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Sample records for routine pathological examination

  1. Spectrum of Gastroenteropancreatic NENs in Routine Histological Examinations of Bioptic and Surgical Specimen: A Study of 161 Cases Collected from 17 Departments of Pathology in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Mandys, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To characterize GEP-NENs in routine biopsies and surgical specimen in the Czech Republic and to evaluate how WHO Classification (2010) is acceptable in diagnostic practice. Methods. Paraffin-embedded blocks and bioptic reports were collected from 17 departments of pathology. Histologic slides were stained with H&E and immunohistologically for CgA, synaptophysin, and Ki-67. Results. Out of 28 gastric NENs, there were 22 NETs, G1, 5 NETs, G2, and 1 NEC. Ten duodenal NENs were NETs, G1. Among 27 NENs of jejunum and ileum, 23 were NETs, G1, 2 NETs, G2, and 1 NEC and 1 mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). Among 42 appendiceal “incidentalomas”, 39 were NETs G1, 2 goblet cell carcinoids, and 1 MANEC. Out of 34 large intestinal NENs, 30 were NETs, G1, 3 NETs, G2, and 1 NEC. One small intestinal and 6 large bowel neoplasms were reclassified as poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas. In 12 pancreatic NENs, there were 7 NETs, G1, 3 NETs, G2, and 2 NECs. Conclusions. Our study demonstrates differences in GEP-NENs frequency in sites of origin in our region, comparing to other countries. Regarding routine bioptic diagnostics, we gave evidence that the WHO 2010 classification of NENs is fully acceptable for exact categorisation of tumours. PMID:24695372

  2. Spectrum of Gastroenteropancreatic NENs in Routine Histological Examinations of Bioptic and Surgical Specimen: A Study of 161 Cases Collected from 17 Departments of Pathology in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Mandys, Václav; Jirásek, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To characterize GEP-NENs in routine biopsies and surgical specimen in the Czech Republic and to evaluate how WHO Classification (2010) is acceptable in diagnostic practice. Methods. Paraffin-embedded blocks and bioptic reports were collected from 17 departments of pathology. Histologic slides were stained with H&E and immunohistologically for CgA, synaptophysin, and Ki-67. Results. Out of 28 gastric NENs, there were 22 NETs, G1, 5 NETs, G2, and 1 NEC. Ten duodenal NENs were NETs, G1. Among 27 NENs of jejunum and ileum, 23 were NETs, G1, 2 NETs, G2, and 1 NEC and 1 mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). Among 42 appendiceal "incidentalomas", 39 were NETs G1, 2 goblet cell carcinoids, and 1 MANEC. Out of 34 large intestinal NENs, 30 were NETs, G1, 3 NETs, G2, and 1 NEC. One small intestinal and 6 large bowel neoplasms were reclassified as poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas. In 12 pancreatic NENs, there were 7 NETs, G1, 3 NETs, G2, and 2 NECs. Conclusions. Our study demonstrates differences in GEP-NENs frequency in sites of origin in our region, comparing to other countries. Regarding routine bioptic diagnostics, we gave evidence that the WHO 2010 classification of NENs is fully acceptable for exact categorisation of tumours. PMID:24695372

  3. Value of routine histopathological examination of appendices in Hong Kong.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, W; Fu, K H

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective study of the histopathological findings of more than 11,443 appendices submitted as surgical specimens over 14 years was performed in this department. In most cases routine histopathological examination added little clinically important information to other clinical and operative gross findings, but a variety of interesting and uncommon lesions were identified. In 85 cases clinically important pathological findings were first discovered on routine histopathological examination. These included enterobiasis, schistosomiasis, mucocele, trichuriasis, tuberculosis, ascariasis, endometriosis, mucinous cystadenoma, granuloma, carcinoid tumour, neuroma, clonorchiasis, primary adenocarcinoma and secondary carcinoma. PMID:3584486

  4. An Examination of Latino Students' Homework Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    Homework appears to be positively associated with better student outcomes. Although some researchers have explored the connection between time spent on homework and minority student achievement, few have examined the homework routines of Latino youth. Interviews with Latino high school students show that they have some difficulty completing daily…

  5. Recommendations on routine screening pelvic examination

    PubMed Central

    Tonelli, Marcello; Gorber, Sarah Connor; Moore, Ainsley; Thombs, Brett D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the 2014 American College of Physicians (ACP) guideline on the use of pelvic examinations to screen for cancer (other than cervical), pelvic inflammatory disease, or other benign gynecologic conditions to determine whether the ACP guideline on routine pelvic examinations was consistent with Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (CTFPHC) standards and could be adapted or adopted. Methods The SNAP-IT (Smooth National Adaptation and Presentation of Guidelines to Improve Thrombosis Treatment) method was used to determine whether the ACP guideline was consistent with CTFPHC standards and could be adapted or adopted. Recommendations The CTFPHC recommends not performing a screening pelvic examination to screen for noncervical cancer, pelvic inflammatory disease, or other gynecological conditions in asymptomatic women. This is a strong recommendation with moderate-quality evidence. Conclusion The CTFPHC adopts the recommendation on screening pelvic examination as published by the ACP in 2014. PMID:26975912

  6. Web-based pathology practice examination usage

    PubMed Central

    Klatt, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Context: General and subject specific practice examinations for students in health sciences studying pathology were placed onto a free public internet web site entitled web path and were accessed four clicks from the home web site menu. Subjects and Methods: Multiple choice questions were coded into. html files with JavaScript functions for web browser viewing in a timed format. A Perl programming language script with common gateway interface for web page forms scored examinations and placed results into a log file on an internet computer server. The four general review examinations of 30 questions each could be completed in up to 30 min. The 17 subject specific examinations of 10 questions each with accompanying images could be completed in up to 15 min each. The results of scores and user educational field of study from log files were compiled from June 2006 to January 2014. Results: The four general review examinations had 31,639 accesses with completion of all questions, for a completion rate of 54% and average score of 75%. A score of 100% was achieved by 7% of users, ≥90% by 21%, and ≥50% score by 95% of users. In top to bottom web page menu order, review examination usage was 44%, 24%, 17%, and 15% of all accessions. The 17 subject specific examinations had 103,028 completions, with completion rate 73% and average score 74%. Scoring at 100% was 20% overall, ≥90% by 37%, and ≥50% score by 90% of users. The first three menu items on the web page accounted for 12.6%, 10.0%, and 8.2% of all completions, and the bottom three accounted for no more than 2.2% each. Conclusions: Completion rates were higher for shorter 10 questions subject examinations. Users identifying themselves as MD/DO scored higher than other users, averaging 75%. Usage was higher for examinations at the top of the web page menu. Scores achieved suggest that a cohort of serious users fully completing the examinations had sufficient preparation to use them to support their pathology

  7. Harlequin testicle and other uncommon pathologies masquerading at routine scrotal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Medverd, Jonathan R; Peguero, Larissa; Patel, Dhairyasheel P

    2015-06-01

    Many scrotal conditions manifest similarly as pain, swelling, a palpable abnormality, or a combination of these symptoms. Most common scrotal pathologies have characteristic accompanying sonographic findings. Less common pathologies can have similar clinical presentations, and imaging with scrotal ultrasound is required to aid in proper diagnosis. This article focuses on several of these less commonly encountered scrotal pathologies--including testicular segmental infarction, scrotal filariasis, scrotal mesothelioma, seminiferous tubule fibrosis, and scrotal leiomyosarcoma--and compares and contrasts them to more routine diagnoses. Familiarity with both typical and atypical scrotal conditions is necessary to make accurate diagnoses at ultrasound to guide appropriate treatment and avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:25938549

  8. Improving patient safety by examining pathology errors.

    PubMed

    Raab, Stephen S

    2004-12-01

    A considerable void exists in the information available regarding anatomic pathology diagnostic errors and their impact on clinical outcomes. To fill this void and improve patient safety, four institutional pathology departments (University of Pittsburgh, Western Pennsylvania Hospital, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, and Henry Ford Hospital System) have proposed the development of a voluntary, Web-based, multi-institutional database for the collection and analysis of diagnostic errors. These institutions intend to use these data proactively to implement internal changes in pathology practice and to measure the effect of such changes on errors and clinical outcomes. They believe that the successful implementation of this project will result in the study of other types of diagnostic pathology error and the expansion to national participation. The project will involve the collection of multi-institutional anatomic pathology diagnostic errors in a large database that will facilitate a more detailed analysis of these errors, including their effect on patient outcomes. Participating institutions will perform root cause analysis for diagnostic errors and plan and execute appropriate process changes aimed at error reduction. The success of these interventions will be tracked through analysis of postintervention error data collected in the database. Based on their preliminary studies, these institutions proposed the following specific aims: Specific aim #1: To use a Web-based database to collect diagnostic errors detected by cytologic histologic correlation and by second-pathologist review of conference cases. Specific aim #2: To analyze the collected error data quantitatively and generate quality performance reports that are useful for institutional quality improvement programs. Specific aim #3: To plan and implement interventions to reduce errors and improve clinical outcomes, based on information derived from root cause analysis of diagnostic errors. Specific

  9. Incidental findings during routine pathological evaluation of gallbladder specimens: review of 1,747 elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy cases.

    PubMed

    Basak, F; Hasbahceci, M; Canbak, T; Sisik, A; Acar, A; Yucel, M; Bas, G; Alimoglu, O

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Cholecystectomy for benign gallbladder diseases can lead to previously undiagnosed gallbladder cancer during histopathological evaluation. Despite some controversy over its usefulness, histopathological evaluation of all gallbladder specimens is common in most hospitals. We evaluated the results of routine pathology of the gallbladder after cholecystectomy for benign gallbladder diseases with regard to unexpected primary gallbladder cancer (UPGC). Methods Patients undergoing cholecystectomy because of benign gallbladder diseases between 2009 and 2013 were enrolled in this study. All gallbladder specimens were sent to the pathology department, and histopathological reports were examined in detail. The impact of demographic features on pathological diagnoses and prevalence of UPGC assessed. Data on additional interventions and postoperative survival for patients with UPGC were collected. Results We enrolled 1,747 patients (mean age, 48.7±13.6 years). Chronic cholecystitis was the most common diagnosis (96.3%) and was associated significantly with being female (p=0.001). Four patients had UPGC (0.23%); one was stage T3 at the time of surgery, and the remaining three cases were stage T2. Conclusions Routine histopathological examination of the gallbladder is valuable for identification of cancer that requires further postoperative management. PMID:26924485

  10. Spontaneous Pathology and Routine Clinical Pathology Parameters in Aging Beagle Dogs: A Comparison With Adolescent and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Barnes, J; Cotton, P; Robinson, S; Jacobsen, M

    2016-03-01

    AstraZeneca ran a bespoke study to generate age-matched clinical pathology and histopathology data from a cohort of Beagle dogs aged between 25 and 37 months to support the use of these older animals in routine preclinical toxicology studies. As the upper age range of Beagle dogs routinely used in toxicology studies does not normally exceed 24 months, there is an absence of appropriate age-matched historical control data. The generation of such data was crucial to understand whether age-related differences in spontaneous findings might confound the interpretation of toxicology study data. While the majority of the histopathology findings in all the older dogs occurred at a similar prevalence as those expected in young adult dogs (<24 months), a number of differences were observed in the thymus (involution), bone marrow (increased adiposity), testes (degenerative changes), and lung (fibrosis, pigment and alveolar hyperplasia) that could be misinterpreted as a test article effect. Minor differences in some clinical pathology values (hemoglobin, alkaline phosphatase, absolute reticulocytes) were of a small magnitude and considered unlikely to affect the interpretation of study data. PMID:26553522

  11. Is the routine microscopic examination of proximal and distal resection margins in colorectal cancer surgery justified?

    PubMed

    Morlote, Diana M; Alexis, John B

    2016-08-01

    Microscopic examination of the proximal and distal resection margins is part of the routine pathologic evaluation of colorectal surgical specimens removed for adenocarcinoma. Anastomotic donuts are frequently received and microscopically examined. We examined 594 specimens received over a period of 10 years and found only 3 cases of definitive direct involvement of a longitudinal margin by carcinoma. All 3 cases also showed tumor at the margin grossly. One case of margin involvement by adenocarcinoma was found in which the tumor was grossly 1.7 cm away; however, this finding was likely a tumor deposit, as the patient had diffuse metastatic disease. All 242 anastomotic donuts examined were free of carcinoma. Our study suggests that the proximal and distal margins of colorectal cancer specimens need not be examined microscopically in order to accurately assess margin status in cases where the tumor is at least 2 cm away from the margin of resection. Also, in cases in which anastomotic donuts are included with the case, these should be considered the true margins of resection and may be microscopically examined in place of the bowel specimen margins when margin examination is needed. Anastomotic donuts need not be examined if the tumor is more than 2 cm away from the margin. An exception to this rule would be cases of rectal adenocarcinoma where neoadjuvant therapy is given prior to surgery. In these cases, mucosal evidence of malignancy may be absent and microscopic examination of the margins is the only way to assure complete excision. PMID:27402222

  12. Routine Clinical-Pathologic Correlation of Pigmented Skin Tumors Can Influence Patient Management

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Caterina; Piana, Simonetta; Lallas, Aimilios; Moscarella, Elvira; Lombardi, Mara; Raucci, Margherita; Pellacani, Giovanni; Argenziano, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have demonstrated the benefit of integrating clinical with pathologic information, to obtain a confident diagnosis for melanocytic tumors. However, all those studies were conducted retrospectively and no data are currently available about the role of a clinical-pathologic correlation approach on a daily basis in clinical practice. Aim of the Study In our study, we evaluated the impact of a routine clinical-pathologic correlation approach for difficult skin tumors seen over 3 years in a tertiary referral center. Results Interestingly, a re-appraisal was requested for 158 out of 2015 (7.7%) excised lesions because clinical-pathologic correlation was missing. Of note, in 0.6% of them (13 out of 2045) the first histologic diagnosis was revised in the light of clinical information that assisted the Pathologist to re-evaluate the histopathologic findings that might be bland or inconspicuous per se. Conclusion In conclusion, our study demonstrated that an integrated approach involving clinicians and pathologists allows improving management of selected patients by shifting from a simply disease-focused management (melanoma versus nevus) to a patient-centered approach. PMID:26325678

  13. Advantage of Adding Diffusion Weighted Imaging to Routine MRI Examinations in the Diagnostics of Scrotal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Algebally, Ahmed Mohamed; Tantawy, Hazim Ibrahim; Yousef, Reda Ramadan Hussein; Szmigielski, Wojciech; Darweesh, Adham

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The purpose of the study is to identify the diagnostic value of adding diffusion weighted images (DWI) to routine MRI examinations of the scrotum. Material/Methods The study included 100 testes of 50 patients with a unilateral testicular disease. Fifty normal contralateral testes were used as a control group. All patients underwent conventional MRI and DWI examinations of the scrotum. The results of MRI and DWI of the group of patients treated surgically were correlated with histopathological findings. The MRI and DWI results of non-surgical cases were correlated with the results of clinical, laboratory and other imaging studies. Comparison of the ADC value of normal and pathological tissues was carried out followed by a statistical analysis. Results There was a significant difference between ADC values of malignant testicular lesions and normal testicular tissues as well as benign testicular lesions (P=0.000). At a cut-off ADC value of ≤0.99, it had a sensitivity of 93.3%, specificity of 90%, positive predictive value of 87.5%, and negative predictive value of 94.7% in the characterization of intratesticular masses. Conclusions Inclusion of DWI to routine MRI has a substantial value in improving diagnosis in patients with scrotal lesions and consequently can reduce unnecessary radical surgical procedures in these patients. PMID:26491491

  14. Routine chest x-ray examinations in occupational medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Ashenburg, N.J.

    1982-01-01

    To collect some data on the yield of the chest x-ray examination in pre-employment health evaluations, a retrospective study was carried out. Pre-employment chest x-ray examination reports on 3,266 applicants were reviewed in Eastman Kodak Company's Medical Department in Rochester, N.Y. All radiographs were interpreted by Board-certified radiologists. For the purpose of this study, positive findings were restricted to the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems. The findings included items that would not be considered completely normal. However, many were of no clinical significance. An important point in regard to the findings is that 80% of the applicants were under the age of 35. The data are summarized in Table 1. Positive findings were noted in 52 (1.6%) radiographs. Of these, 25 (0.7%) had some radiologic finding that was relevant in terms of clinical follow-up, appropriate job placement or deferment of employment. Only two of the 3,266 applicants were not employed because of the x-ray examination findings. Results suggests that a selective program, based on clinical history and examination and on past and proposed job exposure, might be appropriate.

  15. Implementation of TMA and digitalization in routine diagnostics of breast pathology.

    PubMed

    Rossing, Henrik Holm; Talman, Maj-Lis Møller; Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Wielenga, Vera Timmermans

    2012-04-01

    To ensure optimal treatment of breast cancer patients, breast tumours are classified based on clinico-pathological features. As part of this process, routine diagnostics of breast tumours includes histological typing and grading, as well as profiling by use of an immunohistochemistry panel of antibodies, probes and in situ hybridization. This will, as a minimum, include assessment of oestrogen receptor (OR) and HER2. The individual preparation and staining of many breast tumours in a large laboratory with this standard panel is thus time consuming and costly. Herein, we show that in breast cancer routine diagnostics the use of the tissue microarray technique in combination with digitalization of the stained multi-slides is not only economical, with a considerable cost reduction, but it also enhances standardization of tumour profiling. We demonstrate that 2 mm breast tumour cores correlate with the corresponding tumour on whole mount slides, regarding staining/hybridizing results with the biomarkers in our panel consisting of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, OR and Topiomerase IIa. Furthermore, we show that simultaneous staining/hybridizing of multiple breast tumour specimens reduces variation of staining/hybridizing quality, hereby increasing reliability of interpretation. By scanning and digitalization of the stained and hybridized multi-slides, we could optimize documentation and filing of the results. Our work is an example of translational research by implementing a tool in daily diagnostics originally developed for high throughput analyses in the search for prognostic and predictive markers in targeted medicine. PMID:22429216

  16. Database construction for improving patient safety by examining pathology errors.

    PubMed

    Grzybicki, Dana Marie; Turcsanyi, Brian; Becich, Michael J; Gupta, Dilip; Gilbertson, John R; Raab, Stephen S

    2005-10-01

    A critical component of improving patient safety is reducing medical errors. "Improving Patient Safety by Examining Pathology Errors" is a project designed to collect data about and analyze diagnostic errors voluntarily reported by 4 academic anatomic pathology laboratories and to develop and implement interventions to reduce errors and improve patient outcomes. The study database is Web-mediated and Oracle-based, and it houses de-identified error data detected by cytologic-histologic correlation and interdepartmental conference review. We describe the basic design of the database with a focus on challenges faced as a consequence of the absence of standardized and detailed laboratory workload and quality assurance data sets in widely used laboratory information systems and the lack of efficient and comprehensive electronic de-identification of unlinked institutional laboratory information systems and clinical data. Development of these electronic data abstraction capabilities is critical for efforts to improve patient safety through the examination of pathology diagnostic errors. PMID:16146808

  17. First national in-service examination for pathology residents.

    PubMed

    Lockard, W T; Beeler, M F; Stembridge, V A; Troy, L A

    1985-01-01

    To fulfill an identified need in pathology residency program training, in 1983 the American Society of Clinical Pathologists introduced the first national in-service examination for pathology residents. This 175-item objective examination structured with seven subtest categories for various clinical rotations was administered to 1,200 residents-in-training representing 145 training programs, 40 states, and the District of Columbia. Individual norm-referenced results reports returned to each examinee, and program reports to each residency program director, indicated rank of individual examinee performance in each category and in all categories as well as with defined peer groups. Anonymity of individual results was optional to program directors. The data indicate that although performance improves with each subsequent year of residency training, the improvement is not so great as expected and that the level of performance of residents entering training was higher than anticipated. Postexamination evaluation indicated the need for this effort to continue. PMID:3966428

  18. Routine histologic examination for the diagnosis of onychomycosis: an evaluation of sensitivity and specificity.

    PubMed

    Machler, B C; Kirsner, R S; Elgart, G W

    1998-04-01

    Clinical differentiation of dermatophyte infection from dystrophic changes due to psoriasis may be challenging. Typically, potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparations, fungal culture, and occasionally, nail unit biopsy specimens are utilized to help differentiate between the two. These tests are often time-consuming and may yield false-negative results. Increasing regulation of the office laboratory has caused some physicians to forgo this testing, which was previously routine. We investigated the utility of routine histologic examination of nail clippings in differentiating onychomycosis from psoriatic onychodystrophy. Twenty-three distal nail clipping specimens (twelve specimens from patients with onychodystrophy of unknown cause and eleven control specimens from nails with known cause) were evaluated by routine histology and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining. Of the dystrophic cases, four were demonstrated to be onychomycosis by the presence of hyphae on histologic evaluation and by culture, whereas only three of these cases yielded positive results on KOH examination. Eight cases of onychodystrophy were due to psoriasis. Yeast forms were detected on one case of psoriatic onychodystrophy that demonstrated yeast growth on culture. In our study, routine histologic examination with PAS staining was equal to culture and superior to KOH preparation in leading to the correct diagnosis of dermatophyte infection. In addition, the diagnosis of psoriasis of the nail plate was detected accurately by routine histologic examination. Routine histologic examination with PAS staining is a rapid, simple, and reliable test in the evaluation of onychodystrophy. PMID:9564595

  19. Current routine practice and clinico-pathological characteristics associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sunhyun; Park, Joon Seong; Jeong, Seong Hyun; Lee, Hyun Woo; Park, Jun Eun; Kim, Mi Hyang; Kim, Yang Soo; Lee, Ho Sup; Park, Tae Sung; You, Eunkyoung; Rheem, Insoo; Park, Joowon; Huh, JI Young; Kang, Myung Seo

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) can be life threatening, necessitating emergency therapy with prompt diagnosis by morphologic findings, immunophenotyping, cytogenetic analysis, or molecular studies. This study aimed to assess the current routine practices in APL and the clinico-pathologic features of APL. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 48 Korean patients (25 men, 23 women; median age, 51 (20-80) years) diagnosed with APL in 5 university hospitals between March 2007 and February 2012. Results The WBC count at diagnosis and platelet count varied from 0.4 to 81.0 (median 2.0)×109/L and 2.7 to 124.0 (median 54.5)×109/L, respectively. The median values for prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were 14.7 (11.3-44.1) s and 29 (24-62) s, respectively. All but 2 patients (96%) showed a fibrin/fibrinogen degradation product value of >20 µg/mL. The D-dimer median value was 5,000 (686-55,630) ng/mL. The t(15;17)(q22;q12 and PML-RARA fusion was found in all patients by chromosome analysis and/or multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), with turnaround times of 8 (2-19) d and 7 (2-13) d, respectively. All patients received induction chemotherapy: all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) alone (N=11, 26%), ATRA+idarubicin (N=25, 58%), ATRA+cytarabine (N=3, 7%), ATRA+idarubicin+cytarabine (N=4, 9%). Conclusion Since APL is a medical emergency and an accurate diagnosis is a prerequisite for prompt treatment, laboratory support to implement faster diagnostic tools to confirm the presence of PML-RARA is required. PMID:23589792

  20. Asymptomatic coronary artery spasm with acute pathological ST elevation on routine ECG: Is it common?

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Ishaq; Zaatari, Mohamad Sadek El; Tyrogalas, Nikos; Khalid, M I

    2014-01-01

    Asymptomatic spontaneous coronary artery spasm is rare and there are no case reports in literature presenting with acute ST elevation on routine ECG. We present the case of a 68-year-old Caucasian man who presented to a primary care physician for a routine ECG as part of hypertension follow-up. ECG revealed ST elevation in inferior leads II, III and aVF with reciprocal ST depression in leads I, aVL and also ST depression in anterior leads V1, V2 and V3 suggesting ongoing inferoposterior ST elevation myocardial infarction. The patient was completely well, stable and asymptomatic and he was rushed immediately to the coronary care unit via emergency ambulance. The patient was subjected to a battery of urgent investigations which were all normal. Also an urgent coronary angiogram was undertaken which showed completely normal coronary anatomy. PMID:25115779

  1. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in fecal samples submitted for routine microbiological examination.

    PubMed Central

    Ratnam, S; Paddock, J; McDonald, E; Whitty, D; Jong, M; Cooper, R

    1985-01-01

    During a 7-month period, 2,252 fecal samples submitted for routine microbiological examination from 1,621 patients were screened for Cryptosporidium oocysts by the auramine staining method with Kinyoun acid-fast stain as the confirmatory stain. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in fecal samples from 19 (1.2%) patients, 18 of whom had gastroenteritis. Diarrheic stools from 14 of these 18 patients were negative for the usual enteropathogens but contained the oocysts in moderate to large numbers. Although Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in patients of all ages, they occurred slightly more frequently in infants and children than in the rest. Cryptosporidium species was one of the common enteropathogens identified in fecal samples submitted for routine parasitological examination during the period of the survey and was second only to Giardia species in terms of frequency. Considering cryptosporidiosis in the differential diagnosis of gastroenteritis in immunocompetent persons and including a search for Cryptosporidium oocysts in routine parasitological examinations of fecal samples appear warranted. PMID:4044798

  2. A travel report of the implementation of virtual whole slide images in routine surgical pathology.

    PubMed

    Nap, Marius; Teunissen, Rob; Pieters, Math

    2012-04-01

    Virtual microscopy is the terminology used to indicate the use of digitized images of whole slides for inspection of cells and tissue sections on computer screens as an add-on or replacement for conventional microscopy using bright field or other types of illumination in combination with a wide variety of microscope brands. Although technically there is no longer a limit in the size and colour composition of the images, the logistics of embedding virtual microscopy in daily routine of a diagnostic process are still a relatively open area where new pitfalls and opportunities can be found. In this article, we described various aspects in the process. None of them had been planned in advance, but mostly originated from observations done during the different steps towards implementation of virtual microscopy in daily routine, for example, the choice between the different scanner types and their (dis)advantages, issues on storing and retrieval and at last, the effect of digitalization on the diagnostic process. This approach resulted in a manuscript that in a way has more the appearance of a story than of a scientific study with strict protocols, with a clear cut question in advance, a research plan and expected outcome. Depending on the purpose of the virtual slides in a given situation, different solutions must be found locally. PMID:22429211

  3. Pathological examination of breast cancer biomarkers: current status in Japan.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Shinobu

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews the current status of pathological evaluation for biomarkers in Japan. The introduced issues are the international trends for estimation of biomarkers considering diagnosis and treatment decision, and pathological issues under discussion, and how Japanese Breast Cancer Society (JBCS) members have addressed issues related to pathology and biomarkers evaluation. As topics of immunohistochemical study, (1) ASCO/CAP guidelines, (2) Ki67 and other markers, (3) quantification and image analysis, (4) application of cytologic samples, (5) pre-analytical process, and (6) Japan Pathology Quality Assurance System are introduced. Various phases of concepts, guidelines, and methodologies are co-existed in today's clinical practice. It is expected in near future that conventional methods and molecular procedures will be emerged, and Japanese Quality assurance/Quality control (QA/QC) system will work practically. What we have to do in the next generation are to validate novel procedures, to evaluate the relationship between traditional concepts and newly proposed ideas, to establish a well organized QA/QC system, and to standardize pre-analytical process that are the basis of all procedures using pathological tissues. PMID:25239167

  4. Issues in using whole slide imaging for diagnostic pathology: "routine" stains, immunohistochemistry and predictive markers.

    PubMed

    Taylor, C R

    2014-08-01

    The traditional microscope, together with the "routine" hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) stain, remains the "gold standard" for diagnosis of cancer and other diseases; remarkably, it and the majority of associated biological stains are more than 150 years old. Immunohistochemistry has added to the repertoire of "stains" available. Because of the need for specific identification and even measurement of "biomarkers," immunohistochemistry has increased the demand for consistency of performance and interpretation of staining results. Rapid advances in the capabilities of digital imaging hardware and software now offer a realistic route to improved reproducibility, accuracy and quantification by utilizing whole slide digital images for diagnosis, education and research. There also are potential efficiencies in work flow and the promise of powerful new analytical methods; however, there also are challenges with respect to validation of the quality and fidelity of digital images, including the standard H & E stain, so that diagnostic performance by pathologists is not compromised when they rely on whole slide images instead of traditional stained tissues on glass slides. PMID:24325681

  5. Implementation of large-scale routine diagnostics using whole slide imaging in Sweden: Digital pathology experiences 2006-2013

    PubMed Central

    Thorstenson, Sten; Molin, Jesper; Lundström, Claes

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological advances have improved the whole slide imaging (WSI) scanner quality and reduced the cost of storage, thereby enabling the deployment of digital pathology for routine diagnostics. In this paper we present the experiences from two Swedish sites having deployed routine large-scale WSI for primary review. At Kalmar County Hospital, the digitization process started in 2006 to reduce the time spent at the microscope in order to improve the ergonomics. Since 2008, more than 500,000 glass slides have been scanned in the routine operations of Kalmar and the neighboring Linköping University Hospital. All glass slides are digitally scanned yet they are also physically delivered to the consulting pathologist who can choose to review the slides on screen, in the microscope, or both. The digital operations include regular remote case reporting by a few hospital pathologists, as well as around 150 cases per week where primary review is outsourced to a private clinic. To investigate how the pathologists choose to use the digital slides, a web-based questionnaire was designed and sent out to the pathologists in Kalmar and Linköping. The responses showed that almost all pathologists think that ergonomics have improved and that image quality was sufficient for most histopathologic diagnostic work. 38 ± 28% of the cases were diagnosed digitally, but the survey also revealed that the pathologists commonly switch back and forth between digital and conventional microscopy within the same case. The fact that two full-scale digital systems have been implemented and that a large portion of the primary reporting is voluntarily performed digitally shows that large-scale digitization is possible today. PMID:24843825

  6. Is polysomnographic examination necessary for subjects with diaphragm pathologies?

    PubMed Central

    Oruc, Ozlem; Sarac, Sema; Afsar, Gulgun Cetintas; Topcuoglu, Ozgur Bilgin; Kanbur, Serda; Yalcinkaya, Irfan; Tepetam, Fatma Merve; Kirbas, Gokhan

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: While respiratory distress is accepted as the only indication for diaphragmatic plication surgery, sleep disorders have been underestimated. In this study, we aimed to detect the sleep disorders that accompany diaphragm pathologies. Specifically, the association of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome with diaphragm eventration and diaphragm paralysis was evaluated. METHODS: This study was performed in Süreyyapasa Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Training and Research Hospital between 2014–2016. All patients had symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea (snoring and/or cessation of breath during sleep and/or daytime sleepiness) and underwent diaphragmatic plication via video-assisted mini-thoracotomy. Additionally, all patients underwent pre- and postoperative full-night polysomnography. Pre- and postoperative clinical findings, polysomnography results, Epworth sleepiness scale scores and pulmonary function test results were compared. RESULTS: Twelve patients (7 males) with a mean age of 48 (range, 27-60) years and a mean body mass index of 25 (range, 20-30) kg/m2 were included in the study. Preoperative polysomnography showed obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in 9 of the 12 patients (75%), while 3 of the patients (25%) were regarded as normal. Postoperatively, patient complaints, apnea hypopnea indices, Epworth sleepiness scale scores and pulmonary function test results all demonstrated remarkable improvement. CONCLUSION: All patients suffering from diaphragm pathologies with symptoms should undergo polysomnography, and patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome should be operated on. In this way, long-term comorbidities of sleep disorders may be prevented.

  7. Is Routine Ultrasound Examination of the Gallbladder Justified in Critical Care Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Myrianthefs, Pavlos; Evodia, Efimia; Vlachou, Ioanna; Petrocheilou, Glykeria; Gavala, Alexandra; Pappa, Maria; Baltopoulos, George; Karakitsos, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Objective. We evaluated whether routine ultrasound examination may illustrate gallbladder abnormalities, including acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) in the intensive care unit (ICU). Patients and Methods. Ultrasound monitoring of the GB was performed by two blinded radiologists in mechanically ventilated patients irrespective of clinical and laboratory findings. We evaluated major (gallbladder wall thickening and edema, sonographic Murphy's sign, pericholecystic fluid) and minor (gallbladder distention and sludge) ultrasound criteria. Measurements and Results. We included 53 patients (42 males; mean age 57.6 ± 2.8 years; APACHE II score 21.3 ± 0.9; mean ICU stay 35.9 ± 4.8 days). Twenty-five patients (47.2%) exhibited at least one abnormal imaging finding, while only six out of them had hepatic dysfunction. No correlation existed between liver biochemistry and ultrasound results in the total population. Three male patients (5.7%), on the grounds of unexplained sepsis, were diagnosed with AAC as incited by ultrasound, and surgical intervention was lifesaving. Patients who exhibited ≥2 ultrasound findings (30.2%) were managed successfully under the guidance of evolving ultrasound, clinical, and laboratory findings. Conclusions. Ultrasound gallbladder monitoring guided lifesaving surgical treatment in 3 cases of AAC; however, its routine application is questionable and still entails high levels of clinical suspicion. PMID:22649716

  8. An assessment of the usefulness of routine histological examination in hanging deaths.

    PubMed

    Tse, Rexson; Langlois, Neil; Winskog, Calle; Byard, Roger W

    2012-07-01

    A retrospective study was carried out on 100 randomly selected medico-legal autopsies of victims who had committed suicide by hanging. All cases had undergone full police and coronial investigation. Complete external and internal examinations had been carried out including routine histological examination of organs. The age range of victims was 15-94 years (average, 41.7 years) with a male-to-female ratio of 7:1. External and internal injuries were consistent with the reported events. Diagnoses based purely on histology included hepatic steatosis (n = 16), asthma (n = 3), lymphocytic thyroiditis (n = 2), and pulmonary and cardiac sarcoidosis (n = 1). A large cell carcinoma of the lung and a rectal adenocarcinoma were confirmed. Histological evaluation was, however, of limited usefulness in contributing to the medico-legal evaluation of cases, with careful scene, external and internal examinations providing the most relevant information. The results of histological examination of tissues were all incidental to the cause, mechanism, and manner of death. PMID:22372621

  9. [Assessment of general movements at routine medical examination of one-month-old infants].

    PubMed

    Yuge, M; Okano, S; Tachibana, K; Hojo, M; Kawamoto, M; Suzuki, J

    2001-05-01

    On routine medical examination of one-month-old infants, general movements (GMs) were video-recorded for about 5 minutes of 252 infants born at Kyoto City Hospital or other hospitals, including the infants discharged from the NICU. Their ages ranged from 39 postmenstrual to 8 post-term weeks. One of the experimenters assessed 181 infants among 252 available for assessment of their GMs twice at intervals of more than one month without being informed about their clinical histories. The subjects included 19 low-birthweight infants, and their average age was 3.5 post-term weeks. The assessment was carried out in comparison to the "gold standard" GMs depicted in a demonstration video produced by the GMs Trust. The Kappa value for intra-observer concordance was 0.85. Twenty (11.0%) out of the 181 infants were judged abnormal because of their poor repertoire of GMs in both the first and second assessment. Neither cramped synchronized GMs nor chaotic ones were observed. Meanwhile, 155 (85.6%) out of the 181 infants were found to be normal. The incidence of abnormal GMs was significantly higher among infants with history of asphyxia and/or respiratory distress than among low-risk infants. There of the experimenters independently assessed GMs of 50 infants among 181 which had been video-recorded between June and September 1998. The inter-observer concordance was higher among the low-birth weight infants than among full-term ones. In conclusion, qualitative assessment of GMs by an experienced observer at routine medical examination of one-month old infants is a useful method for the follow-up of high-risk infants. PMID:11391968

  10. An Advanced Review of Speech-Language Pathology: Preparation for Praxis and Comprehensive Examination. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseberry-McKibbin, Celeste; Hegde, M. N.

    2006-01-01

    This second edition book is tailor made for speech-language pathology students preparing to take departmental comprehensive examinations as well as the Praxis Examination in Speech-Language Pathology. In addition, this inclusive book is a terrific teaching tool for university faculty---offering preview outlines, brief introductions, and summaries.…

  11. Routine Histopathologic Examination of Appendectomy Specimens: Retrospective Analysis of 1255 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Emre, Arif; Akbulut, Sami; Bozdag, Zehra; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Kanlioz, Murat; Emre, Rabia; Sahin, Nurhan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical benefit of histopathologic analysis of appendectomy specimens from patients with an initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis. We retrospectively analyzed the demographic and histopathologic data of 1255 patients (712 males, 543 females; age range, 17–85 years) who underwent appendectomy to treat an initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Patients who underwent incidental appendectomy during other surgeries were excluded from the study. Histopathologic findings of the appendectomy specimens were used to confirm the initial diagnosis. Ninety-four percent of the appendectomy specimens were positive for appendicitis. Of those, 880 were phlegmonous appendicitis, 148 were gangrenous appendicitis with perforation, and the remaining 88 showed unusual histopathologic findings. In the 88 specimens with unusual pathology, fibrous obliteration was observed in 57 specimens, carcinoid tumor in 11, Encheliophis vermicularis parasite infection in 8, granulatomous inflammation in 6, appendiceal endometriosis in 2, and 1 specimen each showed mucocele, eosinophilic infiltration, Taenia saginata parasite infection, and appendicular diverticulitis. All carcinoid tumors were located in the distal appendix. Six of the 11 carcinoid tumors were defined by histopathology as involving tubular cells, and the other 5 as involving enterochromaffin cells. Six patients had muscularis propria invasion, 2 patients had submucosa invasion, 2 patients had mesoappendix invasion, and 1 patient had serosal invasion. All patients with tumors remained disease free during the follow-up (range, 1–27 months). We conclude that when the ratio of unusual pathologic findings for appendectomy specimens is considered, it is evident that all surgical specimens should be subjected to careful histologic examination. PMID:24229023

  12. Routine histopathologic examination of appendectomy specimens: retrospective analysis of 1255 patients.

    PubMed

    Emre, Arif; Akbulut, Sami; Bozdag, Zehra; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Kanlioz, Murat; Emre, Rabia; Sahin, Nurhan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical benefit of histopathologic analysis of appendectomy specimens from patients with an initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis. We retrospectively analyzed the demographic and histopathologic data of 1255 patients (712 males, 543 females; age range, 17-85 years) who underwent appendectomy to treat an initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Patients who underwent incidental appendectomy during other surgeries were excluded from the study. Histopathologic findings of the appendectomy specimens were used to confirm the initial diagnosis. Ninety-four percent of the appendectomy specimens were positive for appendicitis. Of those, 880 were phlegmonous appendicitis, 148 were gangrenous appendicitis with perforation, and the remaining 88 showed unusual histopathologic findings. In the 88 specimens with unusual pathology, fibrous obliteration was observed in 57 specimens, carcinoid tumor in 11, Encheliophis vermicularis parasite infection in 8, granulatomous inflammation in 6, appendiceal endometriosis in 2, and 1 specimen each showed mucocele, eosinophilic infiltration, Taenia saginata parasite infection, and appendicular diverticulitis. All carcinoid tumors were located in the distal appendix. Six of the 11 carcinoid tumors were defined by histopathology as involving tubular cells, and the other 5 as involving enterochromaffin cells. Six patients had muscularis propria invasion, 2 patients had submucosa invasion, 2 patients had mesoappendix invasion, and 1 patient had serosal invasion. All patients with tumors remained disease free during the follow-up (range, 1-27 months). We conclude that when the ratio of unusual pathologic findings for appendectomy specimens is considered, it is evident that all surgical specimens should be subjected to careful histologic examination. PMID:24229023

  13. [Routine examination of the mature newborn infant. Incidence of frequent "minor findings"].

    PubMed

    Rosegger, H; Rollett, H R; Arrunàtegui, M

    1990-05-11

    From 1st January to 31st August 1989 2,248 healthy, mature infants were delivered at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Graz, Austria. They were routinely examined on day 1 and before discharge from hospital on day 4. Attention was paid to the presence or absence of minor abnormalities such as skin lesions, eruptions or rashes, cephalhaematoma, tongue tie, undescended testis, increased physiological jaundice, heart murmurs, talipes calcaneo-valgus, hip click, fracture of the clavicle and other common abnormalities and limb deformities. 20.9% of the investigated babies had no such findings whatsoever. In 79.1% of the subjects with one or more abnormalities, minor lesions due to birth trauma dominated with 24.2%, followed by postural deformities of the lower extremities in 20.5% and hip clicks and/or asymmetric skin-folds in 12.9%. Dislocation of the hip, however, was found in only 17%. Elevated serum bilirubin levels were noted in 33.0%, and in many of the jaundiced infants bruising or haematoma due to birth trauma was evident. Traumatic lesions were much rarer in infants delivered by caesarean section than in infants born vaginally. PMID:2356618

  14. Examining DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling: psychometric properties and evidence from cognitive biases.

    PubMed

    Lakey, Chad E; Goodie, Adam S; Lance, Charles E; Stinchfield, Randy; Winters, Ken C

    2007-12-01

    We examined the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling as assessed with the DSM-IV-based Diagnostic Interview for Gambling Severity (DIGS; Winters, Specker, & Stinchfield, 2002). We first analyzed the psychometric properties of the DIGS, and then assessed the extent to which performance on two judgment and decision-making tasks, the Georgia Gambling Task (Goodie, 2003) and the Iowa Gambling Task (Bechara, Damasio, Damasio, & Anderson, 1994), related to higher reports of gambling pathology. In a sample of frequent gamblers, we found strong psychometric support for the DSM-IV conception of pathological gambling as measured by the DIGS, predictive relationships between DIGS scores and all cognitive performance measures, and significant differences in performance measures between individuals with and without pathological gambling. Analyses using suggested revisions to the pathological gambling threshold (Stinchfield, 2003) revealed that individuals meeting four of the DSM-IV criteria aligned significantly more with pathological gamblers than with non-pathological gamblers, supporting the suggested change in the cutoff score from five to four symptoms. Discussion focuses on the validity of the DSM-IV criteria as assessed by the DIGS and the role of cognitive biases in pathological gambling. PMID:17453325

  15. Routine Eye Examinations for Persons 20-64 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    difference between the treatments of early-stage versus late-stage glaucoma was estimated at $167. The total cost per recipient was estimated at $891/person. Current Ontario Policy As of November 1, 2004 persons between 20 years and 64 years of age are eligible for an insured eye examination once every year if they have any of the following medical conditions: diabetes mellitus type 1 or 2, glaucoma, cataract(s), retinal disease, amblyopia, visual field defects, corneal disease, or strabismus. Persons between 20 to 64 years of age who do not have diabetes mellitus, glaucoma, cataract(s), retinal disease, amblyopia, visual field defects, corneal disease, or strabismus may be eligible for an annual eye examination if they have a valid “request for major eye examination” form completed by a physician (other than that who completed the eye exam) or a nurse practitioner working in a collaborative practice. Persons 20-64 years of age who are in receipt of social assistance and who do not have one of the 8 medical conditions listed above are eligible to receive an eye exam once every 2 years as a non-OHIP government funded service. Persons 19 years of age or younger and 65 years of age or older may receive an insured eye exam once every year. Considerations for Policy Development As of July 17, 2006 there were 1,402 practicing optometrists in Ontario. As of December 31, 2005 there were 404 practicing ophthalmologists in Ontario. It is unknown how many third party payers now cover routine eye exams for person between the ages of 20 and 64 years of age in Ontario. PMID:23074485

  16. An examination of the relation between intraocular pressure, fundal stretching and myopic pathology.

    PubMed

    McMonnies, Charles W

    2016-03-01

    Pathological myopia is one of the leading causes of visual impairment worldwide. Myopic development and progression is biomechanical and dominated by axial elongation. This clinical perspective examines some of the stretch-related fundal changes, which are associated with axial elongation and myopic pathology. The biomechanics of stretching of the fundus appears to depend on genetically and/or visual experience-based scleral changes, which reduce its thickness and elastic modulus so that it becomes more susceptible to the distending forces of intraocular pressure. These changes include reduced collagen synthesis, altered collagen fibres, tissue loss, altered proteoglycans and increased matrix metalloproteinase activity. Such changes are associated with reduced scleral rigidity and related increased potential to stretch in response to intraocular pressure. As axial elongation progresses, the sclera appears likely to continue to reduce in thickness and in its capacity to resist intraocular pressure, especially when pressure becomes elevated. Tessellation, lacquer cracks, myopic crescents, staphylomata, chorioretinal atrophy and retinal detachment are examined within a model for stretching of the fundus. Age, refractive error and axial length, for example, are associated with increased pathological progression. Myopic pathological progression can become dominated by vascular changes and include a greater risk of loss of acuity and blindness. Measures to control myopic pathology, which successfully slow or prevent stretching of the fundus, appear to be key factors in reducing or even avoiding permanent visual loss associated with this condition. For example, limiting axial elongation and related myopic fundus pathology by inhibiting changes which reduce the elastic modulus of scleral tissue is a desirable outcome from interventions to control myopia. Similarly, reducing exposure to the distending stress of elevated intraocular pressure appears to be a desirable form of

  17. Knee joint examinations by magnetic resonance imaging: The correlation of pathology, age, and sex

    PubMed Central

    Avcu, Serhat; Altun, Ersan; Akpinar, Ihsan; Bulut, Mehmet Deniz; Eresov, Kemal; Biren, Tugrul

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The aim of our study was to investigate the incidence and coexistence of multiple knee joint pathologies and the distribution of knee joint pathologies according to age and sex. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed using the clinical data of patients evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee joint. Data from 308 patients examined between August 2002 and July 2003 were included into this study. A Pearson correlation analysis was performed to examine the relationship between the pathological findings and the age and sex of the patients. Results: The ages of the patients ranged between 1 and 74 years (mean: 43.3 years). Age was significantly correlated with meniscal degeneration and tears, medial collateral ligament degeneration, parameniscal cyst, and chondromalacia patellae. There was a significant correlation between male gender and anterior cruciate ligament injury. Meniscal injury was significantly correlated with bursitis, as well as medial collateral ligament injury. Bone bruise was significantly correlated with medial collateral ligament injury, lateral collateral ligament injury, Baker's cyst, and anterior cruciate ligament injury. Chondromalacia patellae was significantly correlated with anterior cruciate ligament injury, patellae alta, and osteochondral lesion. Bursitis (in 53.2% of the patients) followed by grade-II meniscal degeneration (in 43% of the patients) were the most common knee pathologies observed by MRI. Conclusions: MRI findings of select knee pathologies are significantly correlated with each other and the age and sex of the patient. PMID:22624141

  18. Typical or Pathological? Routinized and Compulsive-Like Behaviors in Children and Young People with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Sheila; Cunningham, Cliff

    2007-01-01

    Routinized and compulsive-like behaviors (RCB) are common in typically developing children and in children and adults with Down syndrome, but what functions do they serve? Parents completed questionnaires for RCB, behavior problems, and adaptive behaviors. Children who had Down syndrome had significantly higher levels of RCB than did the typically…

  19. Evaluation of quality of routine physical examination in urban public basic schools in Khartoum State, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Alfadeel, Mona A; Hamid, Yassin H M; El Fadeel, Ogail Ata; Salih, Karimeldin M A

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to identify the availability of the service logistics in basic public schools (structure as quality concept), to assess steps of physical examination according to the ministry of health guidelines (process as quality concept) and to measure satisfaction of service consumers (pupils) and service providers (teacher and doctors). The study involved seven localities in Sudan using questionnaires and observations. The structure in form of material and human resources was not well maintained, equally the process and procedure of medical examination did not well fit with rules of quality, however, the satisfaction level was within the accepted level. As far as structure, process and outcome were concerned, we are still below the standards in developed countries for many reasons but the level of satisfaction in the present study is more or less similar as in else studies. PMID:27493421

  20. Reconstructing the spatial pattern of trees from routine stand examination measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanus, M.L.; Hann, D.W.; Marshall, D.D.

    1998-01-01

    Reconstruction of the spatial pattern of trees is important for the accurate visual display of unmapped stands. The proposed process for generating the spatial pattern is a nonsimple sequential inhibition process, with the inhibition zone proportionate to the scaled maximum crown width of an open-grown tree of the same species and same diameter at breast height as the subject tree. The results of this coordinate generation procedure are compared with mapped stem data from nine natural stands of Douglas-fir at two ages by the use of a transformed Ripley's K(d) function. The results of this comparison indicate that the proposed method, based on complete tree lists, successfully replicated the spatial patterns of the trees in all nine stands at both ages and over the range of distances examined. On the basis of these findings and the procedure's ability to model effects through time, the nonsimple sequential inhibition process has been chosen to generate tree coordinates in the VIZ4ST computer program for displaying forest stand structure in naturally regenerated young Douglas-fir stands. For. Sci.

