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Sample records for rpon sigma factor

  1. Sigma factor RpoN (σ54) regulates pilE transcription in commensal Neisseria elongata.

    PubMed

    Rendón, María A; Hockenberry, Alyson M; McManus, Steven A; So, Magdalene

    2013-10-01

    Human-adapted Neisseria includes two pathogens, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis, and at least 13 species of commensals that colonize many of the same niches as the pathogens. The Type IV pilus plays an important role in the biology of pathogenic Neisseria. In these species, Sigma factor RpoD (σ(70)), Integration Host Factor, and repressors RegF and CrgA regulate transcription of pilE, the gene encoding the pilus structural subunit. The Type IV pilus is also a strictly conserved trait in commensal Neisseria. We present evidence that a different mechanism regulates pilE transcription in commensals. Using Neisseria elongata as a model, we show that Sigma factor RpoN (σ(54)), Integration Host Factor, and an activator we name Npa regulate pilE transcription. Taken in context with previous reports, our findings indicate pilE regulation switched from an RpoN- to an RpoD-dependent mechanism as pathogenic Neisseria diverged from commensals during evolution. Our findings have implications for the timing of Tfp expression and Tfp-mediated host cell interactions in these two groups of bacteria. PMID:23899162

  2. Loss of Sigma Factor RpoN Increases Intestinal Colonization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in an Adult Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, W. Brian; Richards, Gary P.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of bacterial seafood-borne gastroenteritis worldwide, yet little is known about how this pathogen colonizes the human intestine. The alternative sigma factor RpoN/sigma-54 is a global regulator that controls flagellar synthesis, as well as a wide range of nonflagellar genes. We constructed an in-frame deletion mutation in rpoN (VP2670) in V. parahaemolyticus RIMD2210633, a clinical serogroup O3:K6 isolate, and examined the effects in vivo using a streptomycin-treated mouse model of colonization. We confirmed that deletion of rpoN rendered V. parahaemolyticus nonmotile, and it caused reduced biofilm formation and an apparent defect in glutamine synthetase production. In in vivo competition assays between the rpoN mutant and a wild-type RIMD2210633 strain marked with the β-galactosidase gene lacZ (WBWlacZ), the mutant colonized significantly more proficiently. Intestinal persistence competition assays also demonstrated that the rpoN mutant had enhanced fitness and outcompeted WBWlacZ. Mutants defective in the polar flagellum biosynthesis FliAP sigma factor also outcompeted WBWlacZ but not to the same level as the rpoN mutant, which suggested that lack of motility is not the sole cause of the fitness effect. In an in vitro growth competition assay in mouse intestinal mucus, the rpoN mutant also outcompeted the wild type and exhibited faster doubling times when grown in mucus and on individual components of mucus. Genes in the pathways for the catabolism of mucus sugars also had significantly higher expression levels in a ΔrpoN mutant than in the wild type. These data suggest that in V. parahaemolyticus, RpoN plays an important role in carbon utilization regulation, which may significantly affect host colonization. PMID:24478070

  3. Indirect positive effects of a sigma factor RpoN deletion on the lactate-based polymer production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kadoya, Ryosuke; Kodama, Yu; Matsumoto, Ken'ichiro; Taguchi, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    The production of bacterial polyesters, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), has been improved by several rational approaches such as overexpression and/or engineering of the enzymes directly related to PHA biosynthetic pathways. In this study, a new approach at transcription level has been applied to a new category of the copolymer of lactate (LA) and 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), P(LA-co-3HB). When the 4 disrupting mutants of sigma factors in Escherichia coli, rpoN, rpoS, fliA, fecI, were used as platforms for production of P(LA-co-3HB), increases in the production level and LA fraction of the copolymer were observed for the mutant strain with rpoN disruption. These positive impacts on the polymer production were caused in an "indirect manner" via changes in the multiple genes governed by RpoN. A genome-wide engineering by sigma factors would be a versatile approach for the production of value-added products of interest and available for combination with the other beneficial tools. PMID:26218242

  4. Indirect positive effects of a sigma factor RpoN deletion on the lactate-based polymer production in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kadoya, Ryosuke; Kodama, Yu; Matsumoto, Ken'ichiro; Taguchi, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    The production of bacterial polyesters, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), has been improved by several rational approaches such as overexpression and/or engineering of the enzymes directly related to PHA biosynthetic pathways. In this study, a new approach at transcription level has been applied to a new category of the copolymer of lactate (LA) and 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), P(LA-co-3HB). When the 4 disrupting mutants of sigma factors in Escherichia coli, rpoN, rpoS, fliA, fecI, were used as platforms for production of P(LA-co-3HB), increases in the production level and LA fraction of the copolymer were observed for the mutant strain with rpoN disruption. These positive impacts on the polymer production were caused in an “indirect manner” via changes in the multiple genes governed by RpoN. A genome-wide engineering by sigma factors would be a versatile approach for the production of value-added products of interest and available for combination with the other beneficial tools. PMID:26218242

  5. Loss of sigma factor RpoN increases intestinal colonization of vibrio parahaemolyticus in an adult mouse model"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of bacterial seafood-borne gastroenteritis worldwide, yet little is known about how this pathogen colonizes the human intestine. The alternative sigma factor RpoN/sigma-54 is a global regulator that controls flagella synthesis as well as a wide range of ...

  6. Use of a promiscuous, constitutively-active bacterial enhancer-binding protein to define the Sigma54 (RpoN) regulon of Salmonella Typhimurium LT2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Sigma54, or RpoN, is an alternative s factor found widely in eubacteria. A significant complication in analysis of the global sigma54 regulon in a bacterium is that the sigma54 RNA polymerase holoenzyme requires interaction with an active bacterial enhancer-binding protein (bEBP) to init...

  7. The Alternative Sigma Factor RpoN Is Required for hrp Activity in Pseudomonas syringae pv. Maculicola and Acts at the Level of hrpL Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickson, Erik L.; Guevera, Pablo; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    2000-01-01

    β-Glucuronidase (uidA) reporter gene fusions were constructed for the hrpZ, hrpL, and hrpS genes from the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola strain ES4326. These reporters, as well as an avrRpt2-uidA fusion, were used to measure transcriptional activity in ES4326 and a ES4326 rpoN mutant. rpoN was required for the expression of avrRpt2, hrpZ, and hrpL in vitro in minimal media and in vivo when infiltrated into Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. In contrast, the expression of hrpS was essentially the same in wild-type and rpoN mutant strains. Constitutive expression of hrpL in an rpoN mutant restored hrpZ transcription to wild-type levels, restored the hypersensitive response when infiltrated into tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum), and partially restored the elicitation of virulence-related symptoms but not growth when infiltrated into Arabidopsis leaves. These data indicate that rpoN-mediated control of hrp gene expression acts at the level of hrpL and that in planta growth of P. syringae is not required for the elicitation of disease symptoms. PMID:10852884

  8. The C-Terminal RpoN Domain of sigma54 Forms an unpredictedHelix-Turn-Helix Motif Similar to domains of sigma70

    SciTech Connect

    Doucleff, Michaeleen; Malak, Lawrence T.; Pelton, Jeffrey G.; Wemmer, David E.

    2005-11-01

    The ''{delta}'' subunit of prokaryotic RNA-polymerase allows gene-specific transcription initiation. Two {sigma} families have been identified, {sigma}{sup 70} and {sigma}{sup 54}, which use distinct mechanisms to initiate transcription and share no detectable sequence homology. Although the {sigma}{sup 70}-type factors have been well characterized structurally by x-ray crystallography, no high-resolution structural information is available for the {sigma}{sup 54}-type factors. Here we present the NMR derived structure of the C-terminal domain of {sigma}{sup 54} from Aquifex aeolicus. This domain (Thr323 to Gly389), which contains the highly conserved RpoN box sequence, consists of a poorly structured N-terminal tail followed by a three-helix bundle, which is surprisingly similar to domains of the {sigma}{sup 70}-type proteins. Residues of the RpoN box, which have previously been shown to be critical for DNA binding, form the second helix of an unpredicted helix-turn-helix motif. This structure's homology with other DNA binding proteins, combined with previous biochemical data, suggest how the C-terminal domain of {sigma}{sup 54} binds to DNA.

  9. RpoN Regulates Virulence Factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa via Modulating the PqsR Quorum Sensing Regulator

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhao; Liu, Yang; Chen, Yicai; Yam, Joey Kuok Hoong; Chew, Su Chuen; Chua, Song Lin; Wang, Ke; Givskov, Michael; Yang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The alternative sigma factor RpoN regulates many cell functions, such as motility, quorum sensing, and virulence in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). P. aeruginosa often evolves rpoN-negative variants during the chronic infection in cystic fibrosis patients. It is unclear how RpoN interacts with other regulatory mechanisms to control virulence of P. aeruginosa. In this study, we show that RpoN modulates the function of PqsR, a quorum sensing receptor regulating production of virulence factors including the phenazine pyocyanin. The ∆rpoN mutant is able to synthesize 4-quinolone signal molecule HHQ but unable to activate PqsR and Pseudomonas quinolone signal (pqs) quorum sensing. The ∆rpoN mutant produces minimal level of pyocyanin and is unable to produce the anti-staphylococcal agents. Providing pqsR in trans in the ∆rpoN mutant restores its pqs quorum sensing and virulence factor production to the wild-type level. Our study provides evidence that RpoN has a regulatory effect on P. aeruginosa virulence through modulating the function of the PqsR quorum sensing regulator. PMID:26633362

  10. rpoN1, but not rpoN2, is required for twitching motility, natural competence, growth on nitrate, and virulence of Ralstonia solanacearum

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Suvendra K.; Kumar, Rahul; Peeters, Nemo; Boucher, Christian; Genin, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    The plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum has two genes encoding for the sigma factor σ54: rpoN1, located in the chromosome and rpoN2, located in a distinct “megaplasmid” replicon. In this study, individual mutants as well as a double mutant of rpoN were created in R. solanacearum strain GMI1000 in order to determine the extent of functional overlap between these two genes. By virulence assay we observed that rpoN1 is required for virulence whereas rpoN2 is not. In addition rpoN1 controls other important functions such twitching motility, natural transformation and growth on nitrate, unlike rpoN2. The rpoN1 and rpoN2 genes have different expression pattern, the expression of rpoN1 being constitutive whereas rpoN2 expression is induced in minimal medium and in the presence of plant cells. Moreover, the expression of rpoN2 is dependent upon rpoN1. Our work therefore reveals that the two rpoN genes are not functionally redundant in R. solanacearum. A list of potential σ54 targets was identified in the R. solanacearum genome and suggests that multiple traits are under the control of these regulators. Based on these findings, we provide a model describing the functional connection between RpoN1 and the PehR pathogenicity regulator and their dual role in the control of several R. solanacearum virulence determinants. PMID:25852679

