designed to find a set of routes for vehicles that satisfies all pre-setting constraints in such that all vehicles must start and end at a depot, service a set of demands on edges (or arcs) exactly once without exceeding the capacity, thus the total fleet cost is minimized. We also addressed the differentiation between CARP and VRP in waste collection. Several issues have been discussed including stochastic demands and time window problems in order to show the complexity and importance of CARP in the related industry. A mathematical model of CARP and its new version is presented by considering several factors such like delivery cost, lateness penalty and delivery time.

  10. Capacitated arc routing problem and its extensions in waste collection

    SciTech Connect

    Fadzli, Mohammad; Najwa, Nurul; Luis, Martino

    2015-05-15

    Capacitated arc routing problem (CARP) is the youngest generation of graph theory that focuses on solving the edge/arc routing for optimality. Since many years, operational research devoted to CARP counterpart, known as vehicle routing problem (VRP), which does not fit to several real cases such like waste collection problem and road maintenance. In this paper, we highlighted several extensions of capacitated arc routing problem (CARP) that represents the real-life problem of vehicle operation in waste collection. By purpose, CARP is designed to find a set of routes for vehicles that satisfies all pre-setting constraints in such that all vehicles must start and end at a depot, service a set of demands on edges (or arcs) exactly once without exceeding the capacity, thus the total fleet cost is minimized. We also addressed the differentiation between CARP and VRP in waste collection. Several issues have been discussed including stochastic demands and time window problems in order to show the complexity and importance of CARP in the related industry. A mathematical model of CARP and its new version is presented by considering several factors such like delivery cost, lateness penalty and delivery time.

  11. Fault-tolerant self-routing computer network topology

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    This document reports on the development and analysis of a new, easily expandable, highly fault tolerant self-routing computer network topology. The topology applies equally to any general-purpose computer-networking environment, whether local, metropolitan, or wide area. This new connectivity scheme is named the spiral topology because the architecture is built around modules of four computer nodes each, connected by top and bottom spirals. The spiral topology features a simple internal self-routing algorithm that adapts quickly, and automatically, to failed nodes and links. The six most important direct consequences of the spiral computer-network architecture are the topology's (1) ease of expansion; (2) fast, on-the-fly self-routing; (3) extremely high tolerance to network faults; (4) increased network security; (5) potential for the total elimination of store and forward transmissions due to routing decision delays; and (6) rendering the maximum path length issue moots. The fast on-the-fly routing capability of the spiral topology makes it highly amenable to fiber topic communications in any networking environment.

  12. Roots/Routes: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Dalene M.

    2009-01-01

    This narrative acts as an articulation of a journey of many routes. Following Part I of the same research journey of rootedness/routedness, it debates the nature of transformation and transcendence beyond personal and political paradoxes informed by neoliberalism and related repressive globalizing discourses. Through a more personal, descriptive,…

  13. Judaism and the Silk Route.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Demonstrates that the Judeans traveled along the Ancient Silk Route. Discusses the Iranian influence on the formation of Jewish religious ideas. Considers the development of Jewish trade networks, focusing on the Radanites (Jewish traders), the Jewish presence in the Far East, and the survival of Judaism in central Asia. (CMK)

  14. Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eslami, Hassan; Eshow, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview, presents the high level software architecture of DWR, based on the CTAS software framework and the Direct-To automation tool. The document also covers external and internal data flows, required dataset, changes to the Direct-To software for DWR, collection of software statistics, and the code structure.

  15. Different "routes" to a cognitive map: dissociable forms of spatial knowledge derived from route and cartographic map learning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Zherdeva, Ksenia; Ekstrom, Arne D

    2014-10-01

    An important, but as yet incompletely resolved, issue is whether spatial knowledge acquired during navigation differs significantly from that acquired by studying a cartographic map. This, in turn, is relevant to understanding the generalizability of the concept of a "cognitive map," which is often likened to a cartographic map. On the basis of previous theoretical proposals, we hypothesized that route and cartographic map learning would produce differences in the dynamics of acquisition of landmark-referenced (allocentric) knowledge, relative to view-referenced (egocentric) knowledge. We compared this model with competing predictions from two other models linked to route versus map learning. To test these ideas, participants repeatedly performed a judgment of relative direction (JRD) and a scene- and orientation-dependent pointing (SOP) task while undergoing route and cartographic map learning of virtual spatial environments. In Experiment 1, we found that map learning led to significantly faster improvements in JRD pointing accuracy than did route learning. In Experiment 2, in contrast, we found that route learning led to more immediate and greater improvements overall in SOP accuracy, as compared to map learning. Comparing Experiments 1 and 2, we found a significant three-way interaction effect, indicating that improvements in performance differed for the JRD versus the SOP task as a function of route versus map learning. We interpreted these findings as suggesting that the learning modality differentially affects the dynamics of how we utilize primarily landmark-referenced versus view-referenced knowledge, suggesting potential differences in how we utilize spatial representations acquired from routes versus cartographic maps. PMID:24845757

  16. Family Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... not mean that everyone gets along all the time. Conflicts are a part of family life. Many things can lead to conflict, such as illness, disability, addiction, job loss, school problems, and marital issues. Listening to ...

  17. Access routes for nutritional therapy.

    PubMed

    Waitzberg, D L; Plopper, C; Terra, R M

    2000-12-01

    Enteral nutrition (EN) and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) may provide life-sustaining therapy for surgical patients. The duration of nutritional therapy (enteral or parenteral) implies distinct access routes. We review the main aspects related to access routes for nutrient delivery. The enteral route, whenever feasible, is preferred. For EN lasting less than 6 weeks, nasoenteric tubes are the route of choice. Conversely, enterostomy tubes should be used for longer-term enteral feeding and can be placed surgically or with fluoroscopic and endoscopic assistance. The first choice for patients who will not be submitted to laparotomy is percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. Postpyloric access, although not consensual, must be considered when there is a high risk of aspiration. For intravenous delivery of nutrients lasting less than 10 days, the peripheral route can be used. However, because of frequent infusion phlebitis, its role is still in discussion. Central venous catheters (CVCs) for TPN delivery may be (1) nonimplantable, percutaneous, nontunneled-used for a few days to 3 to 4 weeks; (2) partially implantable, percutaneous, tunneled-used for longer periods and permanent access; or (3) totally implantable subcutaneous ports-also used for long-term or permanent access. The subclavian vein is usually the insertion site of choice for central venous catheters. Implantable ports are associated with lower rates of septic complications than percutaneous CVCs. The catheter with the least number of necessary lumens should be applied. Central venous nutrient delivery can also be accomplished through peripherally inserted central catheters, which avoid insertion-related risks. PMID:11193710

  18. Advanced Technologies Lead iNto New Reprogramming Routes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Qian, Li

    2016-09-01

    Two recent papers provide new insights on transcriptional dynamics and epigenetic remodeling during reprogramming of induced neurons (iNs). Treutlein et al. (2016) applied single-cell transcriptomics to identify routes and detours during early iN induction, while in this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Black et al. (2016) employed gene editing to activate endogenous loci of the reprogramming factors. PMID:27588744

  19. Drug repositioning summit: finding new routes to success.

    PubMed

    Campas, Clara

    2009-03-01

    The Third Annual Drug Repositioning Summit 2008 was held at the Hyatt Harborside Hotel in Boston, Massachusetts, October 6-7, and focused on new strategies for drug repositioning. The meeting, organized by The Cambridge Healthtech Institute, brought together a panel of speakers from the industry and the academia, who discussed and proposed new routes for success in drug repositioning based on their own experience in the field. This meeting report summarizes the most relevant presentations and issues discussed. PMID:19330171

  20. Reliable Freestanding Position-Based Routing in Highway Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Galaviz-Mosqueda, Gabriel A.; Aquino-Santos, Raúl; Villarreal-Reyes, Salvador; Rivera-Rodríguez, Raúl; Villaseñor-González, Luis; Edwards, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) are considered by car manufacturers and the research community as the enabling technology to radically improve the safety, efficiency and comfort of everyday driving. However, before VANET technology can fulfill all its expected potential, several difficulties must be addressed. One key issue arising when working with VANETs is the complexity of the networking protocols compared to those used by traditional infrastructure networks. Therefore, proper design of the routing strategy becomes a main issue for the effective deployment of VANETs. In this paper, a reliable freestanding position-based routing algorithm (FPBR) for highway scenarios is proposed. For this scenario, several important issues such as the high mobility of vehicles and the propagation conditions may affect the performance of the routing strategy. These constraints have only been partially addressed in previous proposals. In contrast, the design approach used for developing FPBR considered the constraints imposed by a highway scenario and implements mechanisms to overcome them. FPBR performance is compared to one of the leading protocols for highway scenarios. Performance metrics show that FPBR yields similar results when considering freespace propagation conditions, and outperforms the leading protocol when considering a realistic highway path loss model. PMID:23202159

  1. Reliable freestanding position-based routing in highway scenarios.

    PubMed

    Galaviz-Mosqueda, Gabriel A; Aquino-Santos, Raúl; Villarreal-Reyes, Salvador; Rivera-Rodríguez, Raúl; Villaseñor-González, Luis; Edwards, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) are considered by car manufacturers and the research community as the enabling technology to radically improve the safety, efficiency and comfort of everyday driving. However, before VANET technology can fulfill all its expected potential, several difficulties must be addressed. One key issue arising when working with VANETs is the complexity of the networking protocols compared to those used by traditional infrastructure networks. Therefore, proper design of the routing strategy becomes a main issue for the effective deployment of VANETs. In this paper, a reliable freestanding position-based routing algorithm (FPBR) for highway scenarios is proposed. For this scenario, several important issues such as the high mobility of vehicles and the propagation conditions may affect the performance of the routing strategy. These constraints have only been partially addressed in previous proposals. In contrast, the design approach used for developing FPBR considered the constraints imposed by a highway scenario and implements mechanisms to overcome them. FPBR performance is compared to one of the leading protocols for highway scenarios. Performance metrics show that FPBR yields similar results when considering freespace propagation conditions, and outperforms the leading protocol when considering a realistic highway path loss model. PMID:23202159

  2. Computerized Bus Routing in San Francisco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caswell, Peter J.; Jungherr, J. Anton

    1979-01-01

    A computerized routing and scheduling system for the San Francisco Public Schools includes the batch processing of bus route assignments and schedules for all schools and the online terminal processing of daily changes. (Author/MLF)

  3. Medicolegal issues.

    PubMed

    Torres, Abel; Konda, Sailesh; Nino, Tanya; de Golian, Emily

    2016-01-01

    The legal landscape in dermatology is constantly evolving. Dermatologists should nurture strong physician-patient relationships with proper informed consent and stay abreast of legal issues as they pertain to today's practice of medicine. Medicolegal issues that have risen to the forefront include wrong-site surgery, delegation of procedures to nonphysician operators, and compounding of medications. Additionally, although the marriage of health care and technology has facilitated our practice of medicine, it has opened doors to new medicolegal pitfalls associated with the use of electronic medical records, teledermatology, and even social media. This contribution will highlight some of the common medicolegal issues in dermatology along with recommendations to minimize exposure to litigation. PMID:26773630

  4. Daisy Found on 'Route 66'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This composite image from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit gives an approximately true-color rendering of a daisy-like pattern of brushed circles that Spirit produced on a rock called 'Route 66.' Spirit used the rock abrasion tool to complete this 6-position 'RAT daisy' on sol 99. It took this image on sol 100, April 14, 2004.

    The purpose for these large brushings is to create a large enough patch of treated surface area for the miniature thermal emission spectrometer to analyze. Scientists had previously conducted a brushing like this one on the rock 'Mazatzal.' The brushed area of Route 66 looks very different from the brushed area of Mazatzal, leading scientists to think that the rocks although both light in tone actually have different coating types.

  5. Blind Alley Aware ACO Routing Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Masaya; Otani, Kazuo

    2010-10-01

    The routing problem is applied to various engineering fields. Many researchers study this problem. In this paper, we propose a new routing algorithm which is based on Ant Colony Optimization. The proposed algorithm introduces the tabu search mechanism to escape the blind alley. Thus, the proposed algorithm enables to find the shortest route, even if the map data contains the blind alley. Experiments using map data prove the effectiveness in comparison with Dijkstra algorithm which is the most popular conventional routing algorithm.

  6. 46 CFR 45.175 - Applicable routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicable routes. 45.175 Section 45.175 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Unmanned River Barges on Lake Michigan Routes § 45.175 Applicable routes. This subpart applies to the following...

  7. 46 CFR 45.175 - Applicable routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicable routes. 45.175 Section 45.175 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Unmanned River Barges on Lake Michigan Routes § 45.175 Applicable routes. This subpart applies to the following...

  8. 46 CFR 45.175 - Applicable routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicable routes. 45.175 Section 45.175 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Unmanned River Barges on Lake Michigan Routes § 45.175 Applicable routes. This subpart applies to the following...

  9. 46 CFR 45.175 - Applicable routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicable routes. 45.175 Section 45.175 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Unmanned River Barges on Lake Michigan Routes § 45.175 Applicable routes. This subpart applies to the following...

  10. 46 CFR 45.175 - Applicable routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicable routes. 45.175 Section 45.175 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Unmanned River Barges on Lake Michigan Routes § 45.175 Applicable routes. This subpart applies to the following...