  1. Exploring virtual reality technology and the Oculus Rift for the examination of digital pathology slides

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Navid; Post, Robert; Duboy, Jon; Ahmed, Ishtiaque; Kolowitz, Brian J.; Krinchai, Teppituk; Monaco, Sara E.; Fine, Jeffrey L.; Hartman, Douglas J.; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-01-01

    Background: Digital slides obtained from whole slide imaging (WSI) platforms are typically viewed in two dimensions using desktop personal computer monitors or more recently on mobile devices. To the best of our knowledge, we are not aware of any studies viewing digital pathology slides in a virtual reality (VR) environment. VR technology enables users to be artificially immersed in and interact with a computer-simulated world. Oculus Rift is among the world's first consumer-targeted VR headsets, intended primarily for enhanced gaming. Our aim was to explore the use of the Oculus Rift for examining digital pathology slides in a VR environment. Methods: An Oculus Rift Development Kit 2 (DK2) was connected to a 64-bit computer running Virtual Desktop software. Glass slides from twenty randomly selected lymph node cases (ten with benign and ten malignant diagnoses) were digitized using a WSI scanner. Three pathologists reviewed these digital slides on a 27-inch 5K display and with the Oculus Rift after a 2-week washout period. Recorded endpoints included concordance of final diagnoses and time required to examine slides. The pathologists also rated their ease of navigation, image quality, and diagnostic confidence for both modalities. Results: There was 90% diagnostic concordance when reviewing WSI using a 5K display and Oculus Rift. The time required to examine digital pathology slides on the 5K display averaged 39 s (range 10–120 s), compared to 62 s with the Oculus Rift (range 15–270 s). All pathologists confirmed that digital pathology slides were easily viewable in a VR environment. The ratings for image quality and diagnostic confidence were higher when using the 5K display. Conclusion: Using the Oculus Rift DK2 to view and navigate pathology whole slide images in a virtual environment is feasible for diagnostic purposes. However, image resolution using the Oculus Rift device was limited. Interactive VR technologies such as the Oculus Rift are novel tools

  2. [Investigations into the significance of routine health examinations for tuberculosis in teachers based on the analysis of results of extraordinary health examinations].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, M

    1998-11-01

    School teachers are regarded as one of the danger groups in contracting tuberculosis infection and are subjected to strict tuberculosis controls, since when they develop tuberculosis, many school children are exposed to infection to the disease. However, the recent decrease in the incidence of tuberculosis in Japan has led to disputes concerning the significance of routine mass health examinations for tuberculosis. In this study, the significance of routine health examinations for tuberculosis in teachers was investigated by the analysis of the results of extraordinary health examinations carried out for tuberculosis in teachers as the index cases. A total of 496 extraordinary health examinations were carried out by Nagoya City from 1975 to 1986 and by Aichi Prefecture from 1980 to 1995. In 49 instances of these examinations, teachers were regarded as index cases, which included 25 teachers of public primary, middle or high schools and 14 teachers of private schools, including private instructors for piano, painting or calligraphy, and teachers for supplementary education. The results of these examinations in both groups were compared, regarding the routes of notification, the disease status of the index cases, and the frequency and the scale of the infections of tuberculosis observed among contacts with the index cases. "Group infections of tuberculosis" was defined as instances the infection in which 20 or more cases were infected by the index case, "small scale group infection" as 5-19 infected cases, and "cases with infection" as 1-4 infected cases. The result obtained were as follows. 1. The response rates to routine health examinations were 99.9% in the teachers of public primary, middle or high schools, and about 20-30% in the teachers of private schools. 2. The proportion of the cases notefied by routine examinations were 68.0% in the former group and 21.4% in the latter group. The cases notefied before the onset of the symptoms in the former group was

  3. A detailed examination of substance P in pathologically graded cases of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Beal, M F; Ellison, D W; Mazurek, M F; Swartz, K J; Malloy, J R; Bird, E D; Martin, J B

    1988-03-01

    Substance P concentrations have been found to be reduced in the basal ganglia in Huntington's disease (HD). In order to further examine this finding in the present study we measured substance P-like immunoreactivity (SPLI) in cases of HD which had been graded as to the severity of pathological changes in the striatum. Marked significant reductions of SPLI were found in all striatal nuclei which were significantly correlated with the percentage of neuronal loss in the varying pathologic grades. Similar changes were found in the projection sites of striatal substance P neurons, the globus pallidus interna and the substantia nigra. These changes are consistent with a loss of striatal substance P containing projection neurons in HD. Significant reductions in SPLI were also found in the external pallidum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the subthalamic nucleus. Small significant increases in SPLI (20-30%) were found in 3 frontal cortical regions (Brodmann areas 6, 8 and 9). The finding of neurochemical changes in the subthalamic nucleus is of particular interest since lesions in this nucleus are known to result in chorea and therefore might contribute to the chorea which is a cardinal symptom of HD. PMID:2452859

  4. Performance of residents using digital images versus glass slides on certification examination in anatomical pathology: a mixed methods pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Mirham, Lorna; Naugler, Christopher; Hayes, Malcolm; Ismiil, Nadia; Belisle, Annie; Sade, Shachar; Streutker, Catherine; MacMillan, Christina; Rasty, Golnar; Popovic, Snezana; Joseph, Mariamma; Gabril, Manal; Barnes, Penny; Hegele, Richard G.; Carter, Beverley; Yousef, George M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is anticipated that many licensing examination centres for pathology will begin fully digitizing the certification examinations. The objective of our study was to test the feasibility of a fully digital examination and to assess the needs, concerns and expectations of pathology residents in moving from a glass slide-based examination to a fully digital examination. Methods: We conducted a mixed methods study that compared, after randomization, the performance of senior residents (postgraduate years 4 and 5) in 7 accredited anatomical pathology training programs across Canada on a pathology examination using either glass slides or digital whole-slide scanned images of the slides. The pilot examination was followed by a post-test survey. In addition, pathology residents from all levels of training were invited to participate in an online survey. Results: A total of 100 residents participated in the pilot examination; 49 were given glass slides instead of digital images. We found no significant difference in examination results between the 2 groups of residents (estimated marginal mean 8.23/12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.72-8.87, for glass slides; 7.84/12, 95% CI 7.28-8.41, for digital slides). In the post-test survey, most of the respondents expressed concerns with the digital examination, including slowly functioning software, blurring and poor detail of images, particularly nuclear features. All of the respondents of the general survey (n = 179) agreed that additional training was required if the examination were to become fully digital. Interpretation: Although the performance of residents completing pathology examinations with glass slides was comparable to that of residents using digital images, our study showed that residents were not comfortable with the digital technology, especially given their current level of exposure to it. Additional training may be needed before implementing a fully digital examination, with consideration for a

  5. The Everyday Routines of Families of Children with Autism: Examining the Impact of Sensory Processing Difficulties on the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaaf, Roseann C.; Toth-Cohen, Susan; Johnson, Stephanie L.; Outten, Gina; Benevides, Teal W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the lived experience of how sensory-related behaviors of children with autism affected family routines. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with four primary caregivers regarding the meaning and impact of their child's sensory-related behaviors on family routines that occurred…

  6. Older workers in the construction industry: results of a routine health examination and a five year follow up.

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, V; Rothenbacher, D; Brenner, H; Fraisse, E; Zschenderlein, B; Daniel, U; Schuberth, S; Fliedner, T M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the health status of older construction workers and the occurrence of early retirement due to disability or of mortality within a five year follow up. METHODS: Firstly, a cross sectional study was performed among 4958 employees in the German construction industry, aged 40-64 years, who underwent standardised routine occupational health examinations in 1986-8. The study population included plumbers, carpenters, painters/varnishers, plasterers, unskilled workers, and white collar workers (control group). Job specific prevalence and age adjusted relative prevalence were calculated for hearing loss, abnormal findings at lung auscultation, reduced forced expiratory volume, increased diastolic blood pressure, abnormalities in the electrocardiogram, increased body mass index, hypercholesterolaemia, increased liver enzymes, abnormal findings in an examination of the musculoskeletal system, and abnormalities of the skin. Secondly, follow up for disability and all cause mortality was ascertained between 1992 and 1994 (mean follow up period = 4.5 y). Job specific crude rates were calculated for the occurrence of early retirement due to disability and for all cause mortality. With Cox's proportional hazards model, job specific relative risks, adjusted for age, nationality, and smoking were obtained. RESULTS: Compared with the white collar workers, a higher prevalence of hearing deficiencies, signs of obstructive lung diseases, increased body mass index, and musculoskeletal abnormalities were found among the construction workers at the baseline exam. During the follow up period, 141 men died and 341 men left the labour market due to disability. Compared with white collar workers, the construction workers showed a 3.5 to 8.4-fold increased rate of disability (P < 0.05 for all occupational groups) and a 1.2 to 2.1-fold increased all cause mortality (NS). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the need and possibilities for further health promotion in workers

  7. Accuracy of Physical Examination, Ultrasonography, and Mammography in Predicting Residual Pathologic Tumor Size in Patients Treated With Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chagpar, Anees B.; Middleton, Lavinia P.; Sahin, Aysegul A.; Dempsey, Peter; Buzdar, Aman U.; Mirza, Attiqa N.; Ames, Fredrick C.; Babiera, Gildy V.; Feig, Barry W.; Hunt, Kelly K.; Kuerer, Henry M.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Ross, Merrick I.; Singletary, S Eva

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the accuracy of physical examination, ultrasonography, and mammography in predicting residual size of breast tumors following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Background: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is an accepted part of the management of stage II and III breast cancer. Accurate prediction of residual pathologic tumor size after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is critical in guiding surgical therapy. Although physical examination, ultrasonography, and mammography have all been used to predict residual tumor size, there have been conflicting reports about the accuracy of these methods in the neoadjuvant setting. Methods: We reviewed the records of 189 patients who participated in 1 of 2 protocols using doxorubicin-containing neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and who had assessment by physical examination, ultrasonography, and/or mammography no more than 60 days before their surgical resection. Size correlations were performed using Spearman rho analysis. Clinical and pathologic measurements were also compared categorically using the weighted kappa statistic. Results: Size estimates by physical examination, ultrasonography, and mammography were only moderately correlated with residual pathologic tumor size after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (correlation coefficients: 0.42, 0.42, and 0.41, respectively), with an accuracy of ±1 cm in 66% of patients by physical examination, 75% by ultrasonography, and 70% by mammography. Kappa values (0.24–0.35) indicated poor agreement between clinical and pathologic measurements. Conclusion: Physical examination, ultrasonography, and mammography were only moderately useful for predicting residual pathologic tumor size after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:16432360

  8. A Meta-Analysis Examining the Influence of Pro-Eating Disorder Websites on Body Image and Eating Pathology.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Lowy, Alice S; Halperin, Daniella M; Franko, Debra L

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that exposure to pro-eating disorder websites might increase eating pathology; however, the magnitude of this effect is unknown. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effect of exposure to pro-eating disorder websites on body image and eating pathology. Studies examining the relationship between exposure to pro-eating disorder websites and eating pathology-related outcomes were included. The systematic review identified nine studies. Findings revealed significant effect sizes of exposure to pro-eating disorder websites on body image dissatisfaction (five studies), d = .41, p = .003; dieting (six studies), d = .68, p < .001, and negative affect (three studies), d = 1.00, p < .001. No effect emerged for bulimic symptoms (four studies), d = .22, p = .73. Findings confirmed the effect of pro-eating disorder websites on body image and eating pathology, highlighting the need for enforceable regulation of these websites. PMID:26230192

  9. Clinical value of pathologic examination of non-neoplastic kidney in patients with upper urinary tract malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Jee Wan; Kang, Hye Ran; Kwon, Soon Hyo; Jeon, Jin Seok; Han, Dong Cheol; Jin, So-Young; Yang, Won Jae; Noh, Hyunjin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: While surgical resection remains the standard of care in the treatment of upper urinary tract malignancies, nephrectomy is a risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to determine whether histologic evaluation of non-neoplastic kidney could enable early identification of unrecognized kidney disease and could be of prognostic value in predicting postoperative renal outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 51 patients with upper urinary tract malignancies who received uninephrectomy or uninephroureterectomy. A thorough pathologic evaluation of non-neoplastic kidney including special stains, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopic studies was performed. The degree of parenchymal changes was graded from 0 to 15. Results: Of 51 patients, only 13 showed normal kidney pathology. Fifteen patients showed glomerular abnormalities, 14 showed diabetic nephropathy, and 11 showed vascular nephropathy. There was one case each of reflux nephropathy and chronic pyelonephritis. The median histologic score was 5 points. Only 25.4% of patients had ≤ 3 points. Score more than 5 was observed in 47.1% of patients. Postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 3 to 36 months were obtained from 90.2% of patients, and of those, 34.8% had de novo CKD. Since no one had CKD in partial nephrectomized patients, we determined risk factors for CKD in radical nephrectomized patients. Cox regression analysis revealed that postoperative AKI, preoperative eGFR, and histologic score of non-neoplastic kidney were the independent predictors for CKD. Conclusions: We conclude that routine pathologic evaluation of non-neoplastic kidney provides valuable diagnostic and prognostic information. PMID:27237301

  10. Associations of Undergoing a Routine Medical Examination or Not with Prevalence Rates of Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Lingling; Tian, Danping; Li, Li; Deng, Xin; Deng, Jing; Ning, Peishan; Hu, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    Background: Undergoing a routine medical examination may be associated with the prevalence rate of chronic diseases from a population-based household interview survey. However, this important issue has not been examined so far. Methods: Data came from the first health service household interview of Hunan province, China, in 2013. A Rao–Scott chi-square test was performed to examine the difference in prevalence rates between subgroups. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) was calculated using the PROC SURVEYLOGISTIC procedure of SAS9.1 statistical software. Results: In total, 24,282 residents of 8400 households were surveyed. A higher proportion of elderly adults had undergone a medical examination within the prior 12 months compared with young adults (≥65 years, 60%; 45–64 years, 46%; 18–44 years, 37%). After controlling for location, sex, and household income per capita, undergoing a medical examination was significantly associated with high prevalence rates of hypertension (adjusted OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1–3.5) and of diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR: 3.3, 95% CI: 1.7–6.5) for young adults aged 18–44 years. The associations were not statistically significant for age groups 45–64 years and 65 years or older. Conclusion: The prevalence rates of hypertension and diabetes mellitus may be seriously underestimated for young adults not undergoing a routine medical examination in a health household interview survey. PMID:27347985

  11. Economic and health implications of routine CBCT examination before surgical removal of the mandibular third molar in the Danish population

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, K R; Matzen, L H; Vaeth, M; Wenzel, A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This epidemiological study aimed to analyse economical and societal consequences in Denmark if CBCT is used routinely as a diagnostic method before removal of the mandibular third molar. Furthermore, the aim was to calculate the excess cancer incidence from this practice. Methods: 17 representative dental clinics in the regions of Denmark were visited by two observers, who registered the total number of patients in each clinic, the number of removed mandibular third molars from patients' files together with the age and gender of these patients. The data were collected from 2008 to 2014. The total number of removed mandibular third molars in Denmark each year was derived from the collected data and information on patients' contacts with dentists from Statistics Denmark as a sum of contributions from each region. The contribution of a region was obtained as the number of removed mandibular third molars in the selected clinics in the region times the ratio of the number of patients in the selected clinics in the region to the total number of patients with contact to a general practitioner in the region in 2011. Existing knowledge on the costs for panoramic and CBCT imaging was used to calculate total costs. The cancer incidence was calculated from lifetime attributable risk curves based on linear risk assumptions. Results: The selected clinics included 109,686 patients, and 1369 mandibular third molars had been surgically removed. Using data from Statistics Denmark gave an estimated annual number of removed mandibular third molars of 36,882 at a total cost of €6,633,400. The additional cancer incidence was estimated to be approximately 0.46 per year. Conclusions: The data should be used in a cost-effectiveness analysis of the clinical efficacy of CBCT imaging before removal of mandibular third molars. PMID:25785820

  12. Glaucoma screening as part of the routine physical examination. What to look for and how to use the Schiotz tonometer.

    PubMed

    Pabalan, F J; Weingeist, T A

    1985-05-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of visual loss in the United States. The primary care physician can effectively screen patients at risk by performing Schiotz tonometry, checking the visual fields, and examining the fundus. Patients with elevated intraocular pressure, grossly abnormal visual fields, or abnormal optic disks should be referred to an ophthalmologist for confirmation of diagnosis and for therapy. PMID:3991383

  13. Spectrum of pathologies in cases of intestinal obstruction & perforation based on histopathological examination of resected intestine - Report from a third world country

    PubMed Central

    Wasim Yusuf, Noshin; Iqbal, Sehr; Sarfraz, Rahat; Khalid Sohail, Shezada; Imran, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: Cases presenting with intestinal perforation and obstruction constitute a substantial work load on our surgical service. Etiologies vary in underdeveloped and developed countries. Histopathological examination of resected intestine is expected to provide the definite evidence of the underlying etiology- guiding a better health care planning for preventive measures. Our objective was to study the spectrum of histopathological findings in resected intestines from cases of intestinal obstruction and perforation in our local population to document the underlying etiology. Methods: A total of 120 cases of intestinal resection were included. Detailed gross and microscopic examination with routine stains was performed. Definite evidence of any specific etiology on the basis of morphology was documented. Results: A total of 95 cases with clinical/radiological diagnosis of obstruction (79.2%) and 25 of intestinal, perforation (20.8%) were included. Tuberculous enteritis was the commonest etiology (n=41; 43.1%) in cases of intestinal obstruction followed by malignant tumours (n=30; 31.5%). ischemic infarct/gangrene, post op illeal adhesions, polyps and ulcerative colitis followed. In cases of perforation, Typhoid enteritis (n=15; 60%), was the commonest pathology followed by idiopathic perforation (n=5; 20%), tuberculous enteritis (n=3;12%), carcinoma (4%) and ulcerative coliti (4%). Conclusion : In developing countries infective etiology remains a dominant cause of intestinal obstruction and perforation. Its presentation in younger age leading to intestinal resection demands effective preventive measures in this part of the world to prevent morbidity and mortality. PMID:24772146

  14. An examination of professional and ethical issues in the fellowship application process in pathology.

    PubMed

    Domen, Ronald E; Wehler, Amanda Brehm

    2008-04-01

    Approximately 34 medical specialty and subspecialty fellowship programs in the United States have formalized the application process through the National Resident Matching Program. This approach sets standards for the application process, offers a formalized match similar to that for residency programs, functions within a specific timeline, and establishes binding rules of behavior for both applicants and programs. For fellowship programs that operate outside the National Resident Matching Program, such as those in pathology, no published guidelines exist to help programs and applicants address the many questions and problems that can arise. As a result, programs are free to set their own timelines for interviews, application requirements, contract negotiations and finalizations, and other details. Consequently, applicants often feel pressured to apply earlier and earlier in their residency for competitive fellowship programs, are often required to fill out multiple unique applications, may feel no "loyalty" toward honoring an acceptance without a contract, and often feel disenfranchised by the whole process. This article addresses professional and ethical aspects of the current application process and offers possible solutions for improving it. PMID:18342659

  15. Examining the influence of actual-ideal self-discrepancies, depression, and escapism, on pathological gaming among massively multiplayer online adolescent gamers.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongdong; Liau, Albert; Khoo, Angeline

    2011-09-01

    This study examined whether actual-ideal self-discrepancy (AISD) is related to pathological gaming through escapism as a means of reducing depression for adolescent massively multiplayer online gamers. A Discrepancy-reduction Motivation model of pathological video gaming was tested. A survey was conducted on 161 adolescent gamers from secondary schools. Two mediation effects were tested using path analysis: (a) depression would mediate the relationship between AISDs and escapism, and (b) escapism would mediate the relationship between depression and pathological gaming. Results support the hypotheses stated above. The indirect effects of both AISD and depression were significant on pathological gaming. AISD and escapism also had direct effects on pathological gaming. The present study suggests that pathological behaviors may be over-regulated coping strategies of approaching the ideal self and avoiding the actual self. PMID:21332374

  16. A divide-and-conquer strategy in tumor sampling enhances detection of intratumor heterogeneity in routine pathology: A modeling approach in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lopez, José I; Cortes, Jesús M

    2016-01-01

    Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) is an inherent process in cancer development which follows for most of the cases a branched pattern of evolution, with different cell clones evolving independently in space and time across different areas of the same tumor. The determination of ITH (in both spatial and temporal domains) is nowadays critical to enhance patient treatment and prognosis. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) provides a good example of ITH. Sometimes the tumor is too big to be totally analyzed for ITH detection and pathologists decide which parts must be sampled for the analysis. For such a purpose, pathologists follow internationally accepted protocols. In light of the latest findings, however, current sampling protocols seem to be insufficient for detecting ITH with significant reliability. The arrival of new targeted therapies, some of them providing promising alternatives to improve patient survival, pushes the pathologist to obtain a truly representative sampling of tumor diversity in routine practice. How large this sampling must be and how this must be performed are unanswered questions so far.  Here we present a very simple method for tumor sampling that enhances ITH detection without increasing costs. This method follows a divide-and-conquer (DAC) strategy, that is, rather than sampling a small number of large-size tumor-pieces as the routine protocol (RP) advises, we suggest sampling many small-size pieces along the tumor. We performed a computational modeling approach to show that the usefulness of the DAC strategy is twofold: first, we show that DAC outperforms RP with similar laboratory costs, and second, DAC is capable of performing similar to total tumor sampling (TTS) but, very remarkably, at a much lower cost. We thus provide new light to push forward a shift in the paradigm about how pathologists should sample tumors for achieving efficient ITH detection. PMID:27127618

  17. A divide-and-conquer strategy in tumor sampling enhances detection of intratumor heterogeneity in routine pathology: A modeling approach in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, José I.; Cortes, Jesús M.

    2016-01-01

    Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) is an inherent process in cancer development which follows for most of the cases a branched pattern of evolution, with different cell clones evolving independently in space and time across different areas of the same tumor. The determination of ITH (in both spatial and temporal domains) is nowadays critical to enhance patient treatment and prognosis. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) provides a good example of ITH. Sometimes the tumor is too big to be totally analyzed for ITH detection and pathologists decide which parts must be sampled for the analysis. For such a purpose, pathologists follow internationally accepted protocols. In light of the latest findings, however, current sampling protocols seem to be insufficient for detecting ITH with significant reliability. The arrival of new targeted therapies, some of them providing promising alternatives to improve patient survival, pushes the pathologist to obtain a truly representative sampling of tumor diversity in routine practice. How large this sampling must be and how this must be performed are unanswered questions so far.  Here we present a very simple method for tumor sampling that enhances ITH detection without increasing costs. This method follows a divide-and-conquer (DAC) strategy, that is, rather than sampling a small number of large-size tumor-pieces as the routine protocol (RP) advises, we suggest sampling many small-size pieces along the tumor. We performed a computational modeling approach to show that the usefulness of the DAC strategy is twofold: first, we show that DAC outperforms RP with similar laboratory costs, and second, DAC is capable of performing similar to total tumor sampling (TTS) but, very remarkably, at a much lower cost. We thus provide new light to push forward a shift in the paradigm about how pathologists should sample tumors for achieving efficient ITH detection. PMID:27127618

  18. Identification of Pre-examination Errors in the Chemical Pathology Laboratory at the University Hospital of the West Indies.

    PubMed

    Dilworth, Lowell L; McGrowder, Donovan A; Thompson, Rory K

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluated the types and frequencies of pre-examination errors recorded in the chemical pathology laboratory at the University Hospital of the West Indies, Jamaica. This was a retrospective analysis of errors recorded over a three year period. Data analysis was done on an average of 519,084 samples collected and tested per year. Samples included blood, urine, stool and other fluids. Pre-examination errors were identified and recorded following visual inspection of the samples and corresponding request forms by laboratory staff, then subsequently by the Senior Medical Technologist. Errors were generally classified as inappropriate sample (58 %), inappropriate form (23.4 %), inappropriate sample volume (9.3 %) and inappropriate sample tube (9.3 %). Over 90 % of recorded pre-examination errors were related to blood samples while urine samples accounted for 6.8 % error. Pre-examination errors were lower at this study location than elsewhere. Measures aimed at reducing instances of these errors are recommended for improved laboratory quality output. PMID:24757307

  19. Pilot study to evaluate 3 hygiene protocols on the reduction of bacterial load on the hands of veterinary staff performing routine equine physical examinations

    PubMed Central

    Traub-Dargatz, Josie L.; Weese, J. Scott; Rousseau, Joyce D.; Dunowska, Magdalena; Morley, Paul S.; Dargatz, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Reduction factors (RFs) for bacterial counts on examiners’ hands were compared when performing a standardized equine physical examination, followed by the use of one of 3 hand-hygiene protocols (washing with soap, ethanol gel application, and chlorohexidine-ethanol application). The mean RFs were 1.29 log10 and 1.44 log10 at 2 study sites for the alcohol-gel (62% ethyl alcohol active ingredient) protocols and 1.47 log10 and 1.94 log10 at 2 study sites for the chlorhexidine-alcohol (61% ethyl alcohol plus 1% chlorhexidine active ingredients) protocols, respectively. The RFs were significantly different (P < 0.0001) between the hand-washing group and the other 2 treatment groups (the alcohol-gel and the chlorhexidine-alcohol lotion). The use of alcohol-based gels or chlorhexidine-alcohol hand hygiene protocols must still be proven effective in equine practice settings, but in this study, these protocols were equivalent or superior to hand washing for reduction in bacterial load on the hands of people after they perform routine physical examinations. PMID:16898109

  20. Improving multiple-choice questions to better assess dental student knowledge: distractor utilization in oral and maxillofacial pathology course examinations.

    PubMed

    McMahan, C Alex; Pinckard, R Neal; Prihoda, Thomas J; Hendricson, William D; Jones, Anne Cale

    2013-12-01

    How many incorrect response options (known as distractors) to use in multiple-choice questions has been the source of considerable debate in the assessment literature, especially relative to influence on the likelihood of students' guessing the correct answer. This study compared distractor use by second-year dental students in three successive oral and maxillofacial pathology classes that had three different examination question formats and scoring resulting in different levels of academic performance. One class was given all multiple-choice questions; the two other were given half multiple-choice questions, with and without formula scoring, and half un-cued short-answer questions. Use by at least 1 percent of the students was found to better identify functioning distractors than higher cutoffs. The average number of functioning distractors differed among the three classes and did not always correspond to differences in class scores. Increased numbers of functioning distractors were associated with higher question discrimination and greater question difficulty. Fewer functioning distractors fostered more effective student guessing and overestimation of academic achievement. Appropriate identification of functioning distractors is essential for improving examination quality and better estimating actual student knowledge through retrospective use of formula scoring, where the amount subtracted for incorrect answers is based on the harmonic mean number of functioning distractors. PMID:24319131

  1. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors: A model for examining the effects of pathology versus seizures on cognitive dysfunction in epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Baxendale, Sallie; Donnachie, Elizabeth; Thompson, Pamela; Sander, Josemir W

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNTs) provide a unique model for studying the effects of seizures on cognitive development. Epilepsy and antiepileptic medications are prominent features in the lives and schooling of people who develop seizures in childhood. People with an adult onset share the same underlying brain pathology, but their childhood development is unaffected by seizures. Therefore, DNTs provide a model to examine the specific influence of seizures and their treatment on cognitive development, over and above the effects of the underlying pathology in epilepsy. Methods We examined the neuropsychological characteristics of 56 adults with DNT and medically intractable epilepsy (mean age 32.7 years). Twenty-two adults (39%) had an age of onset of epilepsy before the age of 12 years (childhood-onset group). Scores on tests of intelligence (Verbal IQ and Performance IQ), reading, working memory, verbal learning, verbal recall, visual learning, and expressive and receptive language ability were analyzed. Key Findings There were no significant localization effects (right vs. left vs. extratemporal) on any of the neuropsychological test scores. In the group as a whole, the neuropsychological test scores were significantly lower than healthy, age-matched controls on measures of Verbal IQ (p < 0.01), naming p < 0.01, verbal learning (p < 0.01), and working memory (p < 0.05). The childhood-onset group had significantly lower scores on the measures of Verbal IQ (p < 0.01), Performance IQ (p < 0.05), reading (p < 0.05), naming (p = 0.05), and verbal retention (p < 0.05) than those with an onset of seizures at the age of 12 or older. Significance The traditional pattern of lateralized memory deficits seen in people with hippocampal sclerosis may not be present in people with temporal lobe epilepsy associated with a DNT. The presence of seizures and their treatment in early childhood may adversely influence the development of these core cognitive

  2. Emotion: empirical contribution. Maternal borderline personality pathology and infant emotion regulation: examining the influence of maternal emotion-related difficulties and infant attachment.

    PubMed

    Gratz, Kim L; Kiel, Elizabeth J; Latzman, Robert D; Elkin, T David; Moore, Sarah Anne; Tull, Matthew T

    2014-02-01

    Evidence suggests that maternal borderline personality (BP) pathology increases offspring risk. This study examined the relations between maternal BP pathology and related emotional dysfunction (including emotion regulation [ER] difficulties and emotional intensity/reactivity) and infant ER difficulties. Specifically, we examined both self-focused and caregiver-focused ER behaviors and the modulation of emotional expressions (one indicator of ER in young children) in response to fear- and anger-eliciting stimuli among 101 infants (12 to 23 months old) of mothers with and without clinically relevant BP pathology. The authors also examined the moderating role of mother-infant attachment. Findings of a series of multiple regression mediation analyses revealed an indirect effect of maternal BP pathology on infant ER difficulties through maternal emotional dysfunction, with maternal ER difficulties facilitating an indirect effect of maternal BP pathology on expressivity-related indicators of infant ER difficulties and maternal emotional intensity/reactivity linking maternal BP pathology to lower self-focused ER for infants in insecure-resistant attachment relationships. PMID:24344887

  3. [Otto Lubarsch (1860-1933) and pathology at the Berlin Charité from 1917 to 1928. From the trauma of war time destruction to the daily routine of a German national university teacher of the Weimar Republic].

    PubMed

    Prüll, C R

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the interdependence of medicine and society in a situation of political crisis. The example of the Pathological Institute at the University of Berlin illustrates how non-scientific, political measures exerted an influence on daily scientific work via the Science Ministry as well as the director and the staff of the Institute. Not only did financial problems of the German State and difficulties of the Prussian Science Ministry in keeping the Institute running hamper successful work in Pathology; moreover, the political ambitions of its director, Otto Lubarsch, and the changes in daily life as a result of the general situation of misery had their impact on scientific work. Therefore, an examination of the interdependence between medical science and politics should not be limited to physicians who are enrolled in a political party. Furthermore, research must be undertaken on the level of laboratory communities and everyday-life with the help of archive material. PMID:9522647

  4. Examining the role of Scotland's telephone advice service (NHS 24) for managing health in the community: analysis of routinely collected NHS 24 data

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Alison M; McAteer, Anne; Heaney, David; Ritchie, Lewis D; Hannaford, Philip C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the type, duration and outcome of the symptoms and health problems Scotland's nurse-led telephone advice service (NHS 24) is contacted about and explore whether these vary by time of contact and patient characteristics. Design Analysis of routinely collected NHS 24 data. Setting Scotland, UK. Participants Users of NHS 24 during 2011. Main outcome measures Proportion of the type, duration and outcome of the symptoms and health problems NHS 24 is contacted about. Results 82.6% of the calls were made out-of-hours and 17.4% in-hours. Abdominal problems accounted for the largest proportion of calls (12.2%) followed by dental (6.8%) and rash/skin problems (6.0%). There were differences in the type of problems presented in-hours and out-of-hours. Most problems (62.9%) had lasted <24 h before people contacted NHS 24. Out-of-hours calls tended to be for problems of shorter duration. Problems reported out-of-hours most commonly resulted in advice to visit an out-of-hours centre and in-hours advice to contact a general practitioner. Most of the service users were female and from more affluent areas. Use of the service declined with age in those over 35 years. The characteristics of users varied according to when NHS 24 was contacted. The number of calls made by an individual in the year ranged from 1 to 866, although most users (69.2%) made only one call. The type of problem presented varied by age and deprivation, but was broadly similar by gender, rural/urban status and geographic area. Call outcomes also varied by user characteristics. Conclusions This is the first study to examine how the public uses NHS 24. It has identified the patterns of problems which the service must be equipped to deal with. It has also provided important information about who uses the service and when. This information will help future planning and development of the service. PMID:26310396

  5. When or why does perfectionism translate into eating disorder pathology? A longitudinal examination of the moderating and mediating role of body dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Boone, Liesbet; Soenens, Bart; Luyten, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Although research has shown that perfectionism is associated with eating disorder pathology, the role of body dissatisfaction in this association is less clear. In this study, we examined the possible moderating and mediating role of body dissatisfaction in the relation between perfectionism and increases in eating disorder pathology. Both possible roles were tested in a sample of 455 adolescent girls (mean age = 13.25 years) using a 3-wave longitudinal study. We only found support for the moderation hypothesis, with girls high on both perfectionism and body dissatisfaction exhibiting the highest levels of eating disorder symptoms. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24886015

  6. An Examination of a Proposed DSM-IV Pathological Gambling Hierarchy in a Treatment Seeking Population: Similarities with Substance Dependence and Evidence for Three Classification Systems.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Darren R; Jackson, Alun C; Dowling, Nicki A; Volberg, Rachel A; Thomas, Shane A

    2015-09-01

    Toce-Gerstein et al. (Addiction 98:1661-1672, 2003) investigated the distribution of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) pathological gambling criteria endorsement in a U.S. community sample for those people endorsing a least one of the DSM-IV criteria (n = 399). They proposed a hierarchy of gambling disorders where endorsement of 1-2 criteria were deemed 'At-Risk', 3-4 'Problem gamblers', 5-7 'Low Pathological', and 8-10 'High Pathological' gamblers. This article examines these claims in a larger Australian treatment seeking population. Data from 4,349 clients attending specialist problem gambling services were assessed for meeting the ten DSM-IV pathological gambling criteria. Results found higher overall criteria endorsement frequencies, three components, a direct relationship between criteria endorsement and gambling severity, clustering of criteria similar to the Toce-Gerstein et al. taxonomy, high accuracy scores for numerical and criteria specific taxonomies, and also high accuracy scores for dichotomous pathological gambling diagnoses. These results suggest significant complexities in the frequencies of criteria reports and relationships between criteria. PMID:24627139

  7. Routine fetal genitourinary tract screening.

    PubMed

    Arger, P H; Coleman, B G; Mintz, M C; Snyder, H P; Camardese, T; Arenson, R L; Gabbe, S G; Aquino, L

    1985-08-01

    To evaluate routine fetal genitourinary tract obstetrical ultrasound screening, and to determine what size renal pelvis is indicative of significant renal disease, we reviewed 4,832 examinations, which had been performed over 2 years, of 3,530 consecutive obstetrical patients. Any fetus that had a renal pelvis greater than 5 mm or a definable cystic area was identified for follow-up. The fetuses of 39 patients (1.1%) who underwent 112 examinations fulfilled these criteria and constitute the basis of this report. A variety of examination criteria were recorded and analyzed in relationship to the follow-up, which ranged from 2-3 days to 21 months. The fetuses of the 39 patients were grouped into three categories: those with renal pelves between 5 and 9 mm in size; those with renal pelves larger than 10 mm; and those with cystic abnormalities. Those with renal pelves larger than 10 mm had either an obstructing lesion or exceptional extrarenal pelves. The clinical and pathologic aspects of these three groups are detailed, discussed, and analyzed. Criteria for significant fetal renal hydronephrosis and aspects of a loculated appearance are given. PMID:3892578

  8. Examining the relationship between head trauma and neurodegenerative disease: A review of epidemiology, pathology and neuroimaging techniques

    PubMed Central

    Sundman, Mark H; Hall, Eric E; Chen, Nan-kuei

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are induced by sudden acceleration-deceleration and/or rotational forces acting on the brain. Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) has been identified as one of the chief underlying causes of morbidity and mortality in head trauma incidents. DAIs refer to microscopic white matter (WM) injuries as a result of shearing forces that induce pathological and anatomical changes within the brain, which potentially contribute to significant impairments later in life. These microscopic injuries are often unidentifiable by the conventional computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) scans employed by emergency departments to initially assess head trauma patients and, as a result, TBIs are incredibly difficult to diagnose. The impairments associated with TBI may be caused by secondary mechanisms that are initiated at the moment of injury, but often have delayed clinical presentations that are difficult to assess due to the initial misdiagnosis. As a result, the true consequences of these head injuries may go unnoticed at the time of injury and for many years thereafter. The purpose of this review is to investigate these consequences of TBI and their potential link to neurodegenerative disease (ND). This review will summarize the current epidemiological findings, the pathological similarities, and new neuroimaging techniques that may help delineate the relationship between TBI and ND. Lastly, this review will discuss future directions and propose new methods to overcome the limitations that are currently impeding research progress. It is imperative that improved techniques are developed to adequately and retrospectively assess TBI history in patients that may have been previously undiagnosed in order to increase the validity and reliability across future epidemiological studies. The authors introduce a new surveillance tool (Retrospective Screening of Traumatic Brain Injury Questionnaire, RESTBI) to address this concern. PMID:25324979

  9. Four types of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) after breast-conserving surgery: classification of IBTR based on precise pathological examination.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Takehiko; Nishimura, Seiichiro; Ogiya, Akiko; Tanabe, Masahiko; Kimura, Kiyomi; Morizono, Hidetomo; Iijima, Kotaro; Miyagi, Yumi; Makita, Masujiro; Ito, Yoshinori; Oguchi, Masahiko; Horii, Rie; Akiyama, Futoshi; Iwase, Takuji

    2015-03-01

    We classified ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTRs) based on strict pathological rules. Ninety-six women who were surgically treated for IBTR were included. IBTRs were classified according to their origins and were distinguished based on strict pathological rules: relationship between the IBTR and the primary lumpectomy scar, surgical margin status of the primary cancer, and the presence of in situ lesions of IBTR. The prognosis of these subgroups were compared to that of new primary tumors (NP) in the narrow sense (NPn) that occurred far from the scar. Distant-disease free survival of IBTR that occurred close to the scar with in situ lesions and a negative surgical margin of the primary cancer (NP occurred close to the scar, NPcs) was similar to that of NPn. In contrast, IBTR that occurred close to the scar without in situ lesions (true recurrence (TR) that arose from residual invasive carcinoma foci, TRinv) had significantly poorer prognosis than NPn. IBTR that occurred close to the scar with in situ lesions and a positive surgical margin of the primary cancer (TR arising from a residual in situ lesion, TRis) had more late recurrences than NPcs. Precise pathological examinations indicated four distinct IBTR subtypes with different characteristics. PMID:25600703

  10. Breast cancer and primary systemic therapy. Results of the Consensus Meeting on the recommendations for pathological examination and histological report of breast cancer specimens in the Marche Region.

    PubMed

    Santinelli, A; De Nictolis, M; Mambelli, V; Ranaldi, R; Bearzi, I; Battellpi, N; Mariotti, C; Fabbietti, L; Baldassarre, S; Giuseppetti, G M; Fabris, G

    2011-10-01

    Primary systemic therapy (PST) adds some practical problems to the pathologic examination of neoplastic breast tissue obtained from patients before and after chemotherapy. Pathologists, oncologists, breast surgeons, radiotherapists and radiologists in the Marche Region held a Consensus Meeting in Ancona on May 13, 2010, in which 15 statements dealing with neoadjuvant chemotherapy were approved by all participants. The first two statements are related to the pre-PST phase and concern the technical procedures and the histological report of the core biopsy. The other statements deal with similar issues of the post-PST surgical specimen. PMID:22393685

  11. Increased Exposure to Rigid Routines Can Lead to Increased Challenging Behavior Following Changes to Those Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Leah E.; Oliver, Chris; Callaghan, Eleanor; Woodcock, Kate A.

    2015-01-01

    Several neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with preference for routine and challenging behavior following changes to routines. We examine individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome, who show elevated levels of this behavior, to better understand how previous experience of a routine can affect challenging behavior elicited by disruption to…

  12. Computational Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Louis, David N.; Feldman, Michael; Carter, Alexis B.; Dighe, Anand S.; Pfeifer, John D.; Bry, Lynn; Almeida, Jonas S.; Saltz, Joel; Braun, Jonathan; Tomaszewski, John E.; Gilbertson, John R.; Sinard, John H.; Gerber, Georg K.; Galli, Stephen J.; Golden, Jeffrey A.; Becich, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Context We define the scope and needs within the new discipline of computational pathology, a discipline critical to the future of both the practice of pathology and, more broadly, medical practice in general. Objective To define the scope and needs of computational pathology. Data Sources A meeting was convened in Boston, Massachusetts, in July 2014 prior to the annual Association of Pathology Chairs meeting, and it was attended by a variety of pathologists, including individuals highly invested in pathology informatics as well as chairs of pathology departments. Conclusions The meeting made recommendations to promote computational pathology, including clearly defining the field and articulating its value propositions; asserting that the value propositions for health care systems must include means to incorporate robust computational approaches to implement data-driven methods that aid in guiding individual and population health care; leveraging computational pathology as a center for data interpretation in modern health care systems; stating that realizing the value proposition will require working with institutional administrations, other departments, and pathology colleagues; declaring that a robust pipeline should be fostered that trains and develops future computational pathologists, for those with both pathology and non-pathology backgrounds; and deciding that computational pathology should serve as a hub for data-related research in health care systems. The dissemination of these recommendations to pathology and bioinformatics departments should help facilitate the development of computational pathology. PMID:26098131

  13. Evaluation of response after neoadjuvant treatment in soft tissue sarcomas; the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group (EORTC-STBSG) recommendations for pathological examination and reporting.

    PubMed

    Wardelmann, E; Haas, R L; Bovée, J V M G; Terrier, Ph; Lazar, A; Messiou, C; LePechoux, C; Hartmann, W; Collin, F; Fisher, C; Mechtersheimer, G; DeiTos, A P; Stacchiotti, S; Jones, R L; Gronchi, A; Bonvalot, S

    2016-01-01

    At present, there is not a commonly used and generally accepted standardized approach for the pathologic evaluation of pretreated soft tissue sarcomas. Also, it is still unclear whether the cut-off for prognostic relevance is similar in the many different histological subtypes of STS. This manuscript, produced by a European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer - Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group (EORTC-STBSG) endorsed task force, aims to propose standardization of the pathological examination process and the reporting of STS resection specimens after neoadjuvant radio- and/or chemotherapy. PMID:26700077

  14. Musculoskeletal Pathology.

    PubMed

    Peat, Frances J; Kawcak, Christopher E

    2015-08-01

    The current understanding of pathology as it relates to common diseases of the equine musculoskeletal system is reviewed. Conditions are organized under the fundamental categories of developmental, exercise-induced, infectious, and miscellaneous pathology. The overview of developmental pathology incorporates the new classification system of juvenile osteochondral conditions. Discussion of exercise-induced pathology emphasizes increased understanding of the contribution of cumulative microdamage caused by repetitive cyclic loading. Miscellaneous musculoskeletal pathology focuses on laminitis, which current knowledge indicates should be regarded as a clinical syndrome with a variety of possible distinct mechanisms of structural failure that are outlined in this overview. PMID:26037607

  15. Data format translation routines

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, R.D.

    1981-02-01

    To enable the effective connection of several dissimilar computers into a network, modification of the data being passed from one computer to another may become necessary. This document describes a package of routines which permit the translation of data in PDP-8 formats to PDP-11 or DECsystem-10 formats or from PDP-11 format to DECsystem-10 format. Additional routines are described which permit the effective use of the translation routines in the environment of the Fusion Energy Division (FED) network and the Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT) data base.

  16. Daily exercise routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on daily exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: daily exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.

  17. Routine sputum culture

    MedlinePlus

    Sputum culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Culture, routine. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, ... . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:409- ...

  18. Importance of Family Routines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share The Importance of Family Routines Page Content ​Every family needs ... child to sleep. These rituals can include storytelling, reading aloud, conversation, and songs. Try to avoid exciting ...

  19. Increased Exposure to Rigid Routines can Lead to Increased Challenging Behavior Following Changes to Those Routines.

    PubMed

    Bull, Leah E; Oliver, Chris; Callaghan, Eleanor; Woodcock, Kate A

    2015-06-01

    Several neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with preference for routine and challenging behavior following changes to routines. We examine individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome, who show elevated levels of this behavior, to better understand how previous experience of a routine can affect challenging behavior elicited by disruption to that routine. Play based challenges exposed 16 participants to routines, which were either adhered to or changed. Temper outburst behaviors, heart rate and movement were measured. As participants were exposed to routines for longer before a change (between 10 and 80 min; within participants), more temper outburst behaviors were elicited by changes. Increased emotional arousal was also elicited, which was indexed by heart rate increases not driven by movement. Further study will be important to understand whether current intervention approaches that limit exposure to changes, may benefit from the structured integration of flexibility to ensure that the opportunity for routine establishment is also limited. PMID:25422033

  20. The significance of Sarcina in routine surgical pathology practice.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Balan Louis

    2016-06-01

    Sarcina was first described by Goodsir. The appearance of this bacterium is so characteristic that the diagnosis can be made on light microscopy. Although the original description of Sarcina was made more than 150 years ago, little is known about its role in various human diseases. This study was undertaken with the aim to analyze critically the reason for this sudden recent interest in human Sarcina infection. The results indicate that Sarcina is a histopathological marker of functional or anatomical causes of gastric stasis, and has a possible association with life-threatening emphysematous gastritis. Hence, its documentation in the final report is warranted as the patient might need further work-up. PMID:26918758

  1. Routine DNA testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Routine DNA testing. It’s done once you’ve Marker-Assisted Breeding Pipelined promising Qantitative Trait Loci within your own breeding program and thereby established the performance-predictive power of each DNA test for your germplasm under your conditions. By then you are ready to screen your par...

  2. Graph-Plotting Routine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, Anil V.

    1987-01-01

    Plotter routine for IBM PC (AKPLOT) designed for engineers and scientists who use graphs as integral parts of their documentation. Allows user to generate graph and edit its appearance on cathode-ray tube. Graph may undergo many interactive alterations before finally dumped from screen to be plotted by printer. Written in BASIC.

  3. PROPER: Optical propagation routines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krist, John E.

    2014-05-01

    PROPER simulates the propagation of light through an optical system using Fourier transform algorithms (Fresnel, angular spectrum methods). Distributed as IDL source code, it includes routines to create complex apertures, aberrated wavefronts, and deformable mirrors. It is especially useful for the simulation of high contrast imaging telescopes (extrasolar planet imagers like TPF).

  4. Routine neonatal circumcision?

    PubMed Central

    Tran, P. T.; Giacomantonio, M.

    1996-01-01

    Routine neonatal circumcision is still a controversial procedure. This article attempts to clarify some of the advantages and disadvantages of neonatal circumcision. The increased rate of penile cancer among uncircumcised men appears to justify the procedure, but that alone is not sufficient justification. The final decision on neonatal circumcision should be made by parents with balanced counsel from attending physicians. PMID:8939321

  5. Parent routines for managing cystic fibrosis in children.

    PubMed

    Grossoehme, Daniel H; Filigno, Stephanie Spear; Bishop, Meredith

    2014-06-01

    Management of cystic fibrosis (CF) is burdensome and adherence is often suboptimal. Family routines are associated with adherence and health outcomes in other disease populations. Few studies have examined routines in CF. The study's aim was to describe parent experiences developing and utilizing CF care routines. Semi-structured interviews with a convenience sample of 25 parents of children under 13 years of age with CF were analyzed using phenomenological analysis. Three domains emerged: parent experiences developing a routine, support systems facilitating maintenance of routines, and challenges with maintaining care routines. Parents found routines difficult to establish, used trial and error, encountered barriers, and found support helpful to manage care demands. Some parents chose to deviate from their routine. Providing anticipatory guidance to promote the use of care routines and strategies to manage potential challenges may facilitate use of routines and improve CF management. PMID:24838648

  6. Colorectal carcinoma: Pathologic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Matthew; Ravula, Sreelakshmi; Tatishchev, Sergei F.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the United States. Pathologic examination of biopsy, polypectomy and resection specimens is crucial to appropriate patient managemnt, prognosis assessment and family counseling. Molecular testing plays an increasingly important role in the era of personalized medicine. This review article focuses on the histopathology and molecular pathology of colorectal carcinoma and its precursor lesions, with an emphasis on their clinical relevance. PMID:22943008

  7. [Forensic medicine and the overlap with pathology].

    PubMed

    Riepert, T

    2010-07-01

    Forensic medicine incorporates research, teaching and professional service. In the routine practice this encompasses interdisciplinary cooperation with physicians, natural scientists and the legal profession. Lectures in forensic medicine include the correct performance of an external examination of corpses, which every physician must be capable of, just as medical questions and the evidential documentation of injuries. Clinical forensic medicine encompasses the examination and documentation of living victims of physical and/or sexual violence. For further training to become a specialist for forensic medicine it is mandatory to undertake a 6-month training period in pathology. Fatalities with an unclear or unnatural manner of death must be registered with the police. On suspicion of third party involvement the public prosecutor will request a legal autopsy, which is carried out and documented by two physicians in accordance with the penal code. Imaging procedures are standard for an autopsy. Extensive samples are taken for additional testing, such as toxicological and molecular biological investigations. PMID:20424845

  8. Comparison of Tumor Volumes as Determined by Pathologic Examination and FDG-PET/CT Images of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Jinming; Li Xinke; Xing Ligang; Mu Dianbin; Fu Zheng; Sun Xiaorong; Sun Xiangyu; Yang Guoren; Zhang Baijiang; Sun Xindong; Ling, C. Clifton

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the cut-off standardized uptake value (SUV) on {sup 18}F fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) images that generates the best volumetric match to pathologic gross tumor volume (GTV{sub path}) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients with NSCLC who underwent FDG-PET/CT scans followed by lobectomy were enrolled. The surgical specimen was dissected into 5-7-mum sections at approximately 4-mm intervals and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The tumor-containing area was outlined slice by slice and the GTV{sub path} determined by summing over all the slices, taking into account the interslice thickness and fixation-induced volume reduction. The gross tumor volume from the PET images, GTV{sub PET}, was determined as a function of cut-off SUV. The optimal threshold or optimal absolute SUV was defined as the value at which the GTV{sub PET} was the same as the GTV{sub path}. Results: The fixation process induced a volumetric reduction to 82% +- 10% (range, 62-100%) of the original. The maximal SUV was 10.1 +- 3.6 (range, 4.2-18.7). The optimal threshold and absolute SUV were 31% +- 11% and 3.0 +- 1.6, respectively. The optimal threshold was inversely correlated with GTV{sub path} and tumor diameter (p < 0.05), but the optimal absolute SUV had no significant correlation with GTV{sub path} or tumor diameter (p > 0.05). Conclusion: This study evaluated the use of GTV{sub path} as a criterion for determining the optimal cut-off SUV for NSCLC target volume delineation. Confirmatory studies including more cases are being performed.

  9. CPU timing routines for a CONVEX C220 computer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bynum, Mary Ann

    1989-01-01

    The timing routines available on the CONVEX C220 computer system in the Structural Mechanics Division (SMD) at NASA Langley Research Center are examined. The function of the timing routines, the use of the timing routines in sequential, parallel, and vector code, and the interpretation of the results from the timing routines with respect to the CONVEX model of computing are described. The timing routines available on the SMD CONVEX fall into two groups. The first group includes standard timing routines generally available with UNIX 4.3 BSD operating systems, while the second group includes routines unique to the SMD CONVEX. The standard timing routines described in this report are /bin/csh time,/bin/time, etime, and ctime. The routines unique to the SMD CONVEX are getinfo, second, cputime, toc, and a parallel profiling package made up of palprof, palinit, and palsum.

  10. [Correlations between pregnancy pathology, study of the placenta, antenatal echography and examination of the product of conception in a series of 175 congenital malformations].

    PubMed

    Stoll, C; Curie, P; Dott, B; Floesser, J; Flori, J; Geschickt, M; Marzolf, G; Roth, M P; Sussmann, M; Treisser, A

    1985-09-01

    In order to verify the hypothesis that during pregnancy in a woman without peculiar history, signs could be discovered when the fetus is malformed we have reviewed the files of 175 women who had a malformed child and of 300 controls. All of these women had at least one clinical examination and one ultrasonographic examination during pregnancy. Two clinical symptoms were more often discovered in the mother of the malformed fetus (p less than 0.001): decrease of fetal movements and small for date fetus. The placenta is never abnormal in the mother with normal fetus. Placenta is abnormal in 31% of the mother with malformed fetus but the abnormalities are not specific. Ultrasonographic examinations allowed more often the discovery of a malformation when hydramnios (p less than 0.001) or fetal hypotrophy (p less than 0.01) or an anomaly of the morphology of the fetus is discovered. Accuracy of prenatal diagnostic is considered for the different categories of congenital malformations. PMID:3903048

  11. Understanding the roles of self-esteem, self-compassion, and fear of self-compassion in eating disorder pathology: an examination of female students and eating disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Allison C; Vimalakanthan, Kiruthiha; Carter, Jacqueline C

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the relative contributions of self-compassion, fear of self-compassion, and self-esteem in eating disorder pathology. One-hundred and fifty-five female undergraduate students and 97 females entering eating disorder treatment completed the Self-Compassion Scale, Fears of Compassion Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. T-tests revealed that the patient group had lower mean self-compassion and higher mean fear of self-compassion than the student group. When controlling for self-esteem, high fear of self-compassion emerged as the strongest predictor of eating disorder pathology in the patient group, whereas low self-compassion was the strongest predictor in the student group. These preliminary results suggest that targeting fear of self-compassion may be important when intervening with individuals suffering from an eating disorder, whereas building self-compassion may be a valuable approach for eating disorder prevention. PMID:25064287

  12. CALIPSO User-Provided Routines

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-01

    ... data files. These routines are written in Interactive Data Language (IDL). A README file demonstrating use of the routines is also available. Interactive Data Language (IDL) is available from  Exelis Visual Information Solutions . ...

  13. Clinico-pathologic, dermoscopic and ultrasound examination of a rare acral tumour involving the nail - case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    GRIGORE, LAVINIA ELENA; BAICAN, CORINA IULIA; BOTAR-JID, CAROLINA; ROGOJAN, LILIANA; LETCA, ALINA FLORENTINA; UNGUREANU, LOREDANA; COSGAREA, RODICA

    2016-01-01

    There is a large spectrum of tumors presenting as nodular lesions that may affect the subungual space. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman presenting with a rapidly growing nodular lesion under the nail of the first left toe. Non-invasive examinations using dermoscopy, ultrasonography and elastography were performed for the preoperative assessment of the lesion. The biopsy of the lesion revealed superficial acral fibromyxoma, a benign tumor with predisposition for acral sites. The patient underwent radical surgery with wide resection margins. This is the first case report of a superficial acral fibromyxoma affecting the subungual region characterized by dermoscopic, ultrasonographic and elastographic features. We also performed a short review of the literature. PMID:27004040

  14. Application of high-performance anion-exchange chromatography-pulsed amperometric detection for measuring carbohydrates in routine daily filter samples collected by a national network: 2. Examination of sugar alcohols/polyols, sugars, and anhydrosugars in the upper Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, A. P.; Frank, N.; Kenski, D. M.; Collett, J. L., Jr.

    2011-04-01

    Carbohydrate measurements of ambient samples can provide insights into the biogenic fraction of the organic carbon (OC) aerosol. However, lack of measurement on a routine basis limits data analysis. In a companion paper, 1 year of archived 1-in-6 day FRM (Federal Reference Monitor) filter samples from the PM2.5 NAAQS compliance monitoring network collected at 10 sites in the upper Midwest were analyzed using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection to determine the regional impact of biomass burning. Along with levoglucosan, 13 other carbohydrates were simultaneously measured, including two more anhydrosugars (mannosan and galactosan), five sugars (arabinose, galactose, glucose, mannose, xylose), and six sugar alcohols/polyols (glycerol, methyltetrols, threitol/erythritol, xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol). This paper focuses on the results from these carbohydrates in order to investigate their sources and trends both spatially and temporally. Mannosan, galactosan, arabinose, xylose, and threitol/erythritol all correlated with levoglucosan (R2 from 0.43 to 0.97), suggesting biomass burning as their main source. Glucose and mannitol exhibited higher concentrations in summer and at more southern sites, likely due to vegetation differences at the sites. Using mannitol, the contribution of spores to OC was found to be <1%. Methyltetrols were highly correlated with water-soluble OC (R2 from 0.63 to 0.95) and in higher concentrations at more eastern sites. This spatial pattern is possibly due to these sites being downwind of the high isoprene emission zones that occur in the western part of the Midwest from oak forests in the Ozarks and spruce forests in the northern lake states.

  15. Parental Involvement Routines and Former Head Start Children's Literacy Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dove, Meghan Kicklighter; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Wright, David W.; Wallinga, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parental involvement routines and former Head Start children's literacy outcomes. Former Head Start children (n = 3, 808) from the National Head Start/Public School Transition Demonstration Research Project comprised the sample. Family routines and literacy outcomes in kindergarten were examined,…

  16. Pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Hollander, E; Buchalter, A J; DeCaria, C M

    2000-09-01

    With increasing access to gambling facilities through casinos, the Internet, and other venues, PG is a rapidly emerging mental health concern. This impulse-control disorder tends to be comorbid with a wide range of other disorders and is reportedly associated with a high rate of suicide. For most gamblers, gambling is a form of entertainment, but for many individuals, the activity leads to far-reaching disruption of family and work. The personal and societal financial ramifications are severe, and many individuals with PG end up in the criminal justice system. An understanding of the neurobiology of PG is beginning to surface. 5-HT is linked to behavioral initiation and disinhibition, which are important in the onset of the gambling cycle and the difficulty in ceasing the behavior. Norepinephrine is associated with the arousal and risk taking in patients with PG. Dopamine is linked to positive and negative reward, the addictive component of this disorder. Effective treatment strategies for pathological gamblers are emerging. Potentially useful pharmacologic agents include SRIs (clomipramine and fluvoxamine), mood stabilizers for pathological gamblers with comorbid bipolar disorders (lithium), and naltrexone. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies offer promising results in the treatment of patients with this disorder. To devise prevention and early-intervention programs, research is needed to identify specific features of the individuals at risk for gambling problems. Education targeting vulnerable youth that show early signs of gambling behavior may be worthwhile and should be investigated further. Funding is necessary to support these endeavors, so perhaps a portion of tax revenues generated from the gambling industry should go toward specialized treatment facilities, educational efforts, and research into the neurobiology and treatment of PG. PMID:10986732

  17. Lidar Altitude Data Read Routine

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-19

    ... Profile products. It is written in Interactive Data Language (IDL) and uses HDF routine calls to read the altitude data which are ... Data Read routine  (1.5 KB) Interactive Data Language (IDL) is available from  Exelis Visual Information Solutions . ...

  18. [Pathology of non-reflux esophagitides].

    PubMed

    Daum, Ondřej; Dubová, Magdaléna; Švajdler, Marian

    2016-01-01

    The topic of non-reflux esophagitides is partially hidden in the shadow cast by the huge and modern entity of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Histological investigation alone is often insufficient to reach the correct diagnosis without a correlation of the microscopic picture with clinical presentation, endoscopic gross appearance, personal and pharmacological history of the patient, results of hematological, serological, immunological and microbiological examinations. Due to their low-prevalence, individual types of non-reflux esophagitides are not routinely encountered in routine biopsies. Furthermore, the plethora of etiological agents present with only a limited range of reaction patterns, and thus a single histological picture may be common for more agents. Conversely, one cause may be associated with more morphological patterns. Due to these circumstances the pathological diagnostic management should follow a settled algorithm to prevent an inadequate narrowing of the histopathologist´s view. Histologic findings forming the base of this algorithm include distribution and type of inflammatory infiltrate, appearance of epithelial changes, and (in some cases) even the presence of causative agent in histological slides. PMID:27108553

  19. Pathological fractures in children

    PubMed Central

    De Mattos, C. B. R.; Binitie, O.; Dormans, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Pathological fractures in children can occur as a result of a variety of conditions, ranging from metabolic diseases and infection to tumours. Fractures through benign and malignant bone tumours should be recognised and managed appropriately by the treating orthopaedic surgeon. The most common benign bone tumours that cause pathological fractures in children are unicameral bone cysts, aneurysmal bone cysts, non-ossifying fibromas and fibrous dysplasia. Although pathological fractures through a primary bone malignancy are rare, these should be recognised quickly in order to achieve better outcomes. A thorough history, physical examination and review of plain radiographs are crucial to determine the cause and guide treatment. In most benign cases the fracture will heal and the lesion can be addressed at the time of the fracture, or after the fracture is healed. A step-wise and multidisciplinary approach is necessary in caring for paediatric patients with malignancies. Pathological fractures do not have to be treated by amputation; these fractures can heal and limb salvage can be performed when indicated. PMID:23610658

  20. An Anatomic Pathology System Using the File Manager

    PubMed Central

    Ginsburg, R. E.; Tatarczuk, J. R.; Roy, G. R.

    1981-01-01

    An Anatomic Pathology System incorporating patient data from surgical pathology, cytopathology and autopsy pathology is presented. The System includes four interconnected files created with the aid of the File Manager. One file, containing patient demographic data, can be used as a connecting node to other patient databases. Five MUMPS routines, using File Manager functions, allow System users unfamiliar with computers and computer programming to easily enter, edit and retrieve patient information. Retrieved information is in a format to reconstruct, when possible, a patient's medical history from the pathology database and to correlate surgical pathology, cytopathology and autopsy pathology data.

  1. Is real-time PCR-based diagnosis similar in performance to routine parasitological examination for the identification of Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium parvum/Cryptosporidium hominis and Entamoeba histolytica from stool samples? Evaluation of a new commercial multiplex PCR assay and literature review.

