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Sample records for routine pathological examination

  1. Spectrum of Gastroenteropancreatic NENs in Routine Histological Examinations of Bioptic and Surgical Specimen: A Study of 161 Cases Collected from 17 Departments of Pathology in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Mandys, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To characterize GEP-NENs in routine biopsies and surgical specimen in the Czech Republic and to evaluate how WHO Classification (2010) is acceptable in diagnostic practice. Methods. Paraffin-embedded blocks and bioptic reports were collected from 17 departments of pathology. Histologic slides were stained with H&E and immunohistologically for CgA, synaptophysin, and Ki-67. Results. Out of 28 gastric NENs, there were 22 NETs, G1, 5 NETs, G2, and 1 NEC. Ten duodenal NENs were NETs, G1. Among 27 NENs of jejunum and ileum, 23 were NETs, G1, 2 NETs, G2, and 1 NEC and 1 mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). Among 42 appendiceal “incidentalomas”, 39 were NETs G1, 2 goblet cell carcinoids, and 1 MANEC. Out of 34 large intestinal NENs, 30 were NETs, G1, 3 NETs, G2, and 1 NEC. One small intestinal and 6 large bowel neoplasms were reclassified as poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas. In 12 pancreatic NENs, there were 7 NETs, G1, 3 NETs, G2, and 2 NECs. Conclusions. Our study demonstrates differences in GEP-NENs frequency in sites of origin in our region, comparing to other countries. Regarding routine bioptic diagnostics, we gave evidence that the WHO 2010 classification of NENs is fully acceptable for exact categorisation of tumours. PMID:24695372

  2. Spectrum of Gastroenteropancreatic NENs in Routine Histological Examinations of Bioptic and Surgical Specimen: A Study of 161 Cases Collected from 17 Departments of Pathology in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Mandys, Václav; Jirásek, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To characterize GEP-NENs in routine biopsies and surgical specimen in the Czech Republic and to evaluate how WHO Classification (2010) is acceptable in diagnostic practice. Methods. Paraffin-embedded blocks and bioptic reports were collected from 17 departments of pathology. Histologic slides were stained with H&E and immunohistologically for CgA, synaptophysin, and Ki-67. Results. Out of 28 gastric NENs, there were 22 NETs, G1, 5 NETs, G2, and 1 NEC. Ten duodenal NENs were NETs, G1. Among 27 NENs of jejunum and ileum, 23 were NETs, G1, 2 NETs, G2, and 1 NEC and 1 mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). Among 42 appendiceal "incidentalomas", 39 were NETs G1, 2 goblet cell carcinoids, and 1 MANEC. Out of 34 large intestinal NENs, 30 were NETs, G1, 3 NETs, G2, and 1 NEC. One small intestinal and 6 large bowel neoplasms were reclassified as poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas. In 12 pancreatic NENs, there were 7 NETs, G1, 3 NETs, G2, and 2 NECs. Conclusions. Our study demonstrates differences in GEP-NENs frequency in sites of origin in our region, comparing to other countries. Regarding routine bioptic diagnostics, we gave evidence that the WHO 2010 classification of NENs is fully acceptable for exact categorisation of tumours. PMID:24695372

  3. Value of routine histopathological examination of appendices in Hong Kong.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, W; Fu, K H

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective study of the histopathological findings of more than 11,443 appendices submitted as surgical specimens over 14 years was performed in this department. In most cases routine histopathological examination added little clinically important information to other clinical and operative gross findings, but a variety of interesting and uncommon lesions were identified. In 85 cases clinically important pathological findings were first discovered on routine histopathological examination. These included enterobiasis, schistosomiasis, mucocele, trichuriasis, tuberculosis, ascariasis, endometriosis, mucinous cystadenoma, granuloma, carcinoid tumour, neuroma, clonorchiasis, primary adenocarcinoma and secondary carcinoma. PMID:3584486

  4. An Examination of Latino Students' Homework Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    Homework appears to be positively associated with better student outcomes. Although some researchers have explored the connection between time spent on homework and minority student achievement, few have examined the homework routines of Latino youth. Interviews with Latino high school students show that they have some difficulty completing daily…

  5. Recommendations on routine screening pelvic examination

    PubMed Central

    Tonelli, Marcello; Gorber, Sarah Connor; Moore, Ainsley; Thombs, Brett D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the 2014 American College of Physicians (ACP) guideline on the use of pelvic examinations to screen for cancer (other than cervical), pelvic inflammatory disease, or other benign gynecologic conditions to determine whether the ACP guideline on routine pelvic examinations was consistent with Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (CTFPHC) standards and could be adapted or adopted. Methods The SNAP-IT (Smooth National Adaptation and Presentation of Guidelines to Improve Thrombosis Treatment) method was used to determine whether the ACP guideline was consistent with CTFPHC standards and could be adapted or adopted. Recommendations The CTFPHC recommends not performing a screening pelvic examination to screen for noncervical cancer, pelvic inflammatory disease, or other gynecological conditions in asymptomatic women. This is a strong recommendation with moderate-quality evidence. Conclusion The CTFPHC adopts the recommendation on screening pelvic examination as published by the ACP in 2014. PMID:26975912

  6. Web-based pathology practice examination usage

    PubMed Central

    Klatt, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Context: General and subject specific practice examinations for students in health sciences studying pathology were placed onto a free public internet web site entitled web path and were accessed four clicks from the home web site menu. Subjects and Methods: Multiple choice questions were coded into. html files with JavaScript functions for web browser viewing in a timed format. A Perl programming language script with common gateway interface for web page forms scored examinations and placed results into a log file on an internet computer server. The four general review examinations of 30 questions each could be completed in up to 30 min. The 17 subject specific examinations of 10 questions each with accompanying images could be completed in up to 15 min each. The results of scores and user educational field of study from log files were compiled from June 2006 to January 2014. Results: The four general review examinations had 31,639 accesses with completion of all questions, for a completion rate of 54% and average score of 75%. A score of 100% was achieved by 7% of users, ≥90% by 21%, and ≥50% score by 95% of users. In top to bottom web page menu order, review examination usage was 44%, 24%, 17%, and 15% of all accessions. The 17 subject specific examinations had 103,028 completions, with completion rate 73% and average score 74%. Scoring at 100% was 20% overall, ≥90% by 37%, and ≥50% score by 90% of users. The first three menu items on the web page accounted for 12.6%, 10.0%, and 8.2% of all completions, and the bottom three accounted for no more than 2.2% each. Conclusions: Completion rates were higher for shorter 10 questions subject examinations. Users identifying themselves as MD/DO scored higher than other users, averaging 75%. Usage was higher for examinations at the top of the web page menu. Scores achieved suggest that a cohort of serious users fully completing the examinations had sufficient preparation to use them to support their pathology

  7. Harlequin testicle and other uncommon pathologies masquerading at routine scrotal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Medverd, Jonathan R; Peguero, Larissa; Patel, Dhairyasheel P

    2015-06-01

    Many scrotal conditions manifest similarly as pain, swelling, a palpable abnormality, or a combination of these symptoms. Most common scrotal pathologies have characteristic accompanying sonographic findings. Less common pathologies can have similar clinical presentations, and imaging with scrotal ultrasound is required to aid in proper diagnosis. This article focuses on several of these less commonly encountered scrotal pathologies--including testicular segmental infarction, scrotal filariasis, scrotal mesothelioma, seminiferous tubule fibrosis, and scrotal leiomyosarcoma--and compares and contrasts them to more routine diagnoses. Familiarity with both typical and atypical scrotal conditions is necessary to make accurate diagnoses at ultrasound to guide appropriate treatment and avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:25938549

  8. Improving patient safety by examining pathology errors.

    PubMed

    Raab, Stephen S

    2004-12-01

    A considerable void exists in the information available regarding anatomic pathology diagnostic errors and their impact on clinical outcomes. To fill this void and improve patient safety, four institutional pathology departments (University of Pittsburgh, Western Pennsylvania Hospital, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, and Henry Ford Hospital System) have proposed the development of a voluntary, Web-based, multi-institutional database for the collection and analysis of diagnostic errors. These institutions intend to use these data proactively to implement internal changes in pathology practice and to measure the effect of such changes on errors and clinical outcomes. They believe that the successful implementation of this project will result in the study of other types of diagnostic pathology error and the expansion to national participation. The project will involve the collection of multi-institutional anatomic pathology diagnostic errors in a large database that will facilitate a more detailed analysis of these errors, including their effect on patient outcomes. Participating institutions will perform root cause analysis for diagnostic errors and plan and execute appropriate process changes aimed at error reduction. The success of these interventions will be tracked through analysis of postintervention error data collected in the database. Based on their preliminary studies, these institutions proposed the following specific aims: Specific aim #1: To use a Web-based database to collect diagnostic errors detected by cytologic histologic correlation and by second-pathologist review of conference cases. Specific aim #2: To analyze the collected error data quantitatively and generate quality performance reports that are useful for institutional quality improvement programs. Specific aim #3: To plan and implement interventions to reduce errors and improve clinical outcomes, based on information derived from root cause analysis of diagnostic errors. Specific

  9. Incidental findings during routine pathological evaluation of gallbladder specimens: review of 1,747 elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy cases.

    PubMed

    Basak, F; Hasbahceci, M; Canbak, T; Sisik, A; Acar, A; Yucel, M; Bas, G; Alimoglu, O

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Cholecystectomy for benign gallbladder diseases can lead to previously undiagnosed gallbladder cancer during histopathological evaluation. Despite some controversy over its usefulness, histopathological evaluation of all gallbladder specimens is common in most hospitals. We evaluated the results of routine pathology of the gallbladder after cholecystectomy for benign gallbladder diseases with regard to unexpected primary gallbladder cancer (UPGC). Methods Patients undergoing cholecystectomy because of benign gallbladder diseases between 2009 and 2013 were enrolled in this study. All gallbladder specimens were sent to the pathology department, and histopathological reports were examined in detail. The impact of demographic features on pathological diagnoses and prevalence of UPGC assessed. Data on additional interventions and postoperative survival for patients with UPGC were collected. Results We enrolled 1,747 patients (mean age, 48.7±13.6 years). Chronic cholecystitis was the most common diagnosis (96.3%) and was associated significantly with being female (p=0.001). Four patients had UPGC (0.23%); one was stage T3 at the time of surgery, and the remaining three cases were stage T2. Conclusions Routine histopathological examination of the gallbladder is valuable for identification of cancer that requires further postoperative management. PMID:26924485

  10. Spontaneous Pathology and Routine Clinical Pathology Parameters in Aging Beagle Dogs: A Comparison With Adolescent and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Barnes, J; Cotton, P; Robinson, S; Jacobsen, M

    2016-03-01

    AstraZeneca ran a bespoke study to generate age-matched clinical pathology and histopathology data from a cohort of Beagle dogs aged between 25 and 37 months to support the use of these older animals in routine preclinical toxicology studies. As the upper age range of Beagle dogs routinely used in toxicology studies does not normally exceed 24 months, there is an absence of appropriate age-matched historical control data. The generation of such data was crucial to understand whether age-related differences in spontaneous findings might confound the interpretation of toxicology study data. While the majority of the histopathology findings in all the older dogs occurred at a similar prevalence as those expected in young adult dogs (<24 months), a number of differences were observed in the thymus (involution), bone marrow (increased adiposity), testes (degenerative changes), and lung (fibrosis, pigment and alveolar hyperplasia) that could be misinterpreted as a test article effect. Minor differences in some clinical pathology values (hemoglobin, alkaline phosphatase, absolute reticulocytes) were of a small magnitude and considered unlikely to affect the interpretation of study data. PMID:26553522

  11. Is the routine microscopic examination of proximal and distal resection margins in colorectal cancer surgery justified?

    PubMed

    Morlote, Diana M; Alexis, John B

    2016-08-01

    Microscopic examination of the proximal and distal resection margins is part of the routine pathologic evaluation of colorectal surgical specimens removed for adenocarcinoma. Anastomotic donuts are frequently received and microscopically examined. We examined 594 specimens received over a period of 10 years and found only 3 cases of definitive direct involvement of a longitudinal margin by carcinoma. All 3 cases also showed tumor at the margin grossly. One case of margin involvement by adenocarcinoma was found in which the tumor was grossly 1.7 cm away; however, this finding was likely a tumor deposit, as the patient had diffuse metastatic disease. All 242 anastomotic donuts examined were free of carcinoma. Our study suggests that the proximal and distal margins of colorectal cancer specimens need not be examined microscopically in order to accurately assess margin status in cases where the tumor is at least 2 cm away from the margin of resection. Also, in cases in which anastomotic donuts are included with the case, these should be considered the true margins of resection and may be microscopically examined in place of the bowel specimen margins when margin examination is needed. Anastomotic donuts need not be examined if the tumor is more than 2 cm away from the margin. An exception to this rule would be cases of rectal adenocarcinoma where neoadjuvant therapy is given prior to surgery. In these cases, mucosal evidence of malignancy may be absent and microscopic examination of the margins is the only way to assure complete excision. PMID:27402222

  12. Routine Clinical-Pathologic Correlation of Pigmented Skin Tumors Can Influence Patient Management

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Caterina; Piana, Simonetta; Lallas, Aimilios; Moscarella, Elvira; Lombardi, Mara; Raucci, Margherita; Pellacani, Giovanni; Argenziano, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have demonstrated the benefit of integrating clinical with pathologic information, to obtain a confident diagnosis for melanocytic tumors. However, all those studies were conducted retrospectively and no data are currently available about the role of a clinical-pathologic correlation approach on a daily basis in clinical practice. Aim of the Study In our study, we evaluated the impact of a routine clinical-pathologic correlation approach for difficult skin tumors seen over 3 years in a tertiary referral center. Results Interestingly, a re-appraisal was requested for 158 out of 2015 (7.7%) excised lesions because clinical-pathologic correlation was missing. Of note, in 0.6% of them (13 out of 2045) the first histologic diagnosis was revised in the light of clinical information that assisted the Pathologist to re-evaluate the histopathologic findings that might be bland or inconspicuous per se. Conclusion In conclusion, our study demonstrated that an integrated approach involving clinicians and pathologists allows improving management of selected patients by shifting from a simply disease-focused management (melanoma versus nevus) to a patient-centered approach. PMID:26325678

  13. Advantage of Adding Diffusion Weighted Imaging to Routine MRI Examinations in the Diagnostics of Scrotal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Algebally, Ahmed Mohamed; Tantawy, Hazim Ibrahim; Yousef, Reda Ramadan Hussein; Szmigielski, Wojciech; Darweesh, Adham

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The purpose of the study is to identify the diagnostic value of adding diffusion weighted images (DWI) to routine MRI examinations of the scrotum. Material/Methods The study included 100 testes of 50 patients with a unilateral testicular disease. Fifty normal contralateral testes were used as a control group. All patients underwent conventional MRI and DWI examinations of the scrotum. The results of MRI and DWI of the group of patients treated surgically were correlated with histopathological findings. The MRI and DWI results of non-surgical cases were correlated with the results of clinical, laboratory and other imaging studies. Comparison of the ADC value of normal and pathological tissues was carried out followed by a statistical analysis. Results There was a significant difference between ADC values of malignant testicular lesions and normal testicular tissues as well as benign testicular lesions (P=0.000). At a cut-off ADC value of ≤0.99, it had a sensitivity of 93.3%, specificity of 90%, positive predictive value of 87.5%, and negative predictive value of 94.7% in the characterization of intratesticular masses. Conclusions Inclusion of DWI to routine MRI has a substantial value in improving diagnosis in patients with scrotal lesions and consequently can reduce unnecessary radical surgical procedures in these patients. PMID:26491491

  14. Routine chest x-ray examinations in occupational medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Ashenburg, N.J.

    1982-01-01

    To collect some data on the yield of the chest x-ray examination in pre-employment health evaluations, a retrospective study was carried out. Pre-employment chest x-ray examination reports on 3,266 applicants were reviewed in Eastman Kodak Company's Medical Department in Rochester, N.Y. All radiographs were interpreted by Board-certified radiologists. For the purpose of this study, positive findings were restricted to the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems. The findings included items that would not be considered completely normal. However, many were of no clinical significance. An important point in regard to the findings is that 80% of the applicants were under the age of 35. The data are summarized in Table 1. Positive findings were noted in 52 (1.6%) radiographs. Of these, 25 (0.7%) had some radiologic finding that was relevant in terms of clinical follow-up, appropriate job placement or deferment of employment. Only two of the 3,266 applicants were not employed because of the x-ray examination findings. Results suggests that a selective program, based on clinical history and examination and on past and proposed job exposure, might be appropriate.

  15. Implementation of TMA and digitalization in routine diagnostics of breast pathology.

    PubMed

    Rossing, Henrik Holm; Talman, Maj-Lis Møller; Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Wielenga, Vera Timmermans

    2012-04-01

    To ensure optimal treatment of breast cancer patients, breast tumours are classified based on clinico-pathological features. As part of this process, routine diagnostics of breast tumours includes histological typing and grading, as well as profiling by use of an immunohistochemistry panel of antibodies, probes and in situ hybridization. This will, as a minimum, include assessment of oestrogen receptor (OR) and HER2. The individual preparation and staining of many breast tumours in a large laboratory with this standard panel is thus time consuming and costly. Herein, we show that in breast cancer routine diagnostics the use of the tissue microarray technique in combination with digitalization of the stained multi-slides is not only economical, with a considerable cost reduction, but it also enhances standardization of tumour profiling. We demonstrate that 2 mm breast tumour cores correlate with the corresponding tumour on whole mount slides, regarding staining/hybridizing results with the biomarkers in our panel consisting of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, OR and Topiomerase IIa. Furthermore, we show that simultaneous staining/hybridizing of multiple breast tumour specimens reduces variation of staining/hybridizing quality, hereby increasing reliability of interpretation. By scanning and digitalization of the stained and hybridized multi-slides, we could optimize documentation and filing of the results. Our work is an example of translational research by implementing a tool in daily diagnostics originally developed for high throughput analyses in the search for prognostic and predictive markers in targeted medicine. PMID:22429216

  16. Database construction for improving patient safety by examining pathology errors.

    PubMed

    Grzybicki, Dana Marie; Turcsanyi, Brian; Becich, Michael J; Gupta, Dilip; Gilbertson, John R; Raab, Stephen S

    2005-10-01

    A critical component of improving patient safety is reducing medical errors. "Improving Patient Safety by Examining Pathology Errors" is a project designed to collect data about and analyze diagnostic errors voluntarily reported by 4 academic anatomic pathology laboratories and to develop and implement interventions to reduce errors and improve patient outcomes. The study database is Web-mediated and Oracle-based, and it houses de-identified error data detected by cytologic-histologic correlation and interdepartmental conference review. We describe the basic design of the database with a focus on challenges faced as a consequence of the absence of standardized and detailed laboratory workload and quality assurance data sets in widely used laboratory information systems and the lack of efficient and comprehensive electronic de-identification of unlinked institutional laboratory information systems and clinical data. Development of these electronic data abstraction capabilities is critical for efforts to improve patient safety through the examination of pathology diagnostic errors. PMID:16146808

  17. First national in-service examination for pathology residents.

    PubMed

    Lockard, W T; Beeler, M F; Stembridge, V A; Troy, L A

    1985-01-01

    To fulfill an identified need in pathology residency program training, in 1983 the American Society of Clinical Pathologists introduced the first national in-service examination for pathology residents. This 175-item objective examination structured with seven subtest categories for various clinical rotations was administered to 1,200 residents-in-training representing 145 training programs, 40 states, and the District of Columbia. Individual norm-referenced results reports returned to each examinee, and program reports to each residency program director, indicated rank of individual examinee performance in each category and in all categories as well as with defined peer groups. Anonymity of individual results was optional to program directors. The data indicate that although performance improves with each subsequent year of residency training, the improvement is not so great as expected and that the level of performance of residents entering training was higher than anticipated. Postexamination evaluation indicated the need for this effort to continue. PMID:3966428

  18. Routine histologic examination for the diagnosis of onychomycosis: an evaluation of sensitivity and specificity.

    PubMed

    Machler, B C; Kirsner, R S; Elgart, G W

    1998-04-01

    Clinical differentiation of dermatophyte infection from dystrophic changes due to psoriasis may be challenging. Typically, potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparations, fungal culture, and occasionally, nail unit biopsy specimens are utilized to help differentiate between the two. These tests are often time-consuming and may yield false-negative results. Increasing regulation of the office laboratory has caused some physicians to forgo this testing, which was previously routine. We investigated the utility of routine histologic examination of nail clippings in differentiating onychomycosis from psoriatic onychodystrophy. Twenty-three distal nail clipping specimens (twelve specimens from patients with onychodystrophy of unknown cause and eleven control specimens from nails with known cause) were evaluated by routine histology and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining. Of the dystrophic cases, four were demonstrated to be onychomycosis by the presence of hyphae on histologic evaluation and by culture, whereas only three of these cases yielded positive results on KOH examination. Eight cases of onychodystrophy were due to psoriasis. Yeast forms were detected on one case of psoriatic onychodystrophy that demonstrated yeast growth on culture. In our study, routine histologic examination with PAS staining was equal to culture and superior to KOH preparation in leading to the correct diagnosis of dermatophyte infection. In addition, the diagnosis of psoriasis of the nail plate was detected accurately by routine histologic examination. Routine histologic examination with PAS staining is a rapid, simple, and reliable test in the evaluation of onychodystrophy. PMID:9564595

  19. Current routine practice and clinico-pathological characteristics associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sunhyun; Park, Joon Seong; Jeong, Seong Hyun; Lee, Hyun Woo; Park, Jun Eun; Kim, Mi Hyang; Kim, Yang Soo; Lee, Ho Sup; Park, Tae Sung; You, Eunkyoung; Rheem, Insoo; Park, Joowon; Huh, JI Young; Kang, Myung Seo

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) can be life threatening, necessitating emergency therapy with prompt diagnosis by morphologic findings, immunophenotyping, cytogenetic analysis, or molecular studies. This study aimed to assess the current routine practices in APL and the clinico-pathologic features of APL. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 48 Korean patients (25 men, 23 women; median age, 51 (20-80) years) diagnosed with APL in 5 university hospitals between March 2007 and February 2012. Results The WBC count at diagnosis and platelet count varied from 0.4 to 81.0 (median 2.0)×109/L and 2.7 to 124.0 (median 54.5)×109/L, respectively. The median values for prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were 14.7 (11.3-44.1) s and 29 (24-62) s, respectively. All but 2 patients (96%) showed a fibrin/fibrinogen degradation product value of >20 µg/mL. The D-dimer median value was 5,000 (686-55,630) ng/mL. The t(15;17)(q22;q12 and PML-RARA fusion was found in all patients by chromosome analysis and/or multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), with turnaround times of 8 (2-19) d and 7 (2-13) d, respectively. All patients received induction chemotherapy: all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) alone (N=11, 26%), ATRA+idarubicin (N=25, 58%), ATRA+cytarabine (N=3, 7%), ATRA+idarubicin+cytarabine (N=4, 9%). Conclusion Since APL is a medical emergency and an accurate diagnosis is a prerequisite for prompt treatment, laboratory support to implement faster diagnostic tools to confirm the presence of PML-RARA is required. PMID:23589792

  20. Asymptomatic coronary artery spasm with acute pathological ST elevation on routine ECG: Is it common?

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Ishaq; Zaatari, Mohamad Sadek El; Tyrogalas, Nikos; Khalid, M I

    2014-01-01

    Asymptomatic spontaneous coronary artery spasm is rare and there are no case reports in literature presenting with acute ST elevation on routine ECG. We present the case of a 68-year-old Caucasian man who presented to a primary care physician for a routine ECG as part of hypertension follow-up. ECG revealed ST elevation in inferior leads II, III and aVF with reciprocal ST depression in leads I, aVL and also ST depression in anterior leads V1, V2 and V3 suggesting ongoing inferoposterior ST elevation myocardial infarction. The patient was completely well, stable and asymptomatic and he was rushed immediately to the coronary care unit via emergency ambulance. The patient was subjected to a battery of urgent investigations which were all normal. Also an urgent coronary angiogram was undertaken which showed completely normal coronary anatomy. PMID:25115779

  1. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in fecal samples submitted for routine microbiological examination.

    PubMed Central

    Ratnam, S; Paddock, J; McDonald, E; Whitty, D; Jong, M; Cooper, R

    1985-01-01

    During a 7-month period, 2,252 fecal samples submitted for routine microbiological examination from 1,621 patients were screened for Cryptosporidium oocysts by the auramine staining method with Kinyoun acid-fast stain as the confirmatory stain. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in fecal samples from 19 (1.2%) patients, 18 of whom had gastroenteritis. Diarrheic stools from 14 of these 18 patients were negative for the usual enteropathogens but contained the oocysts in moderate to large numbers. Although Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in patients of all ages, they occurred slightly more frequently in infants and children than in the rest. Cryptosporidium species was one of the common enteropathogens identified in fecal samples submitted for routine parasitological examination during the period of the survey and was second only to Giardia species in terms of frequency. Considering cryptosporidiosis in the differential diagnosis of gastroenteritis in immunocompetent persons and including a search for Cryptosporidium oocysts in routine parasitological examinations of fecal samples appear warranted. PMID:4044798

  2. A travel report of the implementation of virtual whole slide images in routine surgical pathology.

    PubMed

    Nap, Marius; Teunissen, Rob; Pieters, Math

    2012-04-01

    Virtual microscopy is the terminology used to indicate the use of digitized images of whole slides for inspection of cells and tissue sections on computer screens as an add-on or replacement for conventional microscopy using bright field or other types of illumination in combination with a wide variety of microscope brands. Although technically there is no longer a limit in the size and colour composition of the images, the logistics of embedding virtual microscopy in daily routine of a diagnostic process are still a relatively open area where new pitfalls and opportunities can be found. In this article, we described various aspects in the process. None of them had been planned in advance, but mostly originated from observations done during the different steps towards implementation of virtual microscopy in daily routine, for example, the choice between the different scanner types and their (dis)advantages, issues on storing and retrieval and at last, the effect of digitalization on the diagnostic process. This approach resulted in a manuscript that in a way has more the appearance of a story than of a scientific study with strict protocols, with a clear cut question in advance, a research plan and expected outcome. Depending on the purpose of the virtual slides in a given situation, different solutions must be found locally. PMID:22429211

  3. Pathological examination of breast cancer biomarkers: current status in Japan.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Shinobu

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews the current status of pathological evaluation for biomarkers in Japan. The introduced issues are the international trends for estimation of biomarkers considering diagnosis and treatment decision, and pathological issues under discussion, and how Japanese Breast Cancer Society (JBCS) members have addressed issues related to pathology and biomarkers evaluation. As topics of immunohistochemical study, (1) ASCO/CAP guidelines, (2) Ki67 and other markers, (3) quantification and image analysis, (4) application of cytologic samples, (5) pre-analytical process, and (6) Japan Pathology Quality Assurance System are introduced. Various phases of concepts, guidelines, and methodologies are co-existed in today's clinical practice. It is expected in near future that conventional methods and molecular procedures will be emerged, and Japanese Quality assurance/Quality control (QA/QC) system will work practically. What we have to do in the next generation are to validate novel procedures, to evaluate the relationship between traditional concepts and newly proposed ideas, to establish a well organized QA/QC system, and to standardize pre-analytical process that are the basis of all procedures using pathological tissues. PMID:25239167

  4. Issues in using whole slide imaging for diagnostic pathology: "routine" stains, immunohistochemistry and predictive markers.