  11. Defining the Metabolic Functions and Roles in Virulence of the rpoN1 and rpoN2 Genes in Ralstonia solanacearum GMI1000.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Benjamin R; Connolly, Morgan P; Choudhary, Pratibha; Brookins-Little, Tiffany S; Chatterjee, Snigdha; Raina, Ramesh; Nomura, Christopher T

    2015-01-01

    The alternative sigma factor RpoN is a unique regulator found among bacteria. It controls numerous processes that range from basic metabolism to more complex functions such as motility and nitrogen fixation. Our current understanding of RpoN function is largely derived from studies on prototypical bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida. Although the extent and necessity of RpoN-dependent functions differ radically between these model organisms, each bacterium depends on a single chromosomal rpoN gene to meet the cellular demands of RpoN regulation. The bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum is often recognized for being the causative agent of wilt disease in crops, including banana, peanut and potato. However, this plant pathogen is also one of the few bacterial species whose genome possesses dual rpoN genes. To determine if the rpoN genes in this bacterium are genetically redundant and interchangeable, we constructed and characterized ΔrpoN1, ΔrpoN2 and ΔrpoN1 ΔrpoN2 mutants of R. solanacearum GMI1000. It was found that growth on a small range of metabolites, including dicarboxylates, ethanol, nitrate, ornithine, proline and xanthine, were dependent on only the rpoN1 gene. Furthermore, the rpoN1 gene was required for wilt disease on tomato whereas rpoN2 had no observable role in virulence or metabolism in R. solanacearum GMI1000. Interestingly, plasmid-based expression of rpoN2 did not fully rescue the metabolic deficiencies of the ΔrpoN1 mutants; full recovery was specific to rpoN1. In comparison, only rpoN2 was able to genetically complement a ΔrpoN E. coli mutant. These results demonstrate that the RpoN1 and RpoN2 proteins are not functionally equivalent or interchangeable in R. solanacearum GMI1000. PMID:26659655

  12. Defining the Metabolic Functions and Roles in Virulence of the rpoN1 and rpoN2 Genes in Ralstonia solanacearum GMI1000

    PubMed Central

    Lundgren, Benjamin R.; Connolly, Morgan P.; Choudhary, Pratibha; Brookins-Little, Tiffany S.; Chatterjee, Snigdha; Raina, Ramesh; Nomura, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    The alternative sigma factor RpoN is a unique regulator found among bacteria. It controls numerous processes that range from basic metabolism to more complex functions such as motility and nitrogen fixation. Our current understanding of RpoN function is largely derived from studies on prototypical bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida. Although the extent and necessity of RpoN-dependent functions differ radically between these model organisms, each bacterium depends on a single chromosomal rpoN gene to meet the cellular demands of RpoN regulation. The bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum is often recognized for being the causative agent of wilt disease in crops, including banana, peanut and potato. However, this plant pathogen is also one of the few bacterial species whose genome possesses dual rpoN genes. To determine if the rpoN genes in this bacterium are genetically redundant and interchangeable, we constructed and characterized ΔrpoN1, ΔrpoN2 and ΔrpoN1 ΔrpoN2 mutants of R. solanacearum GMI1000. It was found that growth on a small range of metabolites, including dicarboxylates, ethanol, nitrate, ornithine, proline and xanthine, were dependent on only the rpoN1 gene. Furthermore, the rpoN1 gene was required for wilt disease on tomato whereas rpoN2 had no observable role in virulence or metabolism in R. solanacearum GMI1000. Interestingly, plasmid-based expression of rpoN2 did not fully rescue the metabolic deficiencies of the ΔrpoN1 mutants; full recovery was specific to rpoN1. In comparison, only rpoN2 was able to genetically complement a ΔrpoN E. coli mutant. These results demonstrate that the RpoN1 and RpoN2 proteins are not functionally equivalent or interchangeable in R. solanacearum GMI1000. PMID:26659655

  13. Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 RpoN (Sigma 54) Is a Pleiotropic Regulator of Growth, Carbohydrate Metabolism, Motility, Biofilm Formation and Toxin Production

    PubMed Central

    Hayrapetyan, Hasmik; Tempelaars, Marcel; Nierop Groot, Masja; Abee, Tjakko

    2015-01-01

    Sigma 54 is a transcriptional regulator predicted to play a role in physical interaction of bacteria with their environment, including virulence and biofilm formation. In order to study the role of Sigma 54 in Bacillus cereus, a comparative transcriptome and phenotypic study was performed using B. cereus ATCC 14579 WT, a markerless rpoN deletion mutant, and its complemented strain. The mutant was impaired in many different cellular functions including low temperature and anaerobic growth, carbohydrate metabolism, sporulation and toxin production. Additionally, the mutant showed lack of motility and biofilm formation at air-liquid interphase, and this correlated with absence of flagella, as flagella staining showed only WT and complemented strain to be highly flagellated. Comparative transcriptome analysis of cells harvested at selected time points during growth in aerated and static conditions in BHI revealed large differences in gene expression associated with loss of phenotypes, including significant down regulation of genes in the mutant encoding enzymes involved in degradation of branched chain amino acids, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, flagella synthesis and virulence factors. Our study provides evidence for a pleiotropic role of Sigma 54 in B. cereus supporting its adaptive response and survival in a range of conditions and environments. PMID:26241851

  14. Genome-wide analysis of the RpoN regulon in Geobacter sulfurreducens

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The role of the RNA polymerase sigma factor RpoN in regulation of gene expression in Geobacter sulfurreducens was investigated to better understand transcriptional regulatory networks as part of an effort to develop regulatory modules for genome-scale in silico models, which can predict the physiological responses of Geobacter species during groundwater bioremediation or electricity production. Results An rpoN deletion mutant could not be obtained under all conditions tested. In order to investigate the regulon of the G. sulfurreducens RpoN, an RpoN over-expression strain was made in which an extra copy of the rpoN gene was under the control of a taclac promoter. Combining both the microarray transcriptome analysis and the computational prediction revealed that the G. sulfurreducens RpoN controls genes involved in a wide range of cellular functions. Most importantly, RpoN controls the expression of the dcuB gene encoding the fumarate/succinate exchanger, which is essential for cell growth with fumarate as the terminal electron acceptor in G. sulfurreducens. RpoN also controls genes, which encode enzymes for both pathways of ammonia assimilation that is predicted to be essential under all growth conditions in G. sulfurreducens. Other genes that were identified as part of the RpoN regulon using either the computational prediction or the microarray transcriptome analysis included genes involved in flagella biosynthesis, pili biosynthesis and genes involved in central metabolism enzymes and cytochromes involved in extracellular electron transfer to Fe(III), which are known to be important for growth in subsurface environment or electricity production in microbial fuel cells. The consensus sequence for the predicted RpoN-regulated promoter elements is TTGGCACGGTTTTTGCT. Conclusion The G. sulfurreducens RpoN is an essential sigma factor and a global regulator involved in a complex transcriptional network controlling a variety of cellular processes. PMID

  15. The rpoN gene product of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is required for expression of diverse genes, including the flagellin gene.

    PubMed Central

    Totten, P A; Lara, J C; Lory, S

    1990-01-01

    The product of the rpoN gene is an alternative sigma factor of RNA polymerase which is required for transcription of a number of genes in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, including those that specify enzymes of nitrogen assimilation, amino acid uptake, and degradation of a variety of organic molecules. We have previously shown that transcription of the pilin gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa also requires RpoN (K. S. Ishimoto and S. Lory, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:1954-1957, 1989) and have undertaken a more extensive survey of genes under RpoN control. Strains of P. aeruginosa that carry an insertionally inactivated rpoN gene were constructed and shown to be nonmotile because of the inability of these mutants to synthesize flagellin. The mutation in rpoN had no effect on expression of extracellular polypeptides, outer membrane proteins, and the alginate capsule. However, the rpoN mutants were glutamine auxotrophs and were defective in glutamine synthetase, indicating defects in nitrogen assimilation. In addition, the P. aeruginosa rpoN mutants were defective in urease activity. These findings indicate that the sigma factor encoded by the rpoN gene is used by P. aeruginosa for transcription of a diverse set of genes that specify biosynthetic enzymes, degradative enzymes, and surface components. These rpoN-controlled genes include pili and flagella which are required for full virulence of the organism. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:2152909

  16. Impact of co-deficiency of RpoN and RpoS on stress tolerance, virulence and gene regulation in Edwardsiella tarda.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enfu; Ye, Jiang; Song, ShanShan; Wang, Keping; Zhang, Yuanxing; Zhang, Huizhan

    2014-07-01

    Edwardsiella tarda the etiological agent for edwardsiellosis, a devastating fish disease prevailing in worldwide aquaculture industries was subjected to a molecular genetic study. To research into the influence when RpoN (σ(54) ) and RpoS (σ(38) ) were deleted simultaneously, the double deletion mutant of RpoN (σ(54) ) and RpoS (σ(38) ), namely rnrs, was constructed. Firstly, RpoN and RpoS are both essential for H2 O2 , starvation, high osmotic pressure and acid resistance, which have synergistic effect. Secondly, virulence of rnrs reduces significantly compared to E. tarda EIB 202 WT, ΔrpoN mutant and ΔrpoS mutant. Furthermore, transcriptional control of rpoS by rpoN in stationary phase was observed through qRT-PCR, while rpoS had no influence on rpoN in the level of transcription. Meanwhile, regulation of flagellar sigma factor σ(F) (FliA) and other flagella-related genes including flgA, flgK, flgL, motA, and motB by rpoS, and rpoN was found. fliA and other flagella-related genes were controlled positively by rpoN, while negatively by rpoS. At last, two differential expression genes in transcriptional level of rnrs strain were detected by DD-RT-PCR, namely cheY and narK. This study therefore indicated interaction between sigma factors RpoN and RpoS, which modulates stress response, virulence, motility, and provides new insights into the regulatory networks of E. tarda. PMID:24633758

  17. Involvement of the RpoN protein in the transcription of the oprE gene in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Yamano, Y; Nishikawa, T; Komatsu, Y

    1998-05-01

    OprE is a channel-forming outer membrane protein of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the expression of which is induced under anaerobic conditions. We constructed various mutants and observed the effects on oprE expression. Deficiency in RpoN, an alternative sigma factor for RNA polymerase, abolished oprE expression under aerobic conditions, but did not affect the expression under anaerobic conditions. One mutation on the putative RpoN recognition site also caused reduction of oprE expression. The region 500 nucleotides upstream of the mRNA start site was required for optimal oprE transcription, which contains an AT-rich region including a putative integration host factor binding site. These results indicate that OprE production is directly or indirectly controlled by RpoN but also require some other regulatory proteins bound to the upstream region. PMID:9595661

  18. Modulating Salmonella Typhimurium's Response to a Changing Environment through Bacterial Enhancer-Binding Proteins and the RpoN Regulon

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Christine E.; Samuels, David J.; Karls, Anna C.