    PubMed

    Laude, A; Valot, S; Desoubeaux, G; Argy, N; Nourrisson, C; Pomares, C; Machouart, M; Le Govic, Y; Dalle, F; Botterel, F; Bourgeois, N; Cateau, E; Leterrier, M; Le Pape, P; Morio, F

    2016-02-01

    Microscopy is the reference standard for routine laboratory diagnosis in faecal parasitology but there is growing interest in alternative methods to overcome the limitations of microscopic examination, which is time-consuming and highly dependent on an operator's skills and expertise. Compared with microscopy, DNA detection by PCR is simple and can offer a better turnaround time. However, PCR performances remain difficult to assess as most studies have been conducted on a limited number of positive clinical samples and used in-house PCR methods. Our aim was to evaluate a new multiplex PCR assay (G-DiaParaTrio; Diagenode Diagnostics), targeting Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium parvum/Cryptosporidium hominis and Entamoeba histolytica. To minimize the turnaround time, PCR was coupled with automated DNA extraction (QiaSymphony; Qiagen). The PCR assay was evaluated using a reference panel of 185 samples established by routine microscopic examination using a standardized protocol including Ziehl-Neelsen staining and adhesin detection by ELISA (E. histolytica II; TechLab). This panel, collected from 12 French parasitology laboratories, included 135 positive samples for G. intestinalis (n = 38), C. parvum/C. hominis (n = 26), E. histolytica (n = 5), 21 other gastrointestinal parasites, together with 50 negative samples. In all, the G-DiaParaTrio multiplex PCR assay identified 38 G. intestinalis, 25 C. parvum/C. hominis and five E. histolytica leading to sensitivity/specificity of 92%/100%, 96%/100% and 100%/100% for G. intestinalis, C. parvum/C. hominis and E. histolytica, respectively. This new multiplex PCR assay offers fast and reliable results, similar to microscopy-driven diagnosis for the detection of these gastrointestinal protozoa, allowing its implementation in routine clinical practice. PMID:26548509

  2. Routines in School Organizations: Creating Stability and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Sharon; Enomoto, Ernestine K.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents routinized action theory as a way to examine the regular, habitual activities that occur in school organizations. Using this theoretical lens, school routines were analyzed in order to understand organizational stability and change. Design/methodology/approach: Using case study methods, three discrete cases are…

  3. Changing Urban Bureaucracies: How New Practices Become Routinized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; And Others

    The goal of this report is to describe the process by which new service practices in urban bureaucracies become routinized. The routinization process is studied by examining the life histories of six types of innovations: computer-assisted instruction; police computer systems; mobile intensive care units; closed circuit television systems; breath…

  4. Factors for Radical Creativity, Incremental Creativity, and Routine, Noncreative Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madjar, Nora; Greenberg, Ellen; Chen, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    This study extends theory and research by differentiating between routine, noncreative performance and 2 distinct types of creativity: radical and incremental. We also use a sensemaking perspective to examine the interplay of social and personal factors that may influence a person's engagement in a certain level of creative action versus routine,…

  5. "Slide less pathology": Fairy tale or reality?

    PubMed

    Indu, M; Rathy, R; Binu, M P

    2016-01-01

    Pathology practice is significantly advanced in various frontiers. Therefore, "slide less digital" pathology will not be a mere imagination in near future. Digitalization of histopathological slides (whole slide imaging [WSI]) is possible with the help of whole slide scanner. The WSI has a positive impact not only in routine practice but also in research field, medical education and bioindustry. Even if digital pathology has definitive advantages, its widespread use is not yet possible. As it is an upcoming technology in our field, this article is aimed to discussessential aspects of WSI. PMID:27601824

  6. Curriculum Guidelines for Pathology and Oral Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines for dental school pathology courses describe the interrelationships of general, systemic, and oral pathology; primary educational goals; prerequisites; a core curriculum outline and behavioral objectives for each type of pathology. Notes on sequencing, faculty, facilities, and occupational hazards are included. (MSE)

  7. Digital photography in anatomical pathology.

    PubMed

    Leong, F J; Leong, A S

    2004-01-01

    Digital imaging has made major inroads into the routine practice of anatomical pathology and replaces photographic prints and Kodachromes for reporting and conference purposes. More advanced systems coupled to computers allow greater versatility and speed of turnaround as well as lower costs of incorporating macroscopic and microscopic pictures into pathology reports and publications. Digital images allow transmission to remote sites via the Internet for consultation, quality assurance and educational purposes, and can be stored on and disseminated by CD-ROM. Total slide digitisation is now a reality and will replace glass slides to a large extent. Three-dimensional images of gross specimens can be assembled and posted on websites for interactive educational programmes. There are also applications in research, allowing more objective and automated quantitation of a variety of morphological and immunohistological parameters. Early reports indicate that medical vision systems are a reality and can provide for automated computer-generated histopathological diagnosis and quality assurance. PMID:15048004

  8. [An Accurate Diagnosis is Possible with a Systematic Analysis of Routine Laboratory Data].

    PubMed

    Yonekawa, Osamu

    2015-09-01

    Routine laboratory tests are ordered for almost all in- and outpatients. A systematic analysis of routine laboratory data can give doctors valuable clinical information about patients. In some cases, a correct diag- nosis can be made using laboratory data alone. In our laboratory, we use five processes to evaluate routine laboratory data. Firstly, we estimate the patient's general condition based on A/G, Hb, TP, Alb, ChE, and platelet (PLT) levels. Secondly, we look for inflammation and malignancy based on WBC, CRP, PLT, fibrinogen, and ESR levels and the protein electrophoresis pattern. Thirdly, we examine the major organs, especially the liver and kidney. We check the liver for hepatocyte damage, obstruction, hepatic synthetic function, infection, and malignancy. We estimate GFR and check the kidney for any localized damage. We then check the chemistry, hematology, and immunology. Finally, we form a conclusion after a comprehensive interpretation of the above four processes. With this systematic approach, any members of the laboratory unit can easily estimate the exact pathological status of the patient. In this case study, marked change of TP indicated non-selective loss from the skin; namely a burn. Tissue injury and infections due to different focuses were the most likely causes of severe inflammation. Neither the liver nor kidney was severely damaged. Continual bleeding and hemolysis through the clinical course probably caused anemia. Hypooxygenic respiratory failure and metabolic alkalosis were confirmed by blood gasses. Multiple organ failure was suggested. PMID:26731896

  9. The place of routine HIV testing.

    PubMed

    2011-08-01

    In 2009, around 86,500 people in the UK had HIV infection, of whom around a quarter were unaware of their condition. Of adults diagnosed in that year, around half were already at a late stage of disease (with a CD4 count below 350 cells/μL or presenting with an AIDS-defining event). Such late diagnosis represents a missed opportunity for treatment and prevention, and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, reduced response to antiretroviral drugs and increased healthcare costs. In genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics and during antenatal care, there is a high uptake rate of routine testing (i.e. HIV tests are offered as part of standard care and the individual has the option to decline). Increasing such testing across other healthcare settings could reduce late diagnosis. Here we examine issues around routine HIV testing. PMID:21813559

  10. Renal biopsy and pathologic evaluation of glomerular disease.

    PubMed

    Lees, George E; Cianciolo, Rachel E; Clubb, Fred J

    2011-08-01

    Presence of suspected primary glomerular disease is the most common and compelling reason to consider renal biopsy. Pathologic findings in samples from animals with nephritic or nephrotic glomerulopathies, as well as from animals with persistent subclinical glomerular proteinuria that is not associated with advanced chronic kidney disease, frequently guide treatment decisions and inform prognosis when suitable specimens are obtained and examined appropriately. Ultrasound-guided needle biopsy techniques generally are satisfactory; however, other methods of locating or approaching the kidney, such as manual palpation (e.g., in cats), laparoscopy, or open surgery, also can be used. Visual assessment of the tissue content of needle biopsy samples to verify that they are renal cortex (i.e., contain glomeruli) as they are obtained is a key step that minimizes the submission of uninformative samples for examination. Adequate planning for a renal biopsy also requires prior procurement of the fixatives and preservatives needed to process and submit samples that will be suitable for electron microscopic examination and immunostaining, as well as for light microscopic evaluation. Finally, to be optimally informative, renal biopsy specimens must be processed by laboratories that routinely perform the required specialized examinations and then be evaluated by experienced veterinary nephropathologists. The pathologic findings must be carefully integrated with one another and with information derived from the clinical investigation of the patient's illness to formulate the correct diagnosis and most informative guidance for therapeutic management of the animal's glomerular disease. PMID:21782145

  11. Pathology of ear hematomas in swine.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Richard; Hélie, Pierre; D'Allaire, Sylvie

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of our study were to describe the pathology of ear hematomas in swine and to add to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of this condition. The pathogenesis of aural hematomas has been studied mainly in dogs; however, disagreements exist about the precise anatomic location of the hemorrhage. Sixteen pigs with ear hematoma at various stages of development were included in this study. The pigs were submitted for routine autopsy for various and unrelated reasons over a period of several years. Based on gross examination, the 16 cases of aural hematomas were subjectively classified as acute (n = 6), subacute (n = 3), and chronic (n = 7). The age of the animals at the time of autopsy ranged from 2 weeks to adulthood, with all acute cases being <7 weeks of age. Morphologic examination of all acute cases revealed that the hematoma developed predominantly in a subperichondral location on both sides of the cartilaginous plate simultaneously. Within these same cases, there were also some areas in which blood-filled clefts had formed within the cartilage itself. Besides fibroplasia, neoformation of cartilage was found to represent a significant part of the repair process. All chronic cases were characterized on cross-section of the ear by the presence of at least 2 distinct, wavy, focally folded, and roughly parallel plates of cartilage separated from each other by fibrous tissue. PMID:27034341

  12. MISR Conversion to ASCII Routines

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-01

    ... These routines are written in Exelis Visual Information Solutions IDL programming language. They can be run either with a licensed ... with IDL and is available from  Exelis Visual Information Solutions . The IDL VM software can be downloaded from this site or ordered ...

  13. Learning Routines in Innovation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoeve, Aimee; Nieuwenhuis, Loek F. M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to generate both a theoretical and an empirical basis for a research model that serves in further research as an analytical tool for understanding the complex phenomenon of learning at different levels in a work organisation. The key concept in this model is the routine concept of Nelson and Winter.…

  14. [Pharmacogenomics in routine medical care].

    PubMed

    Rosskopf, D; Meyer zu Schwabedissen, H E; Kroemer, H K; Siegmund, W

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics investigates inherited differences in drug responses including beneficial and adverse reactions. While a considerable amount of evidence for genetic influences on drug responses has been accumulated within the last decade, predominantly in small studies, its value in routine therapy is still a matter of debate. The aim of this review is to discuss well established examples where pharmacogenomic techniques can improve routine treatment. Examples include genotyping of CYP2D6 in the context of antidepressant therapy, analysis of TPMT variants for the prediction of mercaptopurine-induced bone marrow depression, VKORC1 and CYP2C9 analyses for a better control of anticoagulant administration and the SLCO1B1 variant in the context of statin-induced myopathies. PMID:20101557

  15. Memos trace routine radiation overexposures

    SciTech Connect

    Lobsenz, G.

    1994-03-09

    Workers at the Energy Department's Fernald plant routinely received [open quotes]gross,[close quotes] [open quotes]unacceptable[close quotes] and [open quotes]undue[close quotes] radiation exposures during uranium processing operations from the 1950s through the early 1970s, according to internal Fernald memos. The documents come to light as DOE continues to pay hundreds of thousands of dollars every month to defend its former Fernald contractor, NLO Inc., from a workers' lawsuit seeking compensation for alleged injuries from poor safety practices at the Ohio facility. DOE officials have contended the NLO defense effort is justified because there is no evidence that any former Fernald workers have suffered injury as a result of radiation exposures at the plant. However, the internal Fernald memos document major concerns expressed by Fernald health officials about unsafe working conditions at the plant and what appear in some cases to be routine overexposures of workers.

  16. Routine outcome measurement in Australia.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Philip; Pirkis, Jane; Coombs, Tim

    2015-08-01

    Australia has been implementing routine outcome measurement in its specialized public sector mental health services for over a decade. It uses a range of clinician-rated and consumer-rated measures that are administered at set times during episodes of inpatient, ambulatory and community residential episodes of care. Routine outcome measurement is now embedded in service delivery, and data are made available in a variety of ways to different audiences. These data are used by policy-makers and planners to inform decisions about system-wide reforms, by service managers to monitor quality and effectiveness, and by clinicians to guide clinical decision-making and to promote dialogue with consumers. Consumers, carers and the general community can use these data to ensure that services are accountable for the care they deliver. This paper describes the status quo in Australia with respect to routine outcome measurement, discusses the factors that led to its successful implementation, and considers the steps that are necessary for its continued development. PMID:25768326

  17. Factors for radical creativity, incremental creativity, and routine, noncreative performance.

    PubMed

    Madjar, Nora; Greenberg, Ellen; Chen, Zheng

    2011-07-01

    This study extends theory and research by differentiating between routine, noncreative performance and 2 distinct types of creativity: radical and incremental. We also use a sensemaking perspective to examine the interplay of social and personal factors that may influence a person's engagement in a certain level of creative action versus routine, noncreative work. Results demonstrate that willingness to take risks, resources for creativity, and career commitment are associated primarily with radical creativity; that the presence of creative coworkers and organizational identification are associated with incremental creativity; and that conformity and organizational identification are linked with routine performance. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed. PMID:21319879

  18. Primary hyperparathyroidism presenting with pathological fracture.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, R G; Alsagoff, S A; Krishnan, S; Dhillon, K S; Khir, A S

    1998-12-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is an intriguing condition. Routine automated biochemical screening has made the diagnosis commonplace in developed countries and the disease is diagnosed early in its course when it is often asymptomatic. In developing countries or in recent immigrants from these countries, PHPT is often seen in an advanced stage with bone involvement. Associated dietary deficiencies may alter the biochemical profile and cause a diagnostic dilemma. It is important to include it in the differential diagnosis of pathological fractures. We report three cases of PHPT presenting with pathological fractures and discuss their diagnosis and management. PMID:9990797

  19. Global routine vaccination coverage, 2009.

    PubMed

    2010-10-29

    The widespread use of vaccines has greatly improved global public health, preventing millions of childhood hospitalizations and deaths each year. Vaccination of children also is projected to avert adult deaths through the prevention of hepatitis B (HepB) virus--related chronic liver disease and liver cancer and human papilloma virus--related cervical cancer. When the World Health Organization (WHO) began the Expanded Programme on Immunization in 1974, <5% of the world's children had been fully vaccinated with bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine, oral poliovirus vaccine, and measles-containing vaccine (MCV) during the first year of life. Since then, increased vaccination coverage has resulted in substantial reductions in morbidity and mortality, including a >99% decline in polio incidence since 1988, with eradication on the horizon, and a 78% decline in measles-associated mortality from 2000 to 2008 With the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, HepB vaccine, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), and rotavirus vaccine into many countries' routine vaccination schedules, further reductions in morbidity and mortality are expected. However, based on an annual global birth cohort of approximately 130 million, an estimated 23 million infants worldwide still do not receive the benefits of routine vaccination (i.e., 3 doses of DTP during the first year of life). The Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS), developed in 2005 by WHO and UNICEF, assists countries in strengthening immunization programs and vaccinating more persons. GIVS aims to achieve 90% national 3-dose DTP (DTP3) coverage by age 12 months in all countries, and 80% coverage in every district or equivalent administrative unit by 2010 (and to sustain these levels through 2015). This report summarizes global routine vaccination coverage during 2000--2009 and progress toward achieving GIVS goals. PMID:21030941

  20. Changing of the Guard: How Different School Leaders Change Organizational Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enomoto, Ernestine K.; Conley, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    While providing stability and uniformity, organizational routines can foster continuous change. Using Feldman's (2000) performative model of routinized action theory, coupled with leadership succession research, we examined how three successive administrations in a California high school revised a student attendance (tardy-monitoring) routine over…

  1. [Cystic renal pathology].

    PubMed

    Rosi, P; Cesaroni, M; Bracarda, S; Rociola, W; Virgili, G

    1993-08-01

    Ultrasonography has a great interest in diagnosis of cystic kidney disorders for typical eco-pattern of this pathology. In this work we show the eco-pattern of the most common cystic kidney disorders. Particularly we examine simple cysts (typical, atypical, complicated), multicystic kidney dysplasia, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (infantile) autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (adult age). The so-called neoplastic cysts (multiloculated cysts, multiloculated cysts nephroma, cystic nephroblastoma), medullar cysts (medullary sponge kidney, medullary cystic disease), parapyelic cysts, acquired cystic kidney disease in renal failure patients, parasitic cysts, epidermoid cysts. About this disorders we present the more typical and expressive ultrasonographic appearance and we define the role and the opportunity of diagnostic setting by echography, moreover ultrasonography allows us to make a differential diagnosis between cystic kidney disorders and other kidney disease. PMID:8353538

  2. Global routine vaccination coverage, 2013.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennifer B; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Eggers, Rudolf; Brown, David W; Sodha, Samir V

    2014-11-21

    In 1974, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Expanded Program on Immunization to ensure that all children have access to routinely recommended vaccines. Since then, global coverage with the four core vaccines (Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine [for protection against tuberculosis], diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine [DTP], polio vaccine, and measles vaccine) has increased from <5% to ≥84%, and additional vaccines have been added to the recommended schedule. Coverage with the third dose of DTP vaccine (DTP3) by age 12 months is a key indicator of immunization program performance. Estimated global DTP3 coverage has remained at 83%-84% since 2009, with estimated 2013 coverage at 84%. Global coverage estimates for the second routine dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV2) are reported for the first time in 2013; global coverage was 35% by the end of the second year of life and 53% when including older age groups. Improvements in equity of access and use of immunization services will help ensure that all children are protected from vaccine-preventable diseases. PMID:25412062

  3. Facts about artefacts in diagnostic pathology.

    PubMed

    Pattari, S K; Dey, P

    2002-01-01

    Literal meaning of artefact given by 'Oxford Advanced Learner Dictionary' is 'a thing made by people'. In medical science 'the fact' is not true; but we observe routinely is called artefact. We face various types of artefacts in daily reporting of pathology specimen. Many times artefacts hinder the actual diagnosis. The artefacts i. e. fixation artefact, processing artefact, staining artefact, mounting artefact, air bubbles etc. can cause difficulty in diagnosis and a pathologist should be trained to identify those artefacts. PMID:12593582

  4. Anatomical pathology is dead? Long live anatomical pathology.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, John M; Francis, Glenn D

    2011-10-01

    The standard diagnostic instrument used for over 150 years by anatomical pathologists has been the optical microscope and glass slide. The advent of immunohistochemistry in the routine laboratory in the 1980s, followed by in situ hybridisation in the 1990s, has increased the armamentaria available to the diagnostic pathologist, and this technology has led to changed patient management in a limited number of neoplastic diseases. The first decade of the 21 century has seen an increasing number of publications using proteomic technologies that promise to change disease diagnosis and management, the traditional role of an anatomical pathologist. Despite the plethora of publications on proteomics and pathology, to date there are actually limited data where proteomic technologies do appear to be of greater diagnostic value than the standard histological slide. Though proteomic techniques will become more prevalent in the future, it will need the expertise of an anatomical pathologist to dissect out and validate this added information. PMID:21876472

  5. Routine and specialized laboratory testing for the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Shelton, G Diane

    2010-09-01

    The diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases can be challenging. The first step is recognition that the disease involves the neuromuscular system (muscle, neuromuscular junction, peripheral nerve, and ventral horn cells of the spinal cord). Many neuromuscular diseases share clinical signs and cannot be distinguished based on clinical examination. Routine laboratory screening, including a CBC, biochemical profile, and urinalysis, can identify some of the most common systemic abnormalities that cause muscle weakness and myalgia, such as hypo- and hyperglycemia, electrolyte disorders, or thyroid abnormalities, and may suggest a specific diagnosis, such as diabetes mellitus, hypo- or hyperadrenocorticism, renal failure, or hypothyroidism. Increased creatine kinase activity, increased cardiac troponin I concentration, and myoglobinuria are useful in detecting skeletal and cardiac muscle damage. Identification of acetylcholine receptor antibodies is diagnostic for acquired myasthenia gravis. For primary muscle or peripheral nerve diseases, tissue biopsy is the most direct way to determine specific pathology, correctly classify the disease, and determine the course of additional laboratory testing. For example, inflammatory, necrotizing, dystrophic, metabolic, or congenital myopathies require different laboratory testing procedures for further characterization. Many neuromuscular diseases are inherited or breed-associated, and DNA-based tests may already be established or may be feasible to develop after the disorder has been accurately characterized. This review focuses on both routine and specialized laboratory testing necessary to reach a definitive diagnosis and determine an accurate prognosis for neuromuscular diseases. PMID:20726955

  6. Problem and Pathological Gambling among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinchfield, Randy; Hanson, William E.; Olson, Douglas H.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines problem and pathological gambling among college students and reports on prevalence rate, risk and protective factors, prevention and intervention, and recommendations for college student personnel and other university administrators.

  7. VII: VME/IORFI-II interface routines

    SciTech Connect

    Alleva, D.

    1988-07-07

    This document describes the VME/IORFI-II Interface routines (VII). These routines where designed to meet two needs. First, the routines enable programs written in PILS running on a MVME 101 under Valet-Plus to control an IORFI-II interface from VME. Secondly, the routines provide a high level language version of the FASTBUS standard routines for the IORFI-II which can easily be translated into other high level languages (like C). The routines fall into two general types, control and transaction. The control routines work directly with the interface registers. These routines set up and monitor operations between VME and the IORFI-II. The control routines are usually used indirectly by the programmer through the transaction routines. The transaction routines, such as VIIreverse arrowWRITEreverse arrowDAT, use the control routines to carry out complete functions on FASTBUS. Most FASTBUS operations have been implemented except for the compound routines and some low level routines. To facilitate access to the IORFI-II registers from VME, a Super-VIOR DMA board was used as a set of I/O registers tied to the IORFI-II's front panel connectors. The DMA controller on the Super-VIOR was not used and a much simpler board (only containing a set of four registers accessible from VME) could replace the Super-VIOR. The routines are written in PILS, a high-level language similar to BASIC and Pascal which is powerful and fast enough for most applications. However, PILS has proven to be too slow for efficient control of the IORFI-II. This is discussed further in this paper along with a discussion of possible future implementations of the routines.

  8. The diaphragmatic crura and retrocrural space: normal imaging appearance, variants, and pathologic conditions.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Carlos S; Eraso, Andres; Ocazionez, Daniel; Lemos, Julio; Martinez, Santiago; Lemos, Diego F

    2008-01-01

    The retrocrural space (RCS) is a small triangular region within the most inferior posterior mediastinum bordered by the two diaphragmatic crura. Multiplanar imaging modalities such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging allow evaluation of the RCS as part of routine examinations of the chest, abdomen, and spine. Normal structures within the retrocrural region include the aorta, nerves, the azygos and hemiazygos veins, the cisterna chyli with the thoracic duct, fat, and lymph nodes. There is a wide range of normal variants of the diaphragmatic crura and of structures within the RCS. Diverse pathologic processes can occur within this region, including benign tumors (lipoma, neurofibroma, lymphangioma), malignant tumors (sarcoma, neuroblastoma, metastases), vascular abnormalities (aortic aneurysm, hematoma, azygos and hemiazygos continuation of the inferior vena cava), and abscesses. An understanding of the anatomy, normal variants, and pathologic conditions of the diaphragmatic crura and retrocrural structures facilitates diagnosis of disease processes within this often overlooked anatomic compartment. PMID:18794306

  9. Evolutionary Dynamics of Digitized Organizational Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Peng

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the effects of increased digitization on the evolutionary dynamics of organizational routines. Do routines become more flexible, or more rigid, as the mix of digital technologies and human actors changes? What are the mechanisms that govern the evolution of routines? The dissertation theorizes about the effects of…

  10. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a...

  11. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a...

  12. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a...

  13. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a...

  14. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a...

  15. [Routine hematologic parameters for thalassemia screening].

    PubMed

    Schubert, S; Christofi, Y; Papadatou, A

    1990-01-01

    There is an evaluation of routine examination of the blood film for the recognition of Thalassaemia (Th.). The results of 100 blood films from each group--Th. major, Th. minor, healthy persons (centre for Thalassaemia "Bishop Makarios"/Nikosia--Cypros)-were analyzed. MCV and MCH were most useful for the recognition of Th. minor. The constellation of increased red blood cells and normal hemoglobin seems to be typical for Th. minor. Haemoglobin and haematocrit are not suited because they were widely normal. Target cells also are not sufficient for screening--they were present only in 10% of Th. minor. To the contrary most values were clearly decreased in Th. major, and target cells were present here in almost 90%. PMID:1713894

  16. The routinization of hospice: charisma and bureaucratization.

    PubMed

    James, N; Field, D

    1992-06-01

    In 25 years the number of hospices in Britain has multiplied from under 15 in 1965 to over 430 in 1991. During this period, often working out with the mainstream health system, the hospices actively sought to transform terminal care. More recently a process of diversification and legitimation has meant that hospices have become increasingly subject to mainstream influence. Using Weber's concept of charisma we examine the development of the hospice movement during this period of expansion. We suggest there are a number of factors leading to the routinization of hospice care including the ways in which it was sponsored and developed at the local level, and pressures toward bureaucratization and professionalization. We make links with recent developments in the health services. Finally we consider whether it is possible for the hospice movement to sustain its founding ideals. PMID:1529374

  17. Handheld computing in pathology

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil; Satyanarayanan, Mahadev; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2012-01-01

    Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in whole-slide imaging (WSI), new opportunities and challenges have presented themselves. This review addresses the current state of handheld hardware and software, provides a history of handheld devices in medicine focusing on pathology, and presents future use cases for such handhelds in pathology. PMID:22616027

  18. Routine outcome measures in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve; Adair, Carol E; Lin, Elizabeth; Marriott, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Canada is a federal country of 10 provinces and three territories. High level information on mental health conditions and service use has mostly been generated from administrative data collected by provinces and territories. These include four major types - hospital admissions and discharges, physician billings, ambulatory care services, and drug databases. At the national level, the Canadian Institute for Health Information brings together this information to produce indicators of outcome. Although these data provide information on patient and health system characteristics, they do not capture the full spectrum of formal and informal mental healthcare. These include changes in health status, functioning, community integration and quality of life. As a result, some jurisdictions have begun to implement more standardized measures of outcome such as the clinician-rated Health of the Nation Outcome Scales or the inpatient Resident Assessment Instrument - Mental Health. In this paper we provide an overview of mental-health-related data sources in Canada, highlight some of the more progressive practices beginning to emerge, and conclude with some thoughts about how the routine measurement and reporting of mental health outcomes in Canada might be advanced including efforts at engaging both clinicians and decision-makers. PMID:25738745

  19. Social and Demographic Predictors of Preschoolers’ Bedtime Routines

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Lauren; Berger, Lawrence M.; LeBourgeois, Monique K.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine associations of child and family sociodemographic characteristics with preschooler bedtime routines. Method We use parent-report data on 3,217 3-year-old children (48% black; 26% Hispanic; 26% white) from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine whether child and family characteristics are associated with the presence, time, and consistency of bedtime routines. Results Over 80% of sample children have a bedtime yet only two-thirds follow it. After extensive controls for maternal education, family structure, and other household characteristics, Black and Hispanic children have later bedtimes than white children and reduced odds of using regular bedtimes (by 22% and 29%, respectively) and using bedtime routines (by 47% and 33%, respectively). Low maternal education, increased household size, and poverty are associated with decreased use of parent-child interactive and hygiene-related bedtime routines. Conclusion Children from disadvantaged households are less likely to have consistent bedtime routines than their more advantaged counterparts. This may contribute to later disparities in sleep quality, duration and timing, factors known to be associated with adverse behavioral, cognitive, and health outcomes. PMID:19745760

  20. School Bus Crash Rates on Routine and Nonroutine Routes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, Elizabeth; Ramirez, Marizen; Hamann, Cara; Young, Tracy; Stahlhut, Mary; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although prior research has established that school buses are a safe form of transportation, crashes can produce catastrophic consequences. School buses have 2 types of routes: predictable, routine routes that take children to and from school and less predictable, nonroutine routes for school events. No studies have examined school bus…

  1. Factors affecting urine specific gravity in apparently healthy cats presenting to first opinion practice for routine evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rishniw, Mark; Bicalho, Rodrigo

    2015-04-01

    Evidence suggests that apparently healthy cats presenting for routine evaluation should have a randomly sampled urine specific gravity (USG) >1.035. A USG <1.035 might reflect inappropriate concentrating ability warranting further investigation. We measured the USG of 1040 apparently healthy cats presenting to first opinion practice in an observational study, using either in-clinic refractometers or measurements provided by reference laboratories, and examined factors that might affect USG. In-clinic refractometers were calibrated using distilled water (specific gravity = 1.000). The USG was >1.030 in 91% of cats and >1.035 in 88% of cats; 121 adult cats (⩾6 months old) and five young cats (<6 months old) had USGs of <1.035. Of these 126 cats, a pathological cause was identified in 27 adult cats - of these, 26 were >9 years old - but no young cats. No cause was identified in 43 adult cats, and further investigation was not pursued in 51 adult cats. Factors that affected USG included age, diet type, sex, fasting status, drinking avidity, refractometer type, and the interaction between sex and diet - increasing dietary moisture content lowered USG only in female cats. Most factors minimally affected USG. The odds of having a USG <1.035 without apparent pathology included age and dietary moisture content. Drinking avidity decreased with increasing dietary moisture content. Our results show that most apparently healthy cats presenting to first-opinion practice should have a USG >1.035. Dietary management strategies to lower USG might be less effective than anticipated, and warrant monitoring of USG to determine efficacy. Older cats with USG <1.035 are more likely to have pathological causes identified, although clinicians are more likely to examine these cats for possible pathology. A lack of stringent refractometer calibration could have caused some errors in estimates of USG by some observers, but would be unlikely to alter markedly the findings. PMID:25030955

  2. Going fully digital: Perspective of a Dutch academic pathology lab

    PubMed Central

    Stathonikos, Nikolas; Veta, Mitko; Huisman, André; van Diest, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    During the last years, whole slide imaging has become more affordable and widely accepted in pathology labs. Digital slides are increasingly being used for digital archiving of routinely produced clinical slides, remote consultation and tumor boards, and quantitative image analysis for research purposes and in education. However, the implementation of a fully digital Pathology Department requires an in depth look into the suitability of digital slides for routine clinical use (the image quality of the produced digital slides and the factors that affect it) and the required infrastructure to support such use (the storage requirements and integration with lab management and hospital information systems). Optimization of digital pathology workflow requires communication between several systems, which can be facilitated by the use of open standards for digital slide storage and scanner management. Consideration of these aspects along with appropriate validation of the use of digital slides for routine pathology can pave the way for pathology departments to go “fully digital.” In this paper, we summarize our experiences so far in the process of implementing a fully digital workflow at our Pathology Department and the steps that are needed to complete this process. PMID:23858390

  3. Radiographic pathology for technologists

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, J.D.; Kowalczyk, N.

    1988-01-01

    This book explains the fundamentals of disease mechanisms and relates this to the practice of radiologic science. Each chapter begins with a discussion of normal anatomy and physiology, then covers pathology and demonstrates how the pathology appears on film. Imaging modalities such as computed tomography, MRI, and ultrasound are also discussed. Clinical case studies are included.

  4. Opportunities in Speech Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Parley W.

    The importance of speech is discussed and speech pathology is described. Types of communication disorders considered are articulation disorders, aphasia, facial deformity, hearing loss, stuttering, delayed speech, voice disorders, and cerebral palsy; examples of five disorders are given. Speech pathology is investigated from these aspects: the…

  5. The Effects of Pathological Gaming on Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemmens, Jeroen S.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this…

  6. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: The Search for Truth.

    PubMed

    McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science. PMID:27515387

  7. The Effect of Team Training Strategies on Team Mental Model Formation and Team Performance under Routine and Non-Routine Environmental Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Katherine L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined how the type of training a team receives (team coordination training vs. cross-training) influences the type of team mental model structures that form and how those mental models in turn impact team performance under different environmental condition (routine vs. non-routine). Three-hundred and fifty-two undergraduate…

  8. Pathology Imaging Informatics for Clinical Practice and Investigative and Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Sadimin, Evita T.; Foran, David J

    2012-01-01

    Pathologists routinely interpret gross and microscopic specimens to render diagnoses and to engage in a broad spectrum of investigative research. Multiple studies have demonstrated that imaging technologies have progressed to a level at which properly digitized specimens provide sufficient quality comparable to the traditional glass slides examinations. Continued advancements in this area will have a profound impact on the manner in which pathology is conducted from this point on. Several leading institutions have already undertaken ambitious projects directed toward digitally imaging, archiving, and sharing pathology specimens. As a result of these advances, the use of informatics in diagnostic and investigative pathology applications is expanding rapidly. In addition, the advent of novel technologies such as multispectral imaging makes it possible to visualize and analyze imaged specimens using multiple wavelengths simultaneously. As these powerful technologies become increasingly accepted and adopted, the opportunities for gaining new insight into the underlying mechanisms of diseases as well as the potential for discriminating among subtypes of pathologies are growing accordingly. PMID:22855694

  9. Clinical and pathologic diagnosis and different diagnosis of syphilis cervical lymphadenitis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yufen; Zhang, Xinlian; Xu, Nan; Wang, Libo; Li, Fangchao; Zhang, Ping; Miao, Lanfang; Yang, Haijun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To study the clinical pathologic characteristics and differential diagnosis of syphilitic cervical lymphadenitis, and to improve the rate of its diagnosis and treatment. Methods: Retrospectively analyzed the clinical history, Trepone pallidum-ELISA (TP-ELISA), rapid plasma regain test (RPR) and routine pathological examination of the patient diagnosed as syphilis lymphadenitis. And review related literatures. Results: The main clinical presentation was multiple palpable cervical lymph nodes. The multiple nodes were hard, fixed, and the major diameter of the larger one was 2 cm. The main pathological changes included: the capsule was significantly thickened; reactive hyperplasia of lymphoid follicular with sky star phenomenon; occlusive endovasculitis; perivascular inflammation; the proliferation of epithelioid histiocytes can form granulomas with few multinucleated giant cells; few necrosis. TP-ELISA and RPR were positive. Conclusions: The pathological changes of syphilitic lymphadenitis have a variety of performance with relatively specific and suggestive alterations which requires a combination of clinical history and laboratory test before the diagnosis, and the clinicians can reduce misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis of the disease by increasing vigilance of it. PMID:26722588

  10. Parental employment, family routines and childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Patricia M

    2012-12-01

    Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K) data from kindergarten through eighth grade, this paper investigate the relationships among maternal employment, family routines and obesity. More hours worked by the mother tend to be negatively related to positive routines like eating meals as a family or at regular times, or having family rules about hours of television watched. Many of these same routines are significantly related to the probability of being obese, implying that family routines may be a mechanism by which maternal employment intensity affects children's obesity. However, inclusion of family routines in the obesity regression does not appreciably change the estimated effect of maternal employment hours. Thus, the commonly estimated deleterious effect of maternal employment on children's obesity cannot be explained by family routines, leaving the exact mechanisms an open question for further exploration. PMID:22622096

  11. Reducing turnaround time of surgical pathology reports in pathology and laboratory medicine departments

    PubMed Central

    Alshieban, Saeed; Al-Surimi, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Turnaround time is an important quality indicator in surgical pathology. Retrospective analysis of three data points in September 2014, January 2015, and February 2015 showed that on average, about a quarter (24%) of routine surgical pathology cases (26%, 19%, and 27% respectively) are not reported on time and do not meet the accepted level of the College of American Pathologists' (CAP) standard turnaround time, which states at least 90% of routine surgical pathology cases should be reported and verified within two days. Our daily observation supported by a root cause analysis exercise revealed that subprocesses including slide allocation and delivery to pathologists, slide review by pathologists, report editing by transcriptionists, and report verification by pathologists are where most delays occur. Thus, to tackle these process issues we developed a quality improvement project using the model of improvement methods to streamline the sample flow process and avoid unjustified reporting delay. The improvement ideas included developing a time log sheet to be attached with all pathology requests, and sending a daily reminder email followed by a phonecall to all pathologists to verify completed reports on the same day. These intervention elements were tested using multiple PDSA cycles resulting in a very noticeable improvement, with more than 94% of all routine cases reported in less than two days, meeting and exceeding the CAP standards. Such noticeable improvement in turnaround of surgical pathology reports will eventually lead to improving the quality and safety of patient care outcome, including diagnosing patients on time, developing the appropriate treatment plan, and avoiding unjustified complications resulting in morbidity and mortality due to delayed reports. PMID:26734438

  12. Forensic pathology of companion animal abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Gerdin, J A; McDonough, S P

    2013-11-01

    Submission of cases of suspected animal abuse and neglect (AAN) to veterinary pathologists is increasingly frequent. These cases require modification of postmortem procedures and written reports, as the questions asked by courts typically differ from those asked in routine diagnostic cases. Here we review the practice of veterinary forensic pathology as it applies to cases of companion AAN, as well as the fundamental principles of forensic pathology, the components of a forensic necropsy, and the goals of the necropsy in cases of blunt-force trauma, projectile wounds, and starvation. Future directions and endeavors in veterinary forensic pathology are broached. PMID:23686766

  13. Pathology of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Finnie, John W

    2014-12-01

    Although traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently encountered in veterinary practice in companion animals, livestock and horses, inflicted head injury is a common method of euthanasia in domestic livestock, and malicious head trauma can lead to forensic investigation, the pathology of TBI has generally received little attention in the veterinary literature. This review highlights the pathology and pathogenesis of cerebral lesions produced by blunt, non-missile and penetrating, missile head injuries as an aid to the more accurate diagnosis of neurotrauma cases. If more cases of TBI in animals that result in fatality or euthanasia are subjected to rigorous neuropathological examination, this will lead to a better understanding of the nature and development of brain lesions in these species, rather than extrapolating data from human studies. PMID:25178417

  14. Routine Activities Preceding Adolescent Sexual Abuse of Younger Children.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Benoit; Felson, Marcus

    2016-03-01

    Adolescent abuse of younger children has long been recognized, but empirical research on the circumstances of this phenomenon is rare. This article examines how adolescent offenders find and gain access to victims, work out time alone with them, and set up or exploit settings for sexual contact. Prior researchers learned that adult sex offenders use certain routine activities to perform these tasks. The current research inquires whether adolescent offenders are similar. We administered Kaufman's Modus Operandi Questionnaire to a sample of 116 Canadian adolescent males undergoing treatment for a sexual offense against a child. Adolescent offenders follow routines similar to adults but are better able to use games and activities as a prelude to sexual abuse. We discuss how routine legal activities set the stage for activities and should be considered when devising situational prevention strategies. PMID:25060598

  15. Clinician's Attitudes to the Introduction of Routine Weighing in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Beckmann, Michael M.; Wilkinson, Shelley A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Excessive gestational weight gain poses significant short- and long-term health risks to both mother and baby. Professional bodies and health services increasingly recommend greater attention be paid to weight gain in pregnancy. A large Australian tertiary maternity hospital plans to facilitate the (re)introduction of routine weighing of all women at every antenatal visit. Objective. To identify clinicians' perspectives of barriers and enablers to routinely weighing pregnant women and variations in current practice, knowledge, and attitudes between different staff groups. Method. Forty-four maternity staff from three professional groups were interviewed in four focus groups. Staff included midwives; medical staff; and dietitians. Transcripts underwent qualitative content analysis to identify and examine barriers and enablers to the routine weighing of women throughout pregnancy. Results. While most staff supported routine weighing, various concerns were raised. Issues included access to resources and staff; the ability to provide appropriate counselling and evidence-based interventions; and the impact of weighing on patients and the therapeutic relationship. Conclusion. Many clinicians supported the practice of routine weighing in pregnancy, but barriers were also identified. Implementation strategies will be tailored to the discrete professional groups and will address identified gaps in knowledge, resources, and clinician skills and confidence. PMID:27446614

  16. Clinician's Attitudes to the Introduction of Routine Weighing in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hasted, Tim; Stapleton, Helen; Beckmann, Michael M; Wilkinson, Shelley A

    2016-01-01

    Background. Excessive gestational weight gain poses significant short- and long-term health risks to both mother and baby. Professional bodies and health services increasingly recommend greater attention be paid to weight gain in pregnancy. A large Australian tertiary maternity hospital plans to facilitate the (re)introduction of routine weighing of all women at every antenatal visit. Objective. To identify clinicians' perspectives of barriers and enablers to routinely weighing pregnant women and variations in current practice, knowledge, and attitudes between different staff groups. Method. Forty-four maternity staff from three professional groups were interviewed in four focus groups. Staff included midwives; medical staff; and dietitians. Transcripts underwent qualitative content analysis to identify and examine barriers and enablers to the routine weighing of women throughout pregnancy. Results. While most staff supported routine weighing, various concerns were raised. Issues included access to resources and staff; the ability to provide appropriate counselling and evidence-based interventions; and the impact of weighing on patients and the therapeutic relationship. Conclusion. Many clinicians supported the practice of routine weighing in pregnancy, but barriers were also identified. Implementation strategies will be tailored to the discrete professional groups and will address identified gaps in knowledge, resources, and clinician skills and confidence. PMID:27446614

  17. Clinical governance and pathology

    PubMed Central

    Crook, M

    2002-01-01

    This article looks at clinical governance and pathology. Clinical governance should be an important tool in seeking quality improvement within the Natinal Health Service. But how as pathologists should we go about it? PMID:11896066

  18. Tumor Size on Abdominal MRI Versus Pathologic Specimen in Resected Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Implications for Radiation Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, William A.; Mikell, John L.; Mittal, Pardeep; Colbert, Lauren; Prabhu, Roshan S.; Kooby, David A.; Nickleach, Dana; Hanley, Krisztina; Sarmiento, Juan M.; Ali, Arif N.; Landry, Jerome C.

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: We assessed the accuracy of abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for determining tumor size by comparing the preoperative contrast-enhanced T1-weighted gradient echo (3-dimensional [3D] volumetric interpolated breath-hold [VIBE]) MRI tumor size with pathologic specimen size. Methods and Materials: The records of 92 patients who had both preoperative contrast-enhanced 3D VIBE MRI images and detailed pathologic specimen measurements were available for review. Primary tumor size from the MRI was independently measured by a single diagnostic radiologist (P.M.) who was blinded to the pathology reports. Pathologic tumor measurements from gross specimens were obtained from the pathology reports. The maximum dimensions of tumor measured in any plane on the MRI and the gross specimen were compared. The median difference between the pathology sample and the MRI measurements was calculated. A paired t test was conducted to test for differences between the MRI and pathology measurements. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to measure the association of disparity between the MRI and pathology sizes with the pathology size. Disparities relative to pathology size were also examined and tested for significance using a 1-sample t test. Results: The median patient age was 64.5 years. The primary site was pancreatic head in 81 patients, body in 4, and tail in 7. Three patients were American Joint Commission on Cancer stage IA, 7 stage IB, 21 stage IIA, 58 stage IIB, and 3 stage III. The 3D VIBE MRI underestimated tumor size by a median difference of 4 mm (range, −34-22 mm). The median largest tumor dimensions on MRI and pathology specimen were 2.65 cm (range, 1.5-9.5 cm) and 3.2 cm (range, 1.3-10 cm), respectively. Conclusions: Contrast-enhanced 3D VIBE MRI underestimates tumor size by 4 mm when compared with pathologic specimen. Advanced abdominal MRI sequences warrant further investigation for radiation therapy planning in pancreatic adenocarcinoma before

  19. 10 CFR 1017.20 - Routine access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INFORMATION Access to Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.20 Routine access. (a) Authorized... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Routine access. 1017.20 Section 1017.20 Energy DEPARTMENT... access to the UCNI, subject to limitations in paragraph (b) of this section, and who may...

  20. 10 CFR 1017.20 - Routine access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INFORMATION Access to Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.20 Routine access. (a) Authorized... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Routine access. 1017.20 Section 1017.20 Energy DEPARTMENT... access to the UCNI, subject to limitations in paragraph (b) of this section, and who may...

  1. Achieving Communicative Competence Through Gambits and Routines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siskin, H. Jay; Spinelli, Emily

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes the importance of conversational gambits and routines in achieving second language communicative competence and then presents a model which uses telephone conversations as a means of achieving this goal. Exercises for drilling and testing gambits and routines are also presented. (Author/CB)

  2. Making Routine Letters Have Positive Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, S. M.

    While few business people dispute the importance of carefully crafting persuasive, demanding, conciliatory, and bad-news letters, the regular flow of routine communications receives very little meaningful consideration or scrutiny. These routine communications (letters, inquiries, requests, collection letters, complaints, confirmations,…

  3. 40 CFR 141.621 - Routine monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Routine monitoring. 141.621 Section 141.621 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Stage 2 Disinfection Byproducts Requirements § 141.621 Routine monitoring. (a) Monitoring. (1) If...

  4. Active Movement Warm-Up Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Teri; Quint, Ashleigh; Fischer, Kim; Kiger, Joy

    2011-01-01

    This article presents warm-ups that are designed to physiologically and psychologically prepare students for vigorous physical activity. An active movement warm-up routine is made up of three parts: (1) active warm-up movement exercises, (2) general preparation, and (3) the energy system. These warm-up routines can be used with all grade levels…

  5. Clinical and pathological correlations in endometrial pathology

    PubMed Central

    Bohîlțea, RE; Sajin, M; Furtunescu, F; Bohîlțea, LC; Mihart, A; Baros, A; Anca, AF

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and mortality rate of endometrial cancer has been registering an increasing trend both in Romania and in the whole world. The paper’s aim is to analyze the diagnostic approach of endometrial pathology in the University Emergency Hospital Bucharest, on a four years period. The medium age of the patients was of 50.51 ± 10.924 years, and the median age was of 48 years. The youngest patient suffering from endometrial cancer was of 30 years. Dilation and uterine curettage represent the main method used in the performance of endometrial biopsy, based on which the certitude etiologic histopathologic diagnosis was established in 68.4% of the patients with endometrial pathology. Hyperplasias represented half of the pathology (54.9%), most of them being without atypias. Endometrial carcinoma was identified in 19% of the patients. The diagnosis of the disease in IA stage represents 5.5% of the total endometrial cases and the diagnosis of the disease in the stage of its limitation to the uterus (stage IA, IB and IC) was of 64.2%. The endometrioid adenocarcinoma represents the most encountered histopathological form and the degree of tumor differentiation established for 68,15% of the cases was predominantly 1 and 2 (88%). The main symptom, which determines the patients’ decision to go to the physician, is the abnormal uterine bleeding. 66% of the cases of endometrial cancer in the stage of the disease limited to the uterus are diagnosed in Romania based on the abnormal uterine bleeding. However, 34% of the cases are diagnosed in advanced stages, presenting a significantly low life expectancy. PMID:26664489

  6. Metadata Extraction Routines for Improving Infobutton Performance

    PubMed Central

    Hulse, Nathan C.; Haug, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Infobuttons have been proven as an effective means for providing quick, context-specific links to pertinent information resources at the point of care. Current infobutton manager implementations, however, lack the ability to exchange metadata, are limited to a relatively small set of information providers, and are targeted primarily for a clinician audience. As part of a local effort to implement infobuttons for patient use via a tethered personal health record, we present a series of metadata extraction routines. These routines were constructed to extract key pieces of information from health information providers on the Internet, including content coverage, language availability, and readability scores. The extraction routines were tested using thirty different disease conditions against eight different providers. The routines yielded 183 potential infobutton targets and associated metadata for each. The capabilities of the extraction routines will be expanded to cover new types of metadata in the future. PMID:21346994

  7. Closed cycle refrigeration for routine magnetotransport measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawardana, Binuka; Ye, Tianyu; Wegscheider, Werner; Mani, Ramesh

    2015-03-01

    Condensed matter physics is often interested in the behavior of materials at very low temperatures. Low temperatures have traditionally been realized using liquid helium. However, the recent scarcity of liquid helium and the rapid rise in its cost has encouraged the development of alternative approaches, based on closed cycle refrigerators, for realizing low temperatures. Here, we convey our experiences in developing a home-made, low cost, variable temperature closed cycle refrigeration system for routine magnetotransport measurements down to 10K, and present measurements obtained with this system relating to the electronic properties of the high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs 2D semiconductors system. The setup was constructed to examine 0.5cm × 0.5cm semiconductor chips including up to 49 leads and reach ~ 10K within 3 hours. A computer controlled data acquisition system was assembled to collect resistivity and Hall effect data, and extract the carrier Hall mobility and density as a function of the temperature.

  8. Routine ultrasound surveillance after carotid endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Pratesi, C; Pulli, R; Ferlaino, E; Michelagnoli, S; Bernacchi, R; Borgioloi, F; Nuzzaci, G

    1996-02-01

    Ultrasounds (US) are employed in preoperative carotid disease diagnosis and in carotid endarterectomy (CEA) follow-up. The authors present their experience about postoperative modifications in CEA site with US evaluation with particular interest in restenosis. Clinical and instrumental examinations were performed at intervals 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months following surgery. Follow-up data were available on 189 CEAs. In 58 cases a primary closure was performed, whereas in the other 131 cases, a patch was applied. 15 restenosis (7.9%) were seen during the follow-up control period with 2 cases of haemodynamic restenosis (1%). Good results were recorded with PTFE patch angioplasty (restenosis 4.4%), instead of vein (restenosis 14.2%) and a biosynthetic material called Omniflow (restenosis 9.5%). A vein patch dilatation was encountered in 13 applications (30.9%). In conclusion the routine application of US after carotid endarterectomy allowed us to monitor the evolution of the repair processes and of the stenotic lesions from the very beginning. PMID:8606212

  9. Pathological fractures in children: Diagnosis and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Canavese, F; Samba, A; Rousset, M

    2016-02-01

    A fracture is defined as pathological when it arises in a bone tissue that has been modified and reshaped by a local or systemic pathological process. In children, pathological fractures can be secondary to several conditions, ranging from metabolic diseases to tumors, infections or neuromuscular pathologies. History, clinical examination and radiologic assessment are essential to making a diagnosis, to identifying the underlying cause and to planning the right treatment of a pathological fracture. Treatment must be tailored to both the fracture and the underlying cause. The objective of this work is to present the diagnostic approach and the course to follow when a child presents with a pathological fracture. The most common causes of pathological fractures, as well as their characteristics, will be described. Pathological fractures occurring in osteogenesis imperfecta and in abused children as well as stress fractures will not be discussed. PMID:26774903

  10. [Victims of sexual assault: a routine protocol for better management].

    PubMed

    Linet, T; Nizard, J

    2004-04-01

    Caring for victims of sexual assault is a difficult situation where the physician has to simultaneously evaluate the psychological impact and conduct a complete and precise physical examination. To make sure every step of the examination is completed and all samplings are done in the correct order by all physicians, it is useful to have a written routine protocol. We describe step-by-step management procedures for victims of sexual assault, taking into consideration the psychological aspect, the physical examination, the different samplings, and the different emergency treatments. Free download of the entire protocol, with the booklet containing examples of prescriptions, is available at http://www.agof.net/constatviol/. PMID:15052175

  11. Pathological evaluation for sterilization of routinely used prosthodontic and endodontic instruments

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, K. Vinay; Kiran Kumar, K.S.; Supreetha, S.; Raghu, K.N.; Veerabhadrappa, Anusha Channabasappa; Deepthi, S

    2015-01-01

    Background: In daily practice of dentistry, we use same instruments on many patients. Before use, all instruments must be cleaned, disinfected, and sterilized to prevent any contamination. Pre-cleaning and sterilization of some devices can be difficult because of their small size and complex architecture. Dental burs and endodontic files are such instruments. Dental burs come in a variety of shapes and sizes, all with highly complex and detailed surface features. Aim: To determine the effectiveness of various disinfectants and sterilization techniques for disinfection and resterilization of dental burs and endodontic files. Materials and Methods: The materials used for the study were dental burs and endodontic files. Disinfectants used were Quitanet plus, glutaraldehyde, glass-bead sterilizer, and autoclave. The sterility of used dental burs and endodontic files was analyzed. Burs and files that had been used were pre-cleaned, resterilized, and then tested for various pathogens. Each item was transferred by sterile technique into Todd-Hewitt broth, incubated at 37°C for 72 h, and observed for bacterial growth. Results: The present study shows that the endodontic files and burs sterilized by autoclaving and glutaraldehyde showed complete sterilization. Burs and files immersed in glutaraldehyde (2.4%) for 12 h showed complete sterilization, whereas Quitanet plus solution and glass-bead sterilizer showed incomplete sterilization. Conclusion: The present study results indicate that autoclaving and glutaraldehyde (2.4%) showed complete sterilization. Other methods cannot be relied upon for sterilization. PMID:26236684

  12. Recurrent Disruptions of Rituals and Routines in Families with Paternal Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugland, Bente Storm Mowatt

    2005-01-01

    Changes in rituals and routines between drinking and sobriety were examined in families in treatment due to paternal alcohol abuse. Information was gathered through a semistructured family interview. Recurrent disruptions of rituals and routines were found between different phases in the drinking cycle. Disruptions were found typically with regard…

  13. Complexity and forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard Martin

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that nonlinearity and complexity are the norm in human physiological systems, the relevance of which is informing an enhanced understanding of basic pathological processes such as inflammation, the host response to severe trauma, and critical illness. This article will explore how an understanding of nonlinear systems and complexity might inform the study of the pathophysiology of deaths of medicolegal interest, and how 'complexity thinking' might usefully be incorporated into modern forensic medicine and forensic pathology research, education and practice. PMID:26372537

  14. Molecular Pathology Informatics.

    PubMed

    Roy, Somak

    2015-06-01

    Molecular informatics (MI) is an evolving discipline that will support the dynamic landscape of molecular pathology and personalized medicine. MI provides a fertile ground for development of clinical solutions to bridge the gap between clinical informatics and bioinformatics. Rapid adoption of next generation sequencing (NGS) in the clinical arena has triggered major endeavors in MI that are expected to bring a paradigm shift in the practice of pathology. This brief review presents a broad overview of various aspects of MI, particularly in the context of NGS based testing. PMID:26065793

  15. Complications of Pathologic Myopia.

    PubMed

    Cho, Bum-Joo; Shin, Joo Young; Yu, Hyeong Gon

    2016-01-01

    Pathologic myopia (PM) is one of the leading causes of visual impairment worldwide. The pathophysiology of PM is not fully understood, but the axial elongation of the eye followed by chorioretinal thinning is suggested as a key mechanism. Pathologic myopia may lead to many complications such as chorioretinal atrophy, foveoschisis, choroidal neovascularization, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, cataract, and glaucoma. Some complications affect visual acuity significantly, showing poor visual prognosis. This article aims to review the types, pathophysiology, treatment, and visual outcome of the complications of PM. PMID:26649982

  16. Habitual routines in task-performing groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersick, C. J.; Hackman, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    Groups, like individuals, often develop habitual routines for dealing with frequently encountered stimuli. Although such routines are consequential for group life and work, little is known about them. This paper reconnoiters the territory of habitual behavior in groups that perform work within organizations. We offer a definition of group habits, identify their functions and dysfunctions, suggest how they develop and are maintained, and identify the circumstances when they are likely to be altered or abandoned. Throughout, we give special attention to the social nature of habitual routines in groups, to the interaction between habitual behavior and group life cycle phenomena, and to the role of the organizational context in prompting, shaping, and terminating habitual routines.

  17. Taking medicine at home - create a routine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000613.htm Taking medicine at home - create a routine To use the ... teeth. Find Ways to Help You Remember Your Medicines You can: Set the alarm on your clock, ...

  18. Would Virchow be a systems biologist? A discourse on the philosophy of science with implications for pathological research.