  11. Bond Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Rachel H.

    2000-01-01

    Notes trends toward increased borrowing by colleges and universities and offers guidelines for institutions that are considering issuing bonds to raise money for capital projects. Discussion covers advantages of using bond financing, how use of bonds impacts on traditional fund raising, other cautions and concerns, and some troubling aspects of…

  12. Sanskrit Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Barbara Stoler, Ed.

    1971-01-01

    This issue of "Mahfil" is devoted to Sanskrit literature and contains a note on Sanskrit pronunciation and selections of Sanskrit literature. It also contains articles analyzing and discussing various aspects of the literature, including "Sanskrit Rhetoric and Poetic,""The Creative Role of the Goddess Vac in the 'Rgveda,'""Vedic and Epic…

  13. Unaddressed Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochester, J. Martin

    2005-01-01

    Walter Parker's January article, "Teaching Against Idiocy," raises important and fascinating issues relating to the proper role and function of the K-12 social studies classroom. Although J. Martin Rochester, the author of this article, agrees with his basic premise that schools obviously have an obligation to help promote citizenship education,…

  14. A necessary and sufficient condition for deadlock-free adaptive routing in wormhole networks

    SciTech Connect

    Duato, J.

    1994-12-31

    Deadlock avoidance is a key issue in wormhole networks. A first approach consists of removing the cyclic dependencies between channels. Although this is a necessary and sufficient condition for deadlock-free deterministic routing, it is only a sufficient condition for deadlock-free adaptive routing. A more powerful approach only requires the absence of cyclic dependencies on a connected channel subset. The remaining channels can be used in almost any way. In this paper, we propose a necessary and sufficient condition for deadlock-free adaptive routing. This condition is the key for the design of maximally adaptive routing algorithms with minimum restrictions. Some examples are given, showing the application of the new theory. In particular, we propose a partially adaptive routing algorithm for k-ary n-cubes which doubles the throughput without increasing the hardware complexity significantly.

  15. 76 FR 47529 - Port Access Route Study: In the Waters of Montauk Channel and Block Island Sound

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... and within which the direction of traffic flow may be recommended. Recommended route means a route of... our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Discussion I...: We announced the PARS in a notice published in the Federal Register on July 1, 2005 (70 FR 38061)....

  16. Les plaies du tendon patellaire

    PubMed Central

    Mechchat, Atif; Elidrissi, Mohammed; Mardy, Abdelhak; Elayoubi, Abdelghni; Shimi, Mohammed; Elibrahimi, Abdelhalim; Elmrini, Abdelmajid

    2014-01-01

    Les plaies du tendon patellaire sont peu fréquentes et sont peu rapportés dans la littérature, contrairement aux ruptures sous cutanées. Les sections du tendon patellaire nécessitent une réparation immédiate afin de rétablir l'appareil extenseur et de permettre une récupération fonctionnelle précoce. A travers ce travail rétrospectif sur 13 cas, nous analysons les aspects épidémiologiques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques de ce type de pathologie en comparant différents scores. L’âge moyen est de 25 ans avec une prédominance masculine. Les étiologies sont dominées par les accidents de la voie publique (68%) et les agressions par agent tranchant (26%) et contendant (6 %). Tous nos patients ont bénéficié d'un parage chirurgical avec suture tendineuse direct protégée par un laçage au fils d'aciers en légère flexion. La rééducation est débutée après sédation des phénomènes inflammatoires. Au dernier recul les résultats sont excellents et bon à 92%. Nous n'avons pas noté de différence de force musculaire et d'amplitude articulaire entre le genou sain et le genou lésé. Les lésions ouvertes du tendon patellaire est relativement rare. La prise en charge chirurgicale rapide donne des résultats assez satisfaisants. La réparation est généralement renforcée par un semi-tendineux, synthétique ou métallique en forme de cadre de renfort pour faciliter la réadaptation et réduire le risque de récidive après la fin de l'immobilisation. PMID:25170379

  17. Data-Centric Routing for Intra Wireless Body Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Bangash, Javed Iqbal; Khan, Abdul Waheed; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan

    2015-09-01

    A significant proportion of the worldwide population is of the elderly people living with chronic diseases that result in high health-care cost. To provide continuous health monitoring with minimal health-care cost, Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) has been recently emerged as a promising technology. Depending on nature of sensory data, WBSNs might require a high level of Quality of Service (QoS) both in terms of delay and reliability during data reporting phase. In this paper, we propose a data-centric routing for intra WBSNs that adapts the routing strategy in accordance with the nature of data, temperature rise issue of the implanted bio-medical sensors due to electromagnetic wave absorption, and high and dynamic path loss caused by postural movement of human body and in-body wireless communication. We consider the network models both with and without relay nodes in our simulations. Due to the multi-facet routing strategy, the proposed data-centric routing achieves better performance in terms of delay, reliability, temperature rise, and energy consumption when compared with other state-of-the-art. PMID:26242749

  18. Reformulated gasoline quality issues

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, R.G.; Felch, D.E.; Edgar, M.D.

    1995-11-01

    One year ago, a panel of industry experts were interviewed in the November/December 1994 issue of Fuel Reformulation (Vol. 4, No. 6). With the focus then and now on refinery investments, the panelists were asked to forecast which refining processes would grow in importance. It is apparent from their response, and from other articles and discussions throughout the year, that hydroprocessing and catalytic conversion processes are synergistic in the overall refinery design, with flexibility and process objectives varying on a unit-by-unit case. To an extent, future refinery investments in downstream petrochemicals, such as for paraxylene production, are based on available catalytic reforming feedstock. Just a importantly, hydroprocessing units (hydrotreating, hydrocracking) needed for clean fuel production (gasoline, diesel, aviation fuel), are heavily dependent on hydrogen production from the catalytic reformer. Catalytic reforming`s significant influence in the refinery hydrogen balance, as well as its status as a significant naphtha conversion route to higher-quality fuels, make this unit a high-priority issue for engineers and planners striving for flexibility.

  19. Environmental Issues are Controversial Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Mary Allaire

    The extensive social-scientific interest and continuing relevance of environmental study assure its immediate and long-range importance in the social studies. But the crisis atmosphere surrounding this issue threatens a thoughtful, systematic approach to the subject, and poses the danger of a careless rush to activity. As social studies educators,…

  20. Dynamic information routing in complex networks.

    PubMed

    Kirst, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Battaglia, Demian

    2016-01-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyse how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs co-act to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine nonlocal network-wide communication. These results help understanding and designing information routing patterns across systems where collective dynamics co-occurs with a communication function. PMID:27067257

  1. Dynamic information routing in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirst, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Battaglia, Demian

    2016-04-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyse how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs co-act to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine nonlocal network-wide communication. These results help understanding and designing information routing patterns across systems where collective dynamics co-occurs with a communication function.

  2. Dynamic information routing in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Kirst, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Battaglia, Demian

    2016-01-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyse how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs co-act to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine nonlocal network-wide communication. These results help understanding and designing information routing patterns across systems where collective dynamics co-occurs with a communication function. PMID:27067257

  3. Theoretical Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  4. Dynamic route guidance strategy in a two-route pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flow system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mianfang; Xiong, Shengwu; Li, Bixiang

    2016-05-01

    With the rapid development of transportation, traffic questions have become the major issue for social, economic and environmental aspects. Especially, during serious emergencies, it is very important to alleviate road traffic congestion and improve the efficiency of evacuation to reduce casualties, and addressing these problems has been a major task for the agencies responsible in recent decades. Advanced road guidance strategies have been developed for homogeneous traffic flows, or to reduce traffic congestion and enhance the road capacity in a symmetric two-route scenario. However, feedback strategies have rarely been considered for pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flows with variable velocities and sizes in an asymmetric multi-route traffic system, which is a common phenomenon in many developing countries. In this study, we propose a weighted road occupancy feedback strategy (WROFS) for pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flows, which considers the system equilibrium to ease traffic congestion. In order to more realistic simulating the behavior of mixed traffic objects, the paper adopted a refined and dynamic cellular automaton model (RDPV_CA model) as the update mechanism for pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flow. Moreover, a bounded rational threshold control was introduced into the feedback strategy to avoid some negative effect of delayed information and reduce. Based on comparisons with the two previously proposed strategies, the simulation results obtained in a pedestrian-vehicle traffic flow scenario demonstrated that the proposed strategy with a bounded rational threshold was more effective and system equilibrium, system stability were reached.

  5. Learning about Cri du Chat Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... chat syndrome - also known as 5p- syndrome and cat cry syndrome - is a rare genetic condition that ... du chat syndrome usually include a high-pitched cat-like cry, mental retardation, delayed development, distinctive facial ...

  6. Route to Attosecond Nonlinear Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, F.; Kienberger, R.; Graf, U.; Schweinberger, W.; Fiess, M.; Goulielmakis, E.; Serebryannikov, E. E.; Zheltikov, A. M.; Schultze, M.; Krausz, F.; Azzeer, A. M.

    2010-12-10

    We demonstrate generation of coherent microjoule-scale, low-order harmonic supercontinua in the deep and vacuum ultraviolet (4-9 eV), resulting from the nonlinear transformations of near-single-cycle laser pulses in a gas cell. We show theoretically that their formation is connected to a novel nonlinear regime, holding promise for the generation of powerful deep-UV and vacuum ultraviolet subfemtosecond pulses. Our work opens the route to pump-probe spectroscopy of subfemtosecond-scale valence-shell phenomena in atoms, molecules, and condensed matter.

  7. Improving Operational Acceptability of Dynamic Weather Routes Through Analysis of Commonly Use Routings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Antony D.; Sridhar, Banavar; McNally, David

    2016-01-01

    The Dynamic Weather Routes (DWR) tool is a ground-based trajectory automation system that continuously and automatically analyzes active in-flight aircraft in en route airspace to find simple modifications to flight plan routes that can save significant flying time, while avoiding weather and considering traffic conflicts, airspace sector congestion, special use airspace, and FAA routing restrictions. Trials of the DWR system have shown that significant delay savings are possible. However, some DWR advised routes are also rejected by dispatchers or modified before being accepted. Similarly, of those sent by dispatchers to flight crews as proposed route change requests, many are not accepted by air traffic control, or are modified before implementation as Center route amendments. Such actions suggest that the operational acceptability of DWR advised route corrections could be improved, which may reduce workload and increase delay savings. This paper analyzes the historical usage of different flight routings, varying from simple waypoint pairs to lengthy strings of waypoints incorporating jet routes, in order to improve DWR route acceptability. An approach is developed that can be incorporated into DWR, advising routings with high historical usage and savings potential similar to that of the nominal DWR advisory. It is hypothesized that modifying a nominal DWR routing to one that is commonly used, and nearby, will result in more actual savings since common routings are generally familiar and operationally acceptable to air traffic control. The approach allows routing segments with high historical usage to be concatenated to form routes that meet all DWR constraints. The relevance of a route's historical usage to its acceptance by dispatchers and air traffic control is quantified by analyzing historical DWR data. Results indicate that while historical usage may be less of a concern to flight dispatchers accepting or rejecting DWR advised route corrections, it may be

  8. View southeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing residence on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing residence on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  9. View southeast to Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Israel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast to Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Israel Putnam Memorial - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  10. View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  11. View northwest along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Unitarian ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Unitarian Church and the Federated Church of Christ - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  12. View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on west side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  13. View southeast across Providence Road (Route 6) showing a residence ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast across Providence Road (Route 6) showing a residence on the south side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  14. View northeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing rersidences on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing rersidences on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  15. View southwest along Hartford Road (Route 6) showing residences on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest along Hartford Road (Route 6) showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  16. An Effective Evolutionary Approach for Bicriteria Shortest Path Routing Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lin; Gen, Mitsuo

    Routing problem is one of the important research issues in communication network fields. In this paper, we consider a bicriteria shortest path routing (bSPR) model dedicated to calculating nondominated paths for (1) the minimum total cost and (2) the minimum transmission delay. To solve this bSPR problem, we propose a new multiobjective genetic algorithm (moGA): (1) an efficient chromosome representation using the priority-based encoding method; (2) a new operator of GA parameters auto-tuning, which is adaptively regulation of exploration and exploitation based on the change of the average fitness of parents and offspring which is occurred at each generation; and (3) an interactive adaptive-weight fitness assignment mechanism is implemented that assigns weights to each objective and combines the weighted objectives into a single objective function. Numerical experiments with various scales of network design problems show the effectiveness and the efficiency of our approach by comparing with the recent researches.

  17. Pru du 2S albumin or Pru du vicilin?

    PubMed

    Garino, Cristiano; De Paolis, Angelo; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Arlorio, Marco

    2015-06-01

    A short partial sequence of 28 amino acids is all the information we have so far about the putative allergen 2S albumin from almond. The aim of this work was to analyze this information using mainly bioinformatics tools, in order to verify its rightness. Based on the results reported in the paper describing this allergen from almond, we analyzed the original data of amino acids sequencing through available software. The degree of homology of the almond 12kDa protein with any other known 2S albumin appears to be much lower than the one reported in the paper that firstly described it. In a publicly available cDNA library we discovered an expressed sequence tag which translation generates a protein that perfectly matches both of the sequencing outputs described in the same paper. A further analysis indicated that the latter protein seems to belong to the vicilin superfamily rather than to the prolamin one. The fact that also vicilins are seed storage proteins known to be highly allergenic would explain the IgE reactivity originally observed. Based on our observations we suggest that the IgE reactive 12kDa protein from almond currently known as Pru du 2S albumin is in reality the cleaved N-terminal region of a 7S vicilin like protein. PMID:25854802

  18. Price-Based Information Routing in Complex Satellite Networks for

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, I.; Su, J.; Wang, Y.; Wyglinski, A.