    PubMed

    Taylor, C R

    2014-08-01

    The traditional microscope, together with the "routine" hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) stain, remains the "gold standard" for diagnosis of cancer and other diseases; remarkably, it and the majority of associated biological stains are more than 150 years old. Immunohistochemistry has added to the repertoire of "stains" available. Because of the need for specific identification and even measurement of "biomarkers," immunohistochemistry has increased the demand for consistency of performance and interpretation of staining results. Rapid advances in the capabilities of digital imaging hardware and software now offer a realistic route to improved reproducibility, accuracy and quantification by utilizing whole slide digital images for diagnosis, education and research. There also are potential efficiencies in work flow and the promise of powerful new analytical methods; however, there also are challenges with respect to validation of the quality and fidelity of digital images, including the standard H & E stain, so that diagnostic performance by pathologists is not compromised when they rely on whole slide images instead of traditional stained tissues on glass slides. PMID:24325681

  5. Implementation of large-scale routine diagnostics using whole slide imaging in Sweden: Digital pathology experiences 2006-2013

    PubMed Central

    Thorstenson, Sten; Molin, Jesper; Lundström, Claes

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological advances have improved the whole slide imaging (WSI) scanner quality and reduced the cost of storage, thereby enabling the deployment of digital pathology for routine diagnostics. In this paper we present the experiences from two Swedish sites having deployed routine large-scale WSI for primary review. At Kalmar County Hospital, the digitization process started in 2006 to reduce the time spent at the microscope in order to improve the ergonomics. Since 2008, more than 500,000 glass slides have been scanned in the routine operations of Kalmar and the neighboring Linköping University Hospital. All glass slides are digitally scanned yet they are also physically delivered to the consulting pathologist who can choose to review the slides on screen, in the microscope, or both. The digital operations include regular remote case reporting by a few hospital pathologists, as well as around 150 cases per week where primary review is outsourced to a private clinic. To investigate how the pathologists choose to use the digital slides, a web-based questionnaire was designed and sent out to the pathologists in Kalmar and Linköping. The responses showed that almost all pathologists think that ergonomics have improved and that image quality was sufficient for most histopathologic diagnostic work. 38 ± 28% of the cases were diagnosed digitally, but the survey also revealed that the pathologists commonly switch back and forth between digital and conventional microscopy within the same case. The fact that two full-scale digital systems have been implemented and that a large portion of the primary reporting is voluntarily performed digitally shows that large-scale digitization is possible today. PMID:24843825

  6. Is polysomnographic examination necessary for subjects with diaphragm pathologies?

    PubMed Central

    Oruc, Ozlem; Sarac, Sema; Afsar, Gulgun Cetintas; Topcuoglu, Ozgur Bilgin; Kanbur, Serda; Yalcinkaya, Irfan; Tepetam, Fatma Merve; Kirbas, Gokhan

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: While respiratory distress is accepted as the only indication for diaphragmatic plication surgery, sleep disorders have been underestimated. In this study, we aimed to detect the sleep disorders that accompany diaphragm pathologies. Specifically, the association of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome with diaphragm eventration and diaphragm paralysis was evaluated. METHODS: This study was performed in Süreyyapasa Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Training and Research Hospital between 2014–2016. All patients had symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea (snoring and/or cessation of breath during sleep and/or daytime sleepiness) and underwent diaphragmatic plication via video-assisted mini-thoracotomy. Additionally, all patients underwent pre- and postoperative full-night polysomnography. Pre- and postoperative clinical findings, polysomnography results, Epworth sleepiness scale scores and pulmonary function test results were compared. RESULTS: Twelve patients (7 males) with a mean age of 48 (range, 27-60) years and a mean body mass index of 25 (range, 20-30) kg/m2 were included in the study. Preoperative polysomnography showed obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in 9 of the 12 patients (75%), while 3 of the patients (25%) were regarded as normal. Postoperatively, patient complaints, apnea hypopnea indices, Epworth sleepiness scale scores and pulmonary function test results all demonstrated remarkable improvement. CONCLUSION: All patients suffering from diaphragm pathologies with symptoms should undergo polysomnography, and patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome should be operated on. In this way, long-term comorbidities of sleep disorders may be prevented.

  7. Is Routine Ultrasound Examination of the Gallbladder Justified in Critical Care Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Myrianthefs, Pavlos; Evodia, Efimia; Vlachou, Ioanna; Petrocheilou, Glykeria; Gavala, Alexandra; Pappa, Maria; Baltopoulos, George; Karakitsos, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Objective. We evaluated whether routine ultrasound examination may illustrate gallbladder abnormalities, including acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) in the intensive care unit (ICU). Patients and Methods. Ultrasound monitoring of the GB was performed by two blinded radiologists in mechanically ventilated patients irrespective of clinical and laboratory findings. We evaluated major (gallbladder wall thickening and edema, sonographic Murphy's sign, pericholecystic fluid) and minor (gallbladder distention and sludge) ultrasound criteria. Measurements and Results. We included 53 patients (42 males; mean age 57.6 ± 2.8 years; APACHE II score 21.3 ± 0.9; mean ICU stay 35.9 ± 4.8 days). Twenty-five patients (47.2%) exhibited at least one abnormal imaging finding, while only six out of them had hepatic dysfunction. No correlation existed between liver biochemistry and ultrasound results in the total population. Three male patients (5.7%), on the grounds of unexplained sepsis, were diagnosed with AAC as incited by ultrasound, and surgical intervention was lifesaving. Patients who exhibited ≥2 ultrasound findings (30.2%) were managed successfully under the guidance of evolving ultrasound, clinical, and laboratory findings. Conclusions. Ultrasound gallbladder monitoring guided lifesaving surgical treatment in 3 cases of AAC; however, its routine application is questionable and still entails high levels of clinical suspicion. PMID:22649716

  8. An assessment of the usefulness of routine histological examination in hanging deaths.

    PubMed

    Tse, Rexson; Langlois, Neil; Winskog, Calle; Byard, Roger W

    2012-07-01

    A retrospective study was carried out on 100 randomly selected medico-legal autopsies of victims who had committed suicide by hanging. All cases had undergone full police and coronial investigation. Complete external and internal examinations had been carried out including routine histological examination of organs. The age range of victims was 15-94 years (average, 41.7 years) with a male-to-female ratio of 7:1. External and internal injuries were consistent with the reported events. Diagnoses based purely on histology included hepatic steatosis (n = 16), asthma (n = 3), lymphocytic thyroiditis (n = 2), and pulmonary and cardiac sarcoidosis (n = 1). A large cell carcinoma of the lung and a rectal adenocarcinoma were confirmed. Histological evaluation was, however, of limited usefulness in contributing to the medico-legal evaluation of cases, with careful scene, external and internal examinations providing the most relevant information. The results of histological examination of tissues were all incidental to the cause, mechanism, and manner of death. PMID:22372621

  9. [Assessment of general movements at routine medical examination of one-month-old infants].

    PubMed

    Yuge, M; Okano, S; Tachibana, K; Hojo, M; Kawamoto, M; Suzuki, J

    2001-05-01

    On routine medical examination of one-month-old infants, general movements (GMs) were video-recorded for about 5 minutes of 252 infants born at Kyoto City Hospital or other hospitals, including the infants discharged from the NICU. Their ages ranged from 39 postmenstrual to 8 post-term weeks. One of the experimenters assessed 181 infants among 252 available for assessment of their GMs twice at intervals of more than one month without being informed about their clinical histories. The subjects included 19 low-birthweight infants, and their average age was 3.5 post-term weeks. The assessment was carried out in comparison to the "gold standard" GMs depicted in a demonstration video produced by the GMs Trust. The Kappa value for intra-observer concordance was 0.85. Twenty (11.0%) out of the 181 infants were judged abnormal because of their poor repertoire of GMs in both the first and second assessment. Neither cramped synchronized GMs nor chaotic ones were observed. Meanwhile, 155 (85.6%) out of the 181 infants were found to be normal. The incidence of abnormal GMs was significantly higher among infants with history of asphyxia and/or respiratory distress than among low-risk infants. There of the experimenters independently assessed GMs of 50 infants among 181 which had been video-recorded between June and September 1998. The inter-observer concordance was higher among the low-birth weight infants than among full-term ones. In conclusion, qualitative assessment of GMs by an experienced observer at routine medical examination of one-month old infants is a useful method for the follow-up of high-risk infants. PMID:11391968

  10. An Advanced Review of Speech-Language Pathology: Preparation for Praxis and Comprehensive Examination. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseberry-McKibbin, Celeste; Hegde, M. N.

    2006-01-01

    This second edition book is tailor made for speech-language pathology students preparing to take departmental comprehensive examinations as well as the Praxis Examination in Speech-Language Pathology. In addition, this inclusive book is a terrific teaching tool for university faculty---offering preview outlines, brief introductions, and summaries.…

  11. Routine Histopathologic Examination of Appendectomy Specimens: Retrospective Analysis of 1255 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Emre, Arif; Akbulut, Sami; Bozdag, Zehra; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Kanlioz, Murat; Emre, Rabia; Sahin, Nurhan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical benefit of histopathologic analysis of appendectomy specimens from patients with an initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis. We retrospectively analyzed the demographic and histopathologic data of 1255 patients (712 males, 543 females; age range, 17–85 years) who underwent appendectomy to treat an initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Patients who underwent incidental appendectomy during other surgeries were excluded from the study. Histopathologic findings of the appendectomy specimens were used to confirm the initial diagnosis. Ninety-four percent of the appendectomy specimens were positive for appendicitis. Of those, 880 were phlegmonous appendicitis, 148 were gangrenous appendicitis with perforation, and the remaining 88 showed unusual histopathologic findings. In the 88 specimens with unusual pathology, fibrous obliteration was observed in 57 specimens, carcinoid tumor in 11, Encheliophis vermicularis parasite infection in 8, granulatomous inflammation in 6, appendiceal endometriosis in 2, and 1 specimen each showed mucocele, eosinophilic infiltration, Taenia saginata parasite infection, and appendicular diverticulitis. All carcinoid tumors were located in the distal appendix. Six of the 11 carcinoid tumors were defined by histopathology as involving tubular cells, and the other 5 as involving enterochromaffin cells. Six patients had muscularis propria invasion, 2 patients had submucosa invasion, 2 patients had mesoappendix invasion, and 1 patient had serosal invasion. All patients with tumors remained disease free during the follow-up (range, 1–27 months). We conclude that when the ratio of unusual pathologic findings for appendectomy specimens is considered, it is evident that all surgical specimens should be subjected to careful histologic examination. PMID:24229023

  12. Routine histopathologic examination of appendectomy specimens: retrospective analysis of 1255 patients.

    PubMed

    Emre, Arif; Akbulut, Sami; Bozdag, Zehra; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Kanlioz, Murat; Emre, Rabia; Sahin, Nurhan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical benefit of histopathologic analysis of appendectomy specimens from patients with an initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis. We retrospectively analyzed the demographic and histopathologic data of 1255 patients (712 males, 543 females; age range, 17-85 years) who underwent appendectomy to treat an initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Patients who underwent incidental appendectomy during other surgeries were excluded from the study. Histopathologic findings of the appendectomy specimens were used to confirm the initial diagnosis. Ninety-four percent of the appendectomy specimens were positive for appendicitis. Of those, 880 were phlegmonous appendicitis, 148 were gangrenous appendicitis with perforation, and the remaining 88 showed unusual histopathologic findings. In the 88 specimens with unusual pathology, fibrous obliteration was observed in 57 specimens, carcinoid tumor in 11, Encheliophis vermicularis parasite infection in 8, granulatomous inflammation in 6, appendiceal endometriosis in 2, and 1 specimen each showed mucocele, eosinophilic infiltration, Taenia saginata parasite infection, and appendicular diverticulitis. All carcinoid tumors were located in the distal appendix. Six of the 11 carcinoid tumors were defined by histopathology as involving tubular cells, and the other 5 as involving enterochromaffin cells. Six patients had muscularis propria invasion, 2 patients had submucosa invasion, 2 patients had mesoappendix invasion, and 1 patient had serosal invasion. All patients with tumors remained disease free during the follow-up (range, 1-27 months). We conclude that when the ratio of unusual pathologic findings for appendectomy specimens is considered, it is evident that all surgical specimens should be subjected to careful histologic examination. PMID:24229023

  13. [Routine examination of the mature newborn infant. Incidence of frequent "minor findings"].

    PubMed

    Rosegger, H; Rollett, H R; Arrunàtegui, M

    1990-05-11

    From 1st January to 31st August 1989 2,248 healthy, mature infants were delivered at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Graz, Austria. They were routinely examined on day 1 and before discharge from hospital on day 4. Attention was paid to the presence or absence of minor abnormalities such as skin lesions, eruptions or rashes, cephalhaematoma, tongue tie, undescended testis, increased physiological jaundice, heart murmurs, talipes calcaneo-valgus, hip click, fracture of the clavicle and other common abnormalities and limb deformities. 20.9% of the investigated babies had no such findings whatsoever. In 79.1% of the subjects with one or more abnormalities, minor lesions due to birth trauma dominated with 24.2%, followed by postural deformities of the lower extremities in 20.5% and hip clicks and/or asymmetric skin-folds in 12.9%. Dislocation of the hip, however, was found in only 17%. Elevated serum bilirubin levels were noted in 33.0%, and in many of the jaundiced infants bruising or haematoma due to birth trauma was evident. Traumatic lesions were much rarer in infants delivered by caesarean section than in infants born vaginally. PMID:2356618

  14. Examining DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling: psychometric properties and evidence from cognitive biases.

    PubMed

    Lakey, Chad E; Goodie, Adam S; Lance, Charles E; Stinchfield, Randy; Winters, Ken C

    2007-12-01

    We examined the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling as assessed with the DSM-IV-based Diagnostic Interview for Gambling Severity (DIGS; Winters, Specker, & Stinchfield, 2002). We first analyzed the psychometric properties of the DIGS, and then assessed the extent to which performance on two judgment and decision-making tasks, the Georgia Gambling Task (Goodie, 2003) and the Iowa Gambling Task (Bechara, Damasio, Damasio, & Anderson, 1994), related to higher reports of gambling pathology. In a sample of frequent gamblers, we found strong psychometric support for the DSM-IV conception of pathological gambling as measured by the DIGS, predictive relationships between DIGS scores and all cognitive performance measures, and significant differences in performance measures between individuals with and without pathological gambling. Analyses using suggested revisions to the pathological gambling threshold (Stinchfield, 2003) revealed that individuals meeting four of the DSM-IV criteria aligned significantly more with pathological gamblers than with non-pathological gamblers, supporting the suggested change in the cutoff score from five to four symptoms. Discussion focuses on the validity of the DSM-IV criteria as assessed by the DIGS and the role of cognitive biases in pathological gambling. PMID:17453325

  15. Routine Eye Examinations for Persons 20-64 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    difference between the treatments of early-stage versus late-stage glaucoma was estimated at $167. The total cost per recipient was estimated at $891/person. Current Ontario Policy As of November 1, 2004 persons between 20 years and 64 years of age are eligible for an insured eye examination once every year if they have any of the following medical conditions: diabetes mellitus type 1 or 2, glaucoma, cataract(s), retinal disease, amblyopia, visual field defects, corneal disease, or strabismus. Persons between 20 to 64 years of age who do not have diabetes mellitus, glaucoma, cataract(s), retinal disease, amblyopia, visual field defects, corneal disease, or strabismus may be eligible for an annual eye examination if they have a valid “request for major eye examination” form completed by a physician (other than that who completed the eye exam) or a nurse practitioner working in a collaborative practice. Persons 20-64 years of age who are in receipt of social assistance and who do not have one of the 8 medical conditions listed above are eligible to receive an eye exam once every 2 years as a non-OHIP government funded service. Persons 19 years of age or younger and 65 years of age or older may receive an insured eye exam once every year. Considerations for Policy Development As of July 17, 2006 there were 1,402 practicing optometrists in Ontario. As of December 31, 2005 there were 404 practicing ophthalmologists in Ontario. It is unknown how many third party payers now cover routine eye exams for person between the ages of 20 and 64 years of age in Ontario. PMID:23074485

  16. An examination of the relation between intraocular pressure, fundal stretching and myopic pathology.

    PubMed

    McMonnies, Charles W

    2016-03-01

    Pathological myopia is one of the leading causes of visual impairment worldwide. Myopic development and progression is biomechanical and dominated by axial elongation. This clinical perspective examines some of the stretch-related fundal changes, which are associated with axial elongation and myopic pathology. The biomechanics of stretching of the fundus appears to depend on genetically and/or visual experience-based scleral changes, which reduce its thickness and elastic modulus so that it becomes more susceptible to the distending forces of intraocular pressure. These changes include reduced collagen synthesis, altered collagen fibres, tissue loss, altered proteoglycans and increased matrix metalloproteinase activity. Such changes are associated with reduced scleral rigidity and related increased potential to stretch in response to intraocular pressure. As axial elongation progresses, the sclera appears likely to continue to reduce in thickness and in its capacity to resist intraocular pressure, especially when pressure becomes elevated. Tessellation, lacquer cracks, myopic crescents, staphylomata, chorioretinal atrophy and retinal detachment are examined within a model for stretching of the fundus. Age, refractive error and axial length, for example, are associated with increased pathological progression. Myopic pathological progression can become dominated by vascular changes and include a greater risk of loss of acuity and blindness. Measures to control myopic pathology, which successfully slow or prevent stretching of the fundus, appear to be key factors in reducing or even avoiding permanent visual loss associated with this condition. For example, limiting axial elongation and related myopic fundus pathology by inhibiting changes which reduce the elastic modulus of scleral tissue is a desirable outcome from interventions to control myopia. Similarly, reducing exposure to the distending stress of elevated intraocular pressure appears to be a desirable form of

  17. Knee joint examinations by magnetic resonance imaging: The correlation of pathology, age, and sex

    PubMed Central

    Avcu, Serhat; Altun, Ersan; Akpinar, Ihsan; Bulut, Mehmet Deniz; Eresov, Kemal; Biren, Tugrul

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The aim of our study was to investigate the incidence and coexistence of multiple knee joint pathologies and the distribution of knee joint pathologies according to age and sex. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed using the clinical data of patients evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee joint. Data from 308 patients examined between August 2002 and July 2003 were included into this study. A Pearson correlation analysis was performed to examine the relationship between the pathological findings and the age and sex of the patients. Results: The ages of the patients ranged between 1 and 74 years (mean: 43.3 years). Age was significantly correlated with meniscal degeneration and tears, medial collateral ligament degeneration, parameniscal cyst, and chondromalacia patellae. There was a significant correlation between male gender and anterior cruciate ligament injury. Meniscal injury was significantly correlated with bursitis, as well as medial collateral ligament injury. Bone bruise was significantly correlated with medial collateral ligament injury, lateral collateral ligament injury, Baker's cyst, and anterior cruciate ligament injury. Chondromalacia patellae was significantly correlated with anterior cruciate ligament injury, patellae alta, and osteochondral lesion. Bursitis (in 53.2% of the patients) followed by grade-II meniscal degeneration (in 43% of the patients) were the most common knee pathologies observed by MRI. Conclusions: MRI findings of select knee pathologies are significantly correlated with each other and the age and sex of the patient. PMID:22624141

  18. Typical or Pathological? Routinized and Compulsive-Like Behaviors in Children and Young People with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Sheila; Cunningham, Cliff

    2007-01-01

    Routinized and compulsive-like behaviors (RCB) are common in typically developing children and in children and adults with Down syndrome, but what functions do they serve? Parents completed questionnaires for RCB, behavior problems, and adaptive behaviors. Children who had Down syndrome had significantly higher levels of RCB than did the typically…

  19. Evaluation of quality of routine physical examination in urban public basic schools in Khartoum State, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Alfadeel, Mona A; Hamid, Yassin H M; El Fadeel, Ogail Ata; Salih, Karimeldin M A

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to identify the availability of the service logistics in basic public schools (structure as quality concept), to assess steps of physical examination according to the ministry of health guidelines (process as quality concept) and to measure satisfaction of service consumers (pupils) and service providers (teacher and doctors). The study involved seven localities in Sudan using questionnaires and observations. The structure in form of material and human resources was not well maintained, equally the process and procedure of medical examination did not well fit with rules of quality, however, the satisfaction level was within the accepted level. As far as structure, process and outcome were concerned, we are still below the standards in developed countries for many reasons but the level of satisfaction in the present study is more or less similar as in else studies. PMID:27493421

  20. Reconstructing the spatial pattern of trees from routine stand examination measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanus, M.L.; Hann, D.W.; Marshall, D.D.

    1998-01-01

    Reconstruction of the spatial pattern of trees is important for the accurate visual display of unmapped stands. The proposed process for generating the spatial pattern is a nonsimple sequential inhibition process, with the inhibition zone proportionate to the scaled maximum crown width of an open-grown tree of the same species and same diameter at breast height as the subject tree. The results of this coordinate generation procedure are compared with mapped stem data from nine natural stands of Douglas-fir at two ages by the use of a transformed Ripley's K(d) function. The results of this comparison indicate that the proposed method, based on complete tree lists, successfully replicated the spatial patterns of the trees in all nine stands at both ages and over the range of distances examined. On the basis of these findings and the procedure's ability to model effects through time, the nonsimple sequential inhibition process has been chosen to generate tree coordinates in the VIZ4ST computer program for displaying forest stand structure in naturally regenerated young Douglas-fir stands. For. Sci.

  1. Exploring virtual reality technology and the Oculus Rift for the examination of digital pathology slides

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Navid; Post, Robert; Duboy, Jon; Ahmed, Ishtiaque; Kolowitz, Brian J.; Krinchai, Teppituk; Monaco, Sara E.; Fine, Jeffrey L.; Hartman, Douglas J.; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-01-01

    Background: Digital slides obtained from whole slide imaging (WSI) platforms are typically viewed in two dimensions using desktop personal computer monitors or more recently on mobile devices. To the best of our knowledge, we are not aware of any studies viewing digital pathology slides in a virtual reality (VR) environment. VR technology enables users to be artificially immersed in and interact with a computer-simulated world. Oculus Rift is among the world's first consumer-targeted VR headsets, intended primarily for enhanced gaming. Our aim was to explore the use of the Oculus Rift for examining digital pathology slides in a VR environment. Methods: An Oculus Rift Development Kit 2 (DK2) was connected to a 64-bit computer running Virtual Desktop software. Glass slides from twenty randomly selected lymph node cases (ten with benign and ten malignant diagnoses) were digitized using a WSI scanner. Three pathologists reviewed these digital slides on a 27-inch 5K display and with the Oculus Rift after a 2-week washout period. Recorded endpoints included concordance of final diagnoses and time required to examine slides. The pathologists also rated their ease of navigation, image quality, and diagnostic confidence for both modalities. Results: There was 90% diagnostic concordance when reviewing WSI using a 5K display and Oculus Rift. The time required to examine digital pathology slides on the 5K display averaged 39 s (range 10–120 s), compared to 62 s with the Oculus Rift (range 15–270 s). All pathologists confirmed that digital pathology slides were easily viewable in a VR environment. The ratings for image quality and diagnostic confidence were higher when using the 5K display. Conclusion: Using the Oculus Rift DK2 to view and navigate pathology whole slide images in a virtual environment is feasible for diagnostic purposes. However, image resolution using the Oculus Rift device was limited. Interactive VR technologies such as the Oculus Rift are novel tools

  2. [Investigations into the significance of routine health examinations for tuberculosis in teachers based on the analysis of results of extraordinary health examinations].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, M

    1998-11-01

    School teachers are regarded as one of the danger groups in contracting tuberculosis infection and are subjected to strict tuberculosis controls, since when they develop tuberculosis, many school children are exposed to infection to the disease. However, the recent decrease in the incidence of tuberculosis in Japan has led to disputes concerning the significance of routine mass health examinations for tuberculosis. In this study, the significance of routine health examinations for tuberculosis in teachers was investigated by the analysis of the results of extraordinary health examinations carried out for tuberculosis in teachers as the index cases. A total of 496 extraordinary health examinations were carried out by Nagoya City from 1975 to 1986 and by Aichi Prefecture from 1980 to 1995. In 49 instances of these examinations, teachers were regarded as index cases, which included 25 teachers of public primary, middle or high schools and 14 teachers of private schools, including private instructors for piano, painting or calligraphy, and teachers for supplementary education. The results of these examinations in both groups were compared, regarding the routes of notification, the disease status of the index cases, and the frequency and the scale of the infections of tuberculosis observed among contacts with the index cases. "Group infections of tuberculosis" was defined as instances the infection in which 20 or more cases were infected by the index case, "small scale group infection" as 5-19 infected cases, and "cases with infection" as 1-4 infected cases. The result obtained were as follows. 1. The response rates to routine health examinations were 99.9% in the teachers of public primary, middle or high schools, and about 20-30% in the teachers of private schools. 2. The proportion of the cases notefied by routine examinations were 68.0% in the former group and 21.4% in the latter group. The cases notefied before the onset of the symptoms in the former group was

  3. A detailed examination of substance P in pathologically graded cases of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Beal, M F; Ellison, D W; Mazurek, M F; Swartz, K J; Malloy, J R; Bird, E D; Martin, J B

    1988-03-01

    Substance P concentrations have been found to be reduced in the basal ganglia in Huntington's disease (HD). In order to further examine this finding in the present study we measured substance P-like immunoreactivity (SPLI) in cases of HD which had been graded as to the severity of pathological changes in the striatum. Marked significant reductions of SPLI were found in all striatal nuclei which were significantly correlated with the percentage of neuronal loss in the varying pathologic grades. Similar changes were found in the projection sites of striatal substance P neurons, the globus pallidus interna and the substantia nigra. These changes are consistent with a loss of striatal substance P containing projection neurons in HD. Significant reductions in SPLI were also found in the external pallidum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the subthalamic nucleus. Small significant increases in SPLI (20-30%) were found in 3 frontal cortical regions (Brodmann areas 6, 8 and 9). The finding of neurochemical changes in the subthalamic nucleus is of particular interest since lesions in this nucleus are known to result in chorea and therefore might contribute to the chorea which is a cardinal symptom of HD. PMID:2452859

  4. Performance of residents using digital images versus glass slides on certification examination in anatomical pathology: a mixed methods pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Mirham, Lorna; Naugler, Christopher; Hayes, Malcolm; Ismiil, Nadia; Belisle, Annie; Sade, Shachar; Streutker, Catherine; MacMillan, Christina; Rasty, Golnar; Popovic, Snezana; Joseph, Mariamma; Gabril, Manal; Barnes, Penny; Hegele, Richard G.; Carter, Beverley; Yousef, George M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is anticipated that many licensing examination centres for pathology will begin fully digitizing the certification examinations. The objective of our study was to test the feasibility of a fully digital examination and to assess the needs, concerns and expectations of pathology residents in moving from a glass slide-based examination to a fully digital examination. Methods: We conducted a mixed methods study that compared, after randomization, the performance of senior residents (postgraduate years 4 and 5) in 7 accredited anatomical pathology training programs across Canada on a pathology examination using either glass slides or digital whole-slide scanned images of the slides. The pilot examination was followed by a post-test survey. In addition, pathology residents from all levels of training were invited to participate in an online survey. Results: A total of 100 residents participated in the pilot examination; 49 were given glass slides instead of digital images. We found no significant difference in examination results between the 2 groups of residents (estimated marginal mean 8.23/12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.72-8.87, for glass slides; 7.84/12, 95% CI 7.28-8.41, for digital slides). In the post-test survey, most of the respondents expressed concerns with the digital examination, including slowly functioning software, blurring and poor detail of images, particularly nuclear features. All of the respondents of the general survey (n = 179) agreed that additional training was required if the examination were to become fully digital. Interpretation: Although the performance of residents completing pathology examinations with glass slides was comparable to that of residents using digital images, our study showed that residents were not comfortable with the digital technology, especially given their current level of exposure to it. Additional training may be needed before implementing a fully digital examination, with consideration for a