    PubMed

    Stenzinger, Albrecht; Klauschen, Frederick; Wittschieber, Daniel; Weichert, Wilko; Denkert, Carsten; Dietel, Manfred; Roller, Claudio

    2010-06-01

    Research in pathology spans from merely descriptive work to functional studies, "-omics" approaches and, more recently, systems biology. The work presented here aims at placing pathological research into an epistemological context. Aided by Rudolf Virchow, we give an overview on the philosophy of science including the Wiener Kreis, Popper, Kuhn, Fleck and Rheinberger and demonstrate their implications for routine diagnostics and science in pathology. A focus is on the fields of "-omics" and systems pathology. PMID:20422212

  19. The free routine postcatheterization urogram: a cost/benefit analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, J.D.; Kaplan, G.W.; Rummerfield, P.S.; Gilpin, E.A.; Kirkpatrick, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    Postangiography urography has become routine procedure in most centers performing cardiac catheterization in children. We analyzed the x-radiation dosage and clinical yield of this procedure. Using lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiation exposure to the abdomen and gonads was measured in 35 children during postangiography urography. Results of 334 consecutive routine postangiography cine-urograms were evaluated based on clinical significance and compared to previous reports on this subject. Average absorbed abdominal radiation dosage was 241 mR +/- 240 from cine-urography, 16 mR +/- 13 from fluoroscopy, and 107 mR +/- 111 from a single abdominal roentgenogram. Gonadal dosage averaged 8 mR and was uniformly less than 27 mR. Of 334 routine postangiography cineurograms, 282 (84%) were normal, 30 (9%) were technically inadequate, 12 (3%) had abnormalities that were clinically insignificant or were falsely positive and in 10 (3%), clinically significant urologic conditions were confirmed. Because of the low yield of clinically significant anomalies and the added radiation exposure, we no longer perform routine postangiography cine-urography in children. Following cardiac angiography, the upper renal collecting systems are examined fluoroscopically. If abnormalities are suspected or fluoroscopy is equivocal, a single abdominal roentgenogram is performed. Using this procedure, mean average absorbed abdominal radiation dose can be reduced from 241 mR to 30.5 mR.

  20. Mediating the intersections of organizational routines during the introduction of a health IT system

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Laurie; Brooks, JoAnn; Gadd, Cynthia; Anders, Shilo; Lorenzi, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Public interest in the quality and safety of health care has spurred examination of specific organizational routines believed to yield risk in health care work. Medication administration routines, in particular, have been the subject of numerous improvement projects involving information technology development, and other forms of research and regulation. This study draws from ethnographic observation to examine how the common routine of medication administration intersects with other organizational routines, and why understanding such intersections is important. We present three cases describing intersections between medication administration and other routines, including a pharmacy routine, medication administration on the next shift and management reporting. We found that each intersection had ostensive and performative dimensions; and furthermore, that IT-enabled changes to one routine led to unintended consequences in its intersection with others, resulting in misalignment of ostensive and performative aspects of the intersection. Our analysis focused on the activities of a group of nurses who provide technology use mediation (TUM) before and after the rollout of a new health IT system. This research offers new insights on the intersection of organizational routines, demonstrates the value of analyzing TUM activities to better understand the relationship between IT introduction and changes in routines, and has practical implications for the implementation of technology in complex practice settings. PMID:24357898

  1. Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination

    SciTech Connect

    Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective.

  2. Is Psychometrics Pathological Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michell, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Pathology of science occurs when the normal processes of scientific investigation break down and a hypothesis is accepted as true within the mainstream of a discipline without a serious attempt being made to test it and without any recognition that this is happening. It is argued that this has happened in psychometrics: The hypothesis upon which…

  3. Pathological Gambling: Psychiatric Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Three psychiatric conceptual models: addictive, obsessive-compulsive spectrum and mood spectrum disorder have been proposed for pathological gambling. The objectives of this paper are to (1) evaluate the evidence base from the most recent reviews of each model, (2) update the evidence through 2007 and (3) summarize the status of the evidence for…

  4. Pathological Gambling Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachon, David D.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Although pathological gambling (PG) is regarded in the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a unitary diagnostic construct, it is likely composed of distinct subtypes. In the current report, the authors used cluster analyses of personality traits with a…

  5. Pathology of Extranodal Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Heckendorn, Emily; Auerbach, Aaron

    2016-07-01

    An overview of the pathology of extranodal lymphoma is presented. The emphasis of this presentation is on the classification system of extranodal lymphomas, including both B-cell and T-cell lymphomas, based on their morphology, phenotype, and molecular alterations. PMID:27265600

  6. [Quality Management System in Pathological Laboratory].

    PubMed

    Koyatsu, Junichi; Ueda, Yoshihiko

    2015-07-01

    Even compared to other clinical laboratories, the pathological laboratory conducts troublesome work, and many of the work processes are also manual. Therefore, the introduction of the systematic management of administration is necessary. It will be a shortcut to use existing standards such as ISO 15189 for this purpose. There is no standard specialized for the pathological laboratory, but it is considered to be important to a pathological laboratory in particular. 1. Safety nianagement of the personnel and environmental conditions. Comply with laws and regulations concerning the handling of hazardous materials. 2. Pre-examination processes. The laboratory shall have documented procedures for the proper collection and handling of primary samples. Developed and documented criteria for acceptance or rejection of samples are applied. 3. Examination processes. Selection, verification, and validation of the examination procedures. Devise a system that can constantly monitor the traceability of the sample. 4. Post-examination processes. Storage, retention, and disposal of clinical samples. 5. Release of results. When examination results fall within established alert or critical intervals, immediately notify the physicians. The important point is to recognize the needs of the client and be aware that pathological diagnoses are always "the final diagnoses". PMID:26591432

  7. An unusual infection of cervicofacial area caused by dental pathology: flesh-eating syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ozdinc, Serife; Unlu, Ebru; Oruc, Oya; User, Nese Nur; Karakaya, Zeynep

    2015-10-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) of the cervicofacial area is highly rare, but physicians should be familiar with the presentation of this situation owing to the suddenness of its beginning, the rapidness of its spread, and ending with high mortality and morbidity. In this article, 5 patients with NF admitted to emergency department with dental pathology history were discussed with a review of the literature. The purpose of this case series is to raise awareness about NF of the cervicofacial area caused by dental pathologies. Five patients admitted to our emergency department between January 2012 and March 2015 and diagnosed as having cervicofacial NF were identified. All patients had dental pathologies. The parameters of the study were patients' age, sex, complaints, self- and family histories, physical examinations' findings, routine laboratory-computed tomographic findings, treatment, and complications. Two of the patients were older than 70 years. One of the patients was healthy but he lost time because of an inappropriate treatment. These 3 patients died. The remaining patients were discharged at the end of the prolonged and intensive treatment. Necrotizing fasciitis should always be remembered in the diagnosis of the infection of the cervicofacial area. Because of difficulty in its diagnosis, a delay in the treatment may result in a horrific outcome. PMID:26298055

  8. Routines for Computing Pressure Drops in Venturis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    de Quay, Laurence

    2004-01-01

    A set of computer-program routines has been developed for calculating pressure drops and recoveries of flows through standard venturis, nozzle venturis, and orifices. Relative to prior methods used for such calculations, the method implemented by these routines offers greater accuracy because it involves fewer simplifying assumptions and is more generally applicable to wide ranges of flow conditions. These routines are based on conservation of momentum and energy equations for real nonideal fluids, the properties of which are calculated by curve-fitting subroutines based on empirical properties data. These routines are capable of representing cavitating, choked, non-cavitating, and unchoked flow conditions for liquids, gases, and supercritical fluids. For a computation of flow through a given venturi, nozzle venturi, or orifice, the routines determine which flow condition occurs: First, they calculate a throat pressure under the assumption that the flow is unchoked or non-cavitating, then they calculate the throat pressure under the assumption that the flow is choked or cavitating. The assumption that yields the higher throat pressure is selected as the correct one.

  9. Pathology informatics fellowship training: Focus on molecular pathology

    PubMed Central

    Mandelker, Diana; Lee, Roy E.; Platt, Mia Y.; Riedlinger, Gregory; Quinn, Andrew; Rao, Luigi K. F.; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Mahowald, Michael; Lane, William J.; Beckwith, Bruce A.; Baron, Jason M.; McClintock, David S.; Kuo, Frank C.; Lebo, Matthew S.; Gilbertson, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology informatics training with molecular pathology is a natural extension, as molecular pathology is a subspecialty with high potential for application of modern biomedical informatics techniques. Methods and Results: Pathology informatics and molecular pathology fellows and faculty evaluated the current fellowship program's core curriculum topics and subtopics for relevance to molecular pathology. By focusing on the overlap between the two disciplines, a structured curriculum consisting of didactics, operational rotations, and research projects was developed for those fellows interested in both pathology informatics and molecular pathology. Conclusions: The scope of molecular diagnostics is expanding dramatically as technology advances and our understanding of disease extends to the genetic level. Here, we highlight many of the informatics challenges facing molecular pathology today, and outline specific informatics principles necessary for the training of future molecular pathologists. PMID:24843823

  10. Postmenopausal tamoxifen treatment and endometrial pathology.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I; Altaras, M M; Shapira, J; Tepper, R; Beyth, Y

    1994-12-01

    Tamoxifen is widely used as adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal breast cancer patients with positive estrogen receptors. Data on a possible association of endometrial pathologies with tamoxifen treatment have been accumulating. In this review, we examine the current literature and include our own experience with this occurrence. We recommend close supervision of these patients. PMID:7885659

  11. Pathology neoplastic and non-neoplastic.

    PubMed

    Graeme-Cook, F

    1996-07-01

    Polyps of the gastrointestinal tract are common and often hard to diagnose by endoscopic or gross examination. Biopsy or polypectomy enables diagnosis and prognostication. This article is by no means encyclopedic, but attempts to discuss the pathology of the more common intestinal polyps. PMID:8829315

  12. The neurologic examination.

    PubMed

    Averill, D R

    1981-08-01

    With practice, an orderly routine, and a basic understanding of neuroanatomy, the clinician should be able to tentatively localize lesions in the nervous system. Once the lesion is localized, ancillary studies are usually necessary to identify the disease process. In difficult cases when referral is impractical, an accurate description of the findings from the neurologic examination will greatly improve the value of consultation. PMID:6977917

  13. Cryogenic Neutron Protein Crystallography: routine methods and potential benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Kevin L; Tomanicek, Stephen J; NG, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    The use of cryocooling in neutron diffraction has been hampered by several technical challenges such as the need for specialized equipment and techniques. Recently we have developed and deployed equipment and strategies that allow for routine neutron data collection on cryocooled crystals using off the shelf components. This system has several advantages, compared to a closed displex cooling system such as fast cooling coupled with easier crystal mounting and centering. The ability to routinely collect cryogenic neutron data for analysis will significantly broaden the range of scientific questions that can be examined by neutron protein crystallography. Cryogenic neutron data collection for macromolecules has recently become available at the new Biological Diffractometer BIODIFF at FRM II and the Macromolecular Diffractometer (MaNDi) at the Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. To evaluate the benefits of a cryocooled neutron structure we collected a full neutron data set on the BIODIFF instrument on a Toho-1 lactamase structure at 100K.

  14. Active stereo vision routines using PRISM-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonisse, Hendrick J.

    1992-11-01

    This paper describes work in progress on a set of visual routines and supporting capabilities implemented on the PRISM-3 real-time vision system. The routines are used in an outdoor robot retrieval task. The task requires the robot to locate a donor agent -- a Hero2000 -- which holds the object to be retrieved, to navigate to the donor, to accept the object from the donor, and return to its original location. The routines described here will form an integral part of the navigation and wide-area search tasks. Active perception is exploited to locate the donor using real-time stereo ranging directed by a pan/tilt/verge mechanism. A framework for orchestrating visual search has been implemented and is briefly described.

  15. Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    1999-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy manages the Nevada Test Site in a manner that meets evolving DOE Missions and responds to the concerns of affected and interested individuals and agencies. This Routine Radiological Monitoring Plan addressess complicance with DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 and other drivers requiring routine effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance on the Nevada Test Site. This monitoring plan, prepared in 1998, addresses the activities conducted onsite NTS under the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision. This radiological monitoring plan, prepared on behalf of the Nevada Test Site Landlord, brings together sitewide environmental surveillance; site-specific effluent monitoring; and operational monitoring conducted by various missions, programs, and projects on the NTS. The plan provides an approach to identifying and conducting routine radiological monitoring at the NTS, based on integrated technical, scientific, and regulatory complicance data needs.

  16. [Pathology of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Theegarten, D; Hager, T

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and the second most frequent cause in women. The pathology of lung tumors is of special relevance concerning therapy and prognosis and current classification systems have to be taken into consideration. The results of molecular tissue subtyping allow further classification and therapeutic options. The histological entities are mainly associated with typical X‑ray morphological features. PMID:27495784

  17. Masochism and pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Richard J

    2015-03-01

    That all pathological gamblers have an "unconscious wish to lose," an idea first expressed by Freud and Bergler, is neither true nor useful; wrong as well, however, are the reasons for neglecting masochism in relation to gambling. There is a small but clinically significant subgroup of pathological gamblers who are masochistic. I present clinical vignettes and a more extended treatment account to illustrate its importance. Masochism has been a confusing concept. As used here it refers to the deliberate seeking of pain, loss, suffering, or humiliation. There may be pleasure in pain, or an obligatory combining of pleasure and pain. A sense of power and control may be achieved through suffering. The case material illustrates clinically useful types (sexual masochism, masochistic personality disorder, moral masochism, relational masochism) as well as some common masochistic dynamics encountered in the treatment of pathological gamblers. These masochistic patterns are often identifiable during the initial evaluation. Distinguishing features may include a reversal of normal attitudes about winning and losing, the absence of an early winning phase, sometimes a memorable early loss. Gamblers may sabotage opportunities for success or create unnecessary obstacles for themselves. Losing may be more comfortable than winning or may be overtly sexualized. PMID:25734872

  18. Celestial: Common astronomical conversion routines and functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robotham, Aaron S. G.

    2016-02-01

    The R package Celestial contains common astronomy conversion routines, particularly the HMS and degrees schemes, and a large range of functions for calculating properties of different cosmologies (as used by the cosmocalc website). This includes distances, ages, growth rate/factor and densities (e.g., Omega evolution and critical energy density). It also includes functions for calculating thermal properties of the CMB and Planck's equations and virial properties of halos in different cosmologies, and standard NFW and weak-lensing formulas and low level orbital routines for calculating Roche properties, Vis-Viva and free-fall times.

  19. ANSYS duplicate finite-element checker routine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, R.

    1995-01-01

    An ANSYS finite-element code routine to check for duplicated elements within the volume of a three-dimensional (3D) finite-element mesh was developed. The routine developed is used for checking floating elements within a mesh, identically duplicated elements, and intersecting elements with a common face. A space shuttle main engine alternate turbopump development high pressure oxidizer turbopump finite-element model check using the developed subroutine is discussed. Finally, recommendations are provided for duplicate element checking of 3D finite-element models.

  20. American Society for Clinical Pathology

    MedlinePlus

    ... With the National Cancer Institute for Inaugural Global Pathology Conference March 2016 OneLab Memo ASCP Action Alert - ... 2016 Copyright © 2016 by American Society for Clinical Pathology. All Rights Reserved. Terms of Use About ASCP ...

  1. American Society for Clinical Pathology

    MedlinePlus

    ... Science Letter to Council of Deans: State of Pathology Training in Medical School Help Chart the Future ... Need Copyright © 2016 by American Society for Clinical Pathology. All Rights Reserved. Terms of Use About ASCP ...

  2. Pathology Image-Sharing on Social Media: Recommendations for Protecting Privacy While Motivating Education.

    PubMed

    Crane, Genevieve M; Gardner, Jerad M

    2016-01-01

    There is a rising interest in the use of social media by pathologists. However, the use of pathology images on social media has been debated, particularly gross examination, autopsy, and dermatologic condition photographs. The immediacy of the interactions, increased interest from patients and patient groups, and fewer barriers to public discussion raise additional considerations to ensure patient privacy is protected. Yet these very features all add to the power of social media for educating other physicians and the nonmedical public about disease and for creating better understanding of the important role of pathologists in patient care. The professional and societal benefits are overwhelmingly positive, and we believe the potential for harm is minimal provided common sense and routine patient privacy principles are utilized. We lay out ethical and practical guidelines for pathologists who use social media professionally. PMID:27550566

  3. Antiretroviral drug resistance and routine therapy, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Christian; Kouanfack, Charles; Vergne, Laurence; Tardy, Michèle; Zekeng, Léopold; Noumsi, Nathalie; Butel, Christelle; Bourgeois, Anke; Mpoudi-Ngolé, Eitel; Koulla-Shiro, Sinata; Peeters, Martine; Delaporte, Eric

    2006-06-01

    Among 128 patients routinely receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy in an HIV/AIDS outpatient clinic in Cameroon, 16.4% had drug resistance after a median of 10 months. Of these, 12.5% had resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), 10.2% to non-NRTIs, and 2.3% to protease inhibitors. PMID:16707062

  4. 7 CFR 4287.107 - Routine servicing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SERVICING Servicing Business and Industry Guaranteed... the December 31 semiannual status report in accordance with 7 CFR part 4279, subpart B, § 4279.107. (b... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Routine servicing. 4287.107 Section...

  5. 7 CFR 4287.107 - Routine servicing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SERVICING Servicing Business and Industry Guaranteed... the December 31 semiannual status report in accordance with 7 CFR part 4279, subpart B, § 4279.107. (b... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Routine servicing. 4287.107 Section...

  6. 7 CFR 4287.107 - Routine servicing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SERVICING Servicing Business and Industry Guaranteed... the December 31 semiannual status report in accordance with 7 CFR part 4279, subpart B, § 4279.107. (b... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Routine servicing. 4287.107 Section...

  7. 7 CFR 4287.107 - Routine servicing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SERVICING Servicing Business and Industry Guaranteed... the December 31 semiannual status report in accordance with 7 CFR part 4279, subpart B, § 4279.107. (b... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Routine servicing. 4287.107 Section...

  8. Routine Markerless Gene Replacement in Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Janes, Brian K.; Stibitz, Scott

    2006-01-01

    An improved genetic tool suitable for routine markerless allelic exchange in Bacillus anthracis has been constructed. Its utility was demonstrated by the introduction of insertions, deletions, and missense mutations on the chromosome and plasmid pXO1 of the Sterne strain of B. anthracis. PMID:16495572

  9. Modular thermal analyzer routine, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, J. A.; Phillips, M. A.; Williams, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    The Modular Thermal Analyzer Routine (MOTAR) is a general thermal analysis routine with strong capabilities for performing thermal analysis of systems containing flowing fluids, fluid system controls (valves, heat exchangers, etc.), life support systems, and thermal radiation situations. Its modular organization permits the analysis of a very wide range of thermal problems for simple problems containing a few conduction nodes to those containing complicated flow and radiation analysis with each problem type being analyzed with peak computational efficiency and maximum ease of use. The organization and programming methods applied to MOTAR achieved a high degree of computer utilization efficiency in terms of computer execution time and storage space required for a given problem. The computer time required to perform a given problem on MOTAR is approximately 40 to 50 percent that required for the currently existing widely used routines. The computer storage requirement for MOTAR is approximately 25 percent more than the most commonly used routines for the most simple problems but the data storage techniques for the more complicated options should save a considerable amount of space.

  10. Routines. Infant/Toddler Caregiving: A Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    Intended for use in conjunction with videos illustrating key concepts and caregiving techniques, this guide focuses on how the daily routines of caring for infants and toddlers can become opportunities for promoting the child's learning and development and for deepening the relationship between child and caregiver. Special attention is given to…

  11. Workout to Go: A Sample Exercise Routine

    MedlinePlus

    Workout to Go A Sample Exercise Routine from the National Institute on Aging at NIH i Workout to Go Are you just starting to exercise? Getting back ... into your purse or travel bag, Workout to Go can help you stay in shape for the ...

  12. Individual Values, Learning Routines and Academic Procrastination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Franziska; Hofer, Manfred; Fries, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Academic procrastination, the tendency to postpone learning activities, is regarded as a consequence of postmodern values that are prominent in post-industrialized societies. When students strive for leisure goals and have no structured routines for academic tasks, delaying strenuous learning activities becomes probable. Aims: The…

  13. Is routine drainage necessary after pancreaticoduodenectomy?

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Jiang, Yong-Jian; Li, Ji; Yang, Feng; Di, Yang; Yao, Lie; Jin, Chen; Fu, De-Liang

    2014-07-01

    With the development of imaging technology and surgical techniques, pancreatic resections to treat pancreatic tumors, ampulla tumors, and other pancreatic diseases have increased. Pancreaticoduodenectomy, one type of pancreatic resection, is a complex surgery with the loss of pancreatic integrity and various anastomoses. Complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy such as pancreatic fistulas and anastomosis leakage are common and significantly associated with patient outcomes. Pancreatic fistula is one of the most important postoperative complications; this condition can cause intraperitoneal hemorrhage, septic shock, or even death. An effective way has not yet been found to avoid the occurrence of pancreatic fistula. In most medical centers, the frequency of pancreatic fistula has remained between 9% and 13%. The early detection and routine drainage of anastomotic fistulas, pancreatic fistulas, bleeding, or other intra-abdominal fluid collections after pancreatic resections are considered as important and effective ways to reduce postoperative complications and the mortality rate. However, many recent studies have argued that routine drainage after abdominal operations, including pancreaticoduodenectomies, does not affect the incidence of postoperative complications. Although inserting drains after pancreatic resections continues to be a routine procedure, its necessity remains controversial. This article reviews studies of the advantages and disadvantages of routine drainage after pancreaticoduodenectomy and discusses the necessity of this procedure. PMID:25009383

  14. Is routine drainage necessary after pancreaticoduodenectomy?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang; Jiang, Yong-Jian; Li, Ji; Yang, Feng; Di, Yang; Yao, Lie; Jin, Chen; Fu, De-Liang

    2014-01-01

    With the development of imaging technology and surgical techniques, pancreatic resections to treat pancreatic tumors, ampulla tumors, and other pancreatic diseases have increased. Pancreaticoduodenectomy, one type of pancreatic resection, is a complex surgery with the loss of pancreatic integrity and various anastomoses. Complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy such as pancreatic fistulas and anastomosis leakage are common and significantly associated with patient outcomes. Pancreatic fistula is one of the most important postoperative complications; this condition can cause intraperitoneal hemorrhage, septic shock, or even death. An effective way has not yet been found to avoid the occurrence of pancreatic fistula. In most medical centers, the frequency of pancreatic fistula has remained between 9% and 13%. The early detection and routine drainage of anastomotic fistulas, pancreatic fistulas, bleeding, or other intra-abdominal fluid collections after pancreatic resections are considered as important and effective ways to reduce postoperative complications and the mortality rate. However, many recent studies have argued that routine drainage after abdominal operations, including pancreaticoduodenectomies, does not affect the incidence of postoperative complications. Although inserting drains after pancreatic resections continues to be a routine procedure, its necessity remains controversial. This article reviews studies of the advantages and disadvantages of routine drainage after pancreaticoduodenectomy and discusses the necessity of this procedure. PMID:25009383

  15. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    PubMed

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2016-03-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale. PMID:26851666

  16. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    PubMed

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale. PMID:26065794

  17. Psychological Factors that Promote and Inhibit Pathological Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morasco, Benjamin J.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Ledgerwood, David M.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes qualitative data regarding psychological factors that may affect gambling behavior among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Participants (n = 84) diagnosed with pathological gambling were treated in a clinical trial examining the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Qualitative data were collected from…

  18. Pathological Dissociation as Measured by the Child Dissociative Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wherry, Jeffrey N.; Neil, Debra A.; Taylor, Tamara N.

    2009-01-01

    The component structure of the Child Dissociative Checklist was examined among abused children. A factor described as pathological dissociation emerged that was predicted by participants being male. There also were differences in pathological dissociation between groups of sexually abused and physically abused children. Replication of this factor…

  19. Transcontinental consults in surgical pathology via the Internet.

    PubMed

    Eusebi, V; Foschini, L; Erde, S; Rosai, J

    1997-01-01

    An efficient and inexpensive electronic system to submit surgical pathology cases in consultation via the Internet is presented. A transcontinental pilot study showed a high degree of concordance between the diagnosis provided by the consultant on the basis of the pathology images and that given after examining the corresponding microscopic slides. PMID:9013825

  20. [Clinical key points. Slit-lamp examination].

    PubMed

    Lachkar, Y

    2007-05-01

    Biomicroscopic examination of glaucoma patients or glaucoma suspects should be systematic. The purpose of this examination is to determine the type of glaucoma and rule out associated pathologies. PMID:17646800

  1. Recent developments in preclinical toxicological pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, John M. . E-mail: john.finch@eur.crl

    2005-09-01

    In the late nineteenth century, microscopists developed a quaint method for examining the fine structure of biological specimens: paraffin embedding and staining with hematoxylin and eosin. This ancient technology is here to stay for the foreseeable future, because it can and does reveal the truth about biological processes. However, the role of pathology is developing with ever greater worldwide interaction between pathologists, and better communication and agreeing of international standards. Furthermore, recent techniques including immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and image analysis complement the traditional tried and tested tools. There is also in toxicologic pathology a willingness to use pathology methods and skills in new contexts, drug discovery in particular. But even in these days of genetic modification, proteomics and high throughput screening, pathologists continue to rely on dyes extracted from a Central American logwood used in Mexico before the Spanish invasion in 1520.

  2. Antibodies as Mediators of Brain Pathology.

    PubMed

    Brimberg, Lior; Mader, Simone; Fujieda, Yuichiro; Arinuma, Yoshiyuki; Kowal, Czeslawa; Volpe, Bruce T; Diamond, Betty

    2015-11-01

    The brain is normally sequestered from antibody exposure by the blood brain barrier. However, antibodies can access the brain during fetal development before the barrier achieves full integrity, and in disease states when barrier integrity is compromised. Recent studies suggest that antibodies contribute to brain pathology associated with autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and neuromyelitis optica, and can lead to transient or permanent behavioral or cognitive abnormalities. We review these findings here and examine the circumstances associated with antibody entry into the brain, the routes of access and the mechanisms that then effect pathology. Understanding these processes and the nature and specificity of neuronal autoantibodies may reveal therapeutic strategies toward alleviating or preventing the neurological pathologies and behavioral abnormalities associated with autoimmune disease. PMID:26494046

  3. Personality Pathology and Interpersonal Problem Stability

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G.C.; Scott, Lori N.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are often described as stable, which ignores the important dynamic processes and shifts that are observed clinically in individuals with PD. The current study examined patterns of variability in problematic interpersonal functioning, a core feature of personality pathology. Participants (N=150) were assessed for personality pathology at baseline and also completed the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems–Circumplex Scales at baseline and every three months over the course of a year. Baseline PD was used to predict individual means and variability parameters in generalized interpersonal distress, agentic problems, and communal problems across repeated assessments. Disorders associated with disinhibition predicted variability in generalized distress and agentic problems, whereas only antagonism related disorders predicted variability in communal problems. These associations reveal dynamic processes involved in multiple dimensions of personality pathology and suggest that future research on instability is needed that expands beyond the historical focus on borderline PD. PMID:25562539

  4. Antibodies as Mediators of Brain Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Brimberg, Lior; Mader, Simone; Fujieda, Yuichiro; Arinuma, Yoshiyuki; Kowal, Czeslawa; Volpe, Bruce T.; Diamond, Betty

    2016-01-01

    The brain is normally sequestered from antibody exposure by the blood brain barrier. However, antibodies can access the brain during fetal development before the barrier achieves full integrity, and in disease states when barrier integrity is compromised. Recent studies suggest that antibodies contribute to brain pathology associated with autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and neuromyelitis optica, and can lead to transient or permanent behavioral or cognitive abnormalities. We review these findings here and examine the circumstances associated with antibody entry into the brain, the routes of access and the mechanisms that then effect pathology. Understanding these processes and the nature and specificity of neuronal autoantibodies may reveal therapeutic strategies toward alleviating or preventing the neurological pathologies and behavioral abnormalities associated with autoimmune disease. PMID:26494046

  5. Investigation of spinal pathology in notalgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Savk, Oner; Savk, Ekin

    2005-06-01

    A possible association of spinal pathology with notalgia paresthetica (NP) was investigated through clinical and radiographic evaluation. Forty-three NP patients underwent dermatologic and orthopedic examination accompanied by radiography of the spine. Sixty-one lesions in 43 patients were evaluated. In 34 patients, various vertebral pathologies were observed radiographically by a blinded investigator, and in 28 of these cases these changes were most prominent in the vertebrae which corresponded to a lesional dermatome. Thirty-seven lesions were accompanied by spinal changes decided to be relevant (60.7%). The striking correlation of NP localization with spinal pathology suggests that spinal nerve impingement may contribute to the pathogenesis of this entity. PMID:15928634

  6. Pathologic and physiologic phimosis

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Thomas B.; Pike, John G.; Leonard, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the differences between physiologic and pathologic phimosis, review proper foreskin care, and discuss when it is appropriate to seek consultation regarding a phimotic foreskin. SOURCES OF INFORMATION This paper is based on selected findings from a MEDLINE search for literature on phimosis and circumcision referrals and on our experience at the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Urology Clinic. MeSH headings used in our MEDLINE search included “phimosis,” “referral and consultation,” and “circumcision.” Most of the available articles about phimosis and foreskin referrals were retrospective reviews and cohort studies (levels II and III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Phimosis is defined as the inability to retract the foreskin. Differentiating between physiologic and pathologic phimosis is important, as the former is managed conservatively and the latter requires surgical intervention. Great anxiety exists among patients and parentsregarding non-retractile foreskins. Most phimosis referrals seen in pediatric urology clinics are normal physiologically phimotic foreskins. Referrals of patients with physiologic phimosis to urology clinics can create anxiety about the need for surgery among patients and parents, while unnecessarily expanding the waiting list for specialty assessment. Uncircumcised penises require no special care. With normal washing, using soap and water, and gentle retraction during urination and bathing, most foreskins will become retractile over time. CONCLUSION Physiologic phimosis is often seen by family physicians. These patients and their parents require reassurance of normalcy and reinforcement of proper preputial hygiene. Consultation should be sought when evidence of pathologic phimosis is present, as this requires surgical management. PMID:17872680

  7. Pathological gambling and treatment outcomes for adults age 50 or older in methadone maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Engel, Rafael J; Rosen, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of pathological gambling to negative treatment outcomes for methadone maintenance patients aged 50 or older. The study included 130 methadone maintenance patients. Pathological gambling was determined using the Lie-Bet, a screen for pathological gambling; the outcomes were remaining in treatment and negative urine screens for drug use. Twenty percent of the sample identified as pathological gamblers. Pathological gambling was unrelated to remaining in treatment or negative urine screens. Although pathological gambling had no adverse influence on these treatment outcomes, the prevalence of pathological gambling suggests that screening for it may provide insights about other concerns. PMID:25202832

  8. Pathology of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Elder, David E

    2015-04-01

    The pathology of melanoma is discussed in relation to surgical diagnosis and management. Pitfalls that may result in problems of clinicopathologic communication are emphasized. A compelling vision for the future is that all tumors will be characterized by their driving oncogenes, suppressor genes, and other genomic factors. The success of targeted therapy directed against individual oncogenes, despite its limitations, suggests that a repertoire of targeted agents will be developed that can be used against a variety of different tumors, depending on the results of genetic testing. Nevertheless, histopathologic diagnosis and surgical therapy will remain mainstays of management for melanoma. PMID:25769708

  9. Marketing the pathology practice.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, E N

    1995-07-01

    Effective marketing of the pathology practice is essential in the face of an increasingly competitive market. Successful marketing begins with a market-driven planning process. As opposed to the traditional planning process used in health care organizations, a market-driven approach is externally driven. Implementing a market-driven plan also requires recognition of the definition of the service. Each market to which pathologists direct their service defines the service differently. Recognition of these different service definitions and creation of a product to meet these needs could lead to competitive advantages in the marketplace. PMID:7625911

  10. Nanotechnology: Toxicologic Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hubbs, Ann F.; Sargent, Linda M.; Porter, Dale W.; Sager, Tina M.; Chen, Bean T.; Frazer, David G.; Castranova, Vincent; Sriram, Krishnan; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R.; Reynolds, Steven H.; Battelli, Lori A.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; McKinney, Walter; Fluharty, Kara L.; Mercer, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology involves technology, science, and engineering in dimensions less than 100 nm. A virtually infinite number of potential nanoscale products can be produced from many different molecules and their combinations. The exponentially increasing number of nanoscale products will solve critical needs in engineering, science, and medicine. However, the virtually infinite number of potential nanotechnology products is a challenge for toxicologic pathologists. Because of their size, nanoparticulates can have therapeutic and toxic effects distinct from micron-sized particulates of the same composition. In the nanoscale, distinct intercellular and intracellular translocation pathways may provide a different distribution than that obtained by micron-sized particulates. Nanoparticulates interact with subcellular structures including microtubules, actin filaments, centrosomes, and chromatin; interactions that may be facilitated in the nanoscale. Features that distinguish nanoparticulates from fine particulates include increased surface area per unit mass and quantum effects. In addition, some nanotechnology products, including the fullerenes, have a novel and reactive surface. Augmented microscopic procedures including enhanced dark-field imaging, immunofluorescence, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy are useful when evaluating nanoparticulate toxicologic pathology. Thus, the pathology assessment is facilitated by understanding the unique features at the nanoscale and the tools that can assist in evaluating nanotoxicology studies. PMID:23389777

  11. Exosomes in liver pathology.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keisaku; Meng, Fanyin; Glaser, Shannon; Alpini, Gianfranco

    2016-07-01

    Exosomes are small (∼100nm) membrane-bound extracellular vesicles released by various types of cells into biological fluids. They contain proteins, mRNAs and miRNAs as cargo. Different cell types can take up exosomes by endocytosis and the cargo contained within them can be transferred horizontally to these recipient cells. Exosomal proteins and miRNAs can be functional and regulate physiological cell events modifying the microenvironment in target cells, a key event of liver pathology. Exosome-mediated cell-cell communication can alter tumor growth, cell migration, antiviral infection and hepatocyte regeneration, indicating that exosomes have great potential for development as diagnostic or therapeutic tools. Analyses of circulating total or exosomal miRNAs have identified a large number of candidate miRNAs that are regulated in liver diseases, and the diagnostic testing using single or multiple miRNAs shows good sensitivity and specificity. Some candidate miRNAs have been identified to play an important role in various liver disorders. This review summarizes recent findings on the role of extracellular vesicles in liver diseases and their diagnostic and therapeutic potential, mainly focusing on exosomes but also includes microvesicles in liver pathology. PMID:26988731

  12. Tracking in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Pantanowitz, Liron; Mackinnon, Alexander C; Sinard, John H

    2013-12-01

    Bar code-based tracking solutions, long present in clinical pathology laboratories, have recently made an appearance in anatomic pathology (AP) laboratories. Tracking of AP "assets" (specimens, blocks, slides) can enhance laboratory efficiency, promote patient safety, and improve patient care. Routing of excess clinical material into research laboratories and biorepositories are other avenues that can benefit from tracking of AP assets. Implementing tracking is not as simple as installing software and turning it on. Not all tracking solutions are alike. Careful analysis of laboratory workflow is needed before implementing tracking to assure that this solution will meet the needs of the laboratory. Such analysis will likely uncover practices that may need to be modified before a tracking system can be deployed. Costs that go beyond simply that of purchasing software will be incurred and need to be considered in the budgeting process. Finally, people, not technology, are the key to assuring quality. Tracking will require significant changes in workflow and an overall change in the culture of the laboratory. Preparation, training, buy-in, and accountability of the people involved are crucial to the success of this process. This article reviews the benefits, available technology, underlying principles, and implementation of tracking solutions for the AP and research laboratory. PMID:23634908

  13. A Nightly Bedtime Routine: Impact on Sleep in Young Children and Maternal Mood

    PubMed Central

    Mindell, Jodi A.; Telofski, Lorena S.; Wiegand, Benjamin; Kurtz, Ellen S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Establishment of a consistent bedtime routine is often recommended to parents of young children, especially those with sleep difficulties. However, no studies have investigated the efficacy of such a routine independent of behavioral intervention. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a consistent bedtime routine on infant and toddler sleep, as well as maternal mood. Methods: 405 mothers and their infant or toddler (ages 7-18 months, n = 206; ages 18-36 months, n = 199) participated in 2 age-specific 3-week studies. Families were randomly assigned to a routine or control group. The first week of the study served as a baseline during which the mothers were instructed to follow their child's usual bedtime routine. In the second and third weeks, mothers in the routine group were instructed to conduct a specific bedtime routine, while the control group continued their child's usual routine. All mothers completed the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire (BISQ) on a weekly basis and a daily sleep diary, as well as completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Results: The bedtime routine resulted in significant reductions in problematic sleep behaviors for infants and toddlers. Significant improvements were seen in latency to sleep onset and in number/duration of night wakings, P < 0.001. Sleep continuity increased and there was a significant decrease in the number of mothers who rated their child's sleep as problematic. Maternal mood state also significantly improved. Control group sleep patterns and maternal mood did not significantly change over the 3-week study period. Conclusion: These results suggest that instituting a consistent nightly bedtime routine, in and of itself, is beneficial in improving multiple aspects of infant and toddler sleep, especially wakefulness after sleep onset and sleep continuity, as well as maternal mood. Citation: Mindell JA; Telofski LS; Wiegand B; Kurtz ES. A nightly bedtime routine: impact on sleep in

  14. The Effects of Pathological Gaming on Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this purpose, we conducted a two-wave panel study among 851 Dutch adolescents (49% female) of which 540 played games (30% female). Our analyses indicated that higher levels of pathological gaming predicted an increase in time spent playing games 6 months later. Time spent playing violent games specifically, and not just games per se, increased physical aggression. Furthermore, higher levels of pathological gaming, regardless of violent content, predicted an increase in physical aggression among boys. That this effect only applies to boys does not diminish its importance, because adolescent boys are generally the heaviest players of violent games and most susceptible to pathological involvement. PMID:20549320

  15. The effects of pathological gaming on aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, Jeroen S; Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this purpose, we conducted a two-wave panel study among 851 Dutch adolescents (49% female) of which 540 played games (30% female). Our analyses indicated that higher levels of pathological gaming predicted an increase in time spent playing games 6 months later. Time spent playing violent games specifically, and not just games per se, increased physical aggression. Furthermore, higher levels of pathological gaming, regardless of violent content, predicted an increase in physical aggression among boys. That this effect only applies to boys does not diminish its importance, because adolescent boys are generally the heaviest players of violent games and most susceptible to pathological involvement. PMID:20549320

  16. PROFIT: Emission-line PROfile FITting routine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffel, Rogemar A.

    2012-04-01

    The PROFIT is an IDL routine to do automated fitting of emission-line profiles by Gaussian curves or Gauss-Hermite series otimized for use in Integral Field and Fabry-Perot data cubes. As output PROFIT gives two-dimensional FITS files for the emission-line flux distribution, centroid velocity, velocity dispersion and higher order Gauss-Hermite moments (h3 and h4).

  17. Is routine use of episiotomy justified?

    PubMed

    Lede, R L; Belizán, J M; Carroli, G

    1996-05-01

    Episiotomy, one of the most common surgical procedures, was introduced in clinical practice in the eighteenth century without having strong scientific evidence of its benefits. Its use was justified by the prevention of severe perineal tears, better future sexual function, and a reduction of urine and fecal incontinence. With regard to the first assumption, the evidence that is based on five randomized controlled trials shows a 9% reduction in severe perineal tears in the selective use of episiotomy, but this effect fluctuates between a 40% reduction and a 38% increase. In relation to long-term effects, women in whom management includes routine use of episiotomy have shown poorer future sexual function, similar pelvic floor muscle strength, and similar urinary incontinence in comparison with women in whom episiotomy is used in a selective manner. In summary, there is no reliable evidence that routine use of episiotomy has any beneficial effect; on the contrary, there is clear evidence that it may cause harm such as a greater need for surgical repair and a poorer future sexual capability. In view of the available evidence the routine use of episiotomy should be abandoned and episiotomy rates > 30% do not seem justified. PMID:9065102

  18. Update on Routine Childhood and Adolescent Immunizations.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Lani K; Serrano, Jacquelyn L

    2015-09-15

    Recommendations for routine vaccinations in children and adolescents have changed multiple times in recent years, based on findings in clinical trials, licensure of new vaccines, and evidence of waning immunity. Despite the overwhelming success of vaccinations, vaccine delay and refusal are leading to pockets of vaccine-preventable diseases. Schedules for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, and acellular pertussis (DTaP); hepatitis A and B; Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib); inactivated poliovirus; varicella; and measles, mumps, and rubella are unchanged. However, since 2008, 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has replaced the 7-valent vaccine; a new two-dose oral rotavirus vaccine has been approved; use of the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine has been expanded to children seven to 10 years of age who received fewer than five doses of DTaP, as well as during each pregnancy; a booster dose of meningococcal vaccine is recommended in adolescents 16 to 18 years of age (unless the first dose was given after 16 years of age); new meningococcal vaccines have been approved for use in infants at high risk of meningococcal disease; influenza vaccine has been expanded to routine use in all children six months and older; and the human papillomavirus vaccine has been approved for routine immunization of adolescent boys and girls. For the 2015-2016 influenza season, either live attenuated or inactivated vaccine can be administered to healthy children two to eight years of age. PMID:26371731

  19. The use of digital images in pathology.

    PubMed

    Furness, P N

    1997-11-01

    Digital images are routinely used by the publishing industry, but most diagnostic pathologists are unfamiliar with the technology and its possibilities. This review aims to explain the basic principles of digital image acquisition, storage, manipulation and use, and the possibilities provided not only in research, but also in teaching and in routine diagnostic pathology. Images of natural objects are usually expressed digitally as 'bitmaps'--rectilinear arrays of small dots. The size of each dot can vary, but so can its information content in terms, for example, of colour, greyscale or opacity. Various file formats and compression algorithms are available. Video cameras connected to microscopes are familiar to most pathologists; video images can be converted directly to a digital form by a suitably equipped computer. Digital cameras and scanners are alternative acquisition tools of relevance to pathologists. Once acquired, a digital image can easily be subjected to the digital equivalent of any conventional darkroom manipulation and modern software allows much more flexibility, to such an extent that a new tool for scientific fraud has been created. For research, image enhancement and analysis is an increasingly powerful and affordable tool. Morphometric measurements are, after many predictions, at last beginning to be part of the toolkit of the diagnostic pathologist. In teaching, the potential to create dramatic yet informative presentations is demonstrated daily by the publishing industry; such methods are readily applicable to the classroom. The combination of digital images and the Internet raises many possibilities; for example, instead of seeking one expert diagnostic opinion, one could simultaneously seek the opinion of many, all around the globe. It is inevitable that in the coming years the use of digital images will spread from the laboratory to the medical curriculum and to the whole of diagnostic pathology. PMID:9422979

  20. A microcomputer-based routine for obtaining mean watershed precipitation from point values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Richard A.; Mostaghimi, Saied

    1992-08-01

    An interactive microcomputer based BASIC routine for averaging precipitation over an irregularly shaped watershed is presented. Averaging methods used include the station average, Thiessen, and isohyetal methods, with the user having the option of using either inverse distance weighting schemes or punctual kriging for interpolation in the isohyetal method. The routine may be used to compare different averaging methods or to examine the effects of missing data. Data may be entered from a stored ASCII file, interactively from the keyboard from the application of the routine to a specific watershed also are presented.

  1. Molecular pathology in real time.

    PubMed

    Ryška, Aleš

    2016-03-01

    With the development of sophisticated individualized therapeutic approaches, the role of pathology in classification of tumors is enormously increasing. The solely morphological characterization of neoplastic process is no more sufficient for qualified decision on optimal therapeutic approach. Thus, morphologic diagnosis must be supplemented by molecular analysis of the lesion with emphasis on the detection of status of certain markers used as predictive factors for targeted therapy. Both intrinsic and acquired types of intratumor heterogeneity have an impact at various moments of cancer diagnostics and therapy. The primary heterogeneity of neoplastic tissue represents a significant problem in patients, where only limited biopsy samples from the primary tumor are available for diagnosis, such as core needle biopsy specimens in breast cancer, transthoracic or endobronchial biopsies in lung cancer, or endoscopic biopsies in gastric cancer. Detection of predictive markers may be influenced by this heterogeneity, and the marker detection may be falsely negative or (less probably) falsely positive. In addition, as these markers are often detected in the tissue samples from primary tumor, the differences between molecular features of the primary lesion and its metastases may be responsible for failure of systemic therapy in patients with discordant phenotype between primary and metastatic disease. The fact of tumor heterogeneity must be taken into consideration already in establishing pathological diagnosis. One has to be aware that limited biopsy specimen must not always be fully representative of the entire tumor volume. To overcome these limitations, there does not exist one single simple solution. Examination of more tissue (preference of surgical resection specimens over biopsies, whenever possible), use of ultra-sensitive methods able to identify the minute subclones as a source of possible resistance to treatment, and detection of secondary molecular events from

  2. The Value of Large Sections in Surgical Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Foschini, Maria P.; Baldovini, Chiara; Ishikawa, Yuko; Eusebi, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Large format sections (LS) first have been introduced in breast pathology more than a century ago. Since then, they constituted for longtime a research tool to better understand breast microanatomy and the relationship between radiological images and pathological features. Similarly LS have been used to study neoplastic, inflammatory, and degenerative diseases affecting various organs, as brain, lung, gastrointentinal tract, bone, urinary tract, prostate, and placenta. Currently LS are mostly applied to diagnostic routine to better stage tumours such as prostate and breast carcinomas or to correlate radiologic imaging to gross specimens. The purpose of the present paper is to review the historical background and the basis of the applications of LS in surgical pathology, with special emphasis on breast tumours. PMID:23227346

  3. Anomia-Pathological Verbal Dominance. Agnosic Behavior in Anomia: A Case of Pathological Verbal Dominance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlannan, Frances, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Summarized are three articles concerned with research on neurological aspects of learning disabilities entitled "Anomia-A Case of Pathological Verbal Dominance;""Brain--Right Hemisphere--Man's So Called 'Minor Hemisphere;""Neurology-A Special Neurological Examination of Children with Learning Disabilities". (DB)

  4. QTc prolongation with antipsychotics: is routine ECG monitoring recommended?

    PubMed

    Shah, Asim A; Aftab, Awais; Coverdale, John

    2014-05-01

    Whether or not QTc interval should be routinely monitored in patients receiving antipsychotics is a controversial issue, given logistic and fiscal dilemmas. There is a link between antipsychotic medications and prolongation of QTc interval, which is associated with an increased risk of torsade de pointes (TdP). Our goal is to provide clinically practical guidelines for monitoring QTc intervals in patients being treated with antipsychotics. We provide an overview of the pathophysiology of the QT interval, its relationship to TdP, and a discussion of the QT prolonging effects of antipsychotics. A literature search for articles relevant to the QTc prolonging effects of antipsychotics and TdP was conducted utilizing the databases PubMed and Embase with various combinations of search words. The overall risk of TdP and sudden death associated with antipsychotics has been observed to be low. Medications, genetics, gender, cardiovascular status, pathological conditions, and electrolyte disturbances have been found to be related to prolongation of the QTc interval. We conclude that, while electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring is useful when administering antipsychotic medications in the presence of co-existing risk factors, it is not mandatory to perform ECG monitoring as a prerequisite in the absence of cardiac risk factors. An ECG should be performed if the initial evaluation suggests increased cardiac risk or if the antipsychotic to be prescribed has been established to have an increased risk of TdP and sudden death. PMID:24847993

  5. Pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents during routine endoscopy

    SciTech Connect

    La France, N.D.; Cole, P.; Wolfe, E.; Giardello, F.; Wagner, H.N.

    1985-05-01

    Radioactive tracer studies are a sensitive means to detect occult pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. A complication of diagnostic endoscopy is aspiration of contents even in fasted patients. The authors have studied 21 hospitalized patients who underwent elective endoscopy (END) for suspected UGI pathology. Fifteen minutes before END, and prior to pharygeal anesthesia, 1 mCi Tc-99m-sulfur colloid, added to the usual 30cc of simethicone routinely administered before END, was given orally. END was performed as usual and 2 hours later anterior 100,000 count images of the chest were obtained. All the studies were interpreted without history or clinical information. Fever developed within 24 hours (and septic shock in 1) in both patients with positive studies while no fever occurred in the remaining patients with negative studies (rho<.001). The authors conclude that oral radionuclide pulmonary aspiration studies may; detect aspiration not recognized by the endoscopist, reveal evidence of aspiration that preceeds adverse clinical signs and symptoms, and be influenced by systemic pre-END drugs known to affect GI secretions and motility.

  6. Bedtime Routines for Young Children: A Dose-Dependent Association with Sleep Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mindell, Jodi A.; Li, Albert M.; Sadeh, Avi; Kwon, Robert; Goh, Daniel Y.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Establishment of a consistent bedtime routine (the activities that occur right before lights out) is often recommended as part of healthy sleep habits. However, no studies have investigated the dose-dependent association of a bedtime routine with sleep outcomes, especially in young children for whom they are particularly recommended. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the associations of a consistent bedtime routine with sleep outcomes in young children (ages 0 through 5 y) in a large global sample and assess whether there is a dose-dependent relationship between the frequency of a bedtime routine both concurrently and retrospectively with sleep outcomes. Participants: Mothers of 10,085 children (Australia-New Zealand, Canada, China, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States) completed the Brief Infant/Child Sleep Questionnaire. Results: A consistent bedtime routine was associated with better sleep outcomes, including earlier bedtimes, shorter sleep onset latency, reduced night wakings, and increased sleep duration. Decreased parent-perceived sleep problems and daytime behavior problems were also related to institution of a regular bedtime routine. Furthermore, there was a dose-dependent relationship, with better outcomes associated with increased “doses” of having a bedtime routine, both currently and retrospectively, and was found within both predominantly Asian and predominantly Caucasian cultural regions. Conclusions: These results indicate that having a regular nightly bedtime routine is associated with improved sleep in young children, and suggests that the more consistently a bedtime routine is instituted and the younger started the better. Citation: Mindell JA, Li AM, Sadeh A, Kwon R, Goh DY. Bedtime routines for young children: a dose-dependent association with sleep outcomes. SLEEP 2015;38(5):717–722. PMID:25325483

  7. Recommendations for pathology peer review.

    PubMed

    Morton, Daniel; Sellers, Rani S; Barale-Thomas, Erio; Bolon, Brad; George, Catherine; Hardisty, Jerry F; Irizarry, Armando; McKay, Jennifer S; Odin, Marielle; Teranishi, Munehiro

    2010-12-01

    Pathology peer review verifies and improves the accuracy and quality of pathology diagnoses and interpretations. Pathology peer review is recommended when important risk assessment or business decisions are based on nonclinical studies. For pathology peer review conducted before study completion, the peer-review pathologist reviews sufficient slides and pathology data to assist the study pathologist in refining pathology diagnoses and interpretations. Materials to be reviewed are selected by the peer-review pathologist. Consultations with additional experts or a formal (documented) pathology working group may be used to resolve discrepancies. The study pathologist is solely responsible for the content of the final pathology data and report, makes changes resulting from peer-review discussions, initiates the audit trail for microscopic observations after all changes resulting from peer-review have been made, and signs the final pathologist's report. The peer-review pathologist creates a signed peer-review memo describing the peer-review process and confirming that the study pathologist's report accurately and appropriately reflects the pathology data. The study pathologist also may sign a statement of consensus. It is not necessary to archive working notes created during the peer-review process. PMID:20924082

  8. Clinical pathology interpretation in geriatric veterinary patients.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Fred L; Rebar, Alan H

    2012-07-01

    Routine monitoring of clinicopathologic data is a critical component in the management of older patients because blood and urine testing allows the veterinarian to monitor trends in laboratory parameters, which may be the early indicators of disease. Laboratory profiling often provides an objective and sensitive indicator of developing disease before obvious clinical signs or physical examination abnormalities are observed. The primary key to the power of this evaluation is that the data are collected year after year during wellness checks and are examined serially. Chronic renal failure, chronic active hepatitis, canine hyperadrenocorticism, diabetes mellitus, and feline hyperthyroidism were reviewed and expected laboratory findings are summarized. PMID:22720804

  9. Ear examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003340.htm Ear examination To use the sharing features on this page, ... ear References King EF, Couch ME. History, physical examination, and the preoperative evaluation. In: Flint PW, Haughey ...

  10. Pathology in drug discovery and development.

    PubMed

    Jubb, Adrian M; Koeppen, Hartmut; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2014-01-01

    The rapid pace of drug discovery and drug development in oncology, immunology and ophthalmology brings new challenges; the efficient and effective development of new targeted drugs will require more detailed molecular classifications of histologically homogeneous diseases that show heterogeneous clinical outcomes. To this end, single companion diagnostics for specific drugs will be replaced by multiplex diagnostics for entire therapeutic areas, preserving tissue and enabling rapid molecular taxonomy. The field will move away from the development of new molecular entities as single agents, to which resistance is common. Instead, a detailed understanding of the pathological mechanisms of resistance, in patients and in preclinical models, will be key to the validation of scientifically rational and clinically effective drug combinations. To remain at the heart of disease diagnosis and appropriate management, pathologists must evolve into translational biologists and biomarker scientists. Herein, we provide examples of where this metamorphosis has already taken place, in lung cancer and melanoma, where the transformation has yet to begin, in the use of immunotherapies for ophthalmology and oncology, and where there is fertile soil for a revolution in treatment, in efforts to classify glioblastoma and personalize treatment. The challenges of disease heterogeneity, the regulatory environment and adequate tissue are ever present, but these too are being overcome in dedicated academic centres. In summary, the tools necessary to overcome the 'whens' and 'ifs' of the molecular revolution are in the hands of pathologists today; it is a matter of standardization, training and leadership to bring these into routine practice and translate science into patient benefit. This Annual Review Issue of the Journal of Pathology highlights the central role for pathology in modern drug discovery and development. PMID:24122335

  11. [Diagnostic significance of pathologic synkinesis for detection of pyramidal pathology].

    PubMed

    Baliasnyĭ, M M

    1991-01-01

    Five types of pathological synkinesis (++blepharo-ocular, ++blepharo-facial, ++bucco-manual, ++digito-digital on the hands, ++pedo-digital) are described. They are of definite importance for revealing pyramidal pathology including its early stages as well as for objective evaluation and observation of the time-course of changes in the illness. PMID:1654715

  12. Macrophage polarization in pathology.

    PubMed

    Sica, Antonio; Erreni, Marco; Allavena, Paola; Porta, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    Macrophages are cells of the innate immunity constituting the mononuclear phagocyte system and endowed with remarkable different roles essential for defense mechanisms, development of tissues, and homeostasis. They derive from hematopoietic precursors and since the early steps of fetal life populate peripheral tissues, a process continuing throughout adult life. Although present essentially in every organ/tissue, macrophages are more abundant in the gastro-intestinal tract, liver, spleen, upper airways, and brain. They have phagocytic and bactericidal activity and produce inflammatory cytokines that are important to drive adaptive immune responses. Macrophage functions are settled in response to microenvironmental signals, which drive the acquisition of polarized programs, whose extremes are simplified in the M1 and M2 dichotomy. Functional skewing of monocyte/macrophage polarization occurs in physiological conditions (e.g., ontogenesis and pregnancy), as well as in pathology (allergic and chronic inflammation, tissue repair, infection, and cancer) and is now considered a key determinant of disease development and/or regression. Here, we will review evidence supporting a dynamic skewing of macrophage functions in disease, which may provide a basis for macrophage-centered therapeutic strategies. PMID:26210152

  13. Forest pathology in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Native Hawaiian forests are characterised by a high degree of endemism, including pathogens as well as their hosts. With the exceptions of koa (Acacia koa Gray), possibly maile (Alyxia oliviformis Gaud.), and, in the past, sandalwood (Santalum spp.), forest species are of little commercial value. On the other hand, these forests are immensely important from a cultural, ecological, and evolutionary standpoint. Forest disease research was lacking during the mid-twentieth century, but increased markedly with the recognition of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) decline in the 1970s. Because many pathogens are themselves endemic, or are assumed to be, having evolved with their hosts, research emphasis in natural areas is on understanding host-parasite interactions and evolutionary influences, rather than disease control. Aside from management of native forests, attempts at establishing a commercial forest industry have included importation of several species of pine, Araucaria, and Eucalyptus as timber crops, and of numerous ornamentals. Diseases of these species have been introduced with their hosts. The attacking of native species by introduced pathogens is problematic - for example, Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Que??l. on koa and mamane (Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.). Much work remains to be done in both native and commercial aspects of Hawaiian forest pathology.