    Future space-based situational awareness and space surveillance systems are envisioned to include a large array of satellites that seek to cooperatively achieve full awareness over given space and terrestrial domains. Given the complexity of the communication network architecture of such a system, in this paper we build on the system architecture that was proposed by the presenting author in the 2008 AMOS conference and propose an efficient, adaptable and scalable price-based routing and bandwidth allocation algorithm for the generation, routing and delivery of surveillance information in distributed wireless satellite networks. Due to the potentially large deployments of these satellites, the access points employed in a centralized network control scheme would easily be overwhelmed due to lack of spectral bandwidth, synchronization issues, and multiple access coordination. Alternatively, decentralized schemes could facilitate the flow and transference of information between data gatherers and data collectors via mechanisms such as (multi-hop) routing, allocation of spectral bandwidths per relaying node, and coordination between adjacent nodes. Although there are numerous techniques and concepts focusing on the network operations, control, and management of sensor networks, existing solution approaches require the use of information for routing, allocation, and decision-making that may not be readily available to the satellites in a timely fashion. This is especially true in the literature on price-based routing, where the approach is almost always game theoretic or relies on optimization techniques. Instead of seeking such techniques, in this paper we present algorithms that will (1) be energy-aware, (2) be highly adaptable and responsive to demands and seek delivery of information to desired nodes despite the fact that the source and destination are not globally known, (3) be secure, (4) be efficient in allocating bandwidth, (5) be decentralized and allow for

  19. Biokinetics and dosimetry of depleted uranium (DU) in rats implanted with DU fragments.

    SciTech Connect

    Guilmette, Ray A.; Hahn, Fletcher F.; Durbin, P. W.

    2004-01-01

    A number of U. S. veterans of the Persian Gulf War were wounded with depleted uranium (DU) metal fragments as a result of 'friendly fire' incidents, in which Abrams tanks and Bradley fighting vehicles were struck by DU anti-armor munitions. Some of the crew members who survived were left with multiple small fragments of DU in their muscles and soft tissues. The number, size and location of the fragments made them inoperable in general, and therefore subject to long-term retention. Because there was inadequate data to predict the potential carcinogenicity of DU fragments in soft tissues, Hahn et al. (2003) conducted a lifespan cancer study in rats. As part of that study, a number of rats were maintained to study the biokinetics and dosimetry of DU implanted intramuscularly in male Wistar rats. Typically, four metal fragments, either as cylindrical pellets or square wafers were implanted into the biceps femoris muscles of the rats. Urine samples were collected periodically during their lifespans, and DU was analyzed in kidneys and eviscerated carcass (minus the implant sites) at death. The daily DU urinary excretion rate increased steeply during the first 30 d after implantation peaking at about 90 d at 3-10 x 10{sup -3}%/d. During the first 150 d, the average excretion rate was 2.4 x 10{sup -3}%/d, decreasing thereafter to about 1 x 10{sup -3}%/d. Serial radiographs were made of the wound sites to monitor gross morphologic changes in the DU implant and the surrounding tissue. As early as 1 w after implantation, radiographs showed the presence of surface corrosion and small, dense bodies near the original implant, presumably DU. This corrosion from the surface of the implant continued with time, but did not result in an increasing amount of DU reaching the blood and urine after the first 3 mo. During this 3-mo period, connective tissue capsules formed around the implants, and are hypothesized to have reduced the access of DU to tissue fluids by limiting the diffusion

  20. Isomorphic routing on a toroidal mesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Weizhen; Nicol, David M.

    1993-01-01

    We study a routing problem that arises on SIMD parallel architectures whose communication network forms a toroidal mesh. We assume there exists a set of k message descriptors (xi, yi), where (xi, yi) indicates that the ith message's recipient is offset from its sender by xi hops in one mesh dimension, and yi hops in the other. Every processor has k messages to send, and all processors use the same set of message routing descriptors. The SIMD constraint implies that at any routing step, every processor is actively routing messages with the same descriptors as any other processor. We call this isomorphic routing. Our objective is to find the isomorphic routing schedule with least makespan. We consider a number of variations on the problem, yielding complexity results from O(k) to NP-complete. Most of our results follow after we transform the problem into a scheduling problem, where it is related to other well-known scheduling problems.

  1. Near real-time traffic routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Chaowei (Inventor); Cao, Ying (Inventor); Xie, Jibo (Inventor); Zhou, Bin (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A near real-time physical transportation network routing system comprising: a traffic simulation computing grid and a dynamic traffic routing service computing grid. The traffic simulator produces traffic network travel time predictions for a physical transportation network using a traffic simulation model and common input data. The physical transportation network is divided into a multiple sections. Each section has a primary zone and a buffer zone. The traffic simulation computing grid includes multiple of traffic simulation computing nodes. The common input data includes static network characteristics, an origin-destination data table, dynamic traffic information data and historical traffic data. The dynamic traffic routing service computing grid includes multiple dynamic traffic routing computing nodes and generates traffic route(s) using the traffic network travel time predictions.

  2. Vehicle routing problem in investment fund allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Mohd, Ismail

    2013-04-01

    Since its introduction by Dantzig and Ramser in 1959, vehicle routing problem keeps evolving in theories, applications and variability. The evolution in computing and technology are also important contributors to research in solving vehicle routing problem. The main sectors of interests among researchers and practitioners for vehicle routing problem are transportation, distribution and logistics. However, literature found that concept and benefits of vehicle routing problem are not taken advantages of by researchers in the field of investment. Other methods found used in investment include multi-objective programming, linear programming, goal programming and integer programming. Yet the application of vehicle routing problem is not fully explored. A proposal on a framework of the fund allocation optimization using vehicle routing problem is presented here. Preliminary results using FTSE Bursa Malaysia data testing the framework are also given.

  3. Zone routing in a torus network

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer

    2013-01-29

    A system for routing data in a network comprising a network logic device at a sending node for determining a path between the sending node and a receiving node, wherein the network logic device sets one or more selection bits and one or more hint bits within the data packet, a control register for storing one or more masks, wherein the network logic device uses the one or more selection bits to select a mask from the control register and the network logic device applies the selected mask to the hint bits to restrict routing of the data packet to one or more routing directions for the data packet within the network and selects one of the restricted routing directions from the one or more routing directions and sends the data packet along a link in the selected routing direction toward the receiving node.

  4. Cascade defense via routing in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao-Lan; Du, Wen-Bo; Hong, Chen

    2015-05-01

    As the cascading failures in networked traffic systems are becoming more and more serious, research on cascade defense in complex networks has become a hotspot in recent years. In this paper, we propose a traffic-based cascading failure model, in which each packet in the network has its own source and destination. When cascade is triggered, packets will be redistributed according to a given routing strategy. Here, a global hybrid (GH) routing strategy, which uses the dynamic information of the queue length and the static information of nodes' degree, is proposed to defense the network cascade. Comparing GH strategy with the shortest path (SP) routing, efficient routing (ER) and global dynamic (GD) routing strategies, we found that GH strategy is more effective than other routing strategies in improving the network robustness against cascading failures. Our work provides insight into the robustness of networked traffic systems.

  5. Pipeline issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisley, Joe T.

    1990-01-01

    The declining pool of graduates, the lack of rigorous preparation in science and mathematics, and the declining interest in science and engineering careers at the precollege level promises a shortage of technically educated personnel at the college level for industry, government, and the universities in the next several decades. The educational process, which starts out with a large number of students at the elementary level, but with an ever smaller number preparing for science and engineering at each more advanced educational level, is in a state of crisis. These pipeline issues, so called because the educational process is likened to a series of ever smaller constrictions in a pipe, were examined in a workshop at the Space Grant Conference and a summary of the presentations and the results of the discussion, and the conclusions of the workshop participants are reported.

  6. Advances in optimal routing through computer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paz, I. M.

    1977-01-01

    The optimal routing problem is defined. Progress in solving the problem during the previous decade is reviewed, with special emphasis on technical developments made during the last few years. The relationships between the routing, the throughput, and the switching technology used are discussed and their future trends are reviewed. Economic aspects are also briefly considered. Modern technical approaches for handling the routing problems and, more generally, the flow control problems are reviewed.

  7. Routing and Allocation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with Communication Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabo, Chelsea

    Cooperative Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) teams are anticipated to provide much needed support for human intelligence, measurement and signature intelligence, signals intelligence, imagery intelligence, and open source intelligence through algorithms, software, and automation. Therefore, it is necessary to have autonomous algorithms that route multiple UAVs effectively and efficiently throughout missions and that these are realizable in the real-world given the associated uncertainties. Current routing strategies ignore communication constraints altogether. In reality, communication can be restricted by bandwidth, line-of-sight, maximum communication ranges, or a need for uninterrupted transmission. Generating autonomous algorithms that work effectively around these communication constraints is key for the future of UAV surveillance applications. In this work, both current and new routing strategies for UAVS are analyzed to determine how communications impact efficiency of information return. It is shown that under certain communication conditions, a new approach on routing can be more efficient than typically adopted strategies. This new approach defines and presents a new formulation based on a minimum delivery latency objective function. The problem is formulated such that information is not considered delivered until it is returned back to a high-bandwidth connection (depot) which is common when communication is restricted. The size of the region is shown to be dependent upon distance between requests, UAV bandwidth, UAV velocity, and data size, but it was shown that for large-sized data, long distances, and low bandwidth, it is generally better to route UAVs with this new minimum latency objective. With the added decision of when to deliver information to a high-bandwidth connection, an already computationally complex problem grows even faster. Because of scaling issues, a heuristic algorithm was developed that was constructed by analyzing the optimal

  8. Unified structural approach to linear flood routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Dooge, James C. I.

    The structural theory of linear systems, which allows the non-homogeneous initial and boundary conditions to be expressed as part of a generalised system input, is applied to the problem of linear flood routing. The standardising functions needed to accomplish this are derived for three methods of lumped hydrologic flood routing (lag and route, Muskingum and Kalinin-Milyukov) and to three methods of distributed hydraulic flood routing (kinematic wave and two simplified forms of the linear St. Venant model). The appropriate Green's functions needed to complete the solution for these six cases are also presented.

  9. Topics in route-regression analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geissler, P.H.; Sauer, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The route-regression method has been used in recent years to analyze data from roadside surveys. With this method, a population trend is estimated for each route in a region, then regional trends are estimated as a weighted mean of the individual route trends. This method can accurately incorporate data that is unbalanced by changes in years surveyed and observer differences. We suggest that route-regression methodology is most efficient in the estimation of long-term (>5 year) trends, and tends to provide conservative results for low-density species.

  10. New route for hollow materials.

    PubMed

    Rivaldo-Gómez, C M; Ferreira, F F; Landi, G T; Souza, J A

    2016-01-01

    Hollow micro/nano structures form an important family of functional materials. We have used the thermal oxidation process combined with the passage of electric current during a structural phase transition to disclose a colossal mass diffusion transfer of Ti ions. This combination points to a new route for fabrication of hollow materials. A structural phase transition at high temperature prepares the stage by giving mobility to Ti ions and releasing vacancies to the system. The electric current then drives an inward delocalization of vacancies, condensing into voids, and finally turning into a big hollow. This strong physical phenomenon leading to a colossal mass transfer through ionic diffusion is suggested to be driven by a combination of phase transition and electrical current followed by chemical reaction. We show this phenomenon for Ti leading to TiO2 microtube formation, but we believe that it can be used to other metals undergoing structural phase transition at high temperatures. PMID:27554448

  11. New route for hollow materials

    PubMed Central

    Rivaldo-Gómez, C. M.; Ferreira, F. F.; Landi, G. T.; Souza, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Hollow micro/nano structures form an important family of functional materials. We have used the thermal oxidation process combined with the passage of electric current during a structural phase transition to disclose a colossal mass diffusion transfer of Ti ions. This combination points to a new route for fabrication of hollow materials. A structural phase transition at high temperature prepares the stage by giving mobility to Ti ions and releasing vacancies to the system. The electric current then drives an inward delocalization of vacancies, condensing into voids, and finally turning into a big hollow. This strong physical phenomenon leading to a colossal mass transfer through ionic diffusion is suggested to be driven by a combination of phase transition and electrical current followed by chemical reaction. We show this phenomenon for Ti leading to TiO2 microtube formation, but we believe that it can be used to other metals undergoing structural phase transition at high temperatures. PMID:27554448

  12. PTA en route noise measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, William L., Jr.; Garber, Donald P.

    1990-01-01

    A long-range advanced turboprop en route noise database was obtained with weather, tracking, and onboard measurements. In-flight noise directivity measurements were made. Data repeatability within a test day was excellent. Day-to-day variability existed and is not completely understood and therefore not predicted. Comparison of a two-dimensional ray-tracing propagation model with the ensemble average ground-measured data was good; however, as stated above, the day-to-day data variability was not completely predicted. Future research will include looking at alternative propagation models. Three-dimensional ray tracing, fast field program, and the parabolic equation are possibilities. The effect of turbulence needs to be accessed.

