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Sample records for royal australian air

  1. The ejection experience of the Royal Australian Air Force: 1951-92.

    PubMed

    Newman, D G

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the ejection experience of the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) between 1951 and 1992. During this period 84 aircrew ejected from their aircraft, with 77 survivors and 7 fatalities. The causes of these ejections were examined, and the injuries received by the ejectees were classified into four categories: fatal, major, minor, and no injuries. Vertebral fractures were the most common type of major injury (35%). Most ejectees received at least one minor injury. There were 7 reported cases in which the ejectee received no injuries. The RAAF ejection experience was found to be comparable with other international series, both in terms of survival rates and injury patterns. PMID:7695551

  2. Evaluation and review of the safety management system implementation in the Royal Thai Air Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaiwan, Sakkarin

    This study was designed to determine situation and effectiveness of the safety management system currently implemented in the Royal Thai Air Force. Reviewing the ICAO's SMS and the RTAF's SMS was conducted to identify similarities and differences between the two safety management systems. Later, the researcher acquired safety statistics from the RTAF Safety Center to investigate effectiveness of its safety system. The researcher also collected data to identify other factors affecting effectiveness of the safety system during conducting in-depth interviews. Findings and Conclusions: The study shows that the Royal Thai Air Force has never applied the International Civil Aviation Organization's Safety management System to its safety system. However, the RTAF's SMS and the ICAO's SMS have been developed based on the same concepts. These concepts are from Richard H. Woods's book, Aviation safety programs: A management handbook. However, the effectiveness of the Royal Thai Air Force's safety system is in good stance. An accident rate has been decreasing regularly but there are no known factors to describe the increasing rate, according to the participants' opinion. The participants have informed that there are many issues to be resolved to improve the RTAF's safety system. Those issues are cooperation among safety center's staffs, attitude toward safety of the RTAF senior commanders, and safety standards.

  3. An evaluation of the Royal Air Force helicopter search and rescue services in Britain with reference to Royal Air Force Valley 1980-1989.

    PubMed Central

    Liskiewicz, W J

    1992-01-01

    The Royal Air Force (RAF) operates a helicopter Search and Rescue (SAR) service in the United Kingdom and territorial waters; it also provides a similar service in several locations abroad. A 10-year retrospective study of the SAR helicopter service operating from the RAF base at Valley on the island of Anglesey in North Wales is presented, with national SAR statistics over a similar period provided for comparison. Analysis of records kept by SAR aircrew at RAF Valley shows that their assistance had been requested on 1490 occasions during the 10-year period studied; most of these requests were the result of incidents involving holidaymakers, particularly in the mountains or along the coast. The results illustrate the versatility and life-saving potential of a highly skilled and motivated service able to work in adverse weather and dangerous locations. In the light of current debate, the value of aeromedical evacuation of seriously ill patients using helicopters is discussed. PMID:1494160

  4. [Replacing of residue from production of palm Palm Royal Australian (Archontophoenix alexan- drae) in silage of sugar cane in diets of sheep].

    PubMed

    Bayão, Geraldo Fábio Viana; Queiroz, Augusto César de; Freitas, Samuel Galvão de; Batalha, Camila Delveaux Araujo; Sousa, Katiene Régia Silva; Pimentel, Róberson Machado; Cardoso, Lucas Ladeira; Cardoso, Alex Junio da Silva

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, voluntary intake and apparent digestibility of the diets containing residue from palm heart of Australian Royal Palm (Archontophoenix alexandrae) to replace sugar cane on sheep. Twelve sheep were used with average live weight of 23.3 ± 2.8 Kg and they placed in metabolism cages and distributed in six latin square 2 x 2 in a factorial design 3 x 2 (three types of residue--sheet, bark and composed--and two levels of residue's replacement, 5% and 15%). It was observed higher intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC) by substitution of composed residue. The average values of apparent digestibility of DM, OM, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre correct for ash and protein (NDFap) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) were higher for sheet residue. There was interaction between type of residue and level of residue's replacement on the urinary excretion of total nitrogen (NUE), apparent nitrogen balance (BNA) and microbial nitrogen compost (NMIC). Residues from palm heart of Australian Royal Palm can be used as roughage in the ruminants'diet, and of these residues, the sheet and composed residue showed better response in the evaluated characteristics. PMID:26336723

  5. 76 FR 37300 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Royal Fiberglass Pools...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ...EPA is proposing to approve into the Illinois State Implementation Plan (SIP) an adjusted standard for Royal Fiberglass Pools (``Royal'') at its Dix, Illinois facility. On November 8, 2010, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) submitted to EPA for approval an adjustment to the general rule, Use of Organic Material Rule, commonly known as the eight pound per hour (8 lb/hr) rule,......

  6. Publication rates of abstracts presented at annual scientific meetings: how does the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists compare?

    PubMed

    Bydder, Sean A; Joseph, David J; Spry, Nigel A

    2004-03-01

    The abstract to publication ratio (APR) is a measure of the quality of scientific meetings. The aim of the present study was to determine the publication rate of abstracts presented at annual Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists (RANZCR) conferences, and to identify the publishing journals. All free paper research abstracts (oral or poster) presented by RANZCR radiologists, radiation oncologists and trainees at the four consecutive meetings between 1996 and 1999 were identified retrospectively from conference programmes. The PubMed database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed/) was searched to determine whether or not the abstract had been published as a full paper. Of the 480 free paper research abstracts, 168 (35%) had been published as full articles. The overall abstract to publication ratio for radiology was 29% and for radiation oncology was 41%. Papers were published in a variety of journals but Australasian Radiology accounted for 27%. The mean time between presentation and publication was 16.5 months (median 17 months). These overall abstract to publication ratios are lower than those reported for overseas-based meetings in each respective area. Guidelines to scientific committees could increase the APR by more rigorous selection of abstracts. Future research should look at barriers to the publication of research findings, and identify ways to assist the publication process. PMID:15027917

  7. Australians are not equally protected from industrial air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbie, B.; Green, D.

    2015-05-01

    Australian air pollution standards are set at national and state levels for a number of chemicals harmful to human health. However, these standards do not need to be met when ad hoc pollution licences are issued by state environment agencies. This situation results in a highly unequal distribution of air pollution between towns and cities, and across the country. This paper examines these pollution regulations through two case studies, specifically considering the ability of the regulatory regime to protect human health from lead and sulphur dioxide pollution in the communities located around smelters. It also considers how the proposed National Clean Air Agreement, once enacted, might serve to reduce this pollution equity problem. Through the case studies we show that there are at least three discrete concerns relating to the current licencing system. They are: non-onerous emission thresholds for polluting industry; temporal averaging thresholds masking emission spikes; and ineffective penalties for breaching licence agreements. In conclusion, we propose a set of new, legally-binding national minimum standards for industrial air pollutants must be developed and enforced, which can only be modified by more (not less) stringent state licence arrangements.

  8. Financial Planning in Australian Universities. AIR 1996 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Raj; And Others

    This paper describes resource allocation in Australian universities including the broader context of national restructuring and a case study of one university's attempt to restructure resource allocation within the university. The 1987 restructuring of the Australian system from a binary system to a unified national system and the associated…

  9. Improvement in Regional Air Quality in SE England as Shown by 1996-2011 CO Record at Royal Holloway, University of London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, C. M.; Lowry, D.; Fisher, R. E.; Lanoisellé, M.; Martin, M.; Nisbet, E. G.

    2011-12-01

    CO is a broad proxy of many gases contributing to air pollution in urban areas. Over the years 1996-2011 the long-term record of CO, measured at Royal Holloway, Egham, on the SW fringe of the London conurbation, shows a marked decline. The annual mean CO mixing ratio is now approximately one-third of values measured in 1996/7. Quasi-continuous (30 min interval) CO measurements have been made at Royal Holloway since Sept. 1996. The site is 30km WSW of central London, and SW of Heathrow airport. Initially, measurement was by a Trace Analytical Reduction Gas Detector (RGD-2). From July 2007, the same air has been measured at 5 minute intervals by a Peak Performer I (RCP detector) using 2 1/8 inch packed columns in series, Unibeads 1S and Molecular Sieve 5A. CO is calibrated fortnightly against NOAA standards (range 150-300 ppb). In polluted air, when CO is high, the RGD-2 instrument (pre-July 2007 data) is non-linear, as shown by inter-comparison with other EU labs. Over-estimation during extreme events (>1000ppb) may be as much as 30%. H2 is also measured, calibrated monthly against internal standards ranging from 526 to 799 ppb H2, measured during Eurohydros at MPI-Jena, and with daily target gas measurement. The Royal Holloway (RHUL) site is well located to measure both near-background Atlantic air (as indicated by parallel CH4 measurements) during strong SSW prevailing winds, urban air (during prolonged anticyclones) and regional continental air (in strong easterly conditions). High CO build-up occurs in the air masses over the London conurbation during long-lived anticyclones in both summer and winter, maximizing near dawn before the inversion breaks up. The RHUL CO data are thus a good proxy for regional pollution in SE England. In the late 1990s, dawn CO peaks were often very high in these conditions, occasionally up to 11 ppm CO. Since then there has been a marked decline. Currently, CO is frequently at near-background levels (~ 100 ppb), and even in prolonged

  10. The Royal North Shore Hospital inquiry: an analysis of the recommendations and the implications for quality and safety in Australian public hospitals.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Anthony P; Hunyor, Stephen N

    2008-04-21

    In October 2007, the New South Wales Parliament appointed a Joint Select Committee to inquire into the quality of patient care at Royal North Shore Hospital (RNSH). The inquiry was initiated in response to the publicity and complaints surrounding a patient who had a miscarriage in the toilets of the RNSH emergency department waiting area. The Committee held four public hearings and received 103 submissions. It handed down 45 recommendations in its report on 20 December 2007. There has been criticism from clinicians and others that the recommendations are too general and will not effect significant change for the severe systemic problems affecting the hospital. This article represents the view of some of the clinicians who work at RNSH, and who gave evidence at the inquiry, on the recommendations and some possible solutions for the health system in general. PMID:18429715

  11. 1. VIEW SHOWING FOUNDATIONS OF HOISTING WORKS, ROYAL MINE, 1988, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SHOWING FOUNDATIONS OF HOISTING WORKS, ROYAL MINE, 1988, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. GLORY HOLE DROPS OFF TO LEFT, AND EXCAVATED TRENCH FOR THE 1920s SURFACE TRAM IN RIGHT FOREGROUND - Royal Consolidated Gold Mine & Mills, Hoisting Work, 4.0 Air Miles Northwest of Copperopolis, Copperopolis, Calaveras County, CA

  12. Hot air ablowin! 'Media-speak', social conflict, and the Australian 'decoupled' wind farm controversy.

    PubMed

    Hindmarsh, Richard

    2014-04-01

    In work in science, technology, and society social conflict around wind farms has a growing profile, not least because it draws our attention to two key interrelated themes: 'science, technology and governance' and 'socio-technological systems'. In this article on Australian wind farm development and siting, these themes are highlighted in contexts of sustainability, legitimacy, and competency for policy effectiveness. There is enduring social conflict around wind farms at the local community level, but little government understanding of this conflict or willingness to respond adequately to resolve it. This article examines the conflict through the lens of print media analysis. A key finding of the five identified is that people seeing wind farms as spoiling a sense of place is a primary cause of enduring social conflict at the local community level around wind farms, alongside significant environmental issues and inadequate community engagement; this finding also indicates a central reason for the highly problematic state of Australian wind energy transitions. In turn, by identifying this problematic situation as one of a significantly 'decoupled' and 'dysfunctional' condition of the Australian socio-technological wind farm development and siting system, I suggest remedies including those of a deliberative nature that also respond to the Habermas-Mouffe debate. These inform a socio-technical siting approach or pathway to better respect and navigate contested landscapes for enhanced renewable energy transitions at the local level. PMID:24941611

  13. Reference dosimetry at the Australian Synchrotron's imaging and medical beamline using free-air ionization chamber measurements and theoretical predictions of air kerma rate and half value layer

    SciTech Connect

    Crosbie, Jeffrey C.; Rogers, Peter A. W.; Stevenson, Andrew W.; Hall, Christopher J.; Lye, Jessica E.; Nordstroem, Terese; Midgley, Stewart M.; Lewis, Robert A.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: Novel, preclinical radiotherapy modalities are being developed at synchrotrons around the world, most notably stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy and microbeam radiotherapy at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France. The imaging and medical beamline (IMBL) at the Australian Synchrotron has recently become available for preclinical radiotherapy and imaging research with clinical trials, a distinct possibility in the coming years. The aim of this present study was to accurately characterize the synchrotron-generated x-ray beam for the purposes of air kerma-based absolute dosimetry. Methods: The authors used a theoretical model of the energy spectrum from the wiggler source and validated this model by comparing the transmission through copper absorbers (0.1-3.0 mm) against real measurements conducted at the beamline. The authors used a low energy free air ionization chamber (LEFAC) from the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency and a commercially available free air chamber (ADC-105) for the measurements. The dimensions of these two chambers are different from one another requiring careful consideration of correction factors. Results: Measured and calculated half value layer (HVL) and air kerma rates differed by less than 3% for the LEFAC when the ion chamber readings were corrected for electron energy loss and ion recombination. The agreement between measured and predicted air kerma rates was less satisfactory for the ADC-105 chamber, however. The LEFAC and ADC measurements produced a first half value layer of 0.405 {+-} 0.015 and 0.412 {+-} 0.016 mm Cu, respectively, compared to the theoretical prediction of 0.427 {+-} 0.012 mm Cu. The theoretical model based upon a spectrum calculator derived a mean beam energy of 61.4 keV with a first half value layer of approximately 30 mm in water. Conclusions: The authors showed in this study their ability to verify the predicted air kerma rate and x-ray attenuation

  14. The role of Health Impact Assessment in the setting of air quality standards: An Australian perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne; Harris, Patrick

    2013-11-15

    The approaches used for setting or reviewing air quality standards vary from country to country. The purpose of this research was to consider the potential to improve decision-making through integration of HIA into the processes to review and set air quality standards used in Australia. To assess the value of HIA in this policy process, its strengths and weaknesses were evaluated aligned with review of international processes for setting air quality standards. Air quality standard setting programmes elsewhere have either used HIA or have amalgamated and incorporated factors normally found within HIA frameworks. They clearly demonstrate the value of a formalised HIA process for setting air quality standards in Australia. The following elements should be taken into consideration when using HIA in standard setting. (a) The adequacy of a mainly technical approach in current standard setting procedures to consider social determinants of health. (b) The importance of risk assessment criteria and information within the HIA process. The assessment of risk should consider equity, the distribution of variations in air quality in different locations and the potential impacts on health. (c) The uncertainties in extrapolating evidence from one population to another or to subpopulations, especially the more vulnerable, due to differing environmental factors and population variables. (d) The significance of communication with all potential stakeholders on issues associated with the management of air quality. In Australia there is also an opportunity for HIA to be used in conjunction with the NEPM to develop local air quality standard measures. The outcomes of this research indicated that the use of HIA for air quality standard setting at the national and local levels would prove advantageous. -- Highlights: • Health Impact Assessment framework has been applied to a policy development process. • HIA process was evaluated for application in air quality standard setting.

  15. Potential Use of the Australian Satellite Communications System for School of the Air and Enhanced Educational Services. Report Prepared for the Commonwealth/State Advisory Committee on the Educational Use of Communications Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, N. G.; Gillam, J. A.

    This report considers the potential for the use of the Australian Communications Satellite System (ACSS) for the Australian Schools of the Air (SOTAs) and the delivery of enhanced educational services, and develops the concept of all SOTAs operating through one transponder in a national beam. An evolutionary introduction of satellite transmission…

  16. The Australian Geography Competition: An Overview of Participation and Results 2004-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Iraphne R. W.; Berg, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    The Australian Geography Competition (AGC) was established in 1995 by the Royal Geographical Society of Queensland (RGSQ) and the Australian Geography Teachers' Association to promote the study of geography in Australian secondary schools and to reward student excellence in geographical studies. Initially focusing on students at the lower…

  17. Carbon budgets for three autotrophic Australian estuaries: Implications for global estimates of the coastal air-water CO2 flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, D. T.; Eyre, B. D.

    2012-03-01

    Estuaries are `hot spots' in the global carbon cycle, yet data on carbon dynamics, in particular air-sea CO2 fluxes, from autotrophic systems are rare. Estuarine carbon budgets were constructed for three geomorphically distinct warm temperate Australian estuaries over an annual cycle. All three estuaries were net autotrophic, with annual net ecosystem metabolism (NEM) ranging from 8 ± 13.4 molC m-2 yr-1 to 10 ± 14 molC m-2 yr-1. There was a net flux of CO2 from the atmosphere to the estuaries of between 0.4 ± 0.6 molC m-2 yr-1 and 2 ± 0.9 molC m-2 yr-1. Loading of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the estuaries varied markedly within and between the estuaries, and was directly related to freshwater inflow. While NEM was similar in all three estuaries, the ratio of benthic versus pelagic contributions to NEM differed, with NEM dominated by pelagic production in the river dominated system, benthic production dominating in the intermediate estuary, and equal contributions of benthic and pelagic production in the marine dominated lagoon. All three estuaries exported more organic carbon than was imported, fueled by additional organic carbon supplied by NEM. The estuaries essentially acted as bioreactors, transforming DIC to organic carbon. Burial of organic carbon ranged from 1.2 ± 0.3 molC m-2 yr-1 to 4.4 ± 1.2 molC m-2 yr-1 and represented up to half of NEM. The annual net uptake of atmospheric CO2 in these systems, along with previous estimates of the global estuarine CO2flux being based predominantly on heterotrophic, large river dominated estuarine systems, indicates that the global estimate of the estuarine air-water CO2flux may be over-estimated due to the lack of studies from autotrophic marine dominated estuaries.

  18. Australian Air Breathing Propulsion Research for Hypersonic, Beamed Energy-Propelled Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froning, David

    2010-05-01

    A three year laser-propelled vehicle analysis and design investigation has been begun in June, 2009 by Faculty and graduate students at the University of Adelaide under a Grant/Cooperative Agreement Award to the University of Adelaide by the Asian Office of Aerospace Research and Development (AOARD). The major objectives of thsis investigation are: (a) development of hypersonic, air breathing "lightcraft" with innovative air inlets that enable acceptable airflow capture and combustion, and acceptable cowl-lip heating rates during hot, high-speed, high angle-of-attack hypersonic flight; (b) yest of the most promising lightcraft and inlet design in the high power laser beam that is part of the shock tunnel facility at CTO Instituto in Brazil; and (c) plan a series of laser guided and propelled flights that achieve supersonic or higher speed at the Woomera Test Facility (WTF) in South Australia—using the existing WTF launching and tracking facilities and sponsor-provided laser pointing and tracking and illumination systems.

  19. The effect of proximity to major roads on indoor air quality in typical Australian dwellings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Sarah J.; Galbally, Ian E.; Powell, Jennifer C.; Keywood, Melita D.; Molloy, Suzie B.; Cheng, Min; Selleck, Paul W.

    2011-04-01

    An Indoor Air Quality Study of residential dwellings was carried out in Melbourne, Australia, and a subset of the data was analysed to investigate the effect of proximity to major roads on indoor air quality (IAQ). Seven-day measurements of PM 10, NO 2, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, along with continuous CO and PM 2.5 measurements were utilised. The measurements were made indoors and outdoors in 27 dwellings; 15 Near Road (<50 m from a major road) and 12 Far Road (>300 m from a major road). Dwellings were sampled for one week each in Winter/Spring 2008 and Summer/Autumn 2009, over an eight month period. Analysis of 7-day measurements showed that NO 2 and toluene were elevated at the 5% significance level both indoors and outdoors at Near Road Dwellings compared to Far Road Dwellings. Indoor/Outdoor (I/O) ratios of NO 2 and toluene were not significantly different between Near and Far Road dwellings giving no evidence of any anomalous dominant indoor source for NO 2 and toluene in Near Road dwellings. Indoor NO 2 was significantly correlated to gas stovetop and oven use in both Near and Far Road dwellings. In the absence of gas cooking, indoor NO 2 was elevated in Near Road dwellings relative to Far Road dwellings by approximately 4 ppb and this can be attributed to infiltration of outdoor air. I/O ratios for NO 2 were <1 for Near and Far Road dwellings, indicating that outdoor NO 2, and hence roadway emissions can potentially contribute a significant proportion to the indoor NO 2 concentration. Mean toluene I/O ratios were >2 indicating that indoor sources dominate with minor contribution from outdoors. Hence the relative contribution of roadways to indoor NO 2 is potentially greater than the relative contribution of roadways to indoor toluene. Findings elsewhere suggest that a similar outdoor enhancement of traffic related NO 2 (˜5 ppb) increases risk of lung cancer and childhood asthma ( Brauer et al., 2000; Nyberg et al., 2000). A simple

  20. Aircrew cooperation in the Royal Air Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adcock, C. B.

    1987-01-01

    The progressive introduction of modern, high performance aircraft, coupled with a significant increase in the complexity of the operational environment, has highlighted crew co-operation as a critical factor in aircraft safety. Investigation into recent MAC aircraft accidents supports the conclusion reached by NASA and other U.S. research institutions that a positive training program is required to improve resource management in the cockpit and prevent a breakdown under stress of the crew process. Past training and regulation has concentrated on the attainment of individual flying skills, but group skills have been neglected through lack of knowledge and understanding of the group process. This long-standing deficiency is now being addressed in the U.S. by the progressive and widespread introduction of theoretical and practical training programs to improve crew co-operation. The RAF should provide similar training for its aircrews through the adaptation and development of existing training resources. Better crew co-operation would not only reduce the number of RAF aircraft accidents but also improve the morale of the Service.

  1. Lessons from the United Kingdom's Royal Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Henry Lee

    2010-01-01

    Celebrating its 350th anniversary as a scholarly association devoted to scientific pursuits, the Royal Society (UK), in March 2010, published "The Scientific Century: Securing Our Future Prosperity." In its report, the Royal Society argues against both the notion of withdrawing public investment from its world-class universities and the haphazard,…

  2. Effects of northbound long-haul international air travel on sleep quantity and subjective jet lag and wellness in professional Australian soccer players.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Peter; Duffield, Rob; Howle, Kieran; Waterson, Adam; Vaile, Joanna

    2015-07-01

    The current study examined the effects of 10-h northbound air travel across 1 time zone on sleep quantity, together with subjective jet lag and wellness ratings, in 16 male professional Australian football (soccer) players. Player wellness was measured throughout the week before (home training week) and the week of (away travel week) travel from Australia to Japan for a preseason tour. Sleep quantity and subjective jet lag were measured 2 d before (Pre 1 and 2), the day of, and for 5 d after travel (Post 1-5). Sleep duration was significantly reduced during the night before travel (Pre 1; 4.9 [4.2-5.6] h) and night of competition (Post 2; 4.2 [3.7-4.7] h) compared with every other night (P<.01, d>0.90). Moreover, compared with the day before travel, subjective jet lag was significantly greater for the 5 d after travel (P<.05, d>0.90), and player wellness was significantly lower 1 d post-match (Post 3) than at all other time points (P<.05, d>0.90). Results from the current study suggest that sleep disruption, as a result of an early travel departure time (8 PM) and evening match (7:30 PM), and fatigue induced by competition had a greater effect on wellness ratings than long-haul air travel with a minimal time-zone change. Furthermore, subjective jet lag may have been misinterpreted as fatigue from sleep disruption and competition, especially by the less experienced players. Therefore, northbound air travel across 1 time zone from Australia to Asia appears to have negligible effects on player preparedness for subsequent training and competition. PMID:25569181

  3. The Australian Air Quality Forecasting System: Exploring First Steps Towards Determining The Limits of Predictability For Short-Term Ozone Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cope, M. E.; Hess, G. D.; Lee, S.; Tory, K. J.; Burgers, M.; Dewundege, P.; Johnson, M.

    2005-08-01

    Physical parameterisations of turbulent transfer processes in the atmospheric boundary layer, such as the stability parameterisations developed by Joost Businger, and recent advances in computing capabilities, have been important factors leading to the emergence of operational, numerical air quality forecasting systems. The present paper investigates the performance of the Australian Air Quality Forecasting System (AAQFS) in forecasting the peak 1 h ozone for the current or next day. These 24/36 h forecasts are generated for the Sydney and Melbourne regions and issued twice daily. Quantitative evidence is presented of the potential for the AAQFS to provide accurate numerical air quality forecasts. A second goal is to provide an initial benchmark for investigating the limits of predictability for air quality in the Sydney and Melbourne regions by looking at the dependence of the forecasts on the domain spatial scale (while maintaining the same model grid resolution), the starting time and length of the forecast (0000 UTC starts are 36-h forecasts and 1200 UTC starts are 24-h forecasts), and the sophistication of the photochemical mechanism (simple chemistry, Generic Reaction Set (GRS) and complex chemistry, Carbon Bond IV (CBIV)). The probability of detection by the forecast model is much better than persistence, showing considerable skill. The normalised bias, in general, decreases going from regional scale to sub-regional scale and becomes negative at the station scale. In Melbourne the gross error increases as the domain spatial scale decreases, but in Sydney there is a dip in the error at the sub-regional scale due to a sampling artifact. Better results are obtained at the smaller domain scales for 1200 UTC forecasts in Sydney. These are attributed to the shorter forecast period and secondarily to greater model spin-up effects at 0000 UTC. In Melbourne the results are ambiguous. Similar conclusions are derived from scatter plots of forecasts versus observations

  4. Australian Extinctions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massive extinctions of animals and the arrival of the first humans in ancient Australia--which occurred 45,000 to 55,000 years ago--may be linked. Researchers at the Carnegie Institution, University of Colorado, Australian National University, and Bates College believe that massive fires set by the first humans may have altered the ecosystem of…

  5. The first President of the Royal Society.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2003-12-01

    Few people know the name of the Royal Society's first President, even though he features prominently in Thomas Sprat's famous allegorical frontispiece. In promotional images, his individual identity is irrelevant for proclaiming the Society's allegiance to Francis Bacon and commitment to experimental investigation. By contrast, William Brouncker's name does appear on Peter Lely's large portrait, which hung at the Royal Society. Brouncker was a gifted mathematician as well as a conscientious administrator, and Lely's portrait reproduces the diagram of one of his innovative algebraic proofs. PMID:14652036

  6. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  7. Margaret Cavendish and the Royal Society

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Emma

    2014-01-01

    It is often claimed that Margaret Cavendish was an anti-experimentalist who was deeply hostile to the activities of the early Royal Society—particularly in relation to Robert Hooke's experiments with microscopes. Some scholars have argued that her views were odd or even childish, while others have claimed that they were shaped by her gender-based status as a scientific ‘outsider’. In this paper I examine Cavendish's views in contemporary context, arguing that her relationship with the Royal Society was more nuanced than previous accounts have suggested. This contextualized approach reveals two points: first, that Cavendish's views were not isolated or odd when compared with those of her contemporaries, and second, that the early Royal Society was less intellectually homogeneous than is sometimes thought. I also show that, although hostile to some aspects of experimentalism, Cavendish nevertheless shared many of the Royal Society's ambitions for natural philosophy, especially in relation to its usefulness and the importance of plain language as a means to disseminate new ideas. PMID:25254278

  8. Royal Naval nursing: 'testing but worth it'.

    PubMed

    Moore, Alison

    2014-08-19

    Inga Kennedy is the most senior nurse in the Royal Navy. She enjoys the commitment and discipline required by a career in the armed forces and says the work offers great opportunities for nurses. Her career highlights have included checking that injured personnel in Afghanistan were receiving the best care possible. PMID:25116541

  9. Margaret Cavendish and the Royal Society.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Emma

    2014-09-20

    It is often claimed that Margaret Cavendish was an anti-experimentalist who was deeply hostile to the activities of the early Royal Society--particularly in relation to Robert Hooke's experiments with microscopes. Some scholars have argued that her views were odd or even childish, while others have claimed that they were shaped by her gender-based status as a scientific 'outsider'. In this paper I examine Cavendish's views in contemporary context, arguing that her relationship with the Royal Society was more nuanced than previous accounts have suggested. This contextualized approach reveals two points: first, that Cavendish's views were not isolated or odd when compared with those of her contemporaries, and second, that the early Royal Society was less intellectually homogeneous than is sometimes thought. I also show that, although hostile to some aspects of experimentalism, Cavendish nevertheless shared many of the Royal Society's ambitions for natural philosophy, especially in relation to its usefulness and the importance of plain language as a means to disseminate new ideas. PMID:25254278

  10. 76 FR 80433 - In the Matter of Royal Oak Capital Management, LLC, 6173 Bellevue Road, Royal Oak, MD 21662...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of Royal Oak Capital Management, LLC, 6173 Bellevue Road, Royal Oak, MD 21662...''), cancelling the registration of Royal Oak Capital Management, LLC, hereinafter referred to as the...

  11. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  12. [A brief history of Chinese royal court medicines].

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Sheng

    2010-09-01

    With the establishment of an emperor and a royal court, the court physician came into being and the royal court medicines gradually began to evolve. In the first year of Kai Huang of the Sui dynasty (581), King Wendi of the Sui dynasty established the imperial medical bureau. Since then the royal court medicines entered a period of development and prosperity. In the Yuan dynasty, the scope of official duty of the imperial hospital narrowed, the development of royal court medicines lacked new growth. To the Ming and Qing dynasties, the royal court medicine began to decline and eventually ended with the demise of the Qing dynasty. PMID:21163077

  13. Fiber digestibility in royal antelope (Neotragus pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Debra A; Schlegel, Michael L; Galyean, Michael L

    2014-12-01

    Royal antelope (Neotragus pygmaeus) are among the smallest ungulate species and are browsing ruminants. To date, their capacities for fiber fermentation and nutrient digestion have not been quantified. This study compared apparent digestibilities of a typical high-fiber herbivore pellet (ADF 25) and a low-starch, high-fiber diet (WHP) in royal antelope in a crossover design (seven subjects in the first period and four in the second). Animals on ADF 25 pellets had greater intake concentrations (P < 0.05) of dry matter, crude protein, lignin, and crude fat; however, animals fed the WHP diets had greater (P < 0.05) apparent digestibility of dry matter, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and crude fat. Identifying the capacity to which these smaller ruminants can degrade fiber will help to establish more appropriate feeding guidelines for small, browsing ruminants in captivity. PMID:25632658

  14. Henry Oldenburg - Shaping the Royal Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boas Hall, Marie

    2002-03-01

    Henry Oldenburg, born in 1619 in Bremen, Germany, first came to England as a diplomat on a mission to see Oliver Cromwell. He stayed on in England and in 1662 became the Secretary of the Royal Society, and its best known member to the entire learned world of his time. Through his extensive correspondence, now published, he disseminated the Society's ideals and methods at home and abroad. He fostered and encouraged the talents of many scientists later to be far more famous than he, including Newton, Flamsteed, Malpighi, and Leeuwenhoek with whom, as with many others, he developed real friendship. He founded and edited the Philosophical Transactions, the world's oldest scientific journal.His career sheds new light on the intellectual world of his time, especially its scientific aspects, and on the development of the Royal Society; his private life expands our knowledge of social mobility, the urban society, and the religious views of his time.

  15. Inca Royal Estates in the Sacred Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKim Malville, J.

    The royal estates lying between Cusco and Machu Picchu illustrate the remarkable variety by which the sun was honored and worshipped in the Inca Empire. The terraced basins of Moray combine the sun at both solstices and, perhaps, the zenith sun, with flowing water and offerings to Pachamama. The complex astronomy at Urubamba involves the palace of Quespiwanka, horizon pillars, solstices, and mountain worship. Ollantaytambo contains horizontal shadow-casting gnomons with a major water shrine.

  16. Birds of Isle Royale in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krefting, L.W.; Lee, F.B.; Shelton, P.C.; Gilbert, K.T.

    1966-01-01

    This report constitutes an annotated list of 197 species of birds reported from Isle Royale National Park, a 210-square-mile archipelago in northwestern Lake Superior including some 200 islets and rock outcrops. The island is 45 miles long and 8 miles wide at its widest point. Bird distribution and habitats are described, along with geography and vegetation; 62 species are known to have bred at least once, 26 are thought to be breeders, and the rest are migrants.

  17. What Should Drive Educational Equity and Student Diversity in Australian Higher Education? Social Responsibility Versus Reporting Obligation. AIR 1997 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John R.

    The current approach to promoting educational equity in universities in Australia is substantially flawed. Through the "equity framework," the Australian university community sector has been compelled to involvement with educational equity through government pressure that has included financial incentives and legislation. Six groups have been…

  18. Long-term breeding phenology shift in royal penguins.

    PubMed

    Hindell, Mark A; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Brook, Barry W; Fordham, Damien A; Kerry, Knowles; Hull, Cindy; McMahon, Clive R

    2012-07-01

    The Earth's climate is undergoing rapid warming, unprecedented in recent times, which is driving shifts in the distribution and phenology of many plants and animals. Quantifying changes in breeding phenology is important for understanding how populations respond to these changes. While data on shifts in phenology are common for Northern Hemisphere species (especially birds), there is a dearth of evidence from the Southern Hemisphere, and even fewer data available from the marine environment. Surface air temperatures at Macquarie Island have increased by 0.62°C during the 30-year study period (0.21°C decade(-1)) and royal penguins (Eudyptes schlegeli) commenced egg laying on average three days earlier in the 1990s than during the 1960s. This contrasts with other studies of Southern Ocean seabirds; five of nine species are now breeding on average 2.1 days later than during the 1950s. Despite the different direction of these trends, they can be explained by a single underlying mechanism: resource availability. There was a negative relationship between the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and median laying date of royal penguins, such that low-productivity (low SAM) years delayed laying date. This accords with the observations of other seabird species from the Antarctic, where later laying dates were associated with lower sea ice and lower spring productivity. The unifying factor underpinning phenological trends in eastern Antarctica is therefore resource availability; as food becomes scarcer, birds breed later. These changes are not uniform across the region, however, with resource increases in the subantarctic and decreases in eastern Antarctica. PMID:22957162

  19. Long-term breeding phenology shift in royal penguins

    PubMed Central

    Hindell, Mark A; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Brook, Barry W; Fordham, Damien A; Kerry, Knowles; Hull, Cindy; McMahon, Clive R

    2012-01-01

    The Earth's climate is undergoing rapid warming, unprecedented in recent times, which is driving shifts in the distribution and phenology of many plants and animals. Quantifying changes in breeding phenology is important for understanding how populations respond to these changes. While data on shifts in phenology are common for Northern Hemisphere species (especially birds), there is a dearth of evidence from the Southern Hemisphere, and even fewer data available from the marine environment. Surface air temperatures at Macquarie Island have increased by 0.62°C during the 30-year study period (0.21°C decade−1) and royal penguins (Eudyptes schlegeli) commenced egg laying on average three days earlier in the 1990s than during the 1960s. This contrasts with other studies of Southern Ocean seabirds; five of nine species are now breeding on average 2.1 days later than during the 1950s. Despite the different direction of these trends, they can be explained by a single underlying mechanism: resource availability. There was a negative relationship between the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and median laying date of royal penguins, such that low-productivity (low SAM) years delayed laying date. This accords with the observations of other seabird species from the Antarctic, where later laying dates were associated with lower sea ice and lower spring productivity. The unifying factor underpinning phenological trends in eastern Antarctica is therefore resource availability; as food becomes scarcer, birds breed later. These changes are not uniform across the region, however, with resource increases in the subantarctic and decreases in eastern Antarctica. PMID:22957162

  20. Rare royal families in honeybees, Apis mellifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritz, Robin F. A.; Lattorff, H. Michael G.; Neumann, Peter; Kraus, F. Bernhard; Radloff, Sarah E.; Hepburn, H. Randall

    2005-10-01

    The queen is the dominant female in the honeybee colony, Apis mellifera, and controls reproduction. Queen larvae are selected by the workers and are fed a special diet (royal jelly), which determines caste. Because queens mate with many males a large number of subfamilies coexist in the colony. As a consequence, there is a considerable potential for conflict among the subfamilies over queen rearing. Here we show that honeybee queens are not reared at random but are preferentially reared from rare “royal” subfamilies, which have extremely low frequencies in the colony's worker force but a high frequency in the queens reared.

  1. The case for watchful waiting with Isle Royale's wolf population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David

    2013-01-01

    In "Should Isle Royale Wolves be Reintroduced? A Case Study on Wilderness Management in a Changing World," Vucetich et al. concluded with the hope that their analysis “motivates broader discussion that deepens understanding of the specifics on Isle Royale and the underlying principles” (2012: 137). This article represents an attempt to continue that discussion.

  2. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  3. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  4. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  5. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  6. 36 CFR 7.38 - Isle Royale National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isle Royale National Park. 7.38 Section 7.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.38 Isle Royale National Park. (a)...

  7. Increased osteoarthritis in moose from Isle Royale.

    PubMed

    Peterson, R O

    1988-07-01

    Over the past 30 yr, moose (Alces alces) in Isle Royale National Park (Michigan, USA) exhibited a several-fold increase in the prevalence of osteoarthritis, or degenerative joint disease (DJD). Available evidence points to an environmental explanation for this change. Greater physical activity among afflicted moose is not a likely contributing factor, nor is genetic change in the population. The possible introduction of an unspecified disease agent cannot be dismissed at this time. Moose exhibiting the highest prevalence of DJD were those born during a period of severe undernutrition, and it is hypothesized that nutritional stress early in life was responsible for increased joint disease during senescence. Such an etiology for osteoarthritis has not been suggested previously for any species. PMID:3411702

  8. Passive smoking in the Royal Navy.

    PubMed

    Cannon, L B

    1994-01-01

    Passive smoking is an emotive issue and one which has received considerable coverage in the past few years from both the scientific community and the media. The arguments for and against links between passive smoking and disease are as fiercely contested among members of the Royal Navy as among civilians. This article aims to present the current evidence in favour of such a link and also the views on the matter as expressed by the ship's company of a Type 22 frigate. Their views will be compared to the result of a similar survey carried out among civilian workforces. Finally, based on the evidence and results presented, strategies for tackling this problem will be discussed. PMID:8027967

  9. Suicidal behaviour in prisons: learning from Australian and international experiences.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Peter; McArthur, Morag

    2008-01-01

    This article explores what progress researchers and policy makers have made towards understanding and responding to the problem of suicidal behaviour in custody over the last 15 years. It examines current program initiatives and strategies for minimising this behaviour. This has become an imperative issue for the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) as they are in the process of developing their first prison (due to open mid 2008). The authors of this article were asked to prepare a report as part of the development of the prison. In developing a prison the ACT Government wanted to learn from the experiences of other jurisdictions including international 'best practice'. Australian prison system agenda has been dominated since the 1990s by the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody which made 339 recommendations. These recommendations have been important for developing programs for intervention and prevention of suicidal behaviour for all inmates. This article examines the experiences of Australian jurisdictions over the last 15 years since the Royal Commission report was published. For the ACT Government learning from both international and domestic experiences is essential in developing a new prison. PMID:18289676

  10. NCI at Frederick Receives a Royal Visit | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The Center for Cancer Research (CCR) and NCI at Frederick recently had the honor of hosting Professor Dr. Her Royal Highness Princess Chulabhorn Mahidol of Thailand. Her Royal Highness has a special interest in scientific research related to the use of natural products for treating disease. The purpose of her visit was to discuss the work on natural products being undertaken at NCI at Frederick. Her Royal Highness attended talks by researchers from both the Molecular Targets Laboratory (MTL), CCR, and the Natural Products Branch (NPB), Developmental Therapeutics Program (DTP), Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis (DCTD).

  11. NCI at Frederick Receives a Royal Visit | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The Center for Cancer Research (CCR) and NCI at Frederick recently had the honor of hosting Professor Dr. Her Royal Highness Princess Chulabhorn Mahidol of Thailand.  Her Royal Highness has a special interest in scientific research related to the use of natural products for treating disease. The purpose of her visit was to discuss the work on natural products being undertaken at NCI at Frederick. Her Royal Highness attended talks by researchers from both the Molecular Targets Laboratory (MTL), CCR, and the Natural Products Branch (NPB), Developmental Therapeutics Program (DTP), Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis (DCTD).

  12. 19. ROYAL WALNUT. STORAGE SHED PART OF HOUSING DEVELOPMENT. WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. ROYAL WALNUT. STORAGE SHED PART OF HOUSING DEVELOPMENT. WEST PROPERTY LINE ADJACENT TO TREE AND RUNS ALONG SIDE OF SHED. LOOKING NORTH AND SLIGHTLY EAST FROM ADJOINING PROPERTY. - Gold Ridge Farm, 7777 Bodega Avenue, Sebastopol, Sonoma County, CA

  13. VIEW OF DATE DRIVE, SHOWING ROYAL PALMS ALONG THE STREET. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF DATE DRIVE, SHOWING ROYAL PALMS ALONG THE STREET. VIEW FACING EAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. Determination of trans-10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid content in pure royal jelly and royal jelly products by column liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Genç, M; Aslan, A

    1999-04-16

    In this research, several royal jellies and commercial products containing royal jelly were analysed for their trans-10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) content by using a column liquid chromatography technique. Ten samples claimed to be pure royal jelly, containing 10-HDA between 0.75 and 2.54%. Seven samples claimed to contain royal jelly as an ingredient which ranged from non-detectable to 0.054%. The technique was found to be rapid with high recovery. PMID:10327631

  15. Patient Experience of Australian General Practices.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Ajit; Greco, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The number of data-based research articles focusing on patient sociodemographic profiling and experience with healthcare practices is still relatively small. One of the reasons for this relative lack of research is that categorizing patients into different demographic groups can lead to significant reductions in sample numbers for homogeneous subgroups. The aim of this article is to identify problems and issues when dealing with big data that contains information at two levels: patient experience of their general practice, and scores received by practices. The Practice Accreditation and Improvement Survey (PAIS) consisting of 27 five-point Likert items and 11 sociodemographic questions is a Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP)-endorsed instrument for seeking patient views as part of the accreditation of Australian general practices. The data were collected during the 3-year period May 2011-July 2014, during which time PAIS was completed for 3734 individual general practices throughout Australia involving 312,334 anonymous patients. This represents over 60% of practices in Australia, and ∼75% of practices that undergo voluntary accreditation. The sampling method for each general practice was convenience sampling. The results of our analysis show how sociodemographic profiles of Australian patients can affect their ratings of practices and also how the location of the practice (State/Territory, remote access area) can affect patient experience. These preliminary findings can act as an initial set of results against which future studies in patient experience trends can be developed and measured in Australia. Also, the methods used in this article provide a methodological framework for future patient experience researchers to use when dealing with data that contain information at two levels, such as the patient and practice. Finally, the outcomes demonstrate that different subgroups can experience healthcare provision differently, especially

  16. Conservation genetics of the endangered Isle Royale gray wolf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wayne, R.K.; Lehman, N.; Girman, D.; Gogan, P.J.P.; Gilbert, D.A.; Hansen, K.; Peterson, R.O.; Seal, U.S.; Eisenhawer, A.; Mech, L.D.; Krumenaker, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The small group of wolves on Isle Royale has been studied for over three decades as a model of the relationship between large carnivores and their prey. During the last ten years the population declined from 50 individuals to as few as 12 individuals. The causes of this decline may be food shortages, disease, or reduced genetic variability. We address the issues of genetic variability and relationships of Isle Royale wolves using allozyme electrophoresis, mtDNA restriction-site analysis, and multilocus hypervariable minisatellite DNA analysis (genetic fingerprinting). Our results indicate that approximately 50% of the allozyme heterozygosity has been lost in the island population, a decline similar to that expected if no immigration had occurred from the mainland. The genetic fingerprinting data indicate that the seven sampled Isle Royale wolves are as similar as captive populations of siblings. Surprisingly, the Isle Royale wolves have an mtDNA genotype that is very rare on the mainland, being found in only one of 144 mainland wolves. This suggests that the remaining Isle Royale wolves are probably derived from a single female founder.

  17. Octanoic acid confers to royal jelly varroa-repellent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazzi, Francesco; Bortolomeazzi, Renzo; Della Vedova, Giorgio; Del Piccolo, Fabio; Annoscia, Desiderato; Milani, Norberto

    2009-02-01

    The mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman is a parasite of the honeybee Apis mellifera L. and represents a major threat for apiculture in the Western world. Reproduction takes place only inside bee brood cells that are invaded just before sealing; drone cells are preferred over worker cells, whereas queen cells are not normally invaded. Lower incidence of mites in queen cells is at least partly due to the deterrent activity of royal jelly. In this study, the repellent properties of royal jelly were investigated using a lab bioassay. Chemical analysis showed that octanoic acid is a major volatile component of royal jelly; by contrast, the concentration is much lower in drone and worker larval food. Bioassays, carried out under lab conditions, demonstrated that octanoic acid is repellent to the mite. Field studies in bee colonies confirmed that the compound may interfere with the process of cell invasion by the mite.