  14. Foot pathology in insulin dependent diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, S J; Shield, J P; Potter, M J; Baum, J D

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Foot pathology is a major source of morbidity in adults with diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine if children with insulin dependent diabetes have an increased incidence of foot pathology compared with non-diabetic children. DESIGN--Questionnaire, clinical examination, and biomechanical assessment. SUBJECTS--67 diabetic children and a comparison group matched for age, sex, and social class. RESULTS--We found significantly more foot pathology in the children with diabetes (52 children) than the comparison group (28 children); with more biomechanical anomalies (58 children with diabetes, 34 comparison group); and a higher incidence of abnormal skin conditions (53 children with diabetes, 27 comparison group). Forty two children with diabetes had received foot health education compared with 27 in the comparison group, but the study revealed ignorance and misconceptions among the diabetic group, and previous contact with a podiatrist was minimal. CONCLUSIONS--The survey suggests that children with diabetes have an increased incidence of foot pathology justifying greater input of podiatric care in the hope of preventing later problems. PMID:7574860

  15. Multiple electron scattering routines for PEREGRINE

    SciTech Connect

    White, J A

    1999-08-23

    The Monte Carlo electron scattering routines solve multiple elastic scatters in a condensed history approach. The Goudsmit-Saunderson scattering model is used and its implementation is taken from Kawrakow and Bielajew[l]. The subroutines produce an exit angle representing a likely scattering angle of a single incident electron after scattering elastically over a given step size. Two input parameters, {lambda} and {eta}, that depend on the atomic species and incident energy must first be specified. The mapping from species and energy to 77 and {lambda} already existed in the PEREGRINE code and was not redone or modified in any way. The software has been validated by comparisons to Moliere and Goudsmit-Saunderson models of D.W.O. Rogers[2]. As required by licensing considerations, no public domain or copyrighted software has been used in any phase of the preparation of any of these sub-routines or data files. Apart from needing to have {eta} and {lambda} specified through PEREGRINE, the code provided is completely self-contained. Everything is written in the FORTRAN 77 language to simplify inclusion in the existing PEREGRINE package.

  16. MATHEMATICAL ROUTINES FOR ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, A. V.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this package is to provide the scientific and engineering community with a library of programs useful for performing routine mathematical manipulations. This collection of programs will enable scientists to concentrate on their work without having to write their own routines for solving common problems, thus saving considerable amounts of time. This package contains sixteen subroutines. Each is separately documented with descriptions of the invoking subroutine call, its required parameters, and a sample test program. The functions available include: maxima, minima, and sort of vectors; factorials; random number generator (uniform or Gaussian distribution); complimentary error function; fast Fourier Transformation; Simpson's Rule integration; matrix determinate and inversion; Bessel function (J Bessel function for any order, and modified Bessel function for zero order); roots of a polynomial; roots of non-linear equation; and the solution of first order ordinary differential equations using Hamming's predictor-corrector method. There is also a subroutine for using a dot matrix printer to plot a given set of y values for a uniformly increasing x value. This package is written in FORTRAN 77 (Super Soft Small System FORTRAN compiler) for batch execution and has been implemented on the IBM PC computer series under MS-DOS with a central memory requirement of approximately 28K of 8 bit bytes for all subroutines. This program was developed in 1986.

  17. Just a routine operation: a critical discussion.

    PubMed

    McClelland, G; Smith, M B

    2016-05-01

    This article has summarised a critical discussion of the human factors that contributed to the death of a patient from a failure to respond appropriately to a 'can't intubate, can't ventilate' scenario. The contributory factors included the clinical team's inability to communicate, prioritise tasks and demonstrate effective leadership and assertive followership. The film Just a routine operation has now been in circulation for several years. When a system is designed and introduced with the intention of making a change to clinical practice, it can quickly become just another component of an organisation's architecture and complacency around its use can develop. This article has been written specifically for perioperative practitioners to renew the debate around the human factors that contribute to patient harm. By critically discussing Just a routine operation and attempting to review why the incident occurred, this article has attempted to emphasise that some of the conditions and behaviours that contributed to the death of Elaine Bromiley may be latent within our organisations and teams, and may continue to contribute to failures that affect patient safety. PMID:27400489

  18. Activity Settings and Daily Routines in Preschool Classrooms: Diverse Experiences in Early Learning Settings for Low-Income Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Howes, Carollee; Huang, Yiching; Hong, Sandra Soliday; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines activity settings and daily classroom routines experienced by 3- and 4-year-old low-income children in public center-based preschool programs, private center-based programs, and family child care homes. Two daily routine profiles were identified using a time-sampling coding procedure: a High Free-Choice pattern in which…

  19. CBT for eating disorders: The impact of early changes in eating pathology on later changes in personality pathology, anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Turner, Hannah; Marshall, Emily; Wood, Francesca; Stopa, Lusia; Waller, Glenn

    2016-02-01

    Whilst studies have consistently identified early symptom reduction as an important predictor of treatment outcome, the impact of early change on common comorbid features has not been investigated. This study of CBT for eating disorders explored patterns of early change in eating pathology and longer-term change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression. It also explored the impact of early change in eating pathology on overall change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression. Participants were 179 adults diagnosed with eating disorders who were offered a course of CBT in an out-patient community eating disorders service in the UK. Patients completed a measure of eating disorder psychopathology at the start of treatment and following the 6th session. They also completed measures of personality disorder cognitions, anxiety and depression at the start and end of treatment. There were significant changes in eating pathology over the first six sessions of treatment. Significant improvements were also seen in personality disorder pathology, anxiety and depression by the end of therapy. Effect sizes were medium to large for both completer and intention to treat analyses. Early changes in eating pathology were associated with later changes in common comorbid features, with early reduction in restraint being a key predictor. These findings demonstrate that early symptom change can be achieved in CBT for eating disorders when delivered in routine clinical practice. Such change has long-term benefits that go beyond the domain of eating pathology, enhancing change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression. PMID:26690743

  20. Speech Pathology Assistant. Trainee Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Hearing and Speech Action, Silver Spring, MD.

    Part of an instructional set which includes an instructor's guide, this trainee manual is designed to provide speech pathology students with some basic and essential knowledge about the communication process. The manual contains nine modules: (1) speech pathology assistant, (2) the bases of speech (structure and function of the speech mechanism,…

  1. A Population-Based Study of the Association between Pathological Gambling and Attempted Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Stephen C.; Thompson, Angus H.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the association between pathological gambling and attempted suicide using data from a prevalence study. The odds ratio for pathological gambling was statistically significant when major depression was the only comorbid mental disorder in the model. As terms for additional mental disorders were included, pathological gambling ceased to be…

  2. [Pathological diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Tamaru, Jun-ichi

    2014-03-01

    This lymphoma was recognized by Thomas Hodgkin in 1832. In 1865, Samuel Wilks named it Hodgkin disease. Now, the term Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is acceptable over Hodgkin disease. Since the neoplastic cells of the disease is well-recognized to be a lymphoid cell, especially B lymphocyte. In WHO classification published in 2008, HLs are divided into two entities: Classical HL and nodular lymphocyte predominat HL. The former is composed of four different subtypes: nodular sclerosis (NS), mixed cellularity (MC), lymphocyte rich (LR), and lymphocyte depletion (LD). HL is characterized by the morphological feature comprising a minority of neoplastic cells, Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells and popcorn (LP) cells and a majority of non-neoplastic reactive cells. Antigen receptor gene analyses by prevailing molecular methods and flow cytometry are not appropriate method for the diagnosis of HL, because of small number of neoplastic cells. They are, however, very useful in the differential diagnosis to rule out other lymphomas. Even the present when science progressed, pathological (morphological and immunohistochemical) examination is very worth for diagnosis of HL. PMID:24724402

  3. Ankle pain and peroneal tendon pathology.

    PubMed

    Baumhauer, Judith F; Nawoczenski, Deborah A; DiGiovanni, Benedict F; Flemister, A Samuel

    2004-01-01

    Chronic ankle pain can be due to multiple causes. A thorough review of the patient's history with a physical examination concentrating on anatomic structures surrounding the ankle is imperative. The most common of causes have been presented. The addition of provocative testing and radiographic examinations can aid in elucidating the pathology. After treatment of the injury, attention to training technique, shoe and insert usage as well as individual gait abnormalities are integrated into global patient education to decrease the incidence of injury recurrence. PMID:15062582

  4. Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Fibrolamellar Variant: Diagnostic Pathologic Criteria and Molecular Pathology Update. A Primer

    PubMed Central

    Sergi, Consolato M.

    2015-01-01

    Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) is generally a fairly rare event in routine pathology practice. This variant of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is peculiarly intriguing and,in addition, poorly understood. Young people or children are often the target individuals with this type of cancer. Previously, I highlighted some pathology aspects of FL-HCC, but in this review, the distinctive clinico-pathologic features of FL-HCC and the diagnostic pathologic criteria of FL-HCC are fractionally reviewed and expanded upon. Further, molecular genetics update data with reference to this specific tumor are particularly highlighted as a primer for general pathologists and pediatric histopathologists. FL-HCC may present with metastases, and regional lymph nodes may be sites of metastatic spread. However, peritoneal and pulmonary metastatic foci have also been reported. To the best of our knowledge, FL-HCC was initially considered having an indolent course, but survival outcomes have recently been updated reconsidering the prognosis of this tumor. Patients seem to respond well to surgical resection, but recurrences are common. Thus, alternative therapies, such as chemotherapy and radiation, are ongoing. Overall, it seems that this aspect has not been well-studied for this variant of HCC and should be considered as target for future clinical trials. Remarkably, FL-HCC data seem to point to a liver neoplasm of uncertain origin and unveiled outcome. A functional chimeric transcript incorporating DNAJB1 and PRKACA was recently added to FL-HCC. This sensational result may give remarkable insights into the understanding of this rare disease and potentially provide the basis for its specific diagnostic marker. Detection of DNAJB1-PRKACA seems to be, indeed, a very sensitive and specific finding in supporting the diagnosis of FL-HCC. In a quite diffuse opinion, prognosis of this tumor should be reconsidered following the potentially mandatory application of new molecular

  5. Will stem cells bring hope to pathological skin scar treatment?

    PubMed

    Li, Qiankun; Zhang, Cuiping; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-08-01

    Pathological skin scars, such as keloids, aesthetically and psychosocially affect patients. The quest for scar reduction and the increasing recognition of patient satisfaction has led to the continued exploration of scar treatment. Stem cells are a promising source for tissue repair and regeneration. The multi-potency and secretory functions of these cells could offer possible treatments for pathological scars and have been examined in recent studies. Here, we analyze the factors that influence the formation of pathological skin scars, summarize recent research on pathological scar treatment with stem cells and elaborate on the possible mechanisms of this treatment. Additionally, other effects of stem cell treatments are also presented while evaluating potential side effects of stem cell-based pathological scar treatments. Thus, this review may provide meaningful guidance in the clinic for scar treatments with stem cells. PMID:27293205

  6. Eigenvalue routines in NASTRAN: A comparison with the Block Lanczos method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, V. A.; Venkayya, Vipperla B.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA STRuctural ANalysis (NASTRAN) program is one of the most extensively used engineering applications software in the world. It contains a wealth of matrix operations and numerical solution techniques, and they were used to construct efficient eigenvalue routines. The purpose of this paper is to examine the current eigenvalue routines in NASTRAN and to make efficiency comparisons with a more recent implementation of the Block Lanczos algorithm by Boeing Computer Services (BCS). This eigenvalue routine is now available in the BCS mathematics library as well as in several commercial versions of NASTRAN. In addition, CRAY maintains a modified version of this routine on their network. Several example problems, with a varying number of degrees of freedom, were selected primarily for efficiency bench-marking. Accuracy is not an issue, because they all gave comparable results. The Block Lanczos algorithm was found to be extremely efficient, in particular, for very large size problems.

  7. Eigenvalue routines in NASTRAN: A comparison with the Block Lanczos method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tischler, V. A.; Venkayya, Vipperla B.

    1993-09-01

    The NASA STRuctural ANalysis (NASTRAN) program is one of the most extensively used engineering applications software in the world. It contains a wealth of matrix operations and numerical solution techniques, and they were used to construct efficient eigenvalue routines. The purpose of this paper is to examine the current eigenvalue routines in NASTRAN and to make efficiency comparisons with a more recent implementation of the Block Lanczos algorithm by Boeing Computer Services (BCS). This eigenvalue routine is now available in the BCS mathematics library as well as in several commercial versions of NASTRAN. In addition, CRAY maintains a modified version of this routine on their network. Several example problems, with a varying number of degrees of freedom, were selected primarily for efficiency bench-marking. Accuracy is not an issue, because they all gave comparable results. The Block Lanczos algorithm was found to be extremely efficient, in particular, for very large size problems.

  8. Cost-utility of routine cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Räsänen, Pirjo; Krootila, Kari; Sintonen, Harri; Leivo, Tiina; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Ryynänen, Olli-Pekka; Blom, Marja; Roine, Risto P

    2006-01-01

    Background If decisions on health care spending are to be as rational and objective as possible, knowledge on cost-effectiveness of routine care is essential. Our aim, therefore, was to evaluate the cost-utility of routine cataract surgery in a real-world setting. Methods Prospective assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients undergoing cataract surgery. 219 patients (mean (SD) age 71 (11) years) entering cataract surgery (in 87 only first eye operated, in 73 both eyes operated, in 59 first eye had been operated earlier) filled in the 15D HRQoL questionnaire before and six months after operation. Direct hospital costs were obtained from a clinical patient administration database and cost-utility analysis performed from the perspective of the secondary care provider extrapolating benefits of surgery to the remaining statistical life-expectancy of the patients. Results Mean (SD) utility score (on a 0–1 scale) increased statistically insignificantly from 0.82 (0.13) to 0.83 (0.14). Of the 15 dimensions of the HRQoL instrument, only seeing improved significantly after operation. Mean utility score improved statistically significantly only in patients reporting significant or major preoperative seeing problems. Of the subgroups, only those whose both eyes were operated during follow-up showed a statistically significant (p < 0.001) improvement. Cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained was €5128 for patients whose both eyes were operated and €8212 for patients with only one eye operated during the 6-month follow-up. In patients whose first eye had been operated earlier mean HRQoL deteriorated after surgery precluding the establishment of the cost per QALY. Conclusion Mean utility gain after routine cataract surgery in a real-world setting was relatively small and confined mostly to patients whose both eyes were operated. The cost of cataract surgery per quality-adjusted life year gained was much higher than previously reported and

  9. The Pathology Laboratory Act 2007 explained.

    PubMed

    Looi, Lai-Meng

    2008-06-01

    laboratory practices are left to be specified by the Director-General of Health, providing for a formal recognition process and room for revision as pathology practices evolve. Encompassed in the responsibilities of the licensee is the requirement that samples are received and results issued through, and management vested in, a registered medical or dental practitioner. This effectively prohibits "walk-ins" to the laboratory and indiscriminate public screening. The requirement for a person-in-charge in accordance with class and speciality of laboratory ensures that the laboratory is under the charge of the pathology profession. Examined carefully, the requirements of the Act are similar to laboratory accreditation, but are backed by legislation. Many of these details will be spelt out in the Regulations, and these in turn are likely to fall back on National professional guidelines, as accreditation does. Although not at first obvious, enforcement of the Act is based on self-regulation by pathology laboratory professionals. Sincere professional input is thus required to embrace its philosophy, ensure rational and transparent enforcement of legislation, and develop National guidelines for good pathology practices upon which enforcement may be based. PMID:19108405

  10. Reliability of Routinely Collected Hospital Data for Child Maltreatment Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Internationally, research on child maltreatment-related injuries has been hampered by a lack of available routinely collected health data to identify cases, examine causes, identify risk factors and explore health outcomes. Routinely collected hospital separation data coded using the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) system provide an internationally standardised data source for classifying and aggregating diseases, injuries, causes of injuries and related health conditions for statistical purposes. However, there has been limited research to examine the reliability of these data for child maltreatment surveillance purposes. This study examined the reliability of coding of child maltreatment in Queensland, Australia. Methods A retrospective medical record review and recoding methodology was used to assess the reliability of coding of child maltreatment. A stratified sample of hospitals across Queensland was selected for this study, and a stratified random sample of cases was selected from within those hospitals. Results In 3.6% of cases the coders disagreed on whether any maltreatment code could be assigned (definite or possible) versus no maltreatment being assigned (unintentional injury), giving a sensitivity of 0.982 and specificity of 0.948. The review of these cases where discrepancies existed revealed that all cases had some indications of risk documented in the records. 15.5% of cases originally assigned a definite or possible maltreatment code, were recoded to a more or less definite strata. In terms of the number and type of maltreatment codes assigned, the auditor assigned a greater number of maltreatment types based on the medical documentation than the original coder assigned (22% of the auditor coded cases had more than one maltreatment type assigned compared to only 6% of the original coded data). The maltreatment types which were the most 'under-coded' by the original coder were psychological abuse

  11. Routine dyspnea assessment on unit admission.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kathy; Barsamian, Jennifer; Leone, Danielle; Donovan, Barbara C; Williams, Donna; Carnevale, Kerry; Lansing, Robert; Banzett, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Dyspnea assessment is valuable in diagnosis, prognosis, symptom management, and targeted intervention, and in the allotment and management of patient care resources. The assessment of dyspnea, like that of pain, depends on patient self-report. Expert consensus panels have called for dyspnea to be measured quantitatively and documented on a routine basis, as is the practice with pain. But little information is available on how to measure and record dyspnea ratings systematically. Consequently, the prevalence of dyspnea in hospital settings may be greater than is generally recognized, and dyspnea may be insufficiently managed. This article describes a pilot study that sought to test the feasibility of measuring dyspnea as part of the initial patient assessment performed by nurses within several inpatient units of a large urban hospital. PMID:24113531

  12. VS38: a new monoclonal antibody for detecting plasma cell differentiation in routine sections.

    PubMed Central

    Turley, H; Jones, M; Erber, W; Mayne, K; de Waele, M; Gatter, K

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To characterise a new mouse monoclonal antibody, VS38, which recognises an intracytoplasmic antigen of 64 kilodaltons present in normal and neoplastic plasma cells; and to establish its value as a diagnostic reagent for routine pathological practice. METHODS--A range of normal and neoplastic tissue sections, both frozen and routinely fixed, were immunostained, using the microwave method of antigen retrieval for routinely fixed specimens. The antibody was also tested on blood and bone marrow specimens and a range of human cell lines. The molecular weight of the antigen recognised by the antibody was obtained by western blot analysis. FACS analysis was used to demonstrate the cellular location of the antigen and its presence on tonsil cell suspensions and myeloma cases. RESULTS--VS38 recognised normal and neoplastic plasma cells in all of the tissues, including all routinely fixed plasma cell neoplasms tested. The antibody also weakly stained epithelial elements within the tissue but was absent from haemopoietic cells of other lineages. CONCLUSION--Antibody VS38 is of potential value in identifying myeloma or plasmacytoma in bone marrow or other tissues. It differentiates lymphoplasmacytoid lymphoma from lymphocytic and follicular lymphoma. It also subdivides large cell lymphomas into two groups which may be a more reliable method of separating these tumours than morphology alone. Images PMID:7517959

  13. Enhancing preclinical year pathology exposure: the Angevine approach.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Erin G; Paus, Amanda M; Corliss, Robert F; Ranheim, Erik A

    2016-07-01

    Less than 2% of graduating US medical seniors select pathology residencies. One major obstacle to attracting prospective residents is the relative "invisibility" of pathology; medical students lacking positive preclinical exposure to pathology are unlikely to later select pathology clerkships or residencies. The Angevine Fellowship is a 10-week competitive pathology internship medical students may apply for the summer following their first year of preclinical training at our institution. We sought to determine whether it was an effective pathology recruitment tool and how it compared with the postsophomore pathology fellowship (PSF). Angevine fellow and PSF data from 2000 to 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Specialty choices of former fellows already matched into residency programs were tabulated. Data regarding annual percentage of graduating seniors at our institution who matched into pathology during the years former fellow cohorts matched were also examined. Our results showed that of the former Angevine fellow cohorts already matched into residency programs, 40% (8/20) matched in pathology and 20% (4/20) at our own institution. Angevine fellows comprised a disproportionately high number of the graduating seniors matching in pathology at our medical school (26.7%). PSFs comprised 6.67%. Although we have endowment funding for 2 Angevine fellows annually, the level of interest among applicants has increased to the point that our department has consistently contributed funding for 1-2 additional fellowship spots since 2011. We conclude that the Angevine Fellowship offers an effective alternative to the postsophomore fellowship. It has proven successful at our institution and could be implemented at others to potentially improve pathology recruitment trends nationwide. PMID:27016489

  14. When Routines Are Not so Routine: Exploring Coordination Work in Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haque, Saira Naim

    2010-01-01

    Many work processes take place through routines, or recurrent patterns of action. These activities involve individuals from several occupations working across spatial, temporal, and organizational boundaries. Crossing these professional, temporal and spatial boundaries has unique challenges which can lead to coordination failures. In these…

  15. Selection of patients for x-ray examinations: Chest x-ray screening examinations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    Five chest x-ray referral criteria statements have been developed and unanimously endorsed by a panel of physicians convened as part of a major voluntary cooperative effort between FDA's National Center for Devices and Radiological Health (NCDRH) and the medical professional community. The referral criteria statements include recommendations concerning the following applications of chest x-ray screening: mandated routine chest x-ray screening examinations, routine prenatal chest x-ray examinations, routine hospital admission chest x-ray examinations, chest x-ray examinations for tuberculosis detection and control, and routine chest x-ray examinations for occupational medicine. The complete text of the five referral criterial statements plus a brief discussion of the rationale for the development of each statement is presented.

  16. Pathological and Protective Immunity to Pneumocystis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Eddens, Taylor; Kolls, Jay K.

    2014-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii is a common opportunistic infection in the HIV-positive population and is re-emerging as a growing clinical concern in the HIV-negative immunosuppressed population. Newer targeted immunosuppressive therapies and the discovery of rare genetic mutations have furthered our understanding of the immunity required to clear Pneumocystis infection. The immune system can also mount a pathologic response against Pneumocystis following removal of immunosuppression and result in severe damage to the host lung. The current review will examine the most recent epidemiologic studies about the incidence of Pneumocystis in the HIV-positive and HIV-negative populations in the developing and developed world and will detail methods of diagnosis for Pneumocystis pneumonia. Finally, this review aims to summarize the known mediators of immunity to Pneumocystis and detail the pathologic immune response leading to Pneumocystis-related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. PMID:25420451

  17. Digital pathology and anatomic pathology laboratory information system integration to support digital pathology sign-out

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Huazhang; Birsa, Joe; Farahani, Navid; Hartman, Douglas J.; Piccoli, Anthony; O’Leary, Matthew; McHugh, Jeffrey; Nyman, Mark; Stratman, Curtis; Kvarnstrom, Vanja; Yousem, Samuel; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-01-01

    Background: The adoption of digital pathology offers benefits over labor-intensive, time-consuming, and error-prone manual processes. However, because most workflow and laboratory transactions are centered around the anatomical pathology laboratory information system (APLIS), adoption of digital pathology ideally requires integration with the APLIS. A digital pathology system (DPS) integrated with the APLIS was recently implemented at our institution for diagnostic use. We demonstrate how such integration supports digital workflow to sign-out anatomical pathology cases. Methods: Workflow begins when pathology cases get accessioned into the APLIS (CoPathPlus). Glass slides from these cases are then digitized (Omnyx VL120 scanner) and automatically uploaded into the DPS (Omnyx® Integrated Digital Pathology (IDP) software v.1.3). The APLIS transmits case data to the DPS via a publishing web service. The DPS associates scanned images with the correct case using barcode labels on slides and information received from the APLIS. When pathologists remotely open a case in the DPS, additional information (e.g. gross pathology details, prior cases) gets retrieved from the APLIS through a query web service. Results: Following validation of this integration, pathologists at our institution have signed out more than 1000 surgical pathology cases in a production environment. Integration between the APLIS and DPS enabled pathologists to review digital slides while simultaneously having access to pertinent case metadata. The introduction of a digital workflow eliminated costly manual tasks involving matching of glass slides and avoided delays waiting for glass slides to be delivered. Conclusion: Integrating the DPS and APLIS were instrumental for successfully implementing a digital solution at our institution for pathology sign-out. The integration streamlined our digital sign-out workflow, diminished the potential for human error related to matching slides, and improved the sign

  18. Routine Complete Capsular Closure During Hip Arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Joshua D.; Slikker, William; Gupta, Anil K.; McCormick, Frank M.; Nho, Shane J.

    2013-01-01

    The utility of hip arthroscopy has recently progressed beyond diagnostic to therapeutic purposes addressing central and peripheral compartment pathologies. Capsulotomy provides freedom of visualization and instrumentation. The contribution to hip stability of both dynamic and static hip structures is not fully understood. However, both basic science biomechanical and clinical outcome studies have exhibited a relevant role of the capsule in hip stability. Though rare, iatrogenic post-arthroscopy subluxation and dislocation have been reported. Therefore many surgeons have cautioned against aggressive capsulotomy or capsulectomy without repair, because of the potential for precipitation of iatrogenic hip instability. We typically perform a “T” capsulotomy and recommend complete capsular closure in conjunction with labral repair and osseous femoral and acetabular treatment. A safe, efficient, and effective method to accomplish complete capsular closure is presented to reduce iatrogenic postoperative hip instability. PMID:23875156

  19. Image Analysis in Surgical Pathology.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Mark C; Monaco, James P; Bui, Marilyn M

    2016-06-01

    Digitization of glass slides of surgical pathology samples facilitates a number of value-added capabilities beyond what a pathologist could previously do with a microscope. Image analysis is one of the most fundamental opportunities to leverage the advantages that digital pathology provides. The ability to quantify aspects of a digital image is an extraordinary opportunity to collect data with exquisite accuracy and reliability. In this review, we describe the history of image analysis in pathology and the present state of technology processes as well as examples of research and clinical use. PMID:27241112

  20. [Senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM): with special reference to age-associated pathologies and their modulation].

    PubMed

    Takeda, T

    1996-07-01

    The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) has been under development by our research team at Kyoto University since 1970 through selective inbreeding of the AKR/J strain of mice donated by the Jackson Laboratory in 1968, based on the data of the grading score of senescence, life span, and pathologic phenotypes. At present, there are 12 lines of SAM; the 9 senescence-prone inbred strains (SAMP) include SAMP1, SAMP2, SAMP3, SAMP6, SAMP7, SAMP8, SAMP9, SAMP10 and SAMP11, and the 3 senescence-resistant inbred strains (SAMR) SAMR1, SANR4 and SAMR5. Data from survival curves, the Gompertzian function and the grading score of senescence, together with growth patterns of body weight of these SAMP and SAMR mice revealed that the characteristic feature of aging common to all SAMP mice is "accelerated senescence": early onset and irreversible advance of senescence manifested by several signs and gross lesions such as the loss of normal behavior, various skin lesions, increased lordokyphosis, etc., after a period of normal development. Routine postmortem examinations and the pathobiological features revealed by systematically designed studies have shown several pathologic phenotypes, which are often characteristic enough to differentiate among the various SAM strains: senile amyloidosis in SAMP1, -P2, -P7, -P9, -P10 and -P11, secondary amyloidosis in SAMP2 and -P6, contracted kidney in SAMP1, -P2, -P10, -P11, immunoblastic lymphoma in SAMR1 and -R4, histiocytic sarcoma in SAMR1 and -R4, ovarian cysts in SAMR1, impaired immune response in SAMP1, -P2 and -P8, hyperinflation of the lungs in SAMP1, hearing impairment in SAMP1, degenerative temporomandibular joint disease in SAMP3, senile osteoporosis in SAMP6, deficits in learning and memory in SAMP8 and -P10, emotional disorders in SAMP8 and -P10, cataracts in SAMP9, and brain atrophy in SAMP10. These are all age-associated pathologies, the incidence and severity of which increase with advancing age. The SAM model in which these

  1. 42 CFR 493.1210 - Condition: Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Routine chemistry. 493.1210 Section 493....1210 Condition: Routine chemistry. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Routine chemistry, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, §...

  2. 42 CFR 493.1210 - Condition: Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Routine chemistry. 493.1210 Section 493....1210 Condition: Routine chemistry. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Routine chemistry, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, §...

  3. 42 CFR 493.1210 - Condition: Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Routine chemistry. 493.1210 Section 493....1210 Condition: Routine chemistry. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Routine chemistry, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, §...

  4. 42 CFR 493.1210 - Condition: Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Routine chemistry. 493.1210 Section 493....1210 Condition: Routine chemistry. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Routine chemistry, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, §...

  5. 42 CFR 493.1210 - Condition: Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Routine chemistry. 493.1210 Section 493....1210 Condition: Routine chemistry. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Routine chemistry, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, §...

  6. Rituals and Routines: Supporting Infants and Toddlers and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Linda; Petersen, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The words "routine" and "ritual" are sometimes used interchangeably. Yet there are some important differences. Routines are repeated, predictable events that provide a foundation for the daily tasks in a child's life. Teachers can create a predictable routine in early childhood settings for infants and toddlers, and they can individualize those…

  7. Cue reactivity in active pathological, abstinent pathological, and regular gamblers.

    PubMed

    Sodano, Ruthlyn; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2010-03-01

    Twenty-one treatment-seeking pathological gamblers, 21 pathological gamblers in recovery, and 21 recreational gamblers watched two video-taped exciting gambling scenarios and an exciting roller-coaster control scenario while their arousal (heart rate and subjective excitement) and urge to gamble were being measured. The gamblers did not differ significantly in cue-elicited heart rate elevations or excitement. However, the active pathological gamblers reported significantly greater urges to gamble across all cues compared to the abstinent pathological gamblers and, with marginal significance (p = 0.06), also compared to the social gamblers. Further exploration of these findings revealed that active pathological gamblers experience urges to gamble in response to exciting situations, whether or not they are gambling related, whereas abstinent and social gamblers only report urges to an exciting gambling-related cue. This suggests that for pathological gamblers excitement itself, irrespective of its source, may become a conditioned stimulus capable of triggering gambling behavior. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:19662519

  8. [Improvement of routine works and quality control in mycobacterial laboratory].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Katsuhiro; Higuchi, Takeshi

    2007-03-01

    Many new methods have been introduced into routine laboratory works in microbiology since 1990. Molecular biology, in particular, opened a new era and promoted a technician's skill much. PCR and hybridization technique have been ordinary one in many laboratories. Since old techniques such as smear and culture are still needed, amount of routine works is increasing gradually. Thus, improving efficiency and keeping quality of routine works are becoming more and more important issues. This symposium focused on such points, and four skilled technicians around Japan presented their own tips. 1. Coexistence of M. tuberculosis and M. avium complex (MAC) in the MGIT culture system: Yasushi WATANABE (Clinical Laboratory Division, NHO Nishi-Niigata Chuo National Hospital). Sputum samples of some tuberculosis patients yielded only MAC in the MGIT culture system. Such co-infected cases presented problems to mislead proper treatment and infection control. The detection rate of MAC was significantly high, and the growth speed of MAC was significantly rapid in the MGIT culture system, compared to those of M. tuberculosis. Additionally, M. tuberculosis was not detected with even more quantity than MAC in the small amount of mixed samples. Higher sensitivity and growth speed of MAC are the important characteristics of the MGIT system. 2. Internal quality control with ordinary examination results: Akio AONO (Department of Clinical Examination, Double-Barred Cross Hospital, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association). Our laboratory utilizes ordinary examination results as the internal quality control for specimen pretreatment, culture, and drug susceptibility testing. The contamination rate of MGIT culture system is useful for the evaluation of the decontamination process. It was 6.3% on average in our laboratory in 2005. The number of drug resistant strains is also useful to assess the performance of drug susceptibility testing. The incidence of each anti-tuberculosis drug resistance

  9. An electronic tutorial of neurosurgical pathology--application of multi-media in clinical pathology.

    PubMed

    Kolles, H; Vince, G H; Niedermayer, I; Feiden, W

    1993-01-01

    We present an electronic tutorial of neurosurgical pathology developed for standard MS-DOS-computers. No additional software requirements are necessary. Digital pictures are displayed on the computer screen in Super-VGA quality. The user interface allows a dialogue between the pathologist and the engine. The dialogue component consists of scroll bar menus with lists of possible suggestions and answers. For each case the user is supplied with the basic clinical information and a set of representative pictures of the histological specimens. In some cases radiographs and CT-images are available. During the consultation session both routine and special staining methods are available on request. If the user proposes a wrong diagnosis the system offers a commentary. The presented cases are part of a teaching series developed for residents in neuropathology. PMID:8287629

  10. Ear examination

    MedlinePlus

    King EF, Couch ME. History, physical examination, and the preoperative evaluation. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  11. [Examination procedures].

    PubMed

    Vassault, A; Arnaud, J; Szymanovicz, A

    2010-12-01

    Examination procedures have to be written for each examination according to the standard requirements. Using CE marked devices, technical inserts can be used, but because of their lack of homogeneity, it could be easier to document their use as a standard procedure. Document control policy applies for those procedures, the content of which could be as provided in this document. Electronic manuals can be used as well. PMID:21613016

  12. The Rise of Pathological Illustrations: Baillie, Bleuland, and Their Collections.

    PubMed

    Meli, Domenico Bertoloni

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines the illustrated pathological works by Matthew Baillie (London, 1799-1803) and Jan Bleuland (Utrecht, 1826-28). Both works relied on extensive collections of specimens preserved in London and Utrecht, respectively. The essay discusses changing notions of disease, the erosion of the boundaries between surgeons and physicians, the role and significance of pathological collections, and the relations between preserved specimens and their representations. PMID:26095964

  13. Increased cellularity and expression of adhesion molecules in muscle biopsy specimens from patients with rheumatoid arthritis with clinical suspicion of vasculitis, but negative routine histology

    PubMed Central

    Verschueren, P.; Voskuyl, A.; Smeets, T; Zwinderman, K.; Breedveld, F.; Tak, P.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Histological analysis of random quadriceps muscle biopsy specimens can be used to detect vasculitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study aimed at determining the immunohistological features in patients with clinical suspicion of rheumatoid vasculitis, but without a transmural infiltrate or fibrinoid necrosis of the vessel wall on routine histology.
METHODS—Three groups of patients with RA were studied: (a) without clinical signs of vasculitis (n=6); (b) with recent onset of extra-articular features and a clinical suspicion of vasculitis but normal routine histology (n=11); and (c) with recent onset of extra-articular features and vasculitis, histologically proved either in muscle or other biopsy specimens (n=14). A control group of patients with osteoarthritis was also included (n=5). Frozen sections from quadriceps muscle biopsy specimens were analysed with monoclonal antibodies to detect CD3, CD4, CD8, CD68, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and HLA-DR. The slides were evaluated using a semiquantitative scoring system (0-4).
RESULTS—The mean scores gradually increased from group 1 to 3, leading to significant differences between groups 1 and 2, but not between groups 2 and 3 for most markers (p< 0.05). Thus the pathological changes were similar for the two groups with clinical signs of vasculitis, even when the conventional histological evaluation was negative. Higher immunohistological scores were associated with perivascular infiltrates on routine histology.
CONCLUSION—The pathophysiological events leading to vasculitis are reflected by the changes in the quadriceps muscle biopsy specimens. The data indicate that the sensitivity of examination of muscle biopsy specimens for the diagnosis of rheumatoid vasculitis can be increased by the use of new criteria.

 PMID:10913056

  14. Detection of peripheral nerve pathology

    PubMed Central

    Seelig, Michael J.; Baker, Jonathan C.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Pestronk, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare accuracy of ultrasound and MRI for detecting focal peripheral nerve pathology, excluding idiopathic carpal or cubital tunnel syndromes. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients referred for neuromuscular ultrasound to identify patients who had ultrasound and MRI of the same limb for suspected brachial plexopathy or mononeuropathies, excluding carpal/cubital tunnel syndromes. Ultrasound and MRI results were compared to diagnoses determined by surgical or, if not performed, clinical/electrodiagnostic evaluation. Results: We identified 53 patients who had both ultrasound and MRI of whom 46 (87%) had nerve pathology diagnosed by surgical (n = 39) or clinical/electrodiagnostic (n = 14) evaluation. Ultrasound detected the diagnosed nerve pathology (true positive) more often than MRI (43/46 vs 31/46, p < 0.001). Nerve pathology was correctly excluded (true negative) with equal frequency by MRI and ultrasound (both 6/7). In 25% (13/53), ultrasound was accurate (true positive or true negative) when MRI was not. These pathologies were typically (10/13) long (>2 cm) and only occasionally (2/13) outside the MRI field of view. MRI missed multifocal pathology identified with ultrasound in 6 of 7 patients, often (5/7) because pathology was outside the MRI field of view. Conclusions: Imaging frequently detects peripheral nerve pathology and contributes to the differential diagnosis in patients with mononeuropathies and brachial plexopathies. Ultrasound is more sensitive than MRI (93% vs 67%), has equivalent specificity (86%), and better identifies multifocal lesions than MRI. In sonographically accessible regions ultrasound is the preferred initial imaging modality for anatomic evaluation of suspected peripheral nervous system lesions. PMID:23553474

  15. Pathology of the human embryo and previable fetus

    SciTech Connect

    Kalousek, D.K. ); Fitch, N.; Paradice, B.

    1990-01-01

    Topics covered in this book include a general review of normal embryonic and fetal development; abortion and the basic approach to the examination of aborted embryos and fetuses; and pathologic findings detected on examination of products of conception. The authors illustrate specific morphologic lesions and the variable expression of genetic syndromes in the embryonic and fetal periods.

  16. Family Routine Moderates the Relation Between Child Impulsivity and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, H. Isabella; Drabick, Deborah A. G.

    2011-01-01

    Although child impulsivity is associated with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, few studies have examined whether family processes moderate this association. To address this gap, we tested whether child-reported family routine moderated the relation between child hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) and ODD symptoms among a sample of low-income, urban, ethnic-minority children (N=87, 51% male). Child HI and ODD symptoms were assessed using parent and teacher reports. HI also was indexed by a laboratory task. Family routine was assessed using child self-report. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that family routine moderated child HI. Among children with higher levels of teacher-reported HI symptoms, lower levels of family routine were associated with higher levels of teacher-reported ODD symptoms compared to children with lower levels of teacher-reported HI symptoms. Children who self-reported higher levels of family routine were rated as low on teacher-reported ODD symptoms, regardless of teacher-reported HI levels. Parent report and laboratory measures of child HI did not produce significant interactions. Lower levels of family routine may confer risk for ODD symptoms among low-income, urban, ethnic-minority children experiencing higher levels of HI. PMID:20690009

  17. Exhumation of Wistar rats experimentally exposed to the carbamate pesticides aldicarb and carbofuran: A pathological and toxicological study.

    PubMed

    de Siqueira, Adriana; Rodrigues, Karina Borges Almeida; Gonçalves-Júnior, Vagner; Calefi, Atilio Sersun; Fukushima, André Rinaldi; Cuevas, Silvia Elena Campusano; Spinosa, Helenice de Souza; Maiorka, Paulo César

    2016-06-01

    Exhumation is required for the investigation of suspicions deaths when a body is buried and is usually performed under court order. Exhumation of animals is not a routine practice in forensic pathology. In this study, 30 male 70-day-old Wistar rats were experimentally exposed to the carbamate pesticides aldicarb and carbofuran. Toxicological, macroscopic and microscopic examinations were performed. Groups of 3 animals (2 exposed and 1 control) were evaluated at 24h, 3days, 5days, 7days and 10days post-mortem. In histopathological examination, the brain, liver, lungs and kidneys were assessed, and for toxicological analysis, the gastric contents, liver, vitreous humor, skeletal muscle and larvae (when available) were collected. The pesticides were detected by HPLC and quantified in the analyzed matrices, and a possible delay in tissue putrefaction due to the pesticides was observed. This study has revealed that it is possible to exhume animals for investigations of possible poisoning by carbamates and has demonstrated that the exhumation of an animal in a suspected case of poisoning should not be ruled out. The increasing demand for investigations of suspicious animal deaths, e.g., in cases of poisoning, will likely lead to an increase in the use of this type of procedure in veterinary pathology. PMID:27020045

  18. Recommendations for gross examination and sampling of surgical specimens of the spleen.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Dennis P; Louissaint, Abner; Vasef, Mohammad A; Auerbach, Aaron; Miranda, Roberto; Brynes, Russell K; Fedoriw, Yuri; Hudnall, S David

    2015-10-01

    This review examines handling and processing of spleen biopsies and splenectomy specimens with the aim of providing the pathologist with guidance in optimizing examination and diagnosis of splenic disorders. It also offers recommendations as to relevant reporting factors in gross examination, which may guide diagnostic workup. The role of splenic needle biopsies is discussed. The International Spleen Consortium is a group dedicated to promoting education and research on the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the spleen. In keeping with these goals, we have undertaken to provide guidelines for gross examination, sectioning, and sampling of spleen tissue to optimize diagnosis (Burke). The pathology of the spleen may be complicated in routine practice due to a number of factors. Among these are lack of familiarity with lesions, complex histopathology, mimicry within several types of lesions, and overall rarity. To optimize diagnosis, appropriate handling and processing of splenic tissue are crucial. The importance of complete and accurate clinical history cannot be overstated. In many cases, significant clinical history such as previous lymphoproliferative disorders, hematologic disorders, trauma, etc, can provide important information to guide the evaluation of spleen specimens. Clinical information helps plan for appropriate processing of the spleen specimen. The pathologist should encourage surgical colleagues, who typically provide the specimens, to include as much clinical information as possible. PMID:26143481

  19. [Premature ejaculation in urological routine practice].

    PubMed

    Mathers, M J; Sommer, F; Degener, S; Brandt, A S; Roth, S

    2013-01-01

    Premature ejaculation is a frequent male sexual complaint or sexual disturbance found in urological practices and outpatient units. The frequency in the individual practices varies considerably. In large studies the prevalence is strongly dependent on the definition and ranges between 3% and 25%. Subjectively, the inability to delay ejaculation and the distress resulting from it, is relevant for the patient and his partner. Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) is used as an objective parameter. Nevertheless, in the everyday routine practice this objective parameter is not practical. Clinically 2 questionnaires have asserted themselves (Premature Ejaculation Profile and Index of Premature Ejaculation). Studies have shown that the self-assessment of patients correlates relatively well with the objective IELT measured by means of a stopwatch. Beside topical anaesthetics and elective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), especially Dapexetine which has been approved in Germany since 2009, are treatment options. These drugs differ particularly in their use (daily or on-demand) and their effectiveness (measured by x-fold increase of IELT). This article deals with the clinical approach to EP. Beside the definition, prevalence, aetiology and neurophysiology of EP, the different pharmacological therapies as well as the guidelines of the International Society for Sexual Medicine are discussed. PMID:23381878

  20. Peri-colonic haematoma following routine colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Page, Felicity; Adedeji, Olfunso

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We present a case of an extra-luminal haematoma following routine colonoscopy. This case highlights an uncommon but potentially life threatening complication in which there is little published literature to date. Presentation of case A 73 year old male presented with abdominal pain and a reduction in haemoglobin following an uneventful colonoscopy. The imaging had been required as part of colorectal cancer follow up. Initial differential diagnosis included colonic perforation and the patient was admitted for further investigations. Same day CT scan imaging revealed an extra-luminal haematoma in the mid descending colon. The patient was managed non-operatively and was discharged with antibiotics following a period of observation. Discussion Colonoscopy is a highly effective imaging modality for direct visualisation of the lower gastrointestinal tract and for simultaneous diagnostic or therapeutic interventions. In recent years the use of colonoscopy has increased greatly, this is largely due to an increasingly aging population, increased availability of the resource and as a consequence of the implementation of the Bowel Cancer Screening Programme. Extra-colonic bleeding following colonoscopy is rare. Causes that have been identified in the literature include splenic injury, mesenteric tears, hepatic injury and retroperitoneal haemorrhage. To the authors' knowledge, there is very little published literature specifically on isolated peri-colonic haematomas following colonoscopy. Conclusion This case highlights an unusual but potentially life threatening complication following colonoscopy. Endoscopists and clinicians should be aware of the diagnosis to allow for early recognition and appropriate management. PMID:26900460

  1. Don't neglect routine staff meetings.

    PubMed

    Board, H K

    1982-03-01

    Staff meetings are essential to good staff communication. Meetings help keep the grapevine from growing so big that it strangles the group with its rumors. By holding regular meetings with your staff, you create a consistency in your communications that helps prevent problems that you don't even suspect from cropping up. All personnel should attend the meetings. This way everyone hears news at the same time. Be consistent in your use of meetings. Meetings are more effective if you have a planned agenda and a firm time schedule. Encourage your staff to use meetings to talk out problems that affect the group. Once the meeting is over, encourage them to leave their feelings in the room. Many leaders are reluctant, for a variety of reasons, to hold meetings with their staffs. But it's like dieting and exercise; the more you do it, the easier it becomes. This type of meeting will pay rich dividends in staff personal and professional growth and in improved communication. The sense of participation that can be gained by the effective use of staff meetings can lead to high morale and effective staff performance. As you begin to see the results of a cohesive staff functioning together well, you will realize the routine staff meeting is a management tool that should not be overlooked or underused. PMID:6917733

  2. CULA: hybrid GPU accelerated linear algebra routines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphrey, John R.; Price, Daniel K.; Spagnoli, Kyle E.; Paolini, Aaron L.; Kelmelis, Eric J.

    2010-04-01

    The modern graphics processing unit (GPU) found in many standard personal computers is a highly parallel math processor capable of nearly 1 TFLOPS peak throughput at a cost similar to a high-end CPU and an excellent FLOPS/watt ratio. High-level linear algebra operations are computationally intense, often requiring O(N3) operations and would seem a natural fit for the processing power of the GPU. Our work is on CULA, a GPU accelerated implementation of linear algebra routines. We present results from factorizations such as LU decomposition, singular value decomposition and QR decomposition along with applications like system solution and least squares. The GPU execution model featured by NVIDIA GPUs based on CUDA demands very strong parallelism, requiring between hundreds and thousands of simultaneous operations to achieve high performance. Some constructs from linear algebra map extremely well to the GPU and others map poorly. CPUs, on the other hand, do well at smaller order parallelism and perform acceptably during low-parallelism code segments. Our work addresses this via hybrid a processing model, in which the CPU and GPU work simultaneously to produce results. In many cases, this is accomplished by allowing each platform to do the work it performs most naturally.

  3. [A useful tool for routine radiological examinations : the iPhone application "KM Helper"].

    PubMed

    Schlechtweg, P M; Kuefner, M A; Heberlein, C; Meier-Meitinger, M; Cavallaro, A; Uder, M; Schwab, S A

    2011-05-01

    Since Apple's iPhone revolutionized the smartphone market, numerous software application features (apps) for portable devices have been developed. Amongst many others, a broad range of medical assistance software, such as anatomic books or medical encyclopedias is now available. We developed an app which helps to identify patients who need medical treatment before intravenous or intra-arterial administration of iodinated contrast media. The purpose of this article is to show that novel techniques such as smartphone applications can be a useful tool in medicine. PMID:21487798

  4. Examining the Complexities of Measuring Effectiveness of Online Counselling for Young People Using Routine Evaluation Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sefi, Aaron; Hanley, Terry

    2012-01-01

    As mental health services for young people develop, the need for evaluation and audit to justify expenditure follows suit. Counselling is being provided in more and more schools and community settings across the country, and there is an increasing focus on evidence-based funding. Practice-based evidence has an important role to play in fulfilling…

  5. Routine radiographic assessment of the scoliotic spine.

    PubMed

    Farren, J

    1981-04-01

    This paper is designed to give a brief account of the radiographic criteria necessary in order to demonstrate and evaluate the scoliotic spine. However, additional specialised radiographic examinations, including myelography, angiography, laminography and intravenous urography are occasionally necessary. PMID:7280196

  6. Pathological features of polyneuropathy in three dogs.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Masaya; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Ide, Tetsuya; Ogawa, Mizue; Inagaki, Takehiko; Tamura, Shinji; Saito, Miyoko; Chambers, James K; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Canine polyneuropathy is a neurological disorder characterized by a dysfunction of multiple peripheral nerves. The etiology of the disease is diverse; it may occur in cases of infectious, immune-mediated, or hereditary conditions or in association with endocrinopathy, neoplasm, or chemical intoxication. It is often difficult to determine the etiology through clinical symptoms. The aim of this study is to investigate pathological differences among three canine polyneuropathy cases with each presumably having a different etiology. Cases included a 13-month-old female border collie (Dog No.1), a 21-month-old male chihuahua (Dog No.2) and an 11-year-old male beagle (Dog No.3). Clinical examinations revealed hindlimb ataxia and sensory loss in Dog No.1, forelimb paralysis and vertebral pain in Dog No.2, and paddling-gait and hypothyroidism in Dog No.3. Histopathologically, axonal swelling and pale myelin were observed in Dog No.1. Giant axons mimicking giant axonal neuropathy were obvious in Dog No.2. Dog No.3 showed atrophic axons and severe interstitial edema. Distributions of peripheral nerve lesions coincided with respective clinical symptoms. According to their clinical and pathological features, Dogs No.1 and No.2 were suspected of hereditary polyneuropathy, while Dog No.3 seemed to have hypothyroidism-associated polyneuropathy. As each case demonstrated unique pathological features, different pathogeneses of peripheral nerve dysfunction were suggested. PMID:23123885

  7. Pathology of cloaca anomalies with case correlation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anita; Bischoff, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    During the fourth week of human embryo development, a transient common channel known as a cloaca is formed from which three cavities with three external orifices arises. Cloaca anomalies occur when there is failure of separation of the rectum, vagina, and urethra channel resulting in a single drain into the perineum. In our previous institutional studies, Runck et al. compared human and mouse cloaca development and found early mis-patterning of the embryonic cloaca deranged hedgehog and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) signaling. Also, our group reported the embryological correlation of the epithelial and stromal histology found in step sections of the common channel in 14 cloaca malformations in humans. In this review, we present the pathology of a 4-year-old female with a cloaca and VACTERL complex, and summarize our current knowledge of cloaca pathology. Furthermore, we suggest that careful pathological examination of cloaca specimens in conjunction with surgical orientation may result in a better understanding of the etiology of this condition. PMID:26969228

  8. [Comments on routine laboratory data that are of practical use for physicians].

    PubMed

    Honda, Takayuki; Matsuo, Shuji; Masaki, Mitsuru; Harada, Kenu; Takasaki, Tadashi; Nakamura, Fumihiko

    2013-03-01

    Routine laboratory data are not adequately used to follow a patient because medical students are not educated to comprehend them with time series analysis. The Department of Laboratory Medicine can support physicians by adding comments to laboratory data that are of practical use for following a patient. At Shinshu University School of Medicine, routine laboratory data are discussed by time series analysis in a reversed clinicopathological conference(R-CPC). The general status is checked and then the state of each organ is examined using routine laboratory data, and we can obtain much more information about the patient than from physical examinations. In this R-CPC, several specialists in laboratory medicine discussed routine laboratory data of a patient with severe inflammation. It was difficult to diagnose him with a bacterial infection. Elevation of white blood cell count and high C-reactive protein suggested bacterial infection, and decreased platelets showed the possibility of bacteremia. However, he was clinically diagnosed as having multiple trauma without bacterial infection after falling down a mountainside. If routine laboratory data are finely analyzed by specialists in laboratory medicine, physicians can obtain useful information for patient treatment from the Department of Laboratory Medicine. PMID:23785798

  9. Forensic Pathology of Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Finnie, J W

    2016-09-01

    Traumatic brain injury constitutes a significant proportion of cases requiring forensic examination, and it encompasses (1) blunt, nonmissile head injury, especially involving motor vehicle accidents, and (2) penetrating, missile injury produced by a range of high- and lower-velocity projectiles. This review examines the complex pathophysiology and biomechanics of both types of neurotrauma and assesses the macroscopic and histologic features of component lesions, which may be used to determine the cause and manner of death resulting from an intentional assault or accident. Estimation of the survival time postinjury by pathologic examination is also important where malicious head injury is suspected, in an attempt to ascertain a time at which the traumatic event might have been committed, thereby evaluating the authenticity of statements made by the alleged perpetrator. PMID:26578643

  10. The Value of Family Routines for the Academic Success of Vulnerable Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Kathleen M.; Ghazarian, Sharon R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined associations between mother reports of family routines and adolescent academic success. The authors used prospective data from "Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three City Study" (N = 1,147), a study of low-income urban youth and mothers. The vast majority of youth were African American (43%) or Latino (47%); youth were an…

  11. Organizational Routines in Flux: A Case Study of Change in Recording and Monitoring Student Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Sharon; Enomoto, Ernestine K.

    2009-01-01

    Using an organizational theory to study how people can actually change routines, this study examined alterations made to two aspects of a high school's attendance procedures over 5 years. The authors drew primarily from interviews and school documents to describe and analyze changes made by administrators, faculty, and staff. Organizing questions…

  12. Everyday Routines: A Window into the Cultural Organization of Family Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonyan, Holli A.