  5. The Everyday Routines of Families of Children with Autism: Examining the Impact of Sensory Processing Difficulties on the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaaf, Roseann C.; Toth-Cohen, Susan; Johnson, Stephanie L.; Outten, Gina; Benevides, Teal W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the lived experience of how sensory-related behaviors of children with autism affected family routines. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with four primary caregivers regarding the meaning and impact of their child's sensory-related behaviors on family routines that occurred…

  6. Older workers in the construction industry: results of a routine health examination and a five year follow up.

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, V; Rothenbacher, D; Brenner, H; Fraisse, E; Zschenderlein, B; Daniel, U; Schuberth, S; Fliedner, T M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the health status of older construction workers and the occurrence of early retirement due to disability or of mortality within a five year follow up. METHODS: Firstly, a cross sectional study was performed among 4958 employees in the German construction industry, aged 40-64 years, who underwent standardised routine occupational health examinations in 1986-8. The study population included plumbers, carpenters, painters/varnishers, plasterers, unskilled workers, and white collar workers (control group). Job specific prevalence and age adjusted relative prevalence were calculated for hearing loss, abnormal findings at lung auscultation, reduced forced expiratory volume, increased diastolic blood pressure, abnormalities in the electrocardiogram, increased body mass index, hypercholesterolaemia, increased liver enzymes, abnormal findings in an examination of the musculoskeletal system, and abnormalities of the skin. Secondly, follow up for disability and all cause mortality was ascertained between 1992 and 1994 (mean follow up period = 4.5 y). Job specific crude rates were calculated for the occurrence of early retirement due to disability and for all cause mortality. With Cox's proportional hazards model, job specific relative risks, adjusted for age, nationality, and smoking were obtained. RESULTS: Compared with the white collar workers, a higher prevalence of hearing deficiencies, signs of obstructive lung diseases, increased body mass index, and musculoskeletal abnormalities were found among the construction workers at the baseline exam. During the follow up period, 141 men died and 341 men left the labour market due to disability. Compared with white collar workers, the construction workers showed a 3.5 to 8.4-fold increased rate of disability (P < 0.05 for all occupational groups) and a 1.2 to 2.1-fold increased all cause mortality (NS). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the need and possibilities for further health promotion in workers

  7. Accuracy of Physical Examination, Ultrasonography, and Mammography in Predicting Residual Pathologic Tumor Size in Patients Treated With Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chagpar, Anees B.; Middleton, Lavinia P.; Sahin, Aysegul A.; Dempsey, Peter; Buzdar, Aman U.; Mirza, Attiqa N.; Ames, Fredrick C.; Babiera, Gildy V.; Feig, Barry W.; Hunt, Kelly K.; Kuerer, Henry M.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Ross, Merrick I.; Singletary, S Eva

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the accuracy of physical examination, ultrasonography, and mammography in predicting residual size of breast tumors following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Background: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is an accepted part of the management of stage II and III breast cancer. Accurate prediction of residual pathologic tumor size after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is critical in guiding surgical therapy. Although physical examination, ultrasonography, and mammography have all been used to predict residual tumor size, there have been conflicting reports about the accuracy of these methods in the neoadjuvant setting. Methods: We reviewed the records of 189 patients who participated in 1 of 2 protocols using doxorubicin-containing neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and who had assessment by physical examination, ultrasonography, and/or mammography no more than 60 days before their surgical resection. Size correlations were performed using Spearman rho analysis. Clinical and pathologic measurements were also compared categorically using the weighted kappa statistic. Results: Size estimates by physical examination, ultrasonography, and mammography were only moderately correlated with residual pathologic tumor size after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (correlation coefficients: 0.42, 0.42, and 0.41, respectively), with an accuracy of ±1 cm in 66% of patients by physical examination, 75% by ultrasonography, and 70% by mammography. Kappa values (0.24–0.35) indicated poor agreement between clinical and pathologic measurements. Conclusion: Physical examination, ultrasonography, and mammography were only moderately useful for predicting residual pathologic tumor size after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:16432360

  8. A Meta-Analysis Examining the Influence of Pro-Eating Disorder Websites on Body Image and Eating Pathology.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Lowy, Alice S; Halperin, Daniella M; Franko, Debra L

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that exposure to pro-eating disorder websites might increase eating pathology; however, the magnitude of this effect is unknown. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effect of exposure to pro-eating disorder websites on body image and eating pathology. Studies examining the relationship between exposure to pro-eating disorder websites and eating pathology-related outcomes were included. The systematic review identified nine studies. Findings revealed significant effect sizes of exposure to pro-eating disorder websites on body image dissatisfaction (five studies), d = .41, p = .003; dieting (six studies), d = .68, p < .001, and negative affect (three studies), d = 1.00, p < .001. No effect emerged for bulimic symptoms (four studies), d = .22, p = .73. Findings confirmed the effect of pro-eating disorder websites on body image and eating pathology, highlighting the need for enforceable regulation of these websites. PMID:26230192

  9. Clinical value of pathologic examination of non-neoplastic kidney in patients with upper urinary tract malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Jee Wan; Kang, Hye Ran; Kwon, Soon Hyo; Jeon, Jin Seok; Han, Dong Cheol; Jin, So-Young; Yang, Won Jae; Noh, Hyunjin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: While surgical resection remains the standard of care in the treatment of upper urinary tract malignancies, nephrectomy is a risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to determine whether histologic evaluation of non-neoplastic kidney could enable early identification of unrecognized kidney disease and could be of prognostic value in predicting postoperative renal outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 51 patients with upper urinary tract malignancies who received uninephrectomy or uninephroureterectomy. A thorough pathologic evaluation of non-neoplastic kidney including special stains, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopic studies was performed. The degree of parenchymal changes was graded from 0 to 15. Results: Of 51 patients, only 13 showed normal kidney pathology. Fifteen patients showed glomerular abnormalities, 14 showed diabetic nephropathy, and 11 showed vascular nephropathy. There was one case each of reflux nephropathy and chronic pyelonephritis. The median histologic score was 5 points. Only 25.4% of patients had ≤ 3 points. Score more than 5 was observed in 47.1% of patients. Postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 3 to 36 months were obtained from 90.2% of patients, and of those, 34.8% had de novo CKD. Since no one had CKD in partial nephrectomized patients, we determined risk factors for CKD in radical nephrectomized patients. Cox regression analysis revealed that postoperative AKI, preoperative eGFR, and histologic score of non-neoplastic kidney were the independent predictors for CKD. Conclusions: We conclude that routine pathologic evaluation of non-neoplastic kidney provides valuable diagnostic and prognostic information. PMID:27237301

  10. Associations of Undergoing a Routine Medical Examination or Not with Prevalence Rates of Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Lingling; Tian, Danping; Li, Li; Deng, Xin; Deng, Jing; Ning, Peishan; Hu, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    Background: Undergoing a routine medical examination may be associated with the prevalence rate of chronic diseases from a population-based household interview survey. However, this important issue has not been examined so far. Methods: Data came from the first health service household interview of Hunan province, China, in 2013. A Rao–Scott chi-square test was performed to examine the difference in prevalence rates between subgroups. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) was calculated using the PROC SURVEYLOGISTIC procedure of SAS9.1 statistical software. Results: In total, 24,282 residents of 8400 households were surveyed. A higher proportion of elderly adults had undergone a medical examination within the prior 12 months compared with young adults (≥65 years, 60%; 45–64 years, 46%; 18–44 years, 37%). After controlling for location, sex, and household income per capita, undergoing a medical examination was significantly associated with high prevalence rates of hypertension (adjusted OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1–3.5) and of diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR: 3.3, 95% CI: 1.7–6.5) for young adults aged 18–44 years. The associations were not statistically significant for age groups 45–64 years and 65 years or older. Conclusion: The prevalence rates of hypertension and diabetes mellitus may be seriously underestimated for young adults not undergoing a routine medical examination in a health household interview survey. PMID:27347985

  11. Economic and health implications of routine CBCT examination before surgical removal of the mandibular third molar in the Danish population

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, K R; Matzen, L H; Vaeth, M; Wenzel, A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This epidemiological study aimed to analyse economical and societal consequences in Denmark if CBCT is used routinely as a diagnostic method before removal of the mandibular third molar. Furthermore, the aim was to calculate the excess cancer incidence from this practice. Methods: 17 representative dental clinics in the regions of Denmark were visited by two observers, who registered the total number of patients in each clinic, the number of removed mandibular third molars from patients' files together with the age and gender of these patients. The data were collected from 2008 to 2014. The total number of removed mandibular third molars in Denmark each year was derived from the collected data and information on patients' contacts with dentists from Statistics Denmark as a sum of contributions from each region. The contribution of a region was obtained as the number of removed mandibular third molars in the selected clinics in the region times the ratio of the number of patients in the selected clinics in the region to the total number of patients with contact to a general practitioner in the region in 2011. Existing knowledge on the costs for panoramic and CBCT imaging was used to calculate total costs. The cancer incidence was calculated from lifetime attributable risk curves based on linear risk assumptions. Results: The selected clinics included 109,686 patients, and 1369 mandibular third molars had been surgically removed. Using data from Statistics Denmark gave an estimated annual number of removed mandibular third molars of 36,882 at a total cost of €6,633,400. The additional cancer incidence was estimated to be approximately 0.46 per year. Conclusions: The data should be used in a cost-effectiveness analysis of the clinical efficacy of CBCT imaging before removal of mandibular third molars. PMID:25785820

  12. Glaucoma screening as part of the routine physical examination. What to look for and how to use the Schiotz tonometer.

    PubMed

    Pabalan, F J; Weingeist, T A

    1985-05-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of visual loss in the United States. The primary care physician can effectively screen patients at risk by performing Schiotz tonometry, checking the visual fields, and examining the fundus. Patients with elevated intraocular pressure, grossly abnormal visual fields, or abnormal optic disks should be referred to an ophthalmologist for confirmation of diagnosis and for therapy. PMID:3991383

  13. Spectrum of pathologies in cases of intestinal obstruction & perforation based on histopathological examination of resected intestine - Report from a third world country

    PubMed Central

    Wasim Yusuf, Noshin; Iqbal, Sehr; Sarfraz, Rahat; Khalid Sohail, Shezada; Imran, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: Cases presenting with intestinal perforation and obstruction constitute a substantial work load on our surgical service. Etiologies vary in underdeveloped and developed countries. Histopathological examination of resected intestine is expected to provide the definite evidence of the underlying etiology- guiding a better health care planning for preventive measures. Our objective was to study the spectrum of histopathological findings in resected intestines from cases of intestinal obstruction and perforation in our local population to document the underlying etiology. Methods: A total of 120 cases of intestinal resection were included. Detailed gross and microscopic examination with routine stains was performed. Definite evidence of any specific etiology on the basis of morphology was documented. Results: A total of 95 cases with clinical/radiological diagnosis of obstruction (79.2%) and 25 of intestinal, perforation (20.8%) were included. Tuberculous enteritis was the commonest etiology (n=41; 43.1%) in cases of intestinal obstruction followed by malignant tumours (n=30; 31.5%). ischemic infarct/gangrene, post op illeal adhesions, polyps and ulcerative colitis followed. In cases of perforation, Typhoid enteritis (n=15; 60%), was the commonest pathology followed by idiopathic perforation (n=5; 20%), tuberculous enteritis (n=3;12%), carcinoma (4%) and ulcerative coliti (4%). Conclusion : In developing countries infective etiology remains a dominant cause of intestinal obstruction and perforation. Its presentation in younger age leading to intestinal resection demands effective preventive measures in this part of the world to prevent morbidity and mortality. PMID:24772146

  14. An examination of professional and ethical issues in the fellowship application process in pathology.

    PubMed

    Domen, Ronald E; Wehler, Amanda Brehm

    2008-04-01

    Approximately 34 medical specialty and subspecialty fellowship programs in the United States have formalized the application process through the National Resident Matching Program. This approach sets standards for the application process, offers a formalized match similar to that for residency programs, functions within a specific timeline, and establishes binding rules of behavior for both applicants and programs. For fellowship programs that operate outside the National Resident Matching Program, such as those in pathology, no published guidelines exist to help programs and applicants address the many questions and problems that can arise. As a result, programs are free to set their own timelines for interviews, application requirements, contract negotiations and finalizations, and other details. Consequently, applicants often feel pressured to apply earlier and earlier in their residency for competitive fellowship programs, are often required to fill out multiple unique applications, may feel no "loyalty" toward honoring an acceptance without a contract, and often feel disenfranchised by the whole process. This article addresses professional and ethical aspects of the current application process and offers possible solutions for improving it. PMID:18342659

  15. Examining the influence of actual-ideal self-discrepancies, depression, and escapism, on pathological gaming among massively multiplayer online adolescent gamers.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongdong; Liau, Albert; Khoo, Angeline

    2011-09-01

    This study examined whether actual-ideal self-discrepancy (AISD) is related to pathological gaming through escapism as a means of reducing depression for adolescent massively multiplayer online gamers. A Discrepancy-reduction Motivation model of pathological video gaming was tested. A survey was conducted on 161 adolescent gamers from secondary schools. Two mediation effects were tested using path analysis: (a) depression would mediate the relationship between AISDs and escapism, and (b) escapism would mediate the relationship between depression and pathological gaming. Results support the hypotheses stated above. The indirect effects of both AISD and depression were significant on pathological gaming. AISD and escapism also had direct effects on pathological gaming. The present study suggests that pathological behaviors may be over-regulated coping strategies of approaching the ideal self and avoiding the actual self. PMID:21332374

  16. A divide-and-conquer strategy in tumor sampling enhances detection of intratumor heterogeneity in routine pathology: A modeling approach in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lopez, José I; Cortes, Jesús M

    2016-01-01

    Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) is an inherent process in cancer development which follows for most of the cases a branched pattern of evolution, with different cell clones evolving independently in space and time across different areas of the same tumor. The determination of ITH (in both spatial and temporal domains) is nowadays critical to enhance patient treatment and prognosis. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) provides a good example of ITH. Sometimes the tumor is too big to be totally analyzed for ITH detection and pathologists decide which parts must be sampled for the analysis. For such a purpose, pathologists follow internationally accepted protocols. In light of the latest findings, however, current sampling protocols seem to be insufficient for detecting ITH with significant reliability. The arrival of new targeted therapies, some of them providing promising alternatives to improve patient survival, pushes the pathologist to obtain a truly representative sampling of tumor diversity in routine practice. How large this sampling must be and how this must be performed are unanswered questions so far.  Here we present a very simple method for tumor sampling that enhances ITH detection without increasing costs. This method follows a divide-and-conquer (DAC) strategy, that is, rather than sampling a small number of large-size tumor-pieces as the routine protocol (RP) advises, we suggest sampling many small-size pieces along the tumor. We performed a computational modeling approach to show that the usefulness of the DAC strategy is twofold: first, we show that DAC outperforms RP with similar laboratory costs, and second, DAC is capable of performing similar to total tumor sampling (TTS) but, very remarkably, at a much lower cost. We thus provide new light to push forward a shift in the paradigm about how pathologists should sample tumors for achieving efficient ITH detection. PMID:27127618

  17. A divide-and-conquer strategy in tumor sampling enhances detection of intratumor heterogeneity in routine pathology: A modeling approach in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, José I.; Cortes, Jesús M.

    2016-01-01

    Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) is an inherent process in cancer development which follows for most of the cases a branched pattern of evolution, with different cell clones evolving independently in space and time across different areas of the same tumor. The determination of ITH (in both spatial and temporal domains) is nowadays critical to enhance patient treatment and prognosis. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) provides a good example of ITH. Sometimes the tumor is too big to be totally analyzed for ITH detection and pathologists decide which parts must be sampled for the analysis. For such a purpose, pathologists follow internationally accepted protocols. In light of the latest findings, however, current sampling protocols seem to be insufficient for detecting ITH with significant reliability. The arrival of new targeted therapies, some of them providing promising alternatives to improve patient survival, pushes the pathologist to obtain a truly representative sampling of tumor diversity in routine practice. How large this sampling must be and how this must be performed are unanswered questions so far.  Here we present a very simple method for tumor sampling that enhances ITH detection without increasing costs. This method follows a divide-and-conquer (DAC) strategy, that is, rather than sampling a small number of large-size tumor-pieces as the routine protocol (RP) advises, we suggest sampling many small-size pieces along the tumor. We performed a computational modeling approach to show that the usefulness of the DAC strategy is twofold: first, we show that DAC outperforms RP with similar laboratory costs, and second, DAC is capable of performing similar to total tumor sampling (TTS) but, very remarkably, at a much lower cost. We thus provide new light to push forward a shift in the paradigm about how pathologists should sample tumors for achieving efficient ITH detection. PMID:27127618

  18. Identification of Pre-examination Errors in the Chemical Pathology Laboratory at the University Hospital of the West Indies.

    PubMed

    Dilworth, Lowell L; McGrowder, Donovan A; Thompson, Rory K

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluated the types and frequencies of pre-examination errors recorded in the chemical pathology laboratory at the University Hospital of the West Indies, Jamaica. This was a retrospective analysis of errors recorded over a three year period. Data analysis was done on an average of 519,084 samples collected and tested per year. Samples included blood, urine, stool and other fluids. Pre-examination errors were identified and recorded following visual inspection of the samples and corresponding request forms by laboratory staff, then subsequently by the Senior Medical Technologist. Errors were generally classified as inappropriate sample (58 %), inappropriate form (23.4 %), inappropriate sample volume (9.3 %) and inappropriate sample tube (9.3 %). Over 90 % of recorded pre-examination errors were related to blood samples while urine samples accounted for 6.8 % error. Pre-examination errors were lower at this study location than elsewhere. Measures aimed at reducing instances of these errors are recommended for improved laboratory quality output. PMID:24757307

  19. Improving multiple-choice questions to better assess dental student knowledge: distractor utilization in oral and maxillofacial pathology course examinations.

    PubMed

    McMahan, C Alex; Pinckard, R Neal; Prihoda, Thomas J; Hendricson, William D; Jones, Anne Cale

    2013-12-01

    How many incorrect response options (known as distractors) to use in multiple-choice questions has been the source of considerable debate in the assessment literature, especially relative to influence on the likelihood of students' guessing the correct answer. This study compared distractor use by second-year dental students in three successive oral and maxillofacial pathology classes that had three different examination question formats and scoring resulting in different levels of academic performance. One class was given all multiple-choice questions; the two other were given half multiple-choice questions, with and without formula scoring, and half un-cued short-answer questions. Use by at least 1 percent of the students was found to better identify functioning distractors than higher cutoffs. The average number of functioning distractors differed among the three classes and did not always correspond to differences in class scores. Increased numbers of functioning distractors were associated with higher question discrimination and greater question difficulty. Fewer functioning distractors fostered more effective student guessing and overestimation of academic achievement. Appropriate identification of functioning distractors is essential for improving examination quality and better estimating actual student knowledge through retrospective use of formula scoring, where the amount subtracted for incorrect answers is based on the harmonic mean number of functioning distractors. PMID:24319131

  20. Pilot study to evaluate 3 hygiene protocols on the reduction of bacterial load on the hands of veterinary staff performing routine equine physical examinations

    PubMed Central

    Traub-Dargatz, Josie L.; Weese, J. Scott; Rousseau, Joyce D.; Dunowska, Magdalena; Morley, Paul S.; Dargatz, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Reduction factors (RFs) for bacterial counts on examiners’ hands were compared when performing a standardized equine physical examination, followed by the use of one of 3 hand-hygiene protocols (washing with soap, ethanol gel application, and chlorohexidine-ethanol application). The mean RFs were 1.29 log10 and 1.44 log10 at 2 study sites for the alcohol-gel (62% ethyl alcohol active ingredient) protocols and 1.47 log10 and 1.94 log10 at 2 study sites for the chlorhexidine-alcohol (61% ethyl alcohol plus 1% chlorhexidine active ingredients) protocols, respectively. The RFs were significantly different (P < 0.0001) between the hand-washing group and the other 2 treatment groups (the alcohol-gel and the chlorhexidine-alcohol lotion). The use of alcohol-based gels or chlorhexidine-alcohol hand hygiene protocols must still be proven effective in equine practice settings, but in this study, these protocols were equivalent or superior to hand washing for reduction in bacterial load on the hands of people after they perform routine physical examinations. PMID:16898109

  1. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors: A model for examining the effects of pathology versus seizures on cognitive dysfunction in epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Baxendale, Sallie; Donnachie, Elizabeth; Thompson, Pamela; Sander, Josemir W

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNTs) provide a unique model for studying the effects of seizures on cognitive development. Epilepsy and antiepileptic medications are prominent features in the lives and schooling of people who develop seizures in childhood. People with an adult onset share the same underlying brain pathology, but their childhood development is unaffected by seizures. Therefore, DNTs provide a model to examine the specific influence of seizures and their treatment on cognitive development, over and above the effects of the underlying pathology in epilepsy. Methods We examined the neuropsychological characteristics of 56 adults with DNT and medically intractable epilepsy (mean age 32.7 years). Twenty-two adults (39%) had an age of onset of epilepsy before the age of 12 years (childhood-onset group). Scores on tests of intelligence (Verbal IQ and Performance IQ), reading, working memory, verbal learning, verbal recall, visual learning, and expressive and receptive language ability were analyzed. Key Findings There were no significant localization effects (right vs. left vs. extratemporal) on any of the neuropsychological test scores. In the group as a whole, the neuropsychological test scores were significantly lower than healthy, age-matched controls on measures of Verbal IQ (p < 0.01), naming p < 0.01, verbal learning (p < 0.01), and working memory (p < 0.05). The childhood-onset group had significantly lower scores on the measures of Verbal IQ (p < 0.01), Performance IQ (p < 0.05), reading (p < 0.05), naming (p = 0.05), and verbal retention (p < 0.05) than those with an onset of seizures at the age of 12 or older. Significance The traditional pattern of lateralized memory deficits seen in people with hippocampal sclerosis may not be present in people with temporal lobe epilepsy associated with a DNT. The presence of seizures and their treatment in early childhood may adversely influence the development of these core cognitive

  2. Emotion: empirical contribution. Maternal borderline personality pathology and infant emotion regulation: examining the influence of maternal emotion-related difficulties and infant attachment.

    PubMed

    Gratz, Kim L; Kiel, Elizabeth J; Latzman, Robert D; Elkin, T David; Moore, Sarah Anne; Tull, Matthew T

    2014-02-01

    Evidence suggests that maternal borderline personality (BP) pathology increases offspring risk. This study examined the relations between maternal BP pathology and related emotional dysfunction (including emotion regulation [ER] difficulties and emotional intensity/reactivity) and infant ER difficulties. Specifically, we examined both self-focused and caregiver-focused ER behaviors and the modulation of emotional expressions (one indicator of ER in young children) in response to fear- and anger-eliciting stimuli among 101 infants (12 to 23 months old) of mothers with and without clinically relevant BP pathology. The authors also examined the moderating role of mother-infant attachment. Findings of a series of multiple regression mediation analyses revealed an indirect effect of maternal BP pathology on infant ER difficulties through maternal emotional dysfunction, with maternal ER difficulties facilitating an indirect effect of maternal BP pathology on expressivity-related indicators of infant ER difficulties and maternal emotional intensity/reactivity linking maternal BP pathology to lower self-focused ER for infants in insecure-resistant attachment relationships. PMID:24344887

  3. [Otto Lubarsch (1860-1933) and pathology at the Berlin Charité from 1917 to 1928. From the trauma of war time destruction to the daily routine of a German national university teacher of the Weimar Republic].

    PubMed

    Prüll, C R

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the interdependence of medicine and society in a situation of political crisis. The example of the Pathological Institute at the University of Berlin illustrates how non-scientific, political measures exerted an influence on daily scientific work via the Science Ministry as well as the director and the staff of the Institute. Not only did financial problems of the German State and difficulties of the Prussian Science Ministry in keeping the Institute running hamper successful work in Pathology; moreover, the political ambitions of its director, Otto Lubarsch, and the changes in daily life as a result of the general situation of misery had their impact on scientific work. Therefore, an examination of the interdependence between medical science and politics should not be limited to physicians who are enrolled in a political party. Furthermore, research must be undertaken on the level of laboratory communities and everyday-life with the help of archive material. PMID:9522647

  4. Examining the role of Scotland's telephone advice service (NHS 24) for managing health in the community: analysis of routinely collected NHS 24 data

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Alison M; McAteer, Anne; Heaney, David; Ritchie, Lewis D; Hannaford, Philip C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the type, duration and outcome of the symptoms and health problems Scotland's nurse-led telephone advice service (NHS 24) is contacted about and explore whether these vary by time of contact and patient characteristics. Design Analysis of routinely collected NHS 24 data. Setting Scotland, UK. Participants Users of NHS 24 during 2011. Main outcome measures Proportion of the type, duration and outcome of the symptoms and health problems NHS 24 is contacted about. Results 82.6% of the calls were made out-of-hours and 17.4% in-hours. Abdominal problems accounted for the largest proportion of calls (12.2%) followed by dental (6.8%) and rash/skin problems (6.0%). There were differences in the type of problems presented in-hours and out-of-hours. Most problems (62.9%) had lasted <24 h before people contacted NHS 24. Out-of-hours calls tended to be for problems of shorter duration. Problems reported out-of-hours most commonly resulted in advice to visit an out-of-hours centre and in-hours advice to contact a general practitioner. Most of the service users were female and from more affluent areas. Use of the service declined with age in those over 35 years. The characteristics of users varied according to when NHS 24 was contacted. The number of calls made by an individual in the year ranged from 1 to 866, although most users (69.2%) made only one call. The type of problem presented varied by age and deprivation, but was broadly similar by gender, rural/urban status and geographic area. Call outcomes also varied by user characteristics. Conclusions This is the first study to examine how the public uses NHS 24. It has identified the patterns of problems which the service must be equipped to deal with. It has also provided important information about who uses the service and when. This information will help future planning and development of the service. PMID:26310396

  5. When or why does perfectionism translate into eating disorder pathology? A longitudinal examination of the moderating and mediating role of body dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Boone, Liesbet; Soenens, Bart; Luyten, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Although research has shown that perfectionism is associated with eating disorder pathology, the role of body dissatisfaction in this association is less clear. In this study, we examined the possible moderating and mediating role of body dissatisfaction in the relation between perfectionism and increases in eating disorder pathology. Both possible roles were tested in a sample of 455 adolescent girls (mean age = 13.25 years) using a 3-wave longitudinal study. We only found support for the moderation hypothesis, with girls high on both perfectionism and body dissatisfaction exhibiting the highest levels of eating disorder symptoms. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24886015

  6. An Examination of a Proposed DSM-IV Pathological Gambling Hierarchy in a Treatment Seeking Population: Similarities with Substance Dependence and Evidence for Three Classification Systems.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Darren R; Jackson, Alun C; Dowling, Nicki A; Volberg, Rachel A; Thomas, Shane A

    2015-09-01

    Toce-Gerstein et al. (Addiction 98:1661-1672, 2003) investigated the distribution of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) pathological gambling criteria endorsement in a U.S. community sample for those people endorsing a least one of the DSM-IV criteria (n = 399). They proposed a hierarchy of gambling disorders where endorsement of 1-2 criteria were deemed 'At-Risk', 3-4 'Problem gamblers', 5-7 'Low Pathological', and 8-10 'High Pathological' gamblers. This article examines these claims in a larger Australian treatment seeking population. Data from 4,349 clients attending specialist problem gambling services were assessed for meeting the ten DSM-IV pathological gambling criteria. Results found higher overall criteria endorsement frequencies, three components, a direct relationship between criteria endorsement and gambling severity, clustering of criteria similar to the Toce-Gerstein et al. taxonomy, high accuracy scores for numerical and criteria specific taxonomies, and also high accuracy scores for dichotomous pathological gambling diagnoses. These results suggest significant complexities in the frequencies of criteria reports and relationships between criteria. PMID:24627139