  18. The Royal College of General Practitioners: Postgraduate Education in Britain

    PubMed Central

    Ayre, Burton

    1970-01-01

    The development and growth of the Royal College of General Practitioners in Britain against a background of escalating need for postgraduate courses within their society is outlined. The structuring of postgraduate medical education under government sponsorship with the inception of the National Health Service is described; and its evolution over the past 20 years. The main substance of this article grew out of tape recorded discussions between the author and Dr. John Hunt, President of the Royal College of General Practitioners; Dr. Patrick Byrne, Director, Department of General Practice, the University of Manchester, and Chief Examiner RCGP; Mr. Donald C. Bowie, FRCS, Regional Postgraduate Dean, The British Postgraduate Medical Federation, the University of London; Dr. J. S. K. Stevenson of McKenzie House, Edinburgh, Scotland. Some additional comments are based on extracts from The Royal Commission on Medical Education 1965-68 Report (Todd Report). Imagesp117-a PMID:20468491

  19. Octanoic acid confers to royal jelly varroa-repellent properties.

    PubMed

    Nazzi, Francesco; Bortolomeazzi, Renzo; Della Vedova, Giorgio; Del Piccolo, Fabio; Annoscia, Desiderato; Milani, Norberto

    2009-02-01

    The mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman is a parasite of the honeybee Apis mellifera L. and represents a major threat for apiculture in the Western world. Reproduction takes place only inside bee brood cells that are invaded just before sealing; drone cells are preferred over worker cells, whereas queen cells are not normally invaded. Lower incidence of mites in queen cells is at least partly due to the deterrent activity of royal jelly. In this study, the repellent properties of royal jelly were investigated using a lab bioassay. Chemical analysis showed that octanoic acid is a major volatile component of royal jelly; by contrast, the concentration is much lower in drone and worker larval food. Bioassays, carried out under lab conditions, demonstrated that octanoic acid is repellent to the mite. Field studies in bee colonies confirmed that the compound may interfere with the process of cell invasion by the mite. PMID:19050844

  20. Wolves, moose, and tree rings on isle royale.

    PubMed

    McLaren, B E; Peterson, R O

    1994-12-01

    Investigation of tree growth in Isle Royale National Park in Michigan revealed the influence of herbivores and carnivores on plants in an intimately linked food chain. Plant growth rates were regulated by cycles in animal density and responded to annual changes in primary productivity only when released from herbivory by wolf predation. Isle Royale's dendrochronology complements a rich literature on food chain control in aquatic systems, which often supports a trophic cascade model. This study provides evidence of top-down control in a forested ecosystem. PMID:17841718

  1. William Russ Pugh's remarkable life: natural scientist, innovative anaesthetist and founding member of the Royal Society of Tasmania.

    PubMed

    Paull, J D

    2011-07-01

    While well known in anaesthetic circles for being the first to provide ether anaesthesia for a surgical procedure in June 1847 in Launceston, Tasmania, William Russ Pugh's achievements in the field of natural history are less well known. He personally assisted Count Peter de Strzelecki in the chemical analysis of Australian coal and mineral samples and provided the laboratory space and equipment. His analytic skills were utilised by coroners in cases of poisoning. He was consulted about a ship's cargo which threatened to spontaneously combust in Launceston's port. He was a founding member of the Tasmanian Society and subsequently of the Royal Society of Tasmania. He made many presentations on geology, zoology, botany, mineralogy and meteorology to meetings of both Societies. These scientific interests may have provided the knowledge and motivation which encouraged Pugh to proceed so confidently with the introduction of ether anaesthesia. PMID:21916111

  2. Visitors' perception of thermal comfort during extreme heat events at the Royal Botanic Garden Melbourne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Cho Kwong Charlie; Loughnan, Margaret; Tapper, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor thermal comfort studies have mainly examined the perception of local residents, and there has been little work on how those conditions are perceived differently by tourists, especially tourists of diverse origins. This issue is important because it will improve the application of thermal indices in predicting the thermal perception of tourists. This study aims to compare the differences in thermal perception and preferences between local and overseas visitors to the Royal Botanic Garden (RBG) in Melbourne during summer. An 8-day survey was conducted in February 2014 at four sites in the garden (n = 2198), including 2 days with maximum temperature exceeding 40 °C. The survey results were compared with data from four weather stations adjacent to the survey locations. One survey location, `Fern Gully', has a misting system and visitors perceived the Fern Gully to be cooler than other survey locations. As the apparent temperature exceeded 32.4 °C, visitors perceived the environment as being `warm' or `hot'. At `hot' conditions, 36.8 % of European visitors voted for no change to the thermal conditions, which is considerably higher than the response from Australian visitors (12.2 %) and Chinese visitors (7.5 %). Study results suggest that overseas tourists have different comfort perception and preferences compared to local Australians in hot weather based at least in part on expectations. Understanding the differences in visitors' thermal perception is important to improve the garden design. It can also lead to better tour planning and marketing to potential visitors from different countries.

  3. The Royal Society's Report on Primary School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlen, Wynne

    2010-01-01

    The author summarises findings from the Royal Society's "state of the nation" report on 5-14 science and mathematics education in the UK. This is the Society's third report on aspects of science and mathematics education in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, and the first where the focus has included primary practice, policy,…

  4. A Firefighting Training Unit for the Royal Navy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Mike

    1992-01-01

    Describes efforts to modernize the firefighting training facilities of the Royal Navy in the United Kingdom through the use of computer-controlled simulations of ship fires. The structure of a prototype compartment and the control system that sets up various training scenarios and modulates the environment in response to actions by the trainees…

  5. ROYAL PALMLINED WALK TO FACILITY 1041 (QUARTERS J) WITH FACILITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ROYAL PALM-LINED WALK TO FACILITY 1041 (QUARTERS J) WITH FACILITY 1040 (QUARTERS 1) TO LEFT. TAKEN AT CORNER OF HALE ALII AVENUE AND EIGHTH STREET. VIEW FACING EAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Housing Area Hale Alii, Hale Alii Avenue, Eighth Street, & Avenue D, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. Photovoltaic-powered refrigerator experiment at Isle Royale National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratajczak, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    The use of a photovoltaic power system to operate an electric refrigerator at a trail construction camp at Isle Royale, Michigan is investigated. The use of P/V power for refrigeration in a remote installation is demonstrated. System design as well as predicted and measured system performance are presented.

  7. Osteoporotic skull lesions in moose at Isle Royale National Park.

    PubMed

    Hindelang, M; Peterson, R O

    1996-01-01

    Osteoporotic lesions were evaluated in the skulls of moose (Alces alces) collected in Isle Royale National Park, Michigan (USA), from 1958 to 1994. Circular lesions which penetrated the outer table of the skull were distributed over the frontal and nasal bones asymmetrically in both sexes. About 32% of skulls recovered had some porotic lesions with slightly greater prevalence among males. PMID:8627919

  8. FACILITY 1042. FRONT OBLIQUE SHOWING ROYAL PALMS LINING FRONT WALK. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 1042. FRONT OBLIQUE SHOWING ROYAL PALMS LINING FRONT WALK. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Housing Area Hale Alii, Junior Officers' Quarters Type, 9-10 Hale Alii Avenue, 1-2 Eighth Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. Meeting Report: Patrick Moore at the Royal Institution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arditti, D.

    2010-02-01

    'Developments in amateur astronomy: past, present and future'. A special meeting in honour of Sir Patrick Moore to celebrate his 75 years as a BAA member, held on 2009 November 21 at the Royal Institution of Great Britain, Albemarle Street, London W1

  10. Abnormal chemical element concentrations in lichens of Isle Royale National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Lichens have been used for many years to monitor changes in deposited airborne chemical elements in many areas, but few studies have focused on areas suspected of experiencing slightly elevated pollution. Detection of subtle patterns of slightly elevated pollutants calls for developing several lines of evidence as opposed to single line studies used in heavily polluted areas. This study of two lichen species, Hypogymnia physodes and Evernia mesomorpha, in Isle Royale National Park, Michigan compares the concentrations and ranks of elements with the concentrations and ranks of the elements in the earth's crust, changes in element concentrations over a nine year period, and the geography of element concentrations in the park. S, Zn, Pb, Cd and Se were elevated in both species and higher in rank compared to the concentrations and ranks in the earth's crust. Toxic elements increased 123% in Hypogymnia and 62% in Evernia over 9 years, compared to increases of 45% and 59% for non-toxic elements in each species, respectively. Geographically, the lichens at certain localities with higher exposures experienced higher than average element concentrations. Finally, tissue concentrations of Mn, S and Se at some localities were above levels known to be either toxic or similar to those found in polluted areas. These four lines of evidence suggest that Isle Royale National Park is experiencing the onset of chronic air pollution stress from a number of sources.

  11. A Study of Testing Practices in the Royal Oak (Michigan) Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Ja Mille; And Others

    The testing program of the Royal Oak (Michigan) School District was examined and evaluated under agreement of the Royal Oak Teachers Association and the Administration of the Royal Oak School District. A committee was formed of people knowledgeable of the program and/or specialists in evaluation and testing. This study represents two days of…

  12. More than royal food - Major royal jelly protein genes in sexuals and workers of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the honeybee Apis mellifera, female larvae destined to become a queen are fed with royal jelly, a secretion of the hypopharyngeal glands of young nurse bees that rear the brood. The protein moiety of royal jelly comprises mostly major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) of which the coding genes (mrjp1-9) have been identified on chromosome 11 in the honeybee’s genome. Results We determined the expression of mrjp1-9 among the honeybee worker caste (nurses, foragers) and the sexuals (queens (unmated, mated) and drones) in various body parts (head, thorax, abdomen). Specific mrjp expression was not only found in brood rearing nurse bees, but also in foragers and the sexuals. Conclusions The expression of mrjp1 to 7 is characteristic for the heads of worker bees, with an elevated expression of mrjp1-4 and 7 in nurse bees compared to foragers. Mrjp5 and 6 were higher in foragers compared to nurses suggesting functions in addition to those of brood food proteins. Furthermore, the expression of mrjp9 was high in the heads, thoraces and abdomen of almost all female bees, suggesting a function irrespective of body section. This completely different expression profile suggests mrjp9 to code for the most ancestral major royal jelly protein of the honeybee. PMID:24279675

  13. Identification of a Novel Hypocholesterolemic Protein, Major Royal Jelly Protein 1, Derived from Royal Jelly

    PubMed Central

    Asai, Saori; Kusada, Mio; Watanabe, Suzuyo; Kawashima, Takuji; Nakamura, Tadashi; Shimada, Masaya; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Nagaoka, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) intake lowers serum cholesterol levels in animals and humans, but the active component in RJ that lowers serum cholesterol level and its molecular mechanism are unclear. In this study, we set out to identify the bile acid-binding protein contained in RJ, because dietary bile acid-binding proteins including soybean protein and its peptide are effective in ameliorating hypercholesterolemia. Using a cholic acid-conjugated column, we separated some bile acid-binding proteins from RJ and identified the major RJ protein 1 (MRJP1), MRJP2, and MRJP3 as novel bile acid-binding proteins from RJ, based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Purified MRJP1, which is the most abundant protein of the bile acid-binding proteins in RJ, exhibited taurocholate-binding activity in vitro. The micellar solubility of cholesterol was significantly decreased in the presence of MRJP1 compared with casein in vitro. Liver bile acids levels were significantly increased, and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) mRNA and protein tended to increase by MRJP1 feeding compared with the control. CYP7A1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased by MRJP1 tryptic hydrolysate treatment compared with that of casein tryptic hydrolysate in hepatocytes. MRJP1 hypocholesterolemic effect has been investigated in rats. The cholesterol-lowering action induced by MRJP1 occurs because MRJP1 interacts with bile acids induces a significant increase in fecal bile acids excretion and a tendency to increase in fecal cholesterol excretion and also enhances the hepatic cholesterol catabolism. We have identified, for the first time, a novel hypocholesterolemic protein, MRJP1, in RJ. Interestingly, MRJP1 exhibits greater hypocholesterolemic activity than the medicine β-sitosterol in rats. PMID:25144734

  14. Scleroderma in Australian aborigines.

    PubMed

    Zurauskas, J; Beroukas, D; Walker, J G; Smith, M D; Ahern, M J; Roberts-Thomson, P J

    2005-01-01

    Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) has not been reported before in Australian Aborigines. We describe in detail a community middle-aged Aboriginal woman whose diffuse scleroderma terminated fatally with a renal crisis. Moreover, we have identified a further five Aboriginal patients on the South Australian Scleroderma Register (two with diffuse, two with limited and one with overlap scleroderma), a number consistent with that expected from the 2001 census data for our state. However, an analysis of all antinuclear antibody (ANA) requests from the Top End of Australia over a 6-year period revealed only two Aborigines with low titre anticentromere antibody (despite frequent occurrence of ANA with other specificities). Neither of these Aborigines had features of scleroderma. In conclusion, scleroderma does occur in indigenous Australians but further studies are needed to confirm the apparent infrequency of centromere-associated limited scleroderma (which is the commonest form of scleroderma in our Caucasian population). PMID:15667472

  15. Looking back at the John Mitchell Crouch Fellowship: the most prestigious research award of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Boult, Margaret; Babidge, Wendy; Pleass, Susan; Scott, David

    2015-10-01

    The John Mitchell Crouch Fellowship is a generous endowment made to the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) by the young neurosurgeon's family, following his death from a brain tumour. In this article, we examine the significance and legacy of the grant since its inception in 1979. This is the highest level of research fellowship awarded by the RACS recognizing early career excellence, as part of its significant research funding programme (over $1.7 million in 2015). John Mitchell Crouch recipients have been pioneers in various areas of medicine where they have developed new technologies, established research centres, improved patient safety and military surgery and embraced evidence-based medicine. The funds they received have directly contributed to research published in numerous highly respected peer-reviewed journals such as The New England Journal of Medicine; established new laboratories, helped fund clinical trials and allowed new directions of research to be pursued. Recipients of the John Mitchell Crouch Fellowship have been recognized with many awards including 11 Australian and New Zealand Honours to date. Many other significant research funds have been subsequently bestowed, including over 120 National Health Medical Research Council (NHMRC) grants to Australian and New Zealand recipients subsequent to their Fellowship. This article also shows the range of disciplines in which the award has supported cutting-edge research leading to benefits for patients and health care. PMID:26183706

  16. Deposition and cycling of sulfur controls mercury accumulation in Isle Royale fish

    SciTech Connect

    Paul E. Drevnick; Donald E. Canfield; Patrick R. Gorski

    2007-11-01

    Mercury contamination of fish is a global problem. Consumption of contaminated fish is the primary route of methylmercury exposure in humans and is detrimental to health. Newly mandated reductions in anthropogenic mercury emissions aim to reduce atmospheric mercury deposition and thus mercury concentrations in fish. However, factors other than mercury deposition are important for mercury bioaccumulation in fish. In the lakes of Isle Royale, U.S.A., reduced rates of sulfate deposition since the Clean Air Act of 1970 have caused mercury concentrations in fish to decline to levels that are safe for human consumption, even without a discernible decrease in mercury deposition. Therefore, reductions in anthropogenic sulfur emissions may provide a synergistic solution to the mercury problem in sulfate-limited freshwaters. 71 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. The Royal College of Psychiatrists and the death penalty.

    PubMed

    Gunn, John

    2004-01-01

    The Royal College of Psychiatrists recently issued a revised statement on its position concerning capital punishment. The College proposes to support psychiatrists who refuse to be involved in the capital process, but accepts that some may take up limited involvement in the manner set out in the document. The Royal College is the professional body for psychiatric practitioners in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Almost no public statements are issued from the College without first being deliberated on within at least two of its three major committees. The new document on capital punishment remains in the spirit of the previous ones. The topic of capital punishment is noncontroversial within the British medical profession. In all European countries, capital punishment is against the law, because there is an overarching directive from the Council of Europe (a wide group of nations, wider than the European Union) insisting that it be abolished. PMID:15281424

  18. The Magnetic Observatory Buildings at the Royal Observatory, Cape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, I. S.

    2015-10-01

    During the 1830s there arose a strong international movement, promoted by Carl Friedrich Gauss and Alexander von Humboldt, to characterise the earth's magnetic field. By 1839 the Royal Society in London, driven by Edward Sabine, had organised a "Magnetic Crusade" - the establishment of a series of magnetic and meteorological observatories around the British Empire, including New Zealand, Australia, St Helena and the Cape. This article outlines the history of the latter installation, its buildings and what became of them.

  19. John Tyndall and the Royal Medal that was never struck

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Just once in its long history has a Royal Medal been awarded but not presented. John Tyndall FRS (1820–93) was the chosen recipient in 1853 for his early work on diamagnetism but declined to accept it. The story of why Tyndall felt compelled to turn down this considerable honour sheds light on the scientific politics and personal relationships of the time, on the importance given to the study of magnetism, and on Tyndall's own character and career. PMID:24921107

  20. Whitening Effect of Watersoluble Royal Jelly from South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kwan Kyu; Pak, Sok Cheon

    2015-01-01

    Royal jelly has been widely used as a health supplement worldwide. However, royal jelly has been implicated in allergic reactions, and we developed a water-soluble royal jelly (WSRJ) without the allergy inducing protein. In this study, we aimed to identify the anti-melanogenic efficacy of WSRJ. B16F1 melanoma cells were first treated with 10 nM α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and then with various doses of WSRJ. In addition, we investigated the mRNA and protein expression of melanogenesis-related genes such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase related protein-1 (TRP-1) and TRP-2 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. WSRJ directly inhibited tyrosinase and cellular tyrosinase activity, which decreased melanin synthesis in α-MSH stimulated B16F1 melanoma cells a level comparable to that observed with arbutin. WSRJ decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2, which was comparable to that observed with arbutin. WSRJ has strong anti-melanogenic activity, which invoice direct inhibition of tyrosinase enzyme activity and suppression of expression of melanogenesis related genes. Results from this study suggests that WSRJ is a potential candidate for the treatment of skin pigmentation. PMID:26761901

  1. Functional properties of honey, propolis, and royal jelly.

    PubMed

    Viuda-Martos, M; Ruiz-Navajas, Y; Fernández-López, J; Pérez-Alvarez, J A

    2008-11-01

    Honey, propolis, and royal jelly, products originating in the beehive, are attractive ingredients for healthy foods. Honey has been used since ancient times as part of traditional medicine. Several aspects of this use indicate that it also has functions such as antibacterial, antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflamatory, antibrowning, and antiviral. Propolis is a resinous substance produced by honeybees. This substance has been used in folk medicine since ancient times, due to its many biological properties to possess, such as antitumor, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects, among others. Royal jelly has been demonstrated to possess numerous functional properties such as antibacterial activity, anti-inflammatory activity, vasodilative and hypotensive activities, disinfectant action, antioxidant activity, antihypercholesterolemic activity, and antitumor activity. Biological activities of honey, propolis, and royal jelly are mainly attributed to the phenolic compounds such as flavonoids. Flavonoids have been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological activities, including antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, and vasodilatory actions. In addition, flavonoids inhibit lipid peroxidation, platelet aggregation, capillary permeability and fragility, and the activity of enzyme systems including cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase. PMID:19021816

  2. Whitening Effect of Watersoluble Royal Jelly from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Mi; Kim, Jung Min; Hong, In Phyo; Woo, Soon Ok; Kim, Se Gun; Jang, Hye Ri; Park, Kwan Kyu; Pak, Sok Cheon

    2015-01-01

    Royal jelly has been widely used as a health supplement worldwide. However, royal jelly has been implicated in allergic reactions, and we developed a water-soluble royal jelly (WSRJ) without the allergy inducing protein. In this study, we aimed to identify the anti-melanogenic efficacy of WSRJ. B16F1 melanoma cells were first treated with 10 nM α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and then with various doses of WSRJ. In addition, we investigated the mRNA and protein expression of melanogenesis-related genes such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase related protein-1 (TRP-1) and TRP-2 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. WSRJ directly inhibited tyrosinase and cellular tyrosinase activity, which decreased melanin synthesis in α-MSH stimulated B16F1 melanoma cells a level comparable to that observed with arbutin. WSRJ decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2, which was comparable to that observed with arbutin. WSRJ has strong anti-melanogenic activity, which invoice direct inhibition of tyrosinase enzyme activity and suppression of expression of melanogenesis related genes. Results from this study suggests that WSRJ is a potential candidate for the treatment of skin pigmentation. PMID:26761901

  3. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek

    2014-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, this issue will focus on Number in the Number and Algebra strand. In this article Derek Hurrell provides a few tried and proven activities to develop place value understanding. These activities are provided for…

  4. Fraud and Australian Academics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Brian

    1989-01-01

    A series of highly publicized cases of alleged fraud in the Australian academic community are described. Each case reveals an apparent failure of peer review. The right to pursue investigations and make comments that may offend powerful figures within the scholarly community is precarious. (MLW)

  5. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek

    2013-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, the focus in this issue is on Measurement in the Measurement and Geometry strand. The small unit of work on measurement presented in this article has activities that can be modified to meet the requirements of…

  6. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek; O'Neil, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, this issue the authors focus, on Geometry in the Measurement and Geometry strand with strong links for an integrated focus on the Statistics and Probability strand. The small unit of work on the sorting and…

  7. Researching Australian Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxby, Maurice

    2004-01-01

    When in 1962 the author began to research the history of Australian children's literature, access to the primary sources was limited and difficult. From a catalogue drawer in the Mitchell Library of hand-written cards marked "Children's books" he could call up from the stacks, in alphabetical order, piles of early publications. His notes about the…

  8. Research Readings. Australian Apprenticeships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Nigel, Ed.

    This volume on apprenticeships in Australia summarizes 11 research studies. After an "Introduction" (Nigel Smart), the reports are: "Apprenticeship in Australia: A Concise History" (John Ray); "Issues and Directions from the Australian Apprenticeship and Traineeship Literature" (Stephen Saunders); "Determinants of Apprentice Training by Small and…

  9. Atmospheric transport, deposition, and fate of triazine herbicides and their metabolites in pristine areas at Isle Royale National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Cromwell, A.E.

    2000-01-01

    layer of the lakes increased during deposition periods and decreased later in the year. The fate of triazines in shallow lakes suggests faster degradation and shorter half-lives, while deeper lakes have residence times for atrazine that may exceed 10 years.Rainfall samples were collected at Isle Royale National Park, located in Lake Superior, and triazine herbicides were identified and quantified. Water samples were also collected from pristine lakes and analyzed for the presence of herbicides, and long-range atmospheric transport was determined using air-parcel, back-trajectory analysis. Results indicated that deposition was seasonal, with maximum concentrations occurring during the first week of June. Atrazine had the largest mass deposited on Isle Royal. Atrazine and deethylatrazine were the only herbicides detected in the surface-water samples. The annual mass of herbicides deposited by rainfall was calculated at 13.4, 3.7, and 54.0 ??g/m2, for 1992, 1993, and 1994, respectively. The source of the herbicides was attributed to Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Iowa, which are high-use areas for herbicides such as alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor.

  10. Royal Society offers funds for technology start-ups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clery, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    Scientists with a good idea ripe for commercial exploitation will no longer have to hawk their wares to bankers and private investors to get financial backing: the Royal Society is also about to get into the venture-capital business. The society is planning to set up an enterprise fund to buy equity in start-up companies based on outstanding technology - covering everything from renewable energy and carbon capture to water purification. "If there are difficulties getting science into the marketplace, the society has a role helping with that," says chemical physicist Andrew Mackintosh, a former chief executive of Oxford Instruments who has been brought in to manage the fund.

  11. Climate impacts of Australian land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, P. J.

    2004-05-01

    distance from the land cover changes. The Australian continental and regional analyses demonstrated that Australian land cover change did have statistically significant impacts on air temperature and precipitation simulated in the CSIRO GCM. While none of the statistically significant trends in annual precipitation were found to be statistically significant in the climate modelling experiments, the modelled reductions in annual precipitation for south east Queensland and eastern New South Wales corresponded with the strong drying trends in those areas for 1950 - 1999. Larger scale analysis of differences in climate suggested the local changes in surface fluxes had strong impacts on atmospheric circulation. The largest changes were in austral summer (DJF) circulation where monsoon flow into northern Australia was reduced, corresponding with increased monsoon flow into the South Pacific Convergence Zone and increased south easterly wind flow into eastern Queensland. These changes in circulation influenced DJF moisture flux into northern and eastern Australia, which intensified the direct warming and drying impact caused by the reduced transpiration from land cover change.

  12. 78 FR 77772 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “A Royal Passion: Queen...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Photography'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations: Pursuant to the authority... ``A Royal Passion: Queen Victoria and Photography,'' imported from abroad for temporary...

  13. Anaesthesia for aboriginal Australians.

    PubMed

    Howe, P W; Condon, J R; Goodchild, C S

    1998-02-01

    This prospective study was designed to describe problems that arise when Aboriginal people undergo anaesthesia, in order to develop guidelines for anaesthetists who are not accustomed to treating Aboriginal people. Data were collected on 1122 consecutive different individuals undergoing anaesthesia at Royal Darwin Hospital, 24.5% of whom described themselves as Aboriginal. Aboriginal patients were in a poorer physiological state than were non-Aboriginal patients. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus, renal disease and rheumatic heart disease reported in Aboriginal patients was very high. Communication difficulties were more commonly reported in Aboriginal patients; the most common difficulty was apparent shyness or fear, rather than actual language difficulty. The results suggest that the treatment of Aboriginal people involves diagnosis and management of diverse preoperative medical problems, and that better management may be achieved by learning simple cultural strategies and by adding Aboriginal interpreters and health workers to the anaesthetic team. PMID:9513674

  14. Australian solar eclipse expeditions: the voyage to Cape York in 1871

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomb, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Techniques such as photography and spectroscopy only became available to study solar eclipses in the 1860s. The first subsequent total eclipse of the Sun to be visible from Australia was one in December 1871 that was visible from far north Queensland. Initiated by the Royal Society of Victoria, astronomers in Melbourne and Sydney cooperated to organise the Australian Eclipse Expedition aboard the steamship Governor Blackall to a suitable observing location. Though on the day of the eclipse clouds prevented viewing, this was an important expedition that was complex to organise and involved dealings with colonial Governments and with relatively large sums of money that Australian scientists had not previously experienced. With a newspaper reporter as part of the expedition along with two photographers the expedition was well recorded and provides a clear insight into the activities of late nineteenth century astronomers and other scientists.

  15. Review of Australian Higher Education: An Australian Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is one of the key foundations that economic prosperity is founded upon. Government policies, funding and strategic planning require a fine balance to stimulate growth, prosperity health and well-being. The key Australian government policies influenced by a Review of Australian Higher Education report include attracting many more…

  16. [The insigne and suntuoso Royal Hospital of Granada (I). Royal foundations and the hospital regrouping (1501-1526)].

    PubMed

    Valenzuela Candelario, José

    2003-01-01

    In the 1520s the local authorities planned to set up a new modern hospital in the city of Granada by combining two existing Royal Hospitals: Alhambra and Reyes. As a public institution and as a new building, the new hospital could develop the mandates of the original foundation and extend its care to become a general hospital. In this way it would strengthen its status as a charitable undertaking and legacy of the Catholic Monarchs and, secondly, as a great architectural monument. PMID:14626277

  17. The "Three York Astronomers" and the Royal Society of London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    John Goodricke, the discoverer of the periodicity of Algol and Delta Cephei; his mentor and collaborator Edward Pigott; and Edward's father Nathaniel Pigott flourished in York, England in the 1780's. All three made substantial contributions to astronomy. Nathaniel and Edward had determined the longitudes of the principal cities of the Low Countries before moving to York. Edward worked closely with Goodricke on the observations of Algol and discovered the variability of Eta Aquilae, a Cepheid, before Goodricke discovered Delta Cephei's behavior. All three corresponded with members of the Royal Society, including Nevil Maskelyne and William Herschel, yet the treatment accorded them differed widely. Nathaniel Pigott was elected a member of the Society in 1772. Goodricke received the Society's Copley Medal for his paper on the periodicity of Algol in 1783 at the age of nineteen. In 1786, after being nominated by Nathaniel Pigott, Goodricke was elected to membership in the Royal Society. Edward Pigott was apparently never nominated. Some possible reasons why Goodricke was lionized and Edward Pigott passed over will be explored. This research was supported by an AAS Small Research Grant and by the Herbert C. Pollack Award of the Dudley Observatory.

  18. Humphry Davy and the Royal Institution of Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Unwin, Patrick R; Unwin, Robert W

    2009-03-20

    The abortive attempts of Sir Humphry Davy to introduce modest reforms at the Royal Society of London during his Presidency (1820-27) contrast with his (largely unstudied) earlier experience of administration at the Royal Institution of Great Britain (RI). Davy's attempts to combat the systemic weaknesses in governance and funding, and his role in effecting changes at the RI, in association with a core group of reformers, merit consideration. This paper analyses important aspects of the early management and social structure of the RI and examines the inner workings of the institution. It shows how and why the Library, its most valuable financial asset, and its celebrated Laboratory, developed along distinctive lines, each with its own support structures and intra-institutional interests. While acknowledging the roles traditionally ascribed to Count Rumford and Sir Joseph Banks, the paper highlights the contributions of other early patrons such as Thomas Bernard, son of a colonial governor of Massachusetts, and Earl Spencer, a leading European bibliophile and RI President from 1813 to 1825. The promotion of a Bill in Parliament in 1810, designed to transform the RI from a proprietary body politic into a corporation of members, and the subsequent framing of the bye-laws, provided opportunities to establish a more democratic structure of elected committees for the conduct of science. PMID:19579357

  19. Towards Inclusion: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the views of the Australian Special Education Principals' Association (ASEPA) on inclusion and the impact this is having on Australian Government Schools from a school based perspective. ASEPA is a relatively young association and was formed in 1997 out of the need to put forward the case to support students with special…

  20. Australian University International Student Finances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati

    2009-01-01

    The omission of international students from the Australian Vice-Chancellor's Committee (AVCC) 2007 national study on student finances is indicative of a pattern of exclusion. The exclusion is unacceptable from a humane perspective and feeds the belief that Australians perceive international students primarily as "cash cows". This study partially…

  1. Sexuality and Australian law.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The author describes the changing legal environment concerning same-sex relationships in the common law world with special reference to Australia. He refers to shifts in public opinion recorded in opinion polls; important decisions of human rights courts and tribunals; and changes in national law and court decisions. He then reviews the Australian constitutional setting which divides lawmaking responsibility on such subjects between the federal, State and Territory legislatures. He describes initiatives adopted in the States and Territories and the more modest changes effected in federal law and practice. He concludes on a note of optimism concerning Australia's future reforms affecting discrimination on the grounds of sexuality. PMID:15814500

  2. Language in Uniform: An Overview of the RAAF School of Languages, RAAF Williams, Point Cook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeson, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) School of Languages (for non-English languages). Training is available in eight languages; students are hand-picked volunteers. Staff include Australian service personnel and nationals of the target countries. (SM)

  3. Port Royal and the Seventeenth-Century Paradigm Shift in Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Malcolm J.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on a scholarly, seventeenth century, religious society of Jansenists who founded the Port-Royal des Champs in Paris (France). States their writings and teachings were considered heretical. Finds Port-Royal's ideas later became popular culminating in the acceptance of Latin and language translation curricula. (KDR)

  4. Supplementation with major royal jelly proteins increases lifespan, feeding and fecundity in Drosophila

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major royal-jelly proteins (MRJPs) are the main constituents responsible for the specific physiological role of royal jelly (RJ) in honeybees. Male and female Drosophila flies were fed diets containing either no MRJPs (A) or casein (B) at 1.25% (w/w) of diet or MRJPs at 1.25% (C), 2.50% (D), or ...

  5. Flamsteed's stars. New perspectives on the life and work of the first Astronomer Royal (1646 - 1719).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmoth, F.

    Contents: 1. Introduction: the King's "astronomical observer". 2. Flamsteed's career in astronomy: nobility, morality and public utility (J. Bennett). 3. Astronomy and strife: John Flamsteed and the Royal Society (M. Feingold). 4. Models for the practice of astronomy: Flamsteed, Horrocks and Tycho (F. Willmoth). 5. Flamsteed's optics and the identity of the astronomical observer (A. Johns). 6. Equipping an observatory: Flamsteed and Molyneux discuss an astronomical quadrant (H. Higton). 7. Mathematical characters: Flamsteed and Christ's Hospital Royal Mathematical School (R. Iliffe). 8. "Professor" John Flamsteed (I. G. Stewart). 9. Edmond Halley and John Flamsteed at the Royal Observatory (A. Cook). 10. A unique copy of Flamsteed's Historia coelestis (1712) (O. Gingerich). 11. "Labour harder than thrashing": John Flamsteed, property and intellectual labour in nineteenth-century England (W. J. Ashworth). 12. The Flamsteed papers in the archives of the Royal Greenwich Observatory. (A. Perkins). A summary catalogue of Flamsteed's papers in the Royal Greenwich Observatory archives (compiled by F. Willmoth).

  6. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Baste, Valborg; Bråtveit, Magne; Lind, Ola; Koefoed, Vilhelm F; Moen, Bente E

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS) among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy's (RNoN) vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226). STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS) in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports). This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS. PMID:27157689

  7. Compliance of Royal Naval ships with nitrogen oxide emissions legislation.

    PubMed

    Blatcher, D J; Eames, I

    2013-09-15

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from marine diesel engines pose a hazard to human health and the environment. From 2021, demanding emissions limits are expected to be applied to sea areas that the Royal Navy (RN) accesses. We analyze how these future constraints affect the choice of NOx abatement systems for RN ships, which are subject to more design constraints than civilian ships. A weighted matrix approach is used to facilitate a quantitative assessment. For most warships to be built soon after 2021 Lean Nitrogen Traps (LNT) in conjunction with Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) represents a relatively achievable option with fewer drawbacks than other system types. Urea-selective catalytic reduction is likely to be most appropriate for ships that are built to civilian standards. The future technologies that are at an early stage of development are discussed. PMID:23906471

  8. Nineteenth century amputations at the Royal Berkshire Hospital, Reading.

    PubMed Central

    Galland, R. B.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To describe 19th century amputations carried out at the Royal Berkshire Hospital, Reading. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of hospital archives. RESULTS: Details of 276 amputations were analysed. The majority (86%) were in men and boys. The median age was 33 years. The ratio of leg:arm amputation was 2:1. Trauma accounted for 58% of amputations. Of 52 arm amputations, 42 were due to trauma, compared with 37 of 110 leg amputations (P < 0.001). Mortality was higher following amputation for trauma than for disease (P < 0.01). Mortality following leg amputation was 16% compared with 3.8% after arm amputation (P < 0.05). Death rate following compound fracture was 23%. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with today, the population undergoing amputation and the indications for amputation in the 19th century differ significantly. However, it is apparent that in those patients who were selected to undergo amputation acceptable survival figures could be achieved. PMID:14629880

  9. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Baste, Valborg; Bråtveit, Magne; Lind, Ola; Koefoed, Vilhelm F.; Moen, Bente E

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS) among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy's (RNoN) vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226). STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS) in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports). This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS. PMID:27157689

  10. Royal dynasties as human inbreeding laboratories: the Habsburgs

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, F C; Álvarez, G

    2013-01-01

    The European royal dynasties of the Early Modern Age provide a useful framework for human inbreeding research. In this article, consanguineous marriage, inbreeding depression and the purging of deleterious alleles within a consanguineous population are investigated in the Habsburgs, a royal dynasty with a long history of consanguinity over generations. Genealogical information from a number of historical sources was used to compute kinship and inbreeding coefficients for the Habsburgs. The marriages contracted by the Habsburgs from 1450 to 1750 presented an extremely high mean kinship (0.0628±0.009), which was the result of the matrimonial policy conducted by the dynasty to establish political alliances through marriage. A strong inbreeding depression for both infant and child survival was detected in the progeny of 71 Habsburg marriages in the period 1450–1800. The inbreeding load for child survival experienced a pronounced decrease from 3.98±0.87 in the period 1450–1600 to 0.93±0.62 in the period 1600–1800, but temporal changes in the inbreeding depression for infant survival were not detected. Such a reduction of inbreeding depression for child survival in a relatively small number of generations could be caused by elimination of deleterious alleles of a large effect according with predictions from purging models. The differential purging of the infant and child inbreeding loads suggest that the genetic basis of inbreeding depression was probably very different for infant and child survival in the Habsburg lineage. Our findings provide empirical support that human inbreeding depression for some fitness components might be purged by selection within consanguineous populations. PMID:23572123

  11. Royal dynasties as human inbreeding laboratories: the Habsburgs.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, F C; Alvarez, G

    2013-08-01

    The European royal dynasties of the Early Modern Age provide a useful framework for human inbreeding research. In this article, consanguineous marriage, inbreeding depression and the purging of deleterious alleles within a consanguineous population are investigated in the Habsburgs, a royal dynasty with a long history of consanguinity over generations. Genealogical information from a number of historical sources was used to compute kinship and inbreeding coefficients for the Habsburgs. The marriages contracted by the Habsburgs from 1450 to 1750 presented an extremely high mean kinship (0.0628±0.009), which was the result of the matrimonial policy conducted by the dynasty to establish political alliances through marriage. A strong inbreeding depression for both infant and child survival was detected in the progeny of 71 Habsburg marriages in the period 1450-1800. The inbreeding load for child survival experienced a pronounced decrease from 3.98±0.87 in the period 1450-1600 to 0.93±0.62 in the period 1600-1800, but temporal changes in the inbreeding depression for infant survival were not detected. Such a reduction of inbreeding depression for child survival in a relatively small number of generations could be caused by elimination of deleterious alleles of a large effect according with predictions from purging models. The differential purging of the infant and child inbreeding loads suggest that the genetic basis of inbreeding depression was probably very different for infant and child survival in the Habsburg lineage. Our findings provide empirical support that human inbreeding depression for some fitness components might be purged by selection within consanguineous populations. PMID:23572123

  12. Evaluating the Australian Traineeship System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Australian Traineeship System (ATS), a program integrating formal education and employment designed to increase options for dropouts. Discusses problems involving the centrality of ATS's educational component and implementation of a program evaluation strategy. Includes two references. (MLH)

  13. Effect of Royal Jelly on new bone formation in rapid maxillary expansion in rats

    PubMed Central

    Özan, Fatih; Çörekçi, Bayram; Halicioğlu, Koray; Irgin, Celal; Yilmaz, Fahri; Hezenci, Yasin

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of long and short term systemic usage of royal jelly on bone formation in the expanded maxillary suture in a rat model. Material and Methods Twenty eight Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups: Control (C); Only Expansion (OE), Royal Jelly (RJ) group, Royal Jelly was given to rats by oral gavage only during the expansion and retention period; Royal Jelly plus Nursery (RJN) group, Royal Jelly was given to rats by oral gavage during their nursery phase of 40 days and during the retention period. After the 5 day expansion period was completed, the rats underwent 12 days of mechanical retention. All rats were sacrificed in same time. Histological examination was performed to determine the number of osteoclasts, number of osteoblasts, number of capillaries, inflammatory cell infiltration, and new bone formation. Results New bone formation, number of osteoclasts, number of osteoblasts, and the number of capillaries in the expanded maxillary sutures were higher in the RJ and RJN groups than in the other groups. Statistical analysis also demonstrated that new bone formation and the number of osteoblasts was also highest in the RJN group. Conclusions The systemic administration of Royal Jelly in conjunction with rapid maxillary expansion may increase the quality of regenerated bone. Key words:Bone formation, rapid maxillary expansion, Royal jelly. PMID:26449428

  14. Body-enlarging effect of royal jelly in a non-holometabolous insect species, Gryllus bimaculatus

    PubMed Central

    Miyashita, Atsushi; Kizaki, Hayato; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Honeybee royal jelly is reported to have body-enlarging effects in holometabolous insects such as the honeybee, fly and silkmoth, but its effect in non-holometabolous insect species has not yet been examined. The present study confirmed the body-enlarging effect in silkmoths fed an artificial diet instead of mulberry leaves used in the previous literature. Administration of honeybee royal jelly to silkmoth from early larval stage increased the size of female pupae and adult moths, but not larvae (at the late larval stage) or male pupae. We further examined the body-enlarging effect of royal jelly in a non-holometabolous species, the two-spotted cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, which belongs to the evolutionarily primitive group Polyneoptera. Administration of royal jelly to G. bimaculatus from its early nymph stage enlarged both males and females at the mid-nymph and adult stages. In the cricket, the body parts were uniformly enlarged in both males and females; whereas the enlarged female silkmoths had swollen abdomens. Administration of royal jelly increased the number, but not the size, of eggs loaded in the abdomen of silkmoth females. In addition, fat body cells were enlarged by royal jelly in the silkmoth, but not in the cricket. These findings suggest that the body-enlarging effect of royal jelly is common in non-holometabolous species, G. bimaculatus, but it acts in a different manner than in holometabolous species. PMID:27185266

  15. Body-enlarging effect of royal jelly in a non-holometabolous insect species, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Atsushi; Kizaki, Hayato; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2016-01-01

    Honeybee royal jelly is reported to have body-enlarging effects in holometabolous insects such as the honeybee, fly and silkmoth, but its effect in non-holometabolous insect species has not yet been examined. The present study confirmed the body-enlarging effect in silkmoths fed an artificial diet instead of mulberry leaves used in the previous literature. Administration of honeybee royal jelly to silkmoth from early larval stage increased the size of female pupae and adult moths, but not larvae (at the late larval stage) or male pupae. We further examined the body-enlarging effect of royal jelly in a non-holometabolous species, the two-spotted cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, which belongs to the evolutionarily primitive group Polyneoptera. Administration of royal jelly to G. bimaculatus from its early nymph stage enlarged both males and females at the mid-nymph and adult stages. In the cricket, the body parts were uniformly enlarged in both males and females; whereas the enlarged female silkmoths had swollen abdomens. Administration of royal jelly increased the number, but not the size, of eggs loaded in the abdomen of silkmoth females. In addition, fat body cells were enlarged by royal jelly in the silkmoth, but not in the cricket. These findings suggest that the body-enlarging effect of royal jelly is common in non-holometabolous species, G. bimaculatus, but it acts in a different manner than in holometabolous species. PMID:27185266

  16. Royal jelly modulates oxidative stress and tissue injury in gamma irradiated male Wister Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Khaled Shaaban; Bashandy, Mohamed; Salem, Mahmoud; Ahmed, Osama; Tawfik, Zaki; Helal, Hamed

    2011-01-01

    Background: Royal jelly is a nutritive secretion produced by the worker bees, rich in proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Aim: The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effects of royal jelly against radiation induced oxidative stress, hematological, biochemical and histological alterations in male Wister albino rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wister albino rats were exposed to a fractionated dose of gamma radiation (2 Gy every 3 days up to 8 Gy total doses). Royal jelly was administrated (g/Kg/day) by gavages 14 days before exposure to the 1st radiation fraction and the treatment was continued for 15 days after the 1st irradiation fraction till the end of the experiment. The rats were sacrificed 3rd, equivalent to 3rd post 2nd irradiation fraction, and equivalent to 3rd day post last irradiation fraction. Results: In the present study, gamma- irradiation induced hematological, biochemical and histological effects in male Wister albino rats. In royal jelly treated irradiated group, there was a noticeable decrease recorded in thiobarbituric reactive substances concentration when compared to γ-irradiated group. Also, the serum nitric oxide concentration was significantly improved. The administration of royal jelly to irradiated rats according to the current experimental design significantly ameliorates the changes induced in serum lipid profile. Moreover, in royal jelly treated irradiated group, there was a noticeable amelioration recorded in all hematological parameters along the three experimental intervals. The microscopic examination of cardiac muscle of royal jelly treated irradiated rats demonstrated structural amelioration, improved nuclei and normal features of capillaries and veins in endomysium when compared to gamma-irradiated rats. Conclusion: It was suggested that the biochemical, hematological and histological amelioration observed in royal jelly (g/Kg/day) treated irradiated rats might be due to the antioxidant

  17. Cardioprotective effect of royal jelly on paclitaxel-induced cardio-toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Malekinejad, Hassan; Ahsan, Sima; Delkhosh-Kasmaie, Fatemeh; Cheraghi, Hadi; Rezaei-Golmisheh, Ali; Janbaz-Acyabar, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Paclitaxel is a potent chemotherapy agent with severe side effects, including allergic reactions, cardiovascular problems, complete hair loss, joint and muscle pain, which may limit its use and lower its efficiency. The cardioprotective effect of royal jelly was investigated on paclitaxel-induced damages. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were divided into control and test groups (n=8). The test group was assigned into five subgroups; 4 groups, along with paclitaxel administration (7.5 mg/kg BW, weekly), received various doses of royal jelly (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg BW) for 28 consecutive days. The last group received only royal jelly at 100 mg/kg. In addition to oxidative and nitrosative stress biomarkers, the creatine kinase (CK-BM) level was also determined. To show the cardioprotective effect of royal jelly on paclitaxel-induced damages, histopathological examinations were conducted. Results: Royal jelly lowered the paclitaxel-elevated malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels in the heart. Royal jelly could also remarkably reduce the paclitaxel-induced cardiac biomarker of creatine kinase (CK-BM) level and pathological injuries such as diffused edema, hemorrhage, congestion, hyaline exudates, and necrosis. Moreover, royal jelly administration in a dose-dependent manner resulted in a significant (P<0.05) increase in the paclitaxel-reduced total antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: Our data suggest that the paclitaxel-induced histopathological and biochemical alterations could be protected by the royal jelly administration. The cardioprotective effect of royal jelly may be related to the suppression of oxidative and nitrosative stress. PMID:27081469

  18. Proteomic characterization of royal jelly proteins in Chinese (Apis cerana cerana) and European (Apis mellifera) honeybees.