    2015-01-01

    Eco(logical)-cultural Theory suggests that a daily routine results from individuals adapting cultural ideas to the constraints of a local context or ecology. Using Ecocultural Theory, this research examined family child care providers' descriptions of daily activities and overall approach to understand cultural models. The results highlighted a…

  13. Production of Routines in L2 English: Effect of Proficiency and Study-Abroad Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2013-01-01

    This preliminary study examined the effect of proficiency and study abroad experience on L2 learners' ability to produce routines. Participants were 64 Japanese students in an English-medium university in Japan. They were divided into three groups: Group 1 had lower proficiency with no study abroad experience, Group 2 had higher proficiency but no…

  14. Paying Attention to Procedural Texts: Critically Reading School Routines as Embodied Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanden, Sarah Vander; Wohlwend, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we look closely at the way power circulates through school routines with ordinary texts in everyday moments. We address texts that support different types of achievement and how critical literacy helps us redefine achievement and examine what we're doing with texts and students in classrooms. We interrogate the notion of…

  15. Ghent Pathology 2011.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Doojin

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the intraday formation process of transaction prices and bid-ask spreads in theKOSPI 200 futures market. By extending the structural model ofMadhavan,Richardson, andRoomans (1997), I develop a unique cross-market model that can decompose spread components and explain intraday price formation for the futures market by using the order flow information from theKOSPI 200 options market, which is a market that is closely related to the futures market as well as considered to be one of the most remarkable options market in the world. The empirical results indicate that the model implied spread and the permanent component of the spread that results from informed trading tend to be underestimated without the inclusion of options market information. Furthermore, the results imply that trades of in-the-money options, which have high delta values, generally incur a more adverse information cost component (the permanent spread component) of the futures market than those of out-of-the-money options, which have relatively low delta values. Finally, I find that the adverse information cost component that is estimated from the cross-market model exhibits a nearlyU-shape intraday pattern; however, it sharply decreases at the end of the trading day. PMID:24590540

  16. Relationship between trauma narratives and trauma pathology.

    PubMed

    Amir, N; Stafford, J; Freshman, M S; Foa, E B

    1998-04-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between posttrauma pathology and the level of articulation (complexity) in rape narratives recounted by victims shortly after the assault. Degree of articulation was operationalized as the reading level of the narrative as determined by a computer program. Shortly after the trauma, reading level was correlated with severity of anxiety but not with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Degree of the narrative articulation shortly after the trauma, however, was related to severity of later PTSD. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the less developed trauma narratives hinder recovery from trauma. PMID:9565923

  17. MURCS association: ultrasonographic findings and pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, C O; McFarland, R D; Timmons, C; Ramus, R; Twickler, D M

    1996-12-01

    MURCS association is a rare, lethal and unusual constellation of nonrandom findings that includes mullerian duct aplasia, renal aplasia, and cervicothoracic somite dysplasia.1-3 It has been described in 30 patients by Duncan and coworkers2 in 1979, in which report the authors proposed an embryologic cause for these defects.3 Antenatal ultrasonographic findings included a massive, cystic umbilical cord related to a patent urachus, enlarged bladder, single small kidney, and suspicion of urethral obstruction in a fetus of female phenotype. These findings are rare in a case of MURCS and were all confirmed on pathologic examination. PMID:8947863

  18. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty: radiological-pathological correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Saffitz, J.E.; Totty, W.G.; McClennan, B.L.; Gilula, L.A.

    1981-12-01

    Radiological and pathological assessment of the degree and extent of arterial injury caused by balloon angioplasty was performed in 20 renal arteries obtained at autopsy. Intact arteries were studied angiographically before and after dilatation and then examined histologically. Both normal and diseased arteries were subjected to varying degrees of dilatation. Damage ranged from minimal inimal disruption to major tears of the muscular media. Equivalent dilatory force created greater damage in the distal (muscular) than in the proximal (elastic) portion of the renal artery. There was no evidence of plaque remodling or compression.

  19. Barium swallow study in routine clinical practice: a prospective study in patients with chronic cough*,**

    PubMed Central

    Nin, Carlos Shuler; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Paludo, Artur de Oliveira; Alves, Giordano Rafael Tronco; Hochhegger, Daniela Reis; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the routine use of barium swallow study in patients with chronic cough. METHODS: Between October of 2011 and March of 2012, 95 consecutive patients submitted to chest X-ray due to chronic cough (duration > 8 weeks) were included in the study. For study purposes, additional images were obtained immediately after the oral administration of 5 mL of a 5% barium sulfate suspension. Two radiologists systematically evaluated all of the images in order to identify any pathological changes. Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test for categorical data were used in the comparisons. RESULTS: The images taken immediately after barium swallow revealed significant pathological conditions that were potentially related to chronic cough in 12 (12.6%) of the 95 patients. These conditions, which included diaphragmatic hiatal hernia, esophageal neoplasm, achalasia, esophageal diverticulum, and abnormal esophageal dilatation, were not detected on the images taken without contrast. After appropriate treatment, the symptoms disappeared in 11 (91.6%) of the patients, whereas the treatment was ineffective in 1 (8.4%). We observed no complications related to barium swallow, such as contrast aspiration. CONCLUSIONS: Barium swallow improved the detection of significant radiographic findings related to chronic cough in 11.5% of patients. These initial findings suggest that the routine use of barium swallow can significantly increase the sensitivity of chest X-rays in the detection of chronic cough-related etiologies. PMID:24473762

  20. Use of contextual inquiry to understand anatomic pathology workflow: Implications for digital pathology adoption

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jonhan; Aridor, Orly; Parwani, Anil V.

    2012-01-01

    may possibly improve following the introduction of digital pathology systems were identified. These work processes included case management, case examination and review, and final case reporting. Furthermore, a digital slide system should integrate with the anatomic pathologic laboratory information system. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study that utilized the contextual inquiry method to document AP workflow. Findings were used to establish key requirements for the design of digital pathology systems. PMID:23243553

  1. Confounders in interpreting pathology for safety and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Douglas C. . E-mail: wolf.doug@epa.gov; Mann, Peter C.

    2005-02-01

    The contribution of pathology to toxicity assessment is invaluable but often not clearly understood. Pathology endpoints are the central response around which human health risk assessment is frequently determined; therefore, it is important that the general toxicology community understand current concepts and nomenclature of toxicologic pathology. Toxicologic pathology encompasses the study of changes in tissue morphology that help define the risk of exposure to xenobiotics. Toxicologic pathology is a discipline that has changed and adapted over time including methods of analysis and nomenclature of lesions. As risk assessments are updated for chemicals in commerce, frequently the older literature must be reviewed and reevaluated. When interpreting pathology data from animal studies, it is important to consider the biological significance of a lesion as well as its relationship to the ultimate adverse health effect. Assessing the potential for a chemical to cause harm to humans must include the examination of the entire pathology database in context of the study design, the mode of action of the chemical of concern, and using the most current interpretation of a lesion to determine the significance for human health effects of a particular tissue response.

  2. Role of High Resolution Computed Tomography in Evaluation of Pathologies of Temporal Bone

    PubMed Central

    Thukral, Chuni Lal; Singh, Sunmeet; Sood, Arvinder Singh; Singh, Kunwarpal

    2015-01-01

    Background High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT), a modification of routine CT, provides a direct visual window in the temporal bone providing minute structural details. Purpose of the present study was to evaluate the normal variations, pathological processes (infections and congenital anomalies) and their extent involving the temporal bone along with their complications on HRCT and to correlate these imaging findings surgically, wherever available. Materials and Methods The prospective study included 50 patients who were referred to the radiology department with clinically suspected temporal bone or ear pathologies. After detailed clinical examination, the patients were subjected to high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) examination. The imaging findings were correlated with the surgical findings wherever available. The surgical findings were considered as final. Results From a total of 50 cases, 83.33% had cholesteatoma. The surgical and radiological findings showed a high level of sensitivity (89.29%) in the identification of cholesteatoma. HRCT provides a good sensitivity of 80.65% in the identification of changes to the ossicular chain despite the presence of surrounding soft tissue. HRCT was highly informative in identification of erosion of lateral semicircular canal. In diagnosis of facial canal dehiscence HRCT had a low sensitivity of 33.33%. In the evaluation of any congenital abnormality of the ear HRCT proved to be beneficial in depicting the anatomical details. Conclusion The clinical and radiological findings showed a high level sensitivity with intraoperative findings as regards to the presence of cholesteatoma, changes of the ossicular chain and erosion of the lateral semicircular canal. HRCT findings, in the treatment of any congenital abnormality of the ear were a good guide to the surgeon for planning and management. PMID:26500978

  3. Organizational determinants of high-quality routine diabetes care

    PubMed Central

    Braspenning, Jozé C. C.; Wolters, René J.; Bouma, Margriet; de Grauw, Wim J. C.; Wensing, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Randomized trials showed that changes in healthcare organization improved diabetes care. This study aimed to identify which organizational determinants were associated with patient outcomes in routine diabetes care. Design. Observational study, in which multilevel regression analyses were applied to examine the impact of 12 organizational determinants on diabetes care as separate measures and as a composite score. Setting. Primary care practices in the Netherlands. Subjects. 11,751 patients with diabetes in 354 practices. Main outcome measures. Patients’ recorded glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), systolic blood pressure, and serum cholesterol levels. Results. A higher score on the composite measure of organizational determinants was associated with better control of systolic blood pressure (p = 0.017). No effects on HbA1C or cholesterol levels were found. Exploration of specific organizational factors found significant impact of use of an electronic patient registry on HbA1c (OR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.12–2.88), availability of patient leaflets on systolic blood pressure control (OR = 2.59, 95% CI 1.06–6.35), and number of hours’ nurse education on cholesterol control (OR = 2.51, 95% CI 1.02–6.15). Conclusion. In routine primary care, it was found that favorable healthcare organization was associated with a number of intermediate outcomes in diabetes care. This finding lends support to the findings of trials on organizational changes in diabetes care. Notably, the composite measure of organizational determinants had most impact. PMID:25264939

  4. Should intensivist do routine abdominal ultrasound?

    PubMed

    Samanta, Sukhen; Samanta, Sujay; Soni, Kapil Dev; Aggarwal, Richa

    2015-09-01

    Roundworm infestation is common in tropical climate population with a low socioeconomic status. We describe a case of a young male with polytrauma accident who presented with small bowel dysfunction with a high gastric residual volume during enteral feeding. While searching the etiology, the intensivist performed bedside abdominal ultrasound (USG) as a part of whole body USG screening along with clinical examination using different frequency probes to examine bowel movement and ultimately found ascariasis to be the cause. This case report will boost up the wide use of bedside USG by critical care physicians in their patient workup. PMID:26430346

  5. The role of immunocytochemistry in diagnostic pathology.

    PubMed Central

    Mason, D Y; Gatter, K C

    1987-01-01

    This review suggests that immunocytochemistry in diagnostic pathology can be performed using relatively small panels of antibodies and that it should be reserved for situations in which, for one reason or another, the pathologist cannot exert his or her conventional diagnostic skills. Examples include the diagnosis of tumours the true nature of which is uncertain because of anaplasia or poor morphological preservation; the demonstration of small numbers of cells which are otherwise too rare to be recognised in conventionally stained preparations; and the immunophenotyping of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Recently progress has been made in the context of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas by the development of monoclonal antibodies that detect T and B cell associated markers in paraffin wax sections. Most of these reagents, however, recognise either lineage associated (but not lineage specific) variants of the leucocyte common antigen CD45, or antigens that are poorly characterised. A recent promising development has therefore been the demonstration that polyclonal antisera raised against the CD3/T3 T cell specific marker (purified by affinity chromatography) are suitable for staining T cells in paraffin sections. This approach will hopefully enable antibodies to be produced which react with other well defined white cell associated markers in routine biopsy material. Images Fig 1 Fig 3 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 PMID:3312298

  6. The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) were investigated in a clinical sample presenting for treatment of perfectionism. Method This study explored the utility of perfectionism in predicting pathological worry in a sample of individuals with elevated perfectionism and GAD (n = 36). Following this, the study examined whether perfectionism could predict a principal GAD diagnosis in the full sample (n = 42). Results Scores on the perfectionism dimensions Concern over Mistakes, Personal Standards, and Clinical Perfectionism significantly predicted pathological worry among participants with GAD after controlling for gender and depression. The perfectionism dimension Doubts about Actions significantly predicted whether individuals from the full sample received a principal diagnosis of GAD. Conclusions These findings support certain dimensions of perfectionism having significant associations with pathological worry and GAD. PMID:24693946

  7. Bank robberies by an Asian gang: an assessment of the routine activities theory.

    PubMed

    Wang, John Z

    2002-10-01

    It was reported for the first time that a series of bank robberies were committed by an Asian gang group in a major southern city. The bank robberies showed a variety of operational methods. The purpose of this descriptive study is to apply the routine activities theory to explain the causal factors of the robberies. The analysis shows that the six Asian bank robberies resulted from a supply of motivated offenders, the availability of suitable targets, and a low level of capable guardians against crime. Findings suggest that crime-specific measures are an appropriate method for examining the merits of the routine activities theory. PMID:12365143

  8. Performance Analysis of Apollo Navigational Starter Routine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, Stoyan I.; Holt, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this project is to recreate and analyze the effectiveness of the original Apollo Starter Routine (ASR) which was used to generate the state vector of the Apollo spacecraft based on a series of radiometric observations. The original Apollo navigation software is unavailable in a modern programming language and the original coding has not been preserved. This necessitates its recreation using the original software documentation. Space Shuttle navigation software does not typically use the ASR or an algorithm like it since the Shuttle s state vector is easily deduced from GPS information or other sources. However, this tactic will be ineffective when trying to determine the state vector of a craft approaching, departing or in orbit around the Moon since the GPS network faces the surface of the Earth, not outer space. The recreation of the ASR from the original documentation is therefore vital as a simulation baseline for the navigation software under development for the Constellation program. The algorithms that make up the ASR will be extracted from the original documentation and adapted for and then implemented in a modern programming language; the majority of it will be coded in Matlab. The ASR s effectiveness will then be tested using simulated tracking data. The ability of the ASR to handle realistically noisy data and the accuracy with which it generates state vectors were analyzed. The ASR proved to be robust enough to process data with range and angle noise as large as 10,000 meters and 10(exp -6) radians together and 300,000 meters and 5x10(exp -4) radians separately at Lunar distances. The ASR was able to handle marginally more noise at distances closer to the Earth where the angle noise was less significant. The ASR is capable of effectively processing 40-80 data points gathered at a rate of one per 20 seconds at close Earth orbit and up to 28-40 data points gathered at a rate of one per minute at distant Earth orbit and Lunar orbit.

  9. Confocal mosaicing microscopy in skin excisions: a demonstration of rapid surgical pathology

    PubMed Central

    Gareau, D.S.; Patel, Y.G.; Li, Y.; Aranda, I.; Halpern, A.C.; Nehal, K.S.; Rajadhyaksha, M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Precise micro-surgical removal of tumour with minimal damage to the surrounding normal tissue requires a series of excisions, each guided by an examination of frozen histology of the previous. An example is Mohs surgery for the removal of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) in skin. The preparation of frozen histology is labour-intensive and slow. Confocal microscopy may enable rapid detection of tumours directly in surgical excisions with minimal need for frozen histology. Mosaicing of images enables observation of nuclear and cellular morphology in large areas of surgically excised tissue. In skin, the use of 10–1% acetic acid as a reflectance contrast agent brightens nuclei in 0.5–5 min and enhances nuclear-to-dermis contrast and detectability of BCCs. A tissue fixture was engineered for precisely mounting surgical excisions to enable mosaicing of 36 × 36 images to create a field of view of 12 × 12 mm. This large field of view displays the excision at 2× magnification, similar to that routinely used by Mohs surgeons when examining frozen histology. Comparison of mosaics to histology demonstrates detectability of BCCs. Confocal mosaicing presently requires 9 min, instead of 20–45 min per excision for preparing frozen histology, and thus may provide a means for rapid pathology-at-the-bedside to expedite and guide surgery. PMID:19196421

  10. [Pathology of the vitreomacular interface].

    PubMed

    Pop, Monica; Gheorghe, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Vitreous role in the pathophysiology of retinal diseases has increased importantly over the recent years. This was possible using Optical Coherence Tomography which reviewed the way the vitreoretinal interface should be looked at and defined and classified new pathologies such as Vitreoretinal Traction Syndrome. Vitreous is not an empty space but an important anatomical structure with role in ocular physiology. With age biochemical changes occur so that vitreous starts to liquefy. Once the vitreous is liquefied (sinchisis) it collapses and passes in the retrohialoid space (sineresis). In complete PVD besides sinchisis there is a weakness of the adherence between the posterior cortex and ILM with total detachment of posterior cortex. Abnormal adhesions are associated with incomplete PVD. The definition and understanting of vitreoretinal pathology is an active and continuous process, PVD being the trigger of a lot of retinal pathologies: epiretinal membrane, macular hole, tractional macular oedema, VMTS, myopic traction maculopathy, exacerbations of exudative ARMD. PMID:25300121

  11. Radiologic–Pathologic Correlation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated with Chemoembolization

    PubMed Central

    Riaz, Ahsun; Lewandowski, Robert J.; Kulik, Laura; Ryu, Robert K.; Mulcahy, Mary F.; Baker, Talia; Gates, Vanessa; Nayar, Ritu; Wang, Ed; Miller, Frank H.; Sato, Kent T.; Omary, Reed A.; Abecassis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    To correlate posttreatment radiologic and pathologic findings in patients who underwent transarterial chemoembolization before transplantation or resection. Thirty-five patients with postchemoembolization follow-up imaging underwent liver transplantation/resection. Pre- and posttreatment contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging were used to evaluate radiologic findings. Imaging characteristics using World Health Organization (WHO) and European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) criteria after treatment were evaluated. Treated lesions were examined by pathology (gold standard) for the assessment of necrosis. Radiologic findings on magnetic resonance imaging were correlated to pathologic findings to assess the predictability by imaging of actual necrosis. Kappa (κ) statistics were used to determine intermethod agreement between WHO and EASL criteria. Fourteen (40%) of 35 lesions had biopsy-proven hepatocellular carcinoma. Thirteen (37%) of 35 target lesions showed complete pathologic necrosis. Complete pathologic necrosis was seen in 35% of lesions with pretreatment size <3 cm. Complete pathologic necrosis was seen in 1 (100%) of 1, 6 (67%) of 9, 6 (33%) of 18, and 0 (0%) of 7 of the lesions that exhibited complete response (CR), partial response (PR), stable disease (SD), or progressive disease (PD) by WHO criteria, respectively. Complete pathologic necrosis was seen in 9 (82%) of 11, 4 (36%) of 11, 0 (0%) of 8, and 0 (0%) of 5 of the lesions that showed CR, PR, SD, or PD by EASL criteria, respectively. EASL CR and WHO response were shown to have ≥85% specificity for predicting complete pathologic necrosis. The κ coefficient for agreement between WHO and EASL was 0.29. EASL and WHO criteria had minimal intermethod agreement. EASL CR and WHO response were able to predict pathologic necrosis. PMID:19967371

  12. Optimal breast cancer pathology manifesto.

    PubMed

    Tot, T; Viale, G; Rutgers, E; Bergsten-Nordström, E; Costa, A

    2015-11-01

    This manifesto was prepared by a European Breast Cancer (EBC) Council working group and launched at the European Breast Cancer Conference in Glasgow on 20 March 2014. It sets out optimal technical and organisational requirements for a breast cancer pathology service, in the light of concerns about variability and lack of patient-centred focus. It is not a guideline about how pathology services should be performed. It is a call for all in the cancer community--pathologists, oncologists, patient advocates, health administrators and policymakers--to check that services are available that serve the needs of patients in a high quality, timely way. PMID:26283037

  13. Reliability and validity of the executive function and occupational routines scale (EFORTS).

    PubMed

    Frisch, Carmit; Rosenblum, Sara

    2014-09-01

    Sustainable daily routines during childhood are important both for children and their parents. Although their affective completion requires well developed executive functions (EF), this issue has not been studied until now. The current study examined the reliability and validity of the Executive Functions and Occupational Routines Scale - EFORTS (developed in Hebrew) which measures children's executive control in their daily routines. Internal consistency and construct and convergent validity were examined by applying the EFORTS and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions/preschool version (BRIEF/P) to 261 children (129 boys, 132 girls) between the ages 3 and 10 (mean=6.1, SD=1.43). The findings indicate that the EFORTS is a reliable and valid tool for examining children's executive control in three occupational daily routines, focusing specifically on metacognitive manifestations of EF. These findings suggest that the EFORTS can be a useful tool to assess children with EF deficits, and may serve targeting intervention programs toward the accomplishment of daily occupational goals. PMID:24887646

  14. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  15. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  16. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  17. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  18. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  19. Persistence of susceptibility to measles in France despite routine immunization: a cohort analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Chauvin, P; Valleron, A J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the impact of French routine programs urging the combined measles-mumps-rubella immunization of 15-month-old children. METHODS: We applied a cohort analysis to surveillance data collected by general practitioners to estimate the cumulative incidence rate per 1000 unvaccinated children and the proportion of susceptible children, by age and for each birth cohort between 1985 and 1995. RESULTS: More than 70% of unvaccinated children born in 1985 and 1986 had measles by the age of 10. This incidence rate dramatically decreased after implementation of the routine measles-mumps-rubella immunization program in 1989, but the proportion of 5-year-olds susceptible to measles has not decreased appreciably. In 1996, more than 15% of the children born between 1990 and 1995 were susceptible. CONCLUSIONS: The measles vaccine coverage achieved by the French routine immunization program remains insufficient as regards reducing the number of susceptible children. PMID:9987470

  20. Support Routines for In Situ Image Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Robert G.; Pariser, Oleg; Yeates, Matthew C.; Lee, Hyun H.; Lorre, Jean

    2013-01-01

    This software consists of a set of application programs that support ground-based image processing for in situ missions. These programs represent a collection of utility routines that perform miscellaneous functions in the context of the ground data system. Each one fulfills some specific need as determined via operational experience. The most unique aspect to these programs is that they are integrated into the large, in situ image processing system via the PIG (Planetary Image Geometry) library. They work directly with space in situ data, understanding the appropriate image meta-data fields and updating them properly. The programs themselves are completely multimission; all mission dependencies are handled by PIG. This suite of programs consists of: (1)marscahv: Generates a linearized, epi-polar aligned image given a stereo pair of images. These images are optimized for 1-D stereo correlations, (2) marscheckcm: Compares the camera model in an image label with one derived via kinematics modeling on the ground, (3) marschkovl: Checks the overlaps between a list of images in order to determine which might be stereo pairs. This is useful for non-traditional stereo images like long-baseline or those from an articulating arm camera, (4) marscoordtrans: Translates mosaic coordinates from one form into another, (5) marsdispcompare: Checks a Left Right stereo disparity image against a Right Left disparity image to ensure they are consistent with each other, (6) marsdispwarp: Takes one image of a stereo pair and warps it through a disparity map to create a synthetic opposite- eye image. For example, a right eye image could be transformed to look like it was taken from the left eye via this program, (7) marsfidfinder: Finds fiducial markers in an image by projecting their approximate location and then using correlation to locate the markers to subpixel accuracy. These fiducial markets are small targets attached to the spacecraft surface. This helps verify, or improve, the

  1. Development of visual diagnostic expertise in pathology.

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, R. S.; Naus, G. J.; Friedman, C. P.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we use methods from information-processing to explore the visual diagnostic processes of novice, intermediate, and expert pathologists. Subjects were asked to examine and interpret a set of slides while we collected think-aloud verbal protocols and captured on digital video the actual visual data they examined from the microscope. We performed an in-depth combined video and protocol-based analysis of processes and errors occurring as the task was performed. Additionally, we collected measures of accuracy, certainty, and difficulty for all cases. Our preliminary analysis identified significant differences between groups in all three major aspects of this task: searching skills, perceptual skills and cognitive/reasoning skills. We describe the implications of our preliminary cognitive task analysis on the design of a developing intelligent educational system in Pathology. PMID:11825167

  2. Low yield of routine duodenal biopsies for evaluation of abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Dubin, Sterling M; Kwong, Wilson T; Kalmaz, Denise; Savides, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the yield of biopsying normal duodenal mucosa for investigation of abdominal pain. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of consecutive patients who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with duodenal biopsies of normal appearing duodenal mucosa for an indication that included abdominal pain. All the patients in this study were identified from an electronic endoscopy database at a single academic medical center and had an EGD with duodenal biopsies performed over a 4-year period. New diagnoses that were made as a direct result of duodenal biopsies were identified. All duodenal pathology reports and endoscopy records were reviewed for indications to perform the examination as well as the findings; all the medical records were reviewed. Exclusion criteria included age less than 18 years, duodenal mass, nodule, or polyp, endoscopic duodenitis, duodenal scalloping, known celiac disease, positive celiac serology, Crohns disease, or history of bone marrow transplant. Information was collected in a de-identified database with pertinent demographic information including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, and descriptive statistics were performed. RESULTS: About 300 patients underwent EGD with biopsies of benign appearing or normal appearing duodenal mucosa. The mean age of patients was 44.1 ± 16.8 years; 189 of 300 (63%) were female. A mean of 4.3 duodenal biopsies were performed in each patient. In the subgroup of patients with abdominal pain without anemia, diarrhea, or weight loss the mean age was 43.4 ± 16.3 years. Duodenal biopsies performed for an indication that included abdominal pain resulting in 4 new diagnoses (3 celiac disease and 1 giardiasis) for an overall yield of 1.3%. 183 patients with abdominal pain without anemia, diarrhea, or weight loss (out of the total 300 patients) underwent duodenal biopsy of duodenal mucosa resulting in three new diagnoses (two cases of celiac disease and one giardiasis) for a yield of 1

  3. Surgical pathology of urologic diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Javadpour, N.; Barsky, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    This text details recent advances in methods for detecting, diagnosing, and managing genitourinary diseases. Included are chapters on imaging techniques (including magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and ultrasound; tumor markers (such as alphafetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, prostatic specific antigen, and T-antigens); immunocytochemistry; pediatric urologic pathology; and other key topics.

  4. Learning Biology with Plant Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Juliet E.

    This monograph contains 10 plant pathology experiments that were written to correspond to portions of a biology curriculum. Each experiment is suitable to a biology topic and designed to encourage exploration of those biological concepts being taught. Experiments include: (1) The Symptoms and Signs of Disease; (2) Koch's Postulates; (3)…

  5. Physiological and pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Ippei; Minamino, Tohru

    2016-08-01

    The heart must continuously pump blood to supply the body with oxygen and nutrients. To maintain the high energy consumption required by this role, the heart is equipped with multiple complex biological systems that allow adaptation to changes of systemic demand. The processes of growth (hypertrophy), angiogenesis, and metabolic plasticity are critically involved in maintenance of cardiac homeostasis. Cardiac hypertrophy is classified as physiological when it is associated with normal cardiac function or as pathological when associated with cardiac dysfunction. Physiological hypertrophy of the heart occurs in response to normal growth of children or during pregnancy, as well as in athletes. In contrast, pathological hypertrophy is induced by factors such as prolonged and abnormal hemodynamic stress, due to hypertension, myocardial infarction etc. Pathological hypertrophy is associated with fibrosis, capillary rarefaction, increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and cellular dysfunction (impairment of signaling, suppression of autophagy, and abnormal cardiomyocyte/non-cardiomyocyte interactions), as well as undesirable epigenetic changes, with these complex responses leading to maladaptive cardiac remodeling and heart failure. This review describes the key molecules and cellular responses involved in physiological/pathological cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:27262674

  6. THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROME, L.; STERN, J.

    DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL…

  7. Radiation-associated thyroid tumors: extent of operation and pathology technique influence the apparent incidence of carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, S.D.; Komorowski, R.; Cerletty, J.; Majewski, J.T.; Hooper, M.

    1983-10-01

    A prospective study and follow-up program of 2,118 patients with prior low-dose head and neck irradiation, entered into a thyroid screening project, allowed us to examine how the extent of operation and pathology technique influenced the incidence of thyroid carcinoma. Patients with palpable nodular thyroid disease were referred to their physicians with a recommendation for surgery: 107 patients had thyroid surgery in community hospitals (CHs) where enucleation of the nodule or lobectomy was the usual operation, and 29 patients had surgery at Milwaukee County Medical Complex (MCMC) where near-total thyroidectomy was routine. Lymph nodes were sampled in 69% of MCMC operations but in only 16% of CH operations. The pathologist's usual method at MCMC was to submit the total surgical specimen and to do serial sections. Less than total specimen examination and random sections typically were done in community hospitals. The mean age and sex ratio of the patients and size of thyroid lesions in the two groups were not different. Cancer was found in 59% (17/29) of patients who underwent operation at MCMC, while only 21% (22/107) of patients who underwent operation in CHs were found to have carcinoma (P less than 0.001). Surprisingly, there was nearly uniform agreement (99%) in the diagnoses made by MCMC and CH pathologists, and the incidence of microscopic foci of carcinoma was similar in both groups. We conclude that the incidence of thyroid carcinoma found in patients with prior head and neck irradiation who have had operation for thyroid nodules is related to the extent of thyroidectomy, routine lymph node sampling, the amount of resected thyroid tissue processed for histologic examination, and the absolute number of sections examined by the pathologist.

  8. Review of the current state of whole slide imaging in pathology

    PubMed Central

    Pantanowitz, Liron; Valenstein, Paul N.; Evans, Andrew J.; Kaplan, Keith J.; Pfeifer, John D.; Wilbur, David C.; Collins, Laura C.; Colgan, Terence J.

    2011-01-01

    Whole slide imaging (WSI), or “virtual” microscopy, involves the scanning (digitization) of glass slides to produce “digital slides”. WSI has been advocated for diagnostic, educational and research purposes. When used for remote frozen section diagnosis, WSI requires a thorough implementation period coupled with trained support personnel. Adoption of WSI for rendering pathologic diagnoses on a routine basis has been shown to be successful in only a few “niche” applications. Wider adoption will most likely require full integration with the laboratory information system, continuous automated scanning, high-bandwidth connectivity, massive storage capacity, and more intuitive user interfaces. Nevertheless, WSI has been reported to enhance specific pathology practices, such as scanning slides received in consultation or of legal cases, of slides to be used for patient care conferences, for quality assurance purposes, to retain records of slides to be sent out or destroyed by ancillary testing, and for performing digital image analysis. In addition to technical issues, regulatory and validation requirements related to WSI have yet to be adequately addressed. Although limited validation studies have been published using WSI there are currently no standard guidelines for validating WSI for diagnostic use in the clinical laboratory. This review addresses the current status of WSI in pathology related to regulation and validation, the provision of remote and routine pathologic diagnoses, educational uses, implementation issues, and the cost-benefit analysis of adopting WSI in routine clinical practice. PMID:21886892

  9. Prescriptive Package. Improving Patrol Productivity. Volume I. Routine Patrol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, William G.; Schack, Stephen

    Designed to assist police departments in improving the productivity of their patrol operations, this volume on routine patrol and a companion volume on specialized patrol operations are intended for use by various sizes of departments. The volume on routine patrol focuses on the major issues of patrol productivity and recommends a number of…

  10. Routine Activities and Victimization at School: The Significance of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Ann Marie; Peguero, Anthony A.

    2011-01-01

    Routine activities theory has not fully considered the role of gender in shaping victimization and yet, the research literature clearly demonstrates that gender is associated with an individual's risk of victimization. In addition to the pervasive effect of gender on victimization, gender shapes an individual's daily routines and thus may create a…

  11. See, Say, Write: A Writing Routine for the Preschool Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copp, Stefanie B.; Cabell, Sonia Q.; Tortorelli, Laura S.

    2016-01-01

    See, Say, Write is an adaptable classroom writing routine that teachers can use across a range of activities in the preschool classroom. This preschool writing routine offers an opportunity for teachers to build on a shared experience through engagement in rich conversation and writing. After a shared experience, teachers will provide a visual…

  12. 32 CFR 318.14 - Blanket routine uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blanket routine uses. 318.14 Section 318.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE THREAT REDUCTION AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 318.14 Blanket routine uses. (a) Blanket...

  13. Thinking Routines: Replicating Classroom Practices within Museum Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolberg, Rochelle Ibanez; Goff, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This article describes thinking routines as tools to guide and support young children's thinking. These learning strategies, developed by Harvard University's Project Zero Classroom, actively engage students in constructing meaning while also understanding their own thinking process. The authors discuss how thinking routines can be used in both…

  14. 42 CFR 493.1267 - Standard: Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard: Routine chemistry. 493.1267 Section 493.1267 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Systems § 493.1267 Standard: Routine chemistry. For blood gas analyses, the laboratory must perform...

  15. 42 CFR 493.1267 - Standard: Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard: Routine chemistry. 493.1267 Section 493.1267 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Systems § 493.1267 Standard: Routine chemistry. For blood gas analyses, the laboratory must perform...

  16. 42 CFR 493.841 - Standard; Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard; Routine chemistry. 493.841 Section 493.841 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.841 Standard; Routine chemistry. (a) Failure to attain a score of at least 80...

  17. 42 CFR 493.841 - Standard; Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard; Routine chemistry. 493.841 Section 493.841 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.841 Standard; Routine chemistry. (a) Failure to attain a score of at least 80...

  18. 42 CFR 493.841 - Standard; Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard; Routine chemistry. 493.841 Section 493.841 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.841 Standard; Routine chemistry. (a) Failure to attain a score of at least 80...

  19. 42 CFR 493.841 - Standard; Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard; Routine chemistry. 493.841 Section 493.841 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.841 Standard; Routine chemistry. (a) Failure to attain a score of at least 80...

  20. 42 CFR 493.1267 - Standard: Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard: Routine chemistry. 493.1267 Section 493.1267 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Systems § 493.1267 Standard: Routine chemistry. For blood gas analyses, the laboratory must perform...

  1. 42 CFR 493.1267 - Standard: Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Routine chemistry. 493.1267 Section 493.1267 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Systems § 493.1267 Standard: Routine chemistry. For blood gas analyses, the laboratory must perform...

  2. 42 CFR 493.1267 - Standard: Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard: Routine chemistry. 493.1267 Section 493.1267 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Systems § 493.1267 Standard: Routine chemistry. For blood gas analyses, the laboratory must perform...

  3. 42 CFR 493.841 - Standard; Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Routine chemistry. 493.841 Section 493.841 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.841 Standard; Routine chemistry. (a) Failure to attain a score of at least 80...

  4. Eating routines. Embedded, value based, modifiable, and reflective.

    PubMed

    Jastran, Margaret M; Bisogni, Carole A; Sobal, Jeffery; Blake, Christine; Devine, Carol M

    2009-02-01

    Eating routines are a compelling issue because recurring eating behaviors influence nutrition and health. As non-traditional and individualized eating patterns have become more common, new ways of thinking about routine eating practices are needed. This study sought to gain conceptual understanding of working adults' eating routines. Forty-two purposively sampled US adults reported food intake and contextual details about eating episodes in qualitative 24-h dietary recalls conducted over 7 consecutive days. Using the constant comparative method, researchers analyzed interview transcripts for recurrent ways of eating that were either explicitly reported by study participants as "routines" or emergent in the data. Participants' eating routines included repetition in food consumption as well as eating context, and also involved sequences of eating episodes. Eating routines were embedded in daily schedules for work, family, and recreation. Participants maintained purposeful routines that helped balance tension between demands and values, but they modified routines as circumstances changed. Participants monitored and reflected upon their eating practices and tended to assess their practices in light of their personal identities. These findings provide conceptual insights for food choice researchers and present a perspective from which practitioners who work with individuals seeking to adopt healthful eating practices might usefully approach their tasks. PMID:18835305

  5. 32 CFR 1701.31 - General routine uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTELLIGENCE ADMINISTRATION OF RECORDS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Routine Uses Applicable to More Than One... of Congressional intelligence oversight committees in connection with the exercise of the committees... disclosed as a routine use pursuant to Executive Order to the President's Foreign Intelligence...

  6. 32 CFR 1701.31 - General routine uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... INTELLIGENCE ADMINISTRATION OF RECORDS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Routine Uses Applicable to More Than One... of Congressional intelligence oversight committees in connection with the exercise of the committees... disclosed as a routine use pursuant to Executive Order to the President's Foreign Intelligence...

  7. 32 CFR 1701.31 - General routine uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INTELLIGENCE ADMINISTRATION OF RECORDS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Routine Uses Applicable to More Than One... of Congressional intelligence oversight committees in connection with the exercise of the committees... disclosed as a routine use pursuant to Executive Order to the President's Foreign Intelligence...

  8. An Element of Practical Knowledge in Education: Professional Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacourse, France

    2011-01-01

    The question of practical knowledge and its teaching has arisen more perceptibly since the appearance of the aim to professionalize teachers. How can imperceptible knowledge such as professional routines be taught? To establish a social fabric and effective class management, it is essential to call on creative and adaptive professional routines.…

  9. Helping Children Understand Routines and Classroom Schedules. What Works Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrosky, M. M.; Jung, E. Y.; Hemmeter, M. L.; Thomas, D.

    Studies have documented that schedules and routines influence children's emotional, cognitive, and social development. Predictable and consistent schedules in preschool classrooms help children feel secure and comfortable. Also, schedules and routines help children understand the expectations of the environment and reduce the frequency of behavior…

  10. The Association between Routinization and Cognitive Resources in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tournier, Isabelle; Mathey, Stephanie; Postal, Virginie

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between routinization of daily life activities and cognitive resources during aging. Routinization could increase excessively during aging and become maladaptative in reducing individual resources. Fifty-two young participants (M = 20.8 years) and 62 older participants (M = 66.9 years)…

  11. 15 CFR 923.84 - Routine program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... a routine program change. Failure to notify a State in writing within 4 weeks of receipt of notice... Programs § 923.84 Routine program changes. (a) Further detailing of a State's program that is the result of implementing provisions approved as part of a State's approved management program, that does not result in...

  12. Computer routine adds plotting capabilities to existing programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, J. C.; Linnekin, J. S.

    1966-01-01

    PLOTAN, a generalized plot analysis routine written for the IBM 7094 computer, minimizes the difficulties in adding plot capabilities to large existing programs. PLOTAN is used in conjunction with a binary tape writing routine and has the ability to plot any variable on the intermediate binary tape as a function of any other.

  13. Recapturing Desired Family Routines: A Parent-Professional Behavioral Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buschbacher, Pamelazita; Fox, Lise; Clarke, Shelley

    2004-01-01

    Children with complex disabilities such as autism spectrum disorders and Landau Kleffner syndrome often lack means to participate in everyday family routines. Serious problem behaviors may result from their challenges in responding to and initiating communicative interactions. These behaviors can change routine family activities such that the…

  14. Stillbirth: Correlations Between Brain Injury and Placental Pathology.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Linda M; Bit-Ivan, Esther N; Miller, Emily S; Minturn, Lucy; Bigio, Eileen H; Weese-Mayer, Debra E

    2016-01-01

    Chronic placental pathologic processes such as fetal thrombotic vasculopathy have been linked to brain injury in neonates. We hypothesize that using stillbirth as a model, placental pathology can predict risk for hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. From a single institutional database of stillbirths ≥23 weeks' gestational age, we included cases with full autopsy and neuropathology examination. Bivariable analyses were performed to identify whether there was an association between placental pathologic findings and neuropathologic findings. Logistic regression was used to control for potential confounders. Among 97 potential cases, adequate tissue was analyzable from 79 cases (mean gestational age  =  33 weeks). Acute central nervous system hemorrhage and acute neuronal necrosis were the most common neuropathologic processes seen in this cohort (57% for each). Maternal vascular underperfusion was the most common placental pathology but was not significantly associated with a specific neuropathologic finding. High-grade chronic villitis (HGCV) and fetal thrombotic vasculopathy (FTV) were significantly associated with increased risk for pontosubicular necrosis (odds ratios, 15.73 and 3.79, respectively). These associations persisted after controlling for potential confounders. Chronic placental pathologies, specifically HGCV and FTV, were associated with pontosubicular necrosis, suggesting that placental pathology involving the fetal vasculature and altered fetoplacental blood flow carry the greatest likelihood of hypoxic/ischemic brain injury. PMID:26492345

  15. Decorin and biglycan of normal and pathologic human corneas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funderburgh, J. L.; Hevelone, N. D.; Roth, M. R.; Funderburgh, M. L.; Rodrigues, M. R.; Nirankari, V. S.; Conrad, G. W.

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: Corneas with scars and certain chronic pathologic conditions contain highly sulfated dermatan sulfate, but little is known of the core proteins that carry these atypical glycosaminoglycans. In this study the proteoglycan proteins attached to dermatan sulfate in normal and pathologic human corneas were examined to identify primary genes involved in the pathobiology of corneal scarring. METHODS: Proteoglycans from human corneas with chronic edema, bullous keratopathy, and keratoconus and from normal corneas were analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), quantitative immunoblotting, and immunohistology with peptide antibodies to decorin and biglycan. RESULTS: Proteoglycans from pathologic corneas exhibit increased size heterogeneity and binding of the cationic dye alcian blue compared with those in normal corneas. Decorin and biglycan extracted from normal and diseased corneas exhibited similar molecular size distribution patterns. In approximately half of the pathologic corneas, the level of biglycan was elevated an average of seven times above normal, and decorin was elevated approximately three times above normal. The increases were associated with highly charged molecular forms of decorin and biglycan, indicating modification of the proteins with dermatan sulfate chains of increased sulfation. Immunostaining of corneal sections showed an abnormal stromal localization of biglycan in pathologic corneas. CONCLUSIONS: The increased dermatan sulfate associated with chronic corneal pathologic conditions results from stromal accumulation of decorin and particularly of biglycan in the affected corneas. These proteins bear dermatan sulfate chains with increased sulfation compared with normal stromal proteoglycans.

  16. User manual for two simple postscript output FORTRAN plotting routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, T. X.

    1991-01-01

    Graphics is one of the important tools in engineering analysis and design. However, plotting routines that generate output on high quality laser printers normally come in graphics packages, which tend to be expensive and system dependent. These factors become important for small computer systems or desktop computers, especially when only some form of a simple plotting routine is sufficient. With the Postscript language becoming popular, there are more and more Postscript laser printers now available. Simple, versatile, low cost plotting routines that can generate output on high quality laser printers are needed and standard FORTRAN language plotting routines using output in Postscript language seems logical. The purpose here is to explain two simple FORTRAN plotting routines that generate output in Postscript language.

  17. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Prolonged Ambulatory Versus Routine EEG.

    PubMed

    Keezer, Mark R; Simard-Tremblay, Elisabeth; Veilleux, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Prolonged ambulatory electroencephalography (paEEG) is increasingly used in clinical practice but its diagnostic accuracy relative to that of routine EEG (rEEG) remains uncertain. We examined a consecutive sample of 72 individuals who had undergone 32-channel paEEG immediately after an rEEG, creating perfectly matched EEG samples. Each recording was prospectively assessed for epileptiform discharges (ED) and nonepileptiform abnormalities. The median paEEG duration was 22.5 hours (interquartile range: 22.0-23.0). The sensitivity of paEEG was 2.23 times greater than that of rEEG [sensitivity ratio: 2.23 (95% CI=1.49-3.34)] if a positive test was limited to the presence of epileptiform discharges. This benefit of paEEG versus rEEG was no longer evident if the definition of a positive test included nonepileptiform abnormalities (sensitivity ratio 1.26; 95% CI=1.02-1.55). The specificity of the 2 tests was not evidently different (specificity ratio 0.67; 95% CI=0.17-2.67). Twenty-six percent of paEEG recorded epileptic seizures while none of the rEEG did (absolute difference 26.0% (95% CI=11.8-40.2). Our findings quantify the benefit of 32-channel paEEG, relative to rEEG, and support its role in the diagnosis and characterization of epilepsy. PMID:26376916

  18. Social network media exposure and adolescent eating pathology in Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Anne E.; Fay, Kristen E.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Khan, A. Nisha; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mass media exposure has been associated with an increased risk of eating pathology. It is unknown whether indirect media exposure – such as the proliferation of media exposure in an individual’s social network – is also associated with eating disorders. Aims To test hypotheses that both individual (direct) and social network (indirect) mass media exposures were associated with eating pathology in Fiji. Method We assessed several kinds of mass media exposure, media influence, cultural orientation and eating pathology by self-report among adolescent female ethnic Fijians (n = 523). We fitted a series of multiple regression models of eating pathology, assessed by the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE–Q), in which mass media exposures, sociodemographic characteristics and body mass index were entered as predictors. Results Both direct and indirect mass media exposures were associated with eating pathology in unadjusted analyses, whereas in adjusted analyses only social network media exposure was associated with eating pathology. This result was similar when eating pathology was operationalised as either a continuous or a categorical dependent variable (e.g. odds ratio OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.15–2.23 relating social network media exposure to upper-quartile EDE–Q scores). Subsequent analyses pointed to individual media influence as an important explanatory variable in this association. Conclusions Social network media exposure was associated with eating pathology in this Fijian study sample, independent of direct media exposure and other cultural exposures. Findings warrant further investigation of its health impact in other populations. PMID:21200076

  19. Knowledge of Normal versus Pathological Memory Aging among Police Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Karri S.; Garrity, April W.; Cherry, Katie E.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined police officers' knowledge of memory changes in adulthood utilizing the Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ). The KMAQ is a 28-item true/false questionnaire that covers a broad range of topics related to normal memory aging due to maturational processes and pathological memory aging, such as adult dementia. Results…

  20. The Fears of Navajo Children: Adaptation or Pathology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikalsky, Frank D.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the literature concerning the fears of children generally and Navajo children specifically, and reviews a recent cross-cultural study with Navajo informants. Suggests that high fear frequencies in Navajo children may not indicate pathology, but may demonstrate a cultural pattern with important adaptive value. Contains 10 references. (SV)

  1. Achilles tendon: US diagnosis of pathologic conditions. Work in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Blei, C.L.; Nirschl, R.P.; Grant, E.G.

    1986-06-01

    Twenty-three patients were prospectively examined with ultra-sound (US) for acute or recurrent Achilles tendon symptoms. Three types of pathologic conditions of the Achilles tendon were found: tendinitis/tenosynovitis, acute tendon trauma, and postoperative changes. US appears to enable differentiation of these conditions and to contribute to the diagnosis of a broad range of Achilles tendon disorders.

  2. System for pathology categorization and retrieval in chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avni, Uri; Greenspan, Hayit; Konen, Eli; Sharon, Michal; Goldberger, Jacob

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we present an overview of a system we have been developing for the past several years for efficient image categorization and retrieval in large radiograph archives. The methodology is based on local patch representation of the image content, using a bag of visual words approach and similarity-based categorization with a kernel based SVM classifier. We show an application to pathology-level categorization of chest x-ray data, the most popular examination in radiology. Our study deals with pathology detection and identification of individual pathologies including right and left pleural effusion, enlarged heart and cases of enlarged mediastinum. The input from a radiologist provided a global label for the entire image (healthy/pathology), and the categorization was conducted on the entire image, with no need for segmentation algorithms or any geometrical rules. An automatic diagnostic-level categorization, even on such an elementary level as healthy vs pathological, provides a useful tool for radiologists on this popular and important examination. This is a first step towards similarity-based categorization, which has a major clinical implications for computer-assisted diagnostics.

  3. Quality in pathology laboratory practice.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, S

    1995-06-01

    Quality refers not only to analytical quality control, a traditional area of laboratory excellence, but to the entire science of quality management. As measures of quality, structural indicators refer to staffing and physical facilities, process indicators to the institutions operations and, perhaps most importantly, outcome indicators address the ultimate patient care uses that pathology information is put to. Comparison of performance to peer laboratories, external quality control, is a practical, if limited, yardstick of performance. Customer satisfaction and turn-around-time of tests are receiving more recent attention as quality measures. Blood banking, because of its inherently complex cycle from donor phlebotomy to product infusion, requires special considerations with regard to quality management. Reporting of anatomical pathology, where the only gold standard is a consensus of experts, also does not lend itself to classical numerical quality assessment. PMID:7670717

  4. α-Synuclein: Experimental Pathology.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Masato; Nonaka, Takashi; Masuda-Suzukake, Masami

    2016-01-01

    α-Synuclein, which is present as a small, soluble, cytosolic protein in healthy subjects, is converted to amyloid-like fibrils in diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Bulk synthesis of purified α-synuclein has made it more convenient to study the nature of the normal protein and the mechanism of its conversion to an abnormal form in vitro and in vivo. Synthetic α-synuclein fibrils and pathological α-synuclein from diseased brains can act as triggers to convert normal α-synuclein to an abnormal form via prion-like mechanisms. In this article, we describe the experimental pathologies of α-synuclein both in vitro and in vivo in human and animal models. Prion-like spreading of abnormal α-synuclein from cell to cell can account for the progression of these α-synucleinopathies. PMID:27481772

  5. Pathological Significance of Mitochondrial Glycation

    PubMed Central

    Pun, Pamela Boon Li; Murphy, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Glycation, the nonenzymatic glycosylation of biomolecules, is commonly observed in diabetes and ageing. Reactive dicarbonyl species such as methylglyoxal and glyoxal are thought to be major physiological precursors of glycation. Because these dicarbonyls tend to be formed intracellularly, the levels of advanced glycation end products on cellular proteins are higher than on extracellular ones. The formation of glycation adducts within cells can have severe functional consequences such as inhibition of protein activity and promotion of DNA mutations. Although several lines of evidence suggest that there are specific mitochondrial targets of glycation, and mitochondrial dysfunction itself has been implicated in disease and ageing, it is unclear if glycation of biomolecules specifically within mitochondria induces dysfunction and contributes to disease pathology. We discuss here the possibility that mitochondrial glycation contributes to disease, focussing on diabetes, ageing, cancer, and neurodegeneration, and highlight the current limitations in our understanding of the pathological significance of mitochondrial glycation. PMID:22778743

  6. Interleukin-22: immunobiology and pathology

    PubMed Central

    Dudakov, Jarrod A.; Hanash, Alan M.; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a recently described IL-10 family cytokine that is produced by T-helper (Th)-17 cells, γδ T cells, NKT cells and newly described innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Knowledge of IL-22 biology has rapidly evolved since its discovery in 2000, and a role for IL-22 has been identified in numerous tissues including the intestines, lung, liver, kidney, thymus, pancreas and skin. IL-22 primarily targets non-hematopoietic epithelial and stromal cells where it can promote proliferation and play a role in tissue regeneration. In addition, IL-22 regulates host defense at barrier surfaces. However, IL-22 has also been linked to several conditions involving inflammatory tissue pathology. In this review, we will assess the current understanding of this cytokine, including its physiologic and pathologic effects on epithelial cell function. PMID:25706098

  7. Privacy and security of patient data in the pathology laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Cucoranu, Ioan C.; Parwani, Anil V.; West, Andrew J.; Romero-Lauro, Gonzalo; Nauman, Kevin; Carter, Alexis B.; Balis, Ulysses J.; Tuthill, Mark J.; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2013-01-01

    Data protection and security are critical components of routine pathology practice because laboratories are legally required to securely store and transmit electronic patient data. With increasing connectivity of information systems, laboratory work-stations, and instruments themselves to the Internet, the demand to continuously protect and secure laboratory information can become a daunting task. This review addresses informatics security issues in the pathology laboratory related to passwords, biometric devices, data encryption, internet security, virtual private networks, firewalls, anti-viral software, and emergency security situations, as well as the potential impact that newer technologies such as mobile devices have on the privacy and security of electronic protected health information (ePHI). In the United States, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) govern the privacy and protection of medical information and health records. The HIPAA security standards final rule mandate administrative, physical, and technical safeguards to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and security of ePHI. Importantly, security failures often lead to privacy breaches, invoking the HIPAA privacy rule as well. Therefore, this review also highlights key aspects of HIPAA and its impact on the pathology laboratory in the United States. PMID:23599904

  8. Privacy and security of patient data in the pathology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Cucoranu, Ioan C; Parwani, Anil V; West, Andrew J; Romero-Lauro, Gonzalo; Nauman, Kevin; Carter, Alexis B; Balis, Ulysses J; Tuthill, Mark J; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2013-01-01

    Data protection and security are critical components of routine pathology practice because laboratories are legally required to securely store and transmit electronic patient data. With increasing connectivity of information systems, laboratory work-stations, and instruments themselves to the Internet, the demand to continuously protect and secure laboratory information can become a daunting task. This review addresses informatics security issues in the pathology laboratory related to passwords, biometric devices, data encryption, internet security, virtual private networks, firewalls, anti-viral software, and emergency security situations, as well as the potential impact that newer technologies such as mobile devices have on the privacy and security of electronic protected health information (ePHI). In the United States, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) govern the privacy and protection of medical information and health records. The HIPAA security standards final rule mandate administrative, physical, and technical safeguards to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and security of ePHI. Importantly, security failures often lead to privacy breaches, invoking the HIPAA privacy rule as well. Therefore, this review also highlights key aspects of HIPAA and its impact on the pathology laboratory in the United States. PMID:23599904

  9. Investigative pathology: leading the post-genomic revolution.

    PubMed

    Berman, David M; Bosenberg, Marcus W; Orwant, Robin L; Thurberg, Beth L; Draetta, Gulio F; Fletcher, Christopher D M; Loda, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The completion of the Human Genome Project and the development of genome-based technologies over the past decade have set the stage for a new era of personalized medicine. By all rights, molecularly trained investigative pathologists should be leading this revolution. Singularly well suited for this work, molecular pathologists have the rare ability to wed genomic tools with unique diagnostic skills and tissue-based pathology techniques for integrated diagnosis of human disease. However, the number of pathologists with expertise in genome-based research has remained relatively low due to outdated training methods and a reluctance among some traditional pathologists to embrace new technologies. Moreover, because budding pathologists may not appreciate the vast selection of jobs available to them, they often end up choosing jobs that focus almost entirely on routine diagnosis rather than new frontiers in molecular pathology. This review calls for changes aimed at rectifying these troubling trends to ensure that pathology continues to guide patient care in a post-genomic era. PMID:21986811

  10. Insulin dysfunction and Tau pathology

    PubMed Central

    El Khoury, Noura B.; Gratuze, Maud; Papon, Marie-Amélie; Bretteville, Alexis; Planel, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include senile plaques of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides (a cleavage product of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, or APP) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein assembled in paired helical filaments (PHF). NFT pathology is important since it correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD. Only a small proportion of AD is due to genetic variants, whereas the large majority of cases (~99%) is late onset and sporadic in origin. The cause of sporadic AD is likely to be multifactorial, with external factors interacting with biological or genetic susceptibilities to accelerate the manifestation of the disease. Insulin dysfunction, manifested by diabetes mellitus (DM) might be such factor, as there is extensive data from epidemiological studies suggesting that DM is associated with an increased relative risk for AD. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are known to affect multiple cognitive functions in patients. In this context, understanding the effects of diabetes on Tau pathogenesis is important since Tau pathology show a strong relationship to dementia in AD, and to memory loss in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment. Here, we reviewed preclinical studies that link insulin dysfunction to Tau protein pathogenesis, one of the major pathological hallmarks of AD. We found more than 30 studies reporting Tau phosphorylation in a mouse or rat model of insulin dysfunction. We also payed attention to potential sources of artifacts, such as hypothermia and anesthesia, that were demonstrated to results in Tau hyperphosphorylation and could major confounding experimental factors. We found that very few studies reported the temperature of the animals, and only a handful did not use anesthesia. Overall, most published studies showed that insulin dysfunction can promote Tau hyperphosphorylation and pathology, both directly and indirectly, through hypothermia. PMID:24574966

  11. Medical discourse in pathological anatomy.

    PubMed

    Moskalenko, R; Tatsenko, N; Romanyuk, A; Perelomova, O; Moskalenko, Yu

    2012-05-01

    The paper is devoted to the peculiarities of medical discourse in pathological anatomy as coherent speech and as a linguistic correlate of medical practice taking into account the analysis of its strategies and tactics. The purpose of the paper is to provide a multifaceted analysis of the speech strategies and tactics of pathological anatomy discourse and ways of their implementation. The main strategies of medical discourse in pathological anatomy are an anticipating strategy, a diagnosing strategy and an explaining one. The supporting strategies are pragmatic, conversational and a rhetorical one. The pragmatic strategy is implemented through contact establishing tactics, the conversational one - with the help of control tactics, the rhetorical one - with the help of attention correction tactics. The above mentioned tactics and strategies are used in the distinguishing of major, closely interrelated strategies: "the contact strategy" (to establish contact with a patient's relatives - phatic replicas of greeting and addressing) and "the strategy of explanation" (used in the practice of a pathologist for a detailed explanation of the reasons of a patient's death). The ethic aspect of speech conduct of a doctor-pathologist is analyzed. PMID:22870841

  12. Digital imaging in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, M J; Sotnikov, A V

    1996-10-01

    Advances in computer technology continue to bring new innovations to departments of anatomic pathology. This article briefly reviews the present status of digital optical imaging, and explores the directions that this technology may lead over the next several years. Technical requirements for digital microscopic and gross imaging, and the available options for image archival and retrieval are summarized. The advantages of digital images over conventional photography in the conference room, and the usefulness of digital imaging in the frozen section suite and gross room, as an adjunct to surgical signout and as a resource for training and education, are discussed. An approach to the future construction of digital histologic sections and the computer as microscope is described. The digital technologic applications that are now available as components of the surgical pathologist's workstation are enumerated. These include laboratory information systems, computerized voice recognition, and on-line or CD-based literature searching, texts and atlases and, in some departments, on-line image databases. The authors suggest that, in addition to these resources that are already available, tomorrow's surgical pathology workstation will include network-linked digital histologic databases, on-line software for image analysis and 3-D image enhancement, expert systems, and ultimately, advanced pattern recognition capabilities. In conclusion, the authors submit that digital optical imaging is likely to have a significant and positive impact on the future development of anatomic pathology. PMID:8853053

  13. Virtual slides: application in pulmonary pathology consultations.

    PubMed

    Słodkowska, Janina; Chyczewski, Lech; Wojciechowski, Michał

    2008-01-01

    The Virtual Slide (VS) is an interactive microscope emulator that presents a complete digitized tissue section via the Internet. A successful implementation of VS has been observed for educational, research venues and quality control. VS acquisition for consultative pathology is not so common. The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy and usability of VS in the consultative pulmonary telepathology. 20 lung tumors entered the study. The performance was programmed for 2 medical centers specialized in pulmonary pathology (beginner and advancer in telepathology). A high-quality VSs were prepared by Coolscope (Nikon, Eclipsnet VSL, Japan), and were evaluated via the Internet. The cases were reviewed for the second time with conventional light microscope. VS diagnostic accuracy and the interobserver variability were evaluated. Also the time taken by examiners to render the diagnoses and time needed to scan the microscopic slide were analyzed. Percentage concordance between original glass-slides diagnosis and diagnosis for VSs was very high. Pathologists found the download speed of VSs adequate; experience in telepathology reduced the time of VS diagnosis. VS implementation suggests advantages for teleconsulation and education but also indicate some technical limitations. This is the first Polish trial of VS implementation in telepathology consultative service. PMID:18296275

  14. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: radiologic-pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Ros, P R; Buck, J L; Goodman, Z D; Ros, A M; Olmsted, W W

    1988-06-01

    Seventeen proved cases of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICAC) were reviewed to establish a radiologic-pathologic correlation. The most common appearance of ICAC at computed tomography (CT) is that of a single, homogeneous low-attenuation mass. Multiple low-attenuation lesions were present in four cases. Calcification was depicted by CT in three cases. At angiography, ICAC has a variable appearance with avascular, hypovascular, and hypervascular patterns possible. Portal obstruction was seen in only one case. The most common appearance of ICAC at sonography is that of a homogeneously hyperechoic mass, either single or multiple. In only one case was ICAC hypoechoic. Plain abdominal radiography demonstrated calcification in three patients and evidence of Thorotrast (thorium dioxide) deposition in one. Upper gastrointestinal series demonstrated abnormal gastric folds in two cases, corresponding to gastric invasion by ICAC. There were no characteristic radiographic findings, but the following features may be helpful in differentiating ICAC from other primary intrahepatic tumors, particularly typical hepatocellular carcinoma: a homogeneously echogenic or high-attenuation appearance on images that reflects the uniform nature observed at pathologic examination, the presence of calcification, and the uncommon invasion of portal or hepatic veins. Conversely, the presence of satellite lesions may blur the the distinction between ICAC and metastatic liver disease. PMID:2834769

  15. Is pathological gambling moderated by age?

    PubMed

    Granero, Roser; Penelo, Eva; Stinchfield, Randy; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Savvidou, Lamprini G; Fröberg, Frida; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Pérez-Serrano, Miriam; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2014-06-01

    The age of a patient is a strong moderator of both the course and the evolution of disorders/diseases. However, the effects of current age in pathological gambling (PG) have rarely been examined. The aim of this study is to explore the moderating effects of the patients' current age in relation to personality traits and clinical outcomes of PG. A total sample of 2,309 treatment-seeking patients for PG, diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, participated in this study and were assessed with the Diagnostic Questionnaire for Pathological Gambling according to DSM-IV criteria, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Symptom Checklist, the Temperament and Character Inventory-R, and other clinical and psychopathological measures. Orthogonal polynomial contrasts showed linear trends in the relationship between age and PG: the older the patient, the more comorbid health problems were visible. The presence of additional quadratic trends also suggests that age plays a significant role in moderating the possibility of existing PG problems and general psychopathology. No interaction term was found between age and sex, but it was present for age and some personality traits: self-transcendence and reward dependence (these two traits were only relevant to the level of impairment due to PG at specific ages). This study suggests that the patients' age influences psychopathological and clinical aspects associated to PG. Intervention in the earliest manifestations of this complex problem is essential in order to better address the need of successful treatment planning. PMID:23494243

  16. Eating routines: Embedded, value based, modifiable, and reflective

    PubMed Central

    Jastran, Margaret; Bisogni, Carole A.; Sobal, Jeffery; Blake, Christine; Devine, Carol M.