  7. Routine fetal genitourinary tract screening.

    PubMed

    Arger, P H; Coleman, B G; Mintz, M C; Snyder, H P; Camardese, T; Arenson, R L; Gabbe, S G; Aquino, L

    1985-08-01

    To evaluate routine fetal genitourinary tract obstetrical ultrasound screening, and to determine what size renal pelvis is indicative of significant renal disease, we reviewed 4,832 examinations, which had been performed over 2 years, of 3,530 consecutive obstetrical patients. Any fetus that had a renal pelvis greater than 5 mm or a definable cystic area was identified for follow-up. The fetuses of 39 patients (1.1%) who underwent 112 examinations fulfilled these criteria and constitute the basis of this report. A variety of examination criteria were recorded and analyzed in relationship to the follow-up, which ranged from 2-3 days to 21 months. The fetuses of the 39 patients were grouped into three categories: those with renal pelves between 5 and 9 mm in size; those with renal pelves larger than 10 mm; and those with cystic abnormalities. Those with renal pelves larger than 10 mm had either an obstructing lesion or exceptional extrarenal pelves. The clinical and pathologic aspects of these three groups are detailed, discussed, and analyzed. Criteria for significant fetal renal hydronephrosis and aspects of a loculated appearance are given. PMID:3892578

  8. Examining the relationship between head trauma and neurodegenerative disease: A review of epidemiology, pathology and neuroimaging techniques

    PubMed Central

    Sundman, Mark H; Hall, Eric E; Chen, Nan-kuei

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are induced by sudden acceleration-deceleration and/or rotational forces acting on the brain. Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) has been identified as one of the chief underlying causes of morbidity and mortality in head trauma incidents. DAIs refer to microscopic white matter (WM) injuries as a result of shearing forces that induce pathological and anatomical changes within the brain, which potentially contribute to significant impairments later in life. These microscopic injuries are often unidentifiable by the conventional computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) scans employed by emergency departments to initially assess head trauma patients and, as a result, TBIs are incredibly difficult to diagnose. The impairments associated with TBI may be caused by secondary mechanisms that are initiated at the moment of injury, but often have delayed clinical presentations that are difficult to assess due to the initial misdiagnosis. As a result, the true consequences of these head injuries may go unnoticed at the time of injury and for many years thereafter. The purpose of this review is to investigate these consequences of TBI and their potential link to neurodegenerative disease (ND). This review will summarize the current epidemiological findings, the pathological similarities, and new neuroimaging techniques that may help delineate the relationship between TBI and ND. Lastly, this review will discuss future directions and propose new methods to overcome the limitations that are currently impeding research progress. It is imperative that improved techniques are developed to adequately and retrospectively assess TBI history in patients that may have been previously undiagnosed in order to increase the validity and reliability across future epidemiological studies. The authors introduce a new surveillance tool (Retrospective Screening of Traumatic Brain Injury Questionnaire, RESTBI) to address this concern. PMID:25324979

  9. Four types of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) after breast-conserving surgery: classification of IBTR based on precise pathological examination.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Takehiko; Nishimura, Seiichiro; Ogiya, Akiko; Tanabe, Masahiko; Kimura, Kiyomi; Morizono, Hidetomo; Iijima, Kotaro; Miyagi, Yumi; Makita, Masujiro; Ito, Yoshinori; Oguchi, Masahiko; Horii, Rie; Akiyama, Futoshi; Iwase, Takuji

    2015-03-01

    We classified ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTRs) based on strict pathological rules. Ninety-six women who were surgically treated for IBTR were included. IBTRs were classified according to their origins and were distinguished based on strict pathological rules: relationship between the IBTR and the primary lumpectomy scar, surgical margin status of the primary cancer, and the presence of in situ lesions of IBTR. The prognosis of these subgroups were compared to that of new primary tumors (NP) in the narrow sense (NPn) that occurred far from the scar. Distant-disease free survival of IBTR that occurred close to the scar with in situ lesions and a negative surgical margin of the primary cancer (NP occurred close to the scar, NPcs) was similar to that of NPn. In contrast, IBTR that occurred close to the scar without in situ lesions (true recurrence (TR) that arose from residual invasive carcinoma foci, TRinv) had significantly poorer prognosis than NPn. IBTR that occurred close to the scar with in situ lesions and a positive surgical margin of the primary cancer (TR arising from a residual in situ lesion, TRis) had more late recurrences than NPcs. Precise pathological examinations indicated four distinct IBTR subtypes with different characteristics. PMID:25600703

  10. Breast cancer and primary systemic therapy. Results of the Consensus Meeting on the recommendations for pathological examination and histological report of breast cancer specimens in the Marche Region.

    PubMed

    Santinelli, A; De Nictolis, M; Mambelli, V; Ranaldi, R; Bearzi, I; Battellpi, N; Mariotti, C; Fabbietti, L; Baldassarre, S; Giuseppetti, G M; Fabris, G

    2011-10-01

    Primary systemic therapy (PST) adds some practical problems to the pathologic examination of neoplastic breast tissue obtained from patients before and after chemotherapy. Pathologists, oncologists, breast surgeons, radiotherapists and radiologists in the Marche Region held a Consensus Meeting in Ancona on May 13, 2010, in which 15 statements dealing with neoadjuvant chemotherapy were approved by all participants. The first two statements are related to the pre-PST phase and concern the technical procedures and the histological report of the core biopsy. The other statements deal with similar issues of the post-PST surgical specimen. PMID:22393685

  11. Increased Exposure to Rigid Routines Can Lead to Increased Challenging Behavior Following Changes to Those Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Leah E.; Oliver, Chris; Callaghan, Eleanor; Woodcock, Kate A.

    2015-01-01

    Several neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with preference for routine and challenging behavior following changes to routines. We examine individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome, who show elevated levels of this behavior, to better understand how previous experience of a routine can affect challenging behavior elicited by disruption to…

  12. Computational Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Louis, David N.; Feldman, Michael; Carter, Alexis B.; Dighe, Anand S.; Pfeifer, John D.; Bry, Lynn; Almeida, Jonas S.; Saltz, Joel; Braun, Jonathan; Tomaszewski, John E.; Gilbertson, John R.; Sinard, John H.; Gerber, Georg K.; Galli, Stephen J.; Golden, Jeffrey A.; Becich, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Context We define the scope and needs within the new discipline of computational pathology, a discipline critical to the future of both the practice of pathology and, more broadly, medical practice in general. Objective To define the scope and needs of computational pathology. Data Sources A meeting was convened in Boston, Massachusetts, in July 2014 prior to the annual Association of Pathology Chairs meeting, and it was attended by a variety of pathologists, including individuals highly invested in pathology informatics as well as chairs of pathology departments. Conclusions The meeting made recommendations to promote computational pathology, including clearly defining the field and articulating its value propositions; asserting that the value propositions for health care systems must include means to incorporate robust computational approaches to implement data-driven methods that aid in guiding individual and population health care; leveraging computational pathology as a center for data interpretation in modern health care systems; stating that realizing the value proposition will require working with institutional administrations, other departments, and pathology colleagues; declaring that a robust pipeline should be fostered that trains and develops future computational pathologists, for those with both pathology and non-pathology backgrounds; and deciding that computational pathology should serve as a hub for data-related research in health care systems. The dissemination of these recommendations to pathology and bioinformatics departments should help facilitate the development of computational pathology. PMID:26098131

  13. Evaluation of response after neoadjuvant treatment in soft tissue sarcomas; the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group (EORTC-STBSG) recommendations for pathological examination and reporting.

    PubMed

    Wardelmann, E; Haas, R L; Bovée, J V M G; Terrier, Ph; Lazar, A; Messiou, C; LePechoux, C; Hartmann, W; Collin, F; Fisher, C; Mechtersheimer, G; DeiTos, A P; Stacchiotti, S; Jones, R L; Gronchi, A; Bonvalot, S

    2016-01-01

    At present, there is not a commonly used and generally accepted standardized approach for the pathologic evaluation of pretreated soft tissue sarcomas. Also, it is still unclear whether the cut-off for prognostic relevance is similar in the many different histological subtypes of STS. This manuscript, produced by a European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer - Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group (EORTC-STBSG) endorsed task force, aims to propose standardization of the pathological examination process and the reporting of STS resection specimens after neoadjuvant radio- and/or chemotherapy. PMID:26700077

  14. Musculoskeletal Pathology.

    PubMed

    Peat, Frances J; Kawcak, Christopher E

    2015-08-01

    The current understanding of pathology as it relates to common diseases of the equine musculoskeletal system is reviewed. Conditions are organized under the fundamental categories of developmental, exercise-induced, infectious, and miscellaneous pathology. The overview of developmental pathology incorporates the new classification system of juvenile osteochondral conditions. Discussion of exercise-induced pathology emphasizes increased understanding of the contribution of cumulative microdamage caused by repetitive cyclic loading. Miscellaneous musculoskeletal pathology focuses on laminitis, which current knowledge indicates should be regarded as a clinical syndrome with a variety of possible distinct mechanisms of structural failure that are outlined in this overview. PMID:26037607

  15. Data format translation routines

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, R.D.

    1981-02-01

    To enable the effective connection of several dissimilar computers into a network, modification of the data being passed from one computer to another may become necessary. This document describes a package of routines which permit the translation of data in PDP-8 formats to PDP-11 or DECsystem-10 formats or from PDP-11 format to DECsystem-10 format. Additional routines are described which permit the effective use of the translation routines in the environment of the Fusion Energy Division (FED) network and the Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT) data base.

  16. Daily exercise routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on daily exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: daily exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.

  17. Routine sputum culture

    MedlinePlus

    Sputum culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Culture, routine. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, ... . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:409- ...

  18. Importance of Family Routines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share The Importance of Family Routines Page Content ​Every family needs ... child to sleep. These rituals can include storytelling, reading aloud, conversation, and songs. Try to avoid exciting ...

  19. Increased Exposure to Rigid Routines can Lead to Increased Challenging Behavior Following Changes to Those Routines.

    PubMed

    Bull, Leah E; Oliver, Chris; Callaghan, Eleanor; Woodcock, Kate A

    2015-06-01

    Several neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with preference for routine and challenging behavior following changes to routines. We examine individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome, who show elevated levels of this behavior, to better understand how previous experience of a routine can affect challenging behavior elicited by disruption to that routine. Play based challenges exposed 16 participants to routines, which were either adhered to or changed. Temper outburst behaviors, heart rate and movement were measured. As participants were exposed to routines for longer before a change (between 10 and 80 min; within participants), more temper outburst behaviors were elicited by changes. Increased emotional arousal was also elicited, which was indexed by heart rate increases not driven by movement. Further study will be important to understand whether current intervention approaches that limit exposure to changes, may benefit from the structured integration of flexibility to ensure that the opportunity for routine establishment is also limited. PMID:25422033

  20. The significance of Sarcina in routine surgical pathology practice.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Balan Louis

    2016-06-01

    Sarcina was first described by Goodsir. The appearance of this bacterium is so characteristic that the diagnosis can be made on light microscopy. Although the original description of Sarcina was made more than 150 years ago, little is known about its role in various human diseases. This study was undertaken with the aim to analyze critically the reason for this sudden recent interest in human Sarcina infection. The results indicate that Sarcina is a histopathological marker of functional or anatomical causes of gastric stasis, and has a possible association with life-threatening emphysematous gastritis. Hence, its documentation in the final report is warranted as the patient might need further work-up. PMID:26918758

  1. Routine DNA testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Routine DNA testing. It’s done once you’ve Marker-Assisted Breeding Pipelined promising Qantitative Trait Loci within your own breeding program and thereby established the performance-predictive power of each DNA test for your germplasm under your conditions. By then you are ready to screen your par...

  2. PROPER: Optical propagation routines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krist, John E.

    2014-05-01

    PROPER simulates the propagation of light through an optical system using Fourier transform algorithms (Fresnel, angular spectrum methods). Distributed as IDL source code, it includes routines to create complex apertures, aberrated wavefronts, and deformable mirrors. It is especially useful for the simulation of high contrast imaging telescopes (extrasolar planet imagers like TPF).

  3. Routine neonatal circumcision?

    PubMed Central

    Tran, P. T.; Giacomantonio, M.

    1996-01-01

    Routine neonatal circumcision is still a controversial procedure. This article attempts to clarify some of the advantages and disadvantages of neonatal circumcision. The increased rate of penile cancer among uncircumcised men appears to justify the procedure, but that alone is not sufficient justification. The final decision on neonatal circumcision should be made by parents with balanced counsel from attending physicians. PMID:8939321

  4. Graph-Plotting Routine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, Anil V.

    1987-01-01

    Plotter routine for IBM PC (AKPLOT) designed for engineers and scientists who use graphs as integral parts of their documentation. Allows user to generate graph and edit its appearance on cathode-ray tube. Graph may undergo many interactive alterations before finally dumped from screen to be plotted by printer. Written in BASIC.

  5. Parent routines for managing cystic fibrosis in children.

    PubMed

    Grossoehme, Daniel H; Filigno, Stephanie Spear; Bishop, Meredith

    2014-06-01

    Management of cystic fibrosis (CF) is burdensome and adherence is often suboptimal. Family routines are associated with adherence and health outcomes in other disease populations. Few studies have examined routines in CF. The study's aim was to describe parent experiences developing and utilizing CF care routines. Semi-structured interviews with a convenience sample of 25 parents of children under 13 years of age with CF were analyzed using phenomenological analysis. Three domains emerged: parent experiences developing a routine, support systems facilitating maintenance of routines, and challenges with maintaining care routines. Parents found routines difficult to establish, used trial and error, encountered barriers, and found support helpful to manage care demands. Some parents chose to deviate from their routine. Providing anticipatory guidance to promote the use of care routines and strategies to manage potential challenges may facilitate use of routines and improve CF management. PMID:24838648

  6. Colorectal carcinoma: Pathologic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Matthew; Ravula, Sreelakshmi; Tatishchev, Sergei F.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the United States. Pathologic examination of biopsy, polypectomy and resection specimens is crucial to appropriate patient managemnt, prognosis assessment and family counseling. Molecular testing plays an increasingly important role in the era of personalized medicine. This review article focuses on the histopathology and molecular pathology of colorectal carcinoma and its precursor lesions, with an emphasis on their clinical relevance. PMID:22943008

  7. [Forensic medicine and the overlap with pathology].

    PubMed

    Riepert, T

    2010-07-01

    Forensic medicine incorporates research, teaching and professional service. In the routine practice this encompasses interdisciplinary cooperation with physicians, natural scientists and the legal profession. Lectures in forensic medicine include the correct performance of an external examination of corpses, which every physician must be capable of, just as medical questions and the evidential documentation of injuries. Clinical forensic medicine encompasses the examination and documentation of living victims of physical and/or sexual violence. For further training to become a specialist for forensic medicine it is mandatory to undertake a 6-month training period in pathology. Fatalities with an unclear or unnatural manner of death must be registered with the police. On suspicion of third party involvement the public prosecutor will request a legal autopsy, which is carried out and documented by two physicians in accordance with the penal code. Imaging procedures are standard for an autopsy. Extensive samples are taken for additional testing, such as toxicological and molecular biological investigations. PMID:20424845

  8. Comparison of Tumor Volumes as Determined by Pathologic Examination and FDG-PET/CT Images of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Jinming; Li Xinke; Xing Ligang; Mu Dianbin; Fu Zheng; Sun Xiaorong; Sun Xiangyu; Yang Guoren; Zhang Baijiang; Sun Xindong; Ling, C. Clifton

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the cut-off standardized uptake value (SUV) on {sup 18}F fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) images that generates the best volumetric match to pathologic gross tumor volume (GTV{sub path}) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients with NSCLC who underwent FDG-PET/CT scans followed by lobectomy were enrolled. The surgical specimen was dissected into 5-7-mum sections at approximately 4-mm intervals and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The tumor-containing area was outlined slice by slice and the GTV{sub path} determined by summing over all the slices, taking into account the interslice thickness and fixation-induced volume reduction. The gross tumor volume from the PET images, GTV{sub PET}, was determined as a function of cut-off SUV. The optimal threshold or optimal absolute SUV was defined as the value at which the GTV{sub PET} was the same as the GTV{sub path}. Results: The fixation process induced a volumetric reduction to 82% +- 10% (range, 62-100%) of the original. The maximal SUV was 10.1 +- 3.6 (range, 4.2-18.7). The optimal threshold and absolute SUV were 31% +- 11% and 3.0 +- 1.6, respectively. The optimal threshold was inversely correlated with GTV{sub path} and tumor diameter (p < 0.05), but the optimal absolute SUV had no significant correlation with GTV{sub path} or tumor diameter (p > 0.05). Conclusion: This study evaluated the use of GTV{sub path} as a criterion for determining the optimal cut-off SUV for NSCLC target volume delineation. Confirmatory studies including more cases are being performed.

  9. CPU timing routines for a CONVEX C220 computer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bynum, Mary Ann

    1989-01-01

    The timing routines available on the CONVEX C220 computer system in the Structural Mechanics Division (SMD) at NASA Langley Research Center are examined. The function of the timing routines, the use of the timing routines in sequential, parallel, and vector code, and the interpretation of the results from the timing routines with respect to the CONVEX model of computing are described. The timing routines available on the SMD CONVEX fall into two groups. The first group includes standard timing routines generally available with UNIX 4.3 BSD operating systems, while the second group includes routines unique to the SMD CONVEX. The standard timing routines described in this report are /bin/csh time,/bin/time, etime, and ctime. The routines unique to the SMD CONVEX are getinfo, second, cputime, toc, and a parallel profiling package made up of palprof, palinit, and palsum.

  10. [Correlations between pregnancy pathology, study of the placenta, antenatal echography and examination of the product of conception in a series of 175 congenital malformations].

    PubMed

    Stoll, C; Curie, P; Dott, B; Floesser, J; Flori, J; Geschickt, M; Marzolf, G; Roth, M P; Sussmann, M; Treisser, A

    1985-09-01

    In order to verify the hypothesis that during pregnancy in a woman without peculiar history, signs could be discovered when the fetus is malformed we have reviewed the files of 175 women who had a malformed child and of 300 controls. All of these women had at least one clinical examination and one ultrasonographic examination during pregnancy. Two clinical symptoms were more often discovered in the mother of the malformed fetus (p less than 0.001): decrease of fetal movements and small for date fetus. The placenta is never abnormal in the mother with normal fetus. Placenta is abnormal in 31% of the mother with malformed fetus but the abnormalities are not specific. Ultrasonographic examinations allowed more often the discovery of a malformation when hydramnios (p less than 0.001) or fetal hypotrophy (p less than 0.01) or an anomaly of the morphology of the fetus is discovered. Accuracy of prenatal diagnostic is considered for the different categories of congenital malformations. PMID:3903048

  11. Understanding the roles of self-esteem, self-compassion, and fear of self-compassion in eating disorder pathology: an examination of female students and eating disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Allison C; Vimalakanthan, Kiruthiha; Carter, Jacqueline C

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the relative contributions of self-compassion, fear of self-compassion, and self-esteem in eating disorder pathology. One-hundred and fifty-five female undergraduate students and 97 females entering eating disorder treatment completed the Self-Compassion Scale, Fears of Compassion Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. T-tests revealed that the patient group had lower mean self-compassion and higher mean fear of self-compassion than the student group. When controlling for self-esteem, high fear of self-compassion emerged as the strongest predictor of eating disorder pathology in the patient group, whereas low self-compassion was the strongest predictor in the student group. These preliminary results suggest that targeting fear of self-compassion may be important when intervening with individuals suffering from an eating disorder, whereas building self-compassion may be a valuable approach for eating disorder prevention. PMID:25064287

  12. CALIPSO User-Provided Routines

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-01

    ... data files. These routines are written in Interactive Data Language (IDL). A README file demonstrating use of the routines is also available. Interactive Data Language (IDL) is available from  Exelis Visual Information Solutions . ...

  13. Clinico-pathologic, dermoscopic and ultrasound examination of a rare acral tumour involving the nail - case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    GRIGORE, LAVINIA ELENA; BAICAN, CORINA IULIA; BOTAR-JID, CAROLINA; ROGOJAN, LILIANA; LETCA, ALINA FLORENTINA; UNGUREANU, LOREDANA; COSGAREA, RODICA

    2016-01-01

    There is a large spectrum of tumors presenting as nodular lesions that may affect the subungual space. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman presenting with a rapidly growing nodular lesion under the nail of the first left toe. Non-invasive examinations using dermoscopy, ultrasonography and elastography were performed for the preoperative assessment of the lesion. The biopsy of the lesion revealed superficial acral fibromyxoma, a benign tumor with predisposition for acral sites. The patient underwent radical surgery with wide resection margins. This is the first case report of a superficial acral fibromyxoma affecting the subungual region characterized by dermoscopic, ultrasonographic and elastographic features. We also performed a short review of the literature. PMID:27004040

  14. Application of high-performance anion-exchange chromatography-pulsed amperometric detection for measuring carbohydrates in routine daily filter samples collected by a national network: 2. Examination of sugar alcohols/polyols, sugars, and anhydrosugars in the upper Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, A. P.; Frank, N.; Kenski, D. M.; Collett, J. L., Jr.

    2011-04-01

    Carbohydrate measurements of ambient samples can provide insights into the biogenic fraction of the organic carbon (OC) aerosol. However, lack of measurement on a routine basis limits data analysis. In a companion paper, 1 year of archived 1-in-6 day FRM (Federal Reference Monitor) filter samples from the PM2.5 NAAQS compliance monitoring network collected at 10 sites in the upper Midwest were analyzed using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection to determine the regional impact of biomass burning. Along with levoglucosan, 13 other carbohydrates were simultaneously measured, including two more anhydrosugars (mannosan and galactosan), five sugars (arabinose, galactose, glucose, mannose, xylose), and six sugar alcohols/polyols (glycerol, methyltetrols, threitol/erythritol, xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol). This paper focuses on the results from these carbohydrates in order to investigate their sources and trends both spatially and temporally. Mannosan, galactosan, arabinose, xylose, and threitol/erythritol all correlated with levoglucosan (R2 from 0.43 to 0.97), suggesting biomass burning as their main source. Glucose and mannitol exhibited higher concentrations in summer and at more southern sites, likely due to vegetation differences at the sites. Using mannitol, the contribution of spores to OC was found to be <1%. Methyltetrols were highly correlated with water-soluble OC (R2 from 0.63 to 0.95) and in higher concentrations at more eastern sites. This spatial pattern is possibly due to these sites being downwind of the high isoprene emission zones that occur in the western part of the Midwest from oak forests in the Ozarks and spruce forests in the northern lake states.

  15. Parental Involvement Routines and Former Head Start Children's Literacy Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dove, Meghan Kicklighter; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Wright, David W.; Wallinga, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parental involvement routines and former Head Start children's literacy outcomes. Former Head Start children (n = 3, 808) from the National Head Start/Public School Transition Demonstration Research Project comprised the sample. Family routines and literacy outcomes in kindergarten were examined,…

  16. Pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Hollander, E; Buchalter, A J; DeCaria, C M

    2000-09-01

    With increasing access to gambling facilities through casinos, the Internet, and other venues, PG is a rapidly emerging mental health concern. This impulse-control disorder tends to be comorbid with a wide range of other disorders and is reportedly associated with a high rate of suicide. For most gamblers, gambling is a form of entertainment, but for many individuals, the activity leads to far-reaching disruption of family and work. The personal and societal financial ramifications are severe, and many individuals with PG end up in the criminal justice system. An understanding of the neurobiology of PG is beginning to surface. 5-HT is linked to behavioral initiation and disinhibition, which are important in the onset of the gambling cycle and the difficulty in ceasing the behavior. Norepinephrine is associated with the arousal and risk taking in patients with PG. Dopamine is linked to positive and negative reward, the addictive component of this disorder. Effective treatment strategies for pathological gamblers are emerging. Potentially useful pharmacologic agents include SRIs (clomipramine and fluvoxamine), mood stabilizers for pathological gamblers with comorbid bipolar disorders (lithium), and naltrexone. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies offer promising results in the treatment of patients with this disorder. To devise prevention and early-intervention programs, research is needed to identify specific features of the individuals at risk for gambling problems. Education targeting vulnerable youth that show early signs of gambling behavior may be worthwhile and should be investigated further. Funding is necessary to support these endeavors, so perhaps a portion of tax revenues generated from the gambling industry should go toward specialized treatment facilities, educational efforts, and research into the neurobiology and treatment of PG. PMID:10986732

  17. Lidar Altitude Data Read Routine

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-19

    ... Profile products. It is written in Interactive Data Language (IDL) and uses HDF routine calls to read the altitude data which are ... Data Read routine  (1.5 KB) Interactive Data Language (IDL) is available from  Exelis Visual Information Solutions . ...

  18. [Pathology of non-reflux esophagitides].

    PubMed

    Daum, Ondřej; Dubová, Magdaléna; Švajdler, Marian

    2016-01-01

    The topic of non-reflux esophagitides is partially hidden in the shadow cast by the huge and modern entity of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Histological investigation alone is often insufficient to reach the correct diagnosis without a correlation of the microscopic picture with clinical presentation, endoscopic gross appearance, personal and pharmacological history of the patient, results of hematological, serological, immunological and microbiological examinations. Due to their low-prevalence, individual types of non-reflux esophagitides are not routinely encountered in routine biopsies. Furthermore, the plethora of etiological agents present with only a limited range of reaction patterns, and thus a single histological picture may be common for more agents. Conversely, one cause may be associated with more morphological patterns. Due to these circumstances the pathological diagnostic management should follow a settled algorithm to prevent an inadequate narrowing of the histopathologist´s view. Histologic findings forming the base of this algorithm include distribution and type of inflammatory infiltrate, appearance of epithelial changes, and (in some cases) even the presence of causative agent in histological slides. PMID:27108553

  19. Pathological fractures in children

    PubMed Central

    De Mattos, C. B. R.; Binitie, O.; Dormans, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Pathological fractures in children can occur as a result of a variety of conditions, ranging from metabolic diseases and infection to tumours. Fractures through benign and malignant bone tumours should be recognised and managed appropriately by the treating orthopaedic surgeon. The most common benign bone tumours that cause pathological fractures in children are unicameral bone cysts, aneurysmal bone cysts, non-ossifying fibromas and fibrous dysplasia. Although pathological fractures through a primary bone malignancy are rare, these should be recognised quickly in order to achieve better outcomes. A thorough history, physical examination and review of plain radiographs are crucial to determine the cause and guide treatment. In most benign cases the fracture will heal and the lesion can be addressed at the time of the fracture, or after the fracture is healed. A step-wise and multidisciplinary approach is necessary in caring for paediatric patients with malignancies. Pathological fractures do not have to be treated by amputation; these fractures can heal and limb salvage can be performed when indicated. PMID:23610658

  20. An Anatomic Pathology System Using the File Manager

    PubMed Central

    Ginsburg, R. E.; Tatarczuk, J. R.; Roy, G. R.

    1981-01-01

    An Anatomic Pathology System incorporating patient data from surgical pathology, cytopathology and autopsy pathology is presented. The System includes four interconnected files created with the aid of the File Manager. One file, containing patient demographic data, can be used as a connecting node to other patient databases. Five MUMPS routines, using File Manager functions, allow System users unfamiliar with computers and computer programming to easily enter, edit and retrieve patient information. Retrieved information is in a format to reconstruct, when possible, a patient's medical history from the pathology database and to correlate surgical pathology, cytopathology and autopsy pathology data.