  13. VISIR-I: small vessels - least-time nautical routes using wave forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannarini, Gianandrea; Pinardi, Nadia; Coppini, Giovanni; Oddo, Paolo; Iafrati, Alessandro

    2016-05-01

    A new numerical model for the on-demand computation of optimal ship routes based on sea-state forecasts has been developed. The model, named VISIR (discoVerIng Safe and effIcient Routes) is designed to support decision-makers when planning a marine voyage. The first version of the system, VISIR-I, considers medium and small motor vessels with lengths of up to a few tens of metres and a displacement hull. The model is comprised of three components: a route optimization algorithm, a mechanical model of the ship, and a processor of the environmental fields. The optimization algorithm is based on a graph-search method with time-dependent edge weights. The algorithm is also able to compute a voluntary ship speed reduction. The ship model accounts for calm water and added wave resistance by making use of just the principal particulars of the vessel as input parameters. It also checks the optimal route for parametric roll, pure loss of stability, and surfriding/broaching-to hazard conditions. The processor of the environmental fields employs significant wave height, wave spectrum peak period, and wave direction forecast fields as input. The topological issues of coastal navigation (islands, peninsulas, narrow passages) are addressed. Examples of VISIR-I routes in the Mediterranean Sea are provided. The optimal route may be longer in terms of miles sailed and yet it is faster and safer than the geodetic route between the same departure and arrival locations. Time savings up to 2.7 % and route lengthening up to 3.2 % are found for the case studies analysed. However, there is no upper bound for the magnitude of the changes of such route metrics, which especially in case of extreme sea states can be much greater. Route diversions result from the safety constraints and the fact that the algorithm takes into account the full temporal evolution and spatial variability of the environmental fields.

  14. Real-Time QoS Routing Protocols in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks: Study and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Adwan; Elleithy, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Many routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks. These routing protocols are almost always based on energy efficiency. However, recent advances in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) cameras and small microphones have led to the development of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSN) as a class of wireless sensor networks which pose additional challenges. The transmission of imaging and video data needs routing protocols with both energy efficiency and Quality of Service (QoS) characteristics in order to guarantee the efficient use of the sensor nodes and effective access to the collected data. Also, with integration of real time applications in Wireless Senor Networks (WSNs), the use of QoS routing protocols is not only becoming a significant topic, but is also gaining the attention of researchers. In designing an efficient QoS routing protocol, the reliability and guarantee of end-to-end delay are critical events while conserving energy. Thus, considerable research has been focused on designing energy efficient and robust QoS routing protocols. In this paper, we present a state of the art research work based on real-time QoS routing protocols for WMSNs that have already been proposed. This paper categorizes the real-time QoS routing protocols into probabilistic and deterministic protocols. In addition, both categories are classified into soft and hard real time protocols by highlighting the QoS issues including the limitations and features of each protocol. Furthermore, we have compared the performance of mobility-aware query based real-time QoS routing protocols from each category using Network Simulator-2 (NS2). This paper also focuses on the design challenges and future research directions as well as highlights the characteristics of each QoS routing protocol. PMID:26364639

  15. Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System -- TRAGIS, progress on improving a routing tool

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.E.; Lester, P.B.

    1998-05-01

    The Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System (TRAGIS) model provides a useful tool to calculate and analyze transportation routes for radioactive materials within the continental US. This paper outlines some of the features available in this model.

  16. Résultats du traitement du synovialosarcome des members

    PubMed Central

    Lukulunga, Loubet Unyendje; Moussa, Abdou Kadri; Mahfoud, Mustapha; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Ismail, Farid; Kharmaz, Mohammed; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    Les synovialosarcomes, sarcomes de haut grade, sont de diagnostic tardif et le traitement est complexe et onéreux, nécessitant la mise en œuvre d'une équipe pluridisciplinaire. Le but de ce travail était d'apprécier les résultats de l'association de la chirurgie à la radio chimiothérapie des synovialosarcomes des membres. Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective portant sur des patients présentant de synovialosarcomes des membres pris en charge dans le service de chirurgie orthopédique et traumatologique du CHU Ibn SINA de Rabat allant de Janvier 2006 à Décembre 2011 (6 ans). Nous avons inclus les malades présentant de synovialosarcomes des membres dont la clinique et l'imagerie médicale étaient en faveur, confirmés par l'examen anatomopathologique et la prise en charge effectuée dans le service. Les patients ont été revus avec un recul moyen de 3 ans. Nous n'avons pas retenu les patients dont les dossiers étaient incomplets, perdus de vue. Nous avons apprécié les résultats selon les critères carcinologiques et le score MSTS (Musculoskeletal Tumor Society). La saisie et l'analyse des données ont été faites sur le logiciel SPSS Stastic 17.0 Nous avons colligé 20 cas de synovialosarcome des membres dans le Service de Chirurgie Orthopédique et Traumatologique au CHU Ibn SINA de Rabat Le sexe masculin a prédominé avec 65% (n = 13) avec un sex ratio 1,85. L’âge moyen a été de 42,6 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 20 ans et 70 ans. Notre délai moyen de consultation était de 14,42 mois. Tous les malades ont consulté pour une tuméfaction dans 100% (localisée au membre inférieur dans 65% (n = 13), membre supérieur dans 35% (n = 7). La douleur était associée à la tuméfaction dans 55% (n = 11), quant à l'altération de l’état général et l'ulcération de la masse, elles ont été notées dans 3 cas chacune. Nous avons réalisé un bilan d'imagerie médicale comprenant: radiographie standard, échographie, écho doppler

  17. View northeast along Wauregan Road (Route 205) showing a residence ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast along Wauregan Road (Route 205) showing a residence on east side of the road from just south of the intersection of Routes 205 and 169 - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  18. Routing and Scheduling Algorithms for WirelessHART Networks: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Nobre, Marcelo; Silva, Ivanovitch; Guedes, Luiz Affonso

    2015-01-01

    Wireless communication is a trend nowadays for the industrial environment. A number of different technologies have emerged as solutions satisfying strict industrial requirements (e.g., WirelessHART, ISA100.11a, WIA-PA). As the industrial environment presents a vast range of applications, adopting an adequate solution for each case is vital to obtain good performance of the system. In this context, the routing and scheduling schemes associated with these technologies have a direct impact on important features, like latency and energy consumption. This situation has led to the development of a vast number of routing and scheduling schemes. In the present paper, we focus on the WirelessHART technology, emphasizing its most important routing and scheduling aspects in order to guide both end users and the developers of new algorithms. Furthermore, we provide a detailed literature review of the newest routing and scheduling techniques for WirelessHART, discussing each of their features. These routing algorithms have been evaluated in terms of their objectives, metrics, the usage of the WirelessHART structures and validation method. In addition, the scheduling algorithms were also evaluated by metrics, validation, objectives and, in addition, by multiple superframe support, as well as by the redundancy method used. Moreover, this paper briefly presents some insights into the main WirelessHART simulation modules available, in order to provide viable test platforms for the routing and scheduling algorithms. Finally, some open issues in WirelessHART routing and scheduling algorithms are discussed. PMID:25919371

  19. Hop-Based Energy Aware Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Cho, Jinsung; Lee, Sungyoung; Chen, Kwang-Cheng; Lee, Young-Koo

    Energy efficient routing is one of the key design issues to prolong the lifetime of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) since sensor nodes can not be easily re-charged once they are deployed. During routing process, the routes with only few hops or with too many hops are not energy efficient. Hop-based routing algorithms can largely improve the energy efficiency of multi-hop routing in WSNs because they can determine the optimal hop number as well as the corresponding intermediate nodes during multi-hop routing process under medium or high density network. In this paper, we not only focus on studying the relationship between energy consumption and hop number from theoretical point of view but also provide a practical selection criterion of the sub-optimal hop number under practical sensor network so as to minimize the energy consumption. We extend the theoretical deduction of optimal hop number and propose our Hop-based Energy Aware Routing (HEAR) algorithm which is totally distributed and localized. Simulation results show that our HEAR algorithm can reduce the average energy consumption about 10 times compared to the direct transmission algorithm and 2 to 10 times than other algorithms like LEACH and HEED under various network topologies.

  20. What Is the Best Route? Route-Finding Strategies of Middle School Students Using GIS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigglesivorth, John C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes a research project conducted to investigate the strategies developed by middle school students to solve a route-finding problem using Arc View GIS software. Three different types of route-finding strategies were identified. Some students were visual route-finders and used a highly visual strategy; others were logical route…

  1. Data-Centric Multiobjective QoS-Aware Routing Protocol for Body Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Razzaque, Md. Abdur; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungwon

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we address Quality-of-Service (QoS)-aware routing issue for Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) in delay and reliability domains. We propose a data-centric multiobjective QoS-Aware routing protocol, called DMQoS, which facilitates the system to achieve customized QoS services for each traffic category differentiated according to the generated data types. It uses modular design architecture wherein different units operate in coordination to provide multiple QoS services. Their operation exploits geographic locations and QoS performance of the neighbor nodes and implements a localized hop-by-hop routing. Moreover, the protocol ensures (almost) a homogeneous energy dissipation rate for all routing nodes in the network through a multiobjective Lexicographic Optimization-based geographic forwarding. We have performed extensive simulations of the proposed protocol, and the results show that DMQoS has significant performance improvements over several state-of-the-art approaches. PMID:22346611

  2. Administration of Substances to Laboratory Animals: Routes of Administration and Factors to Consider

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Patricia V; Brabb, Thea; Pekow, Cynthia; Vasbinder, Mary Ann

    2011-01-01

    Administration of substances to laboratory animals requires careful consideration and planning to optimize delivery of the agent to the animal while minimizing potential adverse experiences from the procedure. For all species, many different routes are available for administration of substances. The research team and IACUC members should be aware of reasons for selecting specific routes and of training and competency necessary for personnel to use these routes effectively. Once a route is selected, issues such as volume of administration, site of delivery, pH of the substance, and other factors must be considered to refine the technique. Inadequate training or inattention to detail during this aspect of a study may result in unintentional adverse effects on experimental animals and confounded results. PMID:22330705

  3. A survey of routing techniques in store-and-forward and wormhole interconnects.

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, David Michael; Lee, David S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of algorithms for directing messages through networks of varying topology. These are commonly referred to as routing algorithms in the literature that is presented. In addition to providing background on networking terminology and router basics, the paper explains the issues of deadlock and livelock as they apply to routing. After this, there is a discussion of routing algorithms for both store-and-forward and wormhole-switched networks. The paper covers both algorithms that do and do not adapt to conditions in the network. Techniques targeting structured as well as irregular topologies are discussed. Following this, strategies for routing in the presence of faulty nodes and links in the network are described.

  4. P-bRS: a physarum-based routing scheme for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingchuan; Wei, Wangyang; Zheng, Ruijuan; Wu, Qingtao

    2014-01-01

    Routing in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is an extremely challenging issue due to the features of WSNs. Inspired by the large and single-celled amoeboid organism, slime mold Physarum polycephalum, we establish a novel selecting next hop model (SNH). Based on this model, we present a novel Physarum-based routing scheme (P-bRS) for WSNs to balance routing efficiency and energy equilibrium. In P-bRS, a sensor node can choose the proper next hop by using SNH which comprehensively considers the distance, energy residue, and location of the next hop. The simulation results show how P-bRS can achieve the effective trade-off between routing efficiency and energy equilibrium compared to two famous algorithms. PMID:24672326

  5. P-bRS: A Physarum-Based Routing Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wangyang; Zheng, Ruijuan; Wu, Qingtao

    2014-01-01

    Routing in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is an extremely challenging issue due to the features of WSNs. Inspired by the large and single-celled amoeboid organism, slime mold Physarum polycephalum, we establish a novel selecting next hop model (SNH). Based on this model, we present a novel Physarum-based routing scheme (P-bRS) for WSNs to balance routing efficiency and energy equilibrium. In P-bRS, a sensor node can choose the proper next hop by using SNH which comprehensively considers the distance, energy residue, and location of the next hop. The simulation results show how P-bRS can achieve the effective trade-off between routing efficiency and energy equilibrium compared to two famous algorithms. PMID:24672326

  6. Express Routing Transportation Surveys. Research Department Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Peter D.

    Express routing, under consideration by San Diego (California) Public Schools, is a form of bus transportation that picks up and drops off students at centralized points instead of driving through residential neighborhoods. This report examines other, similar districts' experiences in applying express routing in integration and other school…

  7. 7 CFR 1001.3 - Route disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Route disposition. 1001.3 Section 1001.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1001.3 Route disposition. See § 1000.3....

  8. 46 CFR 176.110 - Routes permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Routes permitted. 176.110 Section 176.110 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION General Provisions; Certificate of Inspection § 176.110 Routes permitted....

  9. 46 CFR 176.110 - Routes permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Routes permitted. 176.110 Section 176.110 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificate of Inspection § 176.110 Routes permitted. (a) The area of...

  10. 46 CFR 176.110 - Routes permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Routes permitted. 176.110 Section 176.110 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION General Provisions; Certificate of Inspection § 176.110 Routes permitted....

  11. 46 CFR 176.110 - Routes permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Routes permitted. 176.110 Section 176.110 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION General Provisions; Certificate of Inspection § 176.110 Routes permitted....

  12. 46 CFR 176.110 - Routes permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Routes permitted. 176.110 Section 176.110 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificate of Inspection § 176.110 Routes permitted. (a) The area of...