    2016-01-01

    Transcription sigma factors direct the selective binding of RNA polymerase holoenzyme (Eσ) to specific promoters. Two families of sigma factors determine promoter specificity, the σ70 (RpoD) family and the σ54 (RpoN) family. In transcription controlled by σ54, the Eσ54-promoter closed complex requires ATP hydrolysis by an associated bacterial enhancer-binding protein (bEBP) for the transition to open complex and transcription initiation. Given the wide host range of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, it is an excellent model system for investigating the roles of RpoN and its bEBPs in modulating the lifestyle of bacteria. The genome of S. Typhimurium encodes 13 known or predicted bEBPs, each responding to a unique intracellular or extracellular signal. While the regulons of most alternative sigma factors respond to a specific environmental or developmental signal, the RpoN regulon is very diverse, controlling genes for response to nitrogen limitation, nitric oxide stress, availability of alternative carbon sources, phage shock/envelope stress, toxic levels of zinc, nucleic acid damage, and other stressors. This review explores how bEBPs respond to environmental changes encountered by S. Typhimurium during transmission/infection and influence adaptation through control of transcription of different components of the S. Typhimurium RpoN regulon. PMID:27583250

  19. Modulating Salmonella Typhimurium's Response to a Changing Environment through Bacterial Enhancer-Binding Proteins and the RpoN Regulon.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Christine E; Samuels, David J; Karls, Anna C

    2016-01-01

    Transcription sigma factors direct the selective binding of RNA polymerase holoenzyme (Eσ) to specific promoters. Two families of sigma factors determine promoter specificity, the σ(70) (RpoD) family and the σ(54) (RpoN) family. In transcription controlled by σ(54), the Eσ(54)-promoter closed complex requires ATP hydrolysis by an associated bacterial enhancer-binding protein (bEBP) for the transition to open complex and transcription initiation. Given the wide host range of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, it is an excellent model system for investigating the roles of RpoN and its bEBPs in modulating the lifestyle of bacteria. The genome of S. Typhimurium encodes 13 known or predicted bEBPs, each responding to a unique intracellular or extracellular signal. While the regulons of most alternative sigma factors respond to a specific environmental or developmental signal, the RpoN regulon is very diverse, controlling genes for response to nitrogen limitation, nitric oxide stress, availability of alternative carbon sources, phage shock/envelope stress, toxic levels of zinc, nucleic acid damage, and other stressors. This review explores how bEBPs respond to environmental changes encountered by S. Typhimurium during transmission/infection and influence adaptation through control of transcription of different components of the S. Typhimurium RpoN regulon. PMID:27583250

  20. The sigma factors of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Haldenwang, W G

    1995-01-01

    The specificity of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase for target promotes is largely due to the replaceable sigma subunit that it carries. Multiple sigma proteins, each conferring a unique promoter preference on RNA polymerase, are likely to be present in all bacteria; however, their abundance and diversity have been best characterized in Bacillus subtilis, the bacterium in which multiple sigma factors were first discovered. The 10 sigma factors thus far identified in B. subtilis directly contribute to the bacterium's ability to control gene expression. These proteins are not merely necessary for the expression of those operons whose promoters they recognize; in many instances, their appearance within the cell is sufficient to activate these operons. This review describes the discovery of each of the known B. subtilis sigma factors, their characteristics, the regulons they direct, and the complex restrictions placed on their synthesis and activities. These controls include the anticipated transcriptional regulation that modulates the expression of the sigma factor structural genes but, in the case of several of the B. subtilis sigma factors, go beyond this, adding novel posttranslational restraints on sigma factor activity. Two of the sigma factors (sigma E and sigma K) are, for example, synthesized as inactive precursor proteins. Their activities are kept in check by "pro-protein" sequences which are cleaved from the precursor molecules in response to intercellular cues. Other sigma factors (sigma B, sigma F, and sigma G) are inhibited by "anti-sigma factor" proteins that sequester them into complexes which block their ability to form RNA polymerase holoenzymes. The anti-sigma factors are, in turn, opposed by additional proteins which participate in the sigma factors' release. The devices used to control sigma factor activity in B, subtilis may prove to be as widespread as multiple sigma factors themselves, providing ways of coupling sigma factor activation to

  1. Role of Burkholderia pseudomallei Sigma N2 in Amino Acids Utilization and in Regulation of Catalase E Expression at the Transcriptional Level

    PubMed Central

    Diep, Duong Thi Hong; Phuong, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Hlaing, Mya Myintzu; Srimanote, Potjanee; Tungpradabkul, Sumalee

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis. The complete genome sequences of this pathogen have been revealed, which explain some pathogenic mechanisms. In various hostile conditions, for example, during nitrogen and amino acid starvation, bacteria can utilize alternative sigma factors such as RpoS and RpoN to modulate genes expression for their adaptation and survival. In this study, we demonstrate that mutagenesis of rpoN2, which lies on chromosome 2 of B. pseudomallei and encodes a homologue of the sigma factor RpoN, did not alter nitrogen and amino acid utilization of the bacterium. However, introduction of B. pseudomallei rpoN2 into E. coli strain deficient for rpoN restored the ability to utilize amino acids. Moreover, comparative partial proteomic analysis of the B. pseudomallei wild type and its rpoN2 isogenic mutant was performed to elucidate its amino acids utilization property which was comparable to its function found in the complementation assay. By contrast, the rpoN2 mutant exhibited decreased katE expression at the transcriptional and translational levels. Our finding indicates that B. pseudomallei RpoN2 is involved in a specific function in the regulation of catalase E expression. PMID:26904748

  2. The fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora requires the rpoN gene for pathogenicity in apple.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Laura S; Lehman, Brian L; Sinn, Judith P; Pfeufer, Emily E; Halbrendt, Noemi O; McNellis, Timothy W

    2013-10-01

    RpoN is a σ(54) factor regulating essential virulence gene expression in several plant pathogenic bacteria, including Pseudomonas syringae and Pectobacterium carotovorum. In this study, we found that mutation of rpoN in the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora caused a nonpathogenic phenotype. The E. amylovora rpoN Tn5 transposon mutant rpoN1250::Tn5 did not cause fire blight disease symptoms on shoots of mature apple trees. In detached immature apple fruits, the rpoN1250::Tn5 mutant failed to cause fire blight disease symptoms and grew to population levels 12 orders of magnitude lower than the wild-type. In addition, the rpoN1250::Tn5 mutant failed to elicit a hypersensitive response when infiltrated into nonhost tobacco plant leaves, and rpoN1250::Tn5 cells failed to express HrpN protein when grown in hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity)-inducing liquid medium. A plasmid-borne copy of the wild-type rpoN gene complemented all the rpoN1250::Tn5 mutant phenotypes tested. The rpoN1250::Tn5 mutant was prototrophic on minimal solid and liquid media, indicating that the rpoN1250::Tn5 nonpathogenic phenotype was not caused by a defect in basic metabolism or growth. This study provides clear genetic evidence that rpoN is an essential virulence gene of E. amylovora, suggesting that rpoN has the same function in E. amylovora as in P. syringae and Pe. carotovorum. PMID:23721085

  3. Predicting strength and function for promoters of the Escherichia coli alternative sigma factor, sigmaE.

    PubMed

    Rhodius, Virgil A; Mutalik, Vivek K

    2010-02-16

    Sequenced bacterial genomes provide a wealth of information but little understanding of transcriptional regulatory circuits largely because accurate prediction of promoters is difficult. We examined two important issues for accurate promoter prediction: (1) the ability to predict promoter strength and (2) the sequence properties that distinguish between active and weak/inactive promoters. We addressed promoter prediction using natural core promoters recognized by the well-studied alternative sigma factor, Escherichia coli sigma(E), as a representative of group 4 sigmas, the largest sigma group. To evaluate the contribution of sequence to promoter strength and function, we used modular position weight matrix models comprised of each promoter motif and a penalty score for suboptimal motif location. We find that a combination of select modules is moderately predictive of promoter strength and that imposing minimal motif scores distinguished active from weak/inactive promoters. The combined -35/-10 score is the most important predictor of activity. Our models also identified key sequence features associated with active promoters. A conserved "AAC" motif in the -35 region is likely to be a general predictor of function for promoters recognized by group 4 sigmas. These results provide valuable insights into sequences that govern promoter strength, distinguish active and inactive promoters for the first time, and are applicable to both in vivo and in vitro measures of promoter strength. PMID:20133665

  4. Bacterial Sigma Factors and Anti-Sigma Factors: Structure, Function and Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Paget, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Sigma factors are multi-domain subunits of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) that play critical roles in transcription initiation, including the recognition and opening of promoters as well as the initial steps in RNA synthesis. This review focuses on the structure and function of the major sigma-70 class that includes the housekeeping sigma factor (Group 1) that directs the bulk of transcription during active growth, and structurally-related alternative sigma factors (Groups 2–4) that control a wide variety of adaptive responses such as morphological development and the management of stress. A recurring theme in sigma factor control is their sequestration by anti-sigma factors that occlude their RNAP-binding determinants. Sigma factors are then released through a wide variety of mechanisms, often involving branched signal transduction pathways that allow the integration of distinct signals. Three major strategies for sigma release are discussed: regulated proteolysis, partner-switching, and direct sensing by the anti-sigma factor. PMID:26131973

  5. Elucidation of Sigma Factor-Associated Networks in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Reveals a Modular Architecture with Limited and Function-Specific Crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Sebastian; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Bielecka, Agata; Nicolai, Tanja; Franke, Raimo; Dötsch, Andreas; Hornischer, Klaus; Bruchmann, Sebastian; Düvel, Juliane; Häussler, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Sigma factors are essential global regulators of transcription initiation in bacteria which confer promoter recognition specificity to the RNA polymerase core enzyme. They provide effective mechanisms for simultaneously regulating expression of large numbers of genes in response to challenging conditions, and their presence has been linked to bacterial virulence and pathogenicity. In this study, we constructed nine his-tagged sigma factor expressing and/or deletion mutant strains in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. To uncover the direct and indirect sigma factor regulons, we performed mRNA profiling, as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to high-throughput sequencing. We furthermore elucidated the de novo binding motif of each sigma factor, and validated the RNA- and ChIP-seq results by global motif searches in the proximity of transcriptional start sites (TSS). Our integrated approach revealed a highly modular network architecture which is composed of insulated functional sigma factor modules. Analysis of the interconnectivity of the various sigma factor networks uncovered a limited, but highly function-specific, crosstalk which orchestrates complex cellular processes. Our data indicate that the modular structure of sigma factor networks enables P. aeruginosa to function adequately in its environment and at the same time is exploited to build up higher-level functions by specific interconnections that are dominated by a participation of RpoN. PMID:25780925