    PubMed

    Qu, Ning; Jiang, Jie; Sun, Liangxian; Lai, Changcheng; Sun, Lifang; Wu, Xueji

    2008-06-01

    In this study, the proteins contained in royal jelly (RJ) derived from Chinese and European honeybees have been analyzed in detail and compared. Remarkable differences were found in the heterogeneity of major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs), MRJP2 and MRJP3, in terms of molecular weight and isoelectric points between the two species of RJ. MRJP2 and MRJP3 produced by Chinese honeybee are less polymorphic than those produced by European honeybee. This study is a contribution to the description of the royal jelly proteome. PMID:18620533

  19. Australian helminths in Australian rodents: an issue of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Warner, L R

    1998-06-01

    The Australian public as well as Australian funding bodies are generally unsympathetic to native murids, rats and mice, in spite of the fact that 36% have either become extinct or critically endangered since European settlement. The endemic Australian parasites of these rats and mice have been even less sympathetically regarded. Prior to 1958 very little work was carried out on the helminths of Australian rodents and little more is known today. Records are known from only 28% of the extant host species, comprising some 109 species of helminth identified at least to generic level. The rodents invaded Australia from the north, perhaps through New Guinea in at least two separate waves, 5-8 then about 1 million years ago. The parasites they brought with them have adapted and speciated and there has been some host switching between rodent groups and between rodents and the Australian marsupials. This is illustrated particularly in the Trichostrongyloidea. The origins of the rodents from Southeast Asia down the Indonesian island chain are reflected in the presence of the nematode genus Tikusnema in both Australia and Indonesia, and Cyclodontostomum purvisi across Southeast Asia and into New Guinea. Hydromys chrysogaster, the Australian water-rat, illustrates how the biogeographical influences of the host's distribution and lifestyle can affect its parasite fauna. Most of the research to date is merely indicative of where more data are needed. The links between Australian and New Guinean helminth fauna, as well as the links between rodent and marsupial hosts and their fauna, cannot be determined without further research. PMID:9673864

  20. Found: The Original 1945 Records of Australian Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goss, Miller; Ekers, Ron; Sim, Helen

    2015-08-01

    In July 2014, we found the original records of the first published Australian radio astronomy observations. These were obtained by Joseph L. Pawsey and Ruby Payne-Scott in early October 1945. The observations gave strong evidence of a million degree corona as well as frequent radio bursts.These observations followed earlier detections of the radio sun by Stanley Hey, George Southworth, Grote Reber and Elizabeth Alexander. The latter observations (the "Norfolk Island Effect" of March 1945) were the immediate motivation for the campaign carried out by Pawsey and Payne-Scott.These observations formed the basis for a number of pioneering publications: the 9 February 1946 Nature paper of Pawsey, Payne-Scott and McCready which was submitted on the last date on which data was obtained on 23 October 1945, the major publication of the initial Australian radio solar publication in the Proceedings of the Royal Society of London in August 1947 and Pawsey's presentation of the radio properties of the million degree corona in the Nature of 2 November 1946. Contemporaneously with these publications, D. F.Martyn was involved in an independent theoretical study of the properties of the solar corona.(Ginzburg and Shklovsky were also involved in this era in a study of the properties of the corona.) The back-to-back Martyn and Pawsey Nature papers were the first that described the radio properties of the hot corona, due to free-free emission. The division of the observed emission into "bursting" and "quiet" modes was challenging for the novice radio astronomers.These historical records had been recognized by Paul Wild in 1968, who instructed the CSIRO Division of Radiophysics secretary to E.("Taffy") G. Bowen, Ms. Sally Atkinson, to submit these to the Australian Academy of Science. Wild characterized these documents as "of considerable historical interest". Apparently the transmission of the documents was not done; a thorough search of the Australian Academy Library in August 2014

  1. Nutritional enrichment of fresh apple (Royal Gala) by vacuum impregnation.

    PubMed

    Xie, J; Zhao, Y

    2003-09-01

    This study evaluates the use of vacuum impregnation (VI) for developing nutritionally fortified fresh cut apples (Royal Gala). Cut apples were immersed in diluted high fructose corn syrup (20% w/w or 50% w/w) containing calcium or zinc. A vacuum pressure of 50 mmHg was applied for 15 min following atmospheric pressure restoration for 30 min while samples remained in the VI solution. Nutraceutical content and physicochemical properties of the apples immediately after VI were determined. Storability of VI apples at 6 degrees C and 90% relative humidity was also studied based on the color and texture of apples. Results indicated that 15-20% of the Daily Reference Intake of calcium and above 40% of the Daily Reference Intake of zinc could be obtained in 200 g fresh cut apples. VI treatments in 20% w/w high fructose corn syrup solutions had little effects on the physicochemical properties of apples. Storage study showed that VI with zinc significantly improved color stability, and calcium enhanced the firmness of the apples. PMID:12907403

  2. Nitrogen mineralization in a mature boreal forest, Isle Royale, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stottlemyer, R.; Toczydlowski, D.

    1999-01-01

    The 115-ha boreal Wallace Lake watershed, located on Isle Royale in the Lake Superior Basin, receives moderate anthropogenic atmospheric N inputs (3 kg ha-1 yr-1). Ecosystem response to atmospheric N inputs is, in part, determined by internal production and consumption of this limiting nutrient. The objectives of this 2-yr study on plots dominated by birch, spruce, or alder were to quantify forest floor and surface soil net and gross N mineralization rates, and examine potential effects of changes in temperature and moisture on these processes. Gross N mineralization rates were 23 times net mineralization rates, and increased with forest floor/soil temperature and moisture. Substrate quality was a likely factor in higher gross mineralization rates beneath birch and spruce. Ammonium immobilization increased with forest floor/soil temperature and moisture. Higher net N mineralization rates beneath alder resulted from lower microbial immobilization rather than greater gross N mineralization. The greatest differences between gross N mineralization and immobilization occurred in early summer. Ammonium immobilization averaged 62% of gross N mineralization. Net and gross nitrification rates differed by vegetation type, were highest in spring and fall, and increased with moisture. Gross nitrification was 19 times net nitrification rates. Nitrate immobilization increased with soil moisture, and equalled or exceeded gross nitrification. Net and gross N mineralization or nitrification rates were not correlated. Seasonal variation in forest floor and surface soil N cycling coupled with high ecosystem retention of precipitation N inputs suggest streamwater N concentrations and output reflect trends in soil processes.

  3. BOOK REVIEW: Robert Hooke and the Royal Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Neil

    2000-01-01

    Many physics students only come across Hooke when they learn his law of stretching springs, which is a pity because it is just one of his contributions to progress in science, and a minor one at that. His, Micrographia, the first great book of microscopical observations, arouses admiration to this day. He was also active in horology, astronomy, geology and surveying, and he took part in biological experiments, transfusing blood between animals. Much of his work was done while he was curator of experiments for the Royal Society, in which he was involved almost from its foundation. This was by no means a full-time occupation, however. After the Great Fire of London, Hooke was appointed one of the three surveyors for the rebuilding of the city. One of the others was Christopher Wren, a lifelong friend. In this role Hooke was responsible for the design of several buildings, including the Monument. Nichols writes about all these activities, as well as Hooke's childhood, his education at Westminster School, the University of Oxford when Hooke was an undergraduate, and the founding of the Royal Society. The book draws on research for a master's degree. Turning a dissertation into a popular book is risky. The author has avoided the pitfall of making it too academic, but the result is not satisfying. Nichols seems overawed by Hooke and his work, frequently seeming to credit Hooke with a far-reaching influence that he did not necessarily have. There may be a case for lauding Hooke as the father of English microscopy, the father of English meteorology, and the founder of English geology and earth sciences, but it needs to be made much more critically, even in a popular work. Hooke was full of good ideas, but he rarely continued long enough to put them into practice. There is no doubt that Hooke proposed using a balance wheel and spring to improve the timekeeping of a watch, for example, but he did not have a watch made to his design until after Christiaan Huygens had

  4. Numbers and Characteristics of Cats Admitted to Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Shelters in Australia and Reasons for Surrender

    PubMed Central

    Alberthsen, Corinne; Rand, Jacquie; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary National Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) shelter admission data were utilized to examine cats presented to Australian animal shelters and reasons for surrender. This study reports the most commonly cited reasons for an owner to surrender and found lower than expected sterilized cats. Abstract Despite high numbers of cats admitted to animal shelters annually, there is surprisingly little information available about the characteristics of these cats. In this study, we examined 195,387 admissions to 33 Australian RSPCA shelters and six friends of the RSPCA groups from July 2006 to June 2010. The aims of this study were to describe the numbers and characteristics of cats entering Australian RSPCA shelters, and to describe reasons for cat surrender. Data collected included shelter, state, admission source, age, gender, date of arrival, color, breed, reproductive status (sterilized or not prior to admission), feral status and surrender reason (if applicable). Most admissions were presented by members of the general public, as either stray animals or owner-surrenders, and more kittens were admitted than adults. Owner-related reasons were most commonly given for surrendering a cat to a shelter. The most frequently cited owner-related reason was accommodation (i.e., cats were not allowed). Importantly, although the percentage of admissions where the cat was previously sterilized (36%) was the highest of any shelter study reported to date, this was still lower than expected, particularly among owner-surrendered cats (47%). The percentage of admissions where the cat was previously sterilized was low even in jurisdictions that require mandatory sterilization. PMID:26999223

  5. Genetic variability among lake whitefish from Isle Royale and the Upper Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stott, Wendylee; Todd, Thomas N.; Kallemeyn, Larry

    2004-01-01

    The coregonine fishes from Isle Royale National Park represent a unique group that has escaped the successional changes observed elsewhere in North America. Analysis of microsatellite DNA loci revealed significant genetic differences among samples of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) from Isle Royale, Lake Superior, and Lake Huron. The amount of genetic variation observed is consistent with that seen in other studies of whitefishes from North America. The lake whitefish from Isle Royale had previously been assigned sub-species status, but no evidence was found to support this. The effects of common ancestry and demographics both play a role in determining the relatedness of the populations. As with other fish species from Isle Royale and the upper Great Lakes, the lake whitefish have their origins in the Mississippi refugium.

  6. Two cases of 16th century head injuries managed in royal European families.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Kamilah A; Goodrich, James Tait

    2016-07-01

    In Europe, during the 16th century, there were a number of prominent general surgeons adventurous enough to consider operating on the brain for head injuries. From the time of Hippocrates, operating on the skull and brain was considered both treacherous and too dangerous to be undertaken except on rare occasions. Operating on a member of a royal court was considered even more exceptional because if the outcome was poor, the surgeon could lose a hand or limb, or, even worse, be beheaded. The authors present two interesting cases of royal family members who underwent surgery for head injuries that were quite severe. The surgeons involved, Ambroise Paré, Andreas Vesalius, and Berengario da Carpi, were among the most prominent surgeons in Europe. Despite very challenging political situations, all were willing to undertake a complex surgical intervention on the member of a prominent royal family. The individuals involved, both royal and medical, plus the neurosurgical injuries are discussed. PMID:27364255

  7. The Royal College of Nursing: a century of dedication to nurses and patients.

    PubMed

    Davies, Janet

    Janet Davies, Chief Executive of the Royal College of Nursing, reflects on the RCN's achievements since its foundation in 1916, and looks ahead to the challenges the nursing profession faces in 2016 and beyond. PMID:26911169

  8. The Royal Society Catalogue as an Index to Nineteenth Century American Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Clark A.

    1970-01-01

    The Royal Society Catalogue of Scientific Papers is investigated in terms of its coverage of American science journals and American scientists. The journals indexed by the catalogue are compared to other standard lists of journals from the nineteenth century. (Author)

  9. Killers in the Brain - Essays in Science and Technology from the Royal Institution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Peter

    1999-09-01

    This fascinating and diverse selection of essays from the Royal Institution provides a glimpse of some of the most current and exciting scientific research, ranging from the global increase in asthma and allergies to neurodegenerative diseases known as "brain killers."

  10. The Code of Ethics and Editorial Code of Practice of the Royal Astronomical Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Whilst the Royal Astronomical Society has got by for more than 100 years without a written code of ethics, modern standards of governance suggested that such a code could be useful in the resolution of disputes. In 2005, the RAS adopted the Universal Code of Ethics for Science that had been formulated by the Royal Society of London. At the same time and for similar reasons the RAS adopted an Editorial Code of Practice.

  11. The Civic Mission of Australian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lawrence; Muirhead, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the origins and meaning of civic responsibility in the Australian model of the university, beginning with medieval European universities and progressing through Australian reforms of the 20th century. Warns against the university without a civic mission. (SLD)

  12. ASA24-Australian Version (Under Development)

    Cancer.gov

    In collaboration with the National Cancer Institute (NCI), a consortium of Australian Researchers is adapting the ASA24 system to the Australian context to account for variations in food consumed, portion sizes, and nutrient composition.

  13. Antifatigue effect of fresh royal jelly in mice.

    PubMed

    Kamakura, M; Mitani, N; Fukuda, T; Fukushima, M

    2001-12-01

    We investigated the antifatigue effect of royal jelly (RJ), which had been stored at -20 degrees C from immediately after collection, in male Std ddY mice. The mice were accustomed to swimming in an adjustable-current swimming pool, then subjected to forced swimming five times during 2 wk, and the total swimming period until exhaustion was measured. They were separated into three groups with equal swimming capacity, which were administered RJ, RJ stored at 40 degrees C for 7 d (40-7d RJ), or the control solution including casein, cornstarch, and soybean oil before swimming. All mice were forced to swim for 15 min once; then the maximum swimming time to fatigue was measured after a rest period. The swimming endurance of the RJ group significantly increased compared with those of the other groups. The mice in the RJ group showed significantly decreased accumulation of serum lactate and serum ammonia and decreased depletion of muscle glycogen after swimming compared with the other groups, whereas there was no significant difference between the 40-7d RJ group and the control group in these parameters after swimming. A quantitative analysis of constituents in RJ showed that 5 7-kDa protein, which we previously identified as a possible freshness marker of RJ, was specifically degraded in RJ stored at 40 degrees C for 7 d, whereas the contents of various vitamins, 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid, and other fatty acids in RJ were unchanged. These findings suggest that RJ can ameliorate the physical fatigue after exercise, and this antifatigue effect of RJ in mice seems to be associated with the freshness of RJ, possibly with the content of 5 7-kDa protein. PMID:11922114

  14. "English" in the "Australian Curriculum: English"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This is the text of a paper given at the 2011 Symposium of the Australian Academy of the Humanities on the theme, "Educating the Nation: The Humanities in the New Australian Curriculum", the 42nd Annual Symposium of the Australian Academy of the Humanities at the University of Melbourne, 17 November 2011. It was presented in a session on "History,…

  15. Ethnic origin in the Australian census.

    PubMed

    Horn, R V

    1987-05-01

    "This article discusses the Australian statistics of ethnic origin, collected under the headings of race and ancestry in the Australian census, with particular reference to conceptual precision and neutrality and to validity of results. It deals with European and non-European groups, but not with the special problems of counting the Australian aboriginal population." PMID:12341346

  16. Changing Patterns of Governance for Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Kay; Treadgold, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with the "corporate" model for university governance, a model advocated by both sides of the Australian parliament and adopted by Australian universities over the past two decades, prompted the Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee (AVCC) in 2003 to suggest an alternative "trusteeship" model. The paper discusses how this model…

  17. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy - An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  18. The psychiatric profession and the Australian government: the debate over collective depression syndrome among asylum-seeking detainees

    PubMed Central

    Bostock, William W

    2009-01-01

    Psychiatrists have long had involvement with the political process, both individually and as a profession. They have made valuable contributions to debate over such issues as war, conflict, terrorism, torture, human rights abuse, drug abuse, suicide and other public health issues. However, they have also been complicit in some gross atrocities. Over several years there has been debate over the Australian Government’s treatment of asylum seekers, and the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists took the unusual step of publicly criticizing the Australian Government’s policy on grounds of its toxicity leading to a diagnosis of collective depression syndrome, particularly among child detainees, but also adult detainees. The official Ministerial response was to deny that collective depression exists and to assert that the concept is meaningless. Can this intervention by psychiatrists be interpreted as a product of earlier political behaviors by psychiatrists? The willingness of psychiatrists to cooperate with other professions, notably psychologists, pediatricians, physicians and lawyers, is noted, as is presence of minority voices within the Australian psychiatric profession. The significance of the debate over the mental condition of asylum-seeking detainees is that its outcome has implications for how Australia sees itself and is seen by the rest of the world, that is, its national identity. PMID:22110326

  19. Second Languages and Australian Schooling. Australian Education Review No. 54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo Bianco, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    It is an underlying principle of Australian Education Review (AER) 54 that active efforts should be made to cultivate the latent bilingual potential within Australia's wider population and that this should be linked to major improvements in the quality of language teaching in schools. A combined approach of this kind will require investment in…

  20. 76 FR 37272 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Royal Fiberglass Pools...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... Illinois SIP on February 21, 1980 (45 FR 11472). The rule states that ``no person shall cause or allow the... FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not impose an information collection burden under the provisions of... Federalism implications as specified in Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999); Is not...

  1. Revalidation: implications for Australian anaesthetists.

    PubMed

    Roberts, L J

    2015-09-01

    In early 2015, the Medical Board of Australia commissioned research into international revalidation models and what might be applicable for Australia. This review examines the implications for Australian anaesthetists. What problem is revalidation seeking to address? What is happening in similar countries? Is there an issue with Australian anaesthetists' performance? Isn't continuing professional development enough? Could the Medical Board target known high-risk doctors? What is the evidence for the benefit of revalidation? How is and how should the profession be involved? Revalidation has been introduced in other developed countries. It commonly involves continuing professional development, feedback from colleagues, co-workers and patients, clinical audit and peer review. Although its evidence base is limited, the General Medical Council in the United Kingdom is evaluating its revalidation system, which should provide useful guidance for other countries. Australian anaesthetists and their professional organisations must remain informed about, and engaged in, the national debate about revalidation, to ensure that any new process is workable for Australian anaesthesia practice. PMID:26310418

  2. Arabic in Australian Islamic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Presents census data on the Muslim population in Australia and overviews full-time independent Islamic schools offering a comprehensive education across the curriculum. Argues that these schools offer great potential for the successful development of Arabic language and cultural literacy skills required by Australian exporters and diplomats in the…

  3. Catalogue of Australian Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A catalogue of all families, subfamilies, genera, and species of Cynipoidea present in Australia is presented here. The Australian cynipoid fauna is very poorly known, with 37 genera cited: one each for Austrocynipidae, Ibaliidae, Liopteridae, two for Cynipidae, and 32 for Figitidae. The first Austr...

  4. Staff Bullying in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Dan; Duncan, Deirdre J.; Edwards, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of staff bullying in Australian schools, to identify bullies and targets and to examine some implications for school leaders in dealing with staff bullying. Design/methodology/approach: The quantitative research design survey instrument contained 11 demographic items, 44 questions of…

  5. Employee Participation: Some Australian Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansbury, Russell D.; Davis, Edward M.

    1992-01-01

    The Australian Workplace Industrial Relations Survey of 2,353 companies showed sporadic employee participation in decision making. Although case studies of Ford Motor, Australia Post, Lend Lease, Telecom Australia, and Woodlawn Mining illustrate successful programs, most managers appear cautious about industrial democracy. (SK)

  6. The 2005 Australian Informatics Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the Australian Informatics Competition (AIC), a non-programming competition aimed at identifying students with potential in programming and algorithmic design. It is the first step in identifying students to represent Australia at the International Olympiad in Informatics. The main aim of the AIC is to increase awareness of…

  7. Australian Rural Education Award, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Rural Australia, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Profiles and contact information for 14 candidate programs for the 1999 Australian Rural Education Award. Programs feature tree planting, transportation to boarding school, community development, business awareness, early childhood services, GIS technology, community-based curriculum development, reading resources, environmental service learning,…

  8. Stress Literacy in Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlow, Megan; Wuthrich, Viviana; Murrihy, Rachael; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wheatley, Anna; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Kidman, Antony

    2009-01-01

    Stress literacy is a term that refers to knowledge about stress and stress management techniques. Levels of stress literacy were examined in more than nine hundred Australian adolescents by providing a short stress-management education session and assessing stress literacy using a pre-post survey design. It was found that while adolescents had a…

  9. Cataloguing Practices in Australian Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hine, Janet D.

    A survey sought to compile comprehensive information about the cataloging codes, classification schemes, subject headings lists, and filing rules used in Australian libraries. Questionnaires were sent to 112 libraries, and 98 returns were received, included in the sample were national, state, public, university, college, and special libraries.…

  10. Skills Gaps in Australian Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of more than 2000 managers examining perceptions of skills gaps in a range of Australian firms. It finds that three quarters report a skills gap, and almost one third report skills gaps across the whole organisation. Firm size and industry differences exist in perceptions of the effect of the skills gap…

  11. Depression, anxiety, and stress in partners of Australian combat veterans and military personnel: a comparison with Australian population norms

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Partners of Australian combat veterans are at an increased risk of experiencing mental health problems. The present study provides a comparative analysis of the mental health of partners of veterans with that of the Australian normative data. To compare different types of groups of partners, the study samples comprised: (a) partners of Australian combat veterans (Sample 1: n = 282, age M = 60.79, SD = 5.05), (b) a sub-sample of partners of Australian combat veterans from the previous sample (Sample 2: n = 50; M = 60.06, SD = 4.80), (c) partners of Special Air Services Regiment (SASR) personnel (Sample 3: n = 40, age M = 34.39SD = 7.01), and (d) partners of current serving military (non-SASR) personnel (Sample 4: n = 38, age M = 32.37, SD = 6.20). Respondents completed measures assessing their reported levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. Samples 1 and 2 comprised partners of Australian military veterans who reported significantly greater symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress than the comparative population norms. The sample of SASR personnel partners (Sample 3) reported significantly lower levels of depression and anxiety, whereas the sample with non-SASR personnel partners (Sample 4) reported a significantly greater stress symptomatology than the comparative norms. Number of deployments was found to be associated with depression, anxiety, and stress in partners of non-SASR veterans (Sample 4). Lessons and protective factors can be learnt from groups within the current military as to what may assist partners and families to maintain a better level of psychosocial health.

  12. Nephroprotective effect of bee honey and royal jelly against subchronic cisplatin toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Abdelazim; Eldaim, Mabrouk A Abd; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M

    2016-08-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most potent and effective chemotherapeutic agents. However, its antineoplastic use is limited due to its cumulative nephrotoxic side effects. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the nephroprotective potential of dietary bee honey and royal jelly against subchronic cisplatin toxicity in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into controls, cisplatin-treated, bee honey-pretreated cisplatin-treated and royal jelly-pretreated cisplatin-treated groups. Bee honey and royal jelly were given orally at doses of 20 and 100 mg/kg, respectively. Subchronic toxicity was induced by cisplatin (1 mg/kg bw, ip), twice weekly for 10 weeks. Cisplatin treated animals revealed a significant increase in serum level of renal injury products (urea, creatinine and uric acid). Histopathologically, cisplatin produced pronounced tubulointerstitial injuries, upregulated the fibrogenic factors, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor β1(TGF-β1), and downregulated the cell proliferation marker, bromodeoxyuridine (Brdu). Dietary bee honey and royal jelly normalized the elevated serum renal injury product biomarkers, improved the histopathologic changes, reduced the expression of α-SMA and TGF-β1 and increased the expression of Brdu. Therefore, it could be concluded that bee honey, and royal jelly could be used as dietary preventive natural products against subchronic cisplatin-induced renal injury. PMID:25720368

  13. Effects of Royal Jelly Supplementation on Body Weight and Dietary Intake in Type 2 Diabetic Females

    PubMed Central

    Pourmoradian, Samira; Mahdavi, Reza; Mobasseri, Majid; Faramarzi, Elnaz; Mobasseri, Mehrnoosh

    2012-01-01

    Background: The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of royal jelly supple-mentation on body weight, total daily energy and macronutrients intakes in type2 diabetic fe-males. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, fifty female volunteers with type2 diabetes were as-signed into the supplemented (n=25) and placebo (n=25) groups, given a daily dose of 1000 mg royal jelly soft gel or placebo, for 8 weeks, respectively. Before and after the intervention, body weight and height of subjects were measured and body mass index was calculated. Dietary intake of patients was assessed using 24-hour food recall questionnaire for three non consecutive days (including 1 weekend day) and analyzed with Nutritionist IV software. The normally distributed data were compared using paired and independent t-tests, where appropriate. Results: Royal jelly supplementation significantly (P<0.01) decreased the mean body weight (72.45±4.42 vs. 71.00±6.44 kg) while it increased insignificantly in placebo group (73.02±6.44 vs 73.52±6.80 kg). Royal jelly supplementation resulted in significant decrease of mean daily total energy (P<0.01) and carbohydrate (P<0.01) intakes, while in placebo group the mean daily total energy and fat intakes were increased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: Supplementation with royal jelly may be beneficial in weight management of di-abetic patients. PMID:24688939

  14. CareTrack Kids—part 2. Assessing the appropriateness of the healthcare delivered to Australian children: study protocol for a retrospective medical record review

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Tamara D; Hibbert, Peter D; Mealing, Nicole; Wiles, Louise K; Jaffe, Adam; White, Les; Cowell, Christopher T; Runciman, William B; Goldstein, Stan; Hallahan, Andrew R; Wakefield, John G; Murphy, Elisabeth; Lau, Annie; Wheaton, Gavin; Williams, Helena M; Hughes, Clifford; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Australian and international clinical practice guidelines are available for common paediatric conditions. Yet there is evidence that there are substantial variations between the guidelines, recommendations (appropriate care) and the care delivered. This paper describes a study protocol to determine the appropriateness of the healthcare delivered to Australian children for 16 common paediatric conditions in acute and primary healthcare settings. Methods and analysis A random sample of 6000–8000 medical records representing a cross-section of the Australian paediatric population will be reviewed for appropriateness of care against a set of indicators within three Australian states (New South Wales, Queensland and South Australia) using multistage, stratified sampling. Medical records of children aged <16 years who presented with at least one of the study conditions during 2012 and 2013 will be reviewed. Ethics and dissemination Human Research Ethics Committee approvals have been received from the Sydney Children's Hospital Network, Children's Health Queensland Hospital and Health Service and Women's and Children's Hospital Network (South Australia). An application is under review for the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. The authors will submit the results of the study to relevant journals and offer oral presentations to researchers, clinicians and policymakers at national and international conferences. PMID:25854977

  15. New reports of Australian cutaneous leishmaniasis in Northern Australian macropods.

    PubMed

    Dougall, A; Shilton, C; Low Choy, J; Alexander, B; Walton, S

    2009-10-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by various species of Leishmania is a significant zoonotic disease in many parts of the world. We describe the first cases of Australian cutaneous leishmaniasis in eight northern wallaroos, one black wallaroo and two agile wallabies from the Northern Territory of Australia. Diagnosis was made through a combination of gross appearance of lesions, cytology, histology, direct culture, serology and a species-specific real-time PCR. The causative organism was found to be the same unique species of Leishmania previously identified in red kangaroos. These clinical findings provide further evidence for the continuous transmission of the Australian Leishmania species and its presence highlights the importance of continued monitoring and research into the life-cycle of this parasite. PMID:19288959

  16. Faithful interpreters? Translation theory and practice at the early Royal Society

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Felicity

    2013-01-01

    The early Fellows of the Royal Society received letters, papers and printed books written in several European vernaculars. In many cases a translation was needed to make these texts accessible. Translators, though, had to negotiate the Society's corporate views on language and prose style, and also prevailing contemporary theories of literary translation set out by popular poets such as John Dryden and Abraham Cowley. This article examines the translation practices of early Fellows of the Royal Society, showing that translations formed part of a set of knowledge-making processes at meetings. It also discusses the statements about translation theory found in the prefaces to printed volumes produced by or for Royal Society Fellows, arguing that although translators were aware of the requirement for a faithful translation, in fact they often modified their source texts to make them more useful for an English audience.

  17. Australian "Play School": Viewing and Post-Viewing Behaviours in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Cathie Anne; van Vliet, Helen Elizabeth; Anderson, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Australian "Play School" is a children's television programme developed in collaboration with early childhood educators. It is screened free to air across Australia. Two hundred and twenty-four adult carers of young children aged 1-8 years completed an online survey via a link on the "Play School" website. The survey addressed child behaviours…

  18. Presidential addresses of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene: 1907-2013.

    PubMed

    Hay, Simon I; McHugh, Gerri M

    2013-10-01

    Presidents have been required to give an inaugural address on commencing office at the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (RSTMH) since its foundation in 1907. All presidential addresses were identified, sourced and assembled into an annotated bibliography. The majority of presidential addresses have been published in Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Unpublished and in some cases 'lost' contributions have now been sourced where possible and archived at the RSTMH. This unique, rich and rewarding archive provides a vista into the development of the RSTMH and the discipline of tropical medicine. The archive is freely available to all. PMID:24026462

  19. High Royal Jelly-Producing Honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lian-Fei; Zheng, Huo-Qing; Pirk, Christian W W; Hu, Fu-Liang; Xu, Zi-Wei

    2016-04-01

    China is the largest producer and exporter of royal jelly (RJ) in the world, supplying >90% of the global market. The high production of RJ in China is principally owing to the high RJ-producing lineage of honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola, 1806) established by beekeepers in the 1980s. We describe the development of high royal jelly-producing honeybees and the management of this lineage today. Previous research and recent advances in the genetic characterization of this lineage, and the molecular markers and mechanisms associated with high RJ production are summarized. The gaps in our knowledge and prospects for future research are also highlighted. PMID:26921226

  20. Glacial and Postglacial Geologic History of Isle Royale National Park, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huber, N. King

    1973-01-01

    Isle Royale was overridden by glacial ice during each of the four major glaciations of the Pleistocene Epoch, and each successive glaciation essentially obliterated all direct evidence of preceding glaciations on the island. In the waning phase of the last major glaciation, the Wisconsin Glaciation, the frontal ice margin retreated northward from at least the greater part of the Lake Superior basin, then readvanced into the basin during Valders time, about 11,000 years ago. We can attribute to the Valders ice the final aspect of glaciation on Isle Royale, including both erosional and depositional features. It is impossible to estimate the quantity of glacial debris or other surficial materials that might have been present on Isle Royale prior to the Valders readvance, but the readvancing ice appears to have removed most of what might have been present, as judged by the thin surficial cover on the eastern two-thirds of the island today. During the Valders retreat, a series of lakes formed in the Lake Superior basin in front of the retreating ice margin. The retreating ice opened successively lower outlets, and thus the general trend of lake elevations is downward. Distinct lake stages reflect periods of relative stability during which well- defined shoreline features developed. The ice front forming the north margin of the earlier lakes probably remained south of Isle Royale until about the time of glacial Lake Beaver Bay, when it retreated to a position straddling Isle Royale west of Lake Desor. Abundant deposits of glacial debris were left upon the newly deglaciated west end of the island, and the ice front remained stable long enough to build a complex of ice-margin deposits across the island. Shorelines formed by the glacial lake associated with this ice front are found on the western part of the island about 200 feet above present Lake Superior. Subsequent renewed and complete retreat of the ice margin from Isle Royale was rapid enough that only a minor amount

  1. Presidential addresses of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene: 1907–2013

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Simon I.; McHugh, Gerri M.

    2013-01-01

    Presidents have been required to give an inaugural address on commencing office at the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (RSTMH) since its foundation in 1907. All presidential addresses were identified, sourced and assembled into an annotated bibliography. The majority of presidential addresses have been published in Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Unpublished and in some cases ‘lost’ contributions have now been sourced where possible and archived at the RSTMH. This unique, rich and rewarding archive provides a vista into the development of the RSTMH and the discipline of tropical medicine. The archive is freely available to all. PMID:24026462

  2. Captain Edmond Halley, F.R.S., Royal Navy, and the practice of navigation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, D. W.

    Edmond Halley, Fellow of the Royal Society, Astronomer Royal (1720 - 42), is rarely thought of or mentioned as a sea captain or a scientific seaman. Yet his shiphandling in the course of three voyages in command of Their Majesties' Pink Paramore (1698 - 1701) is in itself proof that his seamanship was of the highest order. Similarly, the practical innovations that he made in the arts of navigation and pilotage, in the form of printed sea charts and sailing directions, were fundamentally scientific and therefore remain relevant today.

  3. Nazi medical experiments on Australian prisoners of war: Commentary on the testimony of an Australian soldier.

    PubMed

    Weisz, George M

    2015-12-01

    Archival research reveals that Australian prisoners of war were exposed to non-consensual medical experiments during World War II. This article discusses the first known case of an Australian soldier exposed to German medical experiments. PMID:26939510

  4. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  5. Immune dysfunction in Australian Aborigines.

    PubMed

    Roberts-Thomson, P J; Roberts-Thomson, R A; Nikoloutsopoulos, T; Gillis, D

    2005-12-01

    An examination of the prevalence and phenotype of immune disorders in different ethnic groups may provide important clues to the etiopathogenesis of these disorders. Whilst still conjectural the restricted and somewhat unique polymorphisms of the MHC (and other genetic loci involving host defences) of the Australian Aborigines may provide an explanation for their apparent heightened susceptibility to newly encountered infections and their resistance to many (auto) immune and allergic disorders. In comparison with non-Aboriginal Australians, Australian Aborigines have heightened frequencies of rheumatic fever, systemic lupus erythematosus, various infections and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. In contrast various autoimmune disorders (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, CREST, biliary cirrhosis, coeliac disease, pernicious anaemia, vitiligo), B27 related arthropathies, psoriasis, lymphoproliferative disorders and atopic disorders appear infrequent or absent. Similarly various autoantibodies occur with increased or diminished frequency. With continuing racial admixture, social deprivation and deleterious lifestyles of these people it is likely that further changes in both the frequencies and phenotype of these immune disorders will occur. It is only with a full understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in these immune disorders that meaningful and clinical relevant interventions will be possible. PMID:16572744

  6. The Politics Are Personal: "The Australian" vs the Australian Curriculum in History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tony; Collins, Sue

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the relationship between the conservative newspaper "The Australian" and the development of a national history curriculum in Australia. The lead author surveyed the major Australian press in the five-year period between 2007 and 2012 and found clear patterns of difference between "The Australian" and other press outlets in…

  7. Mechanism of action of recombinant Acc-royalisin from royal jelly of Chinese honeybee against gram-positive bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antibacterial activity of royalisin, an antimicrobial peptide from the royal jelly produced by honeybees has been addressed extensively. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, a recombinant royalisin, RAcc-royalisin from the royal jelly of Chinese honeybee Apis cerana...

  8. 78 FR 23316 - The Royal Bank of Scotland plc, et al.; Notice of Application and Temporary Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... COMMISSION The Royal Bank of Scotland plc, et al.; Notice of Application and Temporary Order April 12, 2013.... APPLICANTS: The Royal Bank of Scotland plc (``RBS plc''), Citizens Investment Advisors (``Citizens IA''), a... Exchange Commission, 100 F Street NE., Washington, DC 20549-1090. Applicants: RBS plc, RBS, Gogarburn,...

  9. The William Houston Gold Medal of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh 2014, orthodontic cases.

    PubMed

    Almuzian, Mohammed

    2015-09-01

    The William Houston Medal is awarded to the individual achieving the highest mark at, the Membership in Orthodontics (MOrth) examination at the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh. As part of the examination the candidate must submit five clinical cases. Details of two cases treated by the winning candidate are presented in this paper. PMID:26082385

  10. THE ORIGIN OF THE NUCLEIC ACID BASES FOUND IN THE ROYAL JELLY OF THE HONEYBEE

    PubMed Central

    Painter, Theophilus S.

    1969-01-01

    The discovery that the royal jelly of the honeybee contains large quantities of nucleic acids raises the question, “Where do these nucleic acids come from?” A review of pertinent literature strongly suggests that the same mechanism is involved as in the case of the extrachromosomal DNA of amphibian oocytes. PMID:16591784

  11. Finding the Way: Improving Access to the Collections of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Candida

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the Images for All digitisation project at the Royal Scottish Geographical Society, and lessons learned from it. Design/methodology/approach: This paper describes the background to the project and collections held. It focuses on the development of the project web site, the digitisation of 100…

  12. [Understanding the survey of the Royal Society of Medicine (1774-1793): source, problems and methodology].

    PubMed

    Borel, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    The treasures of many archives can be amazing for the historians such as those ones of the Royal Society of Medicine which listed all the diseases rife into the French provinces since 1774. The listing now appears as weather reports and nosology classifications. How to study these reports? What kind of methodology to be used? PMID:15977359

  13. Reflections on a Degree Initiative: The UK's Birmingham Royal Ballet Dancers Enter the University of Birmingham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benn, Tansin

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an opportunity to share experiences and perceptions of the first 5 years of a degree programme for professional dancers. A partnership developed in the mid-1990s between the UK's Birmingham Royal Ballet and the University of Birmingham, Westhill (now School of Education), to provide a part-time, post-experience, flexible study…

  14. Cardiac centres of excellence. 'Royal Brompton': the specialist centre in London that specialist centres consult.

    PubMed

    2011-06-01

    It may be diagnosing Thalassaemia with magnetic resonance, navigating catheters round tight corners with magnets, or treating Marfan's syndrome with the Brompton Sheath--but if it is state of the art and it works, the Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, London, will almost certainly have pioneered it, reports Barry Shurlock MA, PhD. PMID:21815300

  15. 78 FR 42512 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Royal Bank of Canada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Royal Bank of Canada AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy... authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202(e) of the... transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a power marketer for a five-year term...

  16. APPARENT 85KRYPTON AGES OF GROUNDWATER WITHIN THE ROYAL WATERSHED, MAINE, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    85Kr activities were determined in 264 domestic and municipal wells from 2002-2004 in the Royal watershed (361 km2), Maine. Gas extraction for 85Kr from wells was effected directly via a well-head methodology permitting efficient widespread analys...

  17. Mercury concentrations in deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) tissues from Isle Royale National Park.

    PubMed

    Vucetich, L M; Vucetich, J A; Cleckner, L B; Gorski, P R; Peterson, R O

    2001-01-01

    We used deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) to investigate variation in mercury exposure across the terrestrial ecosystem of Isle Royale National Park (Michigan, USA). Although previous work suggested that mercury (Hg) levels may be higher inside the Sargent Lake watershed of Isle Royale than outside the watershed, Hg concentrations in livers were higher outside the Sargent Lake watershed (100.13 ng Hg/g dry tissue) than inside the watershed (35.50 ng Hg/g dry tissue; P = 0.06). Mercury levels in kidneys did not differ significantly (P = 0.57) between samples collected outside (443.23 ng Hg/g dry tissue) and inside (360.62 ng Hg/g dry tissue) the Sargent Lake watershed. Mean Hg concentrations in the livers of mice at some sites in Isle Royale are not significantly lower (P = 0.62) than Hg concentrations considered by some government agencies to be unhealthy for human consumption. Although Hg concentrations in mouse tissues were not remarkably high (compared to heavily polluted sites), concern is warranted because: (1) Isle Royale National park is a protected area in a remote location; (2) any exposure in deer mice represents a path for biomagnification in the terrestrial food web; and (3) the source of this mercury remains unidentified. PMID:11443999

  18. Integrating Social Sustainability in Engineering Education at the KTH Royal Institute of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björnberg, Karin Edvardsson; Skogh, Inga-Britt; Strömberg, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate what are perceived to be the main challenges associated with the integration of social sustainability into engineering education at the KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with programme leaders and teachers from…

  19. Ruptured-yolk peritonitis and organochlorine residues in a royal tern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Locke, L.N.; Stafford, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    Ruptured-yolk peritonitis was responsible for the death of a royal tern. Lodgment of eggs in the oviduct was probably due to reverse peristalsis brought about by breakage of the thin-shelled eggs and secondary bacterial infection. The thin shells were apparently not related to the low levels of DDE and other organochlorine pollutants found in tissues and egg contents.

  20. From Sun King to Royal Twilight: Painting in Eighteenth Century France from the Musee Picardie, Amiens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the traveling exhibition from the Musee de Picardie in Amiens, France, called "From the Sun King to the Royal Twilight: Painting in Eighteenth Century France," that provides an overview of French paintings from the reign of Louis IV to the fall of the monarchy. (CMK)

  1. Co-Operative Problem-Solving at the Royal Docks Community School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This article responds to Henry Tam's article in this issue of FORUM by exploring opportunities for co-operative problem-solving for staff and students of the Royal Docks Community School in the London Borough of Newham. Becoming a co-operative trust helped the school move out of special measures and develop a strategy of participation and…

  2. Build Your Own Particle Smasher: The Royal Society Partnership Grants Scheme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article features the project, "Build Your Own Particle Smasher" and shares how to build a particle smasher project. A-level and AS-level students from Trinity Catholic School have built their own particle smashers, in collaboration with Nottingham Trent University, as part of The Royal Society's Partnership Grants Scheme. The project, "Build…

  3. [A tale of 2 cities. The dispute over the true origins of the Royal Society].

    PubMed

    Beeley, Philip

    2008-01-01

    When the Royal Society was founded in November 1660 it took scientific societies already existing in other European countries as its model. However, at a time when the new mathematical and experimental sciences were still generally without a secure institutional foundation there was also great interest in the new society on the part of scientists and scholars abroad. Soon visitors such as Christiaan Huygens and Balthazar de Monconys were able to report positively on its practical orientation, while among others Johannes Hevelius and Philipp Jacob Sachs von Lewenhaimb in letters to the founder member John Wallis and to the secretary Henry Oldenburg requested more information on its origins and statutes. Meanwhile, in England the Royal Society found itself the object of vociferous criticism, especially from the universities, which saw their own role as centres of learning increasingly compromised by the existence of an institution dedicated to the promotion of modern science. The Royal Society responded to this interest from abroad and criticism at home by commissioning an official history written by Thomas Sprat, a man with a university as well as a literary background. However, despite the author's good credentials, the History of the Royal Society presents a one-sided account of the institution, mainly from the perspective of the circle around John Wilkins to which Sprat had belonged. According to their point of view the Royal Society arose from meetings which Wilkins had organized at Wadham College in Oxford in the early 1650s. For members of the old guard, such as Wallis and William Brouncker, the origins of the Royal Society were, however, not in Oxford but rather in London, where meetings involving a significant number of members of the future institution had taken place already in the mid-1640s. This was not simply a question of historical accuracy, but also of the way in which the Royal Society conceived itself: while the circle around Wilkins was in

  4. MRJP microsatellite markers in Africanized Apis mellifera colonies selected on the basis of royal jelly production.

    PubMed

    Parpinelli, R S; Ruvolo-Takasusuki, M C C; Toledo, V A A

    2014-01-01

    It is important to select the best honeybees that produce royal jelly to identify important molecular markers, such as major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs), and hence contribute to the development of new breeding strategies to improve the production of this substance. Therefore, this study focused on evaluating the genetic variability of mrjp3, mrjp5, and mrjp8 and associated allele maintenance during the process of selective reproduction in Africanized Apis mellifera individuals, which were chosen based on royal jelly production. The three loci analyzed were polymorphic, and produced a total of 16 alleles, with 4 new alleles, which were identified at mrjp5. The effective number of alleles at mrjp3 was 3.81. The observed average heterozygosity was 0.4905, indicating a high degree of genetic variability at these loci. The elevated FIS values for mrjp3, mrjp5, and mrjp8 (0.4188, 0.1077, and 0.2847, respectively) indicate an excess of homozygotes. The selection of Africanized A. mellifera queens for royal jelly production has maintained the mrjp3 C, D, and E alleles; although, the C allele occurred at a low frequency. The heterozygosity and FIS values show that the genetic variability of the queens is decreasing at the analyzed loci, generating an excess of homozygotes. However, the large numbers of drones that fertilize the queens make it difficult to develop homozygotes at mrjp3. Mating through instrumental insemination using the drones of known genotypes is required to increase the efficiency of Africanized A. mellifera-breeding programs, and to improve the quality and efficiency of commercial royal jelly apiaries. PMID:25177952

  5. Gender differences in response to questions on the australian national chemistry quiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walding, Richard; Fogliani, Charles; Over, Ray; Bain, John D.

    In contrast to the attention given to the relative levels of achievement of boys and girls in mathematics, the question of whether there are sex differences in the solution of chemistry questions has not attracted much attention. This study compares the performance of boys and girls in the Australian National Chemistry Quiz (Chem Quiz), a multiple-choice test conducted by the Royal Australian Chemical Institute. The analyses were based on results from 27,000 students in Years 11 and 12 and 16,000 students in Year 10 who completed the Chem Quiz in 1991. Although some questions in the Chem Quiz were solved equally well by boys and girls, on many questions boys outperformed girls. The extreme case was a question answered correctly by 67% of Year 10 boys in contrast to 48% of Year 10 girls. Several reasons why boys and girls might differ in the rates they solve at least some chemistry questions are discussed, and directions for identifying the nature, extent, and basis for sex differences are outlined.