  1. Is real-time PCR-based diagnosis similar in performance to routine parasitological examination for the identification of Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium parvum/Cryptosporidium hominis and Entamoeba histolytica from stool samples? Evaluation of a new commercial multiplex PCR assay and literature review.

    PubMed

    Laude, A; Valot, S; Desoubeaux, G; Argy, N; Nourrisson, C; Pomares, C; Machouart, M; Le Govic, Y; Dalle, F; Botterel, F; Bourgeois, N; Cateau, E; Leterrier, M; Le Pape, P; Morio, F

    2016-02-01

    Microscopy is the reference standard for routine laboratory diagnosis in faecal parasitology but there is growing interest in alternative methods to overcome the limitations of microscopic examination, which is time-consuming and highly dependent on an operator's skills and expertise. Compared with microscopy, DNA detection by PCR is simple and can offer a better turnaround time. However, PCR performances remain difficult to assess as most studies have been conducted on a limited number of positive clinical samples and used in-house PCR methods. Our aim was to evaluate a new multiplex PCR assay (G-DiaParaTrio; Diagenode Diagnostics), targeting Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium parvum/Cryptosporidium hominis and Entamoeba histolytica. To minimize the turnaround time, PCR was coupled with automated DNA extraction (QiaSymphony; Qiagen). The PCR assay was evaluated using a reference panel of 185 samples established by routine microscopic examination using a standardized protocol including Ziehl-Neelsen staining and adhesin detection by ELISA (E. histolytica II; TechLab). This panel, collected from 12 French parasitology laboratories, included 135 positive samples for G. intestinalis (n = 38), C. parvum/C. hominis (n = 26), E. histolytica (n = 5), 21 other gastrointestinal parasites, together with 50 negative samples. In all, the G-DiaParaTrio multiplex PCR assay identified 38 G. intestinalis, 25 C. parvum/C. hominis and five E. histolytica leading to sensitivity/specificity of 92%/100%, 96%/100% and 100%/100% for G. intestinalis, C. parvum/C. hominis and E. histolytica, respectively. This new multiplex PCR assay offers fast and reliable results, similar to microscopy-driven diagnosis for the detection of these gastrointestinal protozoa, allowing its implementation in routine clinical practice. PMID:26548509

  2. Factors for Radical Creativity, Incremental Creativity, and Routine, Noncreative Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madjar, Nora; Greenberg, Ellen; Chen, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    This study extends theory and research by differentiating between routine, noncreative performance and 2 distinct types of creativity: radical and incremental. We also use a sensemaking perspective to examine the interplay of social and personal factors that may influence a person's engagement in a certain level of creative action versus routine,…

  3. Routines in School Organizations: Creating Stability and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Sharon; Enomoto, Ernestine K.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents routinized action theory as a way to examine the regular, habitual activities that occur in school organizations. Using this theoretical lens, school routines were analyzed in order to understand organizational stability and change. Design/methodology/approach: Using case study methods, three discrete cases are…

  4. Changing Urban Bureaucracies: How New Practices Become Routinized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; And Others

    The goal of this report is to describe the process by which new service practices in urban bureaucracies become routinized. The routinization process is studied by examining the life histories of six types of innovations: computer-assisted instruction; police computer systems; mobile intensive care units; closed circuit television systems; breath…

  5. "Slide less pathology": Fairy tale or reality?

    PubMed

    Indu, M; Rathy, R; Binu, M P

    2016-01-01

    Pathology practice is significantly advanced in various frontiers. Therefore, "slide less digital" pathology will not be a mere imagination in near future. Digitalization of histopathological slides (whole slide imaging [WSI]) is possible with the help of whole slide scanner. The WSI has a positive impact not only in routine practice but also in research field, medical education and bioindustry. Even if digital pathology has definitive advantages, its widespread use is not yet possible. As it is an upcoming technology in our field, this article is aimed to discussessential aspects of WSI. PMID:27601824

  6. Curriculum Guidelines for Pathology and Oral Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines for dental school pathology courses describe the interrelationships of general, systemic, and oral pathology; primary educational goals; prerequisites; a core curriculum outline and behavioral objectives for each type of pathology. Notes on sequencing, faculty, facilities, and occupational hazards are included. (MSE)

  7. Digital photography in anatomical pathology.

    PubMed

    Leong, F J; Leong, A S

    2004-01-01

    Digital imaging has made major inroads into the routine practice of anatomical pathology and replaces photographic prints and Kodachromes for reporting and conference purposes. More advanced systems coupled to computers allow greater versatility and speed of turnaround as well as lower costs of incorporating macroscopic and microscopic pictures into pathology reports and publications. Digital images allow transmission to remote sites via the Internet for consultation, quality assurance and educational purposes, and can be stored on and disseminated by CD-ROM. Total slide digitisation is now a reality and will replace glass slides to a large extent. Three-dimensional images of gross specimens can be assembled and posted on websites for interactive educational programmes. There are also applications in research, allowing more objective and automated quantitation of a variety of morphological and immunohistological parameters. Early reports indicate that medical vision systems are a reality and can provide for automated computer-generated histopathological diagnosis and quality assurance. PMID:15048004

  8. [An Accurate Diagnosis is Possible with a Systematic Analysis of Routine Laboratory Data].

    PubMed

    Yonekawa, Osamu

    2015-09-01

    Routine laboratory tests are ordered for almost all in- and outpatients. A systematic analysis of routine laboratory data can give doctors valuable clinical information about patients. In some cases, a correct diag- nosis can be made using laboratory data alone. In our laboratory, we use five processes to evaluate routine laboratory data. Firstly, we estimate the patient's general condition based on A/G, Hb, TP, Alb, ChE, and platelet (PLT) levels. Secondly, we look for inflammation and malignancy based on WBC, CRP, PLT, fibrinogen, and ESR levels and the protein electrophoresis pattern. Thirdly, we examine the major organs, especially the liver and kidney. We check the liver for hepatocyte damage, obstruction, hepatic synthetic function, infection, and malignancy. We estimate GFR and check the kidney for any localized damage. We then check the chemistry, hematology, and immunology. Finally, we form a conclusion after a comprehensive interpretation of the above four processes. With this systematic approach, any members of the laboratory unit can easily estimate the exact pathological status of the patient. In this case study, marked change of TP indicated non-selective loss from the skin; namely a burn. Tissue injury and infections due to different focuses were the most likely causes of severe inflammation. Neither the liver nor kidney was severely damaged. Continual bleeding and hemolysis through the clinical course probably caused anemia. Hypooxygenic respiratory failure and metabolic alkalosis were confirmed by blood gasses. Multiple organ failure was suggested. PMID:26731896

  9. The place of routine HIV testing.

    PubMed

    2011-08-01

    In 2009, around 86,500 people in the UK had HIV infection, of whom around a quarter were unaware of their condition. Of adults diagnosed in that year, around half were already at a late stage of disease (with a CD4 count below 350 cells/μL or presenting with an AIDS-defining event). Such late diagnosis represents a missed opportunity for treatment and prevention, and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, reduced response to antiretroviral drugs and increased healthcare costs. In genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics and during antenatal care, there is a high uptake rate of routine testing (i.e. HIV tests are offered as part of standard care and the individual has the option to decline). Increasing such testing across other healthcare settings could reduce late diagnosis. Here we examine issues around routine HIV testing. PMID:21813559

  10. Renal biopsy and pathologic evaluation of glomerular disease.

    PubMed

    Lees, George E; Cianciolo, Rachel E; Clubb, Fred J

    2011-08-01

    Presence of suspected primary glomerular disease is the most common and compelling reason to consider renal biopsy. Pathologic findings in samples from animals with nephritic or nephrotic glomerulopathies, as well as from animals with persistent subclinical glomerular proteinuria that is not associated with advanced chronic kidney disease, frequently guide treatment decisions and inform prognosis when suitable specimens are obtained and examined appropriately. Ultrasound-guided needle biopsy techniques generally are satisfactory; however, other methods of locating or approaching the kidney, such as manual palpation (e.g., in cats), laparoscopy, or open surgery, also can be used. Visual assessment of the tissue content of needle biopsy samples to verify that they are renal cortex (i.e., contain glomeruli) as they are obtained is a key step that minimizes the submission of uninformative samples for examination. Adequate planning for a renal biopsy also requires prior procurement of the fixatives and preservatives needed to process and submit samples that will be suitable for electron microscopic examination and immunostaining, as well as for light microscopic evaluation. Finally, to be optimally informative, renal biopsy specimens must be processed by laboratories that routinely perform the required specialized examinations and then be evaluated by experienced veterinary nephropathologists. The pathologic findings must be carefully integrated with one another and with information derived from the clinical investigation of the patient's illness to formulate the correct diagnosis and most informative guidance for therapeutic management of the animal's glomerular disease. PMID:21782145

  11. Pathology of ear hematomas in swine.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Richard; Hélie, Pierre; D'Allaire, Sylvie

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of our study were to describe the pathology of ear hematomas in swine and to add to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of this condition. The pathogenesis of aural hematomas has been studied mainly in dogs; however, disagreements exist about the precise anatomic location of the hemorrhage. Sixteen pigs with ear hematoma at various stages of development were included in this study. The pigs were submitted for routine autopsy for various and unrelated reasons over a period of several years. Based on gross examination, the 16 cases of aural hematomas were subjectively classified as acute (n = 6), subacute (n = 3), and chronic (n = 7). The age of the animals at the time of autopsy ranged from 2 weeks to adulthood, with all acute cases being <7 weeks of age. Morphologic examination of all acute cases revealed that the hematoma developed predominantly in a subperichondral location on both sides of the cartilaginous plate simultaneously. Within these same cases, there were also some areas in which blood-filled clefts had formed within the cartilage itself. Besides fibroplasia, neoformation of cartilage was found to represent a significant part of the repair process. All chronic cases were characterized on cross-section of the ear by the presence of at least 2 distinct, wavy, focally folded, and roughly parallel plates of cartilage separated from each other by fibrous tissue. PMID:27034341

  12. Learning Routines in Innovation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoeve, Aimee; Nieuwenhuis, Loek F. M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to generate both a theoretical and an empirical basis for a research model that serves in further research as an analytical tool for understanding the complex phenomenon of learning at different levels in a work organisation. The key concept in this model is the routine concept of Nelson and Winter.…

  13. MISR Conversion to ASCII Routines

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-01

    ... These routines are written in Exelis Visual Information Solutions IDL programming language. They can be run either with a licensed ... with IDL and is available from  Exelis Visual Information Solutions . The IDL VM software can be downloaded from this site or ordered ...

  14. [Pharmacogenomics in routine medical care].

    PubMed

    Rosskopf, D; Meyer zu Schwabedissen, H E; Kroemer, H K; Siegmund, W

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics investigates inherited differences in drug responses including beneficial and adverse reactions. While a considerable amount of evidence for genetic influences on drug responses has been accumulated within the last decade, predominantly in small studies, its value in routine therapy is still a matter of debate. The aim of this review is to discuss well established examples where pharmacogenomic techniques can improve routine treatment. Examples include genotyping of CYP2D6 in the context of antidepressant therapy, analysis of TPMT variants for the prediction of mercaptopurine-induced bone marrow depression, VKORC1 and CYP2C9 analyses for a better control of anticoagulant administration and the SLCO1B1 variant in the context of statin-induced myopathies. PMID:20101557

  15. Memos trace routine radiation overexposures

    SciTech Connect

    Lobsenz, G.

    1994-03-09

    Workers at the Energy Department's Fernald plant routinely received [open quotes]gross,[close quotes] [open quotes]unacceptable[close quotes] and [open quotes]undue[close quotes] radiation exposures during uranium processing operations from the 1950s through the early 1970s, according to internal Fernald memos. The documents come to light as DOE continues to pay hundreds of thousands of dollars every month to defend its former Fernald contractor, NLO Inc., from a workers' lawsuit seeking compensation for alleged injuries from poor safety practices at the Ohio facility. DOE officials have contended the NLO defense effort is justified because there is no evidence that any former Fernald workers have suffered injury as a result of radiation exposures at the plant. However, the internal Fernald memos document major concerns expressed by Fernald health officials about unsafe working conditions at the plant and what appear in some cases to be routine overexposures of workers.

  16. Routine outcome measurement in Australia.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Philip; Pirkis, Jane; Coombs, Tim

    2015-08-01

    Australia has been implementing routine outcome measurement in its specialized public sector mental health services for over a decade. It uses a range of clinician-rated and consumer-rated measures that are administered at set times during episodes of inpatient, ambulatory and community residential episodes of care. Routine outcome measurement is now embedded in service delivery, and data are made available in a variety of ways to different audiences. These data are used by policy-makers and planners to inform decisions about system-wide reforms, by service managers to monitor quality and effectiveness, and by clinicians to guide clinical decision-making and to promote dialogue with consumers. Consumers, carers and the general community can use these data to ensure that services are accountable for the care they deliver. This paper describes the status quo in Australia with respect to routine outcome measurement, discusses the factors that led to its successful implementation, and considers the steps that are necessary for its continued development. PMID:25768326

  17. Factors for radical creativity, incremental creativity, and routine, noncreative performance.

    PubMed

    Madjar, Nora; Greenberg, Ellen; Chen, Zheng

    2011-07-01

    This study extends theory and research by differentiating between routine, noncreative performance and 2 distinct types of creativity: radical and incremental. We also use a sensemaking perspective to examine the interplay of social and personal factors that may influence a person's engagement in a certain level of creative action versus routine, noncreative work. Results demonstrate that willingness to take risks, resources for creativity, and career commitment are associated primarily with radical creativity; that the presence of creative coworkers and organizational identification are associated with incremental creativity; and that conformity and organizational identification are linked with routine performance. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed. PMID:21319879

  18. Primary hyperparathyroidism presenting with pathological fracture.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, R G; Alsagoff, S A; Krishnan, S; Dhillon, K S; Khir, A S

    1998-12-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is an intriguing condition. Routine automated biochemical screening has made the diagnosis commonplace in developed countries and the disease is diagnosed early in its course when it is often asymptomatic. In developing countries or in recent immigrants from these countries, PHPT is often seen in an advanced stage with bone involvement. Associated dietary deficiencies may alter the biochemical profile and cause a diagnostic dilemma. It is important to include it in the differential diagnosis of pathological fractures. We report three cases of PHPT presenting with pathological fractures and discuss their diagnosis and management. PMID:9990797

  19. Global routine vaccination coverage, 2009.

    PubMed

    2010-10-29

    The widespread use of vaccines has greatly improved global public health, preventing millions of childhood hospitalizations and deaths each year. Vaccination of children also is projected to avert adult deaths through the prevention of hepatitis B (HepB) virus--related chronic liver disease and liver cancer and human papilloma virus--related cervical cancer. When the World Health Organization (WHO) began the Expanded Programme on Immunization in 1974, <5% of the world's children had been fully vaccinated with bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine, oral poliovirus vaccine, and measles-containing vaccine (MCV) during the first year of life. Since then, increased vaccination coverage has resulted in substantial reductions in morbidity and mortality, including a >99% decline in polio incidence since 1988, with eradication on the horizon, and a 78% decline in measles-associated mortality from 2000 to 2008 With the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, HepB vaccine, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), and rotavirus vaccine into many countries' routine vaccination schedules, further reductions in morbidity and mortality are expected. However, based on an annual global birth cohort of approximately 130 million, an estimated 23 million infants worldwide still do not receive the benefits of routine vaccination (i.e., 3 doses of DTP during the first year of life). The Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS), developed in 2005 by WHO and UNICEF, assists countries in strengthening immunization programs and vaccinating more persons. GIVS aims to achieve 90% national 3-dose DTP (DTP3) coverage by age 12 months in all countries, and 80% coverage in every district or equivalent administrative unit by 2010 (and to sustain these levels through 2015). This report summarizes global routine vaccination coverage during 2000--2009 and progress toward achieving GIVS goals. PMID:21030941

  20. [Cystic renal pathology].

    PubMed

    Rosi, P; Cesaroni, M; Bracarda, S; Rociola, W; Virgili, G

    1993-08-01

    Ultrasonography has a great interest in diagnosis of cystic kidney disorders for typical eco-pattern of this pathology. In this work we show the eco-pattern of the most common cystic kidney disorders. Particularly we examine simple cysts (typical, atypical, complicated), multicystic kidney dysplasia, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (infantile) autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (adult age). The so-called neoplastic cysts (multiloculated cysts, multiloculated cysts nephroma, cystic nephroblastoma), medullar cysts (medullary sponge kidney, medullary cystic disease), parapyelic cysts, acquired cystic kidney disease in renal failure patients, parasitic cysts, epidermoid cysts. About this disorders we present the more typical and expressive ultrasonographic appearance and we define the role and the opportunity of diagnostic setting by echography, moreover ultrasonography allows us to make a differential diagnosis between cystic kidney disorders and other kidney disease. PMID:8353538

  1. Changing of the Guard: How Different School Leaders Change Organizational Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enomoto, Ernestine K.; Conley, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    While providing stability and uniformity, organizational routines can foster continuous change. Using Feldman's (2000) performative model of routinized action theory, coupled with leadership succession research, we examined how three successive administrations in a California high school revised a student attendance (tardy-monitoring) routine over…

  2. Global routine vaccination coverage, 2013.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennifer B; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Eggers, Rudolf; Brown, David W; Sodha, Samir V

    2014-11-21

    In 1974, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Expanded Program on Immunization to ensure that all children have access to routinely recommended vaccines. Since then, global coverage with the four core vaccines (Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine [for protection against tuberculosis], diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine [DTP], polio vaccine, and measles vaccine) has increased from <5% to ≥84%, and additional vaccines have been added to the recommended schedule. Coverage with the third dose of DTP vaccine (DTP3) by age 12 months is a key indicator of immunization program performance. Estimated global DTP3 coverage has remained at 83%-84% since 2009, with estimated 2013 coverage at 84%. Global coverage estimates for the second routine dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV2) are reported for the first time in 2013; global coverage was 35% by the end of the second year of life and 53% when including older age groups. Improvements in equity of access and use of immunization services will help ensure that all children are protected from vaccine-preventable diseases. PMID:25412062

  3. Facts about artefacts in diagnostic pathology.

    PubMed

    Pattari, S K; Dey, P

    2002-01-01

    Literal meaning of artefact given by 'Oxford Advanced Learner Dictionary' is 'a thing made by people'. In medical science 'the fact' is not true; but we observe routinely is called artefact. We face various types of artefacts in daily reporting of pathology specimen. Many times artefacts hinder the actual diagnosis. The artefacts i. e. fixation artefact, processing artefact, staining artefact, mounting artefact, air bubbles etc. can cause difficulty in diagnosis and a pathologist should be trained to identify those artefacts. PMID:12593582

  4. Anatomical pathology is dead? Long live anatomical pathology.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, John M; Francis, Glenn D

    2011-10-01

    The standard diagnostic instrument used for over 150 years by anatomical pathologists has been the optical microscope and glass slide. The advent of immunohistochemistry in the routine laboratory in the 1980s, followed by in situ hybridisation in the 1990s, has increased the armamentaria available to the diagnostic pathologist, and this technology has led to changed patient management in a limited number of neoplastic diseases. The first decade of the 21 century has seen an increasing number of publications using proteomic technologies that promise to change disease diagnosis and management, the traditional role of an anatomical pathologist. Despite the plethora of publications on proteomics and pathology, to date there are actually limited data where proteomic technologies do appear to be of greater diagnostic value than the standard histological slide. Though proteomic techniques will become more prevalent in the future, it will need the expertise of an anatomical pathologist to dissect out and validate this added information. PMID:21876472

  5. Routine and specialized laboratory testing for the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Shelton, G Diane

    2010-09-01

    The diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases can be challenging. The first step is recognition that the disease involves the neuromuscular system (muscle, neuromuscular junction, peripheral nerve, and ventral horn cells of the spinal cord). Many neuromuscular diseases share clinical signs and cannot be distinguished based on clinical examination. Routine laboratory screening, including a CBC, biochemical profile, and urinalysis, can identify some of the most common systemic abnormalities that cause muscle weakness and myalgia, such as hypo- and hyperglycemia, electrolyte disorders, or thyroid abnormalities, and may suggest a specific diagnosis, such as diabetes mellitus, hypo- or hyperadrenocorticism, renal failure, or hypothyroidism. Increased creatine kinase activity, increased cardiac troponin I concentration, and myoglobinuria are useful in detecting skeletal and cardiac muscle damage. Identification of acetylcholine receptor antibodies is diagnostic for acquired myasthenia gravis. For primary muscle or peripheral nerve diseases, tissue biopsy is the most direct way to determine specific pathology, correctly classify the disease, and determine the course of additional laboratory testing. For example, inflammatory, necrotizing, dystrophic, metabolic, or congenital myopathies require different laboratory testing procedures for further characterization. Many neuromuscular diseases are inherited or breed-associated, and DNA-based tests may already be established or may be feasible to develop after the disorder has been accurately characterized. This review focuses on both routine and specialized laboratory testing necessary to reach a definitive diagnosis and determine an accurate prognosis for neuromuscular diseases. PMID:20726955

  6. Problem and Pathological Gambling among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinchfield, Randy; Hanson, William E.; Olson, Douglas H.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines problem and pathological gambling among college students and reports on prevalence rate, risk and protective factors, prevention and intervention, and recommendations for college student personnel and other university administrators.

  7. VII: VME/IORFI-II interface routines

    SciTech Connect

    Alleva, D.

    1988-07-07

    This document describes the VME/IORFI-II Interface routines (VII). These routines where designed to meet two needs. First, the routines enable programs written in PILS running on a MVME 101 under Valet-Plus to control an IORFI-II interface from VME. Secondly, the routines provide a high level language version of the FASTBUS standard routines for the IORFI-II which can easily be translated into other high level languages (like C). The routines fall into two general types, control and transaction. The control routines work directly with the interface registers. These routines set up and monitor operations between VME and the IORFI-II. The control routines are usually used indirectly by the programmer through the transaction routines. The transaction routines, such as VIIreverse arrowWRITEreverse arrowDAT, use the control routines to carry out complete functions on FASTBUS. Most FASTBUS operations have been implemented except for the compound routines and some low level routines. To facilitate access to the IORFI-II registers from VME, a Super-VIOR DMA board was used as a set of I/O registers tied to the IORFI-II's front panel connectors. The DMA controller on the Super-VIOR was not used and a much simpler board (only containing a set of four registers accessible from VME) could replace the Super-VIOR. The routines are written in PILS, a high-level language similar to BASIC and Pascal which is powerful and fast enough for most applications. However, PILS has proven to be too slow for efficient control of the IORFI-II. This is discussed further in this paper along with a discussion of possible future implementations of the routines.

  8. The diaphragmatic crura and retrocrural space: normal imaging appearance, variants, and pathologic conditions.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Carlos S; Eraso, Andres; Ocazionez, Daniel; Lemos, Julio; Martinez, Santiago; Lemos, Diego F

    2008-01-01

    The retrocrural space (RCS) is a small triangular region within the most inferior posterior mediastinum bordered by the two diaphragmatic crura. Multiplanar imaging modalities such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging allow evaluation of the RCS as part of routine examinations of the chest, abdomen, and spine. Normal structures within the retrocrural region include the aorta, nerves, the azygos and hemiazygos veins, the cisterna chyli with the thoracic duct, fat, and lymph nodes. There is a wide range of normal variants of the diaphragmatic crura and of structures within the RCS. Diverse pathologic processes can occur within this region, including benign tumors (lipoma, neurofibroma, lymphangioma), malignant tumors (sarcoma, neuroblastoma, metastases), vascular abnormalities (aortic aneurysm, hematoma, azygos and hemiazygos continuation of the inferior vena cava), and abscesses. An understanding of the anatomy, normal variants, and pathologic conditions of the diaphragmatic crura and retrocrural structures facilitates diagnosis of disease processes within this often overlooked anatomic compartment. PMID:18794306

  9. Evolutionary Dynamics of Digitized Organizational Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Peng

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the effects of increased digitization on the evolutionary dynamics of organizational routines. Do routines become more flexible, or more rigid, as the mix of digital technologies and human actors changes? What are the mechanisms that govern the evolution of routines? The dissertation theorizes about the effects of…

  10. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a...

  11. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a...

  12. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a...

  13. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a...

  14. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a...

  15. [Routine hematologic parameters for thalassemia screening].