    2009-01-01

    Eating routines are a compelling issue because recurring eating behaviors influence nutrition and health. As non-traditional and individualized eating patterns have become more common, new ways of thinking about routine eating practices are needed. This study sought to gain conceptual understanding of working adults' eating routines. Forty-two purposively sampled US adults reported food intake and contextual details about eating episodes in qualitative 24-hour dietary recalls conducted over 7 consecutive days. Using the constant comparative method, researchers analyzed interview transcripts for recurrent ways of eating that were either explicitly reported by study participants as “routines” or emergent in the data. Participants' eating routines included repetition in food consumption as well as eating context, and also involved sequences of eating episodes. Eating routines were embedded in daily schedules for work, family, and recreation. Participants maintained purposeful routines that helped balance tension between demands and values, but they modified routines as circumstances changed. Participants monitored and reflected upon their eating practices and tended to assess their practices in light of their personal identities. These findings provide conceptual insights for food choice researchers and present a perspective from which practitioners who work with individuals seeking to adopt healthful eating practices might usefully approach their tasks. PMID:18835305

  17. Routine Opt-Out HIV Testing Strategies in a Female Jail Setting: A Prospective Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kavasery, Ravi; Maru, Duncan Smith-Rohrberg; Cornman-Homonoff, Joshua; Sylla, Laurie N.; Smith, David; Altice, Frederick L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Ten million Americans enter jails annually. The objective was to evaluate new CDC guidelines for routine opt-out HIV testing and examine the optimal time to implement routine opt-out HIV testing among newly incarcerated jail detainees. Methods This prospective, controlled trial of routine opt-out HIV testing was conducted among 323 newly incarcerated female inmates in Connecticut's only women's jail. 323 sequential entrants to the women's jail over a five week period in August and September 2007 were assigned to be offered routine opt-out HIV testing at one of three points after incarceration: immediate (same day, n = 108), early (next day, n = 108), or delayed (7 days, n = 107). The primary outcome was the proportion of women in each group consenting to testing. Results Routine opt-out HIV testing was significantly highest (73%) among the early testing group compared to 55% for immediate and 50% for 7 days post-entry groups. Other factors significantly (p = 0.01) associated with being HIV tested were younger age and low likelihood of early release from jail based on bond value or type of charge for which women were arrested. Conclusions In this correctional facility, routine opt-out HIV testing in a jail setting was feasible, with highest rates of testing if performed the day after incarceration. Lower testing rates were seen with immediate testing, where there is a high prevalence of inability or unwillingness to test, and with delayed testing, where attrition from jail increases with each passing day. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00624247 PMID:19946370

  18. Are routine preoperative CT scans necessary in adult cochlear implantation? Implications for the allocation of resources in cochlear implant programs.

    PubMed

    Kenway, Bruno; Vlastarakos, Petros V; Kasbekar, Anand V; Axon, Patrick R; Donnelly, Neil

    2016-08-01

    Our aim was to critically assess the influence of preoperative computed tomography (CT) scans on implantation decisions for adult cochlear implant candidates. The working hypothesis was that these routine scans might not provide critical additional information in most adult cochlear implant candidates. The charts of 175 adults with unilateral cochlear implantation were reviewed. Preoperative CT scan reports were audited, and scans with reported pathology were examined by an Otologist/ENT Surgeon. Clinic notes and multidisciplinary team meeting summaries were also analyzed to assess whether the results of the radiology report had influenced the decision to implant or the laterality of implantation. Twenty-five of the 175 scans (14.3%) showed an abnormality. Five of those 25 scans showed evidence of previous surgeries already known to the clinicians. Of the remaining 20 scans, 17 showed abnormalities, including wide vestibular aqueducts, Mondini deformities, and varying degrees of otospongiosis, the identification of which can be considered preoperatively helpful. Of the 175 scans, 3 (1.7%) demonstrated abnormalities that influenced the side of implantation or the decision to implant and, therefore, had an impact on treatment. We conclude that a preoperative CT scan seems to have an impact on treatment in only a small percentage of adult cochlear implantees. Hence, it may only need to be performed in patients with a history or clinical suspicion of meningitis or otosclerosis, if the individual was born deaf or became deaf before the age of 16, or if there are other clinical reasons to scan (e.g., otoscopic appearance). The related resources can be allocated to other facets of cochlear implant programs. PMID:27551842

  19. Ecology and pathology of amphibian ranaviruses.

    PubMed

    Gray, Matthew J; Miller, Debra L; Hoverman, Jason T

    2009-12-01

    Mass mortality of amphibians has occurred globally since at least the early 1990s from viral pathogens that are members of the genus Ranavirus, family Iridoviridae. The pathogen infects multiple amphibian hosts, larval and adult cohorts, and may persist in herpetofaunal and osteichthyan reservoirs. Environmental persistence of ranavirus virions outside a host may be several weeks or longer in aquatic systems. Transmission occurs by indirect and direct routes, and includes exposure to contaminated water or soil, casual or direct contact with infected individuals, and ingestion of infected tissue during predation, cannibalism, or necrophagy. Some gross lesions include swelling of the limbs or body, erythema, swollen friable livers, and hemorrhage. Susceptible amphibians usually die from chronic cell death in multiple organs, which can occur within a few days following infection or may take several weeks. Amphibian species differ in their susceptibility to ranaviruses, which may be related to their co-evolutionary history with the pathogen. The occurrence of recent widespread amphibian population die-offs from ranaviruses may be an interaction of suppressed and naïve host immunity, anthropogenic stressors, and novel strain introduction. This review summarizes the ecological research on amphibian ranaviruses, discusses possible drivers of emergence and conservation strategies, and presents ideas for future research directions. We also discuss common pathological signs of ranaviral disease, methods for diagnostic evaluation, and ranavirus surveillance methods. In as much as ranaviral disease is listed as a notifiable disease by the World Organization for Animal Health and is a threat to amphibian survival, we recommend that biosecurity precautions are implemented by nations to reduce the likelihood of transporting ranavirus virions among populations. Biosecurity precautions include disinfecting footwear and equipment that comes in contact with surface water inhabited

  20. MR spectroscopy in children: protocols and pitfalls in non-tumorous brain pathology.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jacques F

    2016-06-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) delivers information about cell content and metabolism in a noninvasive manner. The diagnostic strength of MRS lies in its evaluation of pathologies in combination with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRS in children has been most widely used to evaluate brain conditions like tumors, infections, metabolic diseases or learning disabilities and especially in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. This article reviews some basic theoretical considerations, routine procedures, protocols and pitfalls and will illustrate the range of spectrum alterations occurring in some non-tumorous pediatric brain pathologies. PMID:27233789

  1. Musculoskeletal ultrasonography in routine rheumatology practice: data from Central and Eastern European countries.

    PubMed

    Mandl, Peter; Baranauskaite, Asta; Damjanov, Nemanja; Hojnik, Maja; Kurucz, Reka; Nagy, Orsolya; Nemec, Petr; Niedermayer, Dora; Perić, Porin; Petranova, Tzvetanka; Pille, Andres; Rednic, Simona; Vlad, Violeta; Zlnay, Martin; Balint, Peter V

    2016-06-01

    The main aim was to gain structured insight into the use of musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSUS) in routine rheumatology practices in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. In a cross-sectional, observational, international, multicenter survey, a questionnaire was sent to investigational sites in CEE countries. Data on all subsequent routine MSUS examinations, site characteristics, MSUS equipment, and investigators were collected over 6 months or up to 100 examinations per center. A total of 95 physicians at 44 sites in 9 countries provided information on a total of 2810 MSUS examinations. The most frequent diagnoses were rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthritis (34.8 and 14.9 % of cases, respectively). Mean number of joints examined was 6.8. MSUS was most frequently performed for diagnostic purposes (58 %), particularly in patients with undifferentiated arthritis, suspected soft tissue disorders, or osteoarthritis (73.0-85.3 %). In RA patients, 56.3 % of examinations were conducted to monitor disease activity. Nearly all investigations (99 %) had clinical implications, while the results of 78.6 % of examinations (51.6-99.0 %) were deemed useful for patient education. This first standardized multicountry survey performed in CEEs provided a structured documentation of the routine MSUS use in participating countries. The majority of MSUS examinations were performed for diagnostic purposes, whereas one-third was conducted to monitor disease activity in RA. A majority of examinations had an impact on clinical decision making and were also found to be useful for patient education. PMID:26923691

  2. Floating-point function generation routines for 16-bit microcomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackin, M. A.; Soeder, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    Several computer subroutines have been developed that interpolate three types of nonanalytic functions: univariate, bivariate, and map. The routines use data in floating-point form. However, because they are written for use on a 16-bit Intel 8086 system with an 8087 mathematical coprocessor, they execute as fast as routines using data in scaled integer form. Although all of the routines are written in assembly language, they have been implemented in a modular fashion so as to facilitate their use with high-level languages.

  3. [Routine episiotomy in modern obstetrics. Is it necessary?].

    PubMed

    Korczyński, Jerzy

    2002-01-01

    The study presents a literature review on the benefits and risk of the routine episiotomy during the second stage of labour. Perineal trauma complications as well as perinatal outcomes are discussed. The risk of stress incontinence and sexual dysfunction are described. New techniques for improve of perinatal outcomes and prevention of post partum incontinence are described. Routine episiotomy gives poor effects in many cases. Perineal massage during pregnancy, waterbirth, are most interesting methods to avoid routine episiotomy and improve the quality of life in post partum women. PMID:12152258

  4. Congruence Couple Therapy for Pathological Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Bonnie K.

    2009-01-01

    Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universal-spiritual disconnections of pathological gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCT's theoretical…

  5. Pathology and pathogenesis of Buerger's disease.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K

    1998-10-01

    Since Buerger's disease, which is also called 'thromboangiitis obliterans', was proposed in 1908 (Buerger, Am J Med Soc 1908;136:567), more cases have been reported from the United States, Europe, and especially from the Orient. However the pathogenesis of this disease remains unclarified, and its acceptance as a specific disease entity has been disputed (Gore and Burrows, Am J Clin Pathol 1958;29:319; Wessler et al., N Engl J Med 1960;262:1149). We histologically examined the surgically resected arterial specimens from 113 cases, 109 males and four females, clinically diagnosed as Buerger's disease in 1975-1976 and reported the results in 1978 (Kurozumi and Tanaka, Vasc Surg 1978;12:63) and proposed that the term 'Buerger's disease' should be replaced by 'Buerger's syndrome'. We reexamined the above-mentioned cases and will report the pathology and propose the possible pathogenesis of Buerger's disease. PMID:9951825

  6. Elastin peptides in aging and pathological conditions.

    PubMed

    Baud, Stéphanie; Duca, Laurent; Bochicchio, Brigida; Brassart, Bertrand; Belloy, Nicolas; Pepe, Antonietta; Dauchez, Manuel; Martiny, Laurent; Debelle, Laurent

    2013-02-01

    Elastin is the protein responsible for the resilience of vertebrate tissue. It is an extremely stable protein deposited during the early stages of life and experiencing almost no renewal. As a consequence, it can be considered that each individual has an elastin capital for life. Despite its extreme stability, elastin can be degraded by several enzymes termed elastases. Elastases are among the most aggressive proteases, and their presence is increased with age. As a consequence, elastin fragmentation resulting in the generation of elastin peptides is one of the hallmarks of aging. This review will examine their nature and further expose our current understanding of the role played by these peptides in aging and their contribution to tissue homeostasis and several pathologies. PMID:25436566

  7. Application of a compact magnetic resonance imaging system for toxicologic pathology: evaluation of lithium-pilocarpine-induced rat brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Taketa, Yoshikazu; Shiotani, Motohiro; Tsuru, Yoshiharu; Kotani, Sadaharu; Osada, Yoshihide; Fukushima, Tatsuto; Inomata, Akira; Hosokawa, Satoru

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful noninvasive tool used to detect lesions in clinical and veterinary medicine. The present study evaluated the suitability of a new easy-to-use compact MRI platform (M2 permanent magnet system, Aspect Imaging, Shoham, Israel) for assisting with preclinical toxicologic pathology examination of lesions in the rat brain. In order to induce brain lesions, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated once with lithium chloride (127 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]) followed by pilocarpine (30 mg/kg, i.p.). One week after dosing, the perfused, fixed brains were collected, analyzed by the MRI system and examined histopathologically. MRI of the brain of treated rats revealed areas of high T1 and middle to low T2 signals, when compared with the controls, in the piriform cortex, lateral thalamic nucleus, posterior paraventricular thalamic nucleus and posterior hypothalamic nucleus of the cerebrum. The altered MRI signal areas were consistent with well-circumscribed foci of neuronal cell degeneration/necrosis accompanied by glial cell proliferation. The present data demonstrated that quick analysis of fixed organs by the MRI system can detect the presence and location of toxicologic lesions and provide useful temporal information for selection of appropriate sections for histopathologic examination before routine slide preparation, especially in complex and functionally heterogeneous organs such as the brain. PMID:26538811

  8. Application of a compact magnetic resonance imaging system for toxicologic pathology: evaluation of lithium-pilocarpine-induced rat brain lesions

    PubMed Central

    Taketa, Yoshikazu; Shiotani, Motohiro; Tsuru, Yoshiharu; Kotani, Sadaharu; Osada, Yoshihide; Fukushima, Tatsuto; Inomata, Akira; Hosokawa, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful noninvasive tool used to detect lesions in clinical and veterinary medicine. The present study evaluated the suitability of a new easy-to-use compact MRI platform (M2 permanent magnet system, Aspect Imaging, Shoham, Israel) for assisting with preclinical toxicologic pathology examination of lesions in the rat brain. In order to induce brain lesions, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated once with lithium chloride (127 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]) followed by pilocarpine (30 mg/kg, i.p.). One week after dosing, the perfused, fixed brains were collected, analyzed by the MRI system and examined histopathologically. MRI of the brain of treated rats revealed areas of high T1 and middle to low T2 signals, when compared with the controls, in the piriform cortex, lateral thalamic nucleus, posterior paraventricular thalamic nucleus and posterior hypothalamic nucleus of the cerebrum. The altered MRI signal areas were consistent with well-circumscribed foci of neuronal cell degeneration/necrosis accompanied by glial cell proliferation. The present data demonstrated that quick analysis of fixed organs by the MRI system can detect the presence and location of toxicologic lesions and provide useful temporal information for selection of appropriate sections for histopathologic examination before routine slide preparation, especially in complex and functionally heterogeneous organs such as the brain. PMID:26538811

  9. The Relation among Sleep, Routines, and Externalizing Behavior in Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Jill A.; Barry, Tammy D.; Bader, Stephanie H.; Jordan, Sara Sytsma

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined relations among sleep, routines, and externalizing behavior (based on parent report) in 115 children ages 6 to 12 years in two groups: 58 children with an autism spectrum disorder (age M = 9.0, SD = 2.09) and 57 non-ASD children (age M = 8.25, SD = 1.98). Within the ASD group, sleep hygiene and sleep quality were related…

  10. Task Force: Routine Genital Herpes Screening Not Recommended

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160205.html Task Force: Routine Genital Herpes Screening Not Recommended Unless someone ... 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A U.S. federal task force is prepared to recommend that teens, adults and ...

  11. Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Hip Arthroplasty: Routine and High Risk Patients.

    PubMed

    Nam, Denis; Nunley, Ryan M; Johnson, Staci R; Keeney, James A; Clohisy, John C; Barrack, Robert L

    2015-12-01

    This study's purpose was to present the use of a risk stratification protocol in which "routine" risk patients receive a mobile compression device with aspirin and "high" risk patients receive warfarin for thromboprophylaxis after hip arthroplasty. 1859 hip arthroplasty patients were prospectively enrolled (1402 routine risk--75.4%, 457 high risk--24.6%). The cumulative rate of venous thromboembolism events was 0.5% in the routine versus 0.5% in the high-risk cohort within 6weeks postoperatively (P=1.00). Patients in the routine risk cohort had a lower rate of major bleeding (0.5% versus 2.0%, P=0.006) and wound complications (0.2% versus 1.2%, P=0.01). Use of our risk stratification protocol allowed the avoidance of more aggressive anticoagulation in 75% of patients while achieving a low overall incidence of symptomatic VTE. PMID:26182980

  12. User's Manual: Routines for Radiative Heat Transfer and Thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risch, Timothy K.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the intensity and spectral distribution of radiation emanating from a heated surface has applications in many areas of science and engineering. Areas of research in which the quantification of spectral radiation is used routinely include thermal radiation heat transfer, infrared signature analysis, and radiation thermometry. In the analysis of radiation, it is helpful to be able to predict the radiative intensity and the spectral distribution of the emitted energy. Presented in this report is a set of routines written in Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington) and incorporating functions specific to Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington) that are useful for predicting the radiative behavior of heated surfaces. These routines include functions for calculating quantities of primary importance to engineers and scientists. In addition, the routines also provide the capability to use such information to determine surface temperatures from spectral intensities and for calculating the sensitivity of the surface temperature measurements to unknowns in the input parameters.

  13. A crystal routine for collimation studies in circular proton accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirarchi, D.; Hall, G.; Redaelli, S.; Scandale, W.

    2015-07-01

    A routine has been developed to simulate interactions of protons with bent crystals in a version of SixTrack for collimation studies. This routine is optimized to produce high-statistics tracking simulations for a highly efficient collimation system, like the one of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The routine has recently been reviewed and improved through a comparison with experimental data, benchmarked against other codes and updated by adding better models of low-probability interactions. In this paper, data taken with 400 GeV/c proton beams at the CERN-SPS North Area are used to verify the prediction of the routine, including the results of a more recent analysis.

  14. Unsupervised daily routine and activity discovery in smart homes.

    PubMed

    Jie Yin; Qing Zhang; Karunanithi, Mohan

    2015-08-01

    The ability to accurately recognize daily activities of residents is a core premise of smart homes to assist with remote health monitoring. Most of the existing methods rely on a supervised model trained from a preselected and manually labeled set of activities, which are often time-consuming and costly to obtain in practice. In contrast, this paper presents an unsupervised method for discovering daily routines and activities for smart home residents. Our proposed method first uses a Markov chain to model a resident's locomotion patterns at different times of day and discover clusters of daily routines at the macro level. For each routine cluster, it then drills down to further discover room-level activities at the micro level. The automatic identification of daily routines and activities is useful for understanding indicators of functional decline of elderly people and suggesting timely interventions. PMID:26737536

  15. Routine Eye Exams See Vision Problems You Miss

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159863.html Routine Eye Exams See Vision Problems You Miss Older people and those who ... half of people with no new symptoms or vision problems receive new prescriptions or treatment changes as ...

  16. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes...

  17. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes...

  18. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes...

  19. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes...

  20. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes...

  1. Pathological conditions re-shape physiological Tregs into pathological Tregs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, William Y.; Shao, Ying; Lopez-Pastrana, Jahaira; Mai, Jietang; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiao-feng

    2015-01-01

    CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a subset of CD4 T cells that play an essential role in maintaining peripheral immune tolerance, controlling acute and chronic inflammation, allergy, autoimmune diseases, and anti-cancer immune responses. Over the past 20 years, significant progress has been made since Tregs were first characterized in 1995. Many concepts and principles regarding Tregs generation, phenotypic features, subsets (tTregs, pTregs, iTregs, and iTreg35), tissue specificity (central Tregs, effector Tregs, and tissue resident Tregs), homeostasis (highly dynamic and apoptotic), regulation of Tregs by receptors for PAMPs and DAMPs, Treg plasticity (re-differentiation to other CD4 T helper cell subsets, Th1, Th2, Tfh and Th17), and epigenetic regulation of Tregs phenotypes and functions have been innovated. In this concise review, we want to briefly analyze these eight new progresses in the study of Tregs. We have also proposed for the first time a novel concept that “physiological Tregs” have been re-shaped into “pathological Tregs” in various pathological environments. Continuing of the improvement in our understanding on this important cellular component about the immune tolerance and immune suppression, would lead to the future development of novel therapeutics approaches for acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, allergy, allogeneic transplantation-related immunity, sepsis, autoimmune diseases, and cancers. PMID:26623425

  2. Survey of US Correctional Institutions for Routine HCV Testing.

    PubMed

    Beckwith, Curt G; Kurth, Ann E; Bazerman, Lauri; Solomon, Liza; Patry, Emily; Rich, Josiah D; Kuo, Irene

    2015-01-01

    To ascertain HCV testing practices among US prisons and jails, we conducted a survey study in 2012, consisting of medical directors of all US state prisons and 40 of the largest US jails, that demonstrated a minority of US prisons and jails conduct routine HCV testing. Routine voluntary HCV testing in correctional facilities is urgently needed to increase diagnosis, enable risk-reduction counseling and preventive health care, and facilitate evaluation for antiviral treatment. PMID:25393180

  3. Adoption of routine telemedicine in Norway: the current picture

    PubMed Central

    Zanaboni, Paolo; Knarvik, Undine; Wootton, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background Telemedicine appears to be ready for wider adoption. Although existing research evidence is useful, the adoption of routine telemedicine in healthcare systems has been slow. Objective We conducted a study to explore the current use of routine telemedicine in Norway, at national, regional, and local levels, to provide objective and up-to-date information and to estimate the potential for wider adoption of telemedicine. Design A top-down approach was used to collect official data on the national use of telemedicine from the Norwegian Patient Register. A bottom-up approach was used to collect complementary information on the routine use of telemedicine through a survey conducted at the five largest publicly funded hospitals. Results Results show that routine telemedicine has been adopted in all health regions in Norway and in 68% of hospitals. Despite being widely adopted, the current level of use of telemedicine is low compared to the number of face-to-face visits. Examples of routine telemedicine can be found in several clinical specialties. Most services connect different hospitals in secondary care, and they are mostly delivered as teleconsultations via videoconference. Conclusions Routine telemedicine in Norway has been widely adopted, probably for geographical reasons, as in other settings. However, the level of use of telemedicine in Norway is rather low, and it has significant potential for further development as an alternative to face-to-face outpatient visits. This study is a first attempt to map routine telemedicine at regional, institutional, and clinical levels, and it provides useful information to understand the adoption of telemedicine in routine healthcare and to measure change in future updates. PMID:24433942

  4. Unusual Foreign Body in a Routine Lateral Cephalogram

    PubMed Central

    James, Jean; S, Praveen; V.P, Latheef; S, Sreehari

    2015-01-01

    Routine radiographs made in the orthodontic office can often give way to detection and diagnosis of unusual syndromes, signs or foreign bodies. A case report of one such accidental detection of a very unusual foreign body within the nasal cavity of an orthodontic patient has been presented here to emphasize the importance of routine radiographic views, which over and above aiding in Orthodontic diagnosis, can also often detect potentially life threatening problems in the Oro-facial region. PMID:25859532

  5. Survey of US Correctional Institutions for Routine HCV Testing

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Ann E.; Bazerman, Lauri; Solomon, Liza; Patry, Emily; Rich, Josiah D.; Kuo, Irene

    2015-01-01

    To ascertain HCV testing practices among US prisons and jails, we conducted a survey study in 2012, consisting of medical directors of all US state prisons and 40 of the largest US jails, that demonstrated a minority of US prisons and jails conduct routine HCV testing. Routine voluntary HCV testing in correctional facilities is urgently needed to increase diagnosis, enable risk-reduction counseling and preventive health care, and facilitate evaluation for antiviral treatment. PMID:25393180

  6. Age Demographics, Hiring Trends, and Graduation Rates in Plant Pathology in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the status of plant pathology departments and age demographics of the profession. Seven of eight large departments have lost from 17 to 40% of their faculty positions since 1987, and several smaller graduate programs in plant pathology (e.g., in several northeastern states) have all but...

  7. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy versus Cognitive Therapy for the Treatment of Comorbid Eating Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juarascio, Adrienne S.; Forman, Evan M.; Herbert, James D.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that although eating pathology is prevalent in college populations, both CBT and non-CBT-based therapies achieve only limited effectiveness. The current study examined several questions related to the treatment of eating pathology within the context of a larger randomized controlled trial that compared standard CBT…

  8. Pathologic studies of fatal cases in outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease, Taiwan.

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, W. J.; Jung, S. M.; Hsueh, C.; Kuo, T. T.; Mounts, A.; Parashar, U.; Yang, C. F.; Guarner, J.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Dawson, J.; Goldsmith, C.; Chang, G. J.; Oberste, S. M.; Pallansch, M. A.; Anderson, L. J.; Zaki, S. R.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, an outbreak of enterovirus 71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease occurred in Taiwan. Pathologic studies of two fatal cases with similar clinical features revealed two different causative agents, emphasizing the need for postmortem examinations and modern pathologic techniques in an outbreak investigation. PMID:11266307

  9. Behavioral Treatment for Pathological Gambling in Persons with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guercio, John M.; Johnson, Taylor; Dixon, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation examined a behavior-analytic clinical treatment package designed to reduce the pathological gambling of 3 individuals with acquired brain injury. A prior history of pathological gambling of each patient was assessed via caregiver report, psychological testing, and direct observation of gambling behavior. Using an 8-week…

  10. Is there a need for ophthalmological examinations after a first seizure in paediatric patients?

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Matthias K; Gläser, Alexandra; Ulrich, Kathrin; Merkenschlager, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the recommendations of the International Liga against Epilepsy, many hospitals perform routinely complete ophthalmological examinations in children admitted after a first seizure. As there is no study available to date to prove the benefit of complete eye examinations in first seizure diagnosis, we conducted a study to analyse the value of a complete ophthalmological examination. All children aged 1 month to 18 years who were admitted to the children's university hospital of Leipzig with the clinical diagnosis of a first convulsive or non-convulsive afebrile seizure between 1999 and August 2005 were investigated. All children who had obtained a complete ophthalmological examination within 72 h after the seizure were included in the observational study. A total of 310 children were analysed in the study. Two hundred thirty patients had a tonic-clonic afebrile seizure, the others focal, complex-partial seizures or absences. Two hundred seven out of 310 children showed no ophthalmological pathologies. Eighty-three children had refraction anomalies or strabism, 18 children had optic atrophy, three had congenital eye muscle paresis, and three had malformations. A 16-year-old girl had a homonymous quadrantanopia due to an occipital glioglioma that caused the seizure. An 11-year-old girl had a retinal haemorrhage without any brain lesions after a fall caused by a first tonic-clonic seizure. None of the ophthalmological findings influenced directly the immediate clinical course of diagnosis and treatment of the seizure. Our data suggest that routine ophthalmological examination in all children does not have additional benefit in the first seizure diagnosis management. PMID:19271236

  11. Intellectual impairment in Parkinson's disease: clinical, pathologic, and biochemical correlates.

    PubMed

    Cummings, J L

    1988-01-01

    The prevalence of overt dementia in 27 studies representing 4,336 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients was 39.9%. The studies reporting the highest incidence of intellectual impairment (69.9%) used psychologic assessment techniques, whereas studies identifying the lowest prevalence of dementia (30.2%) depended on nonstandardized clinical examinations. Neuropsychologic investigations reveal that PD patients manifest impairment in memory, visuospatial skills, and set aptitude. Language function is largely spared. Intellectual deterioration in PD correlates with age, akinesia, duration, and treatment status. Neuropathologic and neurochemical observations demonstrate that PD is a heterogeneous disorder: the classic subcortical pathology with dopamine deficiency may be complicated by atrophy of nucleus basalis and superimposed cortical cholinergic deficits, and a few patients have the histopathologic hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Mild intellectual loss occurs with the classic pathology, and the more severe dementia syndromes have cholinergic alterations or Alzheimer's disease. Thus, PD includes several syndromes of intellectual impairment with variable pathologic and neurochemical correlates. PMID:2908099

  12. Factors Associated with Suicide and Bankruptcy in Japanese Pathological Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Komoto, Yasunobo

    2014-01-01

    Pathological gambling can lead to a number of deleterious consequences, including bankruptcy and suicide. The present study examined the correlation between clinical characteristics of pathological gamblers and history of bankruptcy and suicide attempts. Subjects (141; 124 male) were outpatients at a psychiatric hospital from 2007 to 2010. Demographic and medical variables including age, gender, age of gambling onset, psychiatric complications, suicide attempts, and bankruptcy were assessed. Positive correlations were observed between suicide attempt and female gender, family history of addiction, and unemployment (p < 0.05). Similar variables correlated with bankruptcy (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that a family history of addiction was the strongest independent predictor of suicide and bankruptcy. Results suggest that treatment for pathological gambling should address the patient's past experience with addict family members, especially if the patient reports a history of bankruptcy or suicidal ideation. PMID:25285061

  13. Interactions of Pathological Hallmark Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Oláh, Judit; Vincze, Orsolya; Virók, Dezső; Simon, Dóra; Bozsó, Zsolt; Tőkési, Natália; Horváth, István; Hlavanda, Emma; Kovács, János; Magyar, Anna; Szűcs, Mária; Orosz, Ferenc; Penke, Botond; Ovádi, Judit

    2011-01-01

    The disordered tubulin polymerization promoting protein (TPPP/p25) was found to be co-enriched in neuronal and glial inclusions with α-synuclein in Parkinson disease and multiple system atrophy, respectively; however, co-occurrence of α-synuclein with β-amyloid (Aβ) in human brain inclusions has been recently reported, suggesting the existence of mixed type pathologies that could result in obstacles in the correct diagnosis and treatment. Here we identified TPPP/p25 as an interacting partner of the soluble Aβ oligomers as major risk factors for Alzheimer disease using ProtoArray human protein microarray. The interactions of oligomeric Aβ with proteins involved in the etiology of neurological disorders were characterized by ELISA, surface plasmon resonance, pelleting experiments, and tubulin polymerization assay. We showed that the Aβ42 tightly bound to TPPP/p25 (Kd = 85 nm) and caused aberrant protein aggregation by inhibiting the physiologically relevant TPPP/p25-derived microtubule assembly. The pair-wise interactions of Aβ42, α-synuclein, and tubulin were found to be relatively weak; however, these three components formed soluble ternary complex exclusively in the absence of TPPP/p25. The aggregation-facilitating activity of TPPP/p25 and its interaction with Aβ was monitored by electron microscopy with purified proteins by pelleting experiments with cell-free extracts as well as by confocal microscopy with CHO cells expressing TPPP/p25 or amyloid. The finding that the interaction of TPPP/p25 with Aβ can produce pathological-like aggregates is tightly coupled with unusual pathology of the Alzheimer disease revealed previously; that is, partial co-localization of Aβ and TPPP/p25 in the case of diffuse Lewy body disease with Alzheimer disease. PMID:21832049

  14. Routine activities and victimization at school: the significance of gender.

    PubMed

    Popp, Ann Marie; Peguero, Anthony A

    2011-08-01

    Routine activities theory has not fully considered the role of gender in shaping victimization and yet, the research literature clearly demonstrates that gender is associated with an individual's risk of victimization. In addition to the pervasive effect of gender on victimization, gender shapes an individual's daily routines and thus may create a gender-specific relationship with victimization. This article explores the importance of gender in understanding the relationship between student's participation in extracurricular routine activities (e.g., student government, clubs, sports, and etc.) and the risk of victimization. From the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, a sample of 10th-grade students was drawn for analyses. Hierarchical Generalized Linear Modeling was employed to explore the role of gender in the relationship between extracurricular routine activities and victimization at school. The results reveal that students' gender indeed interacts with several of the extracurricular routine activities creating gender-specific risks of victimization. This article highlights the importance of gender in explaining victimization and suggests researchers should consider how gender may interact with other routine activities and victimization. PMID:20956442

  15. Routine HIV Testing in Indiana Community Health Centers.

    PubMed

    Meyerson, Beth E; Navale, Shalini M; Gillespie, Anthony; Ohmit, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed routine HIV testing in Indiana community health centers (CHCs). Methods. CHC medical directors reported HIV services, testing behaviors, barriers, and health center characteristics via survey from April to May 2013. Standard of care testing was measured by the extent to which CHCs complied with national guidelines for routine HIV testing in clinical settings. Results. Most (85.7%) CHCs reported HIV testing, primarily at patient request or if the patient was symptomatic. Routine HIV testing was provided for pregnant women by 60.7% of CHCs. Only 10.7% provided routine testing for adolescents to adults up to age 65 years. Routine testing was reported by 14.3% for gay and bisexual men, although 46.4% of CHCs reported asking patients about sexual orientation. Linkage to care services for HIV-positive patients, counseling for HIV treatment adherence, and partner testing generally was not provided. Conclusions. Most CHCs reported HIV testing, but such testing did not reflect the standard of care, because it depended on patient request or symptoms. One approach in future studies may be to allow respondents to compare current testing with standard of care and then reflect on barriers to and facilitators of adoption and implementation of routine HIV testing. PMID:25393186

  16. Work routinization and implications for ergonomic exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Gold, Judith E; Park, Jung-Soon; Punnett, Laura

    2006-01-15

    Jobs in many modern settings, including manufacturing, service, agriculture and construction, are variable in their content and timing. This prompts the need for exposure assessment methods that do not assume regular work cycles. A scheme is presented for classifying levels of routinization to inform development of an appropriate exposure assessment strategy for a given occupational setting. Five levels of routinization have been defined based on the tasks of which the job is composed: 1) a single scheduled task with a regular work cycle; 2) multiple cyclical tasks; 3) a mix of cyclical and non-cyclical tasks; 4) one non-cyclical task; 5) multiple non-cyclical tasks. This classification, based primarily on job observation, is illustrated through data from a study of automobile manufacturing workers (n = 1200), from which self-assessed exposures to physical and psychosocial stressors were also obtained. In this cohort, decision latitude was greater with higher routinization level (p < 0.0001), and the least routinized jobs showed the lowest self-reported exposure to physical ergonomic stressors. The job analysis checklist developed for non-routinized jobs is presented, and limitations of the task analysis method utilized in the study are discussed. A work sampling approach to job analysis is recommended as the most efficient way to obtain a comparable unbiased exposure estimate across all routinization levels. PMID:16393801

  17. Usefulness of routine preoperative testing in a developing country: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Bordes, Julien; Cungi, Pierre-Julien; Savoie, Pierre-Henry; Bonnet, Stéphane; Kaiser, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The assessment of anesthetic risks is an essential component of preoperative evaluation. In developing world, preanesthesia evaluation may be challenging because patient's medical history and records are scare, and language barrier limits physical examination. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of routine preoperative testing in a low-resources setting. Methods Prospective observational study performed in a French forward surgical unit in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. 201 patients who were scheduled for non urgent surgery were screened with routine laboratory exams during preoperative evaluation. Changes in surgery were assessed (delayed or scheduled). Results Abnormal hemoglobin findings were reported in 35% of patients, abnormal WBC count in 11,1% of patients, abnormal platelets in 15,3% of patients. Positive HIV results were found in 8,3% of cases. Routine tests represented 43,6% of changes causes. Conclusion Our study showed that in a developing country, routine preoperative tests showed abnormal results up to 35% of cases, and represented 43,5% of delayed surgery causes. The rate of tests leading to management changes varied widely, from 0% to 8,3%. These results suggested that selected tests would be useful to diagnose diseases that required treatment before non urgent surgery. However, larger studies are needeed to evaluate the cost/benefit ratio and the clinical impact of such a strategy. PMID:26516395

  18. Road-traffic pollution and asthma – using modelled exposure assessment for routine public health surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Elspeth C; Maheswaran, Ravi; Daly, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Asthma is a common disease and appears to be increasing in prevalence. There is evidence linking air pollution, including that from road-traffic, with asthma. Road traffic is also on the increase. Routine surveillance of the impact of road-traffic pollution on asthma, and other diseases, would be useful in informing local and national government policy in terms of managing the environmental health risk. Several methods for exposure assessment have been used in studies examining the association between asthma and road traffic pollution. These include comparing asthma prevalence in areas designated as high and low pollution areas, using distance from main roads as a proxy for exposure to road traffic pollution, using traffic counts to estimate exposure, using vehicular miles travelled and using modelling techniques. Although there are limitations to all these methods, the modelling approach has the advantage of incorporating several variables and may be used for prospective health impact assessment. The modelling approach is already in routine use in the United Kingdom in support of the government's strategy for air quality management. Combining information from such models with routinely collected health data would form the basis of a routine public health surveillance system. Such a system would facilitate prospective health impact assessment, enabling policy decisions concerned with road-traffic to be made with knowledge of the potential implications. It would also allow systematic monitoring of the health impacts when the policy decisions and plans have been implemented. PMID:15485575

  19. Hyperthyroidism Presenting With Pathologic Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Sarezky, Margaret D.; Corwin, Daniel J.; Harrison, Victor S.; Jacobstein, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that thyroid hormone directly stimulates bone resorption in in vitro organ culture, and in adults excess thyroid hormone is associated with decreased bone mineral density. There are limited data in children regarding the effect of hyperthyroidism on bone metabolism and even fewer instances in the literature of hyperthyroidism presenting with bone demineralization and fracture. We report a case of an 11-year-old boy with undiagnosed hyperthyroidism presenting with fractures and osteoporosis. This case emphasizes the importance of maintaining a broad differential diagnosis when a patient presents with a pathologic fracture. PMID:26746406

  20. Pathological gambling and criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Rachlin, S; Halpern, A L; Portnow, S L

    1986-01-01

    There exists significant interdisciplinary support for eliminating the volitional component of the insanity defense. Somewhat in contrast to this trend is the presentation of pathological gambling as a potentially exculpatory condition in criminal trials. The authors discuss three federal appellate court decisions on this attempted inappropriate usage of psychiatric diagnostic nomenclature. All have upheld convictions, and thereby rejected contentions that such an impulse disorder can form the basis for a valid plea of lack of criminal responsibility. It is suggested that the public interest will be served by statutorily making disturbances of behavioral control insufficient to raise a defense of insanity. PMID:3944564

  1. Automated Classification of Pathology Reports.

    PubMed

    Oleynik, Michel; Finger, Marcelo; Patrão, Diogo F C

    2015-01-01

    This work develops an automated classifier of pathology reports which infers the topography and the morphology classes of a tumor using codes from the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O). Data from 94,980 patients of the A.C. Camargo Cancer Center was used for training and validation of Naive Bayes classifiers, evaluated by the F1-score. Measures greater than 74% in the topographic group and 61% in the morphologic group are reported. Our work provides a successful baseline for future research for the classification of medical documents written in Portuguese and in other domains. PMID:26262339

  2. Iliopsoas: Pathology, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christian N

    2016-07-01

    Disorders of the iliopsoas can be a significant source of groin pain in the athletic population. Commonly described pathologic conditions include iliopsoas bursitis, tendonitis, impingement, and snapping. The first-line treatment for iliopsoas disorders is typically conservative, including activity modification, physical therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and corticosteroid injections. Surgical treatment can be considered if the patient fails conservative measures and typically involves arthroscopic lengthening of the musculotendinous unit and treatment of concomitant intra-articular abnormality. Tendon release has been described: in the central compartment, in the peripheral compartment, and at the lesser trochanter, with similar outcomes observed between the techniques. PMID:27343394

  3. Sonography of pathological changes in the hand.

    PubMed

    Dębek, Anna; Czyrny, Zbigniew; Nowicki, Paweł

    2014-03-01

    Everyday medical practice shows that most common problems within the hand result from overload, injuries and degeneration. Dorsal side pathologies such as de Quervain's and Wartenberg's disease, intersection syndrome or degenerative lesions of carpometa-carpal joint of the thumb discussed in the paper can be accurately diagnosed and differentiated by means of ultrasound examination. Ultrasound is similarly powerful in detection and grading of traumatic lesions involving extensor tendons and their sagittal bands or the flexor tendons and their pulleys. In the case of carpal tunnel syndrome one can not only visualize the median nerve but also other structures of the tunnel that may cause compression. Similarly ulnar nerve compression within the Guyon's canal can be well evaluated. In cases of nerve trauma one can precisely define the level, and in cases of nerve discontinuity, the distance between stumps can be measured which is important in surgery planning. Often nerve trauma is a sequelae of tendon reconstruction. In such cases scars and nerve entrapment can be depicted. Tumors within a hand are usually benign, of which the most common are ganglia. On ultrasound examination a connection between a ganglion and its source (usually a joint or sheath) can frequently be defined. The relationship of tumors to nerves, tendon sheaths or vessels may suggest their nature. Ultrasound with dynamic tissue assessment is a very valuable adjunct to clinical examination. PMID:26675521

  4. Sonography of pathological changes in the hand

    PubMed Central

    Czyrny, Zbigniew; Nowicki, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Everyday medical practice shows that most common problems within the hand result from overload, injuries and degeneration. Dorsal side pathologies such as de Quervain's and Wartenberg's disease, intersection syndrome or degenerative lesions of carpometa-carpal joint of the thumb discussed in the paper can be accurately diagnosed and differentiated by means of ultrasound examination. Ultrasound is similarly powerful in detection and grading of traumatic lesions involving extensor tendons and their sagittal bands or the flexor tendons and their pulleys. In the case of carpal tunnel syndrome one can not only visualize the median nerve but also other structures of the tunnel that may cause compression. Similarly ulnar nerve compression within the Guyon's canal can be well evaluated. In cases of nerve trauma one can precisely define the level, and in cases of nerve discontinuity, the distance between stumps can be measured which is important in surgery planning. Often nerve trauma is a sequelae of tendon reconstruction. In such cases scars and nerve entrapment can be depicted. Tumors within a hand are usually benign, of which the most common are ganglia. On ultrasound examination a connection between a ganglion and its source (usually a joint or sheath) can frequently be defined. The relationship of tumors to nerves, tendon sheaths or vessels may suggest their nature. Ultrasound with dynamic tissue assessment is a very valuable adjunct to clinical examination. PMID:26675521

  5. Recovery of spiked troponin I in four routine assays

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Tze Ping; Lim, Xiong Chang; Kieu, Karize; Sajiir, Haressh; Neo, Siew Fong; Cheng, Wan Ling; Sethi, Sunil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to examine the recovery of spiked human cardiac troponin I (cTnI) results measured by four routine assays, and investigate possible interference from microclots. Materials and methods 457 consecutive samples with cTnI concentration below limit of quantitation (12 ng/L), declared by the Vitros TnI ES assay (reference assay), were measured on Beckman Coulter Accu TnI+3, Siemens TnI-Ultra and Roche TnI STAT assays. These samples were enriched with native full-length cTnI to a concentration of 100 ng/L and retested. A post-spiking result that exceeded the critical difference at a predefined probability of 0.0005 of the target concentration (the median post-spiking result for each individual assay) was considered as outlier. To determine whether microclots were a significant cause of critically discrepant outlier results, a separate 50 samples were centrifuged twice between two post-spiking measurements using the Vitros TnI ES assay. Results The median recovery of the enriched cTnI was highest with the Roche assay (271 ng/L) and lowest with the Vitros assay (29 ng/L). The Vitros assay had the highest percentage of results that exceeded the critical difference (49%), followed by the Siemens (38%), Roche (18%) and Beckman Coulter (7%) assays. None of the 50 additional samples produced a critically lower cTnI result after re-centrifugation. Conclusions Our findings underscored the variability of cTnI assays in measuring native cTnI. The lack of cTnI results that became significantly lower after re-centrifugation suggested that microclots are unlikely to be a major cause of the outlier results. PMID:27346968

  6. Patency and Reintervention Rates During Routine TIPSS Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Latimer, Joanne; Bawa, Sadeeq M.; Rees, Colin J.; Hudson, Mark; Rose, John D.G.

    1998-05-15

    Purpose: To assess the medium-term outcome of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunts (TIPSS) by measuring the incidence of shunt obstruction or failure during routine surveillance and the number of interventions performed. Methods: This is a retrospective study covering a 4-year period, from 1992 to 1996, during which 102 TIPSS procedures were performed. Indications for treatment were variceal bleeding (76%) and refractory ascites (24%). Follow-up protocol after TIPSS included transfemoral or transjugular portal venography and measurement of portosystemic pressure gradient (PPG) at 3 months, 12 months, and then at yearly intervals. The results of the first 155 venograms on 62 patients (mean follow-up 14 months) have been reviewed and Kaplan-Meier analysis performed. Results: One hundred and thirty-seven of 155 (88%) examinations showed patent shunts. Fifty-six of 137 (41%) of the patent TIPSS had elevated PPG with signs of stenosis. The majority (41/56) of shunt stenoses with elevated pressure gradients were related to neointimal hyperplasia in the hepatic venous aspect of the shunt. Interventions used to reduce the pressure gradient or to restore patency included: angioplasty (62/102 interventions), additional stents (21/102), a second TIPSS procedure (2/102), and thrombolysis or thrombectomy (4/102). The primary patency rate was 66% at 1 year (52% at 2 years). Primary assisted patency was 72% at 1 year (58% at 2 years). Secondary patency was 86% at 1 year (63% at 2 years). Conclusion: The majority of TIPSS shunts will remain patent when regular portal venography, with appropriate intervention, is undertaken. Although there is a high reintervention rate this mainly takes the form of balloon angioplasty.

  7. AKPLOT- A PLOTTER ROUTINE FOR THE IBM PC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, A. V.

    1994-01-01

    The AKPLOT routine was designed for engineers and scientists who use graphs as an integral part of their documentation. AKPLOT allows the user to generate a graph and edit its appearance on a CRT. This graph may undergo many interactive alterations before it is finally screen dumped to a printer for a hard copy plot. The finished AKPLOT graph may be stored in a file for future use. Features available in AKPLOT include: multiple curves on a single plot; combinations of linear and logarithmic scale axes; Lagrange interpolation of selected curves; shrink, expand, zoom, and tilt; ten different symbols and four different colors for curves; and three different grid types. AKPLOT enables the user to perform least squares fitting of all or selected curves with polynomials of up to 99 degrees and examine the least squares coefficients. The user must provide the data points to be plotted by one of two methods: 1) supplying an external file of X-Y values for all curves, or 2) computing the X-Y vectors by either placing BASIC code describing the relation in a designated section of the AKPLOT code or dynamically entering a one line function. Using either technique, the X-Y values are input to the computer only once, as the iterative graph edit loop bypasses the data input step for faster execution. AKPLOT is written in BASIC for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC series computer operating under DOS. AKPLOT requires a graphics board and a color monitor. This program was originally developed in 1986 and later revised in 1987.

  8. Improving the pathologic evaluation of lung cancer resection specimens.

    PubMed

    Osarogiagbon, Raymond U; Hilsenbeck, Holly L; Sales, Elizabeth W; Berry, Allen; Jarrett, Robert W; Giampapa, Christopher S; Finch-Cruz, Clara N; Spencer, David

    2015-08-01

    Accurate post-operative prognostication and management heavily depend on pathologic nodal stage. Patients with nodal metastasis benefit from post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy, those with mediastinal nodal involvement may also benefit from adjuvant radiation therapy. However, the quality of pathologic nodal staging varies significantly, with major survival implications in large populations of patients. We describe the quality gap in pathologic nodal staging, and provide evidence of its potential reversibility by targeted corrective interventions. One intervention, designed to improve the surgical lymphadenectomy, specimen labeling, and secure transfer between the operating theatre and the pathology laboratory, involves use of pre-labeled specimen collection kits. Another intervention involves application of an improved method of gross dissection of lung resection specimens, to reduce the inadvertent loss of intrapulmonary lymph nodes to histologic examination for metastasis. These corrective interventions are the subject of a regional dissemination and implementation project in diverse healthcare systems in a tri-state region of the United States with some of the highest lung cancer incidence and mortality rates. We discuss the potential of these interventions to significantly improve the accuracy of pathologic nodal staging, risk stratification, and the quality of specimens available for development of stage-independent prognostic markers in lung cancer. PMID:26380184

  9. Controversies in the pathological assessment of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Aoife; Sheahan, Kieran

    2014-01-01

    Pathologic assessment of colorectal cancer specimens plays an essential role in patient management, informing prognosis and contributing to therapeutic decision making. The tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging system is a key component of the colorectal cancer pathology report and provides important prognostic information. However there is significant variation in outcome of patients within the same tumor stage. Many other histological features such as tumor budding, vascular invasion, perineural invasion, tumor grade and rectal tumor regression grade that may be of prognostic value are not part of TNM staging. Assessment of extramural tumor deposits and peritoneal involvement contributes to TNM staging but there are some difficulties with the definition of both of these features. Controversies in colorectal cancer pathology reporting include the subjective nature of some of the elements assessed, poor reporting rates and reproducibility and the need for standardized examination protocols and reporting. Molecular pathology is becoming increasingly important in prognostication and prediction of response to targeted therapies but accurate morphology still has a key role to play in colorectal cancer pathology reporting. PMID:25110416

  10. Improving the pathologic evaluation of lung cancer resection specimens

    PubMed Central

    Hilsenbeck, Holly L.; Sales, Elizabeth W.; Berry, Allen; Jarrett, Robert W.; Giampapa, Christopher S.; Finch-Cruz, Clara N.; Spencer, David

    2015-01-01

    Accurate post-operative prognostication and management heavily depend on pathologic nodal stage. Patients with nodal metastasis benefit from post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy, those with mediastinal nodal involvement may also benefit from adjuvant radiation therapy. However, the quality of pathologic nodal staging varies significantly, with major survival implications in large populations of patients. We describe the quality gap in pathologic nodal staging, and provide evidence of its potential reversibility by targeted corrective interventions. One intervention, designed to improve the surgical lymphadenectomy, specimen labeling, and secure transfer between the operating theatre and the pathology laboratory, involves use of pre-labeled specimen collection kits. Another intervention involves application of an improved method of gross dissection of lung resection specimens, to reduce the inadvertent loss of intrapulmonary lymph nodes to histologic examination for metastasis. These corrective interventions are the subject of a regional dissemination and implementation project in diverse healthcare systems in a tri-state region of the United States with some of the highest lung cancer incidence and mortality rates. We discuss the potential of these interventions to significantly improve the accuracy of pathologic nodal staging, risk stratification, and the quality of specimens available for development of stage-independent prognostic markers in lung cancer. PMID:26380184

  11. Nuclear magnetic resonance proton imaging of bone pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Atlan, H.; Sigal, R.; Hadar, H.; Chisin, R.; Cohen, I.; Lanir, A.; Soudry, M.; Machtey, Y.; Schreiber, R.; Benmair, J.