  6. Our Father who art in prison: Conviction and rehabilitation for Australian Catholic clergy who are child sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Mike

    2015-12-01

    In light of the Royal Commission into Institutional Child Sexual Abuse, this article analyses the custodial sentences of 143 Australian Catholic clergy. The majority of these sentences were for convictions for indecent assault for which the median sentence was two years' imprisonment. It is doubtful whether the Australian community would consider such sentences as adequate, particularly where offences were against children. Current Australian legislation allows for ongoing long-term sanctions, including judicial orders for chemical castration, to be imposed on convicted sex offenders, especially those assessed as being at high risk of re-offending. Clergy on parole are likely to be prohibited from resuming most pastoral responsibilities on the grounds of high actuarial risk of re-offending, but what limited data are available suggests that priests may have low rates of re-offending. If priests do have low rates of recidivism, what then should the Catholic Church do about priests convicted of child sexual abuse offences who want to return to pastoral work and how might they be managed and monitored? Laicisation of offender priests will inevitably produce ostracism and isolation which are conducive to re-offending. PMID:26939512

  7. Career Intentions of Australian Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Whipp, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Australian physical education (PE) teachers' career intentions and factors influencing their intentions. A sample (N = 234) of Western Australian PE teachers responded to a questionnaire determining PE teachers' work and the primary motivators for intention to leave the profession. Half (51.3%) of the…

  8. A global history of Australian trees.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Brett M

    2011-01-01

    Scholars studying the globalization of Australian trees have previously emphasized the rapid natural propagation of Australian trees outside of their native habitats, believing their success to be a reversal of "ecological imperialism" from the "new world" to the "old world." This article argues that the expansion of Australian trees should not be viewed as a biological phenomenon, but as the result of a long-term attempt by powerful states and state-sponsored scientists to select and breed Australian species that could grow in a variety of climates and ecological conditions. Five non-biological factors largely determined the success of these attempts to grow Australian trees: the abundance or paucity of natural forests, state power, the amount of scientific research directed to planting Australian trees, the cost of labor, and the ability to utilize hardwood timbers and bark. This paper compares the use of Australian trees in Australia, India, and South Africa to demonstrate that biology was not the determining factor in the long-term success of many Australian genera and species. PMID:20665086

  9. Government Financial Assistance for Australian University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the assistance provided by governments to students in Australian universities. First provides some background information on the history and structure of the Australian higher education sector and then discusses the two major forms of government financial assistance: assistance with fees and assistance through income support. (EV)

  10. Australian Literature in the Primary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Colleen, Ed.

    This book was designed to supply information on available resources in Australian children's literature and a tradition of teaching which incorporates the Australian experience in an inclusive manner. Essays and their authors consist of the following: (1) "Children's Books in Australia: Two Hundred Years of Social Life" (Maurice Saxby); (2) "One…

  11. Rethinking Majors in Australian Indigenous Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakata, Martin; Nakata, Vicky; Keech, Sarah; Bolt, Reuben

    2014-01-01

    The challenges of finding more productive ways of teaching and learning in Australian Indigenous Studies have been a key focal point for the Australian Indigenous Studies Learning and Teaching Network. This article contributes to this discussion by drawing attention to new possibilities for teaching and learning practices amid the priority being…

  12. Australian Aboriginal Language Early Childhood Education Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Tony

    This report discusses the provision of culturally appropriate early childhood programs in Australian Aboriginal language in Australia, and the education of teachers for these programs. The first section of the report examines the education of indigenous peoples in the context of the current Australian education system. Evidence in support of the…

  13. A National Australian Curriculum: In Whose Interests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditchburn, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of an Australian curriculum is likely to have a widespread and long-term impact on schools, teachers and students, and yet there has been a swift and an almost unquestioning acceptance of its introduction by the Australian public and by educators. This paper will use theoretical frameworks informed by Gramsci's cultural hegemony…

  14. Four Management Agendas for Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharrock, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In a new mixed economy of higher learning, Australian universities require more strategic management to compete and collaborate sustainably. However, many scholars argue that new modes of university management are at odds with scholarly aims and values. This article examines how Australian universities frame their missions and communicate their…

  15. Are Young Muslims Adopting Australian Values?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabir, Nahid Afrose

    2008-01-01

    Recently politicians in Australia have raised concerns that some Muslims are not adopting Australian values to a sufficient extent. In this paper I explore the notion of Australian values with respect to immigrant youth. By analysing interviews with 32 Muslim students who are 15-18 years of age and of diverse backgrounds in two state schools in…

  16. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  17. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  18. Rural surgery: the Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Bruening, Martin H; Maddern, Guy J

    2009-12-01

    A significant proportion of the Australian population resides nonmetropolitan regions. For the majority of these smaller regional centers, the surgical service delivery has been traditionally provided by either solo or two-person surgical practices. As medical students' interest in rural practice declined, new models were created to ensure medical care in these areas. This article outlines the past and current state of medical care in rural areas, highlighting models used in Port Augusta, Mount Gambier, and Port Lincoln. It concludes that these models are successful and should be further developed. PMID:19944815

  19. Australian developments in marine science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, Millard F.

    2012-07-01

    Australia is an island nation with about two thirds of its jurisdiction underwater. On 25 May 2012, Australia instituted the Seas and Submerged Lands (Limits of Continental Shelf) Proclamation 2012, confirming areas of seabed where Australia has exclusive rights to explore and exploit marine resources. This proclamation follows recommendations by the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, a body established under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, confirming Australia's entitlement to extended continental shelf, i.e., that beyond 200 nautical miles from the coastline, of some 2.56 million square kilometers, excluding Australian Antarctic Territory [Symonds et al., 2009] (Figure 1a).

  20. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    Australian Aboriginal ethnoastronomical traditions were recorded from a wide variety of sources in different periods. While the corpus of mythology concerning the heavens is diverse, it is unified by beliefs of a Skyworld as land with its own topography, containing plants and animals familiar to those living below. Spirits of the dead reside alongside the Creation Ancestors as celestial bodies in the Skyworld. Aboriginal hunter-gatherers used the regular movement of constellations and planets to measure time and to indicate the season, while unexpected change in the sky was seen as an omen.

  1. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  2. Determination of royal jelly freshness by ELISA with a highly specific anti-apalbumin 1, major royal jelly protein 1 antibody*

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Li-rong; Wang, Yi-ran; Zhai, Liang; Zhou, Wen-xiu; Tan, Liang-liang; Li, Mei-lu; Liu, Dan-dan; Xiao, Fa

    2015-01-01

    Major royal jelly protein 1 (MRJP1), designated apalbumin 1, has been regarded as a freshness marker of royal jelly (RJ). A MRJP1-specific peptide (IKEALPHVPIFD) identified by bioinformatics analysis of homologous members of the major royal protein family was synthesized and used to raise polyclonal anti-MRJP1 antibody (anti-SP-MRJP1 antibody). Western blot analysis showed that anti-SP-MRJP1 antibody only reacted with MRJP1 in RJ. In contrast, the previously reported antibody against recombinant MRJP1 (anti-R-MRJP1 antibody) reacted with other members of MRJP family in RJ. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using anti-SP-MRJP1 antibody demonstrated that MRJP1 content in RJ stored at 40 °C significantly degraded by 37.3%, 55.9%, 58.0%, 60.6%, 65.7%, 72.7%, and 73.1% at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 49 d, respectively, when compared with MRJP1 content in fresh RJ (0 d). Optical density analysis of MRJP bands from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) profiles demonstrated that the degradation of MRJP1, MRJP2, MRJP3, and MRJP5 in RJ was strongly and positively correlated with the period of storage (P<0.0001). Our results indicated anti-SP-MRJP1 antibody was highly specific for MRJP1, and ELISA using the antibody is a sensitive and easy-to-use method to determine the freshness and authenticity of RJ. PMID:25644470

  3. Simultaneous determination of seven fluoroquinolones in royal jelly by ultrasonic-assisted extraction and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jinhui; Xue, Xiaofeng; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Jinzhen; Li, Yi; Wu, Liming; Chen, Lanzhen; Zhao, Jing

    2009-04-01

    A method for the quantitative determination of seven fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents (FQs) used in beekeeping, viz. ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, pefloxacin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and difloxacin, in royal jelly samples was developed on the basis of high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Sample preparation included deproteination, ultrasonic-assisted extraction with a mixed inorganic solution of monopotassium phosphate (KH(2)PO(4)) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (Na(2)EDTA), and clean-up on a solid-phase extraction cartridge. The extraction procedure was optimized with regard to the amount of inorganic solvent and the duration of sonication for royal jelly as a complicated matrix. Overall recoveries for FQs ranged from 85.9 to 99.1% for royal jelly with standard deviations between 2.79 and 6.27%. Limits of quantification were 2-40 ng/g for seven FQs in royal jelly. A total of 57 real royal jelly samples collected from beekeepers and supermarkets were analyzed. The three most abundant honeybee-use FQs, i. e. ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and norfloxacin, were determined in some royal jelly samples in concentrations ranging from 11.9 to 55.6 ng/g. Unexpectedly, however, difloxacin was found at concentrations of about 46.8 ng/g in one sample although it is rarely used in beekeeping. The presented method was successfully applied to quantify FQs in real royal jelly samples. PMID:19306254

  4. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Avtex Fibers site, Front Royal, VA. (Second remedial action), September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    The 440-acre Avtex Fibers site is a former synthetic fibers manufacturing facility in Front Royal, Warren County, Virginia. A section of the site lies within the 100-year Shenandoah River floodplain. The plant produced rayon (1940-1989), polyester (1970-1977), and polypropylene fibers (1985-1989). Until 1983, the by-products, including sodium cellulose xanthate-based viscose waste and zinc hydroxide sludge, were disposed of onsite in unlined surface impoundments or landfills. Subsequently, the waste was routed to an onsite wastewater treatment facility. Fly ash (fromincinerator exhaust air pollution control devices) and boiler house solids were disposed of in four other surface impoundments. In 1982, a State investigation identified carbon disulfide, a constituent of viscose waste, in residential wells located across the river from the plant. In 1983 and 1984, in response to the result of the investigation, Avtex implemented interim measures to address the ground water contamination by purchasing 23 subdivision properties in the area with contaminated ground water. The ROD addresses the removal of PCB-contaminated soil, breakdown of the acid reclamation facility, and the disposal of drummed wastes thought to contain oils, bases, acids, solvents, and PCBs.

  5. Australian scientists develop male contraceptive.

    PubMed

    1974-05-20

    The Australian Information Service in Canberra reports that Australian scientists have formulated a contraceptive pill to temporarily stop spermatogenesis in man, thus producing infertility. The research was done by a team consisting of Dr. Henry Burger, director of the Medical Reserach Center at Prince Henry's Hospital in Melbourne, Dr. Bryan Hudson, Principal Research Fellow at the Howard Florey Institute of Experimental Medicine at the Univeristy of Melbourne, and Dr. David de Kretser, senior lecturer in Monash University's Department of Medicine at Prince Henry's Hospital. The contraceptive pill consists of progestagen (d-norgestrel) with androgen (methyltestosterone), a combination that suppresses the production of the sperm but conserves libido and potency. The testing program has yet to be undertaken in human volunteers. There will be three phases to the drug trial: pretreatment, during which the health of the volunteers and the safety of the drug will be established; the treatment phase, lasting six months, during which the volunteers will be given daily oral dose of the drugs; and the recovery phase, lasting at least three months, during which the restoration of normal spermatogenesis will be observed. PMID:12333267

  6. Australian HFC, PFC and SF6 emissions: atmospheric verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, P.; Dunse, B.; Krummel, P. B.; Steele, P.; Manning, A. J.

    2011-12-01

    exceptions. References DCCEE (2011), Australian National Greenhouse Accounts, National Inventory Report 2009, Volume 1, Australian Government Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency, 284 pp, April 2011. Miller, B., R. Weiss, P. Salameh, T. Tanhua, B. Greally, J. Muhle & P. Simmonds, Medusa: a sample pre-concentration and GC-MS detector system for in situ measurements of atmospheric trace halocarbons, hydrocarbons and sulphur compounds, Anal. Chem., 80 (5), 1536-1545, 2008. Prinn, R., R. Weiss, P. Fraser, P. Simmonds, D. Cunnold, F. Alyea, S. O'Doherty, P. Salameh, B. Miller, J. Huang, R. Wang, D. Hartley, C. Harth, P. Steele, G. Sturrock, P. Midgley & A. McCulloch, A history of chemically and radiatively important gases in air deduced from ALE/GAGE/AGAGE, Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 105 (D14): 17751-17792, 2000.

  7. Cosmic Rays - Essays in Science and Technology from the Royal Institution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catlow, Richard; Greenfield, Susan

    2002-04-01

    Since its foundation in 1799, the Royal Institution of Great Britain has inspired enthusiasm and excitement for science, as a means to understanding the world around us. The Friday Evening Discourses were initiated by Michael Faraday in 1826 and are one of the most prestigious series of popular science lectures in the world.This new selection of essays from the Royal Institution offers fascinating and authoritative accounts of current thinking in diverse areas of science, ranging from cosmic rays to the development of new materials that seem to have a life of their own. Also in this collection are essays that consider how scientists can better convey their work to the general public and to a younger generation.

  8. Convergance experiments with a hydrodynamic model of Port Royal Sound, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, J.K.; Schaffranek, R.W.; Baltzer, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    A two-demensional, depth-averaged, finite-difference, flow/transport model, SIM2D, is being used to simulate tidal circulation and transport in the Port Royal Sound, South Carolina, estuarine system. Models of a subregion of the Port Royal Sound system have been derived from an earlier-developed model of the entire system having a grid size of 600 ft. The submodels were implemented with grid sizes of 600, 300, and 150 ft in order to determine the effects of changes in grid size on computed flows in the subregion, which is characterized by narrow channels and extensive tidal flats that flood and dewater with each rise and fall of the tide. Tidal amplitudes changes less than 5 percent as the grid size was decreased. Simulations were performed with the 300-foot submodel for time steps of 60, 30, and 15 s. Study results are discussed.

  9. Sir William Burnett (1779-1861), professional head of the Royal Naval Medical Department and entrepreneur.

    PubMed

    Penn, Christopher

    2004-08-01

    Sir William Burnett (1779-1861) had an active career as a Royal Navy surgeon in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, including service at the battles of St Vincent, the Nile and Trafalgar. From 1822 to 1855 he was professional head of the Royal Naval Medical Department, when he provided effective leadership in a time of great change. Although his official work earned him the reputation of a "hard-working, unimaginative, somewhat harsh man", his correspondence shows a very humane centre under the official carapace. His official performance and reputation were both eroded towards the end of his career by his determined promotion of zinc chloride, for which he held lucrative patents. PMID:15257349

  10. Organochlorine and metal residues in royal terns nesting on the central Texas coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, K.A.; LeFever, C.A.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1983-01-01

    Royal Tern eggs collected from Pelican and Sundown islands on the central Texas coast in 1978 contained relatively low levels of organochlorine and metal pollutants. DDE and PCBs were found most frequently, but levels were below those known to have an adverse effect on avian reproduction and survival. Average metal residues did not vary significantly between study areas, and with the possible exception of mercury, were present only at background levels. Shells of eggs collected in 1978 were no thinner than eggshells collected before 1947. There was a significant imporvement in mean eggshell thickness from 1970 to 1978 and a corresponding decline in DDE and PCB residues. No deformed or abnormal young were observed. Although elevated levels of industrial contaminants were reported in sediments and sea grasses of Corpus Christi Bay, little of those contaminants appear to have accumulated in the Royal Tern.

  11. The Royal Medical Society of Edinburgh: Sale of its Library at Sotheby's *

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Helen

    1970-01-01

    The library of the Royal Medical Society of Edinburgh, which has been in existence for nearly 250 years, was sold by Sotheby & Co. of London at three auction sales during 1969. The author describes her attendance at the three sales, with emphasis on the most valuable items sold and the considerable acquisitions made for the Middleton Medical Library of the University of Wisconsin. Concluding observations concern some of the practical problems of acquiring antiquarian books at auction. Images PMID:5496237

  12. Ground water for public water supply at Windigo, Isle Royale National Park, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grannemann, N.G.; Twenter, F.R.

    1982-01-01

    Three test holes drilled at Windigo in Isle Royale National Park in 1981 indicate that the ophitic basaltic lava flows underlying the area contain little water and cannot be considered a source for public water supply. The holes were 135, 175, and 71 feet deep. One hole yielded about 1 gallon of water perminute; the other two yielded less. Glacial deposits seem to offer the best opportunity for developing a ground-water supply of 5 to 10 gallons per minute. (USGS)

  13. History of the Royal College of General Practitioners--the first 40 years.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, D P

    1992-01-01

    A steering committee met in 1952 to plan for the formation of a new college of general practitioners. An analysis of the work of the Royal College of General Practitioners over its first 40 years suggests that the published aims of the steering committee were largely fulfilled and in some ways exceeded. The unifying theme of the College's development appears to have been the wish to establish general medical practice as a scientific discipline. PMID:1586530

  14. The efficacy of topical Royal Jelly on diabetic foot ulcers healing: A case series*

    PubMed Central

    Siavash, Mansour; Shokri, Saeideh; Haghighi, Sepehr; Mohammadi, Mahbubeh; Shahtalebi, Mohammad Ali; Farajzadehgan, Ziba

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Foot ulcers and infections are the major sources of morbidity in individuals with diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of topical Royal Jelly (a worker honey bee product) on healing diabetic foot ulcers. METHODS: Diabetic patients with foot ulcers that were referred to our clinic at Khorshid Hospital, Isfahan, Iran; were evaluated three times a week and treated according to standard treatments consisted of offloading, infection control, vascular improvement and debridement if required. In addition, all ulcers were measured and then topical sterile 5% Royal Jelly was applied on the total surface area of the wounds. Eventually, they were covered with sterile dressings. Each patient was followed for a period of three months or until the complete healing. RESULTS: A total of eight patients were enrolled in this study. Of these, two had two ulcers and, therefore, ten ulcers were evaluated. Two ulcers were excluded. Seven of the remained eight ulcers healed. Mean duration of complete healing was 41 days. One ulcer did not completely heal but improved to 40% smaller in length, 32% in width and 28% in depth. The mean length, width and depth reduction rates were 0.35 mm/day, 0.28 mm/day and 0.11 mm/day, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Royal Jelly dressing may be an effective method for treating diabetic foot ulcers besides standard treatments. PMID:22279458

  15. Major royal jelly proteins as markers of authenticity and quality of honey.

    PubMed

    Bilikova, Katarina; Kristof Krakova, Tatiana; Yamaguchi, Kikuji; Yamaguchi, Yoshihisa

    2015-12-01

    Until now, the properties of honey have been defined based exclusively on the content of plant components in the nectar of given plant. We showed that apalbumin1, the major royal jelly (RJ) protein, is an authentic and regular component of honey. Apalbumin1 and other RJ proteins and peptides are responsible for the immunostimulatory properties and antibiotic activity of honey. For the quantification of apalbumin1, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using polyclonal anti-apalbumin1 antibody. The method is suitable for honey authenticity determination; moreover it is useful for detection of the honey, honeybee pollen and RJ in products of medicine, pharmacy, cosmetics, and food industry, where presences of these honeybee products are declared. Results from the analysis for presence and amount of apalbumin1 in honeys will be used for high-throughput screening of honey samples over the world. On the basis of our experiments which show that royal jelly proteins are regular and physiologically active components of honey we propose to change the definition of honey (according to the EU Honey Directive 2001/110/EC) as follows: Honey is a natural sweet substance produced by honey bees from nectar of plants or from secretions of plants, or excretions of plant sucking insects, which honey bees collect, transform by combining with major royal jelly proteins and other specific substances of their own, deposit, dehydrate, store and leave in the honey comb to ripen and mature. PMID:26751857

  16. Heat Resistant Characteristics of Major Royal Jelly Protein 1 (MRJP1) Oligomer

    PubMed Central

    Moriyama, Takanori; Ito, Aimi; Omote, Sumire; Miura, Yuri; Tsumoto, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    Soluble royal jelly protein is a candidate factor responsible for mammiferous cell proliferation. Major royal jelly protein 1 (MRJP1), which consists of oligomeric and monomeric forms, is an abundant proliferative protein in royal jelly. We previously reported that MRJP1 oligomer has biochemical heat resistance. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of several heat treatments (56, 65 and 96°C) on the proliferative activity of MRJP1 oligomer. Heat resistance studies showed that the oligomer molecular forms were slightly maintained until 56℃, but the molecular forms were converted to macromolecular heat-aggregated MRJP1 oligomer at 65℃ and 96℃. But, the growth activity of MRJP1 oligomer treated with 96°C was slightly attenuated when compared to unheated MRJP1 oligomer. On the other hand, the cell proliferation activity was preserved until 96℃ by the cell culture analysis of Jurkat cells. In contrast, those of IEC-6 cells were not preserved even at 56°C. The present observations suggest that the bioactive heat-resistance properties were different by the origin of the cells. The cell proliferation analysis showed that MRJP1 oligomer, but not MRJP2 and MRJP3, significantly increased cell numbers, suggesting that MRJP1 oligomer is the predominant proliferation factor for mammiferous cells. PMID:26020775

  17. Life history variation among four lake trout morphs at Isle Royale, Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Nate, Nancy A.; Muir, Andrew M.; Bronte, Charles R.; Zimmerman, Mara S.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Life history traits were compared among four morphs of lake trout at Isle Royale, Lake Superior. Of 738 lake trout caught at Isle Royale, 701 were assigned to a morph (119 humpers, 160 leans, 85 redfins, and 337 siscowets) using a combination of statistical analysis of head and body shape and visual assignment. On average, redfins were longer (544 mm), heavier (1,481 g), heavier at length (Wr = 94), more buoyant, and older (22 years) than siscowets (519 mm; 1,221 g; 90; 19 years), leans (479 mm; 854 g; 82; 13 years), and humpers (443 mm; 697 g; 87; 17 years). On average, leans grew from a younger age at length = 0 and shorter length at age = 0, at a faster early growth rate to a longer asymptotic length than the other three morphs, while redfins grew at a slower instantaneous rate and humpers grew to a shorter asymptotic length than other morphs. On average, leans were longer (562 mm) and older (15 years) at 50% maturity than redfins (427 mm, 12 years), siscowets (401 mm, 11 years), or humpers (394 mm, 13 years). Life history parameters did not differ between males and females within each morph. We conclude that differences in life history attributes of lean, humper, redfin, and siscowet morphs of lake trout are consistent with differential habitat use in waters around Isle Royale, Lake Superior.

  18. Effect of storage under extremely low oxygen on the volatile composition of 'Royal Gala' apples.

    PubMed

    Both, Vanderlei; Brackmann, Auri; Thewes, Fabio Rodrigo; Ferreira, Daniele de Freitas; Wagner, Roger

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the profile of volatile compounds in 'Royal Gala' apples stored under controlled atmosphere (CA), with O(2) levels ranging from 1.0kPa to as low as 0.5kPa during 8months (0.5°C), followed by 7days of shelf-life at 20°C. Volatile compounds were collected via solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and analysed by gas chromatography. Straight and branched-chain esters exhibited a distinct pattern. The emission of straight-chain esters decreased under extremely low O(2) (0.5kPa), while branched-chain esters were not significantly affected in such condition. 2-Methyl-butyl acetate, a significant contributor to the 'Royal Gala' aroma, was higher in intermediate O(2) concentration, suggesting that lowering the O(2) levels down to 0.7kPa does not negatively affect the volatile composition of 'Royal Gala' apples, as compared to the standard CA (1.0kPa O(2)). The remaining volatile compounds were not strongly affected by storing fruits under extremely low O(2). PMID:24629937

  19. Relation of environmental factors to breeding status of royal and sandwich terns in South Carolina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Prouty, R.M.; Neely, B.S., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The population ecology of the royal tern Sterna maxima and sandwich tern Sterna sandvicensis was investigated in South Carolina from 1970 through 1977. Royal and sandwich terns nested together in all of the colonies that we located. The peak in egg laying usually occurred in early May; peak hatching occurred from late May to mid-June. Clutch size for both species was one egg. Tidal flooding was the major factor in egg loss. The breeding population was 15,499 pairs in 1974 and 18,096 pairs in 1975; sandvicensis made up about 5% of the breeding population. The average number of young fledged per nest ranged from 0?36 to 0?44. Residues of organochlorine pollutants in most eggs and tissues were low and posed no identifiable threat to the terns. There was a decline in DDE and dieldrin residues in eggs of maxima. The future of royal and sandwich terns in South Carolina seems fairly secure as the population is apparently at or near carrying capacity and most of the major nesting sites are dedicated to protection of nesting birds.

  20. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-07-01

    We explore about fifty different Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarize the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses. We show that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, elders or medicine men claimed to be able to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their roles as providers and protectors within their communities. We also show that some Aboriginal groups seem to have understood the motions of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the Moon blocking the Sun.

  1. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haverd, V.; Raupach, M. R.; Briggs, P. R.; Canadell, J. G.; Davis, S. J.; Law, R. M.; Meyer, C. P.; Peters, G. P.; Pickett-Heaps, C.; Sherman, B.

    2013-02-01

    This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2) budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990-2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes) project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP); net ecosystem production (NEP); fire; land use change (LUC); riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock) and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial). Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012), a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05°) offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011), a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean) and 68 ± 15 TgC yr-1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes), which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr-1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr-1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP) is 36 ± 29 TgC yr-1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr-1) by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV) in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009-2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  2. Homicide victims among Australian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Kliewer, E V

    1994-09-01

    The homicide rates for various immigrant groups in Australia were calculated, and the influence of the rate in countries of origin on immigrant rates and the relationship between the birthplace of the accused and victim were examined. Age-sex standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for homicide were calculated for the immigrant groups, based on 1984-1988 mortality data and 1986 census data. The Australian-born homicide rates were used as the standard. Standardised mortality ratios for countries of origin were derived from WHO data. A cross-tabulation of the birthplaces of the accused and the victim was compiled from 1989-1992 police records. Male SMRs ranged from 0.13 (P < 0.01) for immigrants from Africa and the Americas to 5.83 (P < 0.05) for Koreans. Several female groups had lower SMRs than the Australian-born, although none of these differences were significant. Indonesian females had the highest SMR (5.32, P < 0.01). There was a positive Spearman correlation between the ranking of homicide rates for the origin populations and the immigrants (males 0.64, P < 0.05; females 0.62, P < 0.05). Overall, 51.3 per cent of immigrants were killed by their compatriots. This ranged from zero for New Zealanders to 100 per cent for immigrants from the Middle East. In order to further identify factors contributing to the large differences in rates it is imperative to have information on the victim, the perpetrator and the circumstances surrounding the murder. PMID:7841261

  3. Innovation in Australian Workplaces: An Empirical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The determinants of innovation were examined using data from 698 Australian workplaces. Results suggest that better employee-management communications are associated with more change and that workplaces with higher levels of training undergo more change. (Author/JOW)

  4. Higher Degree Examination Procedures in Australian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovas, Stephen

    1980-01-01

    Detailed and wide-ranging suggestions are offered for reforming Australia's higher degree requirements. The author, an Australian PhD, compares them with requirements in other countries and finds them "particularly regressive, unenlightened, intellectually counterproductive, undemocratic, and uncivilized." (JSR)

  5. Diffuse panbronchiolitis in an Australian aborigine

    PubMed Central

    Brown, James; Simpson, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) is a chronic sino-bronchial disease. It has remained restricted to the Japanese and cases in the West are unusual. We present a patient of Australian aboriginal origin with DPB. The known efficacy of low-dose erythromycin in DPB is again described. Chronic respiratory disease is common in the Australian aboriginal population and DPB should be considered in the differential. PMID:25473569

  6. Diffuse panbronchiolitis in an Australian aborigine.

    PubMed

    Brown, James; Simpson, Graham

    2014-06-01

    Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) is a chronic sino-bronchial disease. It has remained restricted to the Japanese and cases in the West are unusual. We present a patient of Australian aboriginal origin with DPB. The known efficacy of low-dose erythromycin in DPB is again described. Chronic respiratory disease is common in the Australian aboriginal population and DPB should be considered in the differential. PMID:25473569

  7. Why Do Chinese-Australian Students Outperform Their Australian Peers in Mathematics: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Dacheng; Singh, Michael

    2011-01-01

    International comparative studies and cross-cultural studies of mathematics achievement indicate that Chinese students (whether living in or outside China) consistently outperform their Western counterparts. This study shows that the gap between Chinese-Australian and other Australian students is best explained by differences in motivation to…

  8. Australian Thesaurus of Education Descriptors. A Word-Stock for Indexing and Retrieving Australian Educational Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, G. B.; Findlay, Margaret A.

    This core thesaurus of terms suitable for indexing Australian educational literature was developed by the Australian Council for Educational Research by means of a systematic and thorough revision of the "Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors." Based on the actual terminology of education in Australia, this thesaurus includes: key words and phrases used…

  9. Marine Biodiversity in the Australian Region

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Alan J.; Rees, Tony; Beesley, Pam; Bax, Nicholas J.

    2010-01-01

    The entire Australian marine jurisdictional area, including offshore and sub-Antarctic islands, is considered in this paper. Most records, however, come from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) around the continent of Australia itself. The counts of species have been obtained from four primary databases (the Australian Faunal Directory, Codes for Australian Aquatic Biota, Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums, and the Australian node of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System), but even these are an underestimate of described species. In addition, some partially completed databases for particular taxonomic groups, and specialized databases (for introduced and threatened species) have been used. Experts also provided estimates of the number of known species not yet in the major databases. For only some groups could we obtain an (expert opinion) estimate of undiscovered species. The databases provide patchy information about endemism, levels of threat, and introductions. We conclude that there are about 33,000 marine species (mainly animals) in the major databases, of which 130 are introduced, 58 listed as threatened and an unknown percentage endemic. An estimated 17,000 more named species are either known from the Australian EEZ but not in the present databases, or potentially occur there. It is crudely estimated that there may be as many as 250,000 species (known and yet to be discovered) in the Australian EEZ. For 17 higher taxa, there is sufficient detail for subdivision by Large Marine Domains, for comparison with other National and Regional Implementation Committees of the Census of Marine Life. Taxonomic expertise in Australia is unevenly distributed across taxa, and declining. Comments are given briefly on biodiversity management measures in Australia, including but not limited to marine protected areas. PMID:20689847

  10. Fiscal incentives for Australian bushland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Norman J.

    1986-09-01

    The clearing of over 80% of the native vegetation from Australian agricultural areas has contributed significantly to the degradation classification applied to more than half this land. Soil erosion, siltation, and salinity damage continue to increase yearly. This situation not only threatens the productivity of the farm sector but has contributed to the estimated loss of 78 species of native flora, endangerment of an additional 2206 species, and the loss of 20 species of Australia's marsupials. Private returns diverge from social returns because the action (or inaction) of farmers has an impact upon others, both now and in the future. There is justification, therefore, for the public sector to intervene on behalf of society in an attempt to influence private decision making for the social good. This article argues for increased incentives from the public sector in Australia to encourage the voluntary cooperation of farmers to improve the balance between development and conservation. In contrast to the essentially temporary nature of man-made measures such as flood-mitigating capital works, increasing the area set aside to native bushland offers scope for the permanent stewardship of the resource—land.

  11. Elements of Australian petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, C.D.; Scott, E.W.

    1986-05-01

    The petroleum geology of Australia reflects the existence of a large cratonic block broken away from India and Antarctica in the early Mesozoic and early Tertiary that has resulted in a rifted passive-margin character on the northwestern, western, and southern boundaries of the continent. Pre-breakup paleozoic sediments are widely distributed but commonly not deeply buried nor particularly thick, and hence contribute minimally to petroleum resource occurrence. Like their Asian neighbors, much of Australian petroleum geology is nonmarine and associated with marginal rift basins. The small Gippsland basin on the southeastern coast, which is responsible for more than 90% of oil and 28% of the gas discovered in Australia, derives its petroleum from nonmarine Eocene to Cretaceous graben-fill sediments, sealed and buried by Oligocene marine shales. The most active play in Australia is in the Eromanga depression of the Great Artesian basin, where nonmarine oil is trapped stratigraphically in small fields in Jurassic and Cretaceous sandstones. These Mesozoic sediments are sag-fill deposits above the Permian-Triassic Cooper basin, and are responsible for some 12% of the gas reserves in Australia. Offshore of the western coast, graben basins filled with late Paleozoic to Mesozoic sediments are prolific and gas-prone - 55% of reserves - owing to coaly source rocks. North Sea-type, Upper Jurassic grabens off the northwestern coast of Australia contain Kimmeridgian hot shales, but developmental drilling, following the initial Jabiru discovery, has yet to demonstrate large reserves.

  12. Potential impacts of discharging tertiary-treated wastewater into Port Royal Sound, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Speiran, G.K.; Belval, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    An assessment of physical characteristics of Port Royal Sound was combined with the results of a dye tracer study and with data collected from a previous environmental study to describe the impact on the water quality from discharging tertiary treated wastewater into the sound. Calculated velocities for the time of maximum velocity in the tidal cycle ranged from 2.32 ft/sec near the bottom to 4.65 ft/sec near the surface of the sound in a cross section in the vicinity of a proposed wastewater outfall. Vertical velocity distributions calculated for the time of maximum velocity were similar at all stations at which velocities were measured except the station in shallow water near the shore. A recent bathymetric chart of the vicinity of the proposed outfall indicates that a bar extends farther along the northern shore of Hilton Head Island than indicated on earlier nautical charts of Port Royal Sound. Continued extension of this bar could alter the impact on water quality from discharge of treated wastewater into the sound. Further study may be needed to monitor changes in the bar if the outfall is located between the bar and Hilton Head Island. Conservative calculations based on the results of the dye tracer study indicate that the discharge of 10.9 million gallons/day of wastewater having concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand and suspended solids of 15 mg/L will result in a maximum cumulative increase in concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand of < 0.01 mg/L and no increase in concentrations of suspended solids at high slack tide in the part of Port Royal Sound most affected by the proposed wastewater discharge. (Author 's abstract)

  13. The Observers Observed: Charles Dickens at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, in 1850

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, A.

    2005-12-01

    In 1850 the magazine Household Words, which Charles Dickens edited, published three articles describing the instruments and workings of the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. These 'popular' articles are invaluable primary sources for the historian of astronomy. They convey some of the Victorian public's fascination with an Institution believed by some to be a lighthouse for night-time shipping on the river Thames; by others, a national repository of 'divining rods' and 'magic mirrors'. Dickens was clearly impressed by the pragmatic usefulness of the Observatory to a commercial and maritime nation, and by seemingly magical, self-acting and recording instruments whereby the wind wrote its own 'Aeolian Autobiography'.

  14. The Royal Naval Medical Services: delivering medical operational capability. the 'black art' of Medical Operational Planning.

    PubMed

    Faye, M

    2013-01-01

    This article looks to dispel the mysteries of the 'black art' of Medical Operational Planning whilst giving an overview of activity within the Medical Operational Capability area of Medical Division (Med Div) within Navy Command Headquarters (NCHQ) during a period when the Royal Naval Medical Services (RNMS) have been preparing and reconfiguring medical capability for the future contingent battle spaces. The rolling exercise program has been used to illustrate the ongoing preparations taken by the Medical Operational Capability (Med Op Cap) and the Medical Force Elements to deliver medical capability in the littoral and maritime environments. PMID:24511796

  15. RICH - A new AMS facility at the Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage, Brussels, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudin, Mathieu; Van Strydonck, Mark; van den Brande, Tess; Synal, Hans-Arno; Wacker, Luckas

    2015-10-01

    Since 1989 the radiocarbon dating lab has their own graphitization system for 14C AMS dating but RICH (Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage) did not possess their own AMS and measurements were carried out in collaboration with other AMS facilities. In April 2013 the Micadas (Mini Carbon Dating System) AMS was installed at RICH in Brussels and after 1.5 year operation the high stability and performance of the Micadas can be demonstrated by repeated analyses of primary standard OXA II and secondary standards. Results of unknown samples measured on the RICH-Micadas and on other AMS systems are in good agreement.

  16. Royal Society reports on Science Base,' suggests five-year fellowships

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1992-12-01

    In October, Britain's Royal Society released its long-awaited report, 'The Future of the Science Base,' the product of an 18 month review of how the nation's basic research is organized and the factors that might make it more successful. The science base report has been treated with considerable respect in the United Kingdom. Its conclusions, which are related in this article, may be of interest to Americans, as many of the trends and dilemmas identified in this report are also found in the U.S. This article review the specific recommendations of the report and also lists demographic and funding information.

  17. The Behavioural Response of Australian Fur Seals to Motor Boat Noise

    PubMed Central

    Tripovich, Joy S.; Hall-Aspland, Sophie; Charrier, Isabelle; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Australian fur seals breed on thirteen islands located in the Bass Strait, Australia. Land access to these islands is restricted, minimising human presence but boat access is still permissible with limitations on approach distances. Thirty-two controlled noise exposure experiments were conducted on breeding Australian fur seals to determine their behavioural response to controlled in-air motor boat noise on Kanowna Island (39°10′S, 146°18′E). Our results show there were significant differences in the seals' behaviour at low (64–70 dB) versus high (75–85 dB) sound levels, with seals orientating themselves towards or physically moving away from the louder boat noise at three different sound levels. Furthermore, seals responded more aggressively with one another and were more alert when they heard louder boat noise. Australian fur seals demonstrated plasticity in their vocal responses to boat noise with calls being significantly different between the various sound intensities and barks tending to get faster as the boat noise got louder. These results suggest that Australian fur seals on Kanowna Island show behavioural disturbance to high level boat noise. Consequently, it is recommended that an appropriate level of received boat sound emissions at breeding fur seal colonies be below 74 dB and that these findings be taken into account when evaluating appropriate approach distances and speed limits for boats. PMID:22623998

  18. Living with aphasia: three Indigenous Australian stories.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Hersh, Deborah; Hayward, Colleen; Fraser, Joan; Brown, Melita

    2012-06-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular disorders and stroke in Australian Aboriginal communities is more than twice as high as non-Indigenous Australians. Approximately 30% of people who survive stroke are left with some level of aphasia, and yet Indigenous Australians appear to be infrequent users of speech-language pathology services, and there is virtually no research literature about the experiences of aphasia for this group of people. This paper presents the stories of living with aphasia for three Indigenous Australian men living in Perth, Western Australia. Their narratives were collected by an Indigenous researcher through in-depth, supported interviews, and were explored using both within-case and cross-case analyses for common and recurring themes. It is argued that there is value for speech-language pathologists, and other health professionals, to be aware of the broad experiences of living with aphasia for Indigenous Australians because their stories are rarely heard and because, as with people with aphasia generally, they are at risk of social isolation and tend to lack visibility in the community. This study explores the key issues which emerge for these three men and highlights the need for further research in this area. PMID:22472033

  19. 75 FR 45091 - Notice of Request for Nominations to the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Request for Nominations to the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture... Conservation Service, 420 South State Road 7, Suite 160, Royal Palm Beach, Florida 33414; telephone: (561)...

  20. Data Convergence - An Australian Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, S. S.; Howell, B.

    2012-12-01

    Coupled numerical physical, biogeochemical and sediment models are increasingly being used as integrators to help understand the cumulative or far field effects of change in the coastal environment. This reliance on modeling has forced observations to be delivered as data streams ingestible by modeling frameworks. This has made it easier to create near real-time or forecasting models than to try to recreate the past, and has lead in turn to the conversion of historical data into data streams to allow them to be ingested by the same frameworks. The model and observation frameworks under development within Australia's Commonwealth and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) are now feeding into the Australian Ocean Data Network's (AODN's) MARine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) . The sensor, or data stream, brokering solution is centred around the "message" and all data flowing through the gateway is wrapped as a message. Messages consist of a topic and a data object and their routing through the gateway to pre-processors and listeners is determined by the topic. The Sensor Message Gateway (SMG) method is allowing data from different sensors measuring the same thing but with different temporal resolutions, units or spatial coverage to be ingested or visualized seamlessly. At the same time the model output as a virtual sensor is being explored, this again being enabled by the SMG. It is only for two way communications with sensor that rigorous adherence to standards is needed, by accepting existing data in less than ideal formats, but exposing them though the SMG we can move a step closer to the Internet Of Things by creating an Internet of Industries where each vested interest can continue with business as usual, contribute to data convergence and adopt more open standards when investment seems appropriate to that sector or business.Architecture Overview

  1. Australian Indigenous Perspectives on Quality Assurance in Children's Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Teresa; Frances, Katie; Saggers, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Government has recently committed to the development of an integrated system of assuring national quality standards for Australian childcare and preschool services (Australian Government, 2008). This article addresses two fundamental issues relating to the development of an integrated system as it applies to Indigenous children's…

  2. Building Innovation: Learning with Technologies. Australian Education Review Number 56

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyle, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Australian Education Review (AER) 56 explores national and international policy priorities for building students' innovation capabilities through information and communication technologies (ICT) in Australian schools. Section 1 sets out the Australian policy context for digital education and highlights some of the emerging challenges. It provides…

  3. Modelling Choice: Factors Influencing Modes of Delivery in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew; Ling, Peter; Hill, Doug

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study of Multiple Modes of Delivery in Australian universities that was commissioned by Australian Universities Teaching Committee over the period 2001-2004. The project examined and described the various means of educational delivery deployed by Australian universities. It identified the pedagogical,…

  4. Drama in the Australian National Curriculum: Decisions, Tensions and Uncertainties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Madonna; Saunders, John Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In September 2015, the Australian Federal Government endorsed the final version of the Australian Curriculum arts framework a document resulting from nearly seven years of consultation and development. "The Australian Curriculum: The Arts Version 8.0" comprises five subjects: dance, drama, media arts, music and visual arts. This article…

  5. Keynes, Newton and the Royal Society: the events of 1942 and 1943.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Daniel

    2013-03-20

    Most discussions of John Maynard Keynes's activities in connection with Newton are restricted to the sale in 1936 at Sotheby's of Newton's Portsmouth Papers and to Keynes's 1946 essay 'Newton, the Man'. This paper provides a history of Keynes's Newton-related work in the interim, highlighting especially the events of 1942 and 1943, which were particularly relevant to the Royal Society's role in the domestic and international promotion of Newton's legacy. During this period, Keynes lectured twice on Newton, leaving notes that would later be read by his brother Geoffrey in the famous commemoration of the Newton tercentenary in 1946. In 1943 Keynes assisted the Royal Society in its recognition of the Soviet celebrations and in the acquisition and preservation of more of the Newton library. In each instance Keynes took the opportunity to promote his interpretation of Newton as 'the last of the magicians': a scientist who had one foot in the pre-modern world and whose approach to understanding the world was as much intuitive as it was methodical. PMID:24686919

  6. Observing the skies of Lisbon. Isaac de Sequeira Samuda, an estrangeirado in the Royal Society.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Carla Costa

    2014-06-20

    Elected in 1723, Isaac de Sequeira Samuda (1681-1729) was the first Jewish Fellow of the Royal Society. He had arrived in London just a few years earlier, escaping from the Portuguese Inquisition. Despite his past, he had no difficulty in establishing links with his country's diplomatic representatives in London. A physician and adviser on scientific subjects, he became a conduit between the emerging world of Portuguese astronomy and the British scientific community. He reported to the Royal Society on astronomical observations made in the new observatories in Lisbon and helped with the acquisition of scientific instruments and books destined for Portugal. These activities were facets of Samuda's unusual career and the diverse though often converging associations that he established until his death. As the member of a network active in the diffusion of new ideas and in the modernization of Portuguese science, Samuda can be regarded as an estrangeirado, as this term has come to be used in the modern literature. PMID:24921106

  7. Royal College of Nursing (Rcn) code of professional conduct: a discussion document.

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, J D; Altschul, A T; Sampson, C; Smith, A M

    1977-01-01

    We are printing in its entirety the discussion document which sets out a code of professional conduct for nurses published by the Royal College of Nursing in November 1976 together with commentaries by the Assistant Secretary of the British Medical Association, a professor of nursing studies, student nurses and a lawyer. The image of the nurse is still that of one of Florence Nightingale's young ladies or of a member of a religious order who is wholly dedicated to caring for the sick. Today, as this document and the comments upon it show, 'dedication' is still part of the motive which leads a man or woman to become a nurse but in addition, and this is where the public may be ignorant or choose to be ignorant, nursing offers a career where intellectual achievement and the satisfaction of a demanding job bring their proper financial reward and place in the professional community. We are grateful to the Royal College of Nursing for permission to publish this document. PMID:926130

  8. Supplementation with Major Royal-Jelly Proteins Increases Lifespan, Feeding, and Fecundity in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Xin, Xiao-Xuan; Chen, Yong; Chen, Di; Xiao, Fa; Parnell, Laurence D; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Liang; Ordovas, Jose M; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Shen, Li-Rong

    2016-07-27

    The major royal-jelly proteins (MRJPs) are the main constituents responsible for the specific physiological role of royal jelly (RJ) in honeybees. Male and female Drosophila flies were fed diets containing either no MRJPs (A) or casein (B) at 1.25% (w/w) of diet or MRJPs at 1.25% (C), 2.50% (D), or 5.00% (E). Diets B, C, D, and E increased mean lifespan by 4.3%, 9.0%, 12.4%, and 13.9% in males and by 5.8%, 9.7%, 20.0%, and 11.8% in females in comparison to results from diet A, respectively. The diet supplemented with 2.50% MRJPs seems to have the optimal dose to improve both physiological and biochemical measures related to aging in both sexes. Interestingly, lifespan extension by MRJPs in Drosophila was positively associated with feeding and fecundity and up-regulation of copper and zinc-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and the Egfr-mediated signaling pathway. This study provides strong evidence that MRJPs are important components of RJ for prolonging lifespan in Drosophila. PMID:27388939

  9. The 'royal disease'--haemophilia A or B? A haematological mystery is finally solved.

    PubMed

    Lannoy, N; Hermans, C

    2010-11-01

      'History can change blood. And blood can change the course of history'. Haemophilia is an illustration of this, as this congenital hereditary coagulation disorder, passed through the majority of royal European families at the beginning of the 20th century by Queen Victoria of England and Empress of the Indies, had indisputable political consequences, which led to one of the most defining moments of contemporary history: the Bolshevik Revolution. Today, none of Queen Victoria's living descendents carry haemophilia. Because of this, the characterization of haemophilia (deficit of either factor VIII or XI) and the identification of the causal mutation are rendered impossible. In 1991, a tomb containing the remains of Czar Nicolas II's entire family was discovered. A second tomb was discovered in 2007, allowing Russian and American scientists to fill in this gap in medical history. Following a scientific approach combining current genetic experimentation tools and the development of biological information technology, researchers were able to identify each body, allowing them to obtain precious genetic material from the young Czar Alexis, who was stricken by the disease, which revealed a causal substitution in the splice acceptor site of exon 4 in the F9 gene. This mutation that is responsible for haemophilia B had traumatized European royal families throughout the 20th century! PMID:20557352

  10. Making Kew Observatory: the Royal Society, the British Association and the politics of early Victorian science.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Lee T

    2015-09-01

    Built in 1769 as a private observatory for King George III, Kew Observatory was taken over in 1842 by the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS). It was then quickly transformed into what some claimed to be a 'physical observatory' of the sort proposed by John Herschel - an observatory that gathered data in a wide range of physical sciences, including geomagnetism and meteorology, rather than just astronomy. Yet this article argues that the institution which emerged in the 1840s was different in many ways from that envisaged by Herschel. It uses a chronological framework to show how, at every stage, the geophysicist and Royal Artillery officer Edward Sabine manipulated the project towards his own agenda: an independent observatory through which he could control the geomagnetic and meteorological research, including the ongoing 'Magnetic Crusade'. The political machinations surrounding Kew Observatory, within the Royal Society and the BAAS, may help to illuminate the complex politics of science in early Victorian Britain, particularly the role of 'scientific servicemen' such as Sabine. Both the diversity of activities at Kew and the complexity of the observatory's origins make its study important in the context of the growing field of the 'observatory sciences'. PMID:26256312

  11. The Paediatric Board of the Royal College of Physicians of London: its role in the college.

    PubMed

    Chambers, T

    1992-01-01

    Conscious of its responsibilities to its Fellows and Members who are paediatricians, the Royal College of Physicians (RCP) is anxious to play its part, along with others, in maintaining and improving standards in paediatrics. Recognising the importance and prominence of the specialty within the generality of specialist medicine, and alongside general internal medicine, it has established a Paediatric Board, reporting directly to Council, which will deal with and advise on all matters concerning paediatrics and child health, and thus enhance the autonomy and influence of the specialty both within the College and on medical affairs in general. It will do this in close association with the British Paediatric Association (BPA) which will nominate members of the Board. In particular the RCP will continue to set standards in paediatrics through examinations, accreditation, representatives on consultant advisory appointment committees, and its membership of the GMC and the Conference of Medical Royal Colleges and their Faculties, to which the Paediatric Board will make a substantial contribution. The network of regional paediatric advisers to the RCP will ensure that the Board is kept in touch with paediatric opinion throughout England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Relationships with Scottish paediatrics and paediatricians will be important, for example, in the organisation and development of the MRCP(UK) examination and its paediatric Part II. Links with paediatricians in the Irish Republic exist through the Joint Committee on Higher Medical Training. PMID:1573597

  12. Three intervention levels for improving smoking behavior among Royal Thai Army conscripts.

    PubMed

    Pantaewan, Pannee; Kengganpanich, Mondha; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong; Tansakul, Supreya; Termsirikulchai, Lakkhana; Nityasuddhi, Dechavudh

    2012-07-01

    We evaluated a smoking cessation program based on an ecological model among Royal Thai Army conscripts with three levels of behavioral change intervention: intrapersonal level, interpersonal level and organizational level. The program applied processes of change in the Transtheoretical Model for intervention at the intrapersonal level; social support from the family at the interpersonal level; strengthening policies and activities to support quitting, including providing a smoke-free workplace at the organizational level. Eighty-nine participants were purposively selected from the first regiment of conscripts at the King's Royal Guard, recruited into the Army in 2009. The behavioral change intervention was conducted during their first six months of duty. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data between May and November 2009. Individual interviews and checklist observations were employed to collect data. Data was analyzed using inferential statistics, comparing means by paired t-test and the chi-square test was used to analyze correlations. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically. Sixty-three percent of participants significantly (p<0.001) reduced the number of cigarettes smoked, and 4.5% quit smoking. There was significant improvement in self-efficacy for improving smoking behavior (p=0.002) and making an effort to quit (p<0.001). PMID:23077826

  13. Observing the skies of Lisbon. Isaac de Sequeira Samuda, an estrangeirado in the Royal Society

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Carla Costa

    2014-01-01

    Elected in 1723, Isaac de Sequeira Samuda (1681–1729) was the first Jewish Fellow of the Royal Society. He had arrived in London just a few years earlier, escaping from the Portuguese Inquisition. Despite his past, he had no difficulty in establishing links with his country's diplomatic representatives in London. A physician and adviser on scientific subjects, he became a conduit between the emerging world of Portuguese astronomy and the British scientific community. He reported to the Royal Society on astronomical observations made in the new observatories in Lisbon and helped with the acquisition of scientific instruments and books destined for Portugal. These activities were facets of Samuda's unusual career and the diverse though often converging associations that he established until his death. As the member of a network active in the diffusion of new ideas and in the modernization of Portuguese science, Samuda can be regarded as an estrangeirado, as this term has come to be used in the modern literature. PMID:24921106

  14. Action Stations! 100 years of trauma care on maritime and amphibious operations in the Royal Navy.

    PubMed

    Osborne, M; Smith, J E

    2015-01-01

    Over the past century trauma care within the Royal Navy (RN) has evolved; wartime experiences and military medical research have combined to allow significant improvement in the care of casualties. This article describes the key maritime and amphibious operations that have seen the Royal Navy Medical Service (RNMS) deliver high levels of support to wherever the Naval Service has deployed in the last 100 years. Key advancements in which progress has led to improved outcomes for injured personnel are highlighted--the control and treatment of blood loss, wound care, and the prevention and management of organ failure with optimal resuscitation. Historians often point out how slowly military medicine progressed for the first few thousand years of its recorded history, and how quickly it has progressed in the last century. This reflective article will show how the RNMS has been an integral part of that story, and how the lessons learnt by our predecessors have shaped our modern day doctrine surrounding trauma care. PMID:26292385

  15. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of royal palm tree (Roystonea regia) peroxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Leandra; Nascimento, Alessandro S.; Zamorano, Laura S.; Shnyrov, Valery L.; Polikarpov, Igor

    2007-09-01

    The purification, crystallization, X-ray diffraction data acquisition and molecular-replacement results of royal palm tree (R. regia) peroxidase are described. Royal palm tree peroxidase (RPTP), which was isolated from Roystonea regia leaves, has an unusually high stability that makes it a promising candidate for diverse applications in industry and analytical chemistry [Caramyshev et al. (2005 ▶), Biomacromolecules, 6, 1360–1366]. Here, the purification and crystallization of this plant peroxidase and its X-ray diffraction data collection are described. RPTP crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.8 Å. The crystals belong to the trigonal space group P3{sub 1}21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 116.83, c = 92.24 Å, and contain one protein molecule per asymmetric unit. The V{sub M} value and solvent content are 4.07 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and 69.8%, respectively.