    PubMed

    Schubert, S; Christofi, Y; Papadatou, A

    1990-01-01

    There is an evaluation of routine examination of the blood film for the recognition of Thalassaemia (Th.). The results of 100 blood films from each group--Th. major, Th. minor, healthy persons (centre for Thalassaemia "Bishop Makarios"/Nikosia--Cypros)-were analyzed. MCV and MCH were most useful for the recognition of Th. minor. The constellation of increased red blood cells and normal hemoglobin seems to be typical for Th. minor. Haemoglobin and haematocrit are not suited because they were widely normal. Target cells also are not sufficient for screening--they were present only in 10% of Th. minor. To the contrary most values were clearly decreased in Th. major, and target cells were present here in almost 90%. PMID:1713894

  16. The routinization of hospice: charisma and bureaucratization.

    PubMed

    James, N; Field, D

    1992-06-01

    In 25 years the number of hospices in Britain has multiplied from under 15 in 1965 to over 430 in 1991. During this period, often working out with the mainstream health system, the hospices actively sought to transform terminal care. More recently a process of diversification and legitimation has meant that hospices have become increasingly subject to mainstream influence. Using Weber's concept of charisma we examine the development of the hospice movement during this period of expansion. We suggest there are a number of factors leading to the routinization of hospice care including the ways in which it was sponsored and developed at the local level, and pressures toward bureaucratization and professionalization. We make links with recent developments in the health services. Finally we consider whether it is possible for the hospice movement to sustain its founding ideals. PMID:1529374

  17. Handheld computing in pathology

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil; Satyanarayanan, Mahadev; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2012-01-01

    Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in whole-slide imaging (WSI), new opportunities and challenges have presented themselves. This review addresses the current state of handheld hardware and software, provides a history of handheld devices in medicine focusing on pathology, and presents future use cases for such handhelds in pathology. PMID:22616027

  18. Routine outcome measures in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve; Adair, Carol E; Lin, Elizabeth; Marriott, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Canada is a federal country of 10 provinces and three territories. High level information on mental health conditions and service use has mostly been generated from administrative data collected by provinces and territories. These include four major types - hospital admissions and discharges, physician billings, ambulatory care services, and drug databases. At the national level, the Canadian Institute for Health Information brings together this information to produce indicators of outcome. Although these data provide information on patient and health system characteristics, they do not capture the full spectrum of formal and informal mental healthcare. These include changes in health status, functioning, community integration and quality of life. As a result, some jurisdictions have begun to implement more standardized measures of outcome such as the clinician-rated Health of the Nation Outcome Scales or the inpatient Resident Assessment Instrument - Mental Health. In this paper we provide an overview of mental-health-related data sources in Canada, highlight some of the more progressive practices beginning to emerge, and conclude with some thoughts about how the routine measurement and reporting of mental health outcomes in Canada might be advanced including efforts at engaging both clinicians and decision-makers. PMID:25738745

  19. Social and Demographic Predictors of Preschoolers’ Bedtime Routines

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Lauren; Berger, Lawrence M.; LeBourgeois, Monique K.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine associations of child and family sociodemographic characteristics with preschooler bedtime routines. Method We use parent-report data on 3,217 3-year-old children (48% black; 26% Hispanic; 26% white) from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine whether child and family characteristics are associated with the presence, time, and consistency of bedtime routines. Results Over 80% of sample children have a bedtime yet only two-thirds follow it. After extensive controls for maternal education, family structure, and other household characteristics, Black and Hispanic children have later bedtimes than white children and reduced odds of using regular bedtimes (by 22% and 29%, respectively) and using bedtime routines (by 47% and 33%, respectively). Low maternal education, increased household size, and poverty are associated with decreased use of parent-child interactive and hygiene-related bedtime routines. Conclusion Children from disadvantaged households are less likely to have consistent bedtime routines than their more advantaged counterparts. This may contribute to later disparities in sleep quality, duration and timing, factors known to be associated with adverse behavioral, cognitive, and health outcomes. PMID:19745760

  20. School Bus Crash Rates on Routine and Nonroutine Routes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, Elizabeth; Ramirez, Marizen; Hamann, Cara; Young, Tracy; Stahlhut, Mary; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although prior research has established that school buses are a safe form of transportation, crashes can produce catastrophic consequences. School buses have 2 types of routes: predictable, routine routes that take children to and from school and less predictable, nonroutine routes for school events. No studies have examined school bus…

  1. Factors affecting urine specific gravity in apparently healthy cats presenting to first opinion practice for routine evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rishniw, Mark; Bicalho, Rodrigo

    2015-04-01

    Evidence suggests that apparently healthy cats presenting for routine evaluation should have a randomly sampled urine specific gravity (USG) >1.035. A USG <1.035 might reflect inappropriate concentrating ability warranting further investigation. We measured the USG of 1040 apparently healthy cats presenting to first opinion practice in an observational study, using either in-clinic refractometers or measurements provided by reference laboratories, and examined factors that might affect USG. In-clinic refractometers were calibrated using distilled water (specific gravity = 1.000). The USG was >1.030 in 91% of cats and >1.035 in 88% of cats; 121 adult cats (⩾6 months old) and five young cats (<6 months old) had USGs of <1.035. Of these 126 cats, a pathological cause was identified in 27 adult cats - of these, 26 were >9 years old - but no young cats. No cause was identified in 43 adult cats, and further investigation was not pursued in 51 adult cats. Factors that affected USG included age, diet type, sex, fasting status, drinking avidity, refractometer type, and the interaction between sex and diet - increasing dietary moisture content lowered USG only in female cats. Most factors minimally affected USG. The odds of having a USG <1.035 without apparent pathology included age and dietary moisture content. Drinking avidity decreased with increasing dietary moisture content. Our results show that most apparently healthy cats presenting to first-opinion practice should have a USG >1.035. Dietary management strategies to lower USG might be less effective than anticipated, and warrant monitoring of USG to determine efficacy. Older cats with USG <1.035 are more likely to have pathological causes identified, although clinicians are more likely to examine these cats for possible pathology. A lack of stringent refractometer calibration could have caused some errors in estimates of USG by some observers, but would be unlikely to alter markedly the findings. PMID:25030955

  2. Going fully digital: Perspective of a Dutch academic pathology lab

    PubMed Central

    Stathonikos, Nikolas; Veta, Mitko; Huisman, André; van Diest, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    During the last years, whole slide imaging has become more affordable and widely accepted in pathology labs. Digital slides are increasingly being used for digital archiving of routinely produced clinical slides, remote consultation and tumor boards, and quantitative image analysis for research purposes and in education. However, the implementation of a fully digital Pathology Department requires an in depth look into the suitability of digital slides for routine clinical use (the image quality of the produced digital slides and the factors that affect it) and the required infrastructure to support such use (the storage requirements and integration with lab management and hospital information systems). Optimization of digital pathology workflow requires communication between several systems, which can be facilitated by the use of open standards for digital slide storage and scanner management. Consideration of these aspects along with appropriate validation of the use of digital slides for routine pathology can pave the way for pathology departments to go “fully digital.” In this paper, we summarize our experiences so far in the process of implementing a fully digital workflow at our Pathology Department and the steps that are needed to complete this process. PMID:23858390

  3. Radiographic pathology for technologists

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, J.D.; Kowalczyk, N.

    1988-01-01

    This book explains the fundamentals of disease mechanisms and relates this to the practice of radiologic science. Each chapter begins with a discussion of normal anatomy and physiology, then covers pathology and demonstrates how the pathology appears on film. Imaging modalities such as computed tomography, MRI, and ultrasound are also discussed. Clinical case studies are included.

  4. Opportunities in Speech Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Parley W.

    The importance of speech is discussed and speech pathology is described. Types of communication disorders considered are articulation disorders, aphasia, facial deformity, hearing loss, stuttering, delayed speech, voice disorders, and cerebral palsy; examples of five disorders are given. Speech pathology is investigated from these aspects: the…

  5. The Effects of Pathological Gaming on Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemmens, Jeroen S.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this…

  6. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: The Search for Truth.

    PubMed

    McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science. PMID:27515387

  7. The Effect of Team Training Strategies on Team Mental Model Formation and Team Performance under Routine and Non-Routine Environmental Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Katherine L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined how the type of training a team receives (team coordination training vs. cross-training) influences the type of team mental model structures that form and how those mental models in turn impact team performance under different environmental condition (routine vs. non-routine). Three-hundred and fifty-two undergraduate…

  8. Clinical and pathologic diagnosis and different diagnosis of syphilis cervical lymphadenitis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yufen; Zhang, Xinlian; Xu, Nan; Wang, Libo; Li, Fangchao; Zhang, Ping; Miao, Lanfang; Yang, Haijun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To study the clinical pathologic characteristics and differential diagnosis of syphilitic cervical lymphadenitis, and to improve the rate of its diagnosis and treatment. Methods: Retrospectively analyzed the clinical history, Trepone pallidum-ELISA (TP-ELISA), rapid plasma regain test (RPR) and routine pathological examination of the patient diagnosed as syphilis lymphadenitis. And review related literatures. Results: The main clinical presentation was multiple palpable cervical lymph nodes. The multiple nodes were hard, fixed, and the major diameter of the larger one was 2 cm. The main pathological changes included: the capsule was significantly thickened; reactive hyperplasia of lymphoid follicular with sky star phenomenon; occlusive endovasculitis; perivascular inflammation; the proliferation of epithelioid histiocytes can form granulomas with few multinucleated giant cells; few necrosis. TP-ELISA and RPR were positive. Conclusions: The pathological changes of syphilitic lymphadenitis have a variety of performance with relatively specific and suggestive alterations which requires a combination of clinical history and laboratory test before the diagnosis, and the clinicians can reduce misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis of the disease by increasing vigilance of it. PMID:26722588

  9. Pathology Imaging Informatics for Clinical Practice and Investigative and Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Sadimin, Evita T.; Foran, David J

    2012-01-01

    Pathologists routinely interpret gross and microscopic specimens to render diagnoses and to engage in a broad spectrum of investigative research. Multiple studies have demonstrated that imaging technologies have progressed to a level at which properly digitized specimens provide sufficient quality comparable to the traditional glass slides examinations. Continued advancements in this area will have a profound impact on the manner in which pathology is conducted from this point on. Several leading institutions have already undertaken ambitious projects directed toward digitally imaging, archiving, and sharing pathology specimens. As a result of these advances, the use of informatics in diagnostic and investigative pathology applications is expanding rapidly. In addition, the advent of novel technologies such as multispectral imaging makes it possible to visualize and analyze imaged specimens using multiple wavelengths simultaneously. As these powerful technologies become increasingly accepted and adopted, the opportunities for gaining new insight into the underlying mechanisms of diseases as well as the potential for discriminating among subtypes of pathologies are growing accordingly. PMID:22855694

  10. Parental employment, family routines and childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Patricia M

    2012-12-01

    Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K) data from kindergarten through eighth grade, this paper investigate the relationships among maternal employment, family routines and obesity. More hours worked by the mother tend to be negatively related to positive routines like eating meals as a family or at regular times, or having family rules about hours of television watched. Many of these same routines are significantly related to the probability of being obese, implying that family routines may be a mechanism by which maternal employment intensity affects children's obesity. However, inclusion of family routines in the obesity regression does not appreciably change the estimated effect of maternal employment hours. Thus, the commonly estimated deleterious effect of maternal employment on children's obesity cannot be explained by family routines, leaving the exact mechanisms an open question for further exploration. PMID:22622096

  11. Reducing turnaround time of surgical pathology reports in pathology and laboratory medicine departments

    PubMed Central

    Alshieban, Saeed; Al-Surimi, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Turnaround time is an important quality indicator in surgical pathology. Retrospective analysis of three data points in September 2014, January 2015, and February 2015 showed that on average, about a quarter (24%) of routine surgical pathology cases (26%, 19%, and 27% respectively) are not reported on time and do not meet the accepted level of the College of American Pathologists' (CAP) standard turnaround time, which states at least 90% of routine surgical pathology cases should be reported and verified within two days. Our daily observation supported by a root cause analysis exercise revealed that subprocesses including slide allocation and delivery to pathologists, slide review by pathologists, report editing by transcriptionists, and report verification by pathologists are where most delays occur. Thus, to tackle these process issues we developed a quality improvement project using the model of improvement methods to streamline the sample flow process and avoid unjustified reporting delay. The improvement ideas included developing a time log sheet to be attached with all pathology requests, and sending a daily reminder email followed by a phonecall to all pathologists to verify completed reports on the same day. These intervention elements were tested using multiple PDSA cycles resulting in a very noticeable improvement, with more than 94% of all routine cases reported in less than two days, meeting and exceeding the CAP standards. Such noticeable improvement in turnaround of surgical pathology reports will eventually lead to improving the quality and safety of patient care outcome, including diagnosing patients on time, developing the appropriate treatment plan, and avoiding unjustified complications resulting in morbidity and mortality due to delayed reports. PMID:26734438

  12. Forensic pathology of companion animal abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Gerdin, J A; McDonough, S P

    2013-11-01

    Submission of cases of suspected animal abuse and neglect (AAN) to veterinary pathologists is increasingly frequent. These cases require modification of postmortem procedures and written reports, as the questions asked by courts typically differ from those asked in routine diagnostic cases. Here we review the practice of veterinary forensic pathology as it applies to cases of companion AAN, as well as the fundamental principles of forensic pathology, the components of a forensic necropsy, and the goals of the necropsy in cases of blunt-force trauma, projectile wounds, and starvation. Future directions and endeavors in veterinary forensic pathology are broached. PMID:23686766

  13. Pathology of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Finnie, John W

    2014-12-01

    Although traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently encountered in veterinary practice in companion animals, livestock and horses, inflicted head injury is a common method of euthanasia in domestic livestock, and malicious head trauma can lead to forensic investigation, the pathology of TBI has generally received little attention in the veterinary literature. This review highlights the pathology and pathogenesis of cerebral lesions produced by blunt, non-missile and penetrating, missile head injuries as an aid to the more accurate diagnosis of neurotrauma cases. If more cases of TBI in animals that result in fatality or euthanasia are subjected to rigorous neuropathological examination, this will lead to a better understanding of the nature and development of brain lesions in these species, rather than extrapolating data from human studies. PMID:25178417

  14. Routine Activities Preceding Adolescent Sexual Abuse of Younger Children.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Benoit; Felson, Marcus

    2016-03-01

    Adolescent abuse of younger children has long been recognized, but empirical research on the circumstances of this phenomenon is rare. This article examines how adolescent offenders find and gain access to victims, work out time alone with them, and set up or exploit settings for sexual contact. Prior researchers learned that adult sex offenders use certain routine activities to perform these tasks. The current research inquires whether adolescent offenders are similar. We administered Kaufman's Modus Operandi Questionnaire to a sample of 116 Canadian adolescent males undergoing treatment for a sexual offense against a child. Adolescent offenders follow routines similar to adults but are better able to use games and activities as a prelude to sexual abuse. We discuss how routine legal activities set the stage for activities and should be considered when devising situational prevention strategies. PMID:25060598

  15. Clinician's Attitudes to the Introduction of Routine Weighing in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Beckmann, Michael M.; Wilkinson, Shelley A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Excessive gestational weight gain poses significant short- and long-term health risks to both mother and baby. Professional bodies and health services increasingly recommend greater attention be paid to weight gain in pregnancy. A large Australian tertiary maternity hospital plans to facilitate the (re)introduction of routine weighing of all women at every antenatal visit. Objective. To identify clinicians' perspectives of barriers and enablers to routinely weighing pregnant women and variations in current practice, knowledge, and attitudes between different staff groups. Method. Forty-four maternity staff from three professional groups were interviewed in four focus groups. Staff included midwives; medical staff; and dietitians. Transcripts underwent qualitative content analysis to identify and examine barriers and enablers to the routine weighing of women throughout pregnancy. Results. While most staff supported routine weighing, various concerns were raised. Issues included access to resources and staff; the ability to provide appropriate counselling and evidence-based interventions; and the impact of weighing on patients and the therapeutic relationship. Conclusion. Many clinicians supported the practice of routine weighing in pregnancy, but barriers were also identified. Implementation strategies will be tailored to the discrete professional groups and will address identified gaps in knowledge, resources, and clinician skills and confidence. PMID:27446614

  16. Clinician's Attitudes to the Introduction of Routine Weighing in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hasted, Tim; Stapleton, Helen; Beckmann, Michael M; Wilkinson, Shelley A

    2016-01-01

    Background. Excessive gestational weight gain poses significant short- and long-term health risks to both mother and baby. Professional bodies and health services increasingly recommend greater attention be paid to weight gain in pregnancy. A large Australian tertiary maternity hospital plans to facilitate the (re)introduction of routine weighing of all women at every antenatal visit. Objective. To identify clinicians' perspectives of barriers and enablers to routinely weighing pregnant women and variations in current practice, knowledge, and attitudes between different staff groups. Method. Forty-four maternity staff from three professional groups were interviewed in four focus groups. Staff included midwives; medical staff; and dietitians. Transcripts underwent qualitative content analysis to identify and examine barriers and enablers to the routine weighing of women throughout pregnancy. Results. While most staff supported routine weighing, various concerns were raised. Issues included access to resources and staff; the ability to provide appropriate counselling and evidence-based interventions; and the impact of weighing on patients and the therapeutic relationship. Conclusion. Many clinicians supported the practice of routine weighing in pregnancy, but barriers were also identified. Implementation strategies will be tailored to the discrete professional groups and will address identified gaps in knowledge, resources, and clinician skills and confidence. PMID:27446614

  17. Clinical governance and pathology

    PubMed Central

    Crook, M

    2002-01-01

    This article looks at clinical governance and pathology. Clinical governance should be an important tool in seeking quality improvement within the Natinal Health Service. But how as pathologists should we go about it? PMID:11896066

  18. Tumor Size on Abdominal MRI Versus Pathologic Specimen in Resected Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Implications for Radiation Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, William A.; Mikell, John L.; Mittal, Pardeep; Colbert, Lauren; Prabhu, Roshan S.; Kooby, David A.; Nickleach, Dana; Hanley, Krisztina; Sarmiento, Juan M.; Ali, Arif N.; Landry, Jerome C.

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: We assessed the accuracy of abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for determining tumor size by comparing the preoperative contrast-enhanced T1-weighted gradient echo (3-dimensional [3D] volumetric interpolated breath-hold [VIBE]) MRI tumor size with pathologic specimen size. Methods and Materials: The records of 92 patients who had both preoperative contrast-enhanced 3D VIBE MRI images and detailed pathologic specimen measurements were available for review. Primary tumor size from the MRI was independently measured by a single diagnostic radiologist (P.M.) who was blinded to the pathology reports. Pathologic tumor measurements from gross specimens were obtained from the pathology reports. The maximum dimensions of tumor measured in any plane on the MRI and the gross specimen were compared. The median difference between the pathology sample and the MRI measurements was calculated. A paired t test was conducted to test for differences between the MRI and pathology measurements. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to measure the association of disparity between the MRI and pathology sizes with the pathology size. Disparities relative to pathology size were also examined and tested for significance using a 1-sample t test. Results: The median patient age was 64.5 years. The primary site was pancreatic head in 81 patients, body in 4, and tail in 7. Three patients were American Joint Commission on Cancer stage IA, 7 stage IB, 21 stage IIA, 58 stage IIB, and 3 stage III. The 3D VIBE MRI underestimated tumor size by a median difference of 4 mm (range, −34-22 mm). The median largest tumor dimensions on MRI and pathology specimen were 2.65 cm (range, 1.5-9.5 cm) and 3.2 cm (range, 1.3-10 cm), respectively. Conclusions: Contrast-enhanced 3D VIBE MRI underestimates tumor size by 4 mm when compared with pathologic specimen. Advanced abdominal MRI sequences warrant further investigation for radiation therapy planning in pancreatic adenocarcinoma before

  19. Making Routine Letters Have Positive Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, S. M.

    While few business people dispute the importance of carefully crafting persuasive, demanding, conciliatory, and bad-news letters, the regular flow of routine communications receives very little meaningful consideration or scrutiny. These routine communications (letters, inquiries, requests, collection letters, complaints, confirmations,…

  20. 40 CFR 141.621 - Routine monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Routine monitoring. 141.621 Section 141.621 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Stage 2 Disinfection Byproducts Requirements § 141.621 Routine monitoring. (a) Monitoring. (1) If...

  1. Active Movement Warm-Up Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Teri; Quint, Ashleigh; Fischer, Kim; Kiger, Joy

    2011-01-01

    This article presents warm-ups that are designed to physiologically and psychologically prepare students for vigorous physical activity. An active movement warm-up routine is made up of three parts: (1) active warm-up movement exercises, (2) general preparation, and (3) the energy system. These warm-up routines can be used with all grade levels…

  2. 10 CFR 1017.20 - Routine access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INFORMATION Access to Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.20 Routine access. (a) Authorized... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Routine access. 1017.20 Section 1017.20 Energy DEPARTMENT... access to the UCNI, subject to limitations in paragraph (b) of this section, and who may...

  3. 10 CFR 1017.20 - Routine access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INFORMATION Access to Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.20 Routine access. (a) Authorized... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Routine access. 1017.20 Section 1017.20 Energy DEPARTMENT... access to the UCNI, subject to limitations in paragraph (b) of this section, and who may...

  4. Achieving Communicative Competence Through Gambits and Routines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siskin, H. Jay; Spinelli, Emily

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes the importance of conversational gambits and routines in achieving second language communicative competence and then presents a model which uses telephone conversations as a means of achieving this goal. Exercises for drilling and testing gambits and routines are also presented. (Author/CB)

  5. Clinical and pathological correlations in endometrial pathology

    PubMed Central

    Bohîlțea, RE; Sajin, M; Furtunescu, F; Bohîlțea, LC; Mihart, A; Baros, A; Anca, AF

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and mortality rate of endometrial cancer has been registering an increasing trend both in Romania and in the whole world. The paper’s aim is to analyze the diagnostic approach of endometrial pathology in the University Emergency Hospital Bucharest, on a four years period. The medium age of the patients was of 50.51 ± 10.924 years, and the median age was of 48 years. The youngest patient suffering from endometrial cancer was of 30 years. Dilation and uterine curettage represent the main method used in the performance of endometrial biopsy, based on which the certitude etiologic histopathologic diagnosis was established in 68.4% of the patients with endometrial pathology. Hyperplasias represented half of the pathology (54.9%), most of them being without atypias. Endometrial carcinoma was identified in 19% of the patients. The diagnosis of the disease in IA stage represents 5.5% of the total endometrial cases and the diagnosis of the disease in the stage of its limitation to the uterus (stage IA, IB and IC) was of 64.2%. The endometrioid adenocarcinoma represents the most encountered histopathological form and the degree of tumor differentiation established for 68,15% of the cases was predominantly 1 and 2 (88%). The main symptom, which determines the patients’ decision to go to the physician, is the abnormal uterine bleeding. 66% of the cases of endometrial cancer in the stage of the disease limited to the uterus are diagnosed in Romania based on the abnormal uterine bleeding. However, 34% of the cases are diagnosed in advanced stages, presenting a significantly low life expectancy. PMID:26664489

  6. Metadata Extraction Routines for Improving Infobutton Performance

    PubMed Central

    Hulse, Nathan C.; Haug, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Infobuttons have been proven as an effective means for providing quick, context-specific links to pertinent information resources at the point of care. Current infobutton manager implementations, however, lack the ability to exchange metadata, are limited to a relatively small set of information providers, and are targeted primarily for a clinician audience. As part of a local effort to implement infobuttons for patient use via a tethered personal health record, we present a series of metadata extraction routines. These routines were constructed to extract key pieces of information from health information providers on the Internet, including content coverage, language availability, and readability scores. The extraction routines were tested using thirty different disease conditions against eight different providers. The routines yielded 183 potential infobutton targets and associated metadata for each. The capabilities of the extraction routines will be expanded to cover new types of metadata in the future. PMID:21346994

  7. Routine ultrasound surveillance after carotid endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Pratesi, C; Pulli, R; Ferlaino, E; Michelagnoli, S; Bernacchi, R; Borgioloi, F; Nuzzaci, G

    1996-02-01

    Ultrasounds (US) are employed in preoperative carotid disease diagnosis and in carotid endarterectomy (CEA) follow-up. The authors present their experience about postoperative modifications in CEA site with US evaluation with particular interest in restenosis. Clinical and instrumental examinations were performed at intervals 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months following surgery. Follow-up data were available on 189 CEAs. In 58 cases a primary closure was performed, whereas in the other 131 cases, a patch was applied. 15 restenosis (7.9%) were seen during the follow-up control period with 2 cases of haemodynamic restenosis (1%). Good results were recorded with PTFE patch angioplasty (restenosis 4.4%), instead of vein (restenosis 14.2%) and a biosynthetic material called Omniflow (restenosis 9.5%). A vein patch dilatation was encountered in 13 applications (30.9%). In conclusion the routine application of US after carotid endarterectomy allowed us to monitor the evolution of the repair processes and of the stenotic lesions from the very beginning. PMID:8606212

  8. Closed cycle refrigeration for routine magnetotransport measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawardana, Binuka; Ye, Tianyu; Wegscheider, Werner; Mani, Ramesh

    2015-03-01

    Condensed matter physics is often interested in the behavior of materials at very low temperatures. Low temperatures have traditionally been realized using liquid helium. However, the recent scarcity of liquid helium and the rapid rise in its cost has encouraged the development of alternative approaches, based on closed cycle refrigerators, for realizing low temperatures. Here, we convey our experiences in developing a home-made, low cost, variable temperature closed cycle refrigeration system for routine magnetotransport measurements down to 10K, and present measurements obtained with this system relating to the electronic properties of the high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs 2D semiconductors system. The setup was constructed to examine 0.5cm × 0.5cm semiconductor chips including up to 49 leads and reach ~ 10K within 3 hours. A computer controlled data acquisition system was assembled to collect resistivity and Hall effect data, and extract the carrier Hall mobility and density as a function of the temperature.

  9. Pathological fractures in children: Diagnosis and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Canavese, F; Samba, A; Rousset, M

    2016-02-01

    A fracture is defined as pathological when it arises in a bone tissue that has been modified and reshaped by a local or systemic pathological process. In children, pathological fractures can be secondary to several conditions, ranging from metabolic diseases to tumors, infections or neuromuscular pathologies. History, clinical examination and radiologic assessment are essential to making a diagnosis, to identifying the underlying cause and to planning the right treatment of a pathological fracture. Treatment must be tailored to both the fracture and the underlying cause. The objective of this work is to present the diagnostic approach and the course to follow when a child presents with a pathological fracture. The most common causes of pathological fractures, as well as their characteristics, will be described. Pathological fractures occurring in osteogenesis imperfecta and in abused children as well as stress fractures will not be discussed. PMID:26774903

  10. [Victims of sexual assault: a routine protocol for better management].

    PubMed

    Linet, T; Nizard, J

    2004-04-01

    Caring for victims of sexual assault is a difficult situation where the physician has to simultaneously evaluate the psychological impact and conduct a complete and precise physical examination. To make sure every step of the examination is completed and all samplings are done in the correct order by all physicians, it is useful to have a written routine protocol. We describe step-by-step management procedures for victims of sexual assault, taking into consideration the psychological aspect, the physical examination, the different samplings, and the different emergency treatments. Free download of the entire protocol, with the booklet containing examples of prescriptions, is available at http://www.agof.net/constatviol/. PMID:15052175

  11. Pathological evaluation for sterilization of routinely used prosthodontic and endodontic instruments

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, K. Vinay; Kiran Kumar, K.S.; Supreetha, S.; Raghu, K.N.; Veerabhadrappa, Anusha Channabasappa; Deepthi, S

    2015-01-01

    Background: In daily practice of dentistry, we use same instruments on many patients. Before use, all instruments must be cleaned, disinfected, and sterilized to prevent any contamination. Pre-cleaning and sterilization of some devices can be difficult because of their small size and complex architecture. Dental burs and endodontic files are such instruments. Dental burs come in a variety of shapes and sizes, all with highly complex and detailed surface features. Aim: To determine the effectiveness of various disinfectants and sterilization techniques for disinfection and resterilization of dental burs and endodontic files. Materials and Methods: The materials used for the study were dental burs and endodontic files. Disinfectants used were Quitanet plus, glutaraldehyde, glass-bead sterilizer, and autoclave. The sterility of used dental burs and endodontic files was analyzed. Burs and files that had been used were pre-cleaned, resterilized, and then tested for various pathogens. Each item was transferred by sterile technique into Todd-Hewitt broth, incubated at 37°C for 72 h, and observed for bacterial growth. Results: The present study shows that the endodontic files and burs sterilized by autoclaving and glutaraldehyde showed complete sterilization. Burs and files immersed in glutaraldehyde (2.4%) for 12 h showed complete sterilization, whereas Quitanet plus solution and glass-bead sterilizer showed incomplete sterilization. Conclusion: The present study results indicate that autoclaving and glutaraldehyde (2.4%) showed complete sterilization. Other methods cannot be relied upon for sterilization. PMID:26236684

  12. Recurrent Disruptions of Rituals and Routines in Families with Paternal Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugland, Bente Storm Mowatt

    2005-01-01

    Changes in rituals and routines between drinking and sobriety were examined in families in treatment due to paternal alcohol abuse. Information was gathered through a semistructured family interview. Recurrent disruptions of rituals and routines were found between different phases in the drinking cycle. Disruptions were found typically with regard…

  13. Complexity and forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard Martin

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that nonlinearity and complexity are the norm in human physiological systems, the relevance of which is informing an enhanced understanding of basic pathological processes such as inflammation, the host response to severe trauma, and critical illness. This article will explore how an understanding of nonlinear systems and complexity might inform the study of the pathophysiology of deaths of medicolegal interest, and how 'complexity thinking' might usefully be incorporated into modern forensic medicine and forensic pathology research, education and practice. PMID:26372537

  14. Complications of Pathologic Myopia.

    PubMed

    Cho, Bum-Joo; Shin, Joo Young; Yu, Hyeong Gon

    2016-01-01

    Pathologic myopia (PM) is one of the leading causes of visual impairment worldwide. The pathophysiology of PM is not fully understood, but the axial elongation of the eye followed by chorioretinal thinning is suggested as a key mechanism. Pathologic myopia may lead to many complications such as chorioretinal atrophy, foveoschisis, choroidal neovascularization, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, cataract, and glaucoma. Some complications affect visual acuity significantly, showing poor visual prognosis. This article aims to review the types, pathophysiology, treatment, and visual outcome of the complications of PM. PMID:26649982

  15. Molecular Pathology Informatics.

    PubMed

    Roy, Somak

    2015-06-01

    Molecular informatics (MI) is an evolving discipline that will support the dynamic landscape of molecular pathology and personalized medicine. MI provides a fertile ground for development of clinical solutions to bridge the gap between clinical informatics and bioinformatics. Rapid adoption of next generation sequencing (NGS) in the clinical arena has triggered major endeavors in MI that are expected to bring a paradigm shift in the practice of pathology. This brief review presents a broad overview of various aspects of MI, particularly in the context of NGS based testing. PMID:26065793

  16. Habitual routines in task-performing groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersick, C. J.; Hackman, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    Groups, like individuals, often develop habitual routines for dealing with frequently encountered stimuli. Although such routines are consequential for group life and work, little is known about them. This paper reconnoiters the territory of habitual behavior in groups that perform work within organizations. We offer a definition of group habits, identify their functions and dysfunctions, suggest how they develop and are maintained, and identify the circumstances when they are likely to be altered or abandoned. Throughout, we give special attention to the social nature of habitual routines in groups, to the interaction between habitual behavior and group life cycle phenomena, and to the role of the organizational context in prompting, shaping, and terminating habitual routines.