    1986-02-01

    Thirty-two patients with diversified pathology were examined with a supraconductive NMR imager using spin echo with different TR and TE to obtain T1 and T2 weighted images. They included 20 tumors (12 primary, eight metastasis), six osteomyelitis, three fractures, two osteonecrosis, and one diffuse metabolic (Gaucher) disease. In all cases except for the stress fractures, the bone pathology was clearly visualized in spite of the normal lack of signal from the compact cortical bone. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging proved to be at least as sensitive as radionuclide scintigraphy but much more accurate than all other imaging procedures including computed tomography (CT) and angiography to assess the extension of the lesions, especially in tumors extended to soft tissue. This is due both to easy acquisition of sagittal and coronal sections and to different patterns of pathologic modifications of T1 and T2 which are beginning to be defined. It is hoped that more experience in clinical use of these patterns will help to discriminate between tumor extension and soft-tissue edema. We conclude that while radionuclide scintigraphy will probably remain the most sensitive and easy to perform screening test for bone pathology, NMR imaging, among noninvasive diagnostic procedures, appears to be at least as specific as CT. In addition, where the extension of the lesions is concerned, NMR imaging is much more informative than CT. In pathology of the spine, the easy visualization of the spinal cord should decrease the need for myelography.

  12. Standardizing of Pathology in Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bossuyt, Veerle; Symmans, W Fraser

    2016-10-01

    The use of neoadjuvant systemic therapy for the treatment of breast cancer patients is increasing. Pathologic response in the form of pathologic complete response (pCR) and grading systems of partial response, such as the residual cancer burden (RCB) system, gives valuable prognostic information for patients and is used as a primary endpoint in clinical trials. The breast cancer and pathology communities are responding with efforts to standardize pathology in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In this review, we summarize the challenges that postneoadjuvant systemic therapy surgical specimens pose and how pathologists and the multidisciplinary team can work together to optimize handling of these specimens. Multidisciplinary communication is essential. A single, standardized approach to macroscopic and microscopic pathologic examination makes it possible to provide reliable response information. This approach employs a map of tissue sections to correlate clinical, gross, microscopic, and imaging findings in order to report the presence of pCR (ypT0 ypN0 and ypT0/is ypN0) versus residual disease, the ypT and ypN stage using the current AJCC/UICC staging system, and the RCB. PMID:27380637

  13. Rapid targeted somatic mutation analysis of solid tumors in routine clinical diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Francaviglia, Ilaria; Dal Cin, Elena; Barbieri, Gianluca; Arrigoni, Gianluigi; Pecciarini, Lorenza; Doglioni, Claudio; Cangi, Maria Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Tumor genotyping is an essential step in routine clinical practice and pathology laboratories face a major challenge in being able to provide rapid, sensitive and updated molecular tests. We developed a novel mass spectrometry multiplexed genotyping platform named PentaPanel to concurrently assess single nucleotide polymorphisms in 56 hotspots of the 5 most clinically relevant cancer genes, KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, EGFR and PIK3CA for a total of 221 detectable mutations. To both evaluate and validate the PentaPanel performance,we investigated 1025 tumor specimens of 6 different cancer types (carcinomas of colon, lung, breast, pancreas, and biliary tract, and melanomas), systematically addressing sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of our platform. Sanger sequencing was also performed for all the study samples. Our data showed that PentaPanel is a high throughput and robust tool, allowing genotyping for targeted therapy selection of 10 patients in the same run, with a practical turnaround time of 2 working days. Importantly, it was successfully used to interrogate different DNAs isolated from routinely processed specimens (formalin-fixed paraffin embedded, frozen, and cytological samples), covering all the requirements of clinical tests. In conclusion, the PentaPanel platform can provide an immediate, accurate and cost effective multiplex approach for clinically relevant gene mutation analysis in many solid tumors and its utility across many diseases can be particularly relevant in multiple clinical trials, including the new basket trial approach, aiming to identify appropriate targeted drug combination strategies. PMID:26435479

  14. Family routines within the ecological niche: an analysis of the psychological well-being of U.S. caregivers of children with disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Elizabeth; Miller-Bishoff, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Using mixed methods, this study examined the relationship of caregivers of children with disabilities’ psychological well-being (PWB) and their orchestration of daily routines within their ecological niche. Thirty-nine U.S. caregivers completed in-depth interviews, PWB Scales, and Family Time and Routines Index (FTRI). We used a multi-step analysis. Interview data was coded and vignettes created without knowledge of PWB and FTRI ratings. Next, the relationship of quantitative measures was analyzed. Four groups were created using FTRI-extent and PWB means: (1) low routine-low PWB, (2) low routine-high PWB, (3) high routine-low PWB, and (4) high routine-high PWB. We examined qualitative differences in key features between groups. Findings: Total PWB and FTRI scores were not significantly correlated, PWB Purpose in Life and FTRI-extent scores were moderately positively correlated, and PWB Environmental Mastery and FTRI-extent correlation approached significance. Qualitative findings describe caregivers’ structuring of routines, intensity of oversight, support in routines, management of dinner, paid work, and needs for respite. The four groups differed in paid work, household support, degree the child could self-occupy, Environmental Mastery, and opportunities to recuperate. Caregivers with higher levels of well-being and more regular routines did paid work, had supportive spouses, had children who more often could follow routines, had higher Environmental Mastery, could orchestrate a family meal, and had breaks from care in either work or leisure. All Native American caregivers and Mexican American caregivers with spouses were in the high routine-high PWB group. Insight into this complex negotiation between family members within daily routines may provide practitioners a better understanding of how to work within family circles to foster therapeutic alliances, identify focused intervention targets, and promote positive family wide outcomes. PMID:24910625

  15. [Cartilage tumors : Pathology and radiomorphology].

    PubMed

    Uhl, M; Herget, G; Kurz, P

    2016-06-01

    Primary cartilage-forming tumors of the bone are frequent entities in the daily work of skeletal radiologists. This article describes the correlation of pathology and radiology in cartilage-forming skeletal tumors, in particular, enchondroma, osteochondroma, periosteal chondromas, chondroblastoma and various forms of chondrosarcoma. After reading, the radiologist should be able to deduce the different patterns of cartilage tumors on radiographs, CT, and MRI from the pathological aspects. Differentiation of enchondroma and chondrosarcoma is a frequent diagnostic challenge. Some imaging parameters, e. g., deep cortical scalloping (more than two thirds of the cortical thickness), cortical destruction, or a soft-tissue mass, are features of a sarcoma. Osteochondromas are bony protrusions with a continuous extension of bone marrow from the parent bone, the host cortical bone runs continuously from the osseous surface of the tumor into the shaft of the osteochondroma and the osteochondroma has a cartilage cap. Chondromyxoid fibromas are well-defined lytic and eccentric lesions of the metaphysis of the long bones, with nonspecific MRI findings. Chondroblastomas have a strong predilection for the epiphysis of long tubular bones and develop an intense perifocal bone marrow edema. Dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas are bimorphic lesions with a low-grade chondrogenic component and a high-grade noncartilaginous component. Most chondrogenic tumors have a predilection with regard to site and age at manifestation. PMID:27233920

  16. Training pathologists in mouse pathology.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, J P; Ward, J M; HogenEsch, H; Nikitin, A Yu; Treuting, P M; Macauley, J B; Schofield, P N

    2012-03-01

    Expertise in the pathology of mice has expanded from traditional regulatory and drug safety screening (toxicologic pathology) primarily performed by veterinary pathologists to the highly specialized area of mouse research pathobiology performed by veterinary and medical pathologists encompassing phenotyping of mutant mice and analysis of research experiments exploiting inbred mouse strains and genetically engineered lines. With increasing use of genetically modified mice in research, mouse pathobiology and, by extension, expert mouse research-oriented pathologists have become integral to the success of basic and translational biomedical research. Training for today's research-oriented mouse pathologist must go beyond knowledge of anatomic features of mice and strain-specific background diseases to the specialized genetic nomenclature, husbandry, and genetics, including the methodology of genetic engineering and complex trait analysis. While training can be accomplished through apprenticeships in formal programs, these are often heavily service related and do not provide the necessary comprehensive training. Specialty courses and short-term mentoring with expert specialists are opportunities that, when combined with active practice and publication, will lead to acquisition of the skills required for cutting-edge mouse-based experimental science. PMID:20817889

  17. 100 years of Lewy pathology.

    PubMed

    Goedert, Michel; Spillantini, Maria Grazia; Del Tredici, Kelly; Braak, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    In 1817, James Parkinson described the symptoms of the shaking palsy, a disease that was subsequently defined in greater detail, and named after Parkinson, by Jean-Martin Charcot. Parkinson expected that the publication of his monograph would lead to a rapid elucidation of the anatomical substrate of the shaking palsy; in the event, this process took almost a century. In 1912, Fritz Heinrich Lewy identified the protein aggregates that define Parkinson disease (PD) in some brain regions outside the substantia nigra. In 1919, Konstantin Nikolaevich Tretiakoff found similar aggregates in the substantia nigra and named them after Lewy. In the 1990s, α-synuclein was identified as the main constituent of the Lewy pathology, and its aggregation was shown to be central to PD, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. In 2003, a staging scheme for idiopathic PD was introduced, according to which α-synuclein pathology originates in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagal nerve and progresses from there to other brain regions, including the substantia nigra. In this article, we review the relevance of Lewy's discovery 100 years ago for the current understanding of PD and related disorders. PMID:23183883

  18. Empiric Refinement of the Pathologic Assessment of Lewy Related Pathology in the Dementia Patient

    PubMed Central

    Leverenz, James B.; Hamilton, Ronald; Tsuang, Debby W.; Schantz, Aimee; Vavrek, Darcy; Larson, Eric B.; Kukull, Walter A.; Lopez, Oscar; Galasko, Douglas; Masliah, Eliezer; Kaye, Jeffrey; Woltjer, Randall; Clark, Christopher; Trojanowski, John Q.; Montine, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Lewy related pathology (LRP) is a common pathologic finding at autopsy in dementia patients. Recently criteria for categorizing types of LRP in dementia patients were published, though these criteria have yet to be systematically applied to large dementia samples. We examined a large (N = 208) referral-based autopsy sample for LRP, and applied the published criteria for LRP categorization to these cases. We found almost half (49%) of LRP positive cases from this sample were not classifiable. However, modifying the published criteria by reducing the number of regions requiring examination, allowing more variability in LRP severity scores within specific brain regions, and adding an amygdala predominant category permitted classification of 97% of LRP positive cases from the referral-based sample. Application of the modified criteria to an unrelated community-based autopsy sample (N = 226) allowed classification of 96% of LRP positive cases. Modest modifications in the published criteria permit a significantly greater number of dementia cases with LRP to be classified. In addition, this modification allows for more limited sampling of brain regions for classification of LRP. We propose that these modified criteria for the categorization of LRP be utilized in patients with a history of dementia. PMID:18241240

  19. The relationship of ecological and geographic factors to gambling behavior and pathology.

    PubMed

    Welte, John W; Wieczorek, William F; Barnes, Grace M; Tidwell, Marie-Cecile; Hoffman, Joseph H

    2004-01-01

    The current study examined the effect of neighborhood disadvantage and gambling availability on gambling participation and pathology. A national telephone survey included 2631 US adults. Census data was used to characterize the respondent's neighborhood, and the distance from the respondent's home to gambling facilities was calculated. Logistic and linear regressions were performed to predict gambling participation and pathology. Results showed that the neighborhood disadvantage was positively related to frequency of gambling and problem/pathological gambling. The presence of a casino within 10 miles of the respondent's home was positively related to problem/pathological gambling. The permissiveness of gambling laws was positively related to any gambling in the past year, as well as frequent gambling. These results were interpreted to mean that the ecology of disadvantaged neighborhoods promotes gambling pathology, and that availability of gambling opportunities promotes gambling participation and pathology. PMID:15577275

  20. Routine needle biopsy during vertebral augmentation procedures. Is it necessary?

    PubMed

    Pneumaticos, Spiros G; Chatziioannou, Sofia N; Savvidou, Christiana; Pilichou, Anastasia; Rontogianni, Dimitra; Korres, Dimitrios S

    2010-11-01

    Vertebral augmentation procedures are currently widely performed to treat vertebral compression fractures. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of underlying previously unrecognized etiology in a consecutive series of patients undergoing kyphoplasty to treat vertebral compression fractures. A prospective histological evaluation of vertebral body biopsy specimens from presumed osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures were performed in order to identify aforementioned causes. Over a 2-year period, vertebral body biopsies from 154 vertebral levels were performed in 75 patients undergoing kyphoplasty for vertebral compression fractures. All patients received a preoperative workup that included plain radiographs, MRI, whole body bone scan, and laboratory examinations. Bone specimens were obtained from affected vertebral bodies and submitted for histologic evaluation to identify the prevalence of an underlying cause. All specimens demonstrated fragmented bone with variable amounts of unmineralised bone, signs of bone-remodeling and/or fracture-healing. In 11 patients underlying pathology other than osteoporosis was identified (prostate cancer, 1; pancreatic cancer, 1; colon cancer, 1; breast cancer, 2; multiple myeloma, 3; leukemia, 1; and lung cancer, 2). In all but one patient the results of the biopsy confirmed the diagnosis suspected from the preoperative workup. For the last patient, namely the one with pancreatic cancer, the workup did not identify the origin of the primary tumor, although the patient was considered to have a compression fracture secondary to metastatic disease of unknown origin, the vertebral biopsy suggested the presence of adenocarcinoma which eventually was proven to be pancreatic cancer. In augmentation procedures for vertebral compression fractures, bone biopsy should be reserved for the patients where the preoperative evaluation raises the suspicion of a non-osteoporotic etiology. PMID:20372942

  1. Routine or targeted HIV screening of Indonesian prisoners.

    PubMed

    Nelwan, Erni Juwita; Isa, Ahmad; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Triani, Nurlita; Djamaris, Iqbal; Djaja, Ilham; Pohan, Herdiman T; Zwanikken, Prisca; Crevel, Reinout van; van der Ven, Andre; Meheus, Andre

    2016-03-14

    Purpose - Routine HIV screening of prisoners is generally recommended, but rarely implemented in low-resource settings. Targeted screening can be used as an alternative. Both strategies may provide an opportunity to start HIV treatment but no formal comparisons have been done of these two strategies. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach - The authors compared yield and costs of routine and targeted screening in a narcotic prison in Indonesia. Routine HIV screening was done for all incoming prisoners from August 2007-February 2009, after it was switched for budgetary reasons to targeted ("opt-out") HIV screening of inmates classified as people who inject drugs (PWIDs), and "opt-in" HIV testing for all non-PWIDs. Findings - During routine screening 662 inmates were included. All 115 PWIDs and 93.2 percent of non-PWIDs agreed to be tested, 37.4 percent and 0.4 percent respectively were HIV-positive. During targeted screening (March 2009-October 2010), of 888 inmates who entered prison, 107 reported injecting drug use and were offered HIV testing, of whom 31 (29 percent) chose not to be tested and 25.0 percent of those tested were HIV-positive. Of 781 non-PWIDs, 187 (24 percent) came for testing (opt-in), and 2.1 percent were infected. During targeted screening fewer people admitted drug use (12.0 vs 17.4 percent). Routine screening yielded twice as many HIV-infected subjects (45 vs 23). The estimated cost per detected HIV infection was 338 USD for routine and 263 USD for targeted screening. Originality/value - In a resource limited setting like Indonesia, routine HIV screening in prison is feasible and more effective than targeted screening, which may be stigmatizing. HIV infections that remain unrecognized can fuel ongoing transmission in prison and lead to unnecessary disease progression and deaths. PMID:26933989

  2. The spectrum of gastric pathology in portal hypertension-An endoscopic and pathologic study of 550 cases.

    PubMed

    Ma, Changqing; Chen, Chien-Huan; Liu, Ta-Chiang

    2016-08-01

    One of the main tasks for pathologists when evaluating gastric biopsies from patients with portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) is to examine whether there is increased mucosal vasculature as suggested by endoscopy. However, the full spectrum of pathology findings in patients with portal hypertension (pHTN) is largely unknown. We systematically characterized the endoscopic and pathologic features in gastric biopsies from pHTN patients (study group) and compared with those from patients without pHTN (control group). The study group consisted of 550 consecutive surveillance esophagogastroduodenoscopic (EGD) biopsies, whereas the control group included 281 consecutive EGD biopsies for a variety of indications. As expected, the endoscopic prevalence of PHG was 28%, among which two-thirds showed corresponding histopathologic evidence of increased vasculature. However, non-Helicobacter pylori gastritis was the most common finding in pHTN patients on histology (40%). In addition, hyperplastic polyp was also more common in pHTN patients than in controls (6% vs 3%; P=0.0314). In contrast, pathology findings of nonspecific reactive changes (29% vs 51%; P<0.0001), proton pump inhibitor-related changes (16% vs 30%; P<0.0001), and malignancy (1% vs 3%; P=0.0138) were less common in pHTN patients. Our results show a spectrum of gastric endoscopic and pathologic findings in pHTN patients. The predominant gastric pathology in pHTN patients may be associated with pHTN-induced gastric microcirculation impairment. PMID:27461830

  3. On the Design of a CADS for Shoulder Pain Pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ipiña, K. López; Hernández, M. C.; Martínez, E.; Vaquero, C.

    A musculoskeletal disorder is a condition of the musculoskeletal system, which consists in part of it being injured continuously over time. Shoulder disorders are one of the most common musculoskeletal cases attended in primary health care services. Shoulder disorders cause pain and limit the ability to perform many routine activities, affecting about 15-25 % of the general population. Several clinical tests have been described to aid diagnosis of shoulder disorders. However, the current literature acknowledges a lack of concordance in clinical assessment, even among musculoskeletal specialists. We are working on the design of a Computer-Aided Decision Support (CADS) system for Shoulder Pain Pathology. The paper presents the results of our efforts to build a CADS system testing several classical classification paradigms, feature reduction methods (PCA) and K-means unsupervised clustering. The small database size imposes the use of robust covariance matrix estimation methods to improve the system performance. Finally, the system was evaluated by a medical specialist.

  4. Clinical and pathological manifestations of cardiovascular disease in rat models: the influence of acute ozone exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper shows that rat models of cardiovascular diseases have differential degrees of underlying pathologies at a young age. Rodent models of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and metabolic disorders are used for examining susceptibility variations to environmental exposures. How...

  5. EZVIDEO, FORTRAN graphics routines for the IBM AT

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, M.R.; Holdeman, J.T.; Ward, R.C.; Jackson, W.L.

    1989-10-01

    A set of IBM PC-based FORTRAN plotting routines called EZVIDEO is described in this report. These routines are written in FORTRAN and can be called from FORTRAN programs. EZVIDEO simulates a subset of the well-known DISSPLA graphics calls and makes plots directly on the IBM AT display screen. Screen dumps can also be made to an attached LaserJet or Epson printer to make hard copy without using terminal emulators. More than forty DISSPLA calls are simulated by the EZVIDEO routines. Typical screen plots require about 10 seconds (s), and good hard copy of the screen image on a laser printer requires less than 2 minutes (min). This higher-resolution hard copy is adequate for most purposes because of the enhanced resolution of the screen in the EGA and VGA modes. These EZVIDEO routines give the IB, AT user a stand-alone capability to make useful scientific or engineering plots directly on the AT, using data generated in FORTRAN programs. The routines will also work on the IBM PC or XT in CGA mode, but they require more time and yield less resolution. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  6. The role of routine follow-up after gynecological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Kew, F M; Roberts, A P; Cruickshank, D J

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this article was to determine the evidence base for routine follow-up after gynecological malignancy. Only articles with a survival analysis were included. Relevant articles were identified by a comprehensive literature search of the main biomedical databases, hand searching of references of selected articles, and expert spotting of relevant journals and proceedings of international meetings. A two-stage extraction of data was undertaken. No prospective trials were identified. Twenty-nine retrospective case series analyses and one poster presentation met the inclusion criteria. Eight articles and one letter on endometrial cancer, six articles and one poster presentation on cervical cancer, and two articles in vulval cancer were reviewed. Only one article in endometrial cancer showed any survival benefit from routine follow-up, but it was of very poor methodologic quality. Two articles found a survival benefit from routine follow-up after cervical cancer. The two articles on vulval cancer did not find any survival benefit from routine review. There is no prospective research on the benefits of routine follow-up after gynecological cancer. Retrospective evidence calls in to question the benefit of universal follow-up. Prospective research is urgently needed. PMID:15882163

  7. STP Best Practices for Evaluating Clinical Pathology in Pharmaceutical Recovery Studies.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Lindsay; Ramaiah, Lila; Tripathi, Niraj K; Barlow, Valerie G; Vitsky, Allison; Poitout-Belissent, Florence M; Bounous, Denise I; Ennulat, Daniela

    2016-02-01

    The Society of Toxicologic Pathology formed a working group in collaboration with the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology to provide recommendations for the appropriate inclusion of clinical pathology evaluation in recovery arms of nonclinical toxicity studies but not on when to perform recovery studies. Evaluation of the recovery of clinical pathology findings is not required routinely but provides useful information on risk assessment in nonclinical toxicity studies and is recommended when the ability of the organ to recover is uncertain. The study design generally requires inclusion of concurrent controls to separate procedure-related changes from test article-related changes, but return of clinical pathology values toward baseline may be sufficient in some cases. Evaluation of either a select or full panel of standard hematology, coagulation, and serum and urine chemistry biomarkers can be scientifically justified. It is also acceptable to redesignate dosing phase animals to the recovery phase or vice versa to optimize data interpretation. Assessment of delayed toxicity during the recovery phase is not required but may be appropriate in development programs with unique concerns. Evaluation of the recovery of clinical pathology data for vaccine development is required and, for efficacy markers, is recommended if it furthers pharmacologic understanding. PMID:26879687

  8. Endoneurial Microvascular Pathology in Feline Diabetic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Estrella, Jeannelyn S.; Nelson, Richard N.; Sturges, B.K.; Vernau, Karen M.; Williams, D. Collette; LeCouteur, Richard A.; Shelton, G. Diane; Mizisin, Andrew P.

    2008-01-01

    Endoneurial capillaries in nerve biopsies from 12 adult diabetic cats with varying degrees of neurological dysfunction were examined for evidence of microvascular pathology and compared to nerves obtained at autopsy from 7 adult non-diabetic cats without clinical evidence of neurological dysfunction. As reported previously (Mizisin et al., 2007), the diabetic cats had elevated glycosylated hemoglobin and serum fructosamine levels, decreased motor nerve conduction velocity and compound muscle action potentials (CMAP), and markedly decreased myelinated nerve fiber densities. Compared to non-diabetic cats, there was a non-significant 26% increase in capillary density and a significant (P<0.009) 45% increase in capillary size in diabetic cats. Capillary luminal size was also significantly (P<0.001) increased, while an index of vasoconstriction was significantly decreased (P<0.001) in diabetic cats compared to non-diabetic controls. No differences in endothelial cell size, endothelial cell number or pericyte size were detected between non-diabetic and diabetic cats. In diabetic cats, basement membrane thickening, seen as a reduplication of the basal lamina, was significantly (P<0.0002) increased by 73% compared to non-diabetic controls. Regression analysis of either myelinated nerve fiber density or CMAP amplitude against basement membrane size demonstrated a negative correlation with significant slopes (P<0.03 and P<0.04, respectively). These data demonstrate that myelinated nerve fiber injury in feline diabetic neuropathy is associated with microvascular pathology and that some of these changes parallel those documented in experimental rodent and human diabetic neuropathy. PMID:18207200

  9. Bioactive lipids in pathological retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qi; Shen, Jun-Hui; Shen, Sheng-Rong; Das, Undurti N

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a common condition that occurs in patients with diabetes with long-standing hyperglycemia that is characterized by inappropriate angiogenesis. This pathological angiogenesis could be a sort of physiological proliferative response to injury by the endothelium. Recent studies suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a significant role in this angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic growth factor that plays a significant role in diabetic retinopathy. The interaction between VEGF and ROS, and theirs in turn with pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory bioactive lipid molecules such as lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins is particularly relevant to understand the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy and develop future therapeutic interventions. PMID:24188230

  10. [Cellular pathology of neurodegenerative disorders].

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Common cellular and molecular mechanisms including protein aggregation and inclusion body formation are involved in many neurodegenerative diseases. α-Synuclein is a major component of Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease (PD) as well as in glial cytoplasmic inclusions in multiple system atrophy (MSA). Tau is a principal component of neurofibrillary and glial tangles in tauopathies. Recently, TDP-43 was identified as a component of ubiquitinated inclusions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. PD is traditionally considered a movement disorder with hallmark lesions in the brainstem pigmented nuclei. However, pathological changes occur in widespread regions of the central and peripheral nervous systems in this disease. Furthermore, primary glial involvement ("gliodegeneration") can be observed in PD and MSA as well as in tauopathy. The present article reviews abnormal protein accumulation and inclusion body formation inside and outside the central nervous system. PMID:23965852

  11. Cerebral pathology post heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Peteghem, S Van; Pauw, M De

    2015-04-01

    Cerebral pathology is frequently encountered post heart transplantation with a cumulative incidence of about 80% after 15 years. A broad spectrum of disease entities is reported, from minor abnormalities to life-threatening diseases. Although cerebral infections and malignancies are rare in this patient population, they have a high mortality rate. Since 1991, 171 orthotopic heart transplantations were performed at the Ghent University Hospital with a 10-year survival rate of 75%. Severe cerebral complications occurred in 10 patients, with epilepsy in 2 patients, cerebrovascular accidents in 4 patients, cerebral infections in 3 patients and a cerebral malignancy in 1 patient, resulting in a fatal outcome in 7 patients. We present four of these cases. PMID:25292206

  12. Glomerular disease: looking beyond pathology.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Roger C; Alpers, Charles E; Holzman, Lawrence B; He, John C; Salant, David J; Chugh, Sumant S; Natarajan, Rama; Trachtman, Howard; Brasile, Lauren; Star, Robert A; Rys-Sikora, Krystyna E; Moxey-Mims, Marva M; Flessner, Michael F

    2014-06-01

    The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases-supported Kidney Research National Dialogue asked the scientific community to formulate and prioritize research objectives aimed at improved understanding of kidney function and disease progression. Over the past 2 years, 1600 participants posted almost 300 ideas covering all areas of kidney disease. An overriding theme that evolved through these discussions is the need to move beyond pathology to take advantage of basic science and clinical research opportunities to improve diagnostic classification and therapeutic options for people with primary glomerular disease. High-priority research areas included focus on therapeutic targets in glomerular endothelium and podocytes, regenerating podocytes through developmental pathways, use of longitudinal phenotypically defined disease cohorts to improve classification schemes, identifying biomarkers, disease-specific therapeutics, autoantibody triggers, and changing the clinical research culture to promote participation in clinical trials. Together, these objectives provide a path forward for improving clinical outcomes of glomerular disease. PMID:24700796

  13. Glomerular Disease: Looking beyond Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Wiggins, Roger C.; Alpers, Charles E.; Holzman, Lawrence B.; He, John C.; Salant, David J.; Chugh, Sumant S.; Natarajan, Rama; Trachtman, Howard; Brasile, Lauren; Star, Robert A.; Rys-Sikora, Krystyna E.; Moxey-Mims, Marva M.

    2014-01-01

    The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases–supported Kidney Research National Dialogue asked the scientific community to formulate and prioritize research objectives aimed at improved understanding of kidney function and disease progression. Over the past 2 years, 1600 participants posted almost 300 ideas covering all areas of kidney disease. An overriding theme that evolved through these discussions is the need to move beyond pathology to take advantage of basic science and clinical research opportunities to improve diagnostic classification and therapeutic options for people with primary glomerular disease. High-priority research areas included focus on therapeutic targets in glomerular endothelium and podocytes, regenerating podocytes through developmental pathways, use of longitudinal phenotypically defined disease cohorts to improve classification schemes, identifying biomarkers, disease-specific therapeutics, autoantibody triggers, and changing the clinical research culture to promote participation in clinical trials. Together, these objectives provide a path forward for improving clinical outcomes of glomerular disease. PMID:24700796

  14. [Role of contemporary pathological diagnostics in the personalized treatment of cancer].

    PubMed

    Tímár, József

    2013-03-01

    Due to the developments of pathology in the past decades (immunohistochemistry and molecular pathology) classification of cancers changed fundamentally, laying a ground for personalized management of cancer patients. Our picture of cancer is more complex today, identifying the genetic basis of the morphological variants. On the other hand, this picture has a much higher resolution enabling us to subclassify similar histological cancer types based on molecular markers. This redefined classification of cancers helps us to better predict the possible biological behavior of the disease and/or the therapeutic sensitivity, opening the way toward a more personalized treatment of this disease. The redefined molecular classification of cancer may affect the universal application of treatment protocols. To achieve this goal molecular diagnostics must be an integral and reimbursed part of the routine pathological diagnostics. On the other hand, it is time to extend the multidisciplinary team with molecular pathologist to improve the decision making process of the management of cancer patients. PMID:23573519

  15. Lewy Body Pathology in Familial Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leverenz, James B.; Fishel, Mark A.; Peskind, Elaine R.; Montine, Thomas J.; Nochlin, David; Steinbart, Ellen; Raskind, Murray A.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Bird, Thomas D.; Tsuang, Debby

    2006-01-01

    Background The origin and significance of Lewy bodies and neurites (Lewy body pathology [LBP]) in Alzheimer disease (AD) are poorly understood. Objective To examine LBP in the brainstem, limbic cortex, and neocortex of a large number of familial AD cases with mutations in 2 presenilin (PSEN) genes. Methods Twenty-five familial AD cases with 9 known PSEN 1 mutations and 14 familial AD cases with a single PSEN 2 mutation (N141I) were examined for LBP using α-synuclein immunohistochemistry and sampling of multiple brainstem and cortical regions. Results The amygdala was the most vulnerable site for LBP. In fact, virtually all (24 [96%] of 25 cases) of the PSEN 1 mutation cases had LBP in the amygdala. The PSEN 1 mutation cases also had more frequent LBP in the amygdala and neocortex than those with the PSEN 2 mutation. However, within families with a single mutation of either PSEN 1 or PSEN 2, there was frequent variability of the LBP. Conclusion These findings suggest that there are genetic influences on the presence of LBP in familial AD as demonstrated by the differences between PSEN 1 and PSEN 2 mutation cases. PMID:16533963

  16. Elimination of routine chest radiographs following off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery: A randomized controlled trial study

    PubMed Central

    Forouzannia, Seyed Khalil; Sarvi, Ali; Sarebanhassanabadi, Mohammadtaghi; Nafisi-Moghadam, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Post cardiac surgery routine chest radiographs (CXRs), ordered without any clinical and laboratory indications, is a standard obligatory practice in many cardiothoracic centers. Routine CXRs incur cost, manpower, and radiation. The objective of this study is to assess early outcome in off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) patients with postoperative routine versus clinically indicated CXR protocols. Materials and Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial conducted on 231 OPCAB candidates in Afshar Cardiac Center, Yazd, Iran. Patients were categorized into two groups. All 118 patients in group A had routine postoperative CXRs. The 113 patients in group B were selectively exposed to CXR only on clinical indications. All patients were postoperatively followed up for 30 days. Data gathered from both groups were statistically analyzed. Results: Routine postoperative CXRs obtained in 118 OPCAB group A candidates showed abnormal findings in 20 patients that did not require new intervention. One month follow-up of these patients showed no complications. In 113 OPCAB candidates of group B, 7 on-demand CXRs were obtained on clinical evaluation that required added intervention. In a 1-month follow-up of this group, five patients presented with symptomatic complaints. On re-examination, none needed readmission, intervention, or paraclinical evaluation. No complications were observed due to CXR elimination. Conclusion: The study suggests that postoperative CXR selected on clinical grounds in place of routine CXR does not change early postoperative outcome of OPCAB procedure. PMID:26682202

  17. Establishment of the European College of Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ECVCP) and the current status of veterinary clinical pathology in Europe.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, P J; Fournel-Fleury, C; Bolliger, A P; Freeman, K P; Braun, J-P; Archer, J; Paltrinieri, S; Tvedten, H; Polizopoulou, Z S; Jensen, A L; Pastor, J; Lanevschi-Pietersma, A; Thoren-Tolling, K; Schwendenwien, I; Thoresen, S I; Bauer, N B; Ledieu, D; Cerón, J J; Palm, M; Papasouliotis, K; Gaál, T; Vajdovich, P

    2007-12-01

    After 5 years of development, the European College of Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ECVCP) was formally recognized and approved on July 4, 2007 by the European Board of Veterinary Specialisation (EBVS), the European regulatory body that oversees specialization in veterinary medicine and which has approved 23 colleges. The objectives, committees, basis for membership, constitution, bylaws, information brochure and certifying examination of the ECVCP have remained unchanged during this time except as directed by EBVS. The ECVCP declared full functionality based on the following criteria: 1) a critical mass of 65 members: 15 original diplomates approved by the EBVS to establish the ECVCP, 37 de facto diplomates, 7 diplomates certified by examination, and 5 elected honorary members; 2) the development and certification of training programs, laboratories, and qualified supervisors for residents; currently there are 18 resident training programs in Europe; 3) administration of 3 annual board-certifying examinations thus far, with an overall pass rate of 70%; 4) European consensus criteria for assessing the continuing education of specialists every 5 years; 5) organization of 8 annual scientific congresses and a joint journal (with the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology) for communication of scientific research and information; the College also maintains a website, a joint listserv, and a newsletter; 6) collaboration in training and continuing education with relevant colleges in medicine and pathology; 7) development and strict adherence to a constitution and bylaws compliant with the EBVS; and 8) demonstration of compelling rationale, supporting data, and the support of members and other colleges for independence as a specialty college. Formal EBVS recognition of ECVCP as the regulatory body for the science and practice of veterinary clinical pathology in Europe will facilitate growth and development of the discipline and compliance of academic

  18. Stepped care: an alternative to routine extended treatment for patients with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Paris, Joel

    2013-10-01

    This review examined evidence supporting stepped care for borderline personality disorder as an alternative to routine extended treatment. Empirical studies have shown that patients with borderline personality disorder have a heterogeneous course, but symptomatic improvement can sometimes be relatively rapid. Currently, there is no evidence that any long-term treatment is superior to briefer interventions for borderline personality disorder. Long-term therapy may not be necessary for all patients, and its routine use leads to access problems. A stepped-care model, similar to models applied to other severe mental disorders, might provide a better use of resources. Stepped care can be used to limit the use of expensive programs and reduce waiting lists. Not all patients with borderline personality disorder can be treated briefly, but a stepped-care model allows those with less severe symptoms to be managed with fewer resources, freeing up more time and personnel for the treatment of those who need treatment the most. PMID:23945913

  19. Gender Differences in the Routine Activities Associated With Risks for Larceny in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Byongook; Morash, Merry; Jeong, SeokJin; Yoon, Hae-Sung

    2016-08-01

    The present research uses data from the 2010 Korean National Criminal Victimization Survey to examine gender differences in larceny victimization and in predictors of victimization (i.e., target attractiveness, exposure to potential offenders, target hardening, guardianship, and proximity to crime and social disorder) identified by routine activity theory. The findings show no significant gender difference in general larceny victimization, suggesting that Korean females are just as likely to be victims of theft of personal belongings as males. Consistent with the theory, physical proximity to crime and social disorder are significant predictors of larceny victimization for both males and females. However, public transportation appears to have unexpected protective influences for both gender groups, showing the importance of differences in national context. Overall, the current research provides partial support for routine activity theory's applicability in explaining larceny victimization across gender groups outside of the Western context. It also raises questions about reasons for women's increasing larceny victimization rates in Korea. PMID:25943364

  20. Self-reported concussion symptoms and training routines in mixed martial arts athletes.

    PubMed

    Heath, Christopher J; Callahan, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a full-contact, fighting sport that has risen in popularity over recent years, resulting in an increase in both training facilities and sport participants. To date, little research has examined the complications and vulnerability to head trauma, or concussive symptomatology, in MMA athletes. In this study, we assessed relationships between training routines and concussive symptoms, as well as medical care, in MMA athletes. A sample (N = 119) of MMA athletes reported concussive symptoms, training routines, and medical histories through an online survey. Nearly 15% of the MMA athletes reported history of a knockout, and nearly one-third reported a technical knockout. Subjective ratings of concussive symptoms were high for these athletes, with many of them waiting only a brief time after such incidents to return to competition. These findings have important implications for informing the medical treatment and safety decision for returning to participation for these athletes. PMID:23777375

  1. Master schedule for CY-1982 Hanford environmental surveillance routine program

    SciTech Connect

    Blumer, P.J.; Sula, M.J.; Eddy, P.A.

    1981-12-01

    This report provides the current schedule of data collection for the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site. The environmental surveillance program objectives are to evaluate and report the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5484.1. The routine sampling schedule provided does not include samples which are planned to be collected during FY-1982 in support of special studies or for quality control purposes. In addition, the routine program outlined in this schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operations, program requirements, or unusual sample results. Sampling schedules are presented for the following: air; Columbia River; sanitary water; surface water; ground water; foodstuffs; wildlife; soil and vegetation; external radiation measurements; portable instrument surveys; and surveillance of waste disposal sites. (ATT)

  2. Guide to good practices for shift routines and operating practices

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, ``Shift Routines and Operating Practices,`` Chapter 2 of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered when planning or reviewing shift routines and operating practices. ``Shift Routines and Operating Practices`` is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for a high standard of professional conduct and sound operating practices to promote safe and efficient operations. Recently, guidance pertaining to this element has been strengthened for nuclear power reactors. This additional guidance is given in Appendix C for information purposes. Though this guidance and good practices pertain to nuclear power reactors, DOE sites may choose to use a graded approach for implementing these in nuclear facilities.

  3. Pulse processing routines for neutron time-of-flight data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žugec, P.; Weiß, C.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Vlachoudis, V.; Sabate-Gilarte, M.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Wright, T.; Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Mingrone, F.; Ryan, J. A.; Warren, S. G.; Tsinganis, A.; Barbagallo, M.

    2016-03-01

    A pulse shape analysis framework is described, which was developed for n_TOF-Phase3, the third phase in the operation of the n_TOF facility at CERN. The most notable feature of this new framework is the adoption of generic pulse shape analysis routines, characterized by a minimal number of explicit assumptions about the nature of pulses. The aim of these routines is to be applicable to a wide variety of detectors, thus facilitating the introduction of the new detectors or types of detectors into the analysis framework. The operational details of the routines are suited to the specific requirements of particular detectors by adjusting the set of external input parameters. Pulse recognition, baseline calculation and the pulse shape fitting procedure are described. Special emphasis is put on their computational efficiency, since the most basic implementations of these conceptually simple methods are often computationally inefficient.

  4. Computer routines for probability distributions, random numbers, and related functions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, W.

    1983-01-01

    Use of previously coded and tested subroutines simplifies and speeds up program development and testing. This report presents routines that can be used to calculate various probability distributions and other functions of importance in statistical hydrology. The routines are designed as general-purpose Fortran subroutines and functions to be called from user-written main progress. The probability distributions provided include the beta, chi-square, gamma, Gaussian (normal), Pearson Type III (tables and approximation), and Weibull. Also provided are the distributions of the Grubbs-Beck outlier test, Kolmogorov 's and Smirnov 's D, Student 's t, noncentral t (approximate), and Snedecor F. Other mathematical functions include the Bessel function, I sub o, gamma and log-gamma functions, error functions, and exponential integral. Auxiliary services include sorting and printer-plotting. Random number generators for uniform and normal numbers are provided and may be used with some of the above routines to generate numbers from other distributions. (USGS)

  5. Computer routines for probability distributions, random numbers, and related functions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    Use of previously codes and tested subroutines simplifies and speeds up program development and testing. This report presents routines that can be used to calculate various probability distributions and other functions of importance in statistical hydrology. The routines are designed as general-purpose Fortran subroutines and functions to be called from user-written main programs. The probability distributions provided include the beta, chisquare, gamma, Gaussian (normal), Pearson Type III (tables and approximation), and Weibull. Also provided are the distributions of the Grubbs-Beck outlier test, Kolmogorov 's and Smirnov 's D, Student 's t, noncentral t (approximate), and Snedecor F tests. Other mathematical functions include the Bessel function I (subzero), gamma and log-gamma functions, error functions and exponential integral. Auxiliary services include sorting and printer plotting. Random number generators for uniform and normal numbers are provided and may be used with some of the above routines to generate numbers from other distributions. (USGS)

  6. Clinical and Pathological Findings in Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Gladstone, Queensland: Investigations of a Stranding Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Flint, Mark; Eden, Paul A; Limpus, Colin J; Owen, Helen; Gaus, Caroline; Mills, Paul C

    2015-06-01

    An investigation into the health of green turtles was undertaken near Gladstone, Queensland, in response to a dramatic increase in stranding numbers in the first half of 2011. A total of 56 live turtles were subject to clinical examination and blood sampling for routine blood profiles, and 12 deceased turtles underwent a thorough necropsy examination. This population of green turtles was found to be in poor body condition and a range of infectious and non-infectious conditions were identified in the unhealthy turtles, including hepato-renal insufficiency (up to 81%, 27/33 based on clinical pathology), cachexia (92%, 11/12), parasitism (75%, 9/12), cardiopulmonary anomalies (42%, 5/12), gastroenteritis (25%, 3/12), masses (25%, 3/12) and mechanical impediments (17%, 2/12 based on necropsy). Overall, there was no evidence to indicate a unifying disease as a primary cause of the mass mortality. Recent adverse weather events, historic regional contamination and nearby industrial activities are discussed as potential causative factors. PMID:25256011

  7. Availability and quality of paraffin blocks identified in pathology archives: A multi-institutional study by the Shared Pathology Informatics Network (SPIN)

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ashokkumar A; Gupta, Dilipkumar; Seligson, David; Hattab, Eyas M; Balis, Ulysses J; Ulbright, Thomas M; Kohane, Isaac S; Berman, Jules J; Gilbertson, John R; Dry, Sarah; Schirripa, Osvaldo; Yu, Hong; Becich, Michael J; Parwani, Anil V

    2007-01-01

    Background Shared Pathology Informatics Network (SPIN) is a tissue resource initiative that utilizes clinical reports of the vast amount of paraffin-embedded tissues routinely stored by medical centers. SPIN has an informatics component (sending tissue-related queries to multiple institutions via the internet) and a service component (providing histopathologically annotated tissue specimens for medical research). This paper examines if tissue blocks, identified by localized computer searches at participating institutions, can be retrieved in adequate quantity and quality to support medical researchers. Methods Four centers evaluated pathology reports (1990–2005) for common and rare tumors to determine the percentage of cases where suitable tissue blocks with tumor were available. Each site generated a list of 100 common tumor cases (25 cases each of breast adenocarcinoma, colonic adenocarcinoma, lung squamous carcinoma, and prostate adenocarcinoma) and 100 rare tumor cases (25 cases each of adrenal cortical carcinoma, gastro-intestinal stromal tumor [GIST], adenoid cystic carcinoma, and mycosis fungoides) using a combination of Tumor Registry, laboratory information system (LIS) and/or SPIN-related tools. Pathologists identified the slides/blocks with tumor and noted first 3 slides with largest tumor and availability of the corresponding block. Results Common tumors cases (n = 400), the institutional retrieval rates (all blocks) were 83% (A), 95% (B), 80% (C), and 98% (D). Retrieval rate (tumor blocks) from all centers for common tumors was 73% with mean largest tumor size of 1.49 cm; retrieval (tumor blocks) was highest-lung (84%) and lowest-prostate (54%). Rare tumors cases (n = 400), each institution's retrieval rates (all blocks) were 78% (A), 73% (B), 67% (C), and 84% (D). Retrieval rate (tumor blocks) from all centers for rare tumors was 66% with mean largest tumor size of 1.56 cm; retrieval (tumor blocks) was highest for GIST (72%) and lowest for adenoid

  8. A Suggested Molecular Pathology Curriculum for Residents: A Report of the Association for Molecular Pathology.

    PubMed

    Aisner, Dara L; Berry, Anna; Dawson, D Brian; Hayden, Randall T; Joseph, Loren; Hill, Charles E

    2016-03-01

    Molecular pathology is an essential element of pathology training. As more molecular tests have become available, there is an increasing need for pathology trainees to receive a strong foundation in molecular pathology. Appointed by the Training and Education Committee of the Association for Molecular Pathology, the Molecular Curriculum Task Force has developed a suggested curriculum in molecular pathology for residents. The foundations of molecular pathology are presented as a series of goals and objectives that residency programs can use to develop their educational programs. As pathologists continue to expand their roles to include regular clinical consultations in the realm of molecular testing, a strong foundation in molecular pathology and genomic medicine has become essential to the practice of pathology. PMID:26857063

  9. Monochromatic, Rosseland mean, and Planck mean opacity routine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, D.

    2006-11-01

    Several FORTRAN77 codes were developed to compute frequency-dependent, Rosseland and Planck mean opacities of gas and dust in protoplanetary disks. The opacities can be computed for an ensemble of dust grains having various compositions (ices, silicates, organics, etc), sizes, topologies (homogeneous/composite aggregates, homogeneous/layered/composite spheres, etc.), porosities, and dust-to-gas ratio. Several examples are available. In addition, a very fast opacity routine to be used in modeling of the radiative transfer in hydro simulations of disks is available upon request (10^8 routine calls require about 30s on Pentium 4 3.0GHz).

  10. The Dubowitz Neurological Examination of the Full-Term Newborn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubowitz, Lilly; Ricciw, Daniela; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2005-01-01

    In an ideal world, each neonate should have a comprehensive neurological examination but in practice this is often difficult. In this review we will describe what a routine neurological evaluation in the full-term neonate should consist of and how the Dubowitz examination is performed. The examination has been used for over 20 years and can be…

  11. Current status and future trends in telepathology and digital pathology

    PubMed Central

    Chordia, Trupti Dinesh; Vikey, Ashok; Choudhary, Anuraag B; Samdariya, Yashpal; Chordia, Dipti Samdariya

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the current status and future trends in telepathology (TP) and digital pathology (DP) in central India. Materials and Methods: A self-constructed questionnaire including 12 questions was designed with five specialists, to improve the design ambiguity. The study was conducted through postal and online survey consisting of 12 questions and sent to 300 histopathologists. Results: A total of 247 histopathologists answered the survey. The overall response rate was 81%. 98% pathologists felt the need for TP and DP. 34% pathologists used digital photomicrographic images in routine practice. Utilization of DP in most efficient way was observed by 48% pathologists mainly for the purpose of teaching in academic institutions. 82% believed that TP is helpful to take an expert opinion whereas only26% believed that a second opinion has to be taken. With respect to limitations, 67% pathologists believed that its cost-effective whereas 51% revealed high use of TP in next 5 years. Conclusions: Our survey shows that as the field evolves, pathologists are more towards welcoming TP and DP, provided frequent workshops and training programs are conducted. The results of this survey indicates that pathology staff across central India currently utilize gross digital images for educational or academic purposes. They also revealed that technology will be required in near future applications in academics, consultation and for medico-legal purposes. PMID:27601805

  12. Molecular pathology as the driving force for personalized oncology.

    PubMed

    Oktay, Maja H; Hui, Pei

    2012-11-01

    Innovative Tissue-Based Diagnostics Philadelphia, PA, USA, 4-5 June 2012 This article focuses on the current and emerging molecular diagnostics relevant to clinical practice of oncology discussed in the session of Molecular Pathology as the Driving Force for Personalized Oncology, one of the three main themes of innovative tissue-based diagnostics with the other two being pathology in cancer drug development, and in vivo microscopy and intraoperative imaging. The session brought together seven topics and a keynote presentation in the area of precision cancer diagnosis and treatment: single gene molecular testing as the most popular cancer molecular diagnostics in current time, panel gene mutation analysis as an emerging theme for cancer therapy targeting at multiple signaling pathways, and the next-generation sequencing platform - an ultimate molecular analysis of cancer for future clinical practice. Novel tactics based on existing technology were emphasized including in vitro drug sensitivity testing and exploring immunohistochemistry in combination with histocytological assays for risk assessment of tumor metastasis and layered immunohistochemistry to predict tumor response to target cancer treatment. Clinical molecular assay development, verification and validation were among practical topics in molecular diagnostic operations. The conference was culminated by Marc Ladanyi's keynote presentation of the current and future strategies for comprehensive routine clinical genotyping of lung cancers for optimal selection of targeted therapies. PMID:23249199

  13. Digital imaging in pathology: theoretical and practical considerations, and applications.

    PubMed

    Leong, F Joel W-M; Leong, Anthony S Y

    2004-06-01

    Digital imaging is rapidly replacing photographic prints and Kodachromes for pathology reporting and conference purposes. Advanced systems linked to computers allow greater versatility and speed of turn-around as well as lower costs, allowing the incorporation of macroscopic and microscopic pictures into routine pathology reports and publications. Digital images allow transmission to remote sites via the Internet for primary diagnosis, consultation, quality assurance and educational purposes and can be stored and disseminated in CD-ROMs. Total slide digitisation is now a reality and has the potential to replace glass slides to a large extent. There are extensive applications of digital images in education and research, allowing more objective and automated quantitation of a variety of morphological and immunohistological parameters. Three-dimensional images of gross specimens can be developed and posted on websites for interactive educational programs and preliminary reports indicate that medical vision systems are a reality and can provide for automated computer generated histopathological diagnosis and quality assurance. PMID:15203727

  14. The history of British gynaecological pathology.

    PubMed

    Young, Robert H

    2009-01-01

    The venerable tradition of British gynaecological pathology is honoured by brief comments on those who have pioneered work in this arena, using as the starting point the remarkable Scottish physician Dr Matthew Baillie who, with his uncles, the legendary William and John Hunter, can arguably be considered the founders of medicine in Great Britain. The impact of Baillie's great work 'The Morbid Anatomy of Some of the Most Important Parts of the Human Body' is noted. Because of the fame they achieved in working in other areas, the contributions to gynaecological pathology of Thomas Hodgkin and Richard Bright, particularly the former, are often overlooked and are noted herein as is a remarkable book on the ovary by Charles G. Ritchie, published in 1865. The middle years of the 19th century were notable because of the activities of pioneering surgeons such as Sir Spencer Wells and Lawson Tait which gradually led to a greater emphasis on pathologic examination of specimens removed at operation, as opposed to autopsy evaluation. The closing years of the 19th century and early years of the 20th century were dominated by five individuals, Alban Doran, John Bland-Sutton, Cuthbert Lockyer, Elizabeth Hurdon and John Hammond Teacher. Doran wrote an early study of tubal carcinoma and a book on that organ and the ovary. Bland-Sutton was a remarkably influential surgeon with a significant interest in pathology and also contributed a book on the ovary and fallopian tube as well as one of the early good papers on metastatic tumours to the ovary. Lockyer wrote an outstanding book on uterine fibroids and established, and funded, a museum at Charing Cross Hospital. Hurdon can be considered the first female gynaecological pathologist. She spent much of her active career in the United States working at Johns Hopkins Hospital. She co-authored a monumental book on the appendix, likely never to be equalled. Teacher worked in Glasgow for many years and was almost single-handedly responsible

  15. Modifying the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Measure for Use with People Who Have a Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Keith; Willoughby-Booth, Simon

    2007-01-01

    There are few reliable self-report measures suitable for people with a learning disability in reporting psychological distress. This study examines the modification of the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), exploring its reliability, using two different presentation styles. One style included a sequencing task then…

  16. Being Kitties in a Preschool Classroom: Maintaining Group Harmony and Acting Proper in a Female Peer-Culture Play Routine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madrid, Samara; Kantor, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how young girls construct emotional themes in their peer-culture play routines and rituals in the daily life of a preschool classroom. This research is part of a larger eight-month ethnographic study of one preschool classroom. The data selected and analysed in this article are taken from a focused six-week theoretical sampling…

  17. Hepatic Pathology Among Patients Without Known Liver Disease Undergoing Bariatric Surgery: Observations and a Perspective from the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Kleiner, David E.; Berk, Paul D.; Hsu, Jesse Y.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Flum, David; Khandelwal, Saurabh; Pender, John; Pomp, Alfons; Roerig, James; Machado, Laura L.; Wolfe, Bruce M.; Belle, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Liver biopsy is not routine during bariatric surgery. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is widely used to screen for liver disease. We assessed the relationship between ALT and pathology in biopsies from Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) patients with normal preoperative ALTs. Methods Biopsies from the LABS-1 and LABS-2 studies were scored using the NASH CRN and Ishak systems. Diagnosis and histology were examined in relation to ALT. Results 693 suitable biopsies were evaluated. Biopsied patients had a median age of 45 years; 78.6% were female and 35.1% diabetic; median BMI was 46 kg/m2. 635 biopsied patients had preoperative ALTs. Median ALT was 25 IU/L, (IQR 19–36 IU/L); 26.6% had an ALT >35 IU/L and 29.9% exceeded the more restrictive Prati criteria for normal. Using the Prati criteria, 7.9% of participants with normal ALT had steatohepatitis and 5.3% had ≥stage 2 fibrosis. Logistic regression models were used to predict the probabilities of having bridging fibrosis/cirrhosis or a diagnosis of borderline/definite steatohepatitis in the unbiopsied LABS-2 sample. The proportion of biopsied participants with these findings was very similar to the modeled results from the unbiopsied cohorts. We estimated that 86.0% of participants with advanced fibrosis and 88.1% of participants with borderline/definite steatohepatitis were not biopsied and went undiagnosed. Conclusion As ALT did not reliably exclude significant obesity-related liver disease in bariatric surgery patients, consideration should be given to routine liver biopsy during bariatric surgery and medical follow-up of significant hepatic pathology. PMID:24782263

  18. Can Digital Pathology Result In Cost Savings? A Financial Projection For Digital Pathology Implementation At A Large Integrated Health Care Organization

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jonhan; Ahlers, Stefan M.; Stratman, Curtis; Aridor, Orly; Pantanowitz, Liron; Fine, Jeffrey L.; Kuzmishin, John A.; Montalto, Michael C.; Parwani, Anil V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Digital pathology offers potential improvements in workflow and interpretive accuracy. Although currently digital pathology is commonly used for research and education, its clinical use has been limited to niche applications such as frozen sections and remote second opinion consultations. This is mainly due to regulatory hurdles, but also to a dearth of data supporting a positive economic cost-benefit. Large scale adoption of digital pathology and the integration of digital slides into the routine anatomic/surgical pathology “slide less” clinical workflow will occur only if digital pathology will offer a quantifiable benefit, which could come in the form of more efficient and/or higher quality care. Aim: As a large academic-based health care organization expecting to adopt digital pathology for primary diagnosis upon its regulatory approval, our institution estimated potential operational cost savings offered by the implementation of an enterprise-wide digital pathology system (DPS). Methods: Projected cost savings were calculated for the first 5 years following implementation of a DPS based on operational data collected from the pathology department. Projected savings were based on two factors: (1) Productivity and lab consolidation savings; and (2) avoided treatment costs due to improvements in the accuracy of cancer diagnoses among nonsubspecialty pathologists. Detailed analyses of incremental treatment costs due to interpretive errors, resulting in either a false positive or false negative diagnosis, was performed for melanoma and breast cancer and extrapolated to 10 other common cancers. Results: When phased in over 5-years, total cost savings based on anticipated improvements in pathology productivity and histology lab consolidation were estimated at $12.4 million for an institution with 219,000 annual accessions. The main contributing factors to these savings were gains in pathologist clinical full-time equivalent capacity impacted by

  19. Routine Metabolic Rate of Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus Fry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish eggs are typically incubated at high density and are often subjected to sub-optimum dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations while in the hatchery. Since DO plays an important role in the development, hatch rate, and growth of catfish eggs and fry, we measured routine metabolic rate of ...

  20. Back to Schooling: Challenging Implicit Routines and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorodetsky, Malka; Barak, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Engestrom and others have suggested that major barriers towards school change are rooted in the hidden, implicit aspects of daily school life that are taken for granted. These constitute the school's taken-for-granted routines, which mold teachers' affordances and constraints within the school, without their awareness. The present paper provides…