  16. Keynes, Newton and the Royal Society: the events of 1942 and 1943

    PubMed Central

    Kuehn, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Most discussions of John Maynard Keynes's activities in connection with Newton are restricted to the sale in 1936 at Sotheby's of Newton's Portsmouth Papers and to Keynes's 1946 essay ‘Newton, the Man’. This paper provides a history of Keynes's Newton-related work in the interim, highlighting especially the events of 1942 and 1943, which were particularly relevant to the Royal Society's role in the domestic and international promotion of Newton's legacy. During this period, Keynes lectured twice on Newton, leaving notes that would later be read by his brother Geoffrey in the famous commemoration of the Newton tercentenary in 1946. In 1943 Keynes assisted the Royal Society in its recognition of the Soviet celebrations and in the acquisition and preservation of more of the Newton library. In each instance Keynes took the opportunity to promote his interpretation of Newton as ‘the last of the magicians’: a scientist who had one foot in the pre-modern world and whose approach to understanding the world was as much intuitive as it was methodical. PMID:24686919

  17. Humphry Davy, nitrous oxide, the Pneumatic Institution, and the Royal Institution.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2014-11-01

    Humphry Davy (1778-1829) has an interesting place in the history of respiratory gases because the Pneumatic Institution in which he did much of his early work signaled the end of an era of discovery. The previous 40 years had seen essentially all of the important respiratory gases described, and the Institution was formed to exploit their possible value in medical treatment. Davy himself is well known for producing nitrous oxide and demonstrating that its inhalation could cause euphoria and heightened imagination. His thinking influenced the poets Samuel Taylor Coleridge and William Wordsworth, and perhaps we can claim that our discipline colored the poetry of the Romantic Movement. Davy was also the first person to measure the residual volume of the lung. The Pneumatic Institution was the brainchild of Thomas Beddoes, who had trained in Edinburgh under Joseph Black, who discovered carbon dioxide. Later Davy moved to the Royal Institution in London formed, in part, to diffuse the knowledge of scientific discoveries to the general public. Davy was a brilliant lecturer and developed an enthusiastic following. In addition he exploited the newly described electric battery to discover several new elements. He also invented the safety lamp in response to a series of devastating explosions in coal mines. Ultimately Davy became president of the Royal Society, a remarkable honor for somebody with such humble origins. Another of his important contributions was to introduce Michael Faraday (1791-1867) to science. Faraday became one of the most illustrious British scientists of all time. PMID:25172910

  18. The Library of the Royal Society of Physicians in Budapest becomes today's Semmelweis Medical History Library

    PubMed Central

    Kaproncszay, Katalin; Magyar, László András; Putnam, Constance E

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The 170-year history of the library of the Royal Society of Medicine in Budapest illustrates both that political and cultural context matter and that “medical” libraries, if they survive, in due course become primarily “medical history” libraries. Methods: Two of the authors are on the staff of the Semmelweis Medical History Library; the third is a US scholar who makes frequent use of the library. Together, they avail themselves of archival and published materials—and personal experience with the collection—to establish the context that produced the original library, trace its evolution, and describe its present-day incarnation. Results: A tale of transformation emerges that reflects how collections are likely to change. The authors present events and individuals in the life of the Royal Society's library and paint a picture of the value of today's Semmelweis Medical History Library. Unique treasures in the collection are described. Conclusion: The story told here is of how a particular nineteenth-century library became a twenty-first–century institution. The authors establish its peculiarly Hungarian context and potential value to librarians and historians from outside Hungary. The overall message is that general medical libraries everywhere are perforce likely to become medical historical libraries over time. PMID:21243053

  19. Encephalization of Australian and New Guinean marsupials.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, K W S

    2008-01-01

    Encephalization of Australian marsupials was analyzed using the endocranial volume (ECV) of 52 species of Dasyuromorphia and Notoryctemorphia, 14 species of Peramelemorphia and 116 species of Diprotodontia from Australia and New Guinea and compared with 16 species of Ameridelphian marsupials and 3 species of native and recently introduced Australian eutherian carnivores (dingo, feral cat and feral fox). Linear regression analysis of the relationship between ECV and body weight for marsupials revealed that allometric parameters for these groups are different from those previously derived for samples of (mainly eutherian) mammals, with higher slopes for Dasyuromorphia and Diprotodontia and lower slopes for Ameridelphians and Peramelemorphia. Absolute ECV for small Australian and New Guinea marsupial carnivores (Antechinus and Sminthopsis) were found to be comparable to eutherians of similar body weight, but large marsupial carnivores such as the Tasmanian devil and thylacine had substantially smaller ECVs than eutherian carnivores of similar body weight. Similarly, members of some superfamilies within Diprotodontia (Burramyoidea, Petauroidea, Tarsipedoidea) had ECVs comparable to prosimians, whereas bandicoots, bilbies and many macropods were found to be poorly encephalized. When both encephalization quotient (EQ) and residuals from regression analysis were used to compare relative ECV of extinct/threatened species with common species there were no significant differences for any of the orders of Australian marsupials, suggesting that encephalization is not a major factor in the current extinction crisis for Australian marsupials. Similarly there were no consistent differences in relative ECV between marsupials from New Guinea and associated islands compared to Australia or between arid and non-arid Australian regions for any of the marsupial orders. The results indicate that marsupials are not uniformly poorly encephalized and that small marsupial carnivores and

  20. The importance of picking Porter: the Royal Institution, George Porter and the two cultures, 1959–64

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the cultural reasons why in 1964 the Royal Institution (RI) selected George Porter, who became the only person so far to have been Director of the Royal Institution (1966–85), President of the Royal Society (1985–90) and President of the British Association (1985–86) at the same time, to succeed William Lawrence Bragg as the institution's scientific director and resident professor. Porter was established as first choice by an inner group of RI Managers before the formal selection process began. In this article I argue that Porter won their favour by presenting himself, during his tenure as the RI's Professor of Chemistry (1963–66), as a candidate who fitted well with the Managers' ideas about the future role of the RI—ideas that were deeply influenced by the prevailing technocratic visions of ‘science and society’, particularly C. P. Snow's writings on the ‘two cultures’.

  1. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-05-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  2. Selection of the Australian indicator region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Each Australian state was examined for the availability of LANDSAT data, area, yield, and production characteristics, statistics, crop calendars, and other ancillary data. Agrophysical conditions that could influence labeling and classification accuracies were identified in connection with the highest producing states as determined from available Australian crop statistics. Based primarily on these production statistics, Western Australia and New South Wales were selected as the wheat indicator region for Australia. The general characteristics of wheat in the indicator region, with potential problems anticipated for proportion estimation are considered. The varieties of wheat, the diseases and pests common to New South Wales, and the wheat growing regions of both states are examined.

  3. The challenge of Risk Communication: an Australian perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koschatzky, Valentina; Haynes, Katharine; McAneney, John

    2013-04-01

    evidence that the majority of past bushfire fatalities had occurred while people were fleeing from homes that if defended would have provided safe refuge. In 2009, however, this strategy was interpreted too lightly or misinterpreted by many who died defending poorly prepared homes too close to bushlands. Afterwards the evidence that gave rise to this policy and its communication were investigated in a Royal Commission. Two of this paper's authors appeared as expert witnesses and their science tested publicly. This work will examine the role of scientists and scientific advice in respect to the tragedies of L'Aquila, Montserrat and the authors' own experience with Australian bushfires. A primary consideration in communicating risk is clear separation between the roles of scientists and authorities responsible for civil protection. During times of high stress and uncertainty, these roles can become blurred as government officials find it difficult to make unpopular decisions and may wish to blame poor outcomes on scientists and emergency managers. It should be noted, however, that scientists are not, by virtue of their career choice, exempted from the same standards of responsibility demanded of other professional groups.

  4. Western Australian food security project

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Alexandra; Brown, Graham; Maycock, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of the Western Australian (WA) Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. Methods A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets). The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%). Results The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets) followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets). Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets), salads (n- = 50 outlets), fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets), seafood (n = 27 outlets), meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets). The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28%) offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77%) as were carbonated drinks (n = 88%) and flavoured milks (n = 46%). Conclusion These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of access to quality

  5. The Australian history of cardiac pacing: memories from a bygone era.

    PubMed

    Mond, Harry G; Wickham, Geoffrey G; Sloman, J Graeme

    2012-06-01

    Although Dr Albert Hyman in New York is believed to have built the first cardiac pacemaker in 1932, he acknowledges Dr Mark Lidwell in Sydney, Australia as having not only built a pacemaker, but also successfully used it to resuscitate a newborn infant in or before 1929. Fully implantable pacemakers, however, were not possible until 1958, following the development of the silicon transistor. Within three years of that first implant, a pulse generator attached to epicardial leads was implanted at the Royal Melbourne Hospital. About the same time, an engineer in Sydney with intermittent complete heart block who had received epicardial leads and an external pulse generator proposed a simple sensing circuit, leading to the design of the first demand pacing system. By the mid 1960s, physicians were inserting transvenous leads in the right ventricle attached to pulse generators implanted in the anterior abdominal wall. In 1963, an Australian pacemaker company, Telectronics, was founded in Sydney. This innovative company-designed many of the features of transvenous leads and pulse generators we take for granted today. Australia also played a leading role in the design or early evaluation of the lithium power source, lead fixation, steroid elution, automatic anti-tachycardia pacing algorithms and the minute ventilation rate adaptive sensor. This manuscript describes the challenges and frustrations of those pioneers: physicians, surgeons and biomedical engineers. PMID:22033147

  6. Mercury concentrations in the Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus from SE Australian waters

    SciTech Connect

    Bacher, G.J.

    1985-10-01

    Marine carnivores such as seals and sea lions occupy an important position in the upper trophic level of the marine food web and this, together with their longevity, makes these marine mammals useful indicators of mercury accumulation in the marine environment. Little information exists on mercury concentrations in marine mammals from the southern hemisphere. This paper reports total mercury concentrations in the tissues of the Australian Fur Seal Arctocephalus pusillus from southeastern Australian waters.

  7. Expression of recombinant AccMRJP1 protein from royal jelly of Chinese honeybee in Pichia pastoris and its proliferation activity in an insect cell line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Main royal jelly protein 1 (MRJP1) is the most abundant member of the main royal jelly protein (MRJP) family among honeybees. Mature MRJP1 cDNA of the Chinese honeybee (Apis cerana cerana MRJP1, or AccMRJP1) was expressed in Pichia pastoris. SDS-PAGE showed that recombinant AccMRJP1 was identical in...

  8. Exporting Australian Educational Services to China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the deregulation of the overseas student sector that took place in Australia during the mid-1980s. It focuses specifically upon the short-term English- language courses that were sold to students from the People's Republic of China. The article suggests that the Hawke government's policy of encouraging Australian language…

  9. Scholarly Communication Costs in Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, John W

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and application of a model used to estimate the costs of scholarly communication (i.e. scholarly publishing and related activities) in Australian higher education. A systems perspective was used to frame a review of the literature on the costs involved in the entire scholarly communication value chain and…

  10. Synergy, 2003. Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network, Parramatta.

    Each issue in the 2002 edition of the Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network (ATMHN) newsletter represents a theme critical to mental health practitioners. The Winter 2002 issue features articles on the psychological consequences of interpreters in relation to working with torture and trauma clients, addressing language issues on mental…

  11. Publications of Australian LIS Academics in Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Concepcion S.; Boell, Sebastian K.; Kennan, Mary Anne; Willard, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines aspects of journal articles published from 1967 to 2008, located in eight databases, and authored or co-authored by academics serving for at least two years in Australian LIS programs from 1959 to 2008. These aspects are: inclusion of publications in databases, publications in journals, authorship characteristics of…

  12. Funding of South Australian public hospitals.

    PubMed

    Moss, John

    2002-01-01

    Since the 1994-95 financial year, inpatient episodes of care in South Australian public hospitals have been funded according to their casemix. This paper describes the current funding system, sets it in some context and examines what can be established about hospital performance. PMID:11974955

  13. International Mobility of Australian University Students: 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Australia as a destination for international students is well researched. However, less is known about the numbers of Australian students who undertake international study experiences during their courses, the characteristics of those students, their types of experiences, their fields of education, and their destinations. This study finds that…

  14. Contexts for Teacher Education: An Australian Alternative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooker, Ross; Service, Melinda

    1999-01-01

    Surveyed and interviewed Australian preservice home economics teachers who volunteered to teach food preparation skills to disadvantaged youth in detention centers. Results indicated that preservice teachers considered the detention center context a worthwhile site for further developing existing teacher competencies, providing them with…

  15. The Australian Curriculum: Continuing the National Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atweh, Bill; Singh, Parlo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify some key areas of the Australian curriculum that remain sites of struggle and contestation. We propose that there remain a number of contentious points in relation to the national curriculum. These points relate variously to the content and form of the curricular documents; assumptions about knowledge,…

  16. Study of Australian Multi-Campus Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Geoff; Grebennikov, Leonid; Johnston, Kim

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates whether Australian multi-campus universities are distinctive in terms of their student profile by field of education (FOE), funding and expenditure profiles, and learning and teaching outcomes, and identifies the implications for higher education policy and funding. Both parametric and non-parametric techniques are used to…

  17. Physical sciences contribute 22% to Australian economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dineley, Jude

    2015-05-01

    Advances in the physical and mathematical sciences over the last two decades contributed some A292bn (about £151bn) to the Australian economy each year, according to a report carried out by the Centre for International Economics, an economic consultancy.

  18. Understanding Australian Aboriginal Tertiary Student Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith; Bennell, Debra; Anderson, Roz; Cooper, Inala; Forrest, Simon; Exell, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from a study of the experiences of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students, this paper presents an overview of the specific needs of these students as they enter and progress through their tertiary education. Extracts from a set of case studies developed from both staff and student interviews and an online…

  19. The Dawkins Reconstruction of Australian Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Grant

    Aspects of recent changes in Australian higher education are explored, with focus on the Dawkins Agenda, which is related to the current political and economic situation. Questions about the success of John Dawkins, Federal Minister for Employment, Education and Training, in regard to higher education are raised (why he has been successful and…

  20. Demands of Training: Australian Tourism and Hospitality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, Brett

    Qualitative research was conducted as part of a four-industry project studying operation of training markets, one of which was Australian tourism and hospitality (T&H). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 individuals representing stakeholder groups. Interviews were conducted across Queensland, Victoria, and South Australia and…

  1. School Libraries Empowering Learning: The Australian Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Ross J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes school libraries in Australia. Highlights include the title of teacher librarian and their education; the history of the role of school libraries in Australian education; empowerment; information skills and benchmarks; national standards for school libraries; information literacy; learning outcomes; evidence-based practice; digital…

  2. Homelessness: An Annotated Bibliography of Australian Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loft, Jenny, Comp.; Davis, Mari, Comp.

    This bibliography, compiled for the International Year of Shelter for the Homeless, lists Australian works published since 1974 about homelessness. It includes definitions of homelessness from the literature and an introductory article looking at different perspectives on homelessness. The entries, mainly taken from FAMILY database, are each…

  3. Education for Sustainability and the Australian Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennelly, Julie; Taylor, Neil; Serow, Pep

    2011-01-01

    A national curriculum is presently being developed in Australia with implementation due during 2014. Associated standards for the accreditation of teachers and for teacher education providers have been prepared with the standards describing skills and attributes that teachers are expected to attain. The developing Australian Curriculum, along with…

  4. Australian Universities, Generic Skills and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitman, Tim; Broomhall, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The concept of lifelong learning implies a cycle where the learner contributes prior learning into a new learning environment and sees that learning upgraded. In recent years, a range of internal and external pressures have encouraged Australian universities to identify the meta or generic skills embedded in tertiary study. Using a content…

  5. Making Space for Multilingualism in Australian Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Marianne; Cross, Russell

    2016-01-01

    In this article we introduce the special issue: Language(s) across the curriculum in Australian schools. The special issue includes a focus on English as an additional language in mainstream classes, Indigenous education, heritage languages and foreign languages, and we give background to these different--though frequently overlapping--contexts.…

  6. Australian Study Cites Low English Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study showing that one-third of all foreign students who studied at Australian universities speak English so poorly that they should never have been granted visas to study in the country in the first place. The study, by Robert Birrell, director of the Centre for Population and Urban Research at Australia's…

  7. Revitalising Languages in Australian Universities: What Chance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo Bianco, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Institutions of higher education teach fewer languages, in less secure ways, for less time per week, for shorter periods, by an increasingly casually employed staff, in often underfunded, underappreciated and under stress modes, but participants in the Australian Academy of the Humanities' "Beyond the Crisis: Revitalising Languages in Australian…

  8. Is There Cultural Safety in Australian Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochecouste, Judith; Oliver, Rhonda; Bennell, Debra

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the cultural safety offered to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students within their university environments. In the context of this paper, cultural safety includes cultural competency, as recently subscribed by Universities Australia, and "extends beyond (to) cultural awareness and cultural…

  9. Developments in Australian Agricultural and Related Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSweeney, Peter; Rayner, John

    2011-01-01

    While the calm waters metaphor might explain the changes navigated by Australian agricultural education through most of its history, the last 20 or so years have been very turbulent. Now, the new millennium sees agricultural education in both Australia and the Western world facing a different and less certain future. This paper analyses some of…

  10. Western Australian School Students' Understanding of Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Surveys (n=1116) 15-year-old students from 11 Western Australian schools to determine their understanding of and attitude towards recent advances in modern biotechnology. Discusses reasons for students' over-estimation of the use of biotechnology in society. Provides a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the…

  11. The Australians--A "Fair Go" People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Herschel

    1984-01-01

    Australians are known for their egalitarian spirit, manifested by a dislike of social pretension and affectation. A brief history of the country from the time of its establishment in 1788 as a dumping ground for Britain's unwanted criminals to the present is presented. (RM)

  12. Learning Choices, Older Australians and Active Ageing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of qualitative, semistructured interviews conducted with 40 older Australian participants who either did or did not engage in organized learning. Phenomenology was used to guide the interviews and analysis to explore the lived learning experiences and perspectives of these older people. Their experiences of…

  13. Young Australians: Their Health and Wellbeing 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milnes, Annette; Pegrum, Karen; Nebe, Brett; Topfer, Alex; Gaal, Lisa; Zhang, Jessica; Hunter, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the fourth in a series of national statistical reports on young people aged 12-24 years produced by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW). This report provides the latest available information on how Australia's young people are faring according to national indicators of health and wellbeing. Many young Australians…

  14. Linguistic Aspects of Australian Aboriginal English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    It is probable that the majority of the 455 000 strong Aboriginal population of Australia speak some form of Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) at least some of the time and that it is the first (and only) language of many Aboriginal children. This means their language is somewhere on a continuum ranging from something very close to Standard…

  15. Sustainability in the Australian Curriculum: Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maude, Alaric

    2014-01-01

    "Sustainability" is one of the seven major concepts in the geography curriculum. It is also one of the three cross-curriculum priorities in the Australian curriculum, together with Asia and Australia's engagement with Asia, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures. This paper describes how the concept is explained…

  16. Australian orchids and the doctors they commemorate.

    PubMed

    Pearn, John H

    2013-01-21

    Botanical taxonomy is a repository of medical biographical information. Such botanical memorials include the names of some indigenous orchids of Australia. By searching reference texts and journals relating to Australian botany and Australian orchidology, as well as Australian and international medical and botanical biographical texts, I identified 30 orchids indigenous to Australia whose names commemorate doctors and other medical professionals. Of these, 24 have names that commemorate a total of 16 doctors who worked in Australia. The doctors and orchids I identified include: doctor-soldiers Richard Sanders Rogers (1862-1942), after whom the Rogers' Greenhood (Pterostylis rogersii) is named, and Robert Brown (1773-1858), after whom the Purple Enamel Orchid (Elythranthera brunonis) is named; navy surgeon Archibald Menzies (1754-1842), after whom the Hare Orchid (Leptoceras menziesii) is named; radiologist Hugo Flecker (1884-1957) after whom the Slender Sphinx Orchid (Cestichis fleckeri) is named; and general medical practitioner Hereward Leighton Kesteven (1881-1964), after whom the Kesteven's Orchid (Dendrobium kestevenii) is named. Biographic references in scientific names of plants comprise a select but important library of Australian medical history. Such botanical taxonomy commemorates, in an enduring manner, clinicians who have contributed to biology outside clinical practice. PMID:23330773

  17. Is achievement in Australian chemistry gender based?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beard, John; Fogliani, Charles; Owens, Chris; Wilson, Audrey

    1993-12-01

    This paper compares the performances of female and male secondary students in the 1991 and 1992 Australian National Chemistry Quizzes. Male students consistently achieved a higher mean score in all Year groups (7 to 12), even though the numbers of female and male entrants were approximately equal. Implications for class tests and assessment tasks are addressed.

  18. Does Training Pay? Evidence from Australian Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandy, Richard; Dockery, Michael; Hawke, Anne; Webster, Elizabeth

    A study was conducted to obtain pilot evidence that could serve as a basis for developing convincing methods for individual Australian companies to use in determining their returns from investment in training. The study attempted to replicate survey results from significant overseas surveys by using information collected on more than 90 Australian…

  19. Australian Communication Scholarship: 1970-beyond 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Harry

    The development of Australian communication studies has closely followed capitalization upon the opportunities provided by major structural changes in the higher education system in the early 1970s and the late 1980s as well as those provided by disciplinary development and student demand. Before 1970, little in the way of communication studies…

  20. Inequity in the Australian Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorey, Aybek

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the current situation of the Australian education system--particularly the public schools in disadvantaged areas. Research undertaken in the last decade show that while Australia has developed intensively in economic terms in the last ten years, inequality has spread nonetheless. Furthermore, there are legal barriers for…

  1. Salvage Work in Australian Aboriginal Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Barry J.

    A number of research problems have hindered the study of Australian aboriginal languages which are spoken by a steadily decreasing and vanishing population. Such research has been plagued by misunderstanding and poor communication between linguists and the remaining informants. Much of the previous research, because of funding policies, has been…

  2. Early Childhood Intervention: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukkar, Hanan

    2013-01-01

    This article uses the developmental systems approach, an approach developed by M. Guralnick (2001), with an aim to assess and evaluate early childhood intervention (ECI) practices in Australia. The author explores the Australian national context of ECI and its complexities and conclude with recommendations to address (a) the possibility of a…

  3. Marketing Australian Universities to Thai Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimpa, Nattavud

    2005-01-01

    This study examines Thai students' perceptions regarding the quality of the Australian university system. Research findings reveal that (a) it is very important to maintain and safeguard the university's superior reputation, as it is the most important factor influencing Thais to choose one university over other institutions; (b) information on…

  4. Does Academic Work Make Australian Academics Happy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Roderick; Tilbrook, Kerry; Krivokapic-Skoko, Branka

    2015-01-01

    Happiness research is a rapidly-growing area in social psychology and has emphasised the link between happiness and workplace productivity and creativity for knowledge workers. Recent articles in this journal have raised concerns about the level of happiness and engagement of Australian academics with their work, however there is little research…

  5. Australian Education Journals: Quantitative and Qualitative Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddow, Gaby; Genoni, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that applied citation-based measurements to Australian education journals. Citations data were drawn from two sources, Web of Science and Scopus, and these data were used to calculate each journal's impact factor, "h"-index, and diffusion factor. The rankings resulting from these analyses were compared with draft…

  6. Intergenerational Challenges in Australian Jewish School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Zehavit; Rutland, Suzanne D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the intergenerational changes that have occurred in Australian Jewish day schools and the challenges these pose for religious and Jewish education. Using a grounded theory approach according to the constant comparative method (Strauss 1987), data from three sources (interviews [296], observations [27],…

  7. Brain drain threat to Australian science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Around half of all academics in Australia intend to retire, move to an overseas university or leave Australian higher education within the next 10 years, according to a survey of more than 5500 researchers based at 20 universities in the country.

  8. Cognitive and Social Play of Australian Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyver, Shirley R.; Spence, Susan H.

    1995-01-01

    Observed behaviors of 37 female and 23 male Australian preschoolers. Found that only 20% engaged in thematic pretend play (linked to perspective taking, language development, impulse control, divergent problem solving) whereas 24% used cooperative social play (linked to divergent problem solving). Results suggest need for assistance in the…

  9. Australian Teachers' Careers. Teachers in Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maclean, Rupert, Ed.; McKenzie, Phillip, Ed.

    This book focuses on career patterns and promotion of Australian school teachers. Following an introduction by the editors, the book is divided into 4 parts: Part 1, entitled "Understanding Teachers' Careers" includes 2 chapters: (l) "Teachers' Careers: A Conceptual Framework" (Rupert Maclean); and (2) "Teachers' Work: A Perspective on Schooling,"…

  10. The Reflexive Modernization of Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pick, David

    2004-01-01

    The profound changes occurring in Australian higher education are viewed here in the context of the social, cultural, political and economic effects of globalization. Particular attention is paid to providing a theoretical foundation for understanding these effects using the reflexive modernization perspective. Highlighted are some of the…

  11. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge necessary to use them…

  12. Reshaping Australian Education, 1960-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, W. F.

    This book provides an overview of the educational events and ideas that emerged in Australia during the years 1960 to 1985. It offers a comprehensive view of Australian education, covering all levels from kindergarten to university. Focusing on the remodelling of curricula and the teaching process, the book describes and assesses the "curriculum…

  13. OZI: Australian English Communicative Development Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalashnikova, Marina; Schwarz, Iris-Corinna; Burnham, Denis

    2016-01-01

    For more than 20 years, the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) and its adaptations for languages other than English have been used as reliable measures of infants' and toddlers' early receptive and productive vocabulary size. This article introduces the OZI, the Australian English adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates CDI, now…

  14. Professional Standards for Australian Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Ian; Dally, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Although professional standards for Australian teachers were developed several years ago, this country is yet to develop such standards for special education teachers. The lack of standards for the special education profession is associated with the absence of a consistent process of accreditation in Australia and a lack of clarity in the pathways…

  15. Australian Children's Understanding of Display Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Cultural display rules govern the manifestation of emotional expressions. In compliance with display rules, the facial expressions displayed (i.e. apparent emotion) may be incongruent with the emotion experienced (i.e. real emotion). This study investigates Australian Caucasian children's understanding of display rules. A sample of 80 four year…

  16. Conversion Disorder in Australian Pediatric Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlowska, Kasia; Nunn, Kenneth P.; Rose, Donna; Morris, Anne; Ouvrier, Robert A.; Varghese, John

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the incidence and clinical features of children presenting to Australian child health specialists with conversion disorder. Method: Active, national surveillance of conversion disorder in children younger than 16 years of age during 2002 and 2003. Results: A total of 194 children were reported on. The average age was 11.8…

  17. Commercial Activities and Copyright in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelly, Marita

    2008-01-01

    With government funding for most Australian universities below 60% and falling a major strategic emphasis for universities has been on securing other sources of operating revenue, including commercial opportunities and partnerships. The implication of increasing commercial activities such as non-award and tailored professional programmes, contract…

  18. Marketing in the Australian Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favaloro, Chrissa

    2015-01-01

    This article examines domestic marketing in the Australian higher education sector, specifically, the marketing investment patterns of universities and their levels of student growth as a return on marketing investment. Marketing expenditure by universities has risen 23 per cent in the five years to 2013, with several institutions allocating in…

  19. Bill Boyd and the Australian Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Don

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author shares a short account of Bill Boyd's contribution to Australian research and practice in educational administration and education policymaking. The author has sought the views and recollections of some of the colleagues who worked closely with Bill. He has chosen to quote them at length rather than attempt to summarize…

  20. Wilson's disease in an Australian aborigine.

    PubMed

    Crawford, D H; Shepherd, R; Cooksley, W G; Patrick, M; Powell, L W

    1990-01-01

    Wilson's disease is due to a genetically determined defect inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Most reported cases have been caucasoid. This report describes a case of Wilson's disease in an Australian Aboriginal girl, only the second such case reported. PMID:2129845

  1. Financial Management and Young Australian Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Nicki; Hoiles, Lauren; Corney, Tim; Clark, David

    2008-01-01

    In two studies of young Australian workers, participants generally displayed positive attitudes towards financial management practices; however, a substantial proportion failed to display positive financial management practices, experienced financial problems and dissatisfaction, and reported low rates of seeking financial assistance, particularly…

  2. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  3. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  4. The impact of the Bristol Royal Infirmary disaster and inquiry on public services in the UK.

    PubMed

    Alaszewski, Andy

    2002-11-01

    The inquiry into the services provided by the paediatric cardiac surgical team at Bristol Royal Infirmary between 1984 and 1995 marks a watershed in the development of health and social care services in the UK. There was an organisational failure of foresight based on a series of systemic and communication failures which contributed to oversight of an 'incubating' hazard which ultimately led to disaster. The recommendations of the Bristol inquiry have provided a major stimulus to the modernisation programme and especially of governance in health and social care which aims to restore public confidence and create 'high-trust' organisations. While it is premature to evaluate the impact of the changes, there is little evidence at present to indicate that they will improve the quality of professional decision making and the safety of users or enhance user and public confidence in the NHS and other public services. PMID:12487845

  5. Study for the replacement of Kodak Royal-X Pan film

    SciTech Connect

    Bunker, F.J.

    1989-08-01

    Kodak Royal-X Pan (RXP) film has been the prime film for oscilloscope camera recording at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) since 1962. Kodak discontinued making this film in 1987, however, so it became necessary to find a substitute that had as many of the photographic characteristics of RXP as possible --- spectral sensitivity, image quality, recording speed, base plus fog background density, and processing parameters. (RXP and Kodak 857 developer will continue being used at NTS until the film supply is exhausted.) RXP 2{1/4} {times} 3{1/4}-inch film has been the film of choice for oscillography at NTS because of its sensitivity to the blue radiation from P-11 phosphor, which constitutes the coating of oscilloscope tubes, and its ability to record fast transient occurrences, such as oscilloscope traces, in or near nanosecond exposure times. 1 ref., 40 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. The Phenotypic Effects of Royal Jelly on Wild-Type D. melanogaster Are Strain-Specific

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Stefanie L.; Seggio, Joseph A.; Hicks, Jasmin A.; Sharp, Katherine A.; Axelrod, Jeffrey D.; Wang, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    The role for royal jelly (RJ) in promoting caste differentiation of honeybee larvae into queens rather than workers is well characterized. A recent study demonstrated that this poorly understood complex nutrition drives strikingly similar phenotypic effects in Drosophila melanogaster, such as increased body size and reduced developmental time, making possible the use of D. melanogaster as a model system for the genetic analysis of the cellular mechanisms underlying RJ and caste differentiation. We demonstrate here that RJ increases the body size of some wild-type strains of D. melanogaster but not others, and report significant delays in developmental time in all flies reared on RJ. These findings suggest that cryptic genetic variation may be a factor in the D. melanogaster response to RJ, and should be considered when attempting to elucidate response mechanisms to environmental changes in non-honeybee species. PMID:27486863

  7. The Royal Princess Anna Vasa. Historical note and radiological examination of her skeleton.

    PubMed

    Grzegorzewski, M; Borón, Z; Lasek, W; Florkowski, A

    1996-03-01

    Radiological findings on the skeleton of the Royal Princess Anna Vasa are presented. Anna Vasa (1568-1625) was the sister of Sigismund Vasa, who reigned as Sigismund III, king of Sweden and Poland. She was born in Sweden but spent most of her life in Poland. Her skeleton was removed from the tomb in Toruń during restoration work at St. Mary's Church in April 1994. It was then subjected to anthropological and radiological examinations (conventional radiography and CT). The studies revealed a number of anatomical deviations and pathological abnormalities; e.g. basilar impression and congenital anomalies of the spine. These findings can explain many of the complaints troubling Anna Vasa during her lifetime. A fragmentary historical outline and biography of Anna Vasa and Sigismund III are also presented. PMID:8600947

  8. The Phenotypic Effects of Royal Jelly on Wild-Type D. melanogaster Are Strain-Specific.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Stefanie L; Seggio, Joseph A; Nascimento, Nara F; Huh, Dana D; Hicks, Jasmin A; Sharp, Katherine A; Axelrod, Jeffrey D; Wang, Kevin C

    2016-01-01

    The role for royal jelly (RJ) in promoting caste differentiation of honeybee larvae into queens rather than workers is well characterized. A recent study demonstrated that this poorly understood complex nutrition drives strikingly similar phenotypic effects in Drosophila melanogaster, such as increased body size and reduced developmental time, making possible the use of D. melanogaster as a model system for the genetic analysis of the cellular mechanisms underlying RJ and caste differentiation. We demonstrate here that RJ increases the body size of some wild-type strains of D. melanogaster but not others, and report significant delays in developmental time in all flies reared on RJ. These findings suggest that cryptic genetic variation may be a factor in the D. melanogaster response to RJ, and should be considered when attempting to elucidate response mechanisms to environmental changes in non-honeybee species. PMID:27486863

  9. The letter from Dublin: climate change, colonialism, and the Royal Society in the seventeenth century.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Brant

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses an anonymous letter published in the Philosophical Transactions in 1676 that reports the theories of American colonists about the cause of their warming climate (cultivation and deforestation), and offers Ireland's colonial experience as a counterexample: Ireland was a colony with decreased cultivation, but the same perceived warming. That such an objection seemed necessary to the author shows that anthropogenic climate change could be a subject of debate and that the concept of climate was tied into theories of land use and to the colonial enterprise. Since he was liminal to both the Royal Society of London and the intellectual circles of Dublin, his skepticism, contextualized here, questions both the elite discourse and the discourse at the colonial periphery. PMID:21936189

  10. The discovery of microorganisms by Robert Hooke and Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek, fellows of the Royal Society.

    PubMed

    Gest, Howard

    2004-05-01

    The existence of microscopic organisms was discovered during the period 1665-83 by two Fellows of The Royal Society, Robert Hooke and Antoni van Leeuwenhoek. In Micrographia (1665), Hooke presented the first published depiction of a microganism, the microfungus Mucor. Later, Leeuwenhoek observed and described microscopic protozoa and bacteria. These important revelations were made possible by the ingenuity of Hooke and Leeuwenhoek in fabricating and using simple microscopes that magnified objects from about 25-fold to 250-fold. After a lapse of more than 150 years, microscopy became the backbone of our understanding of the roles of microbes in the causation of infectious diseases and the recycling of chemical elements in the biosphere. PMID:15209075

  11. AN AUTOPSIC ART: DRAWINGS OF 'DR GRANVILLE'S MUMMY' IN THE ROYAL SOCIETY ARCHIVES.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Christina

    2016-06-20

    In 1821 Augustus Bozzi Granville FRS unwrapped and dissected an ancient Egyptian mummy, presenting the results of his examination to the Royal Society in 1825. He commissioned artist Henry Perry to draw the process in stages; these drawings were subsequently engraved by James Basire for publication in Philosophical Transactions. This article presents the original drawings for the first time, allowing comparison with their engravings. Taken together with Granville's accounts of the unwrapping of the mummy, the drawings demonstrate the significant role of illustration and other visual practices in anatomical argumentation in the early nineteenth century, as well as the prestige that commissioned illustrations lent to the performance and dissemination of scientific expertise. Moreover, the drawings include one of the key visual tropes of race science--a skull in left-facing profile, mapped with a facial angle--and thus indicate the early incorporation of Egyptian mummies into typologies of race. PMID:27386713

  12. Management practices that concentrate visitor activities: Camping impact management at Isle Royale National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, J.L.; Farrell, T.A.

    2002-01-01

    This study assessed campsite conditions and the effectiveness of campsite impact management strategies at Isle Royale National Park, USA. Protocols for assessing indicators of vegetation and soil conditions were developed and applied to 156 campsites and 88 shelters within 36 backcountry campgrounds. The average site was 68 m2 and 83% of sites lost vegetation over areas less than 47 m2. Results reveal that management actions to spatially concentrate camping activities and reduce camping disturbance have been highly successful. Comparisons of disturbed area/overnight stay among other protected areas reinforces this assertion. These reductions in area of camping disturbance are attributed to a designated site camping policy, limitation on site numbers, construction of sites in sloping terrain, use of facilities, and an ongoing program of campsite maintenance. Such actions are most appropriate in higher use backcountry and wilderness settings.

  13. Management practices that concentrate visitor activities: camping impact management at Isle Royale National Park, USA.

    PubMed

    Marion, Jeffrey L; Farrell, Tracy A

    2002-10-01

    This study assessed campsite conditions and the effectiveness of campsite impact management strategies at Isle Royale National Park, USA. Protocols for assessing indicators of vegetation and soil conditions were developed and applied to 156 campsites and 88 shelters within 36 backcountry campgrounds. The average site was 68 m2 and 83% of sites lost vegetation over areas less than 47 m2. We believe that management actions implemented to spatially concentrate camping activities and reduce camping disturbance have been highly successful. Comparisons of disturbed area/overnight stay among other protected areas reinforces this assertion. These reductions in area of camping disturbance are attributed to a designated site camping policy, limitation on site numbers, construction of sites in sloping terrain, use of facilities, and an ongoing program of campsite maintenance. Such actions are most appropriate in higher use backcountry and wilderness settings. PMID:12418164

  14. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists guidelines: How evidence-based are they?

    PubMed Central

    Prusova, K.; Churcher, L.; Tyler, A.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine aims to translate scientific research into good medical practice. The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists publishes recommendations and guidelines to guide clinicians in decision-making. In this study, the evidence base underlying the ‘Green-top Guidelines’ has been analysed in order to establish the quality of research underlying recommendations. During this descriptive study of 1,682 individual recommendations, the authors found that only 9–12% of the guidelines were based on the best quality (Grade A) evidence. The authors believe that this type of analysis serves to provide greater clarity for clinicians and patients using guidelines and recommendations in the field of obstetrics and gynaecology to make collaborative clinical decisions. PMID:24922406

  15. Seventeenth-century 'treasure' found in Royal Society archives: the Ludus helmontii and the stone disease.

    PubMed

    Alfonso-Goldfarb, Ana Maria; Ferraz, Márcia Helena Mendes; Rattansi, Piyo M

    2014-09-20

    Our archival researches at the Royal Society reveal that a small envelope attached to a 1675 letter from an Antwerp apothecary, A. Boutens, contained a sample of the 'Ludus' prepared as a remedy for the 'stone disease' then sweeping through Europe, which was first announced in J. B. van Helmont's De lithiasi (1644). After examining the fascination with the medical use of the Ludus (which required the 'alkahest' for its preparation) and the tenacious efforts to procure it, we trace the fortunae of two other ludi in England, brought to and offered by Francis Mercurius van Helmont during his English sojourn. Both eventually found their way to the geologist John Woodward, one of them through Sir Isaac Newton. Finally we show how the allure of the Ludus helmontii vanished, with transformations in mineral analysis and reclassifications from Woodward to John Hill. PMID:25254277

  16. Abnormal attentions toward the British Royal Family: factors associated with approach and escalation.

    PubMed

    James, David V; Meloy, J Reid; Mullen, Paul E; Pathé, Michele T; Farnham, Frank R; Preston, Lulu F; Darnley, Brian J

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal approach and escalation from communication to physical intrusion are central concerns in managing risk to prominent people. This study was a retrospective analysis of police files of those who have shown abnormal attentions toward the British Royal Family. Approach (n = 222), compared with communication only (n = 53), was significantly associated with specific factors, most notably serious mental illness and grandiosity. In a sample of those who engaged in abnormal communication (n = 132), those who approached (n = 79) were significantly more likely to evidence mental illness and grandiosity, to use multiple communications, to employ multiple means of communication, and to be driven by motivations that concerned a personal entitlement to the prominent individual. Logistic regression produced a model comprising grandiosity, multiple communications, and multiple means of communication, for which receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis gave an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.82. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to those for other target groups. PMID:20852218

  17. The royal road for genetic algorithms: Fitness landscapes and GA performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, M.; Holland, J.H. ); Forrest, S. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-01-01

    Genetic algorithms (GAs) play a major role in many artificial-life systems, but there is often little detailed understanding of why the GA performs as it does, and little theoretical basis on which to characterize the types of fitness landscapes that lead to successful GA performance. In this paper we propose a strategy for addressing these issues. Our strategy consists of defining a set of features of fitness landscapes that are particularly relevant to the GA, and experimentally studying how various configurations of these features affect the GA's performance along a number of dimensions. In this paper we informally describe an initial set of proposed feature classes, describe in detail one such class ( Royal Road'' functions), and present some initial experimental results concerning the role of crossover and building blocks'' on landscapes constructed from features of this class. 27 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  18. Organochlorine and metal residues in royal terns nesting on the central Texas coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, K.A.; LeFever, C.A.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    Royal Tern (Sterna maxima) eggs collected from two study areas on the central Texas coast in 1978 contained organochlorine residues at levels below those known to have adverse effects on avian reproduction and survival. Residues of zinc, copper, selenium, and arsenic were present at what appeared to be background levels. Mercury residues were elevated. Average organochlorine and metals residues did not differ significantly between an agricultural-industrial study area and a less developed control area. The thickness of eggshells collected in 1978 was statistically similar to the thickness of shells collected before 1943. There was a significant improvement in mean eggshell thickness from 1970 to 1978 with a corresponding decline in DDE and PCB residues.

  19. Improving efficiency in robotic theatres in the Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust: a gynaecology theatres perspective.