  6. Elucidation of sigma factor-associated networks in Pseudomonas aeruginosa reveals a modular architecture with limited and function-specific crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Sebastian; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Bielecka, Agata; Nicolai, Tanja; Franke, Raimo; Dötsch, Andreas; Hornischer, Klaus; Bruchmann, Sebastian; Düvel, Juliane; Häussler, Susanne

    2015-03-01

    Sigma factors are essential global regulators of transcription initiation in bacteria which confer promoter recognition specificity to the RNA polymerase core enzyme. They provide effective mechanisms for simultaneously regulating expression of large numbers of genes in response to challenging conditions, and their presence has been linked to bacterial virulence and pathogenicity. In this study, we constructed nine his-tagged sigma factor expressing and/or deletion mutant strains in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. To uncover the direct and indirect sigma factor regulons, we performed mRNA profiling, as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to high-throughput sequencing. We furthermore elucidated the de novo binding motif of each sigma factor, and validated the RNA- and ChIP-seq results by global motif searches in the proximity of transcriptional start sites (TSS). Our integrated approach revealed a highly modular network architecture which is composed of insulated functional sigma factor modules. Analysis of the interconnectivity of the various sigma factor networks uncovered a limited, but highly function-specific, crosstalk which orchestrates complex cellular processes. Our data indicate that the modular structure of sigma factor networks enables P. aeruginosa to function adequately in its environment and at the same time is exploited to build up higher-level functions by specific interconnections that are dominated by a participation of RpoN. PMID:25780925

  7. Isolation and characterization of the Bacillus subtilis sigma 28 factor.

    PubMed Central

    Helmann, J D; Masiarz, F R; Chamberlin, M J

    1988-01-01

    RNA polymerase preparations isolated from vegetatively growing Bacillus subtilis cells contain the core subunits beta, beta', and alpha, together with multiple sigma factors and other core-associated polypeptides such as delta, omega 1, and omega 2. We have developed an improved, large-scale purification procedure that yields RNA polymerase fractions enriched in both the sigma 28 and delta proteins. These fractions have been used to isolate sigma 28 protein for biochemical characterization and for preparation of highly specific anti-sigma 28 antisera. The amino acid composition of purified sigma 28 protein and the amino acid sequences of tryptic peptide fragments have been determined. Anti-sigma 28 antisera specifically inhibit transcription by the purified sigma 28 -dependent RNA polymerase, yet do not affect transcription by sigma 43 -dependent RNA polymerase. Immunochemical analysis confirms that the sigma 28 protein copurifies with total RNA polymerase activity through the majority of the purification procedure and allows the steps when sigma 28 protein is lost to be identified and optimized. Immunochemical techniques have also been used to monitor the structure and abundance of the sigma 28 protein in vivo. A single form of antibody-reactive protein was detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-isoelectric focusing. Its abundance corresponds to a maximal content of 220 molecules of sigma 28 per B. subtilis cell during late-logarithmic-phase growth. Images PMID:3127378

  8. Interaction of sigma factor sigmaN with Escherichia coli RNA polymerase core enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, D J; Ferguson, A L; Gallegos, M T; Pitt, M; Buck, M; Hoggett, J G

    2000-01-01

    The equilibrium binding and kinetics of assembly of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) sigma(N)-holoenzyme has been investigated using biosynthetically labelled 7-azatryptophyl- (7AW)sigma(N). The spectroscopic properties of such 7AW proteins allows their absorbance and fluorescence to be monitored selectively, even in the presence of high concentrations of other tryptophan-containing proteins. The 7AWsigma(N) retained its biological activity in stimulating transcription from sigma(N)-specific promoters, and in in vitro gel electrophoresis assays of binding to core RNAP from Escherichia coli. Furthermore, five Trp-->Ala single mutants of sigma(N) were shown to support growth under conditions of nitrogen limitation, and showed comparable efficiency in activating the sigma(N)-dependent nifH promoter in vivo, indicating that none of the tryptophan residues were essential for activity. The equilibrium binding of 7AWsigma(N) to core RNAP was examined by analytical ultracentrifugation. In sedimentation equilibrium experiments, absorbance data at 315 nm (which reports selectively on the distribution of free and bound 7AWsigma(N)) established that a 1:1 complex was formed, with a dissociation constant lower than 2 microM. The kinetics of the interaction between 7AWsigma(N) and core RNAP was investigated using stopped-flow spectrofluorimetry. A biphasic decrease in fluorescence intensity was observed when samples were excited at 280 nm, whereas only the slower of the two phases was observed at 315 nm. The kinetic data were analysed in terms of a mechanism in which a fast bimolecular association of sigma(N) with core RNAP is followed by a relatively slow isomerization step. The consequences of these findings on the competition between sigma(N) and the major sigma factor, sigma(70), in Escherichia coli are discussed. PMID:11085949

  9. Interaction of sigma factor sigmaN with Escherichia coli RNA polymerase core enzyme.

    PubMed

    Scott, D J; Ferguson, A L; Gallegos, M T; Pitt, M; Buck, M; Hoggett, J G

    2000-12-01

    The equilibrium binding and kinetics of assembly of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) sigma(N)-holoenzyme has been investigated using biosynthetically labelled 7-azatryptophyl- (7AW)sigma(N). The spectroscopic properties of such 7AW proteins allows their absorbance and fluorescence to be monitored selectively, even in the presence of high concentrations of other tryptophan-containing proteins. The 7AWsigma(N) retained its biological activity in stimulating transcription from sigma(N)-specific promoters, and in in vitro gel electrophoresis assays of binding to core RNAP from Escherichia coli. Furthermore, five Trp-->Ala single mutants of sigma(N) were shown to support growth under conditions of nitrogen limitation, and showed comparable efficiency in activating the sigma(N)-dependent nifH promoter in vivo, indicating that none of the tryptophan residues were essential for activity. The equilibrium binding of 7AWsigma(N) to core RNAP was examined by analytical ultracentrifugation. In sedimentation equilibrium experiments, absorbance data at 315 nm (which reports selectively on the distribution of free and bound 7AWsigma(N)) established that a 1:1 complex was formed, with a dissociation constant lower than 2 microM. The kinetics of the interaction between 7AWsigma(N) and core RNAP was investigated using stopped-flow spectrofluorimetry. A biphasic decrease in fluorescence intensity was observed when samples were excited at 280 nm, whereas only the slower of the two phases was observed at 315 nm. The kinetic data were analysed in terms of a mechanism in which a fast bimolecular association of sigma(N) with core RNAP is followed by a relatively slow isomerization step. The consequences of these findings on the competition between sigma(N) and the major sigma factor, sigma(70), in Escherichia coli are discussed. PMID:11085949

  10. Functional modules of sigma factor regulons guarantee adaptability and evolvability.

    PubMed

    Binder, Sebastian C; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Schulz, Sebastian; Bielecka, Agata; Nicolai, Tanja; Franke, Raimo; Häussler, Susanne; Meyer-Hermann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The focus of modern molecular biology turns from assigning functions to individual genes towards understanding the expression and regulation of complex sets of molecules. Here, we provide evidence that alternative sigma factor regulons in the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa largely represent insulated functional modules which provide a critical level of biological organization involved in general adaptation and survival processes. Analysis of the operational state of the sigma factor network revealed that transcription factors functionally couple the sigma factor regulons and significantly modulate the transcription levels in the face of challenging environments. The threshold quality of newly evolved transcription factors was reached faster and more robustly in in silico testing when the structural organization of sigma factor networks was taken into account. These results indicate that the modular structures of alternative sigma factor regulons provide P. aeruginosa with a robust framework to function adequately in its environment and at the same time facilitate evolutionary change. Our data support the view that widespread modularity guarantees robustness of biological networks and is a key driver of evolvability. PMID:26915971

  11. Functional modules of sigma factor regulons guarantee adaptability and evolvability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, Sebastian C.; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Schulz, Sebastian; Bielecka, Agata; Nicolai, Tanja; Franke, Raimo; Häussler, Susanne; Meyer-Hermann, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The focus of modern molecular biology turns from assigning functions to individual genes towards understanding the expression and regulation of complex sets of molecules. Here, we provide evidence that alternative sigma factor regulons in the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa largely represent insulated functional modules which provide a critical level of biological organization involved in general adaptation and survival processes. Analysis of the operational state of the sigma factor network revealed that transcription factors functionally couple the sigma factor regulons and significantly modulate the transcription levels in the face of challenging environments. The threshold quality of newly evolved transcription factors was reached faster and more robustly in in silico testing when the structural organization of sigma factor networks was taken into account. These results indicate that the modular structures of alternative sigma factor regulons provide P. aeruginosa with a robust framework to function adequately in its environment and at the same time facilitate evolutionary change. Our data support the view that widespread modularity guarantees robustness of biological networks and is a key driver of evolvability.

  12. Functional modules of sigma factor regulons guarantee adaptability and evolvability

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Sebastian C.; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Schulz, Sebastian; Bielecka, Agata; Nicolai, Tanja; Franke, Raimo; Häussler, Susanne; Meyer-Hermann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The focus of modern molecular biology turns from assigning functions to individual genes towards understanding the expression and regulation of complex sets of molecules. Here, we provide evidence that alternative sigma factor regulons in the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa largely represent insulated functional modules which provide a critical level of biological organization involved in general adaptation and survival processes. Analysis of the operational state of the sigma factor network revealed that transcription factors functionally couple the sigma factor regulons and significantly modulate the transcription levels in the face of challenging environments. The threshold quality of newly evolved transcription factors was reached faster and more robustly in in silico testing when the structural organization of sigma factor networks was taken into account. These results indicate that the modular structures of alternative sigma factor regulons provide P. aeruginosa with a robust framework to function adequately in its environment and at the same time facilitate evolutionary change. Our data support the view that widespread modularity guarantees robustness of biological networks and is a key driver of evolvability. PMID:26915971

  13. An esterase gene from Lactobacillus casei cotranscribed with genes encoding a phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system and regulated by a LevR-like activator and sigma54 factor.