  17. Taking medicine at home - create a routine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000613.htm Taking medicine at home - create a routine To use the ... teeth. Find Ways to Help You Remember Your Medicines You can: Set the alarm on your clock, ...

  18. Would Virchow be a systems biologist? A discourse on the philosophy of science with implications for pathological research.

    PubMed

    Stenzinger, Albrecht; Klauschen, Frederick; Wittschieber, Daniel; Weichert, Wilko; Denkert, Carsten; Dietel, Manfred; Roller, Claudio

    2010-06-01

    Research in pathology spans from merely descriptive work to functional studies, "-omics" approaches and, more recently, systems biology. The work presented here aims at placing pathological research into an epistemological context. Aided by Rudolf Virchow, we give an overview on the philosophy of science including the Wiener Kreis, Popper, Kuhn, Fleck and Rheinberger and demonstrate their implications for routine diagnostics and science in pathology. A focus is on the fields of "-omics" and systems pathology. PMID:20422212

  19. Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination

    SciTech Connect

    Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective.

  20. The free routine postcatheterization urogram: a cost/benefit analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, J.D.; Kaplan, G.W.; Rummerfield, P.S.; Gilpin, E.A.; Kirkpatrick, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    Postangiography urography has become routine procedure in most centers performing cardiac catheterization in children. We analyzed the x-radiation dosage and clinical yield of this procedure. Using lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiation exposure to the abdomen and gonads was measured in 35 children during postangiography urography. Results of 334 consecutive routine postangiography cine-urograms were evaluated based on clinical significance and compared to previous reports on this subject. Average absorbed abdominal radiation dosage was 241 mR +/- 240 from cine-urography, 16 mR +/- 13 from fluoroscopy, and 107 mR +/- 111 from a single abdominal roentgenogram. Gonadal dosage averaged 8 mR and was uniformly less than 27 mR. Of 334 routine postangiography cineurograms, 282 (84%) were normal, 30 (9%) were technically inadequate, 12 (3%) had abnormalities that were clinically insignificant or were falsely positive and in 10 (3%), clinically significant urologic conditions were confirmed. Because of the low yield of clinically significant anomalies and the added radiation exposure, we no longer perform routine postangiography cine-urography in children. Following cardiac angiography, the upper renal collecting systems are examined fluoroscopically. If abnormalities are suspected or fluoroscopy is equivocal, a single abdominal roentgenogram is performed. Using this procedure, mean average absorbed abdominal radiation dose can be reduced from 241 mR to 30.5 mR.

  1. Mediating the intersections of organizational routines during the introduction of a health IT system

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Laurie; Brooks, JoAnn; Gadd, Cynthia; Anders, Shilo; Lorenzi, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Public interest in the quality and safety of health care has spurred examination of specific organizational routines believed to yield risk in health care work. Medication administration routines, in particular, have been the subject of numerous improvement projects involving information technology development, and other forms of research and regulation. This study draws from ethnographic observation to examine how the common routine of medication administration intersects with other organizational routines, and why understanding such intersections is important. We present three cases describing intersections between medication administration and other routines, including a pharmacy routine, medication administration on the next shift and management reporting. We found that each intersection had ostensive and performative dimensions; and furthermore, that IT-enabled changes to one routine led to unintended consequences in its intersection with others, resulting in misalignment of ostensive and performative aspects of the intersection. Our analysis focused on the activities of a group of nurses who provide technology use mediation (TUM) before and after the rollout of a new health IT system. This research offers new insights on the intersection of organizational routines, demonstrates the value of analyzing TUM activities to better understand the relationship between IT introduction and changes in routines, and has practical implications for the implementation of technology in complex practice settings. PMID:24357898

  2. Pathological Gambling: Psychiatric Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Three psychiatric conceptual models: addictive, obsessive-compulsive spectrum and mood spectrum disorder have been proposed for pathological gambling. The objectives of this paper are to (1) evaluate the evidence base from the most recent reviews of each model, (2) update the evidence through 2007 and (3) summarize the status of the evidence for…

  3. Is Psychometrics Pathological Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michell, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Pathology of science occurs when the normal processes of scientific investigation break down and a hypothesis is accepted as true within the mainstream of a discipline without a serious attempt being made to test it and without any recognition that this is happening. It is argued that this has happened in psychometrics: The hypothesis upon which…

  4. Pathology of Extranodal Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Heckendorn, Emily; Auerbach, Aaron

    2016-07-01

    An overview of the pathology of extranodal lymphoma is presented. The emphasis of this presentation is on the classification system of extranodal lymphomas, including both B-cell and T-cell lymphomas, based on their morphology, phenotype, and molecular alterations. PMID:27265600

  5. Pathological Gambling Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachon, David D.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Although pathological gambling (PG) is regarded in the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a unitary diagnostic construct, it is likely composed of distinct subtypes. In the current report, the authors used cluster analyses of personality traits with a…

  6. [Quality Management System in Pathological Laboratory].

    PubMed

    Koyatsu, Junichi; Ueda, Yoshihiko

    2015-07-01

    Even compared to other clinical laboratories, the pathological laboratory conducts troublesome work, and many of the work processes are also manual. Therefore, the introduction of the systematic management of administration is necessary. It will be a shortcut to use existing standards such as ISO 15189 for this purpose. There is no standard specialized for the pathological laboratory, but it is considered to be important to a pathological laboratory in particular. 1. Safety nianagement of the personnel and environmental conditions. Comply with laws and regulations concerning the handling of hazardous materials. 2. Pre-examination processes. The laboratory shall have documented procedures for the proper collection and handling of primary samples. Developed and documented criteria for acceptance or rejection of samples are applied. 3. Examination processes. Selection, verification, and validation of the examination procedures. Devise a system that can constantly monitor the traceability of the sample. 4. Post-examination processes. Storage, retention, and disposal of clinical samples. 5. Release of results. When examination results fall within established alert or critical intervals, immediately notify the physicians. The important point is to recognize the needs of the client and be aware that pathological diagnoses are always "the final diagnoses". PMID:26591432

  7. An unusual infection of cervicofacial area caused by dental pathology: flesh-eating syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ozdinc, Serife; Unlu, Ebru; Oruc, Oya; User, Nese Nur; Karakaya, Zeynep

    2015-10-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) of the cervicofacial area is highly rare, but physicians should be familiar with the presentation of this situation owing to the suddenness of its beginning, the rapidness of its spread, and ending with high mortality and morbidity. In this article, 5 patients with NF admitted to emergency department with dental pathology history were discussed with a review of the literature. The purpose of this case series is to raise awareness about NF of the cervicofacial area caused by dental pathologies. Five patients admitted to our emergency department between January 2012 and March 2015 and diagnosed as having cervicofacial NF were identified. All patients had dental pathologies. The parameters of the study were patients' age, sex, complaints, self- and family histories, physical examinations' findings, routine laboratory-computed tomographic findings, treatment, and complications. Two of the patients were older than 70 years. One of the patients was healthy but he lost time because of an inappropriate treatment. These 3 patients died. The remaining patients were discharged at the end of the prolonged and intensive treatment. Necrotizing fasciitis should always be remembered in the diagnosis of the infection of the cervicofacial area. Because of difficulty in its diagnosis, a delay in the treatment may result in a horrific outcome. PMID:26298055

  8. Pathology informatics fellowship training: Focus on molecular pathology

    PubMed Central

    Mandelker, Diana; Lee, Roy E.; Platt, Mia Y.; Riedlinger, Gregory; Quinn, Andrew; Rao, Luigi K. F.; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Mahowald, Michael; Lane, William J.; Beckwith, Bruce A.; Baron, Jason M.; McClintock, David S.; Kuo, Frank C.; Lebo, Matthew S.; Gilbertson, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology informatics training with molecular pathology is a natural extension, as molecular pathology is a subspecialty with high potential for application of modern biomedical informatics techniques. Methods and Results: Pathology informatics and molecular pathology fellows and faculty evaluated the current fellowship program's core curriculum topics and subtopics for relevance to molecular pathology. By focusing on the overlap between the two disciplines, a structured curriculum consisting of didactics, operational rotations, and research projects was developed for those fellows interested in both pathology informatics and molecular pathology. Conclusions: The scope of molecular diagnostics is expanding dramatically as technology advances and our understanding of disease extends to the genetic level. Here, we highlight many of the informatics challenges facing molecular pathology today, and outline specific informatics principles necessary for the training of future molecular pathologists. PMID:24843823

  9. Routines for Computing Pressure Drops in Venturis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    de Quay, Laurence

    2004-01-01

    A set of computer-program routines has been developed for calculating pressure drops and recoveries of flows through standard venturis, nozzle venturis, and orifices. Relative to prior methods used for such calculations, the method implemented by these routines offers greater accuracy because it involves fewer simplifying assumptions and is more generally applicable to wide ranges of flow conditions. These routines are based on conservation of momentum and energy equations for real nonideal fluids, the properties of which are calculated by curve-fitting subroutines based on empirical properties data. These routines are capable of representing cavitating, choked, non-cavitating, and unchoked flow conditions for liquids, gases, and supercritical fluids. For a computation of flow through a given venturi, nozzle venturi, or orifice, the routines determine which flow condition occurs: First, they calculate a throat pressure under the assumption that the flow is unchoked or non-cavitating, then they calculate the throat pressure under the assumption that the flow is choked or cavitating. The assumption that yields the higher throat pressure is selected as the correct one.

  10. Postmenopausal tamoxifen treatment and endometrial pathology.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I; Altaras, M M; Shapira, J; Tepper, R; Beyth, Y

    1994-12-01

    Tamoxifen is widely used as adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal breast cancer patients with positive estrogen receptors. Data on a possible association of endometrial pathologies with tamoxifen treatment have been accumulating. In this review, we examine the current literature and include our own experience with this occurrence. We recommend close supervision of these patients. PMID:7885659

  11. Pathology neoplastic and non-neoplastic.

    PubMed

    Graeme-Cook, F

    1996-07-01

    Polyps of the gastrointestinal tract are common and often hard to diagnose by endoscopic or gross examination. Biopsy or polypectomy enables diagnosis and prognostication. This article is by no means encyclopedic, but attempts to discuss the pathology of the more common intestinal polyps. PMID:8829315

  12. The neurologic examination.

    PubMed

    Averill, D R

    1981-08-01

    With practice, an orderly routine, and a basic understanding of neuroanatomy, the clinician should be able to tentatively localize lesions in the nervous system. Once the lesion is localized, ancillary studies are usually necessary to identify the disease process. In difficult cases when referral is impractical, an accurate description of the findings from the neurologic examination will greatly improve the value of consultation. PMID:6977917

  13. Cryogenic Neutron Protein Crystallography: routine methods and potential benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Kevin L; Tomanicek, Stephen J; NG, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    The use of cryocooling in neutron diffraction has been hampered by several technical challenges such as the need for specialized equipment and techniques. Recently we have developed and deployed equipment and strategies that allow for routine neutron data collection on cryocooled crystals using off the shelf components. This system has several advantages, compared to a closed displex cooling system such as fast cooling coupled with easier crystal mounting and centering. The ability to routinely collect cryogenic neutron data for analysis will significantly broaden the range of scientific questions that can be examined by neutron protein crystallography. Cryogenic neutron data collection for macromolecules has recently become available at the new Biological Diffractometer BIODIFF at FRM II and the Macromolecular Diffractometer (MaNDi) at the Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. To evaluate the benefits of a cryocooled neutron structure we collected a full neutron data set on the BIODIFF instrument on a Toho-1 lactamase structure at 100K.

  14. Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    1999-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy manages the Nevada Test Site in a manner that meets evolving DOE Missions and responds to the concerns of affected and interested individuals and agencies. This Routine Radiological Monitoring Plan addressess complicance with DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 and other drivers requiring routine effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance on the Nevada Test Site. This monitoring plan, prepared in 1998, addresses the activities conducted onsite NTS under the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision. This radiological monitoring plan, prepared on behalf of the Nevada Test Site Landlord, brings together sitewide environmental surveillance; site-specific effluent monitoring; and operational monitoring conducted by various missions, programs, and projects on the NTS. The plan provides an approach to identifying and conducting routine radiological monitoring at the NTS, based on integrated technical, scientific, and regulatory complicance data needs.

  15. Active stereo vision routines using PRISM-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonisse, Hendrick J.

    1992-11-01

    This paper describes work in progress on a set of visual routines and supporting capabilities implemented on the PRISM-3 real-time vision system. The routines are used in an outdoor robot retrieval task. The task requires the robot to locate a donor agent -- a Hero2000 -- which holds the object to be retrieved, to navigate to the donor, to accept the object from the donor, and return to its original location. The routines described here will form an integral part of the navigation and wide-area search tasks. Active perception is exploited to locate the donor using real-time stereo ranging directed by a pan/tilt/verge mechanism. A framework for orchestrating visual search has been implemented and is briefly described.

  16. [Pathology of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Theegarten, D; Hager, T

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and the second most frequent cause in women. The pathology of lung tumors is of special relevance concerning therapy and prognosis and current classification systems have to be taken into consideration. The results of molecular tissue subtyping allow further classification and therapeutic options. The histological entities are mainly associated with typical X‑ray morphological features. PMID:27495784

  17. Masochism and pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Richard J

    2015-03-01

    That all pathological gamblers have an "unconscious wish to lose," an idea first expressed by Freud and Bergler, is neither true nor useful; wrong as well, however, are the reasons for neglecting masochism in relation to gambling. There is a small but clinically significant subgroup of pathological gamblers who are masochistic. I present clinical vignettes and a more extended treatment account to illustrate its importance. Masochism has been a confusing concept. As used here it refers to the deliberate seeking of pain, loss, suffering, or humiliation. There may be pleasure in pain, or an obligatory combining of pleasure and pain. A sense of power and control may be achieved through suffering. The case material illustrates clinically useful types (sexual masochism, masochistic personality disorder, moral masochism, relational masochism) as well as some common masochistic dynamics encountered in the treatment of pathological gamblers. These masochistic patterns are often identifiable during the initial evaluation. Distinguishing features may include a reversal of normal attitudes about winning and losing, the absence of an early winning phase, sometimes a memorable early loss. Gamblers may sabotage opportunities for success or create unnecessary obstacles for themselves. Losing may be more comfortable than winning or may be overtly sexualized. PMID:25734872

  18. Celestial: Common astronomical conversion routines and functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robotham, Aaron S. G.

    2016-02-01

    The R package Celestial contains common astronomy conversion routines, particularly the HMS and degrees schemes, and a large range of functions for calculating properties of different cosmologies (as used by the cosmocalc website). This includes distances, ages, growth rate/factor and densities (e.g., Omega evolution and critical energy density). It also includes functions for calculating thermal properties of the CMB and Planck's equations and virial properties of halos in different cosmologies, and standard NFW and weak-lensing formulas and low level orbital routines for calculating Roche properties, Vis-Viva and free-fall times.

  19. ANSYS duplicate finite-element checker routine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, R.

    1995-01-01

    An ANSYS finite-element code routine to check for duplicated elements within the volume of a three-dimensional (3D) finite-element mesh was developed. The routine developed is used for checking floating elements within a mesh, identically duplicated elements, and intersecting elements with a common face. A space shuttle main engine alternate turbopump development high pressure oxidizer turbopump finite-element model check using the developed subroutine is discussed. Finally, recommendations are provided for duplicate element checking of 3D finite-element models.

  20. American Society for Clinical Pathology

    MedlinePlus

    ... With the National Cancer Institute for Inaugural Global Pathology Conference March 2016 OneLab Memo ASCP Action Alert - ... 2016 Copyright © 2016 by American Society for Clinical Pathology. All Rights Reserved. Terms of Use About ASCP ...

  1. American Society for Clinical Pathology

    MedlinePlus

    ... Science Letter to Council of Deans: State of Pathology Training in Medical School Help Chart the Future ... Need Copyright © 2016 by American Society for Clinical Pathology. All Rights Reserved. Terms of Use About ASCP ...

  2. Pathology Image-Sharing on Social Media: Recommendations for Protecting Privacy While Motivating Education.

    PubMed

    Crane, Genevieve M; Gardner, Jerad M

    2016-01-01

    There is a rising interest in the use of social media by pathologists. However, the use of pathology images on social media has been debated, particularly gross examination, autopsy, and dermatologic condition photographs. The immediacy of the interactions, increased interest from patients and patient groups, and fewer barriers to public discussion raise additional considerations to ensure patient privacy is protected. Yet these very features all add to the power of social media for educating other physicians and the nonmedical public about disease and for creating better understanding of the important role of pathologists in patient care. The professional and societal benefits are overwhelmingly positive, and we believe the potential for harm is minimal provided common sense and routine patient privacy principles are utilized. We lay out ethical and practical guidelines for pathologists who use social media professionally. PMID:27550566

  3. Is routine drainage necessary after pancreaticoduodenectomy?

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Jiang, Yong-Jian; Li, Ji; Yang, Feng; Di, Yang; Yao, Lie; Jin, Chen; Fu, De-Liang

    2014-07-01

    With the development of imaging technology and surgical techniques, pancreatic resections to treat pancreatic tumors, ampulla tumors, and other pancreatic diseases have increased. Pancreaticoduodenectomy, one type of pancreatic resection, is a complex surgery with the loss of pancreatic integrity and various anastomoses. Complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy such as pancreatic fistulas and anastomosis leakage are common and significantly associated with patient outcomes. Pancreatic fistula is one of the most important postoperative complications; this condition can cause intraperitoneal hemorrhage, septic shock, or even death. An effective way has not yet been found to avoid the occurrence of pancreatic fistula. In most medical centers, the frequency of pancreatic fistula has remained between 9% and 13%. The early detection and routine drainage of anastomotic fistulas, pancreatic fistulas, bleeding, or other intra-abdominal fluid collections after pancreatic resections are considered as important and effective ways to reduce postoperative complications and the mortality rate. However, many recent studies have argued that routine drainage after abdominal operations, including pancreaticoduodenectomies, does not affect the incidence of postoperative complications. Although inserting drains after pancreatic resections continues to be a routine procedure, its necessity remains controversial. This article reviews studies of the advantages and disadvantages of routine drainage after pancreaticoduodenectomy and discusses the necessity of this procedure. PMID:25009383

  4. Is routine drainage necessary after pancreaticoduodenectomy?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang; Jiang, Yong-Jian; Li, Ji; Yang, Feng; Di, Yang; Yao, Lie; Jin, Chen; Fu, De-Liang

    2014-01-01

    With the development of imaging technology and surgical techniques, pancreatic resections to treat pancreatic tumors, ampulla tumors, and other pancreatic diseases have increased. Pancreaticoduodenectomy, one type of pancreatic resection, is a complex surgery with the loss of pancreatic integrity and various anastomoses. Complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy such as pancreatic fistulas and anastomosis leakage are common and significantly associated with patient outcomes. Pancreatic fistula is one of the most important postoperative complications; this condition can cause intraperitoneal hemorrhage, septic shock, or even death. An effective way has not yet been found to avoid the occurrence of pancreatic fistula. In most medical centers, the frequency of pancreatic fistula has remained between 9% and 13%. The early detection and routine drainage of anastomotic fistulas, pancreatic fistulas, bleeding, or other intra-abdominal fluid collections after pancreatic resections are considered as important and effective ways to reduce postoperative complications and the mortality rate. However, many recent studies have argued that routine drainage after abdominal operations, including pancreaticoduodenectomies, does not affect the incidence of postoperative complications. Although inserting drains after pancreatic resections continues to be a routine procedure, its necessity remains controversial. This article reviews studies of the advantages and disadvantages of routine drainage after pancreaticoduodenectomy and discusses the necessity of this procedure. PMID:25009383

  5. Routines. Infant/Toddler Caregiving: A Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    Intended for use in conjunction with videos illustrating key concepts and caregiving techniques, this guide focuses on how the daily routines of caring for infants and toddlers can become opportunities for promoting the child's learning and development and for deepening the relationship between child and caregiver. Special attention is given to…

  6. Workout to Go: A Sample Exercise Routine

    MedlinePlus

    Workout to Go A Sample Exercise Routine from the National Institute on Aging at NIH i Workout to Go Are you just starting to exercise? Getting back ... into your purse or travel bag, Workout to Go can help you stay in shape for the ...

  7. Antiretroviral drug resistance and routine therapy, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Christian; Kouanfack, Charles; Vergne, Laurence; Tardy, Michèle; Zekeng, Léopold; Noumsi, Nathalie; Butel, Christelle; Bourgeois, Anke; Mpoudi-Ngolé, Eitel; Koulla-Shiro, Sinata; Peeters, Martine; Delaporte, Eric

    2006-06-01

    Among 128 patients routinely receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy in an HIV/AIDS outpatient clinic in Cameroon, 16.4% had drug resistance after a median of 10 months. Of these, 12.5% had resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), 10.2% to non-NRTIs, and 2.3% to protease inhibitors. PMID:16707062

  8. 7 CFR 4287.107 - Routine servicing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SERVICING Servicing Business and Industry Guaranteed... the December 31 semiannual status report in accordance with 7 CFR part 4279, subpart B, § 4279.107. (b... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Routine servicing. 4287.107 Section...

  9. 7 CFR 4287.107 - Routine servicing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SERVICING Servicing Business and Industry Guaranteed... the December 31 semiannual status report in accordance with 7 CFR part 4279, subpart B, § 4279.107. (b... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Routine servicing. 4287.107 Section...

  10. 7 CFR 4287.107 - Routine servicing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SERVICING Servicing Business and Industry Guaranteed... the December 31 semiannual status report in accordance with 7 CFR part 4279, subpart B, § 4279.107. (b... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Routine servicing. 4287.107 Section...

  11. 7 CFR 4287.107 - Routine servicing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SERVICING Servicing Business and Industry Guaranteed... the December 31 semiannual status report in accordance with 7 CFR part 4279, subpart B, § 4279.107. (b... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Routine servicing. 4287.107 Section...

  12. Routine Markerless Gene Replacement in Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Janes, Brian K.; Stibitz, Scott

    2006-01-01

    An improved genetic tool suitable for routine markerless allelic exchange in Bacillus anthracis has been constructed. Its utility was demonstrated by the introduction of insertions, deletions, and missense mutations on the chromosome and plasmid pXO1 of the Sterne strain of B. anthracis. PMID:16495572

  13. Modular thermal analyzer routine, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, J. A.; Phillips, M. A.; Williams, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    The Modular Thermal Analyzer Routine (MOTAR) is a general thermal analysis routine with strong capabilities for performing thermal analysis of systems containing flowing fluids, fluid system controls (valves, heat exchangers, etc.), life support systems, and thermal radiation situations. Its modular organization permits the analysis of a very wide range of thermal problems for simple problems containing a few conduction nodes to those containing complicated flow and radiation analysis with each problem type being analyzed with peak computational efficiency and maximum ease of use. The organization and programming methods applied to MOTAR achieved a high degree of computer utilization efficiency in terms of computer execution time and storage space required for a given problem. The computer time required to perform a given problem on MOTAR is approximately 40 to 50 percent that required for the currently existing widely used routines. The computer storage requirement for MOTAR is approximately 25 percent more than the most commonly used routines for the most simple problems but the data storage techniques for the more complicated options should save a considerable amount of space.

  14. Individual Values, Learning Routines and Academic Procrastination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Franziska; Hofer, Manfred; Fries, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Academic procrastination, the tendency to postpone learning activities, is regarded as a consequence of postmodern values that are prominent in post-industrialized societies. When students strive for leisure goals and have no structured routines for academic tasks, delaying strenuous learning activities becomes probable. Aims: The…

  15. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    PubMed

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2016-03-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale. PMID:26851666

  16. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    PubMed

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale. PMID:26065794

  17. Pathological Dissociation as Measured by the Child Dissociative Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wherry, Jeffrey N.; Neil, Debra A.; Taylor, Tamara N.

    2009-01-01

    The component structure of the Child Dissociative Checklist was examined among abused children. A factor described as pathological dissociation emerged that was predicted by participants being male. There also were differences in pathological dissociation between groups of sexually abused and physically abused children. Replication of this factor…

  18. Psychological Factors that Promote and Inhibit Pathological Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morasco, Benjamin J.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Ledgerwood, David M.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes qualitative data regarding psychological factors that may affect gambling behavior among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Participants (n = 84) diagnosed with pathological gambling were treated in a clinical trial examining the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Qualitative data were collected from…

  19. Transcontinental consults in surgical pathology via the Internet.

    PubMed

    Eusebi, V; Foschini, L; Erde, S; Rosai, J

    1997-01-01

    An efficient and inexpensive electronic system to submit surgical pathology cases in consultation via the Internet is presented. A transcontinental pilot study showed a high degree of concordance between the diagnosis provided by the consultant on the basis of the pathology images and that given after examining the corresponding microscopic slides. PMID:9013825

  20. [Clinical key points. Slit-lamp examination].