    PubMed

    Harding, V; Williams, J

    2016-03-01

    Improving efficiency within the operating theatre is always a key concern when running a successful operating list. However, with robotic surgery, this can become paramount. Robotic procedures require a more technical set up, additional planning, and good solid communication within the multidisciplinary team. Efficiency needs to be at the forefront of everyone's mind. Forward planning requires knowledge of the procedures being carried out and adequate training with the robot. Trouble shooting will also improve efficiency in robotic surgery, as being able to expect the unexpected can be a major advantage. This article looks at the hurdles encountered by the theatre team at Royal Wolverhampton Trust at the implementation of the robotic programme, and how the theatre team made adjustments to working practice in order to minimise disruption and maximise efficiency. PMID:27149833

  20. Sir Robert Stawell Ball (1840-1913): Royal Astronomer in Ireland and astronomy's public voice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Allan

    2007-11-01

    Nineteenth-century Ireland, and especially Dublin, had a vibrant scientific tradition. And astronomy in particular was seriously cultivated, being part of an Irish tradition extending back to early medieval times. This paper examines principally the career of Sir Robert Stawell Ball, who, while holding three prestigious posts in Ireland, namely those of Andrews Professor at Trinity College, Dublin, Royal Astronomer of Ireland, and Director of the Dunsink Observatory, became famous for his genius as a popular astronomical interpreter, lecturer, and writer. The paper looks at Ball's wider career, the circumstances that provided a receptive market for astronomical information across the English-speaking world, and his massive outreach as both a lecturer and a writer.

  1. THE LOGIC OF SCIENTIFIC UNITY? MEDAWAR, THE ROYAL SOCIETY AND THE ROTHSCHILD CONTROVERSY 1971-72.

    PubMed

    Calver, Neil; Parker, Miles

    2016-03-20

    In 1971 Lord (Victor) Rothschild published his report for the government, The organisation and management of government R&D, and Sir Peter Medawar launched a campaign for the election of Sir Karl Popper to Fellowship of the Royal Society. We explore these two developments in the contexts of the then current views of the role and purpose of science, and their underpinning philosophy. Although the political battle was won by Rothschild, resulting in major changes to the funding and management of applied R&D, we argue that, despite this, Medawar's campaign for Popper provided an embattled science community with a philosophical basis for defending pure research and the unity of basic and applied science. PMID:27017681

  2. Lessons From a 17-Year Radiosurgery Experience at the Royal Adelaide Hospital

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, Daniel E.; Brophy, Brian P.; Taylor, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate some of the potential pitfalls of cranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and its planning based on prospectively gathered data from a 17-year experience at the Royal Adelaide Hospital. Methods and Materials: More than 250 treatments have been planned since 1993 using previously described standard SRS techniques for intracranial benign and malignant lesions. Results: Five case studies are presented (1 meningioma, 1 acoustic neuroma, 2 solitary brain metastasis, 1 arteriovenous malformation), each of which demonstrates at least one salutary lesson. Conclusions: Because SRS delivers a highly conformal dose distribution, it is unforgiving of any geographic miss due to inaccurate outlining and thus dependent on neuroradiological expertise and collaboration. There are also potentially significant implications of misdiagnosis in SRS cases without histological proof-in particular, presumed brain metastases.

  3. Effect of Royal Jelly on Formalin Induced-Inflammation in Rat Hind Paw

    PubMed Central

    Arzi, Ardeshir; Olapour, Samaneh; Yaghooti, Hamid; Sistani Karampour, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Royal Jelly (RJ), a food item secreted by worker honeybees, is a mixture that contains protein, glucose, lipid, vitamins, and minerals; it is widely used as a commercial medical product. Previous studies have shown that RJ has a number of physiological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antiallergic and antioxidant activities. Objectives: In the present study, the anti-inflammatory properties of RJ were investigated in formalin-induced rat paw edema. Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into five equal groups (n = 6) as follows: test groups received different doses (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, ip) of RJ and a negative control group received normal saline (5 mL/kg) and a positive control group received aspirin (300 mg/kg, i.p). Edema was induced on the right hind paw of the rat by a subplantar injection of 100 µL of formalin (2.5%) after 30 minutes. Paw edema was measured in the rats received the drugs, saline and aspirin before and after the formalin injection during 5 hours, using a plethysmometer. Results: The results showed that RJ has a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect and the highest anti-inflammatory effect was observed in the doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg. Conclusions: Royal jelly has potent anti-inflammatory effects compared to aspirin and it could be used in the treatment of inflammation. However, further studies are required to determine the active components in RJ responsible for this effect and its mechanism of action. PMID:25866724

  4. Crystal structure and statistical coupling analysis of highly glycosylated peroxidase from royal palm tree (Roystonea regia).

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Leandra; de Moura, Patricia Ribeiro; Bleicher, Lucas; Nascimento, Alessandro S; Zamorano, Laura S; Calvete, Juan J; Sanz, Libia; Pérez, Alicia; Bursakov, Sergey; Roig, Manuel G; Shnyrov, Valery L; Polikarpov, Igor

    2010-02-01

    Royal palm tree peroxidase (RPTP) is a very stable enzyme in regards to acidity, temperature, H(2)O(2), and organic solvents. Thus, RPTP is a promising candidate for developing H(2)O(2)-sensitive biosensors for diverse applications in industry and analytical chemistry. RPTP belongs to the family of class III secretory plant peroxidases, which include horseradish peroxidase isozyme C, soybean and peanut peroxidases. Here we report the X-ray structure of native RPTP isolated from royal palm tree (Roystonea regia) refined to a resolution of 1.85A. RPTP has the same overall folding pattern of the plant peroxidase superfamily, and it contains one heme group and two calcium-binding sites in similar locations. The three-dimensional structure of RPTP was solved for a hydroperoxide complex state, and it revealed a bound 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid molecule (MES) positioned at a putative substrate-binding secondary site. Nine N-glycosylation sites are clearly defined in the RPTP electron-density maps, revealing for the first time conformations of the glycan chains of this highly glycosylated enzyme. Furthermore, statistical coupling analysis (SCA) of the plant peroxidase superfamily was performed. This sequence-based method identified a set of evolutionarily conserved sites that mapped to regions surrounding the heme prosthetic group. The SCA matrix also predicted a set of energetically coupled residues that are involved in the maintenance of the structural folding of plant peroxidases. The combination of crystallographic data and SCA analysis provides information about the key structural elements that could contribute to explaining the unique stability of RPTP. PMID:19854274

  5. Digitising the Past: The Beginning of a New Future at the Royal Tropical Institute of The Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe a project to digitise maps at the Royal Tropical Institute, or Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen (KIT), of The Netherlands. KIT has an extensive collection of maps and nautical charts of (sub-) tropical regions, including general maps and topographical map series, city maps, thematic maps and…

  6. Two Years on: Koha 3.0 in Use at the CAMLIS Library, Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissels, Gerhard; Chandler, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the further development of the Koha 3.0 library management system (LMS) and the involvement of external software consultants at the Complementary and Alternative Medicine Library and Information Service (CAMLIS), Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes the…

  7. Implementation of an Open Source Library Management System: Experiences with Koha 3.0 at the Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissels, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the selection process and criteria that led to the implementation of the Koha 3.0 library management system (LMS) at the Complementary and Alternative Medicine Library and Information Service (CAMLIS), Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is a report based on…

  8. Children at Risk in School: Proceedings of a Day Conference at the Royal Commonwealth Society on Wednesday, February 5, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for the Care and Resettlement of Offenders, (England).

    This booklet consists of ther proceedings of a day conference at the Royal Commonwealth Society to explore the subject of crime prevention in relation to children in school. It is divided into several sections which speak to the following: (1) report summary of comments made by the various participants; (2) how teachers can help to combat crime;…

  9. First Report of Veronica Rust by Puccinia veronicae-longifoliae in Minnesota on Veronica spicata Royal Candles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In September 2008, Veronica spicata Royal Candles plants showing foliar symptoms typical of a rust infection were brought to the Plant Disease Clinic at the University of Minnesota by a commercial nursery. A dark brown discoloration was apparent on the upper surface of the leaf with lighter brown pu...

  10. Present Practices and Background to Teaching and Learning at the Royal University of Bhutan (RUB): A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyamtso, Deki; Maxwell, T. W.

    2012-01-01

    In Bhutan relatively few studies at the higher education level have been done and fewer still reported in international journals. This pilot study highlights the present practices and culture of teaching and learning at one of the teacher education colleges of the Royal University of Bhutan (RUB). It looks broadly across the issues of…

  11. Reprint of "Egon Matijević and The Royal Institution" [J. Colloid Interface Sci. 309 (2007) 189-191].

    PubMed

    Thomas, John Meurig

    2007-06-15

    The background to the Faraday Evening Discourse given by Egon Matijević in 1989, as well as its impact, is outlined, and so also is his participation in the special Faraday Discussion convened at the Royal Institution in September, 1991 to mark the bicentennial of Michael Faraday's birth. PMID:17472799

  12. A Critical Appraisal of the Performance of Royal Dutch Shell as a Learning Organisation in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Emily

    2002-01-01

    Although Royal Dutch Shell had been identified as a "premiere learning organization," it had its worst results in 1998. Reasons included loss of commitment and community, leadership complacency, and inability to create a shared vision. Although management espoused learning organization principles, learning was not used for communal well-being.…

  13. Storage temperature and 1-MCP treatment affect storage disorders and physiological attributes of ‘Royal Gala’ apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Royal Gala’ apples [Malus domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] can develop postharvest disorders such as flesh browning, senescent breakdown, peeling, cracking, or shriveling during and after cold storage. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of storage temperature and a range of 1-methylc...

  14. Friend Not Foe: The Role of Curriculum Committee in Supporting the Development of Curriculum at Royal Roads University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Curriculum Committee at Royal Roads University (RRU) is mandated with ensuring that program and course curricula are of sufficient high academic integrity, consistent with other academic institutions, delivered in a manner consistent with program outcomes, and align with the recently adopted Learning and Teaching Model. Yet, the apparent…

  15. Utilisation of intensive foraging zones by female Australian fur seals.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, Andrew J; Costa, Daniel P; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search). For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour) determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity 'hot spots' were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a foraging patch

  16. Utilisation of Intensive Foraging Zones by Female Australian Fur Seals

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, Andrew J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search). For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour) determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity ‘hot spots’ were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a foraging patch

  17. The outcomes and treatment burden of childhood acute myeloid leukaemia in Australia, 1997-2008: A report from the Australian Paediatric Cancer Registry.

    PubMed

    Foresto, Steven A; Youlden, Danny R; Baade, Peter D; Hallahan, Andrew R; Aitken, Joanne F; Moore, Andrew S

    2015-09-01

    Childhood acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) requires intensive therapy and is associated with survival rates that are substantially inferior to many other childhood malignancies. We undertook a retrospective analysis of Australian Paediatric Cancer Registry data from 1997 to 2008 together with a single-centre audit during the same period assessing burden on service delivery at a tertiary children's hospital (Royal Children's Hospital, Brisbane). Although survival improved from 54.3% (1997-2002) to 69.2% (2003-2008), childhood AML caused a disproportionate number of childhood cancer deaths, accounting for 5.5% of all childhood cancer diagnoses yet 7.9% of all childhood cancer mortality. Furthermore, treatment was associated with significant toxicity requiring intensive use of local health resources. Novel therapeutic strategies aimed at improving survival and reducing toxicity are urgently required. PMID:25855531

  18. USGS analysis of the Australian UNCLOS submission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Rowland, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    In November 2004, the Government of Australia made a submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) for 10 extended continental shelf (ECS) regions, utilizing Article-76 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). With information provided in the Australian Executive Summary, the USGS examined the 10 regions of the submission from geological, morphological, and resource perspectives. By their own request, the Australians asked that CLCS take no action on the Australian-Antarctic Territory. The major limitation in this analysis is that no bathymetric soundings or detailed hydrographic profiles were provided in the Australian Executive Summary that might show why the Foot of the Slope (FOS) was chosen or where the 2,500-m contour is located. This represents a major limitation because more than half of the 4,205 boundary points utilize the bathymetric formula line and more than one-third of them utilize the bathymetric constraint line. CLCS decisions on the components of this submission may set a precedent for how ECSs are treated in future submissions. Some of the key decisions will cover (a) how a 'natural prolongation' of a continental margin is determined, particularly if a bathymetric saddle that appears to determine the prolongation is in deep water and is well outside of the 200-nm limit (Exmouth Plateau), (b) defining to what extent that plateaus, rises, caps, banks and spurs that are formed of oceanic crust and from oceanic processes can be considered to be 'natural prolongations' (Kerguelen Plateau), (c) to what degree UNCLOS recognizes reefs and uninhabited micro-islands (specifically, rocks and/or sand shoals) as islands that can have an EEZ (Middleton and Elizabeth Reefs north of Lord Howe Island), and (d) how the Foot of the Slope (FOS) is chosen (Great Australian Bight). The submission contains situations that are relevant to potential future U.S. submissions and are potentially analogous to certain

  19. Nature Study, Aborigines and the Australian Kindergarten: Lessons from Martha Simpson's "Australian Programme Based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an experimental kindergarten programme "Work in the Kindergarten: An Australian Programme based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black" developed by Martha Simpson in early twentieth-century Australia. Here Simpson adapted international Revisionist Froebelian approaches to cultural epoch theory and nature…

  20. Reconstructing Indian-Australian phylogenetic link

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Satish; Ravuri, Rajasekhara Reddy; Koneru, Padmaja; Urade, BP; Sarkar, BN; Chandrasekar, A; Rao, VR

    2009-01-01

    Background An early dispersal of biologically and behaviorally modern humans from their African origins to Australia, by at least 45 thousand years via southern Asia has been suggested by studies based on morphology, archaeology and genetics. However, mtDNA lineages sampled so far from south Asia, eastern Asia and Australasia show non-overlapping distributions of haplogroups within pan Eurasian M and N macrohaplogroups. Likewise, support from the archaeology is still ambiguous. Results In our completely sequenced 966-mitochondrial genomes from 26 relic tribes of India, we have identified seven genomes, which share two synonymous polymorphisms with the M42 haplogroup, which is specific to Australian Aborigines. Conclusion Our results showing a shared mtDNA lineage between Indians and Australian Aborigines provides direct genetic evidence of an early colonization of Australia through south Asia, following the "southern route". PMID:19624810

  1. Protective effect of royal jelly on the sperm parameters and testosterone level and lipid peroxidation in adult mice treated with oxymetholone

    PubMed Central

    Zahmatkesh, Ensieh; Najafi, Gholamreza; Nejati, Vahid; Heidari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Objectives : The aim of the present study was to evaluate protective effect of royal jelly on sperm parameters, testosterone level, and malondialdehyde (MDA) production in mice. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two adult male NMRI mice weighing 30±2 g were used. All the animals were divided into 4 groups. Control group: received saline 0.1 ml/mouse/day orally for 30 days. Royal jelly group (RJ): received royal jelly at dose of 100 mg/kg daily for 30 days orally. Oxymetholone group: the received Oxymetholone (OX) at dose of 5 mg/kg daily for 30 days orally. Royal jelly+Oxymetholone group: received royal jelly at dose of 100 mg/kg/day orally concomitant with OX administration. Sperm count, sperm motility, viability, maturity, and DNA integrity were analyzed. Furthermore, serum testosterone and MDA concentrations were determined. Results: In Oxymetholone group, sperm count, motility as well as testosterone concentration reduced significantly (p<0.05), while significant (p<0.05) increases in immature sperm, sperm with DNA damaged, and MDA concentration were announced in Oxymetholone group in comparison with control group and Royal jelly+Oxymetholone group. RJ caused partially amelioration in all of the above- mentioned parameters in Royal Jelly+Oxymetholone group. Conclusion: In conclusion, RJ may be used in combination with OX to improve OX-induced oxidative stress and male infertility. PMID:25050300

  2. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Avtex Fibers Npl Site - Operable Unit One, Front Royal, Virginia (first remedial action) September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-30

    The 440-acre Avtex Fibers site is located in Front Royal, Warren County, Virginia. The Avtex Fibers site has produced rayon fibers since 1940, polyester between 1970 and 1977, and polypropylene since 1985. During this 48-year period, byproducts from the rayon manufacturing process were disposed of in onsite surface impoundments. These byproducts included sodium cellulose xanthate-based viscose and zinc-hydroxide sludge. Fly ash (from incinerator exhaust air pollution control devices) and boiler-house solids were disposed of in five other surface impoundments. Land disposal of viscose waste ceased in 1983; since that time, the waste has been routed directly to an onsite wastewater treatment plant. In 1982, carbon disulfide, a constituent of viscose waste, was identified in ground water samples from residential wells located across the Shenandoah River from the site. In response to the results of a ground water investigation, Avtex implemented interim measures, which included purchasing 23 subdivision properties on the west side of the river that had contaminated domestic wells, and initiating a ground water pump and treatment program. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground water are phenols, and metals including arsenic and lead. The selected remedial action for this site is given.

  3. Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme annual report, 2013.

    PubMed

    Lahra, Monica M

    2015-03-01

    The Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme has continuously monitored antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from all states and territories since 1981. In 2013, 4,897 clinical isolates of gonococci from public and private sector sources were tested for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility by standardised methods. Decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC value 0.06-0.125 mg/L) was found nationally in 8.8% of isolates, double that reported in 2012 (4.4%). The highest proportions were reported from New South Wales and Victoria (both states reporting 11.8%), with a high proportion of strains also reported from Tasmania but a low number of isolates were tested. In addition, there was a multi-drug-resistant strain of N. gonorrhoeae isolated from a traveller to Australia, with a ceftraixone MIC value of 0.5 mgL-the highest ever reported in Australia. These antimicrobial resistance data from Australia in 2013 are cause for considerable concern. With the exception of remote Northern Territory where penicillin resistance rates remain low (1.3%) the proportion of strains resistant to penicillin remained high in all jurisdictions ranging from 15.6% in the Australian Capital Territory to 44.1% in Victoria. Quinolone resistance ranged from 16% in the Australian Capital Territory to 46% in Victoria. Azithromycin susceptibility testing was performed in all jurisdictions and resistance ranged from 0.3% in the Northern Territory to 5.7% in Queensland. High level resistance to azithromycin (MIC value was > 256 mg/L) was reported for the first time in Australia, in 4 strains: 2 each from Queensland and Victoria. Azithromycin resistant gonococci were not detected in the Australian Capital Territory, Tasmania or from the remote Northern Territory. Nationally, all isolates remained susceptible to spectinomycin. PMID:26063087

  4. The gambling behavior of indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex

    2014-06-01

    The gambling activities of minority groups such as Indigenous peoples are usually culturally complex and poorly understood. To redress the scarcity of information and contribute to a better understanding of gambling by Indigenous people, this paper presents quantitative evidence gathered at three Australian Indigenous festivals, online and in several Indigenous communities. With support from Indigenous communities, the study collected and analyzed surveys from 1,259 self-selected Indigenous adults. Approximately 33 % of respondents gambled on card games while 80 % gambled on commercial gambling forms in the previous year. Gambling participation and involvement are high, particularly on electronic gaming machines (EGMs), the favorite and most regular form of gambling. Men are significantly more likely to participate in gambling and to gamble more frequently on EGMs, horse/dog races, sports betting and instant scratch tickets. This elevated participation and frequency of gambling on continuous forms would appear to heighten gambling risks for Indigenous men. This is particularly the case for younger Indigenous men, who are more likely than their older counterparts to gamble on EGMs, table games and poker. While distinct differences between the gambling behaviors of our Indigenous sample and non-Indigenous Australians are apparent, Australian Indigenous behavior appears similar to that of some Indigenous and First Nations populations in other countries. Although this study represents the largest survey of Indigenous Australian gambling ever conducted in New South Wales and Queensland, further research is needed to extend our knowledge of Indigenous gambling and to limit the risks from gambling for Indigenous peoples. PMID:23338830

  5. Simulation of the Australian Mobilesat signalling scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Mushfiqur

    1990-01-01

    The proposed Australian Mobilesat system will provide a range of circuit switched voice/data services using the B-series satellites. The reliability of the signalling scheme between the Network Management Station (NMS) and the mobile terminal (MT) is of critical importance to the performance of the overall system. Simulation results of the performance of the signalling scheme under various channel conditions and coding schemes are presented.

  6. Farming fit? Dispelling the Australian agrarian myth

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rural Australians face a higher mental health and lifestyle disease burden (obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease) than their urban counterparts. Our ongoing research reveals that the Australian farming community has even poorer physical and mental health outcomes than rural averages. In particular, farm men and women have high rates of overweightness, obesity, abdominal adiposity, high blood pressure and psychological distress when compared against Australian averages. Within our farming cohort we observed a significant association between psychological distress and obesity, abdominal adiposity and body fat percentage in the farming population. Presentation of hypothesis This paper presents a hypothesis based on preliminary data obtained from an ongoing study that could potentially explain the complex correlation between obesity, psychological distress and physical activity among a farming population. We posit that spasmodic physical activity, changing farm practices and climate variability induce prolonged stress in farmers. This increases systemic cortisol that, in turn, promotes abdominal adiposity and weight gain. Testing the hypothesis The hypothesis will be tested by anthropometric, biochemical and psychological analysis matched against systemic cortisol levels and the physical activity of the subjects. Implications of the hypothesis tested Previous studies indicate that farming populations have elevated rates of psychological distress and high rates of suicide. Australian farmers have recently experienced challenging climatic conditions including prolonged drought, floods and cyclones. Through our interactions and through the media it is not uncommon for farmers to describe the effect of this long-term stress with feelings of 'defeat'. By gaining a greater understanding of the role cortisol and physical activity have on mental and physical health we may positively impact the current rates of psychological distress in farmers. Trial

  7. Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Anders; Nagle, Nano; Chen, Yuan; McCarthy, Shane; Pollard, Martin O; Ayub, Qasim; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; van Oorschot, Roland A H; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Xue, Yali; Mitchell, R John; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-03-21

    Australia was one of the earliest regions outside Africa to be colonized by fully modern humans, with archaeological evidence for human presence by 47,000 years ago (47 kya) widely accepted [1, 2]. However, the extent of subsequent human entry before the European colonial age is less clear. The dingo reached Australia about 4 kya, indirectly implying human contact, which some have linked to changes in language and stone tool technology to suggest substantial cultural changes at the same time [3]. Genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia at this time, as well: first, signs of South Asian admixture in Aboriginal Australian genomes have been reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data [4]; and second, a Y chromosome lineage designated haplogroup C(∗), present in both India and Australia, was estimated to have a most recent common ancestor around 5 kya and to have entered Australia from India [5]. Here, we sequence 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes to re-investigate their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including a comparison of Aboriginal Australian and South Asian haplogroup C chromosomes. We find divergence times dating back to ∼50 kya, thus excluding the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia. PMID:26923783

  8. Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Bergström, Anders; Nagle, Nano; Chen, Yuan; McCarthy, Shane; Pollard, Martin O.; Ayub, Qasim; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; van Oorschot, Roland A.H.; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Xue, Yali; Mitchell, R. John; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Summary Australia was one of the earliest regions outside Africa to be colonized by fully modern humans, with archaeological evidence for human presence by 47,000 years ago (47 kya) widely accepted [1, 2]. However, the extent of subsequent human entry before the European colonial age is less clear. The dingo reached Australia about 4 kya, indirectly implying human contact, which some have linked to changes in language and stone tool technology to suggest substantial cultural changes at the same time [3]. Genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support gene flow from the Indian subcontinent to Australia at this time, as well: first, signs of South Asian admixture in Aboriginal Australian genomes have been reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data [4]; and second, a Y chromosome lineage designated haplogroup C∗, present in both India and Australia, was estimated to have a most recent common ancestor around 5 kya and to have entered Australia from India [5]. Here, we sequence 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes to re-investigate their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including a comparison of Aboriginal Australian and South Asian haplogroup C chromosomes. We find divergence times dating back to ∼50 kya, thus excluding the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia. PMID:26923783

  9. Demographic rates of northern royal albatross at Taiaroa Head, New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Perriman, Lyndon; Lalas, Chris; Abraham, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    Demographic rates, such as annual survival rate, are generally difficult to estimate for long-lived seabirds, because of the length of time required for this kind of study and the remoteness of colonies. However, a small colony of northern royal albatross (Diomedea sanfordi) established itself on the mainland of New Zealand at Taiaroa Head, making possible regular banding and monitoring of its individuals since the first chick fledged, in 1938. Data on the presence/absence of birds, as well as on breeding outcomes, were available for the period from 1989–90 to 2011–12, and included 2128 annual resightings of 355 banded individuals of known age. The main goal of the present study was to estimate the annual survival rate of juveniles, pre-breeders, and adults at Taiaroa Head. These rates were estimated simultaneously in a single Bayesian multi-state capture-recapture model. Several models were fitted to the data, with different levels of complexity. From the most parsimonious model, the overall annual adult survival rate was estimated as 0.950 (95% CI [0.941–0.959]). In this model, adult survival declined with age, from 0.976 (95% CI [0.963–0.988]) at 6 years, the minimum age at first breeding, to 0.915 (95% CI [0.879–0.946]) at 40 years. Mean annual survival of pre-breeders was 0.966 (95% CI [0.950–0.980]), and 0.933 (95% CI [0.908–0.966]) for juveniles. There was no discernible difference in survival between males and females, and there was no apparent trend in survival over time. Estimates of other demographic rates were also obtained during the estimation process. The mean age at first return of juveniles to the colony was estimated as 4.8 years (95% CI [4.6–5.1]), and the mean age at first breeding as 8.9 years (95% CI [8.5–9.3]). Because all the birds of the colony were banded, it was possible to estimate the total population size. The number of northern royal albatross present annually at the Taiaroa Head colony has doubled since 1989–90

  10. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  11. SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY EXPERIMENTA, MAGISTERIAL FORMULAE AND THE 'ANIMAL ALKAHEST': NEW DOCUMENTS FOUND IN ROYAL SOCIETY ARCHIVES.

    PubMed

    Alfonso-Goldfarb, Ana Maria; Mendes Ferraz, Márcia Helena; Rattansi, Piyo M

    2015-12-20

    In this paper we present three newly rediscovered documents from the Royal Society archives that, together with the four described in our previous publications, constitute a set on a cognate theme. The documents were written by, or addressed to, members of the early Royal Society, and their subject is several magisterial formulae, including J. B. van Helmont's alkahest and Ludus. In addition to the interest in those formulae as medicines for various grave illnesses, our analysis showed that some seventeenth-century scholars sought to explain operations of the animal body by invoking similar but natural substances, while attempting to assimilate the latest anatomical discoveries into a novel framework. The complete set of documents sheds some new light on the interests of seventeenth-century networks of scholars concerned with experimenta. PMID:26665488

  12. Noise and sleep on board vessels in the Royal Norwegian Navy

    PubMed Central

    Sunde, Erlend; Bråtveit, Magne; Pallesen, Ståle; Moen, Bente Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Previous research indicates that exposure to noise during sleep can cause sleep disturbance. Seamen on board vessels are frequently exposed to noise also during sleep periods, and studies have reported sleep disturbance in this occupational group. However, studies of noise and sleep in maritime settings are few. This study's aim was to examine the associations between noise exposure during sleep, and sleep variables derived from actigraphy among seamen on board vessels in the Royal Norwegian Navy (RNoN). Data were collected on board 21 RNoN vessels, where navy seamen participated by wearing an actiwatch (actigraph), and by completing a questionnaire comprising information on gender, age, coffee drinking, nicotine use, use of medication, and workload. Noise dose meters were used to assess noise exposure inside the seamen's cabin during sleep. Eighty-three sleep periods from 68 seamen were included in the statistical analysis. Linear mixed-effects models were used to examine the association between noise exposure and the sleep variables percentage mobility during sleep and sleep efficiency, respectively. Noise exposure variables, coffee drinking status, nicotine use status, and sleeping hours explained 24.9% of the total variance in percentage mobility during sleep, and noise exposure variables explained 12.0% of the total variance in sleep efficiency. Equivalent noise level and number of noise events per hour were both associated with increased percentage mobility during sleep, and the number of noise events was associated with decreased sleep efficiency. PMID:26960785

  13. The Ripley Scroll of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh.

    PubMed

    McCallum, R I

    1996-01-01

    Alchemical scrolls associated with George Ripley are unusual documents which illustrate the pursuit of the Philosophers Stone. Scrolls vary from about 5 feet in length by 5 inches wide to over 20 feet long and about 3 feet wide. There are 16 scrolls in libraries in the UK and 4 in the USA. Ripley whose name is attached to the scrolls was a Canon of Bridlington in Yorkshire and lived from about 1415 to 1495. He is renowned as an alchemist and author of alchemical works in rhyme, and his verses are used on the scrolls. Some of the scrolls were produced in the 16th century, in Lübeck, probably at the request of John Dee the Elizabethan polymath. A Ripley scroll is in the library of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh to which it was presented in 1707. The only published description of this scroll appeared in 1876, and it has not apparently been studied since. Interest in Ripley scrolls has grown in recent years and there have been a number of publications describing them since 1990. The Edinburgh scroll is described and is compared with the other scrolls which have been seen personally or for which detailed descriptions have been published. The origin, significance and use of Ripley Scrolls are discussed in an attempt to define their contemporary role. PMID:11618578

  14. Accelerating vaccine development and deployment: report of a Royal Society satellite meeting

    PubMed Central

    Bregu, Migena; Draper, Simon J.; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Greenwood, Brian M.

    2011-01-01

    The Royal Society convened a meeting on the 17th and 18th November 2010 to review the current ways in which vaccines are developed and deployed, and to make recommendations as to how each of these processes might be accelerated. The meeting brought together academics, industry representatives, research sponsors, regulators, government advisors and representatives of international public health agencies from a broad geographical background. Discussions were held under Chatham House rules. High-throughput screening of new vaccine antigens and candidates was seen as a driving force for vaccine discovery. Multi-stakeholder, small-scale manufacturing facilities capable of rapid production of clinical grade vaccines are currently too few and need to be expanded. In both the human and veterinary areas, there is a need for tiered regulatory standards, differentially tailored for experimental and commercial vaccines, to allow accelerated vaccine efficacy testing. Improved cross-fertilization of knowledge between industry and academia, and between human and veterinary vaccine developers, could lead to more rapid application of promising approaches and technologies to new product development. Identification of best-practices and development of checklists for product development plans and implementation programmes were seen as low-cost opportunities to shorten the timeline for vaccine progression from the laboratory bench to the people who need it. PMID:21893549

  15. Comprehensive identification of novel proteins and N-glycosylation sites in royal jelly

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Royal jelly (RJ) is a proteinaceous secretion produced from the hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of nurse bees. It plays vital roles in honeybee biology and in the improvement of human health. However, some proteins remain unknown in RJ, and mapping N-glycosylation modification sites on RJ proteins demands further investigation. We used two different liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry techniques, complementary N-glycopeptide enrichment strategies, and bioinformatic approaches to gain a better understanding of novel and glycosylated proteins in RJ. Results A total of 25 N-glycosylated proteins, carrying 53 N-glycosylation sites, were identified in RJ proteins, of which 42 N-linked glycosylation sites were mapped as novel on RJ proteins. Most of the glycosylated proteins were related to metabolic activities and health improvement. The 13 newly identified proteins were also mainly associated with metabolic processes and health improvement activities. Conclusion Our in-depth, large-scale mapping of novel glycosylation sites represents a crucial step toward systematically revealing the functionality of N-glycosylated RJ proteins, and is potentially useful for producing a protein with desirable pharmacokinetic and biological activity using a genetic engineering approach. The newly-identified proteins significantly extend the proteome coverage of RJ. These findings contribute vital and new knowledge to our understanding of the innate biochemical nature of RJ at both the proteome and glycoproteome levels. PMID:24529077

  16. Changes in hepatic gene expression associated with the hypocholesterolaemic activity of royal jelly.

    PubMed

    Kamakura, Masaki; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Sakaki, Toshiyuki

    2006-12-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) has various pharmacological actions, including hypolipidaemic, hypocholesterolaemic and anti-atherosclerotic effects, in experimental animals but the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. Here, we investigated changes in the expression of lipid metabolism-associated genes in the liver of RJ-treated mice by means of a DNA microarray technique to obtain clues to the mechanism of the hypocholesterolaemic action of RJ. We compared the hepatic gene expression profiles in three groups of mice fed a diet containing 5% RJ, a diet containing 5% RJ stored at 40 degrees C for 7 days (40-7d RJ) or a control diet which provided the same total energy as the other diets. RJ decreased gene expression of squalene epoxidase (SQLE), which is a key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREB)-1, which may be a transcriptional factor of SQLE. It increased gene expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), which is involved in cholesterol incorporation in liver. Thus, the hypocholesterolaemic action of RJ appears to be associated with a decrease of SQLE and an increase of LDLR in mice. PMID:17331334

  17. Protective Effect of Royal Jelly on In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) in Male Mice Treated with Oxymetholone

    PubMed Central

    Zahmatkesh, Ensieh; Najafi, Gholamreza; Nejati, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of royal jelly (RJ) on catalase, total antioxidant capacity and embryo development in adult mice treated with oxymetholone (OXM). Materials and Methods In this exprimental study, 32 male and 96 female adult Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice (7-9 weeks of age) with a ratio of 1:3 for fertili- zation purposes were randomly divided into 4 groups as follows: i. Control group (n=8) receiving 0.1 ml/mice saline daily by gavage for 30 day, ii. RJ group (n=8) treated with RJ at a dose of 100 mg/kg daily by gavage for 30 days, iii. OXM group (n=8) receiving OXM at the dose of 5 mg/kg daily by gavage for 30 days and iv. RJ+OXM group (n=8) receiving RJ at the dose of 100 mg/kg daily by gavage concomitant with 100 mg/kg OXM adminis- tration for 30 days. Results Analysis revealed a significant reduction in catalase, total antioxidant, as well as embryo development in OXM group (P<0.05). However, RJ group showed a salient recovery in the all of the above mentioned parameters and embryo toxicity. Conclusion The results of this study indicated a partially protective effect of RJ against OXM-induced embryo toxicity. PMID:26464831

  18. Sugar composition of French royal jelly for comparison with commercial and artificial sugar samples.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Gaëlle; Casabianca, Hervé

    2012-09-15

    A gas chromatographic method was developed to quantify the major and minor sugars of 400 Royal Jellies (RJs). Their contents were compared in relation to the geographical origins and different production methods. A reliable database was established from the analysis of 290 RJs harvested in different French areas that took into account the diversity of geographical origin, harvesting season, forage sources available in the environment corresponding to natural food of the bees: pollen and nectar. Around 30 RJ samples produced by Italian beekeepers, about sixty-ones from French market, and around thirty-ones derived from feeding experiments were analysed and compared with our database. Fructose and glucose contents are in the range 2.3-7.8% and 3.4-7.7%, respectively, whatever the RJ's origin. On the contrary, differences in minor sugar composition are observed. Indeed sucrose and erlose contents in French RJs are lesser than 1.7% and 0.3%, respectively, whereas they reach 3.9% and 2.0% in some commercial samples and 5.1% and 1.7% in RJs produced from feeding experiments. This study could be used to discriminate different production methods and provide an additional tool for identifying unknown commercial RJs. PMID:23107723

  19. The Effects of Royal Jelly on Fitness Traits and Gene Expression in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Shorter, John R.; Geisz, Matthew; Özsoy, Ergi; Magwire, Michael M.; Carbone, Mary Anna; Mackay, Trudy F. C.

    2015-01-01

    Royal Jelly (RJ) is a product made by honey bee workers and is required for queen differentiation and accompanying changes in queen body size, development time, lifespan and reproductive output relative to workers. Previous studies have reported similar changes in Drosophila melanogaster in response to RJ. Here, we quantified viability, development time, body size, productivity, lifespan and genome wide transcript abundance of D. melanogaster reared on standard culture medium supplemented with increasing concentrations of RJ. We found that lower concentrations of RJ do induce significant differences in body size in both sexes; higher concentrations reduce size, increase mortality, shorten lifespan and reduce productivity. Increased concentrations of RJ also consistently lengthened development time in both sexes. RJ is associated with changes in expression of 1,581 probe sets assessed using Affymetrix Drosophila 2.0 microarrays, which were enriched for genes associated with metabolism and amino acid degradation. The transcriptional changes are consistent with alterations in cellular processes to cope with excess nutrients provided by RJ, including biosynthesis and detoxification, which might contribute to accelerated senescence and reduced lifespan. PMID:26226016

  20. 'Bio-nano interactions: new tools, insights and impacts': summary of the Royal Society discussion meeting.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Iseult; Feitshans, Ilise L; Kendall, Michaela

    2015-02-01

    Bio-nano interactions can be defined as the study of interactions between nanoscale entities and biological systems such as, but not limited to, peptides, proteins, lipids, DNA and other biomolecules, cells and cellular receptors and organisms including humans. Studying bio-nano interactions is particularly useful for understanding engineered materials that have at least one dimension in the nanoscale. Such materials may consist of discrete particles or nanostructured surfaces. Much of biology functions at the nanoscale; therefore, our ability to manipulate materials such that they are taken up at the nanoscale, and engage biological machinery in a designed and purposeful manner, opens new vistas for more efficient diagnostics, therapeutics (treatments) and tissue regeneration, so-called nanomedicine. Additionally, this ability of nanomaterials to interact with and be taken up by cells allows nanomaterials to be used as probes and tools to advance our understanding of cellular functioning. Yet, as a new technology, assessment of the safety of nanomaterials, and the applicability of existing regulatory frameworks for nanomaterials must be investigated in parallel with development of novel applications. The Royal Society meeting 'Bio-nano interactions: new tools, insights and impacts' provided an important platform for open dialogue on the current state of knowledge on these issues, bringing together scientists, industry, regulatory and legal experts to concretize existing discourse in science law and policy. This paper summarizes these discussions and the insights that emerged. PMID:25533104

  1. Food for thought?: the relations between the Royal Society Food Committee and government, 1915-19.

    PubMed

    Hull, Andrew J

    2002-07-01

    This paper traces the relationship between the food committees of the Royal Society and government during the First World War, concentrating on the period up to the resignation of Lord Devonport as first Food Controller. It argues that, in the context of a radical public science discourse emanating from some sections of the scientific community and greatly increased contacts between scientists and the government, the food scientists of the committees were moved to press for a formalization of the committees' role in food policy. The members constantly manoeuvered to achieve this aim, but also used a network of alternative channels into the heart of the policy process to get their findings translated into hard policy. In doing so, they explicitly rehearsed characteristic 'public science' arguments. In the institutional blur of wartime state-science relations, scientists often got close to the policy-making process. Post-War, the state swiftly moved to clarify the position: science was to be given more money, but was to be specifically blocked by new administrative arrangements embodied in the Haldane Report on the Machinery of Government from having any say in the core areas of general policy, the expert domain of the generalist policy-maker. PMID:12164204

  2. William Brouncker MD Viscount Castlelyons (c 1620-84) First President of the Royal Society.

    PubMed

    Breathnach, Caoimhghín S

    2006-11-01

    William Brouncker was the grandson of Sir Henry Brouncker, President of Munster during the Elizabethan Plantation of Ireland in the 16th century. William's date and place of birth are uncertain; he was born about 1620, most probably at Castlelyons, County Cork, and educated at Oxford where he shone in mathematics and languages. Until his death in 1684 he served the Stuarts as a senior member of the Navy Board from which sprang the Admiralty, and we owe much of what we know about his life to the warts-and-all diary of his younger naval colleague, Samuel Pepys (1633-1703). Although William was granted a doctorate in medicine by Oxford in 1646, music and mathematics were his major interests. He was the first President of the Royal Society and he held that position from 1662 to 1677, when his tenure was brought to a reluctant close by an election, sardonically recorded in the diary of the curator of experiments, Robert Hooke (1635-1703). If Brouncker did not add any empirical facts, he certainly contributed to the promotion and dissemination of natural knowledge. PMID:19817061

  3. An evaluation of camping impacts and their management at Isle Royale National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Results from the development and application of a monitoring program to assess visitor impacts on back-country campsites at Isle Royale National Park are presented. Survey staff assessed conditions on 244 sites within 36 back-country campgrounds, including 113 individual campsites, 43 group campsites, and 88 shelters. Site conditions are generally quite good. Site size and other areal measures of disturbance are exceptionally small attributed to the placement of most sites on cut-and-fill constructed ?benches? within sloping terrain. Relational analyses revealed that campsites in Spruce and Fir forests and under more open forest canopies have significantly lower areal measures of disturbance. Areal disturbance is also reduced on sites where shelters and picnic tables are present, suggesting that these facilities act to concentrate visitor use. Site locational attributes, such as intersite visibility and proximity to trails, indicate a low potential for solitude within some campgrounds. Recommendations regarding site number, distribution, arrangement, facilities, maintenance, and monitoring are offered for management consideration.

  4. Conservation of Stone Cladding on the FAÇADE of Royal Palace in Caserta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titomanlio, I.

    2013-07-01

    The beauty of cultural heritage and monumental architecture, is often linked to their non-structural elements and decorative stones façades cladding. The collapse of these elements causes significant consequences that interest the social, the economic, the historical and the technical fields. Several regulatory documents and literature studies contain methods to address the question of relief and of the risk analysis and due to the non - structural stones security. Among the references are widespread international regulatory documents prepared by the Federal Emergency Management Agency of the United States by Applied Technology Council and California. In Italy there are some indications contained in the Norme Tecniche per le Costruzioni and the Direttiva del Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri in 2007, finalize to the reduction of seismic risk assessment of cultural heritage. The paper, using normative references and scientific researches, allows to analyze on Royal Palace of Caserta the safety and the preservation of cultural heritage and the vulnerability of non-structural stones façade cladding. Using sophisticated equipments of Laboratory ARS of the Second University of Naples, it was possible to analyze the collapse of stone elements due to degradation caused by natural phenomena of deterioration (age of the building, type of materials, geometries , mode of fixing of the elements themselves). The paper explains the collapse mechanisms of stones façade cladding of Luigi Vanvitelli Palace.