  13. PC - POLLUTANT ROUTING MODEL (PC-PROUTE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The PC - Pollutant Routing Model (PC-Proute) is a simple first order decay routing model that estimates aqueous pollutant concentrations on a reach by reach stream flow basis. PC-Proute is similar to the RGDS model; however it utilizes an improved method of estimating average rea...

  14. Mental Effort in Mobility Route Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinsen, Harald; Tellevik, Jon Magne; Elmerskog, Bengt; Storlilokken, Magnar

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the mental effort required to monitor landmarks and the effect of the type of route on mobility-route training. The results revealed that the features of landmarks and competence in travel were significantly related, indicating that some environmental factors related to height and width are more easily learned when people can…

  15. Using Collective Intelligence to Route Internet Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.; Tumer, Kagan; Frank, Jeremy

    1998-01-01

    A Collective Intelligence (COIN) is a community of interacting reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms designed so that their collective behavior maximizes a global utility function. We introduce the theory of COINs, then present experiments using that theory to design COINs to control internet traffic routing. These experiments indicate that COINs outperform previous RL-based systems for such routing that have previously been investigated.

  16. 46 CFR 169.209 - Routes permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Routes permitted. 169.209 Section 169.209 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Certificate of Inspection § 169.209 Routes permitted. (a) The area of operation...

  17. 46 CFR 169.209 - Routes permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Routes permitted. 169.209 Section 169.209 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Certificate of Inspection § 169.209 Routes permitted. (a) The area of operation...

  18. 46 CFR 169.209 - Routes permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Routes permitted. 169.209 Section 169.209 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Certificate of Inspection § 169.209 Routes permitted. (a) The area of operation...

  19. 46 CFR 169.209 - Routes permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Routes permitted. 169.209 Section 169.209 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Certificate of Inspection § 169.209 Routes permitted. (a) The area of operation...

  20. 46 CFR 169.209 - Routes permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Routes permitted. 169.209 Section 169.209 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Certificate of Inspection § 169.209 Routes permitted. (a) The area of operation...

  1. CCS-DTN: clustering and network coding-based efficient routing in social DTNs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenjing; Ma, Maode; Jin, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    With the development of mobile Internet, wireless communication via mobile devices has become a hot research topic, which is typically in the form of Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs). One critical issue in the development of DTNs is routing. Although there is a lot research work addressing routing issues in DTNs, they cannot produce an advanced solution to the comprehensive challenges since only one or two aspects (nodes' movements, clustering, centricity and so on) are considered when the routing problem is handled. In view of these defects in the existing works, we propose a novel solution to address the routing issue in social DTNs. By this solution, mobile nodes are divided into different clusters. The scheme, Spray and Wait, is used for the intra-cluster communication while a new forwarding mechanism is designed for the inter-cluster version. In our solution, the characteristics of nodes and the relation between nodes are fully considered. The simulation results show that our proposed scheme can significantly improve the performance of the routing scheme in social DTNs. PMID:25609047

  2. Individuality in bird migration: routes and timing.

    PubMed

    Vardanis, Yannis; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Strandberg, Roine; Alerstam, Thomas

    2011-08-23

    The exploration of animal migration has entered a new era with individual-based tracking during multiple years. Here, we investigated repeated migratory journeys of a long-distance migrating bird, the marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus, in order to analyse the variation within and between individuals with respect to routes and timing. We found that there was a stronger individual repeatability in time than in space. Thus, the annual timing of migration varied much less between repeated journeys of the same individual than between different individuals, while there was considerable variation in the routes of the same individual on repeated journeys. The overall contrast in repeatability between time and space was unexpected and may be owing to strong endogenous control of timing, while short-term variation in environmental conditions (weather and habitat) might promote route flexibility. The individual variation in migration routes indicates that the birds navigate mainly by other means than detailed route recapitulation based on landmark recognition. PMID:21307045

  3. Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, Luis Javier García; Orozco, Ana Lucila Sandoval; Cabrera, Alicia Triviño; Abbas, Cláudia Jacy Barenco

    2009-01-01

    The applications of wireless sensor networks comprise a wide variety of scenarios. In most of them, the network is composed of a significant number of nodes deployed in an extensive area in which not all nodes are directly connected. Then, the data exchange is supported by multihop communications. Routing protocols are in charge of discovering and maintaining the routes in the network. However, the appropriateness of a particular routing protocol mainly depends on the capabilities of the nodes and on the application requirements. This paper presents a review of the main routing protocols proposed for wireless sensor networks. Additionally, the paper includes the efforts carried out by Spanish universities on developing optimization techniques in the area of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. PMID:22291515

  4. Dynamic behavior of shortest path routing algorithms for communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertsekas, D. P.

    1980-06-01

    Several proposed routing algorithms for store and forward communication networks, including one currently in operation in the ARPANET, route messages along shortest paths computed by using some set of link lengths. When these lengths depend on current traffic conditions as they must in an adaptive algorithm, dynamic behavior questions such as stability convergence, and speed of convergence are of interest. This paper is the first attempt to analyze systematically these issues. It is shown that minimum queuing delay path algorithms tend to exhibit violent oscillatory behavior in the absence of a damping mechanism. The oscillations can be damped by means of several types of schemes, two of which are analyzed in this paper. In the first scheme a constant bias is added to the queuing delay thereby providing a preference towards paths with a small number of links. In the second scheme the effects of several past routings are averaged as, for example, when the link lengths are computed and communicated asynchronously throughout the network.

  5. Robotic Mounted Detection System: robotics for route clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, John; Klager, Gene; McCoy, Edward; Fite, David; Frederick, Brian

    2010-04-01

    Robotic Mounted Detection System (RMDS) is a government program to enable robotic control of a Husky route clearance vehicle with a mine detection sensor payload. The goal is for the operator to control the Husky and mine detection sensor from another vehicle. This program will provide the user with standard tele-operation control of the vehicle as well as semi-autonomous modes including cruise control, precision waypoint navigation with operator error correction and a visual mode allowing the operator to enter waypoints in the current video feed. The use of autonomy will be tailored to give the operator maximum control of the robotic vehicle's path while minimizing the effort required to maintain the desired route. Autonomous alterations of the path would conflict with the goal of route clearance, so waypoint navigation will allow the operator to supply offsets to counteract location errors. While following a waypoint path, the Husky will be capable of controlling its speed to maintain an operator specified distance from the control vehicle. Obstacle avoidance will be limited to protecting the mine detection sensor, leaving any decision to leave the path up to the operator. Video will be the primary navigational sensor feed to the operator, who will use an augmented steering wheel controller and computer display to control the Husky. A LADAR system will be used to detect obstacles that could damage the mine sensor and to maintain the optimal sensor orientation while the vehicle is moving. Practical issues and lessons learned during integration will be presented.

  6. Evolutionary routes to stable ownership.

    PubMed

    Hare, D; Reeve, H K; Blossey, B

    2016-06-01

    Ownership can evolve in potentially any species. Drawing on insights from across disciplines, we distinguish between possession and ownership and present species-neutral criteria for ownership, defined as respect for possession. We use a variant of the tug-of-war evolutionary game to demonstrate how ownership can evolve in the form of a new, biologically realistic strategy, Restraint With Retaliation (RWR). In our game, resource holding potential (RHP) is assumed to be equal between interactants, and resource holding asymmetry determines whether ownership is adaptive. RWR will be evolutionarily stable when the ratio of resource holdings between interactants is relatively low, but not when this ratio is sufficiently high. We offer RWR as one evolutionary route to ownership among many, and discuss how ownership unites previously described behavioural phenomena across taxa. We propose that some but not all mechanisms of territory formation and maintenance can be considered ownership, and show that territories are not the only resources that can be owned. We argue that ownership can be a powerful cooperative solution to tragedies of the commons and problems of collective action throughout the biological world. We advance recent scholarship that has begun to investigate the biological importance of ownership, and we call for a comprehensive account of its evolutionary logic and taxonomic distribution. We propose that ownership should be considered a fundamental, unifying biological phenomenon. PMID:26991035

  7. Drug targeting through pilosebaceous route.

    PubMed

    Chourasia, Rashmi; Jain, Sanjay K

    2009-10-01

    Local skin targeting is of interest for the pharmaceutical and the cosmetic industry. A topically applied substance has basically three possibilities to penetrate into the skin: transcellular, intercellular, and follicular. The transfollicular path has been largely ignored because hair follicles constitute only 0.1% of the total skin. The hair follicle is a skin appendage with a complex structure containing many cell types that produce highly specialised proteins. The hair follicle is in a continuous cycle: anagen is the hair growth phase, catagen the involution phase and telogen is the resting phase. Nonetheless, the hair follicle has great potential for skin treatment, owing to its deep extension into the dermis and thus provides much deeper penetration and absorption of compounds beneath the skin than seen with the transdermal route. In the case of skin diseases and of cosmetic products, delivery to sweat glands or to the pilosebaceous unit is essential for the effectiveness of the drug. Increased accumulation in the pilosebaceous unit could treat alopecia, acne and skin cancer more efficiently and improve the effect of cosmetic substances and nutrients. Therefore, we review herein various drug delivery systems, including liposomes, niosomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, nanoemulsions, lipid nanocarriers, gene therapy and discuss the results of recent researches. We also review the drugs which have been investigated for pilosebaceous delivery. PMID:19663765

  8. New routes for allergen immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Pål; von Moos, Seraina; Mohanan, Deepa; Kündig, Thomas M; Senti, Gabriela

    2012-10-01

    IgE-mediated allergy is a highly prevalent disease in the industrialized world. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) should be the preferred treatment, as it has long lasting protective effects and can stop the progression of the disease. However, few allergic patients choose to undergo SIT, due to the long treatment time and potential allergic adverse events. Since the beneficial effects of SIT are mediated by antigen presenting cells inducing Th1, Treg and antibody responses, whereas the adverse events are caused by mast cells and basophils, the therapeutic window of SIT may be widened by targeting tissues rich in antigen presenting cells. Lymph nodes and the epidermis contain high density of dendritic cells and low numbers of mast cells and basophils. The epidermis has the added benefit of not being vascularised thereby reducing the chances of anaphylactic shock due to leakage of allergen. Hence, both these tissues represent highly promising routes for SIT and are the focus of discussion in this review. PMID:23095873

  9. Routes for fructose utilization by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kornberg, H L

    2001-07-01

    There are three main routes for the utilization of fructose by Escherichia coli. One (Route A) predominates in the growth of wild-type strains. It involves the functioning of the phosphoenolpyruvate:glycose phosphotransferase system (PTS) and a fructose operon, mapping at min. 48.7, containing genes for a membrane-spanning protein (fruA), a 1-phosphofructose kinase (fruK) and a diphosphoryl transfer protein (fruB), under negative regulation by a fruR gene mapping at min. 1.9. A second route (Route B) also involves the PTS and membrane-spanning proteins that recognize a variety of sugars possessing the 3,4,5-D-arabino-hexoseconfiguration but with primary specificity for mannose(manXYZ), mannitol (mtlA) and glucitol (gutA) and which, if over-produced, can transport also fructose. A third route (Route C), functioning in mutants devoid of Routes A and B, does not involve the PTS: fructose diffuses into the cell via an isoform (PtsG-F) of the major glucose permease of the PTS and is then phosphorylated by ATP and a manno(fructo)kinase (Mak+) specified by a normally cryptic 1032 bp ORF (yajF) of hitherto unknown function (Mak-o), mapping at min. 8.8 and corresponding to a peptide of 344 amino acids. Conversion of the Mak-o to the Mak+ phenotypeinvolves an A24D mutation in a putative regulatory region. PMID:11361065

  10. Human Poisoning Through Atypical Routes of Exposure.

    PubMed

    Behal, Niharika; Wong, Alan; Mantara, Ruzly; Cantrell, F Lee

    2016-02-01

    There are over 2 million human exposure cases reported to United States poison centers annually. Much of the data involves exposure through ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation, ocular, or parenteral routes. There is limited data characterizing exposure via atypical routes. We conducted a retrospective review of the California Poison Control System Database for a 24-month period from January 2012 to December 2013 for poison exposure that occurred through the otic, vaginal, or rectal route. There were a total of 634 cases involving single-route and single-substance atypical poison exposure. There were 287 (45%) cases of otic exposure, 190 (30.0%) cases of vaginal exposure, and 157 (25%) cases of rectal exposure. Five hundred forty (85%) of the cases were unintentional. Gasoline exposure through the otic route occurred in 83 (13.1%) cases, followed by hydrogen peroxide (4.7%), acetaminophen (3.8%), and miconazole (2.7%). Adverse effects occurred in 336 (53%) cases. No deaths were reported. The most common treatment was observation only, occurring in 396 (62.4%) cases. The majority of the cases did not warrant hospital evaluation (73.5%). This is the first retrospective characterization study of atypical routes of poison exposure. These results may provide education to providers and the public regarding risks of exposure to substances through atypical routes. PMID:26250476

  11. 75 FR 39149 - Establishment of Low Altitude Area Navigation Route (T-284); Houston, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Federal Register a final rule to establish RNAV route T-284 for the Houston, TX, terminal area (75 FR... Federal Register April 1, 2010 (75 FR 16336) . Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Issued in Washington, DC, on June 29, 2010....