    PubMed

    Yebra, María J; Viana, Rosa; Monedero, Vicente; Deutscher, Josef; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

    2004-01-01

    A new esterase-encoding gene was found in the draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus casei BL23 (CECT5275). It is located in an operon together with genes encoding the EIIA, EIIB, EIIC, and EIID proteins of a mannose class phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system. After overproduction in Escherichia coli and purification, the esterase could hydrolyze acetyl sugars, hence the operon was named esu for esterase-sugar uptake genes. Upstream of the genes encoding the EII components (esuABCD) and the esterase (esuE), two genes transcribed in the opposite sense were found which encode a Bacillus subtilis LevR-like transcriptional activator (esuR) and a sigma54-like transcriptional factor (rpoN). As compared with the wild-type strain, elevated fructose phosphorylation was detected in L. casei mutants constitutively expressing the esu operon. However, none of the many sugars tested could induce the esu operon. The fact that EsuE exhibits esterase activity on acetyl sugars suggests that this operon could be involved in the uptake and metabolism of esterified sugars. Expression of the esu operon is similar to that of the B. subtilis lev operon: it contains a -12,-24 consensus promoter typical of sigma54-regulated genes, and EsuR and RpoN are essential for its transcription which is negatively regulated by EIIB(Esu). The esuABCDE transcription unit represents the first sigma54-regulated operon in lactobacilli. Furthermore, replacement of His852 in the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system regulation domain II of EsuR with Ala indicated that the transcription activator function of EsuR is inhibited by EIIB(Esu)-mediated phosphorylation at His852. PMID:15925903

  14. Structural Basis of DNA Recognition by the Alternative Sigma-Factor, σ54

    PubMed Central

    Doucleff, Michaeleen; Pelton, Jeffrey G.; Lee, Peter S.; Nixon, B. Tracy; Wemmer, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The σ subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) regulates gene expression by directing RNAP to specific promoters. Unlike σ70-type proteins, the alternative σ factor, σ54, requires interaction with an ATPase to open DNA. We present the solution structure of the C-terminal domain of σ54 bound to the –24 promoter element, in which the conserved RpoN box motif inserts into the major groove of the DNA. This structure elucidates the basis for sequence specific recognition of the –24 element, orients σ54 on the promoter, and suggests how the C-terminal domain of σ54 interacts with RNAP. PMID:17481658

  15. Virulence properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lacking the extreme-stress sigma factor AlgU (sigmaE).

    PubMed

    Yu, H; Boucher, J C; Hibler, N S; Deretic, V

    1996-07-01

    A discerning feature of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains causing chronic endobronchial infections in cystic fibrosis is their conversion into the mucoid, exopolysaccharide alginate-overproducing phenotype. This morphologically prominent change is caused by mutations which upregulate AlgU (sigma(E)), a novel extreme-stress sigma factor with functional equivalents in gram-negative organisms. In this work, we investigated the role of algU in P. aeruginosa sensitivity to reactive oxygen intermediates, killing by phagocytic cells, and systemic virulence of this bacterium. Inactivation of algU in P. aeruginosa PA01 increased its susceptibility to killing by chemically or enzymatically generated halogenated reactive oxygen intermediates and reduced its survival in bactericidal assays with J774 murine macrophages and human neutrophils. Surprisingly, inactivation of algU caused increased systemic virulence of P. aeruginosa in mouse models of acute infection. The increased lethality of the algU-deficient strain was also observed in the endotoxin-resistant C3H/HeJ mice. Only minor differences between algU+ and algU mutant cells in their sensitivity to human serum were observed, and no differences in their lipopolysaccharide profiles were detected. Intriguingly, while inactivation of algU downregulated five polypeptides it also upregulated the expression of seven polypeptides as determined by two-dimensional gel analyses, suggesting that algU plays both a positive and a negative role in gene expression in P. aeruginosa. While the observation that algU inactivation increases systemic virulence in P. aeruginosa requires further explanation, this phenomenon contrasts with the apparent selection for strains with upregulated AlgU during colonization of the cystic fibrosis lung and suggests opposing roles for this system in chronic and acute infections. PMID:8698507

  16. Reconstruction and topological characterization of the sigma factor regulatory network of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Rinki; Ravi, Janani; Datta, Pratik; Chen, Tianlong; Schnappinger, Dirk; Bassler, Kevin E; Balázsi, Gábor; Gennaro, Maria Laura

    2016-01-01

    Accessory sigma factors, which reprogram RNA polymerase to transcribe specific gene sets, activate bacterial adaptive responses to noxious environments. Here we reconstruct the complete sigma factor regulatory network of the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis by an integrated approach. The approach combines identification of direct regulatory interactions between M. tuberculosis sigma factors in an E. coli model system, validation of selected links in M. tuberculosis, and extensive literature review. The resulting network comprises 41 direct interactions among all 13 sigma factors. Analysis of network topology reveals (i) a three-tiered hierarchy initiating at master regulators, (ii) high connectivity and (iii) distinct communities containing multiple sigma factors. These topological features are likely associated with multi-layer signal processing and specialized stress responses involving multiple sigma factors. Moreover, the identification of overrepresented network motifs, such as autoregulation and coregulation of sigma and anti-sigma factor pairs, provides structural information that is relevant for studies of network dynamics. PMID:27029515

  17. Reconstruction and topological characterization of the sigma factor regulatory network of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Rinki; Ravi, Janani; Datta, Pratik; Chen, Tianlong; Schnappinger, Dirk; Bassler, Kevin E.; Balázsi, Gábor; Gennaro, Maria Laura

    2016-01-01

    Accessory sigma factors, which reprogram RNA polymerase to transcribe specific gene sets, activate bacterial adaptive responses to noxious environments. Here we reconstruct the complete sigma factor regulatory network of the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis by an integrated approach. The approach combines identification of direct regulatory interactions between M. tuberculosis sigma factors in an E. coli model system, validation of selected links in M. tuberculosis, and extensive literature review. The resulting network comprises 41 direct interactions among all 13 sigma factors. Analysis of network topology reveals (i) a three-tiered hierarchy initiating at master regulators, (ii) high connectivity and (iii) distinct communities containing multiple sigma factors. These topological features are likely associated with multi-layer signal processing and specialized stress responses involving multiple sigma factors. Moreover, the identification of overrepresented network motifs, such as autoregulation and coregulation of sigma and anti-sigma factor pairs, provides structural information that is relevant for studies of network dynamics. PMID:27029515

  18. Exploring the role of sigma factor gene expression on production by Corynebacterium glutamicum: sigma factor H and FMN as example

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Hironori; Wendisch, Volker F.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria are known to cope with environmental changes by using alternative sigma factors binding to RNA polymerase core enzyme. Sigma factor is one of the targets to modify transcription regulation in bacteria and to influence production capacities. In this study, the effect of overexpressing each annotated sigma factor gene in Corynebacterium glutamicum WT was assayed using an IPTG inducible plasmid system and different IPTG concentrations. It was revealed that growth was severely decreased when sigD or sigH were overexpressed with IPTG concentrations higher than 50 μM. Overexpression of sigH led to an obvious phenotypic change, a yellow-colored supernatant. High performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that riboflavin was excreted to the medium when sigH was overexpressed and DNA microarray analysis confirmed increased expression of riboflavin biosynthesis genes. In addition, genes for enzymes related to the pentose phosphate pathway and for enzymes dependent on flavin mononucleotide (FMN), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), or NADPH as cofactor were upregulated when sigH was overexpressed. To test if sigH overexpression can be exploited for production of riboflavin-derived FMN or FAD, the endogenous gene for bifunctional riboflavin kinase/FMN adenyltransferase was co-expressed with sigH from a plasmid. Balanced expression of sigH and ribF improved accumulation of riboflavin (19.8 ± 0.3 μM) and allowed for its conversion to FMN (33.1 ± 1.8 μM) in the supernatant. While a proof-of-concept was reached, conversion was not complete and titers were not high. This study revealed that inducible and gradable overexpression of sigma factor genes is an interesting approach to switch gene expression profiles and to discover untapped potential of bacteria for chemical production. PMID:26257719

  19. Evidence that sigma factors are components of chloroplast RNA polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Troxler, R F; Zhang, F; Hu, J; Bogorad, L

    1994-01-01

    Plastid genes are transcribed by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase(s), which have been incompletely characterized and have been examined in a limited number of species. Plastid genomes contain rpoA, rpoB, rpoC1, and rpoC2 coding for alpha, beta, beta', and beta" RNA polymerase subunits that are homologous to the alpha, beta, and beta' subunits that constitute the core moiety of RNA polymerase in bacteria. However, genes with homology to sigma subunits in bacteria have not been found in plastid genomes. An antibody directed against the principal sigma subunit of RNA polymerase from the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 was used to probe western blots of purified chloroplast RNA polymerase from maize, rice, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and Cyanidium caldarium. Chloroplast RNA polymerase from maize and rice contained an immunoreactive 64-kD protein. Chloroplast RNA polymerase from C. reinhardtii contained immunoreactive 100- and 82-kD proteins, and chloroplast RNA polymerase from C. caldarium contained an immunoreactive 32-kD protein. The elution profile of enzyme activity of both algal chloroplast RNA polymerases coeluted from DEAE with the respective immunoreactive proteins, indicating that they are components of the enzyme. These results provide immunological evidence for sigma-like factors in chloroplast RNA polymerase in higher plants and algae. PMID:8159791

  20. Characterizing the interplay betwen mulitple levels of organization within bacterial sigma factor regulatory networks

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Qiu; Nagarajan, Harish; Embree, Mallory; Shieu, Wendy; Abate, Elisa; Juarez, Katy; Cho, Byung-Kwan; Elkins, James G; Nevin, Kelly P.; Barrett, Christian; Lovley, Derek; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Zengler, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria contain multiple sigma factors, each targeting diverse, but often overlapping sets of promoters, thereby forming a complex network. The layout and deployment of such a sigma factor network directly impacts global transcriptional regulation and ultimately dictates the phenotype. Here we integrate multi-omic data sets to determine the topology, the operational, and functional states of the sigma factor network in Geobacter sulfurreducens, revealing a unique network topology of interacting sigma factors. Analysis of the operational state of the sigma factor network shows a highly modular structure with sN being the major regulator of energy metabolism. Surprisingly, the functional state of the network during the two most divergent growth conditions is nearly static, with sigma factor binding profiles almost invariant to environmental stimuli. This first comprehensive elucidation of the interplay between different levels of the sigma factor network organization is fundamental to characterize transcriptional regulatory mechanisms in bacteria.