  5. The Lyophilization Process Maintains the Chemical and Biological Characteristics of Royal Jelly

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Larissa Ariana Roveroni; Ferreira, Nathália Ursoli; Moreno, Gabriela de Padua; Uahib, Fernanda Grassi Mangolini; Barizon, Edna Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    The alternative use of natural products, like royal jelly (RJ), may be an important tool for the treatment of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. RJ presents a large number of bioactive substances, including antimicrobial compounds. In this study, we carried out the chemical characterization of fresh and lyophilized RJ and investigated their antibacterial effects with the purpose of evaluating if the lyophilization process maintains the chemical and antibacterial properties of RJ. Furthermore, we evaluated the antibacterial efficacy of the main fatty acid found in RJ, the 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10H2DA). Chromatographic profile of the RJ samples showed similar fingerprints and the presence of 10H2DA in both samples. Furthermore, fresh and lyophilized RJ were effective against all bacteria evaluated; that is, the lyophilization process maintains the antibacterial activity of RJ and the chemical field of 10H2DA. The fatty acid 10H2DA exhibited a good antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Therefore, it may be used as an alternative and complementary treatment for infections caused by antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae. PMID:26064175

  6. Antioxidant properties of royal jelly associated with larval age and time of harvest.

    PubMed

    Liu, Je-Ruei; Yang, Yuan-Chang; Shi, Li-Shian; Peng, Chi-Chung

    2008-12-10

    This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties of royal jelly (RJ) collected from larvae of different ages that were transferred in artificial bee queen cells for 24, 48, and 72 h. RJ harvested from the 1 day old larvae 24 h after the graft displayed predominant antioxidant properties, including scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation, and reducing power. Regardless of the initial larval age, lower antioxidant activities were observed in the RJ harvested later than 24 h except for the activity of superoxide dismutase. In addition, higher contents of proteins and polyphenolic compounds were determined in the RJ harvested 24 h than that harvested 48 or 72 h after the graft. It implied that the polyphenolic compounds may be the major component for giving the antioxidant activities in RJ. In summary, the time of harvest and the initial larval age did affect the antioxidant potencies in RJ, and RJ collected 24 h after the larval transfer showed the most substantial antioxidant activities. PMID:19007163

  7. Royal Decree No. 727/1988 on the restructuring of ministerial departments, 11 July 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This Decree restructures the Central Administration of Spain to include the Ministry of Social Affairs. Among the functions of the Ministry are the following: 1) the preparation and execution of the Government's policy for the promotion and encouragement of conditions that make possible the social equality of both sexes, and the participation of women in political, cultural, economic, and social life; and 2) the legal protection of minors and, in a general fashion, the analysis, formulation, and coordination of programs of action relating to the prevention of juvenile delinquency; the promotion of institutions for adoption and foster care; and the evaluation and inspection of organizations of family integration. Royal Decree No. 791/1988 of the Ministry of Social Affairs of 20 July 1988 sets forth the organic structure of the Ministry of Social Affairs. Among the departments of the Ministry is the General Directorate for the Protection of Minors, whose general objective is the analysis, formulation, coordination, and supervision of programs of action relating to the legal and social protection of minors and the prevention of the marginalization of infants and youth. Attached to the Ministry as an autonomous organization is the Women's Institute. PMID:12289257

  8. Royal Jelly alleviates sperm toxicity and improves in vitro fertilization outcome in Stanozolol-treated mice

    PubMed Central

    Shalizar Jalali, Ali; Najafi, Gholamreza; Hosseinchi, Mohammadreza; Sedighnia, Ashkan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stanozolol (ST) is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid often abused by athletes. An increasing body of evidence points towards the role of ST misuses in the pathogenesis of a wide range of adverse effects including reprotoxicity. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the possible reproprotective effect of royal jelly (RJ) as an efficient antioxidant in ST-treated mice. Materials and Methods: Adult male mice were divided into four groups (n=5). Two groups of mice received ST (4.6 mg/kg/day) via gavage for 35 days. RJ was given orally to one of these groups at the dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight per day synchronously. Untreated control group and RJ-only treated group were also included. Epididymal sperm characteristics and in vitro fertilizing capacity were evaluated after 35 days. Results: ST treatment caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in sperm count and motility and fertilization rate along with poor blastocyst formation and increased sperm DNA damage. Moreover, the incidence of apoptosis and abnormality in spermatozoa was significantly (p<0.05) higher in ST-exposed mice than those of control. The above-mentioned parameters were restored to near normal level by RJ co-administration. Conclusion: Data from the current study suggest that RJ has a potential repro-protective action against ST-induced reproductive toxicity in mice. However, clinical studies are warranted to investigate such an effect in human subjects. PMID:25653671

  9. Accelerating vaccine development and deployment: report of a Royal Society satellite meeting.

    PubMed

    Bregu, Migena; Draper, Simon J; Hill, Adrian V S; Greenwood, Brian M

    2011-10-12

    The Royal Society convened a meeting on the 17th and 18th November 2010 to review the current ways in which vaccines are developed and deployed, and to make recommendations as to how each of these processes might be accelerated. The meeting brought together academics, industry representatives, research sponsors, regulators, government advisors and representatives of international public health agencies from a broad geographical background. Discussions were held under Chatham House rules. High-throughput screening of new vaccine antigens and candidates was seen as a driving force for vaccine discovery. Multi-stakeholder, small-scale manufacturing facilities capable of rapid production of clinical grade vaccines are currently too few and need to be expanded. In both the human and veterinary areas, there is a need for tiered regulatory standards, differentially tailored for experimental and commercial vaccines, to allow accelerated vaccine efficacy testing. Improved cross-fertilization of knowledge between industry and academia, and between human and veterinary vaccine developers, could lead to more rapid application of promising approaches and technologies to new product development. Identification of best-practices and development of checklists for product development plans and implementation programmes were seen as low-cost opportunities to shorten the timeline for vaccine progression from the laboratory bench to the people who need it. PMID:21893549

  10. Towards evidence-based emergency medicine: Best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary.

    PubMed

    Mackway-Jones, Kevin C

    2013-07-01

    Best Evidence Topic reports (BETs) summarise the evidence pertaining to particular clinical questions. They are not systematic reviews, but rather contain the best (highest level) evidence that can be practically obtained by busy practicing clinicians. The search strategies used to find the best evidence are reported in detail in order to allow clinicians to update searches whenever necessary. Each BET is based on a clinical scenario and ends with a clinical bottom line which indicates, in the light of the evidence found, what the reporting clinician would do if faced with the same scenario again. The BETs published below were first reported at the Critical Appraisal Journal Club at the Manchester Royal Infirmary¹ or placed on the BestBETs website. Each BET has been constructed in the four stages that have been described elsewhere.² The BETs shown here together with those published previously and those currently under construction can be seen at http://www.bestbets.org.³ Three BETs are included in this issue of the journal. Capillary blood gases as an alternative to arterial puncture in diabetic ketoacidosis. Effect of warming local anaesthetics on pain of infiltration. Use of tamsulosin in patients with urinary calculi to increase spontaneous stone passage. PMID:23765766

  11. Ethanol reduces ripening of 'Royal Gala' apples stored in controlled atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Weber, Anderson; Brackmann, Auri; Both, Vanderlei; Pavanello, Elizandra P; Anese, Rogerio O; Schorr, Márcio R W

    2016-03-01

    This work aims at evaluate ethanol effect of acetaldehyde application in post-storage quality of 'Royal Gala' apples maintenance, and to compare them with consolidated storage techniques. Thus two experiments were performed during the years of 2008 and 2009. In the first experiment (2008), the application of ethanol, acetaldehyde or 1-MCP and ethylene scrubbing were tested. Fruits were stored in controlled atmosphere (CA) with 1.0kPa O2 and 2.0kPa CO2 at 0.5°C. In the second experiment (2009), the treatments tested were ethanol application combined or not with low relative humidity (LRH) and LRH alone. In this experiment, apples were stored in CA with 1.2kPa O2 + 2.5kPa CO2 at 0.5°C. After eight months of storage, 0.5 mL ethanol kg-1 apples month-1 or 0.25 mL acetaldehyde kg-1 apples month-1 increased mealiness, flesh browning, and decays incidence and reduced flesh firmness. In contrast, 0.3 mL ethanol kg-1 apples month-1, tested on second experiment, prevented fruit softening and decreased ACC oxidase activity and ethylene production. Although lower relative humidity was not efficient in maintaining post-storage quality, it enhanced the positive effect of ethanol application at 0.3 mL kg-1 apples month-1. PMID:26871493

  12. A review of the (60)Co internal dosimetry at Devonport Royal Dockyard.

    PubMed

    Vickers, J M A; Collison, R; Collision, R

    2010-03-01

    The physico-chemical properties of (60)Co contaminants arising from the UK Naval Nuclear Propulsion Programme (NNPP) pressurised water reactor (PWR) plants have been investigated in order to review individual monitoring requirements at Devonport Royal Dockyard (DRD). This has been achieved through laboratory tests on NNPP primary component samples and interpretation of direct bioassay measurements using internal dosimetry modelling software. Interpretation of lung measurements was completed for two inhalation events involving material originating from a PWR plant and post-primary circuit decontamination. Initial estimates of intake and dose were calculated using International Commission on Radiological Protection default parameter values. However, a good fit could only be achieved by fitting the data to alternative absorption parameters where 90-95% of the material dissolved and absorbed rapidly at a rate of 1 day(-1). As a consequence of this review, a number of improvements have been made to monitoring arrangements at DRD. A minimum of three direct measurements are now taken during the 0-30 day period after an intake, the capability of the Canberra Accuscan has been enhanced and dissolution tests are being carried out by the Health Protection Agency (HPA) on samples taken from PWR plants. PMID:20220215

  13. Stable isotope ratio measurements of royal jelly samples for controlling production procedures: impact of sugar feeding.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Gaëlle; Wytrychowski, Marine; Batteau, Magali; Guibert, Sylvie; Casabianca, Hervé

    2011-07-30

    The carbon and nitrogen stable ratios of royal jelly (RJ) samples from various origins are determined using an elemental analyser linked online to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer to evaluate authenticity and adulteration. The (13)C/(12)C and (15)N/(14)N stable isotope ratios are measured in more than 500 RJs (domestic, imported and derived from feeding experiments) in order to obtain isotopic measurements that take into account seasonal, botanical and geographical effects. Authenticity intervals are established for traditional beekeeping practices, without feeding, in the range -22.48 to -27.90‰ for δ(13)C. For these samples, the δ(15)N values range from -1.58 to 7.98‰, depending on the plant sources of pollen and nectar. The δ(13)C values of the commercial samples vary from -18.54 to -26.58‰. High δ(13)C values are typical of sugar cane or corn syrups which have distinctive isotopic (13)C signatures because both plants use the C4 photosynthetic cycle, in contrast to most RJs which are derived from C3 plants. These differences in the (13)C-isotopic composition allow the detection of the addition of such sugars. RJs from traditional sources and from industrial production by sugar feeding are thus successfully distinguished. PMID:21698675

  14. Age, growth, maturity, and fecundity of 'humper' lake trout, Isle Royale, Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rahrer, Jerold F.

    1965-01-01

    Humper lake trout are one of the several races or subpopulations of lake trout in Lake Superior. This study is based on 3,705 fish collected on a reef south of Isle Royale near the eastern end. The mean lengths of humper trout from commercial gill nets were smaller than those of lean lake trout. Members of age-groups VII, VIII, and IX represented 81.5 per cent of the commercial humper catch. The body-scale relation was described by two intersecting straight lines. The weight of humper trout increased as the 3.282 power of the length. Growth in length was slow and ranged from 1.6 to 3.5 inches per year. Annual increments were greatest in the first, sixth, and seventh years. Growth in weight was also slow but increased each year. Humper trout became legal (1 1/2 pounds) in the eighth year of life and reached 5 pounds in 11 years. All fish longer than 19.1 inches and older than age-group VIII were mature; the shortest mature fish were: males, 12.7 inches; females, 14.7 inches. At minimum legal size, 98 per cent of the males and 56 per cent of the females were mature. Humper trout produced an average of 1,351 eggs per fish or 516 per pound.

  15. Freeze-dried royal jelly maintains its developmental and physiological bioactivity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Kayashima, Yasunari; Yamanashi, Keiko; Sato, Ayaka; Kumazawa, Shigenori; Yamakawa-Kobayashi, Kimiko

    2012-01-01

    Royal jelly (RJ), a honeybee-derived product, has been found to possess developmental and physiological bioactivity in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, but little is known about the in vivo bioactivity of freeze-dried RJ (FDRJ) powder, which is another form of RJ processed for human use. To address this, we used Drosophila as a model animal to examine the effects of FDRJ in multicellular organisms. When flies were reared on food supplemented with FDRJ, the developmental time from larva to adult was shortened, the adult male lifespan was prolonged, and female fecundity was increased without any significant morphological alterations. Moreover, the expression of dilp5, an insulin-like peptide, its receptor InR, and the nutrient sensing molecule TOR, the target of rapamycin, was significantly increased in FDRJ-fed female flies as compared with ones reared on standard and on protein-enriched food. These findings suggest that like RJ, FDRJ maintains its bioactivity even after processing from RJ, what is expected to have bioactivity for multicellular organisms, including humans. PMID:23132575

  16. Monitoring the Solar Radius from the Royal Observatory of the Spanish Navy since 1773

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquero, J. M.; Gallego, M. C.; Ruiz-Lorenzo, J. J.; López-Moratalla, T.; Carrasco, V. M. S.; Aparicio, A. J. P.; González-González, F. J.; Hernández-García, E.

    2016-08-01

    The solar diameter has been monitored at the Royal Observatory of the Spanish Navy (today the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada: ROA) almost continuously since its creation in 1753 ( i.e. during the past 250 years). After a painstaking effort to collect data in the historical archive of this institution, we present here the data of the solar semidiameter from 1773 to 2006, making up an extensive new database for solar-radius measurements, which can be considered. We have calculated the solar semidiameter from the transit times registered by the observers (except for values of the solar radius from the modern Danjon astrolabe, which were published by ROA). These data were analysed to reveal any significant long-term trends, but no such trends were found. Therefore, the data sample confirms the constancy of the solar diameter during the past 250 years (approximately) within instrumental and methodological limits. Moreover, no relationship between solar radius and the new sunspot-number index has been found from measurements of the ROA. Finally, the mean value for the solar semidiameter (with one standard deviation) calculated from the observations made in the ROA (1773 - 2006), after applying corrections for refraction and diffraction, is equal to 958.87^''±1.77^''.

  17. The Royal Society of Chemistry and the delivery of chemistry data repositories for the community.

    PubMed

    Williams, Antony; Tkachenko, Valery

    2014-10-01

    Since 2009 the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) has been delivering access to chemistry data and cheminformatics tools via the ChemSpider database and has garnered a significant community following in terms of usage and contribution to the platform. ChemSpider has focused only on those chemical entities that can be represented as molecular connection tables or, to be more specific, the ability to generate an InChI from the input structure. As a structure centric hub ChemSpider is built around the molecular structure with other data and links being associated with this structure. As a result the platform has been limited in terms of the types of data that can be managed, and the flexibility of its searches, and it is constrained by the data model. New technologies and approaches, specifically taking into account a shift from relational to NoSQL databases, and the growing importance of the semantic web, has motivated RSC to rearchitect and create a more generic data repository utilizing these new technologies. This article will provide an overview of our activities in delivering data sharing platforms for the chemistry community including the development of the new data repository expanding into more extensive domains of chemistry data. PMID:25086851

  18. Healthcare coverage for undocumented migrants in Spain: Regional differences after Royal Decree Law 16/2012.

    PubMed

    Cimas, Marta; Gullon, Pedro; Aguilera, Eva; Meyer, Stefan; Freire, José Manuel; Perez-Gomez, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    The economic crisis has prompted the debate on how to regulate health coverage of undocumented migrants in publicly funded healthcare systems. Spain, as one of the most heavily affected countries in Europe, can be considered a case of particular interest. In 2012 the Spanish Government issued a Royal Decree Law (RDL 16/2012) which revoked their previous full right to public healthcare coverage, now limited for some exceptions. However, the Spanish National Health System is highly decentralized, and this Central Government decree had to be implemented by the Regional Health Authorities. Our aim is to compare regional policies regarding entitlement to healthcare for undocumented migrants after RDL 16/2012 in the 17 Autonomous Regions by performing an exhaustive review of the regional health policy regulations published after the enactment of RDL 16/2012. Our analysis shows that many Regions adopted legal, legislative and administrative actions to void or limit its effects, while others applied it as intended, resulting in huge differences in healthcare coverage for irregular migrants among Spanish Regions. The unequal implementation of this Law constitutes a paradigmatic example of the complexity of nation-wide regulation of controversial key issues in decentralized health systems. In addition, our results highlight that within-country differences in access and/or entitlement can be as relevant as those reported among-country when there is healthcare decentralization. PMID:26948703

  19. Efficacy of bayer suspend poly zone against stable flies and house flies when applied to trigger royal cloth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    METHODS: PolyZone (PZ)(Deltamethrin 4.75% AI) was mixed with water according to label instructions (45.4 ml per 3.79 liters H2O = 0.06% solution) for application to 10 x 10 cm squares of blue Trigger-Royal Box fabric (65% polyester and 35% cotton, Galey & Lord, Inc., New York). PZ was applied to run...

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of a Serratia marcescens Strain Isolated from a Preterm Neonatal Blood Sepsis Patient at the Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Kropp, K A; Lucid, A; Carroll, J; Belgrudov, V; Walsh, P; Kelly, B; Smith, C; Dickinson, P; O'Driscoll, A; Templeton, K; Ghazal, P; Sleator, R D

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we report the draft genome sequence for isolate ED-NGS-1015 of Serratia marcescens, cultivated from a blood sample obtained from a neonatal sepsis patient at the Royal Infirmary in Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom. PMID:25212627

  1. Molecular and biochemical characterization of the major royal jelly protein in bumblebees suggest a non-nutritive function.

    PubMed

    Kupke, Jens; Spaethe, Johannes; Mueller, Martin J; Rössler, Wolfgang; Albert, Štefan

    2012-09-01

    Honeybee queens are generated on purpose by extensive feeding with a glandular secretion termed royal jelly. Major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) are the dominant proteinaceous component of royal jelly. One of them, MRJP1, was found to play a central role in honeybee queen development. Genes encoding MRJPs were reported to originate from a single originator, and several of them have evolved nutritive function. Phylogenetic analysis provides evidence that the same originator has multiplied independently in Nasonia and ant lineages. Here we show that bumblebees represent a transition species preserving a single-copy pre-multiplication stage of MRJP evolution. By exploring the single-copy BtRJPL gene, we found striking similarities with MRJPs of the honeybee such as gene structure and expression regulation. At the same time it turned out that BtRJPL does not fulfill criteria for functioning as a nutritive protein. Instead we found evidence that BtRJPL is involved in food digestion or modification, which appears to be the original MRJP function, at least in this lineage. Thus, the evolutionary pattern of MRJPs in hymenopterans constitutes an excellent example of a functional diversification combined with the origin of new properties followed by intensive gene duplication events. PMID:22617191

  2. From Abydos to the Valley of the Kings and Amarna: the conception of royal funerary landscapes in the New Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magli, G.

    Royal funerary landscapes in Egypt show a remarkable continuity in the use of symbols and in the interplay between natural and man-built features. In such a context directionality, both in the sense of succession of elements and of orientation of single buildings and tombs, plays a relevant role in governing the landscape in accordance with the idea of "cosmic" order, the basis of the temporal power of the Pharaoh. This paper investigates cognitive aspects of the funerary royal landscapes of the New Kingdom, with special emphasis on the connections with astronomy and orientation. A close similarity between the sacred landscape at western Thebes and the early dynastic funerary landscape at Abydos comes out and such a similarity may have been one of the reasons for the choice of Valley of the Kings as royal Necropolis. The original, actually unique way in which old symbols and features were re-elaborated by Akhenaten in planning his funerary landscape at Amarna is also highlighted.

  3. Australian Apprentice & Trainee Statistics: Electrical and Electronics Trades, 1995 to 1999. Australian Vocational Education & Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    Statistics regarding Australians participating in apprenticeships and traineeships in the electrical and electronics trades in 1995-1999 were reviewed to provide an indication of where skill shortages may be occurring or will likely occur in relation to the following occupations: electrical engineering associate professional; electronics…

  4. Australian Apprentice & Trainee Statistics: Mechanical Engineering and Fabrication Trades, 1995-1999. Australian Vocational Education & Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    Statistics regarding Australians participating in apprenticeships and traineeships in the mechanical engineering and fabrication trades in 1995-1999 were reviewed to provide an indication of where skill shortages may be occurring or will likely occur in relation to the following occupations: mechanical engineering trades; fabrication engineering…

  5. New Visions: Exploring Australian Identity through Films Highlighting Experiences of Indigenous Australians: Year 8 Film Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Monika; Wenlock, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Prior to 2011, Year 8 students studied a single film as text, "Yolngu Boy." This had been on the syllabus for several years, and the consensus was that it was time to review the unit, refresh the text and introduce multiple film texts that would present varying visions and perspectives of notions of what it is to be "Australian". The authors aimed…

  6. Australian Apprentice & Trainee Statistics: Automotive Repairs and Service Trades, 1995 to 1999. Australian Vocational Education & Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    Statistics regarding Australians participating in apprenticeships and traineeships in the automotive repairs and service trades in 1995-1999 were reviewed to provide an indication of where skill shortages may be occurring or will likely occur in relation to the following occupations: motor mechanic, automotive electrician, and panel beater. The…

  7. The Australian-Ness of Curriculum Jigsaws: Where Does Environmental Education Fit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews Australian Government actions related to environmental education, particularly in the past decade, and examines the actions forthcoming from two national action plans (Environment Australia, 2000 and DEWHA, 2009), the implementation strategy for the Decade of ESD (DEWHA, 2006) and developments related to the Australian…

  8. Immigrant Australians and Education. A Review of Research. Australian Education Review Number 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturman, Andrew

    This review examines whether immigrant Australians are disadvantaged educationally or vocationally by the education they receive, and whether their educational experiences are of a high quality and relevant to their needs. First, data is provided on the patterns of post-war immigration, along with information about the changing attitudes of…

  9. Review of the Australian Apprenticeship and Traineeship Literature: References and Their Key Issues. Australian Apprenticeships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, S.

    This volume is a survey of more than 125 Australian apprenticeship and traineeship references from 1985-99. Each item identifies author/editor/organization, date, title, organization and place of publication or development. A "key" provides a descriptive phrase relating to the reference type, such as an industry-body paper on training delivery (to…

  10. The Arts and Australian Education: Realising Potential. Australian Education Review No. 58

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    Australian Education Review (AER) 58 surveys the international and national research on the role and effect of arts-rich programming in schools and in the broader community, and examines the policies and practices that inhibit or support these initiatives. It puts the case that embedding the Arts in learning would be a powerful catalyst for…

  11. The climatology of Australian tropical aerosol: Evidence for regional correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, R. M.; Forgan, B. W.; Campbell, S. K.; Qin, Y.

    2013-05-01

    Biomass burning aerosols from the tropical savanna of Northern Australia constitute a globally significant aerosol source, with impacts on regional climate and air quality. Knowledge of the seasonal cycle and spatial distribution of this aerosol is required for its realistic representation in models of global climate, and to help define the role of this region in the global carbon cycle. This paper presents a decadal climatology of these aerosols, based on Sun photometer records from three stations in the Australian tropics, over the period 1998-2012. The monthly time series shows enhanced aerosol emissions following prodigious wet seasons, two of which occurred during the study period. The monthly climatology shows the expected peak during the late dry season (September-November), when most burning takes place, with clear evidence of the dominant modulating effect of fine-particle smoke emission apparent from the annual cycle of the Ångström exponent, a proxy for particle size. The aerosol levels during the early dry season are higher at the northern "Top End" stations than at the south-westerly Kimberley station. The time variation of aerosol optical depth is highly correlated between all three station pairs, with a correlation coefficient r2> 0.75 at monthly resolution between all pairs. This high correlation between widely separated stations declines only gradually as the filtering interval is reduced, suggesting remarkably high coherence in the emission and transport of biomass burning aerosol across the entire region.

  12. Australian Higher Education Reforms--Unification or Diversification?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombe, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    The higher education policy of the previous Australian government aimed to achieve an internationally competitive higher education sector while expanding access opportunities to all Australians. This policy agenda closely reflects global trends that focus on achieving both quality and equity objectives. In this paper, the formulation and…

  13. An Australian Story: School Sustainability Education in the Lucky Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Zarin; Venville, Grady; Longnecker, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents a case study involving a Perth primary school accompanied on its sustainability journey by Millennium Kids Inc, a local not-for-profit community organisation. Tension between the school's sustainability focus, its prestige as an elite private school and a "lucky country" mentality frames the Australian-ness of this…

  14. Internet Services and Academic Work: An Australian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Harry

    1994-01-01

    Describes a pilot study examining how Australian academics are using the Australian Academic and Research Network. Ten tables provide details on network services used in relation to academic role, importance of services used and relationship to academic work, and specific applications for e-mail, remote login, news groups and FTP (file transfer…

  15. Australian Item Bank Program: Science Item Bank. Book 3: Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The Australian Science Item Bank consists of three volumes of multiple-choice questions. Book 3 contains questions on the biological sciences. The questions are designed to be suitable for high school students (year 8 to year 12 in Australian schools). The questions are classified by the subject content of the question, the cognitive skills…

  16. Philosophy and Ethics in Western Australian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millett, Stephan; Tapper, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of Philosophy and Ethics to the Western Australian Certificate of Education courses in 2008 brought philosophy into the Western Australian secondary school curriculum for the first time. How philosophy came to be included is part of a larger story about the commitment and perseverance of a relatively small number of Australian…

  17. The Shades of Grey of Cyberbullying in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the effects of cyberbullying in relation to a school's duty of care. By examining the impact of cyberbullying through an increasingly common scenario, it becomes apparent that the strategies for Australian schools in maintaining their duty of care may be unclear and uncommunicated. Findings suggest that Australian law in its…

  18. Teacher Transculturalism and Cultural Difference: Addressing Racism in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casinader, Niranjan R.; Walsh, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The increasing cultural diversity of students in Australia's schools is one of the salient changes in education over the last 30 years. In 2011, nearly half of all Australians had one or more parents born overseas, with migration from China, the Indian subcontinent and Africa increasing during the early 2000s (Australian Bureau of Statistics,…

  19. The Role of Further Government Intervention in Australian International Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrington, Roger; Meek, V. Lynn; Wood, Fiona Q.

    2007-01-01

    Trade in Australian education services has expanded rapidly over recent years. The sector is the third largest exporter of Australian services. In 2001-2002, exports of education were about $A 4.2 billion. Government assistance to the sector includes export market development, regulation of education standards, and funding education activities;…

  20. Commonwealth Infrastructure Funding for Australian Universities: 2004 to 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koshy, Paul; Phillimore, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent trends in the provision of general infrastructure funding by the Commonwealth for Australian universities (Table A providers) over the period 2004 to 2011. It specifically examines general infrastructure development and excludes funding for research infrastructure through the Australian Research Council or…

  1. Pearls, Not Problems: Exploring Transformative Education in Indigenous Australian Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackinlay, Elizabeth; Barney, Katelyn

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the shift in terminology that occurred in a 2-year Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded curriculum renewal project that set out to broadly explore current teaching and learning practice in Indigenous Australian studies (www.teaching4change.edu.au). While we started with the term "Problem-Based Learning", it…

  2. Australian Early Childhood Educators: From Government Policy to University Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Sharon; Trinidad, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the Australian Federal Government initiatives in the area of early childhood with regard to the provision of early childhood education and care. These changes have influenced a Western Australian university to develop an innovative birth to 8 years preservice educator education curriculum. Using an ecological…

  3. Situating and Interrogating Contemporary Australian Rural Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Beverley; Danaher, Patrick Alan; Danaher, Geoff

    2003-01-01

    This opening article in this special issue about Australian rural education research develops three key points. First, the Australian literature reflects the complexities of defining the terms "regional," "rural," and "remote," with many definitions deriving from a fixed and disabling urban-rural binary. That literature also contains a number of…

  4. Numeracy in the Making: Twenty Years of Australian Adult Numeracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Betty

    A project that focused on how the field of adult numeracy education had been shaped in Australia over the last 20 years sought answers to these research questions: (1) What does the past tell about adult literacy and numeracy policy, provision, and research? (2) Are Australians numerate? (3) What sort of numeracy activities do Australians engage…

  5. Cultural Patterns of Metacognitive Guidance in Australian Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanagavarapu, Prathyusha

    2008-01-01

    This article provides insight into the cultural patterns of metacognitive guidance that occurs among children and mothers in selected Australian homes. Fourteen Anglo Australian and eight immigrant Indian (Telugu) mothers' interactions with their 4-year-old male and female children on a puzzle-solving task were videotaped. Mother-child dyads'…

  6. The Myth of the World of Literature for Australian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumb, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Briefly reviews two South Australian Education Department curriculum documents that justify the teaching of literature and then argues that newly arrived immigrants and many Australian ethnic minority students are denied the experiences of literature as established in the rationale of the documents. (HOD)

  7. Casual Academic Staff in an Australian University: Marginalised and Excluded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Suzanne; Burgess, John; Connell, Julia; Groen, Egbert

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, the Australian workforce has become more casualised, with approximately one-quarter of the workforce in casual employment today. One of the highest users of casual employees is the higher education sector, where casual academics (referred to as sessionals in the Australian context) are estimated to account for 50% of the…

  8. Determinants of Successful Training Practices in Large Australian Firms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawe, Susan

    The determinants of successful training practices in large Australian firms were examined. The study's three phases were as follows: (1) a review of existing literature; (2) a meta-analysis of previously conducted case studies of 49 large Australian firms in 14 industrial sectors; and (3) a comparative analysis of the findings of the past studies…

  9. The "Paradox of Interdisciplinarity" in Australian Research Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woelert, Peter; Millar, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This paper identifies what can be called the "paradox of interdisciplinarity" (Weingart 2000) in Australian higher education research governance and explores some of its constitutive dimensions. In the Australian context, the paradox of interdisciplinarity primarily concerns the proliferation of a programmatic discourse of…

  10. Living Smart Homes: A Pilot Australian Sustainability Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie; Bell, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    This article documents the rationale and experience of a pilot Australian sustainability education programme, "Living Smart Homes" (LSH) based on a community-based social marketing model. Inspired by the Australian "Land for Wildlife" scheme, LSH is designed to engage homeowners with sustainable practices through face-to-face workshops, an…

  11. The Sleep Patterns and Well-Being of Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C.; Wright, Helen R.; Dohnt, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Adolescent sleep patterns vary between countries, and these differences influence adolescent functioning and well-being. The present study provides data on the sleep and well-being of Australian adolescents. Methods: 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 8 South Australian schools spanning the socio-economic spectrum.…

  12. Training at the Australian school of nuclear technology

    SciTech Connect

    Culley, D.; Fredsall, J.R.; Toner, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Australian School of Nuclear Technology was founded in 1964 as a joint enterprise of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and the University of New South Wales to support nuclear developments primarily in Australia. However, ASNT has developed into an important century for nuclear science and technology training within the South East Asian Region with participants also attending from countries outside this Region.

  13. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons: The Language of Chance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek

    2015-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the "Australian Curriculum," this issue focuses on the Statistics and probability strand and the sub-strand of Chance. In the Australian Curriculum (ACARA, 2015), students are not asked to list outcomes of chance experiments and represent…

  14. Educational Malpractice: American Trends and Implications for Australian Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalley, P. W. F.

    1986-01-01

    Educational malpractice developments in America may affect legal accountability of Australian teachers and educational institutions. This paper discusses significant American cases and commentators' observations in the context of the Australian legal system. Teachers should embrace their widening legal responsibility in order to advance…

  15. Educational and Institutional Flexibility of Australian Educational Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shurville, Simon; O'Grady, Thomas; Mayall, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide context for papers in this special issue on Australasian e-learning. The paper aims to examine the background to Australian flexible and transnational education and to evaluate the educational and intuitional flexibility of three typical products of the Australian educational software industry.…

  16. A History of Australian Children's Literature, 1941-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxby, H. M.

    This book is a systematic examination of the range of fiction available to Australian children from 1941 to 1970. The author not only provides a guide for parents, teachers, librarians, and students who are discovering that there is a considerable body of Australian fiction for children, but he also outlines possible trends and patterns that are…

  17. Telling Stories: Australian Literature in a National English Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Larissa McLean

    2008-01-01

    In the past two years, considerable media and government attention has been directed towards the teaching of Australian literature in secondary schools. This article explores the main themes of this discourse, and considers recent discussions about Australian literature in the National English Curriculum in the context of this debate. By way of…

  18. Competing Issues in Australian Primary Curriculum: Learning from International Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    There is no doubt that the increasing politicisation of education in an economically rationalist climate is contributing to less equity, access, participation and, therefore, social justice for many Australian primary children. This article initially explores how the development of the impending national Australian curriculum replete with a high…

  19. Some Religious Beliefs and Behaviours of Australian Catholic School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rymarz, Richard; Cleary, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Students in Catholic schools make up a significant sub group of the Australian population. As such, studies of this group provide valuable information about the religious beliefs and practices of some Australian youth. Many students in Catholic schools express traditional religious views and have relatively high levels of religious behaviours.…

  20. Improving Dispute Resolution in Australian Universities: Options for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astor, Hilary

    2005-01-01

    Disputes in Australian universities cost millions of dollars each year that could be spent more fruitfully on core activities such as research and teaching. This paper uses three case studies to examine what we know about disputes and dispute resolution in Australian universities. The impact of changing higher education funding and policy on…

  1. All Things Being Equal: Observing Australian Individual Academic Workloads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobele, Angela; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Kopanidis, Foula; Steel, Marion

    2010-01-01

    The achievement of greater gender equity within Australian universities is a significant issue for both the quality and the strength of Australian higher education. This paper contributes to our knowledge of academic workloads, observing individual workloads in business faculties. A multiple case study method was employed to observe individual…

  2. A Reconceptualisation of "Knowing Asia" in Australian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Peta

    2015-01-01

    Since 1969, over 60 Australian government and non-government policies, documents, committees, working parties and organisations have explored the need to "know Asia". In schools, this engagement is conceptualised as "Asia literacy" and disseminated in the emerging Australian Curriculum through the cross-curriculum priority…

  3. Schema-Based Processing in Australian Speakers of Aboriginal English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharifian, Farzad

    2001-01-01

    Explores features of Aboriginal English discourse that appear to be associated with some distinctive roles played by schemas in processing and formation of discourse by Aboriginal children. Examines the complexity of intercultural communication between Australian aborigines and the dominant class of white Australians. (Author/VWL)

  4. The Future of Religious Freedom in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babie, Paul; Mylius, Ben

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the place of religion within Australian primary and secondary education. It is divided into three parts. The first examines religion within the Australian legal and constitutional structure. The second considers the accommodation of religion in government (public or state) and nongovernment (private) schools, using the State…

  5. Teaching Australian Football in Physical Education: Constraints Theory in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pill, Shane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a constraints-led process of exploring, modifying, experimenting, adapting, and developing game appreciation known as Game Sense (Australian Sports Commission, 1997; den Duyn, 1996, 1997) for the teaching of Australian football. The game acts as teacher in this constraints-led process. Rather than a linear system that…

  6. Unit: The Australian Scene, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    As a part of the interim unit materials in the series produced by the Australian Science Education Project, this teachers' guide is composed of five sections: an introduction to nature in the balance, tests, excursion activities, options, and research activities. Options are under the headings: The Changing Face, Australian Soils, Distribution of…

  7. Australian Academics Teaching in Singapore: Striving for Cultural Empathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Lee; Wallace, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    Within a framework of shrinking public funding for universities, competition for students and pressures for the internationalization of education, Australian universities have formed partnerships with Asian organizations to offer Australian degrees to fee-paying students in their home countries. Teaching Asian students in Asia is complex,…

  8. Redefining & Leading the Academic Discipline in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkin, Damien G.; Healy, Annah H.

    2013-01-01

    Disciplines have emerged as an alternative administrative structure to departments or schools in Australian universities. We presently investigate the pattern of discipline use and by way of case study examine a role for distributed leadership in discipline management. Over forty per cent of Australian universities currently employ disciplines,…

  9. Civic Engagement and the Arts and Humanities: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    An Australian scholar in the Arts and Humanities responds to recent US models emphasizing civic-engaged learning as a way to renew the humanities in undergraduate education. Policy contexts and curriculum initiatives of kindred trends in recent Australian undergraduate education in the humanities are contrasted in this essay. The Australian…

  10. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoms, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index Martin Thoms, Melissa Parsons, Phil Morley Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Geography and Planning, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia. Natural hazard management policy directions in Australia - and indeed internationally - are increasingly being aligned to ideas of resilience. Resilience to natural hazards is the ability of individuals and communities to cope with disturbance and adversity and to maintain adaptive behaviour. Operationalizing the measurement and assessment of disaster resilience is often undertaken using a composite index, but this exercise is yet to be undertaken in Australia. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index is a top-down, national scale assessment of the resilience of communities to natural hazards. Resilience is assessed based on two sets of capacities: coping and adaptive capacities. Coping capacity relates to the factors influencing the ability of a community to prepare for, absorb and recover from a natural hazard event. Adaptive capacity relates to the arrangements and processes that enable adjustment through learning, adaptation and transformation. Indicators are derived under themes of social character, economic capital, infrastructure and planning, emergency services, community capital, information and engagement and governance/leadership/policy, using existing data sets (e.g. census data) or evaluation of policy and procedure (e.g. disaster management planning). A composite index of disaster resilience is then computed for each spatial division, giving national scale coverage. The results of the Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index will be reported in a State of Disaster Resilience report, due in 2018. The index is co-designed with emergency service agencies, and will support policy development, planning, community engagement and emergency management.

  11. Torpor, thermal biology, and energetics in Australian long-eared bats (Nyctophilus).

    PubMed

    Geiser, F; Brigham, R M

    2000-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested that Australian long-eared bats (Nyctophilus) differ from northern-hemisphere bats with respect to their thermal physiology and patterns of torpor. To determine whether this is a general trait of Australian bats, we characterised the temporal organisation of torpor and quantified metabolic rates and body temperatures of normothermic and torpid Australian bats (Nyctophilus geoffroyi, 7 g and N. gouldi, 10 g) over a range of air temperatures and in different seasons. The basal metabolic rate of normothermic bats was 1.36 +/- 0.17 ml g(-1) h(-1) (N. geoffroyi) and 1.22 +/- 0.13 ml g(-1) h(-1) (N. gouldi), about 65% of that predicted by allometric equations, and the corresponding body temperature was about 36 degrees C. Below an air temperature of about 25 degrees C bats usually remained normothermic for only brief periods and typically entered torpor. Arousal from torpor usually occurred shortly after the beginning of the dark phase and torpor re-entry occurred almost always during the dark phase after normothermic periods of only 111 +/- 48 min (N. geoffroyi) and 115 +/- 66 min (N. gouldi). At air temperatures below 10 degrees C, bats remained torpid for more than 1 day. Bats that were measured overnight had steady-state torpor metabolic rates representing only 2.7% (N. geoffroyi) and 4.2% (N. gouldi) of the basal metabolic rate, and their body temperatures fell to minima of 1.4 and 2.3 degrees C, respectively. In contrast, bats measured entirely during the day, as in previous studies, had torpor metabolic rates that were up to ten times higher than those measured overnight. The steady-state torpor metabolic rate of thermoconforming torpid bats showed an exponential relationship with body temperature (r2 = 0.94), suggesting that temperature effects are important for reduction of metabolic rate below basal levels. However, the 75% reduction of metabolic rate between basal metabolic rate and torpor metabolic rate at a body temperature of

  12. Fires in the Australian Capital Territory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The height and extent of billowing smoke plumes from bushfires near Canberra, the Australian capital, are illustrated by these views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). The images were acquired on January 18, 2003. Never before had fires of this magnitude come so close to Australia's capital. Four people lost their lives and over 500 homes were destroyed, mostly in the southwestern suburbs. Australia's famous Mount Stromlo Observatory, located immediately west of the city, was also incinerated by the fires.

    The top panel portrays a natural-color view from MISR's nadir camera, in which the eastern portion of the Australian Capital Territory is located south of a pale, ephemeral lake in the upper left-hand corner (Lake George). Several smoke plumes originate within the eastern part of the Australian Capital Territory, while the major plumes originate to the west of the image area. The Australian Capital Territory and much of New South Wales are completely obscured by the smoke, which is driven by fierce westerly winds and extends eastward to the coast and over the Pacific Ocean.

    The lower panel provides a stereoscopically retrieved height field of the clouds and smoke plumes. The greenish areas indicate where smoke plumes extend several kilometers above a bank of patchy stratus clouds below. A few high clouds appear near the bottom of the image. Wind retrievals were excluded from this image in order to generate a smooth and continuous field. Although relative height variations are well-represented here, the inclusion of wind retrievals for this scene reduces the actual cloud height results by 1 to 2 kilometers. Areas where heights could not be retrieved are shown as dark gray.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuouslyand every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. This data product was generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra

  13. Building the Clinical Bridge: An Australian Success

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Marianne; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Nursing effectiveness science includes primary, secondary, and translational, clinically focused research activities which aim to improve patient or client outcomes. It is imperative, for the successful conduct of a program of nursing effectiveness science, that a clinical bridge is established between academic and healthcare service facilities. An Australian example of the development of a robust clinical bridge through the use of jointly funded positions at the professorial level is outlined. In addition, an analysis of the practical application of Lewin's model of change management and the contribution of both servant and transformational leadership styles to the bridge building process is provided. PMID:22577536

  14. Antenatal GBS screening: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Clack, Danielle

    2015-10-01

    Women in Australia are offered a variety of options for screening and treatment of group B streptococcus (GBS), depending on which health service they are engaged with, including a risk-based approach or universal screening. The difficulty for midwives when addressing the evidence supporting these differing policies is that there is no unified national policy on GBS screening in Australia. Furthermore, the Australian population is a discerning one, questioning the implications of procedures and exploring all options. This paper discusses the varying evidence and limitations that midwives need to be aware of in order to inform women, empower their decision-making and provide holistic woman-centred care. PMID:26638651

  15. Aboriginal oral traditions of Australian impact craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Goldsmith, John

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we explore Aboriginal oral traditions that relate to Australian meteorite craters. Using the literature, first-hand ethnographic records and field trip data, we identify oral traditions and artworks associated with four impact sites: Gosses Bluff, Henbury, Liverpool and Wolfe Creek. Oral traditions describe impact origins for Gosses Bluff, Henbury and Wolfe Creek Craters, and non-impact origins for Liverpool Crater, with Henbury and Wolfe Creek stories having both impact and non-impact origins. Three impact sites that are believed to have been formed during human habitation of Australia -- Dalgaranga, Veevers, and Boxhole -- do not have associated oral traditions that are reported in the literature.

  16. A new era in Australian migration policy.

    PubMed

    Birrell, R

    1984-01-01

    The discussion traces the evolution of Australian migration policy since 1975, arguing that the primary factor shaping policy has been interparty competition for influence within Australia's ethnic communities. Since late 1975 when the Liberal/National Country Party (LibNCP) Conservative Government returned to power, Australian immigration policy has moved in different directions from the previous post World War II experience. The demographic implications have been profound. In 1975 the LibNCP government returned to office committed to restoring an active migration program. By 1980-81 it had largely succeeded in this numerical goal. Australia's migration growth rate at .82% of the total population exceeded almost all other Western society. What was new, in comparison to previous policy, was the migrant selection system and source countries. By the time the government lost office in March 1983, family reunion had become the major migration program souce and Asia was rapidly becoming the dominant place of migrant origin. This emphasis on family reunion was not intended by government immigration planners but was a product of domestic political change and resultant new influences over migration policy. As to the increasing Asian component, it has mainly been an unintended consequence of the expansion in the family reunion program. Although the liberalization of family reunion eligibility has largely been designed to appease the major Southern European ethnic communities, few applications have been forthcoming from these countries. Asian applicants have been numerous. Labor government policy since March 1983 has shown remarkable continuity with that of the LibNCP both in its selection system and in the size of the migrant intake. The motivation for the commitment to immigration derived first from longstanding traditions within the Australian business community that Australia's economic growth and dynamism depended on rapid population growth. More specifically there

  17. The last dicynodont: an Australian Cretaceous relict.

    PubMed Central

    Thulborn, Tony; Turner, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Some long-forgotten fossil evidence reveals that a dicynodont (mammal-like reptile of the infraorder Dicynodontia) inhabited Australia as recently as the Early Cretaceous, ca. 110 Myr after the supposed extinction of dicynodonts in the Late Triassic. This remarkably late occurrence more than doubles the known duration of dicynodont history (from ca. 63 Myr to ca. 170 Myr) and betrays the profound impact of geographical isolation on Australian terrestrial faunas through the Mesozoic. Australia's late-surviving dicynodont may be envisaged as a counterpart of the ceratopians (horned dinosaurs) in Cretaceous tetrapod faunas of Asia and North America. PMID:12803915

  18. Building the clinical bridge: an Australian success.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Marianne; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Nursing effectiveness science includes primary, secondary, and translational, clinically focused research activities which aim to improve patient or client outcomes. It is imperative, for the successful conduct of a program of nursing effectiveness science, that a clinical bridge is established between academic and healthcare service facilities. An Australian example of the development of a robust clinical bridge through the use of jointly funded positions at the professorial level is outlined. In addition, an analysis of the practical application of Lewin's model of change management and the contribution of both servant and transformational leadership styles to the bridge building process is provided. PMID:22577536

  19. Tectonic evolution of the Western Australian Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, John S.

    1988-01-01

    Geological and geochronological studies in the Western Australian Shield were updated. This terrane bears many similarities to the Indian Shield since they were neighboring parts of Gondwanaland. Western Australia consists of two cratons (Pilbara and Yilgarn) and four orogenic belts (Capricorn, Pingarra, Albany-Fraser, and Patterson), as well as some relatively young (1.6 to 0.75 Ga) sedimentary rocks. The two cratonic blocks are both older than about 2.5 Ga, and the orogenic belts range in age from 2.0 to 0.65 Ga.