    PubMed

    Lachkar, Y

    2007-05-01

    Biomicroscopic examination of glaucoma patients or glaucoma suspects should be systematic. The purpose of this examination is to determine the type of glaucoma and rule out associated pathologies. PMID:17646800

  1. Investigation of spinal pathology in notalgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Savk, Oner; Savk, Ekin

    2005-06-01

    A possible association of spinal pathology with notalgia paresthetica (NP) was investigated through clinical and radiographic evaluation. Forty-three NP patients underwent dermatologic and orthopedic examination accompanied by radiography of the spine. Sixty-one lesions in 43 patients were evaluated. In 34 patients, various vertebral pathologies were observed radiographically by a blinded investigator, and in 28 of these cases these changes were most prominent in the vertebrae which corresponded to a lesional dermatome. Thirty-seven lesions were accompanied by spinal changes decided to be relevant (60.7%). The striking correlation of NP localization with spinal pathology suggests that spinal nerve impingement may contribute to the pathogenesis of this entity. PMID:15928634

  2. Antibodies as Mediators of Brain Pathology.

    PubMed

    Brimberg, Lior; Mader, Simone; Fujieda, Yuichiro; Arinuma, Yoshiyuki; Kowal, Czeslawa; Volpe, Bruce T; Diamond, Betty

    2015-11-01

    The brain is normally sequestered from antibody exposure by the blood brain barrier. However, antibodies can access the brain during fetal development before the barrier achieves full integrity, and in disease states when barrier integrity is compromised. Recent studies suggest that antibodies contribute to brain pathology associated with autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and neuromyelitis optica, and can lead to transient or permanent behavioral or cognitive abnormalities. We review these findings here and examine the circumstances associated with antibody entry into the brain, the routes of access and the mechanisms that then effect pathology. Understanding these processes and the nature and specificity of neuronal autoantibodies may reveal therapeutic strategies toward alleviating or preventing the neurological pathologies and behavioral abnormalities associated with autoimmune disease. PMID:26494046

  3. Personality Pathology and Interpersonal Problem Stability

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G.C.; Scott, Lori N.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are often described as stable, which ignores the important dynamic processes and shifts that are observed clinically in individuals with PD. The current study examined patterns of variability in problematic interpersonal functioning, a core feature of personality pathology. Participants (N=150) were assessed for personality pathology at baseline and also completed the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems–Circumplex Scales at baseline and every three months over the course of a year. Baseline PD was used to predict individual means and variability parameters in generalized interpersonal distress, agentic problems, and communal problems across repeated assessments. Disorders associated with disinhibition predicted variability in generalized distress and agentic problems, whereas only antagonism related disorders predicted variability in communal problems. These associations reveal dynamic processes involved in multiple dimensions of personality pathology and suggest that future research on instability is needed that expands beyond the historical focus on borderline PD. PMID:25562539

  4. Antibodies as Mediators of Brain Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Brimberg, Lior; Mader, Simone; Fujieda, Yuichiro; Arinuma, Yoshiyuki; Kowal, Czeslawa; Volpe, Bruce T.; Diamond, Betty

    2016-01-01

    The brain is normally sequestered from antibody exposure by the blood brain barrier. However, antibodies can access the brain during fetal development before the barrier achieves full integrity, and in disease states when barrier integrity is compromised. Recent studies suggest that antibodies contribute to brain pathology associated with autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and neuromyelitis optica, and can lead to transient or permanent behavioral or cognitive abnormalities. We review these findings here and examine the circumstances associated with antibody entry into the brain, the routes of access and the mechanisms that then effect pathology. Understanding these processes and the nature and specificity of neuronal autoantibodies may reveal therapeutic strategies toward alleviating or preventing the neurological pathologies and behavioral abnormalities associated with autoimmune disease. PMID:26494046

  5. Recent developments in preclinical toxicological pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, John M. . E-mail: john.finch@eur.crl

    2005-09-01

    In the late nineteenth century, microscopists developed a quaint method for examining the fine structure of biological specimens: paraffin embedding and staining with hematoxylin and eosin. This ancient technology is here to stay for the foreseeable future, because it can and does reveal the truth about biological processes. However, the role of pathology is developing with ever greater worldwide interaction between pathologists, and better communication and agreeing of international standards. Furthermore, recent techniques including immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and image analysis complement the traditional tried and tested tools. There is also in toxicologic pathology a willingness to use pathology methods and skills in new contexts, drug discovery in particular. But even in these days of genetic modification, proteomics and high throughput screening, pathologists continue to rely on dyes extracted from a Central American logwood used in Mexico before the Spanish invasion in 1520.

  6. Pathologic and physiologic phimosis

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Thomas B.; Pike, John G.; Leonard, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the differences between physiologic and pathologic phimosis, review proper foreskin care, and discuss when it is appropriate to seek consultation regarding a phimotic foreskin. SOURCES OF INFORMATION This paper is based on selected findings from a MEDLINE search for literature on phimosis and circumcision referrals and on our experience at the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Urology Clinic. MeSH headings used in our MEDLINE search included “phimosis,” “referral and consultation,” and “circumcision.” Most of the available articles about phimosis and foreskin referrals were retrospective reviews and cohort studies (levels II and III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Phimosis is defined as the inability to retract the foreskin. Differentiating between physiologic and pathologic phimosis is important, as the former is managed conservatively and the latter requires surgical intervention. Great anxiety exists among patients and parentsregarding non-retractile foreskins. Most phimosis referrals seen in pediatric urology clinics are normal physiologically phimotic foreskins. Referrals of patients with physiologic phimosis to urology clinics can create anxiety about the need for surgery among patients and parents, while unnecessarily expanding the waiting list for specialty assessment. Uncircumcised penises require no special care. With normal washing, using soap and water, and gentle retraction during urination and bathing, most foreskins will become retractile over time. CONCLUSION Physiologic phimosis is often seen by family physicians. These patients and their parents require reassurance of normalcy and reinforcement of proper preputial hygiene. Consultation should be sought when evidence of pathologic phimosis is present, as this requires surgical management. PMID:17872680

  7. Pathological gambling and treatment outcomes for adults age 50 or older in methadone maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Engel, Rafael J; Rosen, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of pathological gambling to negative treatment outcomes for methadone maintenance patients aged 50 or older. The study included 130 methadone maintenance patients. Pathological gambling was determined using the Lie-Bet, a screen for pathological gambling; the outcomes were remaining in treatment and negative urine screens for drug use. Twenty percent of the sample identified as pathological gamblers. Pathological gambling was unrelated to remaining in treatment or negative urine screens. Although pathological gambling had no adverse influence on these treatment outcomes, the prevalence of pathological gambling suggests that screening for it may provide insights about other concerns. PMID:25202832

  8. Pathology of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Elder, David E

    2015-04-01

    The pathology of melanoma is discussed in relation to surgical diagnosis and management. Pitfalls that may result in problems of clinicopathologic communication are emphasized. A compelling vision for the future is that all tumors will be characterized by their driving oncogenes, suppressor genes, and other genomic factors. The success of targeted therapy directed against individual oncogenes, despite its limitations, suggests that a repertoire of targeted agents will be developed that can be used against a variety of different tumors, depending on the results of genetic testing. Nevertheless, histopathologic diagnosis and surgical therapy will remain mainstays of management for melanoma. PMID:25769708

  9. Marketing the pathology practice.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, E N

    1995-07-01

    Effective marketing of the pathology practice is essential in the face of an increasingly competitive market. Successful marketing begins with a market-driven planning process. As opposed to the traditional planning process used in health care organizations, a market-driven approach is externally driven. Implementing a market-driven plan also requires recognition of the definition of the service. Each market to which pathologists direct their service defines the service differently. Recognition of these different service definitions and creation of a product to meet these needs could lead to competitive advantages in the marketplace. PMID:7625911

  10. Nanotechnology: Toxicologic Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hubbs, Ann F.; Sargent, Linda M.; Porter, Dale W.; Sager, Tina M.; Chen, Bean T.; Frazer, David G.; Castranova, Vincent; Sriram, Krishnan; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R.; Reynolds, Steven H.; Battelli, Lori A.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; McKinney, Walter; Fluharty, Kara L.; Mercer, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology involves technology, science, and engineering in dimensions less than 100 nm. A virtually infinite number of potential nanoscale products can be produced from many different molecules and their combinations. The exponentially increasing number of nanoscale products will solve critical needs in engineering, science, and medicine. However, the virtually infinite number of potential nanotechnology products is a challenge for toxicologic pathologists. Because of their size, nanoparticulates can have therapeutic and toxic effects distinct from micron-sized particulates of the same composition. In the nanoscale, distinct intercellular and intracellular translocation pathways may provide a different distribution than that obtained by micron-sized particulates. Nanoparticulates interact with subcellular structures including microtubules, actin filaments, centrosomes, and chromatin; interactions that may be facilitated in the nanoscale. Features that distinguish nanoparticulates from fine particulates include increased surface area per unit mass and quantum effects. In addition, some nanotechnology products, including the fullerenes, have a novel and reactive surface. Augmented microscopic procedures including enhanced dark-field imaging, immunofluorescence, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy are useful when evaluating nanoparticulate toxicologic pathology. Thus, the pathology assessment is facilitated by understanding the unique features at the nanoscale and the tools that can assist in evaluating nanotoxicology studies. PMID:23389777

  11. Exosomes in liver pathology.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keisaku; Meng, Fanyin; Glaser, Shannon; Alpini, Gianfranco

    2016-07-01

    Exosomes are small (∼100nm) membrane-bound extracellular vesicles released by various types of cells into biological fluids. They contain proteins, mRNAs and miRNAs as cargo. Different cell types can take up exosomes by endocytosis and the cargo contained within them can be transferred horizontally to these recipient cells. Exosomal proteins and miRNAs can be functional and regulate physiological cell events modifying the microenvironment in target cells, a key event of liver pathology. Exosome-mediated cell-cell communication can alter tumor growth, cell migration, antiviral infection and hepatocyte regeneration, indicating that exosomes have great potential for development as diagnostic or therapeutic tools. Analyses of circulating total or exosomal miRNAs have identified a large number of candidate miRNAs that are regulated in liver diseases, and the diagnostic testing using single or multiple miRNAs shows good sensitivity and specificity. Some candidate miRNAs have been identified to play an important role in various liver disorders. This review summarizes recent findings on the role of extracellular vesicles in liver diseases and their diagnostic and therapeutic potential, mainly focusing on exosomes but also includes microvesicles in liver pathology. PMID:26988731

  12. Tracking in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Pantanowitz, Liron; Mackinnon, Alexander C; Sinard, John H

    2013-12-01

    Bar code-based tracking solutions, long present in clinical pathology laboratories, have recently made an appearance in anatomic pathology (AP) laboratories. Tracking of AP "assets" (specimens, blocks, slides) can enhance laboratory efficiency, promote patient safety, and improve patient care. Routing of excess clinical material into research laboratories and biorepositories are other avenues that can benefit from tracking of AP assets. Implementing tracking is not as simple as installing software and turning it on. Not all tracking solutions are alike. Careful analysis of laboratory workflow is needed before implementing tracking to assure that this solution will meet the needs of the laboratory. Such analysis will likely uncover practices that may need to be modified before a tracking system can be deployed. Costs that go beyond simply that of purchasing software will be incurred and need to be considered in the budgeting process. Finally, people, not technology, are the key to assuring quality. Tracking will require significant changes in workflow and an overall change in the culture of the laboratory. Preparation, training, buy-in, and accountability of the people involved are crucial to the success of this process. This article reviews the benefits, available technology, underlying principles, and implementation of tracking solutions for the AP and research laboratory. PMID:23634908

  13. A Nightly Bedtime Routine: Impact on Sleep in Young Children and Maternal Mood

    PubMed Central

    Mindell, Jodi A.; Telofski, Lorena S.; Wiegand, Benjamin; Kurtz, Ellen S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Establishment of a consistent bedtime routine is often recommended to parents of young children, especially those with sleep difficulties. However, no studies have investigated the efficacy of such a routine independent of behavioral intervention. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a consistent bedtime routine on infant and toddler sleep, as well as maternal mood. Methods: 405 mothers and their infant or toddler (ages 7-18 months, n = 206; ages 18-36 months, n = 199) participated in 2 age-specific 3-week studies. Families were randomly assigned to a routine or control group. The first week of the study served as a baseline during which the mothers were instructed to follow their child's usual bedtime routine. In the second and third weeks, mothers in the routine group were instructed to conduct a specific bedtime routine, while the control group continued their child's usual routine. All mothers completed the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire (BISQ) on a weekly basis and a daily sleep diary, as well as completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Results: The bedtime routine resulted in significant reductions in problematic sleep behaviors for infants and toddlers. Significant improvements were seen in latency to sleep onset and in number/duration of night wakings, P < 0.001. Sleep continuity increased and there was a significant decrease in the number of mothers who rated their child's sleep as problematic. Maternal mood state also significantly improved. Control group sleep patterns and maternal mood did not significantly change over the 3-week study period. Conclusion: These results suggest that instituting a consistent nightly bedtime routine, in and of itself, is beneficial in improving multiple aspects of infant and toddler sleep, especially wakefulness after sleep onset and sleep continuity, as well as maternal mood. Citation: Mindell JA; Telofski LS; Wiegand B; Kurtz ES. A nightly bedtime routine: impact on sleep in

  14. The Effects of Pathological Gaming on Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this purpose, we conducted a two-wave panel study among 851 Dutch adolescents (49% female) of which 540 played games (30% female). Our analyses indicated that higher levels of pathological gaming predicted an increase in time spent playing games 6 months later. Time spent playing violent games specifically, and not just games per se, increased physical aggression. Furthermore, higher levels of pathological gaming, regardless of violent content, predicted an increase in physical aggression among boys. That this effect only applies to boys does not diminish its importance, because adolescent boys are generally the heaviest players of violent games and most susceptible to pathological involvement. PMID:20549320

  15. The effects of pathological gaming on aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, Jeroen S; Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this purpose, we conducted a two-wave panel study among 851 Dutch adolescents (49% female) of which 540 played games (30% female). Our analyses indicated that higher levels of pathological gaming predicted an increase in time spent playing games 6 months later. Time spent playing violent games specifically, and not just games per se, increased physical aggression. Furthermore, higher levels of pathological gaming, regardless of violent content, predicted an increase in physical aggression among boys. That this effect only applies to boys does not diminish its importance, because adolescent boys are generally the heaviest players of violent games and most susceptible to pathological involvement. PMID:20549320

  16. PROFIT: Emission-line PROfile FITting routine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffel, Rogemar A.

    2012-04-01

    The PROFIT is an IDL routine to do automated fitting of emission-line profiles by Gaussian curves or Gauss-Hermite series otimized for use in Integral Field and Fabry-Perot data cubes. As output PROFIT gives two-dimensional FITS files for the emission-line flux distribution, centroid velocity, velocity dispersion and higher order Gauss-Hermite moments (h3 and h4).

  17. Is routine use of episiotomy justified?

    PubMed

    Lede, R L; Belizán, J M; Carroli, G

    1996-05-01

    Episiotomy, one of the most common surgical procedures, was introduced in clinical practice in the eighteenth century without having strong scientific evidence of its benefits. Its use was justified by the prevention of severe perineal tears, better future sexual function, and a reduction of urine and fecal incontinence. With regard to the first assumption, the evidence that is based on five randomized controlled trials shows a 9% reduction in severe perineal tears in the selective use of episiotomy, but this effect fluctuates between a 40% reduction and a 38% increase. In relation to long-term effects, women in whom management includes routine use of episiotomy have shown poorer future sexual function, similar pelvic floor muscle strength, and similar urinary incontinence in comparison with women in whom episiotomy is used in a selective manner. In summary, there is no reliable evidence that routine use of episiotomy has any beneficial effect; on the contrary, there is clear evidence that it may cause harm such as a greater need for surgical repair and a poorer future sexual capability. In view of the available evidence the routine use of episiotomy should be abandoned and episiotomy rates > 30% do not seem justified. PMID:9065102

  18. Update on Routine Childhood and Adolescent Immunizations.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Lani K; Serrano, Jacquelyn L

    2015-09-15

    Recommendations for routine vaccinations in children and adolescents have changed multiple times in recent years, based on findings in clinical trials, licensure of new vaccines, and evidence of waning immunity. Despite the overwhelming success of vaccinations, vaccine delay and refusal are leading to pockets of vaccine-preventable diseases. Schedules for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, and acellular pertussis (DTaP); hepatitis A and B; Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib); inactivated poliovirus; varicella; and measles, mumps, and rubella are unchanged. However, since 2008, 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has replaced the 7-valent vaccine; a new two-dose oral rotavirus vaccine has been approved; use of the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine has been expanded to children seven to 10 years of age who received fewer than five doses of DTaP, as well as during each pregnancy; a booster dose of meningococcal vaccine is recommended in adolescents 16 to 18 years of age (unless the first dose was given after 16 years of age); new meningococcal vaccines have been approved for use in infants at high risk of meningococcal disease; influenza vaccine has been expanded to routine use in all children six months and older; and the human papillomavirus vaccine has been approved for routine immunization of adolescent boys and girls. For the 2015-2016 influenza season, either live attenuated or inactivated vaccine can be administered to healthy children two to eight years of age. PMID:26371731

  19. The use of digital images in pathology.

    PubMed

    Furness, P N

    1997-11-01

    Digital images are routinely used by the publishing industry, but most diagnostic pathologists are unfamiliar with the technology and its possibilities. This review aims to explain the basic principles of digital image acquisition, storage, manipulation and use, and the possibilities provided not only in research, but also in teaching and in routine diagnostic pathology. Images of natural objects are usually expressed digitally as 'bitmaps'--rectilinear arrays of small dots. The size of each dot can vary, but so can its information content in terms, for example, of colour, greyscale or opacity. Various file formats and compression algorithms are available. Video cameras connected to microscopes are familiar to most pathologists; video images can be converted directly to a digital form by a suitably equipped computer. Digital cameras and scanners are alternative acquisition tools of relevance to pathologists. Once acquired, a digital image can easily be subjected to the digital equivalent of any conventional darkroom manipulation and modern software allows much more flexibility, to such an extent that a new tool for scientific fraud has been created. For research, image enhancement and analysis is an increasingly powerful and affordable tool. Morphometric measurements are, after many predictions, at last beginning to be part of the toolkit of the diagnostic pathologist. In teaching, the potential to create dramatic yet informative presentations is demonstrated daily by the publishing industry; such methods are readily applicable to the classroom. The combination of digital images and the Internet raises many possibilities; for example, instead of seeking one expert diagnostic opinion, one could simultaneously seek the opinion of many, all around the globe. It is inevitable that in the coming years the use of digital images will spread from the laboratory to the medical curriculum and to the whole of diagnostic pathology. PMID:9422979

  20. Molecular pathology in real time.

    PubMed

    Ryška, Aleš

    2016-03-01

    With the development of sophisticated individualized therapeutic approaches, the role of pathology in classification of tumors is enormously increasing. The solely morphological characterization of neoplastic process is no more sufficient for qualified decision on optimal therapeutic approach. Thus, morphologic diagnosis must be supplemented by molecular analysis of the lesion with emphasis on the detection of status of certain markers used as predictive factors for targeted therapy. Both intrinsic and acquired types of intratumor heterogeneity have an impact at various moments of cancer diagnostics and therapy. The primary heterogeneity of neoplastic tissue represents a significant problem in patients, where only limited biopsy samples from the primary tumor are available for diagnosis, such as core needle biopsy specimens in breast cancer, transthoracic or endobronchial biopsies in lung cancer, or endoscopic biopsies in gastric cancer. Detection of predictive markers may be influenced by this heterogeneity, and the marker detection may be falsely negative or (less probably) falsely positive. In addition, as these markers are often detected in the tissue samples from primary tumor, the differences between molecular features of the primary lesion and its metastases may be responsible for failure of systemic therapy in patients with discordant phenotype between primary and metastatic disease. The fact of tumor heterogeneity must be taken into consideration already in establishing pathological diagnosis. One has to be aware that limited biopsy specimen must not always be fully representative of the entire tumor volume. To overcome these limitations, there does not exist one single simple solution. Examination of more tissue (preference of surgical resection specimens over biopsies, whenever possible), use of ultra-sensitive methods able to identify the minute subclones as a source of possible resistance to treatment, and detection of secondary molecular events from

  1. A microcomputer-based routine for obtaining mean watershed precipitation from point values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Richard A.; Mostaghimi, Saied

    1992-08-01

    An interactive microcomputer based BASIC routine for averaging precipitation over an irregularly shaped watershed is presented. Averaging methods used include the station average, Thiessen, and isohyetal methods, with the user having the option of using either inverse distance weighting schemes or punctual kriging for interpolation in the isohyetal method. The routine may be used to compare different averaging methods or to examine the effects of missing data. Data may be entered from a stored ASCII file, interactively from the keyboard from the application of the routine to a specific watershed also are presented.

  2. The Value of Large Sections in Surgical Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Foschini, Maria P.; Baldovini, Chiara; Ishikawa, Yuko; Eusebi, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Large format sections (LS) first have been introduced in breast pathology more than a century ago. Since then, they constituted for longtime a research tool to better understand breast microanatomy and the relationship between radiological images and pathological features. Similarly LS have been used to study neoplastic, inflammatory, and degenerative diseases affecting various organs, as brain, lung, gastrointentinal tract, bone, urinary tract, prostate, and placenta. Currently LS are mostly applied to diagnostic routine to better stage tumours such as prostate and breast carcinomas or to correlate radiologic imaging to gross specimens. The purpose of the present paper is to review the historical background and the basis of the applications of LS in surgical pathology, with special emphasis on breast tumours. PMID:23227346

  3. Anomia-Pathological Verbal Dominance. Agnosic Behavior in Anomia: A Case of Pathological Verbal Dominance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlannan, Frances, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Summarized are three articles concerned with research on neurological aspects of learning disabilities entitled "Anomia-A Case of Pathological Verbal Dominance;""Brain--Right Hemisphere--Man's So Called 'Minor Hemisphere;""Neurology-A Special Neurological Examination of Children with Learning Disabilities". (DB)

  4. Pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents during routine endoscopy

    SciTech Connect

    La France, N.D.; Cole, P.; Wolfe, E.; Giardello, F.; Wagner, H.N.

    1985-05-01

    Radioactive tracer studies are a sensitive means to detect occult pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. A complication of diagnostic endoscopy is aspiration of contents even in fasted patients. The authors have studied 21 hospitalized patients who underwent elective endoscopy (END) for suspected UGI pathology. Fifteen minutes before END, and prior to pharygeal anesthesia, 1 mCi Tc-99m-sulfur colloid, added to the usual 30cc of simethicone routinely administered before END, was given orally. END was performed as usual and 2 hours later anterior 100,000 count images of the chest were obtained. All the studies were interpreted without history or clinical information. Fever developed within 24 hours (and septic shock in 1) in both patients with positive studies while no fever occurred in the remaining patients with negative studies (rho<.001). The authors conclude that oral radionuclide pulmonary aspiration studies may; detect aspiration not recognized by the endoscopist, reveal evidence of aspiration that preceeds adverse clinical signs and symptoms, and be influenced by systemic pre-END drugs known to affect GI secretions and motility.

  5. QTc prolongation with antipsychotics: is routine ECG monitoring recommended?

    PubMed

    Shah, Asim A; Aftab, Awais; Coverdale, John

    2014-05-01

    Whether or not QTc interval should be routinely monitored in patients receiving antipsychotics is a controversial issue, given logistic and fiscal dilemmas. There is a link between antipsychotic medications and prolongation of QTc interval, which is associated with an increased risk of torsade de pointes (TdP). Our goal is to provide clinically practical guidelines for monitoring QTc intervals in patients being treated with antipsychotics. We provide an overview of the pathophysiology of the QT interval, its relationship to TdP, and a discussion of the QT prolonging effects of antipsychotics. A literature search for articles relevant to the QTc prolonging effects of antipsychotics and TdP was conducted utilizing the databases PubMed and Embase with various combinations of search words. The overall risk of TdP and sudden death associated with antipsychotics has been observed to be low. Medications, genetics, gender, cardiovascular status, pathological conditions, and electrolyte disturbances have been found to be related to prolongation of the QTc interval. We conclude that, while electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring is useful when administering antipsychotic medications in the presence of co-existing risk factors, it is not mandatory to perform ECG monitoring as a prerequisite in the absence of cardiac risk factors. An ECG should be performed if the initial evaluation suggests increased cardiac risk or if the antipsychotic to be prescribed has been established to have an increased risk of TdP and sudden death. PMID:24847993

  6. Bedtime Routines for Young Children: A Dose-Dependent Association with Sleep Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mindell, Jodi A.; Li, Albert M.; Sadeh, Avi; Kwon, Robert; Goh, Daniel Y.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Establishment of a consistent bedtime routine (the activities that occur right before lights out) is often recommended as part of healthy sleep habits. However, no studies have investigated the dose-dependent association of a bedtime routine with sleep outcomes, especially in young children for whom they are particularly recommended. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the associations of a consistent bedtime routine with sleep outcomes in young children (ages 0 through 5 y) in a large global sample and assess whether there is a dose-dependent relationship between the frequency of a bedtime routine both concurrently and retrospectively with sleep outcomes. Participants: Mothers of 10,085 children (Australia-New Zealand, Canada, China, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States) completed the Brief Infant/Child Sleep Questionnaire. Results: A consistent bedtime routine was associated with better sleep outcomes, including earlier bedtimes, shorter sleep onset latency, reduced night wakings, and increased sleep duration. Decreased parent-perceived sleep problems and daytime behavior problems were also related to institution of a regular bedtime routine. Furthermore, there was a dose-dependent relationship, with better outcomes associated with increased “doses” of having a bedtime routine, both currently and retrospectively, and was found within both predominantly Asian and predominantly Caucasian cultural regions. Conclusions: These results indicate that having a regular nightly bedtime routine is associated with improved sleep in young children, and suggests that the more consistently a bedtime routine is instituted and the younger started the better. Citation: Mindell JA, Li AM, Sadeh A, Kwon R, Goh DY. Bedtime routines for young children: a dose-dependent association with sleep outcomes. SLEEP 2015;38(5):717–722. PMID:25325483

  7. Recommendations for pathology peer review.

    PubMed

    Morton, Daniel; Sellers, Rani S; Barale-Thomas, Erio; Bolon, Brad; George, Catherine; Hardisty, Jerry F; Irizarry, Armando; McKay, Jennifer S; Odin, Marielle; Teranishi, Munehiro

    2010-12-01

    Pathology peer review verifies and improves the accuracy and quality of pathology diagnoses and interpretations. Pathology peer review is recommended when important risk assessment or business decisions are based on nonclinical studies. For pathology peer review conducted before study completion, the peer-review pathologist reviews sufficient slides and pathology data to assist the study pathologist in refining pathology diagnoses and interpretations. Materials to be reviewed are selected by the peer-review pathologist. Consultations with additional experts or a formal (documented) pathology working group may be used to resolve discrepancies. The study pathologist is solely responsible for the content of the final pathology data and report, makes changes resulting from peer-review discussions, initiates the audit trail for microscopic observations after all changes resulting from peer-review have been made, and signs the final pathologist's report. The peer-review pathologist creates a signed peer-review memo describing the peer-review process and confirming that the study pathologist's report accurately and appropriately reflects the pathology data. The study pathologist also may sign a statement of consensus. It is not necessary to archive working notes created during the peer-review process. PMID:20924082

  8. Clinical pathology interpretation in geriatric veterinary patients.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Fred L; Rebar, Alan H

    2012-07-01

    Routine monitoring of clinicopathologic data is a critical component in the management of older patients because blood and urine testing allows the veterinarian to monitor trends in laboratory parameters, which may be the early indicators of disease. Laboratory profiling often provides an objective and sensitive indicator of developing disease before obvious clinical signs or physical examination abnormalities are observed. The primary key to the power of this evaluation is that the data are collected year after year during wellness checks and are examined serially. Chronic renal failure, chronic active hepatitis, canine hyperadrenocorticism, diabetes mellitus, and feline hyperthyroidism were reviewed and expected laboratory findings are summarized. PMID:22720804

  9. Ear examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003340.htm Ear examination To use the sharing features on this page, ... ear References King EF, Couch ME. History, physical examination, and the preoperative evaluation. In: Flint PW, Haughey ...

  10. Pathology in drug discovery and development.

    PubMed

    Jubb, Adrian M; Koeppen, Hartmut; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2014-01-01

    The rapid pace of drug discovery and drug development in oncology, immunology and ophthalmology brings new challenges; the efficient and effective development of new targeted drugs will require more detailed molecular classifications of histologically homogeneous diseases that show heterogeneous clinical outcomes. To this end, single companion diagnostics for specific drugs will be replaced by multiplex diagnostics for entire therapeutic areas, preserving tissue and enabling rapid molecular taxonomy. The field will move away from the development of new molecular entities as single agents, to which resistance is common. Instead, a detailed understanding of the pathological mechanisms of resistance, in patients and in preclinical models, will be key to the validation of scientifically rational and clinically effective drug combinations. To remain at the heart of disease diagnosis and appropriate management, pathologists must evolve into translational biologists and biomarker scientists. Herein, we provide examples of where this metamorphosis has already taken place, in lung cancer and melanoma, where the transformation has yet to begin, in the use of immunotherapies for ophthalmology and oncology, and where there is fertile soil for a revolution in treatment, in efforts to classify glioblastoma and personalize treatment. The challenges of disease heterogeneity, the regulatory environment and adequate tissue are ever present, but these too are being overcome in dedicated academic centres. In summary, the tools necessary to overcome the 'whens' and 'ifs' of the molecular revolution are in the hands of pathologists today; it is a matter of standardization, training and leadership to bring these into routine practice and translate science into patient benefit. This Annual Review Issue of the Journal of Pathology highlights the central role for pathology in modern drug discovery and development. PMID:24122335