  12. 76 FR 43356 - Evaluations of Explosions Postulated To Occur at Nearby Facilities and on Transportation Routes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) is issuing for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1270, ``Evaluations of Explosions Postulated to Occur at Nearby Facilities and on Transportation Routes Near Nuclear Power Plants''. This draft regulatory guide describes for applicants and licensees of nuclear power reactors some methods and assumptions the NRC's staff......

  13. Alternative Routes to Teacher Preparation: Gifted Education and the Political Scene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Sandra N.

    2012-01-01

    Alternative routes to teacher preparation that have been advocated by reformers have ramifications for gifted education. Issues such as recruitment, assignment, support, and mentoring also have been discussed with regard to educating teachers of the gifted. The article illustrates how general and gifted education share common concerns and pathways…

  14. Forming optimal routes in the problems of transport logistics by use of GIS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaenko, A. E.; Shugaley, O. A.

    2014-12-01

    Consideration of the key issues that arise in solving the problems of transport logistics, how to overcome them through the use of GIS technology. The analysis of the benefits of using GІS before forming routes in manual mode and the evaluation of economic efficiency in the use of GIS technology in transport logistics.

  15. 76 FR 35805 - Port Access Route Study: The Approaches to San Francisco

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... within which the direction of traffic flow may be recommended. Traffic lane means an area within defined..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have... study in the Federal Register on December 10, 2009 (74 FR 65543), entitled ``Port Access Route...

  16. 77 FR 49057 - Categorical Exclusion From Further Environmental Review for Standard Terminal Arrival Route...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... Terminal Arrival Route Procedures for Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport AGENCY: Air Traffic... is issuing this notice to advise the public of its environmental review of two standard terminal... terminal area procedures. The NUMMY is a conventional arrival procedure which accommodates the...

  17. 76 FR 76640 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (Algiers Alternate Route), Belle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Vol. 76, No. 232, USCG 2011-0959, appearing on page 75507 in the issue of... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (Algiers..., Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (Algiers Alternate Route), Belle Chasse, LA. That publication contained...

  18. Optical Ethernet: introduction to the feature issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Cedric F.; Tsang, Danny H. K.

    2002-08-01

    Ethernet and IP (Internet Protocol) have become the ubiquitous protocols for today's data communication networks, with Ethernet being used to provide the physical layer and data-link layer functions and IP for routing and internetworking in the network layer. Here feature editors Cedric F. Lam and Danny H. K. Tsang discuss the emerging technology of Optical Ethernet and introduce the papers in this feature issue of JON.

  19. Sign Communication in Cri du Chat Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlenkamp, Sonja; Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study on the use of sign supported Norwegian (SSN) in two individuals with Cri du chat syndrome (CCS). The study gives a first account of some selected aspects of production and intelligibility of SSN in CCS. Possible deviance in manual parameters, in particular inter- and/or intra-subject variation in the use…

  20. Prejudice: From Allport to DuBois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Stanley O., Jr.; Reed, Edward S.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the differences between Gordon Allport's and W. E. B. DuBois's theories on the origins of prejudice and the impact of discrimination on the personality and social development of blacks. The article argues that prejudice is a historically developed process, not a universal feature of human psychology. Implications for U.S. race relations…

  1. Agent routing algorithm in wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuqing; Yang, Shuqun

    2013-03-01

    Wireless sensor networks are a new technology of information acquisition and processing, so they are widely used in all kinds of fields. In the paper we introduce Agent technology into the wireless sensor network, conduct a in-depth research on the four routing schemes, and propose a new improved routing scheme, which considers the energy consumption of both nodes and path. Furthermore, The scheme we proposed has efficient routing function, can balance the energy consumption of nodes and extends the lifetime of the network in a more efficient way.

  2. 10. Looking southeast, detail of mileage marker along State Route ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Looking southeast, detail of mileage marker along State Route 100 (Montchanin Road), J. Chandler farm complex in distance. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  3. 7. View southeast, bridge 71 along State Route 100 (Montchanin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View southeast, bridge 71 along State Route 100 (Montchanin Road) center, J. Chandler farm complex in center background. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  4. History-based route selection for reactive ad hoc routing protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medidi, Sirisha; Cappetto, Peter

    2007-04-01

    Ad hoc networks rely on cooperation in order to operate, but in a resource constrained environment not all nodes behave altruistically. Selfish nodes preserve their own resources and do not forward packets not in their own self interest. These nodes degrade the performance of the network, but judicious route selection can help maintain performance despite this behavior. Many route selection algorithms place importance on shortness of the route rather than its reliability. We introduce a light-weight route selection algorithm that uses past behavior to judge the quality of a route rather than solely on the length of the route. It draws information from the underlying routing layer at no extra cost and selects routes with a simple algorithm. This technique maintains this data in a small table, which does not place a high cost on memory. History-based route selection's minimalism suits the needs the portable wireless devices and is easy to implement. We implemented our algorithm and tested it in the ns2 environment. Our simulation results show that history-based route selection achieves higher packet delivery and improved stability than its length-based counterpart.

  5. Are GIS-modelled routes a useful proxy for the actual routes followed by commuters?

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Alice M; Jones, Andrew P; Panter, Jenna; Ogilvie, David

    2015-01-01

    Active commuting offers the potential to increase physical activity among adults by being built into daily routines. Characteristics of the route to work may influence propensity to walk or cycle. Geographic information system (GIS) software is often used to explore this by modelling routes between home and work. However, if the validity of modelled routes depends on the mode of travel used, studies of environmental determinants of travel may be biased. We aimed to understand how well modelled routes reflect those actually taken, and what characteristics explain these differences. We compared modelled GIS shortest path routes with actual routes measured using QStarz BT-Q1000X Global Positioning System (GPS) devices in a free-living sample of adults working in Cambridge and using varying travel modes. Predictors of differences, according to length and percentage overlap, between the two route sets were assessed using multilevel regression models and concordance coefficients. The 276 trips, made by 51 participants, were on average 27% further than modelled routes, with an average geographical overlap of 39%. However, predictability of the route depended on travel mode. For route length, there was moderate-to-substantial agreement for journeys made on foot and by bicycle. Route overlap was lowest for trips made by car plus walk (22%). The magnitude of difference depended on other journey characteristics, including travelling via intermediate destinations, distance, and use of busy roads. In conclusion, GIS routes may be acceptable for distance estimation and to explore potential routes, particularly active commuting. However, GPS should be used to obtain accurate estimates of environmental contexts in which commuting behaviour actually occurs. Public health researchers should bear these considerations in mind when studying the geographical determinants and health implications of commuting behaviour, and when recommending policy changes to encourage active travel. PMID

  6. View southwest showing the intersection of Routes 6 and 169 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest showing the intersection of Routes 6 and 169 and the Brooklyn Town Hall with the Unitarian Church to the south - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  7. The ventral-hypothalamic input route: a common neural network for abstract cognition and sexuality.

    PubMed

    Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L

    2014-02-01

    hypothalamic input route for abstract cognition and sexuality. Physiologically, the hypothalamic (dual-autonomic) route of the ARAS that processes abstract and sexual information is incompatible with the thalamic (somatic) route of the ARAS that processes concrete information, such that the two distinct routes would be needed to support the mind processes (awareness, consciousness, sexuality) through their own informational inputs from the environment. Informationally, the concrete external data are differentiated from abstract and sexual external data, so that they should be transmitted to cortex through distinct input routes. Pathologically, the hardware and/or software impairments of the hypothalamic default-mode network generate disturbed messages within the brain (related to information transmitted on this route), laying at the basis of mental and sexual disorders. The novel conceptualisations presented in the present paper help address issues surrounding the mind-brain dichotomy and, in doing so, suggest new possible avenues for exploration in the treatment and interventions for cognitive and sexual problems. PMID:24053436

  8. Quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Kenji; Sumimoto, Michinori; Murafuji, Toshihiro

    2015-12-01

    We have been investigating "quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development" using in silico screenings and applied the method to several targets. Another example was conducted to develop synthesis routes for a urea derivative, namely 1-(4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl)urea. While five synthesis routes were examined, only three routes passed the second in silico screening. Among them, the reaction of 7-amino-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-chromen-2-one and O-methyl carbamate with BF3 as an additive was ranked as the first choice for synthetic work. We were able to experimentally obtain the target compound even though its yield was as low as 21 %. The theoretical result was thus consistent with that observed. The summary of transition state data base (TSDB) is also provided. TSDB is the key to reducing time of in silico screenings.

  9. Statistical Analysis to Select Evacuation Route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musyarof, Z.; Sutarto, D. Y.; Atika, D. R.; Fajriya Hakim, R. B.

    2015-06-01

    Each country should be responsible for the safety of people, especially responsible for the safety of people living in disaster-prone areas. One of those services is provides evacuation route for them. But all this time, the selection of evacuation route is seem does not well organized, it could be seen that when a disaster happen, there will be many accumulation of people on the steps of evacuation route. That condition is dangerous to people because hampers evacuation process. By some methods in Statistical analysis, author tries to give a suggestion how to prepare evacuation route which is organized and based on people habit. Those methods are association rules, sequential pattern mining, hierarchical cluster analysis and fuzzy logic.

  10. A Multistage Method for Multiobjective Route Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Feng; Gen, Mitsuo

    The multiobjective route selection problem (m-RSP) is a key research topic in the car navigation system (CNS) for ITS (Intelligent Transportation System). In this paper, we propose an interactive multistage weight-based Dijkstra genetic algorithm (mwD-GA) to solve it. The purpose of the proposed approach is to create enough Pareto-optimal routes with good distribution for the car driver depending on his/her preference. At the same time, the routes can be recalculated according to the driver's preferences by the multistage framework proposed. In the solution approach proposed, the accurate route searching ability of the Dijkstra algorithm and the exploration ability of the Genetic algorithm (GA) are effectively combined together for solving the m-RSP problems. Solutions provided by the proposed approach are compared with the current research to show the effectiveness and practicability of the solution approach proposed.

  11. Quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development

    SciTech Connect

    Hori, Kenji; Sumimoto, Michinori; Murafuji, Toshihiro

    2015-12-31

    We have been investigating “quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development” using in silico screenings and applied the method to several targets. Another example was conducted to develop synthesis routes for a urea derivative, namely 1-(4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl)urea. While five synthesis routes were examined, only three routes passed the second in silico screening. Among them, the reaction of 7-amino-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-chromen-2-one and O-methyl carbamate with BF{sub 3} as an additive was ranked as the first choice for synthetic work. We were able to experimentally obtain the target compound even though its yield was as low as 21 %. The theoretical result was thus consistent with that observed. The summary of transition state data base (TSDB) is also provided. TSDB is the key to reducing time of in silico screenings.

  12. 14 CFR 121.93 - Route requirements: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Approval of Routes: Domestic and Flag Operations § 121.93 Route requirements: General. (a) Each certificate holder conducting domestic or flag...

  13. 14 CFR 121.93 - Route requirements: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Approval of Routes: Domestic and Flag Operations § 121.93 Route requirements: General. (a) Each certificate holder conducting domestic or flag...

  14. 14 CFR 121.93 - Route requirements: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Approval of Routes: Domestic and Flag Operations § 121.93 Route requirements: General. (a) Each certificate holder conducting domestic or flag...

  15. Focus issue introduction: space-division multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Li, Guifang; Karlsson, Magnus; Liu, Xiang; Quiquempois, Yves

    2014-12-29

    Since the publication of the first focus issue [Opt. Express 19(11), 2011], single-fiber transmission capacity has eclipsed the 1 Pb/s mark. All aspects related to space-division multiplexing including fiber, passive components [(de)multiplexer, couplers], active components (EDFA and Raman amplifiers), switching and routing elements (ROADM and WSS), as well as transmission and networking have progressed rapidly. This focus issue is intended to bring together the most up-to-date research in space-division multiplexing, including fibers, passive and active components, transmission systems and networking. PMID:25607215

  16. Postcomplexation synthetic routes to dipyrrin complexes.

    PubMed

    Perl, David; Bisset, Sean W; Telfer, Shane G

    2016-02-14

    We report a postfunctionalization synthetic route to dipyrrin complexes that gives access to a broad range of new complexes. This route involves the coordination of a 5-methylthiodipyrrinato ligand to a metal centre followed by displacement of the thiomethyl moiety by a nucleophile. Using rhenium(I) as a platform and amine nucleophiles, we show how complexes that would be difficult or impossible to synthesize via traditional methods can now be accessed. PMID:26792392

  17. Mass Conservative and Total Variation Diminishing Implementation of Various Hydrological Flow Routing Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanenberg, Dirk; Alvarado Montero, Rodolfo

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological flow routing methods are widely used as components of distributed hydrological models and in operational flow forecasting systems, often in combination with data assimilation and predictive control techniques. The most popular ones such as the Muskingum-Cunge approach implement variable parameters to relate the storage to the topology of the river reach and numerical parameters of the schematization. Although this often increases the accuracy of the approach, it may also lead to mass errors and other numerical issues. Whereas fixes for the mass error has been previously discussed by several authors, the numerical robustness is still not properly addressed. We present a novel approach to reformulate hydrological routing schemes as a cascade of implicit pool routing models. Its numerical implementation is mass conservative and total variation diminishing, i.e. the solution does not oscillate or overshoot, for arbitrary time steps. It is shown that these numerical properties are achieved regardless of the accuracy of the scheme and its physical routing characteristics. Numerical experiments compare the computational performance and accuracy of the novel, reformulated approach with existing schemes including linear reservoir routing, nonlinear reservoir routing, and the original Muskingum-Cunge method. We show that the approach can reproduce the original schemes, if these are already mass conservative, otherwise fixes the mass conservation in the reformulated version and improves the solution at sharp gradients by suppressing numerical oscillations, overshooting or negative flows.