  20. The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Parenting Style: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Australian and Vietnamese Australian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herz, Lara; Gullone, Eleonora

    1999-01-01

    Studied the relationship between self-esteem and parenting style with 118 Vietnamese Australian and 120 Anglo-Australian adolescents. As expected, parenting characterized by high levels of overprotection and low levels of acceptance related negatively with self-esteem for both samples of adolescents. (SLD)

  1. Revisiting the Occupational Aspirations and Destinations of Anglo-Australian and Chinese-Australian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Ranbir Singh

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from Australia lends support to the "Asian high achieving syndrome" in Chinese-Australian students and "self-deprivation syndrome" in Anglo-Australian students. Applying ethnographic case studies approach for doctoral thesis the author collected data on a longitudinal basis from homes and school of these students. All…

  2. Health inequalities, physician citizens and professional medical associations: an Australian case study

    PubMed Central

    Furler, John; Harris, Elizabeth; Harris, Mark; Naccarella, Lucio; Young, Doris; Snowdon, Teri

    2007-01-01

    Background As socioeconomic health inequalities persist and widen, the health effects of adversity are a constant presence in the daily work of physicians. Gruen and colleagues suggest that, in responding to important population health issues such as this, defining those areas of professional obligation in contrast to professional aspiration should be on the basis of evidence and feasibility. Drawing this line between obligation and aspiration is a part of the work of professional medical colleges and associations, and in doing so they must respond to members as well as a range of other interest groups. Our aim was to explore the usefulness of Gruen's model of physician responsibility in defining how professional medical colleges and associations should lead the profession in responding to socioeconomic health inequalities. Methods We report a case study of how the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners is responding to the issue of health inequalities through its work. We undertook a consultation (80 interviews with stakeholders internal and external to the College and two focus groups with general practitioners) and program and policy review of core programs of College interest and responsibility: general practitioner training and setting of practice standards, as well as its work in public advocacy. Results Some strategies within each of these College program areas were seen as legitimate professional obligations in responding to socioeconomic health inequality. However, other strategies, while potentially professional obligations within Gruen's model, were nevertheless contested. The key difference between these lay in different moral orientations. Actions where agreement existed were based on an ethos of care and compassion. Actions that were contested were based on an ethos of justice and human rights. Conclusion Colleges and professional medical associations have a role in explicitly leading a debate about values, engaging both external

  3. The lameness of King Philip II and Royal Tomb I at Vergina, Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Bartsiokas, Antonis; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; Santos, Elena; Algaba, Milagros; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier

    2015-08-11

    King Philip II was the father of Alexander the Great. He suffered a notorious penetrating wound by a lance through his leg that was nearly fatal and left him lame in 339 B.C.E. (i.e., 3 y before his assassination in 336 B.C.E.). In 1977 and 1978 two male skeletons were excavated in the Royal Tombs II and I of Vergina, Greece, respectively. Tomb I also contained another adult (likely a female) and a newborn skeleton. The current view is that Philip II was buried in Tomb II. However, the male skeleton of Tomb II bears no lesions to his legs that would indicate lameness. We investigated the skeletal material of Tomb I with modern forensic techniques. The male individual in Tomb I displays a conspicuous case of knee ankylosis that is conclusive evidence of lameness. Right through the overgrowth of the knee, there is a hole. There are no obvious signs that are characteristic of infection and osteomyelitis. This evidence indicates that the injury was likely caused by a severe penetrating wound to the knee, which resulted in an active inflammatory process that stopped years before death. Standard anthropological age-estimation techniques based on dry bone, epiphyseal lines, and tooth analysis gave very wide age ranges for the male, centered around 45 y. The female would be around 18-y-old and the infant would be a newborn. It is concluded that King Philip II, his wife Cleopatra, and their newborn child are the occupants of Tomb I. PMID:26195763

  4. The lameness of King Philip II and Royal Tomb I at Vergina, Macedonia

    PubMed Central

    Bartsiokas, Antonis; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; Santos, Elena; Algaba, Milagros; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier

    2015-01-01

    King Philip II was the father of Alexander the Great. He suffered a notorious penetrating wound by a lance through his leg that was nearly fatal and left him lame in 339 B.C.E. (i.e., 3 y before his assassination in 336 B.C.E.). In 1977 and 1978 two male skeletons were excavated in the Royal Tombs II and I of Vergina, Greece, respectively. Tomb I also contained another adult (likely a female) and a newborn skeleton. The current view is that Philip II was buried in Tomb II. However, the male skeleton of Tomb II bears no lesions to his legs that would indicate lameness. We investigated the skeletal material of Tomb I with modern forensic techniques. The male individual in Tomb I displays a conspicuous case of knee ankylosis that is conclusive evidence of lameness. Right through the overgrowth of the knee, there is a hole. There are no obvious signs that are characteristic of infection and osteomyelitis. This evidence indicates that the injury was likely caused by a severe penetrating wound to the knee, which resulted in an active inflammatory process that stopped years before death. Standard anthropological age-estimation techniques based on dry bone, epiphyseal lines, and tooth analysis gave very wide age ranges for the male, centered around 45 y. The female would be around 18-y-old and the infant would be a newborn. It is concluded that King Philip II, his wife Cleopatra, and their newborn child are the occupants of Tomb I. PMID:26195763

  5. Compliance of ENT emergency surgery with the Royal College of Surgeons standards.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Yao, A; Mahalingam, S; Persaud, R

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In 2011 The Royal College of Surgeons of England (RCS) set out best practice standards for emergency surgery. This national pilot audit aimed to determine the compliance of otolaryngology departments in England with these published guidelines. Methods A 26-item online questionnaire was devised that encompassed all the 36 best practices as set out by the RCS for ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgery. This was sent to ENT trainees and consultants based at units in England providing emergency ENT services. Results Data were obtained from 55 of the 102 units (response rate: 54%). A mean compliance of 71% was achieved (range: 25-94%). No units achieved all of the best practices. The standards with the highest compliance included 24-hour availability of blood transfusion and haematology opinion for patients with epistaxis, availability of a consultant or ST3/equivalent for immediate discussion of severe post-tonsillectomy bleeding, 24-hour access to blood transfusion for arrest of haemorrhage and immediate theatre access for arrest of haemorrhage. The areas with the lowest compliance were provision of a pathway for angiography/embolisation for epistaxis and provision of an equipped ENT room on a paediatric ward. Conclusions This audit has highlighted that the majority of departments in England are providing a good standard of ENT emergency care. There is room for improvement in certain areas, such as the provision of an embolisation pathway in the context of refractory epistaxis. We hope that this audit will encourage ENT departments to evaluate their current provision of emergency care and institute changes (where necessary) to maintain and improve their practices. PMID:26688399

  6. Faculty of Prehospital Care, Royal College of Surgeons Edinburgh guidance for medical provision for wilderness medicine.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Adrian; Dodds, Naomi; Joshi, Raj; Hall, John; Dhillon, Sundeep; Hollis, Sarah; Davis, Pete; Hillebrandt, David; Howard, Eva; Wilkes, Matthew; Langdana, Burjor; Lee, David; Hinson, Nigel; Williams, Thomas Harcourt; Rowles, Joe; Pynn, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    To support leaders and those involved in providing medical care on expeditions in wilderness environments, the Faculty of Pre-Hospital Care (FPHC) of The Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh convened an expert panel of leading healthcare professionals and expedition providers. The aims of this panel were to: (1) provide guidance to ensure the best possible medical care for patients within the geographical, logistical and human factor constraints of an expedition environment. (2) Give aspiring and established expedition medics a 'benchmark' of skills they should meet. (3) Facilitate expedition organisers in selecting the most appropriate medical cover and provider for their planned activity. A system of medical planning is suggested to enable expedition leaders to identify the potential medical risks and their mitigation. It was recognised that the scope of practice for wilderness medicine covers elements of primary healthcare, pre-hospital emergency medicine and preventative medicine. Some unique competencies were also identified. Further to this, the panel recommends the use of a matrix and advisory expedition medic competencies relating to the remoteness and medical threat of the expedition. This advice is aimed at all levels of expedition medic, leader and organiser who may be responsible for delivering or managing the delivery of remote medical care for participants. The expedition medic should be someone equipped with the appropriate medical competencies, scope of practice and capabilities in the expedition environment and need not necessarily be a qualified doctor. In addition to providing guidance regarding the clinical competencies required of the expedition medic, the document provides generic guidance and signposting to the more pertinent aspects of the role of expedition medic. PMID:26629337

  7. Factors affecting enhanced mercury bioaccumulation in inland lakes of Isle Royale National Park, USA.

    PubMed

    Gorski, Patrick R; Cleckner, Lisa B; Hurley, James P; Sierszen, Michael E; Armstrong, David E

    2003-03-20

    We investigated factors causing mercury (Hg) concentrations in northern pike to exceed the consumption advisory level (>500 ng/g) in some inland lakes of Isle Royale National Park. Using Hg-clean techniques, we collected water, zooplankton, macro invertebrates, and fishes in 1998 and 1999 from one advisory lake, Sargent Lake, for analysis of total mercury (Hg(T)) and methylmercury (MeHg). For comparison, samples were also collected from a non-advisory lake, Lake Richie. Concentrations of Hg(T) in northern pike were significantly higher in Sargent Lake (P<0.01). Counter to expectations, mean concentrations of both Hg(T) and MeHg in open water samples were slightly higher in Lake Richie. However, zooplankton in Sargent Lake contained higher average concentrations of Hg(T) and MeHg than in Lake Richie. Mercury concentrations in macro invertebrates were similar between lakes, but different between taxa. The two lakes exhibited similar Hg(T) concentrations in age-1 yellow perch and adult perch but concentrations in large adult perch (>160 mm) in Sargent Lake were twice the concentrations in Lake Richie. Analysis of stable isotopes (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) in biota showed that pike from the two lakes are positioned at the same trophic level (4.2 and 4.3), but that the food web is more pelagic-based in Sargent and benthic-based in Richie. Factors causing concentrations in large pike to be higher in Sargent Lake may include higher bioavailability of methylmercury and a food web that enhances bioaccumulation. PMID:12663194

  8. Noise exposure and cognitive performance: A study on personnel on board Royal Norwegian Navy vessels

    PubMed Central

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Gundersen, Hilde; Sunde, Erlend; Baste, Valborg; Harris, Anette; Bråtveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research shows that work on board vessels of the Royal Norwegian Navy (RNoN) is associated with noise exposure levels above recommended standards. Further, noise exposure has been found to impair cognitive performance in environmental, occupational, and experimental settings, although prior research in naval and maritime settings is sparse. The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive performance after exposure to noise among personnel working on board vessels in the RNoN. Altogether 87 Navy personnel (80 men, 7 women; 31 ± 9 years) from 24 RNoN vessels were included. Noise exposure was recorded by personal noise dosimeters at a minimum of 4 h prior to testing, and categorized into 4 groups for the analysis: <72.6 dB(A), 72.6-77.0 dB(A), 77.1-85.2 dB(A), and >85.2 dB(A). The participants performed a visual attention test based on the Posner cue-target paradigm. Multivariable general linear model (GLM) analyses were performed to analyze whether noise exposure was associated with response time (RT) when adjusting for the covariates age, alertness, workload, noise exposure in test location, sleep the night before testing, use of hearing protection device (HPD), and percentage of errors. When adjusting for covariates, RT was significantly increased among personnel exposed to >85.2 dB(A) and 77.1-85.2 dB(A) compared to personnel exposed to <72.6 dB(A). PMID:26356374

  9. The impact of The Royal College of Surgeons of England research fellowship scheme.

    PubMed

    Shalhoub, J; Cromwell, D; Coomer, M; Alderson, D

    2016-07-01

    Introduction The research fellowship scheme for surgeons in training run by The Royal College of Surgeons of England (RCS) had its 20th anniversary in 2013. A survey was undertaken to assess outcomes of the scheme during those 20 years. Methods Fellowship recipients were invited to complete an online 20-item questionnaire about their fellowship research and research activities since its completion. The questionnaire covered type of research undertaken, higher research degree enrolment, publications resulting from the fellowship research and subsequent research career. Results Of the 502 RCS fellowship recipients, 361 responded (72%). Their research covered a broad array of topics, Almost two-thirds (62%) undertook laboratory-based research and most of the remainder conducted patient-based clinical research. The vast majority (96%) of respondents had enrolled for a higher degree, with a high completion rate: 91% of fellowship recipients in the first 15 years of the scheme obtained their degree. Of the fellowships from the first 15 years of the scheme, between a fifth and a third of recipients subsequently held an academic position. The median number of peer reviewed articles and presentations per recipient was 3 and 6 respectively. Almost two-thirds (60%) of respondents had obtained funding for further research, with over half of these receiving grants from national research funding bodies. Conclusions The RCS research fellowship scheme has helped trainee surgeons to undertake research towards the start of their career. Most trainees used RCS fellowships as part of their funding towards a higher degree and this was regularly achieved, along with a number of peer reviewed publications. A significant proportion of fellowship recipients progressed into academic positions in surgery. PMID:27138854

  10. Survival of the fittest? The scientific basis for the Royal Navy pre-joining fitness test.

    PubMed

    Allsopp, A J; Scarpello, E G; Andrews, S; Pethybridge, R J

    2003-01-01

    The Royal Navy introduced a pre-joining fitness test to the selection procedures for RN Ratings from Summer 2003. The scientific basis for the test came from the present study to investigate if anthropometric and physical fitness measures predicted training failure. Fitness and anthropometric data from 1641 trainees were collected, together with their training outcome (i.e. pass or fail), during the period from September 2001 to March 2002. In addition, a retrospective interrogation of medical records identified those who reported any lower limb injuries. The overall rate of training attrition was 22%. Success in training was associated with: gender; age; physical fitness; and, in the case of females, Body Mass Index (BMI). The reported incidence of lower limb injury (LLI) was associated with: gender; physical fitness; and, for female trainees, BMI. The reported incidence of LLI was approximately 50% in the 'least-fit' female group compared to 10% in the 'most-fit' male group. 16% of females and 2% of males were considered 'unfit' (i.e. did not attain the prescribed run standards of 13 min 15 s and 11 min 13 s respectively). 3% of trainees were considered 'obese' (a BMI > 30 kg.m-2) whereas more than 25% were overweight (BMI > 25 kg.m-2). As a result of this work, selection candidates must now demonstrate a minimum standard of aerobic fitness prior to arrival at HMS Raleigh. The future impact of this selection measure on the reported incidence of lower limb injury and financial costs of training requires further investigation. PMID:14655422

  11. Amino acid composition of royal jelly harvested at different times after larval transfer.

    PubMed

    Jie, H; Li, P M; Zhao, G J; Feng, X L; Zeng, D J; Zhang, C L; Lei, M Y; Yu, M; Chen, Q

    2016-01-01

    The amino acids in royal jelly (RJ) have a wide range of pharmacological and health-promoting functions in humans. Multiple studies on the amino acid quality and composition in RJ have investigated RJ harvested at 72 h after larval transfer. In contrast, the concentration of amino acids in RJ harvested before 72 h remains unknown. In this study, the concentration of free amino acids (FAAs) and total amino acids (TAAs) in RJ harvested at 13 time points between 24 and 72 h after transfer of ten Apis mellifera colonies were measured. Our results indicated that the most abundant FAAs were Pro, Phe, Lys, Glu, and Tyr, whereas the most abundant TAAs were Asp, Glu, Leu, Lys, and Val. The total FAA concentration in RJ increased with increasing harvest time, from 4.30 mg/g at 24 h to 9.48 mg/g at 72 h. In contrast, the variation in concentration of TAAs observed was a decrease-increase-decrease trend with 40 h (149.53 mg/g) and 52 h (169.62 mg/g) as inflection points. The highest and lowest concentrations of TAA were 197.96 and 121.32 mg/g at 24 and 72 h, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the concentration changes of FAAs and TAAs prior to 72 h after transfer. Our results will provide theoretical support to guide production practices of beekeeping, as well as elucidate the relationship between the harvest time point and RJ content. PMID:27525943

  12. The diversity of emergency code telephone numbers in Australian hospitals: the feasibility of an Australian standard emergency code.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ged F; Livingston, Patricia M

    2007-11-01

    This study explored the diversity of emergency code telephone numbers currently in use in Australian hospitals and examined the feasibility of a standard emergency code telephone number for all Australian hospitals, based on the United Kingdom experience. An email and telephone convenience survey of Australian hospitals from six states and two territories was conducted. Of the 108 hospitals surveyed, seven did not use a telephone number system and used a button/pager system to call an emergency. Of the 101 hospitals surveyed that used a telephone number system, 40 different emergency telephone numbers were in place, and in nine hospitals the telephone number used for Code Blue (medical emergency) was different to the telephone number used for other emergency codes. With increasing mobility of staff across hospitals, uniformity of emergency code telephone numbers is required to reduce confusion, potential danger and improve staff response in emergency situations. A single Australian standard emergency telephone number for all Australian hospitals is advocated. PMID:17973612

  13. Injury profile of amateur Australian rules footballers.

    PubMed

    Shawdon, A; Brukner, P

    1994-01-01

    Australian Rules Football is played by numerous young Australians throughout winter each year. There have been a number of studies on professional and semi-professional footballers, establishing the nature and frequency of injuries within this football code. Medical cover of an amateur football club over the 1993 season allowed detailed recording of injuries over this period. The data collected revealed a markedly different injury profile to that seen previously. The injury rate in this study was 96 per 1000 player hours. The most common injury was concussion (15%), with hand fractures next most frequent (13.5%). The lower limb was the most common site of injury, with head and neck second and upper limb third. Injuries with an overuse component were seen less commonly in the amateur group while traumatic injuries were more frequent. The time allocated by amateur footballers to their sport is less than professional players, quite aside from the difference in skill level attained. Overuse injuries may be correspondingly much less frequent on a time basis alone. The increased incidence of traumatic injuries is postulated to be a manifestation of both less well developed skills and possibly less available and effective preventative measures such as ankle strapping and tape supplies. Considering the large number of young people playing amateur football and the significant time and cost of what are often relatively minor injuries, more work is required to establish what injuries are most common, and importantly, what measures can be taken to decrease their incidence. PMID:8665278

  14. Rescues conducted by surfers on Australian beaches.

    PubMed

    Attard, Anna; Brander, Robert W; Shaw, Wendy S

    2015-09-01

    This study describes the demographics, occurrence, location, primary hazards and outcomes involved in rescues performed by surfers on Australian beaches. Conservative estimates suggest that the number of rescues conducted by Australian surfers each year is on par with the number conducted by volunteer surf lifesavers. Surfers perform a considerable number of serious rescues in both lifesaver/lifeguard patrolled (45%) and unpatrolled (53%) beach locations. Rip currents represent the major physical hazard leading to rescue (75%) and the dominant emotional response of people rescued is one of panic (85%). Most surfer rescue events occur during conditions of moderate waves and sunny, fine weather with the highest proportion of rescues occurring on quiet beaches with few people around (26%). Swimming is the activity associated with most rescue events (63%), followed by board riding (25%). Males aged 18-29 represent the largest demographic of people rescued. Surfers with prior water-safety training are more likely to perform a higher number of rescues, however ability to perform rescues is not associated with formal training, but rather number of years' experience surfing. Seventy-eight percent of surfers were happy to help, while 28% expressed feelings of annoyance or inconvenience, generally towards unwary swimmers. Results of this research suggest that 63% of surfers feel they have saved a life. This value may be enhanced through improved training of surfers in basic water safety rescue techniques. PMID:26056968

  15. Earliest known Australian Tertiary mammal fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godthelp, Henk; Archer, Michael; Cifelli, Richard; Hand, Suzanne J.; Gilkeson, Coral F.

    1992-04-01

    REMAINS of Early Eocene vertebrates from freshwater clays near Murgon, southeastern Queensland, represent Australia's oldest marsupials, bats, non-volant placentals, frogs, madtsoiid snakes, trionychid turtles1and birds. Radiometric dating of illites forming part of the matrix of the mammal-bearing zone has given a minimum age estimate of 54.6 +/- 0.05 x 106 years, which is roughly twice as old as any marsupials previously known from Australia2 and well before the 38 million year (Myr) separation of Australia from Antarctica/South America3. All marsupials so far known from the Tingamarra Local Fauna are more derived (being dilambdodont) than peradectids. None of them is clearly a member of a previously known Australian family, but some could be uniquely plesiomorphic dasyuroids or perameloids. Another is autapomorphically specialized and indicative of at least partial isolation of the Australian portion of Gondwana. Here we report on the discovery of a tooth of the earliest non-volant placental known from Australia, Tingamarra porterorum gen.et sp. nov., which seems to be a condylarth-like placental mammal. The presence of non-volant placentals in the Early Tertiary of Australia challenges a common presumption that marsupials dominated Australia's therian assemblages because of failure of such placentals to reach Australia before the Late Tertiary.

  16. Understanding Australian families' organ donation decisions.

    PubMed

    Neate, S L; Marck, C H; Skinner, M; Dwyer, B; McGain, F; Weiland, T J; Hickey, B B; Jelinek, G A

    2015-01-01

    Numbers of deceased organ donors in Australia have increased, but rates of consent to donation remain at around 60%. Increasing family consent is a key target for the Australian Organ and Tissue Authority. Reasons for donation decisions have been reported in the international literature, but little is known of reasons for Australian families' decisions. Potential organ donors in four Melbourne hospitals were identified and 49 participants from 40 families (23 consenting and 17 non-consenting) were interviewed to understand reasons for consent decisions. Themes for consent to organ donation included that: donation was consistent with the deceased's explicit wishes or known values, the desire to help others or self-including themes of altruism, pragmatism, preventing others from being in the same position, consolation received from donation and aspects of the donation conversation and care that led families to believe donation was right for them. Themes for non-consent included: lack of knowledge of wishes; social, cultural and religious beliefs; factors related to the donation process and family exhaustion; and conversation factors where negative events influenced decisions. While reasons for consent were similar to those described in international literature, reasons for non-consent differed in that there was little emphasis on lack of trust of the medical profession, concerns regarding level of care provided to the potential donor, preserving the deceased's body, fears of body invasion or organ allocation fairness. PMID:25579288

  17. The h-index in Australian Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimbblet, Kevin A.

    2011-06-01

    The Hirsch h-index is now widely used as a metric to compare individual researchers. To evaluate it in the context of Australian astronomy, the h-index for every member of the Astronomical Society of Australia (ASA) is found using NASA's Astrophysics Data System Bibliographic Services. Percentiles of the h-index distribution are detailed for a variety of categories of ASA members, including students. This enables a list of the top ten Australian researchers by h-index to be produced. These top researchers have h-index values in the range 53

  18. Supplement Use of Elite Australian Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Gregory; Slater, Gary; Burke, Louise M

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the influence the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) Sport Supplement Program had on supplement practices of elite Australian swimmers, comparing those guided by the Program with others in the same national team. Thirty-nine elite swimmers (13 AIS, 26 Other; 20 female, 19 male; age 21.8 ± 3.3 y) completed a questionnaire investigating supplement use. Ninety-seven percent of swimmers reported taking supplements or sports foods over the preceding 12 months. AIS swimmers reported using more total brands (p = .02) and supplements considered Ergogenic (p = .001) than Other swimmers who used more supplements considered to be lacking scientific support (p = .028). Swimmers rated the risk of a negative outcome from the use of supplements available in Australia (Mdn = 3.0) as less than the risk of supplements from international sources (Mdn = 4.0; p < .001). AIS swimmers were more likely to report dietitians (p < .001) and sports physicians (p = .017) as advisors of their supplement use. Other swimmers more frequently reported fellow athletes as a source of supplement advice (p = .03). AIS swimmers sourced a greater percentage of their supplements from an organized program (94 ± 16%) compared with Other (40 ± 32%; p < .001) who sourced a greater percentage (30 ± 30%) of their dietary supplements from supermarkets. These findings suggest that swimmers influenced by this sport supplement program more frequently use supplements that are recommended by allied health trained individuals, classified as evidence based and provided by the program. PMID:26630501

  19. Biobank classification in an Australian setting.

    PubMed

    Rush, Amanda; Christiansen, Jeffrey H; Farrell, Jake P; Goode, Susan M; Scott, Rodney J; Spring, Kevin J; Byrne, Jennifer A

    2015-06-01

    In 2011, Watson and Barnes proposed a schema for classifying biobanks into 3 groups (mono-, oligo-, and poly-user), primarily based upon biospecimen access policies. We used results from a recent comprehensive survey of cancer biobanks in New South Wales, Australia to assess the applicability of this biobank classification schema in an Australian setting. Cancer biobanks were identified using publically available data, and by consulting with research managers. A comprehensive survey was developed and administered through a face-to-face setting. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel™ 2010 and IBM SPSS Statistics™ version 21.0. The cancer biobank cohort (n=23) represented 5 mono-user biobanks, 7 oligo-user biobanks, and 11 poly-user biobanks, and was analyzed as two groups (mono-/oligo- versus poly-user biobanks). Poly-user biobanks employed significantly more full-time equivalent staff, and were significantly more likely to have a website, share staff between biobanks, access governance support, utilize quality control measures, be aware of biobanking best practice documents, and offer staff training. Mono-/oligo-user biobanks were significantly more likely to seek advice from other biobanks. Our results further delineate a biobank classification system that is primarily based on access policy, and demonstrate its relevance in an Australian setting. PMID:26035012

  20. The beginnings of Australian radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T.

    2005-06-01

    The early stages of Australian radio astronomy, especially the first decade after World War II, are described in detail. These include the transition of the CSIRO Radiophysics Laboratory, under the leadership of Joseph Pawsey and Taffy Bowen, from a wartime laboratory in 1945 to, by 1950, the largest and one of the two most important radio astronomy groups in the world (with the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge University). The initial solar investigations are described, including discovery of the hot corona and development of the sea-cliff interferometer. During this same period painstaking `radio star' observations by John Bolton and colleagues led to the first suggested optical identifications of Taurus-A (the Crab Nebula), Centaurus-A (NGC 5128), and Virgo-A (M87). The factors that led to the extraordinary early success of the Radiophysics Laboratory are analyzed in detail, followed by discussion of how the situation changed significantly in the second decade of 1955-1965. Finally, the development of major Australian instruments, from the Parkes Radio Telescope (1961) to the Australia Telescope (1988), is briefly presented.

  1. Development of a Culturally Appropriate Bilingual Electronic App About Hepatitis B for Indigenous Australians: Towards Shared Understandings

    PubMed Central

    Bukulatjpi, Sarah; Sharma, Suresh; Caldwell, Luci; Johnston, Vanessa; Davis, Joshua Saul

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B is endemic in Indigenous communities in Northern Australia; however, there is a lack of culturally appropriate educational tools. Health care workers and educators in this setting have voiced a desire for visual, interactive tools in local languages. Mobile phones are increasingly used and available in remote Indigenous communities. In this context, we identified the need for a tablet-based health education app about hepatitis B, developed in partnership with an Australian remote Indigenous community. Objective To develop a culturally appropriate bilingual app about hepatitis B for Indigenous Australians in Arnhem Land using a participatory action research (PAR) framework. Methods This project was a partnership between the Menzies School of Health Research, Miwatj Aboriginal Health Corporation, Royal Darwin Hospital Liver Clinic, and Dreamedia Darwin. We have previously published a qualitative study that identified major knowledge gaps about hepatitis B in this community, and suggested that a tablet-based app would be an appropriate and popular tool to improve this knowledge. The process of developing the app was based on PAR principles, particularly ongoing consultation, evaluation, and discussion with the community throughout each iterative cycle. Stages included development of the storyboard, the translation process (forward translation and backtranslation), prelaunch community review, launch and initial community evaluation, and finally, wider launch and evaluation at a viral hepatitis conference. Results We produced an app called “Hep B Story” for use with iPad, iPhone, Android tablets, and mobile phones or personal computers. The app is culturally appropriate, audiovisual, interactive, and users can choose either English or Yolŋu Matha (the most common language in East Arnhem Land) as their preferred language. The initial evaluation demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in Hep B-related knowledge for 2 of 3 questions

  2. Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google Scholar was undertaken in April 2012 for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the topic of heart failure in Indigenous Australians. Additionally, a website search was done to identify other pertinent publications, particularly government reports. Results There was a paucity of relevant peer-reviewed research, and government reports dominated the results. Ten journal articles, 1 published conference abstract and 10 reports were eligible for inclusion. Indigenous Australians reportedly have higher morbidity and mortality from heart failure than their non-Indigenous counterparts (age-standardised prevalence ratio 1.7; age-standardised hospital separation ratio ≥3; crude per capita hospital expenditure ratio 1.58; age-adjusted mortality ratio >2). Despite the evident disproportionate burden of heart failure in Indigenous Australians, the accuracy of estimation from administrative data is limited by poor indigenous identification, inadequate case ascertainment and exclusion of younger subjects from mortality statistics. A recent journal article specifically documented a high prevalence of heart failure in Central Australian Aboriginal adults (5.3%), noting frequent undiagnosed disease. One study examined barriers to health service provision for Indigenous Australians in the context of heart failure. Conclusions Despite the shortcomings of available published data, it is clear that Indigenous Australians have an excess burden of heart failure. Emerging data suggest that undiagnosed

  3. Air resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

  4. Attempting to Unravel the Australian Megatsunami Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    Nearly two decades of information report apparent megatsunamis along the SE coast of Australia and yet these interpretations are still highly controversial. This work has proven to be particularly influential in guiding more recent megatsunami researchers, and yet it has never been critically evaluated in the light of recent advances in tsunami research. Much of the controversy hinges upon the nature of the original observations, event chronologies, and source identification. The most recent incarnation of the megatsunami hypothesis is indicative of the controversy. A supposed impact crater to the SW of New Zealand is linked with abandoned Maori settlements, Maori legends, and high elevation beach sand deposits in New Zealand, and apparent megatsunami evidence in eastern Australia and on Lord Howe Island. A date of around AD1500 is proposed. There are two key issues here. First, is there currently any evidence for contemporaneous trans Tasman palaeotsunamis (or megatsunamis) in the Holocene? Second, how reliable is the evidence? The first issue was addressed by comparing Holocene events from the Australian and New Zealand palaeotsunami databases. Up to five possible contemporaneous events were identified, but at the same time flaws in the underpinning data were highlighted. To start with, there is no consistent approach to the interpretation of chronological information comprising the databases. A consistent recalibration of all available radiocarbon data was carried out for both databases. This was based upon information contained in the relevant original papers. No clusters of radiocarbon ages were found for apparent megatsunami deposits along the SE coast of Australia. Clusters were found however, in New Zealand for inferred local and regional events. Next, the nature and extent of physical evidence used to determine tsunami emplacement were found to be highly variable. A preliminary reassessment of the physical evidence casts doubt upon the interpretation of

  5. Beverage intake and obesity in Australian children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There have been increases in the obesity and overweight rates in Australian children over the past 25 years and it has been suggested that sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) have played a role in this increase. Objective The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine SSB intakes in the 2007 Australian Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2) relate SSB intake to rates of overweight and obesity, socio-economic status (SES), TV viewing time, and activity levels and (3) compare 2007 SSB intakes with data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. Design A computer assisted 24 h dietary recall in 4,400 children aged 2-16 years was performed. Results In the 2007 survey 47% of all children reported drinking SSBs with 25% consuming sugar sweetened soft drinks on the day of the survey. The mean consumption of soft drink was 436 g/d/consumer. Activity levels were unrelated to SSB consumption. Television viewing was positively related to soft drink consumption with a difference of 55 g/day from bottom to top tertile of time spent TV viewing (p = 0.015) in children aged 9-16 years. 55% of SSB consumption occurred at home and 10% occurred at school. Lower SES status was associated with a greater prevalence of SSB consumption- 30% for the lowest SES quartile vs 19% in the highest quartile. The proportion of overweight who consumed SSBs (which excludes 100% fruit) was not different from the non-overweight children although the proportion of SSB consumers in the 6% of children who were obese was significant compared with the non-overweight children (59% vs 47%, p < 0.05). In the 2007 survey 23% of children were overweight (17%) or obese (6%) while in the 1995 survey this figure was 21%. The proportion of children consuming SSBs in 1995 and 2007 for selected age groups were: 2-3 years - 25.8% and 12.8% respectively and 4-7 years - 33.6% and 20.5% respectively (p < 0.001 for both). Conclusions This cross-sectional data set provides evidence that SSB

  6. Microbial monitoring in treated stone at the Royal Chapel of Granada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jroundi, Fadwa; Pinar, Guadalupe; González-Muñoz, Maria Theresa; Sterflinger, Katja

    2014-05-01

    Biomineralization processes have been applied in situ to protect and consolidate decayed ornamental stone of the Royal Chapel in Granada (Spain). In few years, this conservation treatment has gained worth attention as environmentally friendly methodology for protection and consolidation of limestone because of the compatibilities shown between the new calcium carbonate cement and the original stone substrate. Moreover, the success of this approach may be related to the diversity of the microbiota inhabiting the stone and activated upon the biotreatment application and throughout the time. González-Muñoz et al. (2008) proposed a nutritional solution that activate among the bacteria inhabiting the stone those with carbonatogenic activity. In this study, a long-term (one, two and three years) monitoring of the microbiota present on the treated and untreated stones was done using a molecular strategy, including total DNA extraction, PCR amplification of 16S rRNA sequences, construction of clone libraries and fingerprinting by DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) analysis. Sequencing of the 16S rDNA revealed the dominant occurrence of members of Actinobacteria (44.20%), Gamma-proteobacteria (30.24%) and Chloroflexi (25.56%) after one year of the biotreatment. Whereas after two years, members of Cyanobacteria (22.10%) appeared and three years after, the microbiota consisted of only Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria with approximately the same percentage in comparison with the untreated stones, dominated exclusively by Actinobacteria (100%). Fungal diversity followed the same dynamic as bacterial diversity being Ascomicota the predominant order before treatment. After one year, members of Basidiomycota and Viridiplantae appeared on the stone while two years after, the Viridiplantae dominated with a percentage of 84.77%. Finally, three years after the treatment, fungi population started to stabilize again and Ascomicota predominated next to 16.67% of

  7. Systemic immunotherapy delays photoreceptor cell loss and prevents vascular pathology in Royal College of Surgeons rats

    PubMed Central

    Adamus, Grazyna; Kyger, Madison; Worley, Aneta; Burrows, Gregory G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Degenerative retinopathies, including retinitis pigmentosa, age-related retinal degeneration, autoimmune retinopathy, and related diseases affect millions of people around the world. Currently, there is no effective treatment for most of those diseases. We investigated systemic recombinant T-cell receptor ligand (RTL) immunotherapy for preventing retinal degeneration and vascular damage in the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat model of retinal degeneration. Methods RCS rats were treated with RTL220 tethered to interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP) peptide or control RTL101 without peptide by subcutaneous administration starting at the onset of photoreceptor degeneration or after the degenerative process began daily or every other day and performed for a 13-week period. The retinal cross sections and whole mounts were prepared to determine histopathology, leaking vessels, and formation of vascular complexes. Immunofluorescent studies evaluated microglia and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 chemokine in treated retinas. Optokinetic studies were performed to determine visual acuity. Results Systemic treatment with RTL220 prevented decreases in outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness and showed a significantly higher number of nuclei than control rats treated with RTL101 or vehicle. RTL220 was also effective in protecting retinal vasculature from leakage and the formation of abnormal vascular complexes even when the treatment was administered after the degenerative process was initiated. Visual acuity measurement showed that rats treated with RTL220 performed significantly better than those with RTL101 and untreated age-matched controls at P60 and P90. Biodistribution studies showed that RTL220 cleared slowly from the administration site. Moreover, RTL220-treated retinas had a significantly reduced number of activated microglia in the subretinal space, decreased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 production in the retina, inhibited T

  8. Royal College of General Practitioners Research and Surveillance Centre (RCGP RSC) sentinel network: a cohort profile

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Ana; Hinton, William; McGovern, Andrew; van Vlymen, Jeremy; Yonova, Ivelina; Jones, Simon; de Lusignan, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The Royal College of General Practitioners Research and Surveillance Centre (RCGP RSC) is one of the longest established primary care sentinel networks. In 2015, it established a new data and analysis hub at the University of Surrey. This paper evaluates the representativeness of the RCGP RSC network against the English population. Participants and method The cohort includes 1 042 063 patients registered in 107 participating general practitioner (GP) practices. We compared the RCGP RSC data with English national data in the following areas: demographics; geographical distribution; chronic disease prevalence, management and completeness of data recording; and prescribing and vaccine uptake. We also assessed practices within the network participating in a national swabbing programme. Findings to date We found a small over-representation of people in the 25–44 age band, under-representation of white ethnicity, and of less deprived people. Geographical focus is in London, with less practices in the southwest and east of England. We found differences in the prevalence of diabetes (national: 6.4%, RCPG RSC: 5.8%), learning disabilities (national: 0.44%, RCPG RSC: 0.40%), obesity (national: 9.2%, RCPG RSC: 8.0%), pulmonary disease (national: 1.8%, RCPG RSC: 1.6%), and cardiovascular diseases (national: 1.1%, RCPG RSC: 1.2%). Data completeness in risk factors for diabetic population is high (77–99%). We found differences in prescribing rates and costs for infections (national: 5.58%, RCPG RSC: 7.12%), and for nutrition and blood conditions (national: 6.26%, RCPG RSC: 4.50%). Differences in vaccine uptake were seen in patients aged 2 years (national: 38.5%, RCPG RSC: 32.8%). Owing to large numbers, most differences were significant (p<0.00015). Future plans The RCGP RSC is a representative network, having only small differences with the national population, which have now been quantified and can be assessed for clinical relevance for specific studies. This

  9. Abnormal fiber end migration in Royal College of Surgeons rats during posterior subcapsular cataract formation

    PubMed Central

    Joy, Anita; Al-Ghoul, Kristin J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Prior structural studies of posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC) development in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats suggest that migration of basal fiber ends was disrupted, ultimately resulting in a PSC. Therefore the goal of this study was to assess the overall migration patterns as well as changes to the structure and cytoskeleton of basal fiber ends during PSC development. Methods Lenses from 48 RCS dystrophic rats (RCS/Lav) and 24 genetically matched control animals (RCS-rdy+/Lav) from 2 to 8 weeks old were examined. Equatorial diameters were measured and suture patterns were photographed immediately following enucleation/dissection. Right eye lenses were fixed and processed to visualize the actin cytoskeleton via laser scanning confocal microcopy (LSCM), left eye lenses were decapsulated, fixed and processed for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Scaled 3D-computer assisted drawings (CADs) and animations were constructed from the data to depict the changes in suture patterns and fiber end architecture. Results At 2 weeks, dystrophic lenses displayed an inverted Y suture on the posterior, and by 3 weeks most lenses had at least one sub-branch. Additional sub-branches were observed with time, opacities being visible as early as 4 weeks and progressing into PSC plaques by 6 weeks. Control lenses displayed inverted Y sutures at all ages and were transparent. SEM of dystrophic lenses revealed fiber ends with normal size, shape, arrangement, and filopodia at 2 weeks; scattered areas of dome-shaped fiber ends and small filopodia were present at 3 weeks. At 4 weeks the irregularly arranged domed fiber ends had extremely long filopodia with ‘boutons’ at their tips. By 6 weeks all fiber ends within plaques displayed rounded or domed basal membranes and lacked filopodial extensions. Control lenses at all time points had comparable ultrastructure to the 2 week old dystrophic lenses. F-actin arrangement within the basal membrane complex (BMC) of control

  10. Effect of Processed Honey and Royal Jelly on Cancer-Related Fatigue: A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mofid, Bahram; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein; Termos, Abdulkarim; Rakhsha, Afshin; Mafi, Ahmad Rezazadeh; Taheripanah, Taiebeh; Ardakani, Mehran Mirabzadeh; Taghavi, Seyed Mohammad Esmaeil; Moravveji, Seyyed Alireza; Kashi, Amir Shahram Yousefi

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is experienced by 50% to 90% of cancer patients and can severely affect their quality of life and functional capacity. Several randomized trials have recommended various ways to alleviate the symptoms of CRF with or without recourse to medications. Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of processed honey and royal jelly on the symptoms of CRF in cancer patients who are undergoing hormone therapy, chemotherapy, chemo-radiation, or radiotherapy. Methods Fifty-two participants from the patients who visited the oncology clinic of Shohada-e-Tajrish hospital in Tehran (Iran) between May 2013 and August 2014 were selected and divided into two groups. The study group (26 patients) received processed honey and royal jelly, while the control group received pure honey. Both groups were instructed to consume their 5mL supplement twice daily for 4 weeks. Both groups were assessed at the beginning of the study, after 2 weeks, and then at the end of 4 weeks of treatment. Fatigue was measured using a visual analogue fatigue scale (VAFS) and fatigue severity scale (FSS). The results were compared between the two arms of study, and equality of probability distributions was assessed using a Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. Results The mean age of the 52 patients was 54.84. After two and four weeks of treatment with processed honey and royal jelly, VAFS and FSS due to treatment was better in the study group than in the control group, and the differences were statistically significant (p<0.001, p<0.001, respectively). Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, our study provided support for the use of processed honey and royal jelly to ameliorate CRF. The positive results of this study warrant further studies in this field. Clinical Trial Registration The study was registered in the Iranian Clinical Trial Registry Center (http://www.irct.ir) with the registration code: IRCT2015081423426N1. Funding The authors received no

  11. Three Licentiates of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh who were decorated with the Victoria Cross.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, M H

    2011-08-01

    Since the Victoria Cross was introduced in January 1856 by Queen Victoria to reward acts of valour in the face of the enemy, initially during the Crimean War, over 1350 medals have been awarded. Of these, three were awarded to medical officers who had previously gained the Licentiate Diploma of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (LRCS Edin) - Valentine Munbee McMaster on 25 September 1857, Henry Thomas Sylvester on 20 November 1857 (although the acts of valour for which he was awarded his VC occurred on two occasions in September 1855) and Campbell Mellis (or Millis) Douglas on 7 May 1867. PMID:21810849

  12. Hydraulics for Royal Gardens: Water Art as a Challenge for 18th Century Science and 21st Century Physics Teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Michael

    2007-06-01

    Hydraulics is an engineering specialty and largely neglected as a topic in physics teaching. But the history of hydraulics from the Renaissance to the Baroque, merits our attention because hydraulics was then more broadly conceived as a practical and theoretical science; it served as a constant bone of contention for mechanics and mathematics; its obvious practical importance from raising water in mines to the playful fountains in royal gardens illustrates the social role of science like few others do. The playful character of historic hydraulics problems makes it also an appealing topic for modern science education.

  13. The Australian RSI debate: stereotyping and medicine.

    PubMed

    Quintner, J L

    1995-07-01

    The vehement scientific debate which took place in Australia in the 1980s over the epidemic of the chronic cervicobrachial pain syndrome known as repetition strain injury (RSI) was remarkable for the accompanying social commentary offered by many of the medical participants. This commentary was to have a profound effect on relationships between individual doctors and their patients with RSI. It reflected and reinforced the prevailing stereotypes within Australian society, not only of working women, but also of recipients of workers' compensation payments. On the other hand, some of the medical responses to the epidemic were severely criticized by social scientists who analysed the epidemic. In the process of such criticism, a number of stereotypes of doctors were also reinforced. PMID:7626774

  14. Sexual misbehaviour in the Australian Defence Force.

    PubMed

    Williams, Angela; Ranson, David

    2013-12-01

    It is clear from recent media reporting that serious issues have come to light regarding sexual misbehaviour matters within the Australian Defence Force. Subsequent reviews have indicated that these behaviours appear to have been more widespread than the initial media reports suggested and a number of reviews have been undertaken to better understand the problem and address the concerns of victims, Defence command, government and the community. If these problems are not addressed, there is a risk that recruitment to the Defence Forces may become problematic. The strong command structures within the Defence Forces can both exacerbate these misbehaviours through entrenching secrecy and at the same time have the capacity to provide a powerful leadership message that can change attitudes and reduce such misbehaviours. PMID:24597372

  15. Western Australian school students' understanding of biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Are science educators providing secondary school students with the background to understand the science behind recent controversies such as the recently introduced compulsory labelling of genetically modified foods? Research from the UK suggests that many secondary school students do not understand the processes or implications of modern biotechnology. The situation in Australia is unclear. In this study, 1116 15-year-old students from eleven Western Australian schools were surveyed to determine their understanding of, and attitude towards, recent advances in modern biotechnology. The results indicate that approximately one third of students have little or no understanding of biotechnology. Many students over-estimate the use of biotechnology in our society by confusing current uses with possible future applications. The results provide a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the school science curriculum

  16. The Australian experiment with ETS-V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Goldhirsh, Julius; Hase, Yoshihiro

    1989-01-01

    Land-mobile satellite propagation measurements were implemented at L Band (1.5 GHz) in South-Eastern Australia during an 11 day period in October 1988. Transmissions (CW) from both the Japanese ETS-5 and INMARSAT Pacific geostationary satellites were accessed. Previous measurements in this series were performed at both L Band (1.5 GHz) and UHF (870 MHz) in Central Maryland, North-Central Colorado, and the southern United States. The objectives of the Australian campaign were to expand the data base acquired in the U.S. to another continent, to validate a U.S. derived empirical model for estimating the fade distribution, to establish the effects of directive antennas, to assess the isolation between co- and cross-polarized transmissions, to derive estimates of fade as well as non-fade durations, and to evaluate diversity reception. All these objectives were met.

  17. "Bridging the Gap" through Australian Cultural Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-01-01

    For more than 50,000 years, Indigenous Australians have incorporated celestial events into their oral traditions and used the motions of celestial bodies for navigation, time-keeping, food economics, and social structure. In this paper, we explore the ways in which Aboriginal people made careful observations of the sky, measurements of celestial bodies, and incorporated astronomical events into complex oral traditions by searching for written records of time-keeping using celestial bodies, the use of rising and setting stars as indicators of special events, recorded observations of variable stars, the solar cycle, and lunar phases (including ocean tides and eclipses) in oral tradition, as well as astronomical measurements of the equinox, solstice, and cardinal points.

  18. The Australian Measles Control Campaign, 1998.

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, F. M.; Burgess, M. A.; McIntyre, P. B.; Lambert, S. B.; Gilbert, G. L.; Gidding, H. F.; Escott, R. G.; Achat, H. M.; Hull, B. P.; Wang, H.; Sam, G. A.; Mead, C. L.

    2001-01-01

    The 1998 Australian Measles Control Campaign had as its aim improved immunization coverage among children aged 1-12 years and, in the longer term, prevention of measles epidemics. The campaign included mass school-based measles-mumps-rubella vaccination of children aged 5-12 years and a catch-up programme for preschool children. More than 1.33 million children aged 5-12 years were vaccinated at school: serological monitoring showed that 94% of such children were protected after the campaign, whereas only 84% had been protected previously. Among preschool children aged 1-3.5 years the corresponding levels of protection were 89% and 82%. During the six months following the campaign there was a marked reduction in the number of measles cases among children in targeted age groups. PMID:11584738

  19. Comparison of Australian and US Cost-Benefit Approaches to MEPS

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, James E.

    2004-03-12

    The Australian Greenhouse Office contracted with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP) for LBNL to compare US and Australian approaches to analyzing costs and benefits of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS). This report compares the approaches for three types of products: household refrigerators and freezers, small electric storage water heaters, and commercial/industrial air conditioners. This report presents the findings of similarities and differences between the approaches of the two countries and suggests changes to consider in the approach taken in Australia. The purpose of the Australian program is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, while the US program is intended to increase energy efficiency; each program is thus subject to specific constraints. The market and policy contexts are different, with the USA producing most of its own products and conducting pioneering engineering-economic studies to identify maximum energy efficiency levels that are technologically feasible and economically justified. In contrast, Australia imports a large share of its products and adopts MEPS already in place elsewhere. With these differences in circumstances, Australia's analysis approach could be expected to have less analytical detail and still result in MEPS levels that are appropriate for their policy and market context. In practice, the analysis required to meet these different objectives is quite similar. To date, Australia's cost-benefit analysis has served the goals and philosophies of the program well and been highly effective in successfully identifying MEPS that are significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions while providing economic benefits to consumers. In some cases, however, the experience of the USA--using more extensive data sets and more detailed analysis--suggests possible improvements to Australia's cost-benefit analysis. The principal findings of the comparison are: (1) The Technology and Market Assessments are

  20. Achieving professional status: Australian podiatrists' perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Borthwick, Alan M; Nancarrow, Susan A; Vernon, Wesley; Walker, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Background This paper explores the notion of professional status from the perspective of a sample of Australian podiatrists; how it is experienced, what factors are felt to affect it, and how these are considered to influence professional standing within an evolving healthcare system. Underpinning sociological theory is deployed in order to inform and contextualise the study. Methods Data were drawn from a series of in-depth semi-structured interviews (n = 21) and focus groups (n = 9) with podiatrists from across four of Australia's eastern states (Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Australian Capital Territory), resulting in a total of 76 participants. Semi-structured interview schedules sought to explore podiatrist perspectives on a range of features related to professional status within podiatry in Australia. Results Central to the retention and enhancement of status was felt to be the development of specialist roles and the maintenance of control over key task domains. Key distinctions in private and public sector environments, and in rural and urban settings, were noted and found to reflect differing contexts for status development. Marketing was considered important to image enhancement, as was the cache attached to the status of the universities providing graduate education. Conclusion Perceived determinants of professional status broadly matched those identified in the wider sociological literature, most notably credentialism, client status, content and context of work (such as specialisation) and an ideological basis for persuading audiences to acknowledge professional status. In an environment of demographic and workforce change, and the resultant policy demands for healthcare service re-design, enhanced opportunities for specialisation appear evident. Under the current model of professionalism, both role flexibility and uniqueness may prove important. PMID:19216783