  1. Identification of subunits of gonococcal RNA polymerase by immunoblot analysis: evidence for multiple sigma factors.

    PubMed Central

    Klimpel, K W; Lesley, S A; Clark, V L

    1989-01-01

    Heparin-agarose and single-stranded DNA-cellulose chromatography were used to purify RNA polymerase 25-fold from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and the activity of the polymerase was characterized in altered assay systems. The core subunits (beta, beta', and alpha) were tentatively identified as major proteins copurifying with polymerase activity. The identification of the core subunits was confirmed by Western (immunoblot) analysis with polyclonal antisera to Escherichia coli core RNA polymerase. Gonococcal sigma factor heterogeneity was examined by Western blot analysis with polyclonal antiserum to the major E. coli sigma factor, sigma 70, to the E. coli heat shock sigma factor, sigma 32, and with a monoclonal antiserum to Salmonella typhimurium NtrA (sigma 54). Purified RNA polymerase and whole-cell extracts from type 1, type 4, heat-shocked, and anaerobically grown gonococci were examined. Four putative gonococcal sigma factors were detected in purified RNA polymerase preparations and in whole-cell extracts from all cell types. Two of these bands appeared as a doublet, which had an estimated Mr of 80,000. A single lower-Mr band, estimated to be 40,000, was also present. All three of these bands reacted with antisera to E. coli sigma 70 and to E. coli sigma 32. A fourth gonococcal protein reacted solely with a highly specific monoclonal antibody to sigma 54 and had an Mr of 90,000. We conclude that N. gonorrhoeae may contain multiple sigma factors, which it may use to regulate gene expression. Images PMID:2472377

  2. Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli mutants that lack the heat shock sigma factor sigma 32.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Y N; Kusukawa, N; Erickson, J W; Gross, C A; Yura, T

    1988-01-01

    The product of the Escherichia coli rpoH (htpR) gene, sigma 32, is required for heat-inducible transcription of the heat shock genes. Previous studies on the role of sigma 32 in growth at low temperature and in gene expression involved the use of nonsense and missense rpoH mutations and have led to ambiguous or conflicting results. To clarify the role of sigma 32 in cell physiology, we have constructed loss-of-function insertion and deletion mutations in rpoH. Strains lacking sigma 32 are extremely temperature sensitive and grow only at temperatures less than or equal to 20 degrees C. There is no transcription from the heat shock promoters preceding the htpG gene or the groESL and dnaKJ operons; however, several heat shock proteins are produced in the mutants. GroEL protein is present in the rpoH null mutants, but its synthesis is not inducible by a shift to high temperature. The low-level synthesis of GroEL results from transcription initiation at a minor sigma 70-controlled promoter for the groE operon. DnaK protein synthesis cannot be detected at low temperature, but can be detected after a shift to 42 degrees C. The mechanism of this heat-inducible synthesis is not known. We conclude that sigma 32 is required for cell growth at temperatures above 20 degrees C and is required for transcription from the heat shock promoters. Several heat shock proteins are synthesized in the absence of sigma 32, indicating that there are additional mechanisms controlling the synthesis of some heat shock proteins. Images PMID:2900239

  3. Basal Body Structures Differentially Affect Transcription of RpoN- and FliA-Dependent Flagellar Genes in Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Flagellar biogenesis in Helicobacter pylori is regulated by a transcriptional hierarchy governed by three sigma factors, RpoD (σ80), RpoN (σ54), and FliA (σ28), that temporally coordinates gene expression with the assembly of the flagellum. Previous studies showed that loss of flagellar protein export apparatus components inhibits transcription of flagellar genes. The FlgS/FlgR two-component system activates transcription of RpoN-dependent genes though an unknown mechanism. To understand better the extent to which flagellar gene regulation is coupled to flagellar assembly, we disrupted flagellar biogenesis at various points and determined how these mutations affected transcription of RpoN-dependent (flaB and flgE) and FliA-dependent (flaA) genes. The MS ring (encoded by fliF) is one of the earliest flagellar structures assembled. Deletion of fliF resulted in the elimination of RpoN-dependent transcripts and an ∼4-fold decrease in flaA transcript levels. FliH is a cytoplasmic protein that functions with the C ring protein FliN to shuttle substrates to the export apparatus. Deletions of fliH and genes encoding C ring components (fliM and fliY) decreased transcript levels of flaB and flgE but had little or no effect on transcript levels of flaA. Transcript levels of flaB and flgE were elevated in mutants where genes encoding rod proteins (fliE and flgBC) were deleted, while transcript levels of flaA was reduced ∼2-fold in both mutants. We propose that FlgS responds to an assembly checkpoint associated with the export apparatus and that FliH and one or more C ring component assist FlgS in engaging this flagellar structure. IMPORTANCE The mechanisms used by bacteria to couple transcription of flagellar genes with assembly of the flagellum are poorly understood. The results from this study identified components of the H. pylori flagellar basal body that either positively or negatively affect expression of RpoN-dependent flagellar genes. Some of these

  4. Genome-wide analysis of the general stress response network in Escherichia coli: sigmaS-dependent genes, promoters, and sigma factor selectivity.

    PubMed

    Weber, Harald; Polen, Tino; Heuveling, Johanna; Wendisch, Volker F; Hengge, Regine

    2005-03-01

    The sigmaS (or RpoS) subunit of RNA polymerase is the master regulator of the general stress response in Escherichia coli. While nearly absent in rapidly growing cells, sigmaS is strongly induced during entry into stationary phase and/or many other stress conditions and is essential for the expression of multiple stress resistances. Genome-wide expression profiling data presented here indicate that up to 10% of the E. coli genes are under direct or indirect control of sigmaS and that sigmaS should be considered a second vegetative sigma factor with a major impact not only on stress tolerance but on the entire cell physiology under nonoptimal growth conditions. This large data set allowed us to unequivocally identify a sigmaS consensus promoter in silico. Moreover, our results suggest that sigmaS-dependent genes represent a regulatory network with complex internal control (as exemplified by the acid resistance genes). This network also exhibits extensive regulatory overlaps with other global regulons (e.g., the cyclic AMP receptor protein regulon). In addition, the global regulatory protein Lrp was found to affect sigmaS and/or sigma70 selectivity of many promoters. These observations indicate that certain modules of the sigmaS-dependent general stress response can be temporarily recruited by stress-specific regulons, which are controlled by other stress-responsive regulators that act together with sigma70 RNA polymerase. Thus, not only the expression of genes within a regulatory network but also the architecture of the network itself can be subject to regulation. PMID:15716429

  5. The sigma factor sigma s affects antibiotic production and biological control activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5.

    PubMed

    Sarniguet, A; Kraus, J; Henkels, M D; Muehlchen, A M; Loper, J E

    1995-12-19

    Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5, a rhizosphere-inhabiting bacterium that suppresses several soilborne pathogens of plants, produces the antibiotics pyrrolnitrin, pyoluteorin, and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol. A gene necessary for pyrrolnitrin production by Pf-5 was identified as rpoS, which encodes the stationary-phase sigma factor sigma s. Several pleiotropic effects of an rpoS mutation in Escherichia coli also were observed in an RpoS- mutant of Pf-5. These included sensitivities of stationary-phase cells to stresses imposed by hydrogen peroxide or high salt concentration. A plasmid containing the cloned wild-type rpoS gene restored pyrrolnitrin production and stress tolerance to the RpoS- mutant of Pf-5. The RpoS- mutant overproduced pyoluteorin and 2,4-diacetyl-phloroglucinol, two antibiotics that inhibit growth of the phytopathogenic fungus Pythium ultimum, and was superior to the wild type in suppression of seedling damping-off of cucumber caused by Pythium ultimum. When inoculated onto cucumber seed at high cell densities, the RpoS- mutant did not survive as well as the wild-type strain on surfaces of developing seedlings. Other stationary-phase-specific phenotypes of Pf-5, such as the production of cyanide and extracellular protease(s) were expressed by the RpoS- mutant, suggesting that sigma s is only one of the sigma factors required for the transcription of genes in stationary-phase cells of P. fluorescens. These results indicate that a sigma factor encoded by rpoS influences antibiotic production, biological control activity, and survival of P. fluorescens on plant surfaces. PMID:8618880

  6. rpoN, mmoR and mmoG, genes involved in regulating the expression of soluble methane monooxygenase in Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Graham P; Scanlan, Julie; McDonald, Ian R; Murrell, J Colin

    2003-07-01

    The methanotrophic bacterium Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b converts methane to methanol using two distinct forms of methane monooxygenase (MMO) enzyme: a cytoplasmic soluble form (sMMO) and a membrane-bound form (pMMO). The transcription of these two operons is known to proceed in a reciprocal fashion with sMMO expressed at low copper-to-biomass ratios and pMMO at high copper-to-biomass ratios. Transcription of the smmo operon is initiated from a sigma(N) promoter 5' of mmoX. In this study the genes encoding sigma(N) (rpoN) and a typical sigma(N)-dependent transcriptional activator (mmoR) were cloned and sequenced. mmoR, a regulatory gene, and mmoG, a gene encoding a GroEL homologue, lie 5' of the structural genes for the sMMO enzyme. Subsequent mutation of rpoN and mmoR by marker-exchange mutagenesis resulted in strains Gm1 and JS1, which were unable to express functional sMMO or initiate transcription of mmoX. An rpoN mutant was also unable to fix nitrogen or use nitrate as sole nitrogen source, indicating that sigma(N) plays a role in both nitrogen and carbon metabolism in Ms. trichosporium OB3b. The data also indicate that mmoG is transcribed in a sigma(N)- and MmoR-independent manner. Marker-exchange mutagenesis of mmoG revealed that MmoG is necessary for smmo gene transcription and activity and may be an MmoR-specific chaperone required for functional assembly of transcriptionally competent MmoR in vivo. The data presented allow the proposal of a more complete model for copper-mediated regulation of smmo gene expression. PMID:12855729

  7. Growth phase-regulated expression of bolA and morphology of stationary-phase Escherichia coli cells are controlled by the novel sigma factor sigma S.