  18. The Route Analysis Based On Flight Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feriyanto, Nur; Saleh, Chairul; Fauzi, Achmad; Rachman Dzakiyullah, Nur; Riza Iwaputra, Kahfi

    2016-02-01

    Economic development effects use of air transportation since the business process in every aspect was increased. Many people these days was prefer using airplane because it can save time and money. This situation also effects flight routes, many airlines offer new routes to deal with competition. Managing flight routes is one of the problems that must be faced in order to find the efficient and effective routes. This paper investigates the best routes based on flight performance by determining the amount of block fuel for the Jakarta-Denpasar flight route. Moreover, in this work compares a two kinds of aircraft and tracks by calculating flight distance, flight time and block fuel. The result shows Jakarta-Denpasar in the Track II has effective and efficient block fuel that can be performed by Airbus 320-200 aircraft. This study can contribute to practice in making an effective decision, especially helping executive management of company due to selecting appropriate aircraft and the track in the flight plan based on the block fuel consumption for business operation.

  19. Grid data extraction algorithm for ship routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuankui; Zhang, Yingjun; Yue, Xingwang; Gao, Zongjiang

    2015-05-01

    With the aim of extracting environmental data around routes, as the basis of ship routing optimization and other related studies, this paper, taking wind grid data as an example, proposes an algorithm that can effectively extract the grid data around rhumb lines. According to different ship courses, the algorithm calculates the wind grid index values in eight different situations, and a common computational formula is summarised. The wind grids around a ship route can be classified into `best-fitting' grids and `additional' grids, which are stored in such a way that, for example, when the data has a high-spacing resolution, only the `best-fitting' grids around ship routes are extracted. Finally, the algorithm was implemented and simulated with MATLAB programming. As the simulation results indicate, the algorithm designed in this paper achieved wind grid data extraction in different situations and further resolved the extraction problem of meteorological and hydrogeological field grids around ship routes efficiently. Thus, it can provide a great support for optimal ship routing related to meteorological factors.

  20. Annoyance caused by aircraft en route noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to quantify the annoyance response of people on the ground to enroute noise generated by aircraft at cruise conditions. The en route noises were ground level recordings of eight advanced turboprop aircraft flyovers and six conventional turbofan flyovers. The eight advanced turboprop enroute noises represented the NASA Propfan Test Assessment aircraft operating at different combinations of altitude, aircraft Mach number, and propeller tip speed. The conventional turbofan en route noises represented six different commercial airliners. The overall durations of the en route noises varied from approximately 40 to 160 sec. In the experiment, 32 subjects judged the annoyance of the en route noises as well as recordings of the takeoff and landing noises of each of 5 conventional turboprop and 5 conventional turbofan aircraft. Each of the noises was presented at three sound pressure levels to the subjects in an anechoic listening room. Analysis of the judgments found small differences in annoyance between three combinations of aircraft type and operation. Current tone and corrections did not significantly improve en route annoyance prediction. The optimum duration-correction magnitude for en route noise was approximately 1 dB per doubling of effective duration.

  1. Railroad routing and costing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bronzini, M.S.; Sherman, D.M.

    1986-08-01

    This research has the objective of providing reliable tools for forecasting the costs of transporting coal from the coal supply regions to the coal demand regions of the United States. The present work was devoted primarily to improving and updating the Railroad Routing Model (RRM) and related data base developed earlier. The railroad network data were modified to incorporate the extensive structural changes which occurred during the period 1980 to 1982. All of the rail time, energy, and cost functions were completely reestimated, taking advantage of improved railrod operations and cost simulators and recent research on railroad costs. After a review of the latest research on railroad routing in large networks, the RRM was refined and tailored to the problem of finding likely routes and estimating fully allocated carrier costs for coal shipments. A new RRM routing algorithm finds routes which satisfy the dual railroad objectives of maximizing the carrier's share of total shipment revenue and minimizing cost. Five utilities tested and demonstrated the new RRM and data base in a series of case studies. These utilities provided data on 38 coal moves with haul distances of 200 to 1700 miles, including a mixture of both existing and prospective movements. The RRM was found to produce credible results. Full and effective use of these improved tools for railroad routing and costing has been facilitated through additional work to develop an interactive system with improved data base management capabilities and expanded cost estimating features.

  2. Animal issues and society.

    PubMed

    Grabau, J H

    1993-05-01

    Animal use topics are sensitive issues today. Animal uses issues are often presented as black and white or 'we' are right and 'they' are wrong. This is clearly demonstrated in the available literature from most organizations. Topics presented will include: delineation of issues and concerned groups; examples of animal issues in education and agriculture; the terrorist issue; examples of animal issues/sportsman issues; examples of political and legislative impact; and examples of biomedical and toxicology animal use issues. PMID:8516774

  3. Transportation routing analysis geographic information system -- TRAGIS, a multimodal transportation routing tool

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.E.

    1995-12-31

    Over 15 years ago, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed two transportation routing models: HIGHWAY, which predicts truck transportation routes, and INTERLINE, which predicts rail transportation routes. Subsequent modifications have been made to enhance each of these models. Some of these changes include population density information for routes, HM-164 routing regulations for highway route controlled quantities of radioactive materials (RAM) truck shipments, and inclusion of waterway routing into INTERLINE. The AIRPORT model, developed 2 years after the HIGHWAY and INTERLINE models, serves as an emergency response tool. This model identifies the nearest airports from a designated location. Currently, the AIRPORT model is inactive. The Transportation Management Division of the US Department of Energy held a Baseline Requirements Assessment Session on the HIGHWAY, INTERLINE, and AIRPORT models in April 1994 to bring together many users of these models and other experts in the transportation routing field to discuss these models and to decide on the capabilities that needed to be added. Of the many needs discussed, the primary one was to have the network databases within a geographic information system (GIS). As a result of the Baseline Requirements Session, the development of a new GIS model has been initiated. This paper will discuss the development of the new Transportation Routing Analysis GIS (TRAGIS) model at ORNL.

  4. A routing algorithm for industrial wireless network based on deterministic scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Heng; Liu, Qichen; Wang, Ping; Luo, Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    In the industrial wireless network, determinacy, reliability and real-time applications have been bottleneck of the network. The existed routing protocols of the wireless sensor network cannot be fully corresponded with the industrial applications. In this paper, a routing algorithm based LQI (link quality indicator) and deterministic scheduling is proposed, which is focus to solve the issue of high reliability. The test results in ISA100.11a DL subnet show the superiority of the proposed algorithm, which has much more superiority to reduce the network overhead and save the network resources.

  5. A routing algorithm for industrial wireless network based on deterministic scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Heng; Liu, Qichen; Wang, Ping; Luo, Zhiyong

    2011-12-01

    In the industrial wireless network, determinacy, reliability and real-time applications have been bottleneck of the network. The existed routing protocols of the wireless sensor network cannot be fully corresponded with the industrial applications. In this paper, a routing algorithm based LQI (link quality indicator) and deterministic scheduling is proposed, which is focus to solve the issue of high reliability. The test results in ISA100.11a DL subnet show the superiority of the proposed algorithm, which has much more superiority to reduce the network overhead and save the network resources.

  6. [Brief discussion on "Sanli acupoint for du-fu diseases"].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; He, Quan; Xin, Yu; Zhang, Hongxing

    2015-07-01

    The connotations of "du-fu" and "Sanli" in "Sanli acupoint for du-fu diseases" are discussed in this paper, which can provide theoretical foundation for the clinical application of "Sanli acupoint for du-fu diseases". Based on ancient literature combined with related theories in the Huangdi Neijing (Yellow Emperor's Canon of Internal Classic), a deep discussion is performed through the relationship between Zusanli (ST 36) and stomach, indication and mechanism of Zusanli (ST 36) on du-fu diseases and comparison between Zusanli (ST 36) and Shousanli (LI 10). It is believed that "du" should be pronounced as "dŭ", meaning stomach, and it indicates that Zusanli (ST 36) is closely related to stomach and spleen when it is used for du-fu diseases; "fu" means abdomen area, including liver-gallbladder, spleen, stomach-intestine, kidney, uterus, triple energizer; "sanli' means exclusively the acupoint of Zusanli (ST 36). PMID:26521594

  7. Du Pont Classifications of 6 Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrell, N.; Shappee, Benjamin J.

    2016-06-01

    We report optical spectroscopy (range 370-910 nm) of six supernovae from the Backyard Observatory Supernova Search (BOSS) and the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) using the du Pont 2.5-m telescope (+ WFCCD) at Las Campanas Observatory on June 17 2016 UT. We performed a cross-correlation with a library of supernova spectra using the "Supernova Identification" code (SNID; Blondin and Tonry 2007, Ap.J.

  8. Sustainable growth, the DuPont way.

    PubMed

    Holliday, C

    2001-09-01

    Like many manufacturers, DuPont traditionally has grown by making more and more "stuff." And its business growth has been proportional to the amount of raw materials and energy used--as well as the resulting waste and emissions from operations. Over the years, though, DuPont became aware that cheap supplies of nonrenewable resources wouldn't be endlessly available and that the earth's ecosystems couldn't indefinitely absorb the waste and emissions of production and consumption. Chad Holliday, chairman and CEO of DuPont, believes strongly in the challenge of sustainable growth and makes the business case for it: By using creativity and scientific knowledge effectively, he says, companies can provide strong returns for shareholders and grow their businesses--while also meeting the human needs of societies around the world and reducing the environmental footprint of their operations and products. In fact, a focus on sustainability can help identify new products, markets, partnerships, and intellectual property and lead to substantial business growth. Holliday describes how DuPont developed a three-pronged strategy to translate the concept of sustainability into nuts-and-bolts business practices. Focusing on integrated science, knowledge intensity, and productivity improvement, the strategy was accompanied by a new way to measure progress quantitatively. Sustainable growth should be viewed not as a program for stepped-up environmental performance but as a comprehensive way of doing business, one that delivers tremendous economic value and opens up new opportunities. Ultimately, companies will find that they can generate substantial business value through sustainability while both enhancing the quality of life around the world and protecting the environment. PMID:11550629

  9. 2. Aerial view northeast, State Route 92 bottom left and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Aerial view northeast, State Route 92 bottom left and State Route 100 center, Brandywine Creek State Park center right, duck pond and reservoir center bottom. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  10. 1. Aerial view northnortheast, State Route 92 center left and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial view north-northeast, State Route 92 center left and State Route 100 on right, duck pond, reservoir and farm complex buildings center bottom. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  11. 6. Aerial view northwest, State Route 100 bottom left and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Aerial view northwest, State Route 100 bottom left and center, Winterthur Train Station center left, Winterthur Farms dairy barns upper center , duck pond and reservoir center, State Route 92 center right, and Brandywine Creek State Park bottom right. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  12. Proceedings of the distributed utility valuation project institutional issues workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    These proceedings summarize the discussions during a one-day working session on institutional issues related to the distributed utility (DU) concept. The purpose of the session was to provide an initial assessment of the {open_quotes}institutional{close_quotes} issues, including legal, regulatory, industry structure, utility organization, competition, and related matters that may affect the development and the relationships among distributed utility stakeholders. The assessment was to identify institutional barriers to utilities realizing benefits of the distributed concept (should these benefits be confirmed), as well as to identify opportunities for utilities and other stakeholders for moving ahead to more easily capture these benefits.

  13. Minimum risk route model for hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ashtakala, B.; Eno, L.A.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the minimum risk route for transporting a specific hazardous material (HM) between a point of origin and a point of destination (O-D pair) in the study area which minimizes risk to population and environment. The southern part of Quebec is chosen as the study area and major cities are identified as points of origin and destination on the highway network. Three classes of HM, namely chlorine gas, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and sulfuric acid, are chosen. A minimum risk route model has been developed to determine minimum risk routes between an O-D pair by using population or environment risk units as link impedances. The risk units for each link are computed by taking into consideration the probability of an accident and its consequences on that link. The results show that between the same O-D pair, the minimum risk routes are different for various HM. The concept of risk dissipation from origin to destination on the minimum risk route has been developed and dissipation curves are included.

  14. The Balanced Billing Cycle Vehicle Routing Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Groer, Christopher S; Golden, Bruce; Edward, Wasil

    2009-01-01

    Utility companies typically send their meter readers out each day of the billing cycle in order to determine each customer s usage for the period. Customer churn requires the utility company to periodically remove some customer locations from its meter-reading routes. On the other hand, the addition of new customers and locations requires the utility company to add newstops to the existing routes. A utility that does not adjust its meter-reading routes over time can find itself with inefficient routes and, subsequently, higher meter-reading costs. Furthermore, the utility can end up with certain billing days that require substantially larger meter-reading resources than others. However, remedying this problem is not as simple as it may initially seem. Certain regulatory and customer service considerations can prevent the utility from shifting a customer s billing day by more than a few days in either direction. Thus, the problem of reducing the meterreading costs and balancing the workload can become quite difficult. We describe this Balanced Billing Cycle Vehicle Routing Problem in more detail and develop an algorithm for providing solutions to a slightly simplified version of the problem. Our algorithm uses a combination of heuristics and integer programming via a three-stage algorithm. We discuss the performance of our procedure on a real-world data set.

  15. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  16. Service discovery with routing protocols for MANETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xuemai; Shi, Shuo

    2005-11-01

    Service discovery is becoming an important topic as its use throughout the Internet becomes more widespread. In Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), the routing protocol is very important because it is special network. To find a path for data, and destination nodes, nodes send packets to each node, creating substantial overhead traffic and consuming much time. Even though a variety of routing protocols have been developed for use in MANETs, they are insufficient for reducing overhead traffic and time. In this paper, we propose SDRP: a new service discovery protocol combined with routing policies in MANETs. The protocol is performed upon a distributed network. We describe a service by a unique ID number and use a group-cast routing policy in advertisement and request. The group-cast routing policy decreases the traffic in networks, and it is efficient to find destination node. In addition, the nodes included in the reply path also cache the advertisement information, and it means when each node finds a node next time, they can know where it is as soon as possible, so they minimize the time. Finally, we compare SDRP with both Flood and MAODV in terms of overload, and average delay. Simulation results show SDRP can spend less response time and accommodate even high mobility network environments.

  17. A digital model for streamflow routing by convolution methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, W.H., Jr.; Shearman, H.O.; Stiltner, G.J.; Krug, W.O.

    1984-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey computer model, CONROUT, for routing streamflow by unit-response convolution flow-routing techniques from an upstream channel location to a downstream channel location has been developed and documented. Calibration and verification of the flow-routing model and subsequent use of the model for simulation is also documented. Three hypothetical examples and two field applications are presented to illustrate basic flow-routing concepts. Most of the discussion is limited to daily flow routing since, to date, all completed and current studies of this nature involve daily flow routing. However, the model is programmed to accept hourly flow-routing data. (USGS)

  18. Cloning and sequencing of Duck circovirus (DuCV).

    PubMed

    Hattermann, K; Schmitt, C; Soike, D; Mankertz, A

    2003-12-01

    The genome of Duck circovirus (DuCV) is circular and 1996 nts in size. Two major open reading frames were identified, encoding the replicase (V1) and the capsid protein (C1). A stem-loop structure comprising the nonamer 5'-TATTATTAC, conserved in all circo-, nano- and geminiviruses, was found. Unique to DuCV, the region between the 3'-ends of the rep and cap gene contains four repeats of a 44-bp sequence. Phylogenetic analysis shows close relation of DuCV with Goose circovirus and suggests classification of DuCV as a new member of the genus Circovirus of the virus family Circoviridae. PMID:14648300

  19. Pulmonary administration of small interfering RNA: The route to go?

    PubMed

    Ruigrok, M J R; Frijlink, H W; Hinrichs, W L J

    2016-08-10

    Ever since the discovery of RNA interference (RNAi), which is a post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism, researchers have been studying the therapeutic potential of using small interfering RNA (siRNA) to treat diseases that are characterized by excessive gene expression. Excessive gene expression can be particularly harmful if it occurs in a vulnerable organ such as the lungs as they are essential for physiological respiration. Consequently, RNAi could offer an approach to treat such lung diseases. Parenteral administration of siRNA has been shown to be difficult due to degradation by nucleases in the systemic circulation and excretion by the kidneys. To avoid these issues and to achieve local delivery and local effects, pulmonary administration has been proposed as an alternative administration route. Regarding this application, various animal studies have been conducted over the past few years. Therefore, this review presents a critical analysis of publications where pulmonary administration of siRNA in animals has been reported. Such an analysis is necessary to determine the feasibility of this administration route and to define directions for future research. First, we provide background information on lungs, pulmonary administration, and delivery vectors. Thereafter, we present and discuss relevant animal studies. Though nearly all publications reported positive outcomes, several reoccurring challenges were identified. They relate to 1) the necessity, efficacy, and safety of delivery vectors, 2) the biodistribution of siRNA in tissues other than the lungs, 3) the poor correlation between in vitro and in vivo models, and 4) the long-term effects upon (repeated) administration of siRNA. Finally, we present recommendations for future research to define the route to go: towards safer and more effective pulmonary administration of siRNA. PMID:27235976

  20. A Hybrid Routing Algorithm Based on Ant Colony and ZHLS Routing Protocol for MANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafsanjani, Marjan Kuchaki; Asadinia, Sanaz; Pakzad, Farzaneh

    Mobile Ad hoc networks (MANETs) require dynamic routing schemes for adequate performance. This paper, presents a new routing algorithm for MANETs, which combines the idea of ant colony optimization with Zone-based Hierarchical Link State (ZHLS) protocol. Ant colony optimization (ACO) is a class of Swarm Intelligence (SI) algorithms. SI is the local interaction of many simple agents to achieve a global goal. SI is based on social insect for solving different types of problems. ACO algorithm uses mobile agents called ants to explore network. Ants help to find paths between two nodes in the network. Our algorithm is based on ants jump from one zone to the next zones which contains of the proactive routing within a zone and reactive routing between the zones. Our proposed algorithm improves the performance of the network such as delay, packet delivery ratio and overhead than traditional routing algorithms.

  1. CURRENT STATE OF PREDICTING THE RESPIRATORY ALLERGY POTENTIAL OF CHEMICALS: WHAT ARE THE ISSUES?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current State of Predicting the Respiratory Allergy Potential of Chemicals: What Are the Issues? M I. Gilmour1 and S. E. Loveless2, 1USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC and 2DuPont Haskell Laboratory, Newark, DE.

    Many chemicals are clearly capable of eliciting immune respon...

  2. Research on secure routing algorithm in wireless sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo

    2013-03-01

    Through the research on the existing wireless sensor network (WSN) and its security technologies, this paper presents a design of the WSN-based secure routing algorithm. This design uses the existing routing algorithm as chief source, adding the security guidance strategy, introducing the location key information, to enhance the security performance of WSN routing. The improved routing algorithm makes the WSN routing achieve better anti-attack in the case of little overhead increase, therefore has high practical value.

  3. APPLICATION AND USE OF DOSE ESTIMATING EXPOSURE MODEL (DEEM) FOR ROUTE TO ROUTE DOSE COMPARISONS AFTER EXPOSURE TO TRICHLOROETHYLENE (TCE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Route-to-route extrapolations are a crucial step in many risk assessments. Often the doses which result In toxicological end points in one route must be compared with doses resulting from typical environmental exposures by another route. In this case we used EPA's Dose Estimati...

  4. Pheromone Static Routing Strategy for Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Mao-Bin; Henry, Y. K. Lau; Ling, Xiang; Jiang, Rui

    2012-12-01

    We adopt the concept of using pheromones to generate a set of static paths that can reach the performance of global dynamic routing strategy [Phys. Rev. E 81 (2010) 016113]. The path generation method consists of two stages. In the first stage, a pheromone is dropped to the nodes by packets forwarded according to the global dynamic routing strategy. In the second stage, pheromone static paths are generated according to the pheromone density. The output paths can greatly improve traffic systems' overall capacity on different network structures, including scale-free networks, small-world networks and random graphs. Because the paths are static, the system needs much less computational resources than the global dynamic routing strategy.

  5. Genetic algorithms for the vehicle routing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volna, Eva

    2016-06-01

    The Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is one of the most challenging combinatorial optimization tasks. This problem consists in designing the optimal set of routes for fleet of vehicles in order to serve a given set of customers. Evolutionary algorithms are general iterative algorithms for combinatorial optimization. These algorithms have been found to be very effective and robust in solving numerous problems from a wide range of application domains. This problem is known to be NP-hard; hence many heuristic procedures for its solution have been suggested. For such problems it is often desirable to obtain approximate solutions, so they can be found fast enough and are sufficiently accurate for the purpose. In this paper we have performed an experimental study that indicates the suitable use of genetic algorithms for the vehicle routing problem.

  6. A Secure Cluster-Based Multipath Routing Protocol for WMSNs

    PubMed Central

    Almalkawi, Islam T.; Zapata, Manel Guerrero; Al-Karaki, Jamal N.

    2011-01-01

    The new characteristics of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network (WMSN) and its design issues brought by handling different traffic classes of multimedia content (video streams, audio, and still images) as well as scalar data over the network, make the proposed routing protocols for typical WSNs not directly applicable for WMSNs. Handling real-time multimedia data requires both energy efficiency and QoS assurance in order to ensure efficient utility of different capabilities of sensor resources and correct delivery of collected information. In this paper, we propose a Secure Cluster-based Multipath Routing protocol for WMSNs, SCMR, to satisfy the requirements of delivering different data types and support high data rate multimedia traffic. SCMR exploits the hierarchical structure of powerful cluster heads and the optimized multiple paths to support timeliness and reliable high data rate multimedia communication with minimum energy dissipation. Also, we present a light-weight distributed security mechanism of key management in order to secure the communication between sensor nodes and protect the network against different types of attacks. Performance evaluation from simulation results demonstrates a significant performance improvement comparing with existing protocols (which do not even provide any kind of security feature) in terms of average end-to-end delay, network throughput, packet delivery ratio, and energy consumption. PMID:22163854

  7. A secure cluster-based multipath routing protocol for WMSNs.

    PubMed

    Almalkawi, Islam T; Zapata, Manel Guerrero; Al-Karaki, Jamal N

    2011-01-01

    The new characteristics of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network (WMSN) and its design issues brought by handling different traffic classes of multimedia content (video streams, audio, and still images) as well as scalar data over the network, make the proposed routing protocols for typical WSNs not directly applicable for WMSNs. Handling real-time multimedia data requires both energy efficiency and QoS assurance in order to ensure efficient utility of different capabilities of sensor resources and correct delivery of collected information. In this paper, we propose a Secure Cluster-based Multipath Routing protocol for WMSNs, SCMR, to satisfy the requirements of delivering different data types and support high data rate multimedia traffic. SCMR exploits the hierarchical structure of powerful cluster heads and the optimized multiple paths to support timeliness and reliable high data rate multimedia communication with minimum energy dissipation. Also, we present a light-weight distributed security mechanism of key management in order to secure the communication between sensor nodes and protect the network against different types of attacks. Performance evaluation from simulation results demonstrates a significant performance improvement comparing with existing protocols (which do not even provide any kind of security feature) in terms of average end-to-end delay, network throughput, packet delivery ratio, and energy consumption. PMID:22163854

  8. A comprehensive survey of energy-aware routing protocols in wireless body area sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Effatparvar, Mehdi; Dehghan, Mehdi; Rahmani, Amir Masoud

    2016-09-01

    Wireless body area sensor network is a special purpose wireless sensor network that, employing wireless sensor nodes in, on, or around the human body, makes it possible to measure biological parameters of a person for specific applications. One of the most fundamental concerns in wireless body sensor networks is accurate routing in order to send data promptly and properly, and therefore overcome some of the challenges. Routing protocols for such networks are affected by a large number of factors including energy, topology, temperature, posture, the radio range of sensors, and appropriate quality of service in sensor nodes. Since energy is highly important in wireless body area sensor networks, and increasing the network lifetime results in benefiting greatly from sensor capabilities, improving routing performance with reduced energy consumption presents a major challenge. This paper aims to study wireless body area sensor networks and the related routing methods. It also presents a thorough, comprehensive review of routing methods in wireless body area sensor networks from the perspective of energy. Furthermore, different routing methods affecting the parameter of energy will be classified and compared according to their advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, fundamental concepts of wireless body area sensor networks are provided, and then the advantages and disadvantages of these networks are investigated. Since one of the most fundamental issues in wireless body sensor networks is to perform routing so as to transmit data precisely and promptly, we discuss the same issue. As a result, we propose a classification of the available relevant literature with respect to the key challenge of energy in the routing process. With this end in view, all important papers published between 2000 and 2015 are classified under eight categories including 'Mobility-Aware', 'Thermal-Aware', 'Restriction of Location and Number of Relays', 'Link-aware', 'Cluster- and Tree

  9. Reconfigurable Robust Routing for Mobile Outreach Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ching-Fang

    2010-01-01

    The Reconfigurable Robust Routing for Mobile Outreach Network (R3MOO N) provides advanced communications networking technologies suitable for the lunar surface environment and applications. The R3MOON techn ology is based on a detailed concept of operations tailored for luna r surface networks, and includes intelligent routing algorithms and wireless mesh network implementation on AGNC's Coremicro Robots. The product's features include an integrated communication solution inco rporating energy efficiency and disruption-tolerance in a mobile ad h oc network, and a real-time control module to provide researchers an d engineers a convenient tool for reconfiguration, investigation, an d management.

  10. A parallel algorithm for global routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brouwer, Randall J.; Banerjee, Prithviraj

    1990-01-01

    A Parallel Hierarchical algorithm for Global Routing (PHIGURE) is presented. The router is based on the work of Burstein and Pelavin, but has many extensions for general global routing and parallel execution. Main features of the algorithm include structured hierarchical decomposition into separate independent tasks which are suitable for parallel execution and adaptive simplex solution for adding feedthroughs and adjusting channel heights for row-based layout. Alternative decomposition methods and the various levels of parallelism available in the algorithm are examined closely. The algorithm is described and results are presented for a shared-memory multiprocessor implementation.