    PubMed

    Lange, R; Hengge-Aronis, R

    1991-07-01

    The novel sigma factor (sigma S) encoded by rpoS (katF) is required for induction of many growth phase-regulated genes and expression of a variety of stationary-phase phenotypes in Escherichia coli. Here we demonstrate that wild-type cells exhibit spherical morphology in stationary phase, whereas rpoS mutant cells remain rod shaped and are generally larger. Size reduction of E. coli cells along the growth curve is a continuous and at least biphasic process, the second phase of which is absent in rpoS-deficient cells and correlates with induction of the morphogene bolA in wild-type cells. Stationary-phase induction of bolA is dependent on sigma S. The "gearbox" a characteristic sequence motif present in the sigma S-dependent growth phase- and growth rate-regulated bolAp1 promoter, is not recognized by sigma S, since stationary-phase induction of the mcbA promoter, which also contains a gearbox, does not require sigma S, and other sigma S-controlled promoters do not contain gearboxes. However, good homology to the potential -35 and -10 consensus sequences for sigma S regulation is found in the bolAp1 promoter. PMID:1648559

  8. Enhancement of the Synthesis of RpoN, Cra, and H-NS by Polyamines at the Level of Translation in Escherichia coli Cultured with Glucose and Glutamate▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Terui, Yusuke; Higashi, Kyohei; Taniguchi, Shiho; Shigemasa, Ai; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Ishihama, Akira; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2007-01-01

    Proteins whose synthesis is enhanced by polyamines at the level of translation were identified in a polyamine-requiring mutant cultured in the presence of 0.1% glucose and 0.02% glutamate instead of 0.4% glucose as an energy source. Under these conditions, enhancement of cell growth by polyamines was almost the same as that in the presence of 0.4% glucose. It was found that synthesis of RpoN, Cra, and H-NS was enhanced by polyamines at the level of translation at the early logarithmic phase of growth (A540 of 0.15). The effects of polyamines on synthesis of RpoN, H-NS, and Cra were due to the existence of unusual Shine-Dalgarno sequences (RpoN and H-NS) and an inefficient GUG initiation codon (Cra) in their mRNAs. Thus, rpoN, cra, and hns genes were identified as new members of the polyamine modulon. Because most of the polyamine modulon genes thus far identified encode transcription factors (RpoS [σ38], Cya, FecI [σ18], Fis, RpoN [σ54], Cra, and H-NS), DNA microarray analysis of mRNA expressed in cells was performed. At the early logarithmic phase of growth, a total of 97 species of mRNAs that were up-regulated by polyamines more than twofold were under the control of seven polyamine modulon genes mentioned above. PMID:17220219

  9. A novel sigma factor reveals a unique regulon controlling cell-specific recombination in Mycoplasma genitalium.

    PubMed

    Torres-Puig, Sergi; Broto, Alicia; Querol, Enrique; Piñol, Jaume; Pich, Oscar Q

    2015-05-26

    The Mycoplasma genitalium MG428 protein shows homology to members of the sigma-70 family of sigma factors. Herein, we found that MG428 activates transcription of recA, ruvA and ruvB as well as several genes with unknown function. Deletion of MG_428 or some of the up-regulated unknown genes led to severe recombination defects. Single cell analyses revealed that activation of the MG428-regulon is a rare event under laboratory growth conditions. A conserved sequence with sigma-70 promoter architecture (TTGTCA-N(18/19)-ATTWAT) was identified in the upstream region of all of the MG428-regulated genes or operons. Primer extension analyses demonstrated that transcription initiates immediately downstream of this sigma70-type promoter in a MG428-dependent manner. Furthermore, mutagenesis of the conserved -10 and -35 elements corroborated the requirement of these regions for promoter function. Therefore, a new mycoplasma promoter directs transcription of a unique recombination regulon. Additionally, MG428 was found to interact with the RNAP core enzyme, reinforcing the predicted role of this protein as an alternative sigma factor. Finally, our results indicate that MG428 contributes to the generation of genetic diversity in this model organism. Since recombination is an important mechanism to generate antigenic variation, MG428 emerges as a novel factor contributing to M. genitalium virulence. PMID:25925568

  10. A novel sigma factor reveals a unique regulon controlling cell-specific recombination in Mycoplasma genitalium

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Puig, Sergi; Broto, Alicia; Querol, Enrique; Piñol, Jaume; Pich, Oscar Q.

    2015-01-01

    The Mycoplasma genitalium MG428 protein shows homology to members of the sigma-70 family of sigma factors. Herein, we found that MG428 activates transcription of recA, ruvA and ruvB as well as several genes with unknown function. Deletion of MG_428 or some of the up-regulated unknown genes led to severe recombination defects. Single cell analyses revealed that activation of the MG428-regulon is a rare event under laboratory growth conditions. A conserved sequence with sigma-70 promoter architecture (TTGTCA-N18/19-ATTWAT) was identified in the upstream region of all of the MG428-regulated genes or operons. Primer extension analyses demonstrated that transcription initiates immediately downstream of this sigma70-type promoter in a MG428-dependent manner. Furthermore, mutagenesis of the conserved −10 and −35 elements corroborated the requirement of these regions for promoter function. Therefore, a new mycoplasma promoter directs transcription of a unique recombination regulon. Additionally, MG428 was found to interact with the RNAP core enzyme, reinforcing the predicted role of this protein as an alternative sigma factor. Finally, our results indicate that MG428 contributes to the generation of genetic diversity in this model organism. Since recombination is an important mechanism to generate antigenic variation, MG428 emerges as a novel factor contributing to M. genitalium virulence. PMID:25925568

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of two genes encoding sigma factors that direct transcription from a Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein gene promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, L F; Brown, K L; Whiteley, H R

    1991-01-01

    Two sigma factors, sigma 35 and sigma 28, direct transcription from the Bt I and Bt II promoters of the cryIA(a) gene of Bacillus thuringiensis; this gene encodes a lepidopteran-specific crystal protoxin. These sigma factors were biochemically characterized in previous work (K. L. Brown and H. R. Whiteley, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85:4166-4170, 1988; K. L. Brown and H. R. Whiteley, J. Bacteriol. 172:6682-6688, 1990). In this paper, we describe the cloning of the genes encoding these two sigma factors, as well as their nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences. The deduced amino acid sequences of the sigma 35 and sigma 28 genes show 88 and 85% identity, respectively, to the sporulation-specific sigma E and sigma K polypeptides of Bacillus subtilis. Transformation of the sigma 35 and sigma 28 genes into B. subtilis shows that the respective B. thuringiensis sigma factor genes can complement spoIIG55 (sigma E) and spoIIIC94 (sigma K) defects. Further, B. thuringiensis core polymerase reconstituted with either the sigma 35 or sigma 28 polypeptide directs transcription from B. subtilis promoters recognized by B. subtilis RNA polymerase containing sigma E and sigma K, respectively. Thus, sigma 35 and sigma 28 of B. thuringiensis appear to be functionally equivalent to sigma E and sigma K of B. subtilis. However, unlike the situation for sigma K in B. subtilis, the homologous sigma 28 gene in B. thuringiensis does not result from a late-sporulation-phase chromosomal rearrangement of two separate, partial genes. Images PMID:1904859

  12. Studies of the extracytoplasmic function sigma factor PG0162 in Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    Dou, Y; Aruni, W; Muthiah, A; Roy, F; Wang, C; Fletcher, H M

    2016-06-01

    PG0162, annotated as an extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor in Porphyromonas gingivalis, is composed of 193 amino acids. As previously reported, the PG0162-deficient mutant, P. gingivalis FLL350 showed significant reduction in gingipain activity compared with the parental strain. Because this ECF sigma factor could be involved in the virulence regulation in P. gingivalis, its genetic properties were further characterized. A 5'-RACE analysis showed that the start of transcription of the PG0162 gene occurred from a guanine (G) residue 69 nucleotides upstream of the ATG translation initiation codon. The function of PG0162 as a sigma factor was confirmed in a run-off in vitro transcription assay using the purified rPG0162 and RNAP core enzyme from Escherichia coli with the PG0162 promoter as template. As an appropriate PG0162 inducing environmental signal is unknown, a strain overexpressing the PG0162 gene designated P. gingivalis FLL391 was created. Compared with the wild-type strain, transcriptome analysis of P. gingivalis FLL391 showed that approximately 24% of the genome displayed altered gene expression (260 upregulated genes; 286 downregulated genes). Two other ECF sigma factors (PG0985 and PG1660) were upregulated more than two-fold. The autoregulation of PG0162 was confirmed with the binding of the rPG0162 protein to the PG0162 promoter in electrophoretic mobility shift assay. In addition, the rPG0162 protein also showed the ability to bind to the promoter region of two genes (PG0521 and PG1167) that were most upregulated in P. gingivalis FLL391. Taken together, our data suggest that PG0162 is a sigma factor that may play an important role in the virulence regulatory network in P. gingivalis. PMID:26216199

  13. RNA Polymerase Sigma Factor That Blocks Morphological Differentiation by Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Gehring, Amy M.; Yoo, Narie J.; Losick, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor undergoes a complicated process of morphological differentiation that begins with the formation of an aerial mycelium and culminates in sporulation. Genes required for the initiation of aerial mycelium formation have been termed bld (bald), describing the smooth, undifferentiated colonies of mutant strains. By using an insertional mutagenesis protocol that relies on in vitro transposition, we have isolated a bld mutant harboring an insertion in a previously uncharacterized gene, SCE59.12c, renamed here rsuA. The insertion mutant exhibited no measurable growth defect but failed to produce an aerial mycelium and showed a significant delay in the production of the polyketide antibiotic actinorhodin. The rsuA gene encodes an apparent anti-sigma factor and is located immediately downstream of SCE59.13c, renamed here sigU, whose product is inferred to be a member of the extracytoplasmic function subfamily of RNA polymerase sigma factors. The absence of rsuA in a strain that contained sigU caused a block in development, and the overexpression of sigU in an otherwise wild-type strain caused a delay in aerial mycelium formation. However, a strain in which both rsuA and sigU had been deleted was able to undergo morphological differentiation normally. We conclude that the rsuA-encoded anti-sigma factor is responsible for antagonizing the function of the sigma factor encoded by sigU. We also conclude that the sigU-encoded sigma factor is not normally required for development but that its uncontrolled activity obstructs morphological differentiation at an early stage. PMID:11566999

  14. M. tuberculosis intramembrane protease Rip1 controls transcription through three anti-sigma factor substrates.

    PubMed

    Sklar, Joseph G; Makinoshima, Hideki; Schneider, Jessica S; Glickman, Michael S

    2010-08-01

    Regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) is a mechanism of transmembrane signal transduction that functions through intramembrane proteolysis of substrates. We previously reported that the RIP metalloprotease Rv2869c (Rip1) is a determinant of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) cell envelope composition and virulence, but the substrates of Rip1 were undefined. Here we show that Rip1 cleaves three transmembrane anti-sigma factors: anti-SigK, anti-SigL and anti-SigM, negative regulators of Sigma K, L and M. We show that transcriptional activation of katG in response to phenanthroline requires activation of SigK and SigL by Rip1 cleavage of anti-SigK and anti-SigL. We also demonstrate a Rip1-dependent pathway that activates the genes for the mycolic acid biosynthetic enzyme KasA and the resuscitation promoting factor RpfC, but represses the bacterioferritin encoding gene bfrB. Regulation of these three genes by Rip1 is not reproduced by deletion of Sigma K, L or M, either indicating a requirement for multiple Rip1 substrates or additional arms of the Rip1 pathway. These results identify a branched proteolytic signal transduction system in which a single intramembrane protease cleaves three anti-sigma factor substrates to control multiple downstream pathways involved in lipid biosynthesis and defence against oxidative stress. PMID:20545848

  15. Characterization of Five ECF Sigma Factors in the Genome of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Poulami Basu; Vaughn-Diaz, Vanessa L.; Greenwald, Jessica W.; Gross, Dennis C.

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a, a bacterial pathogen of bean, utilizes large surface populations and extracellular signaling to initiate a fundamental change from an epiphytic to a pathogenic lifestyle. Extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma (σ) factors serve as important regulatory factors in responding to various environmental signals. Bioinformatic analysis of the B728a genome revealed 10 ECF sigma factors. This study analyzed deletion mutants of five previously uncharacterized ECF sigma factor genes in B728a, including three FecI-type ECF sigma factors (ECF5, ECF6, and ECF7) and two ECF sigma factors placed in groups ECF11 and ECF18. Transcriptional profiling by qRT-PCR analysis of ECF sigma factor mutants was used to measure expression of their associated anti-sigma and outer membrane receptor proteins, and expression of genes associated with production of extracellular polysaccharides, fimbriae, glycine betaine and syringomycin. Notably, the B728aΔecf7 mutant displayed reduced swarming and had decreased expression of CupC fimbrial genes. Growth and pathogenicity assays, using a susceptible bean host, revealed that none of the tested sigma factor genes are required for in planta growth and lesion formation. PMID:23516563

  16. Bacterial Sigma Factors as Targets for Engineered or Synthetic Transcriptional Control

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Lakshmi; Zhang, Yan; Lin, Zhanglin

    2014-01-01

    Sigma (σ) factors are the predominant constituents of transcription regulation in bacteria. σ Factors recruit the core RNA polymerase to recognize promoters with specific DNA sequences. Recently, engineering of transcriptional regulators has become a significant tool for strain engineering. The present review summarizes the recent advances in σ factor based engineering or synthetic design. The manipulation of σ factors presents insights into the bacterial stress tolerance and metabolite productivity. We envision more synthetic design based on σ factors that can be used to tune the regulatory network of bacteria. PMID:25232540

  17. Homologous pairs of regulatory proteins control activity of Bacillus subtilis transcription factor sigma(b) in response to environmental stress.

    PubMed Central

    Kang, C M; Brody, M S; Akbar, S; Yang, X; Price, C W

    1996-01-01

    In Bacillus subtilis, activity of the general stress transcription factor sigma B is controlled posttranslationally by a regulatory network that transmits signals of environmental and metabolic stress. These signals include heat, ethanol, or osmotic challenge, or a sharp decrease in cellular energy levels, and all ultimately control sigma B activity by influencing the binding decision of the RsbW anti-sigma factor. In the absence of stress, RsbW binds to sigma B and prevents its association with RNA polymerase core enzyme. However, following stress, RsbW binds instead to the RsbV anti-anti-sigma factor, thereby releasing sigma B to direct transcription of its target genes. These two principal regulators of sigmaB activity are encoded in the eight-gene sigB operon, which has the gene order rsbR-rsbS-rsbT-rsbU-rsbV-rsbW-sig B-rsbX (where rsb stands for regulator of sigma B). Notably, the predicted rsbS product has significant amino acid identity to the RsbV anti-anti-sigma factor and the predicted rsbT product resembles the RsbW anti-sigma factor. To determine the roles of rsbS and rsbT, null or missense mutations were constructed in the chromosomal copies or each and tested for their effects on expression of a sigma B-dependent reporter fusion. On the basis of this genetic analysis, our principal conclusions are that (i) the rsbS product is a negative regulator of or" activity, (ii) the rsbT product is a positive regulator, (iii) RsbS requires RsbT for function, and (iv) the RsbS-RsbT and RsbV-RsbW pairs act hierarchically by a common mechanism in which key protein-protein interactions are controlled by phosphorylation events. PMID:8682789

  18. Expression of heterologous sigma factors enables functional screening of metagenomic and heterologous genomic libraries

    PubMed Central

    Gaida, Stefan M.; Sandoval, Nicholas R.; Nicolaou, Sergios A.; Chen, Yili; Venkataramanan, Keerthi P.; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T.

    2015-01-01

    A key limitation in using heterologous genomic or metagenomic libraries in functional genomics and genome engineering is the low expression of heterologous genes in screening hosts, such as Escherichia coli. To overcome this limitation, here we generate E. coli strains capable of recognizing heterologous promoters by expressing heterologous sigma factors. Among seven sigma factors tested, RpoD from Lactobacillus plantarum (Lpl) appears to be able of initiating transcription from all sources of DNA. Using the promoter GFP-trap concept, we successfully screen several heterologous and metagenomic DNA libraries, thus enlarging the genomic space that can be functionally sampled in E. coli. For an application, we show that screening fosmid-based Lpl genomic libraries in an E. coli strain with a chromosomally integrated Lpl rpoD enables the identification of Lpl genetic determinants imparting strong ethanol tolerance in E. coli. Transcriptome analysis confirms increased expression of heterologous genes in the engineered strain. PMID:25944046

  19. Use of In Vitro Transcription System for Analysis of Corynebacterium glutamicum Promoters Recognized by Two Sigma Factors.

    PubMed

    Šilar, Radoslav; Holátko, Jiří; Rucká, Lenka; Rapoport, Andrey; Dostálová, Hana; Kadeřábková, Pavla; Nešvera, Jan; Pátek, Miroslav

    2016-09-01

    Promoter activities in Corynebacterium glutamicum strains with deletions of genes encoding sigma factors of RNA polymerase suggested that transcription from some promoters is controlled by two sigma factors. To prove that different sigma factors are involved in the recognition of selected Corynebacterium glutamicum promoters, in vitro transcription system was applied. It was found that a typical housekeeping promoter Pper interacts with the alternative sigma factor σ(B) in addition to the primary sigma factor σ(A). On the other way round, the σ(B)-dependent promoter of the pqo gene that is expressed mainly in the stationary growth phase was active also with σ(A). Some promoters of genes involved in stress responses (P1clgR, P2dnaK, and P2dnaJ2) were found to be recognized by two stress-responding sigma factors, σ(H) and σ(E). In vitro transcription system thus proved to be a useful direct technique for demonstrating the overlap of different sigma factors in recognition of individual promoters in C. glutamicum. PMID:27270733

  20. Roles of SigB and SigF in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis sigma factor network.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Hee; Karakousis, Petros C; Bishai, William R

    2008-01-01

    To characterize the roles of SigB and SigF in sigma factor regulation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we used chemically inducible recombinant strains to conditionally overexpress sigB and sigF. Using whole genomic microarray analysis and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, we investigated the resulting global transcriptional changes after sigB induction, and we specifically tested the relative expression of other sigma factor genes after knock-in expression of sigB and sigF. Overexpression of sigB resulted in significant upregulation of genes encoding several early culture filtrate antigens (ESAT-6-like proteins), ribosomal proteins, PE-PGRS proteins, the keto-acyl synthase, KasA, and the regulatory proteins WhiB2 and IdeR. Of note, the induction of sigB did not alter the expression of other sigma factor genes, indicating that SigB is likely to serve as an end regulator for at least one branch of the M. tuberculosis sigma factor regulatory cascade. Analysis of the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of SigB-dependent transcripts revealed a putative consensus sequence of NGTGG-N(14-18)-NNGNNG. This sequence appeared upstream of both sigB (Rv2710) and the gene following it, ideR (Rv2711), and in vitro transcription analysis with recombinant SigB-reconstituted RNA polymerase confirmed SigB-dependent transcription from each of these promoters. Knock-in expression of sigF revealed that only the sigC gene was significantly upregulated 6 and 12 h after sigF induction. The previously identified SigF promoter consensus sequence AGTTTG-N(15)-GGGTTT was identified in the 5' UTR of the sigC gene, and SigF-dependent in vitro transcription of the promoter upstream of sigC was confirmed by using recombinant SigF-reconstituted RNA polymerase. These two knock-in recombinant strains were tested in a macrophage model of infection which showed that overexpression of sigB and sigF resulted in reduced rates of M. tuberculosis intracellular growth. These results define the SigB promoter

  1. Inference of sigma factor controlled networks by using numerical modeling applied to microarray time series data of the germinating prokaryote

    PubMed Central

    Strakova, Eva; Zikova, Alice; Vohradsky, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    A computational model of gene expression was applied to a novel test set of microarray time series measurements to reveal regulatory interactions between transcriptional regulators represented by 45 sigma factors and the genes expressed during germination of a prokaryote Streptomyces coelicolor. Using microarrays, the first 5.5 h of the process was recorded in 13 time points, which provided a database of gene expression time series on genome-wide scale. The computational modeling of the kinetic relations between the sigma factors, individual genes and genes clustered according to the similarity of their expression kinetics identified kinetically plausible sigma factor-controlled networks. Using genome sequence annotations, functional groups of genes that were predominantly controlled by specific sigma factors were identified. Using external binding data complementing the modeling approach, specific genes involved in the control of the studied process were identified and their function suggested. PMID:24157841

  2. Regulation of Motility Behavior in Myxococcus xanthus May Require an Extracytoplasmic-Function Sigma Factor

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Mandy J.; Lew, Helen; Treuner-Lange, Anke; Zusman, David R.

    1998-01-01

    Using interaction trap technology, we identified a putative extracytoplasmic-function (ECF) sigma factor (RpoE1) in Myxococcus xanthus, a bacterium which has a complex life cycle that includes fruiting body formation. The first domain of the response regulator protein FrzZ, a component of the Frz signal transduction system, was used as bait. Although the RpoE1 protein displayed no interactions with control proteins presented as bait, a weak interaction with a second M. xanthus response regulator (AsgA) was observed. While the specificity of the FrzZ-RpoE1 interaction therefore remains speculative, cloning and sequencing of the region surrounding rpoE1 localized it to a position downstream of the frzZ gene. A potential promoter site for binding of an ECF sigma factor was identified upstream of rpoE1, suggesting the gene may be autoregulated. However, primer extension studies suggested that transcription of rpoE1 occurs under both vegetative and developmental conditions from a ς70-like promoter. Dot blot analysis of RNA preparations confirmed the low-level, constitutive expression of rpoE1 during both stages of the life cycle. Analysis of an insertion mutant also indicated a role for RpoE1 under both vegetative and developmental conditions, since swarming was reduced on nutrient-rich agar and developmental aggregation was effected under starvation conditions, especially at high cell densities. An insertion mutation introduced into the gene directly downstream of rpoE1 (orf5) did not result in either swarming or developmental aggregation defects, even though the gene is transcribed as part of the same operon. Therefore, we propose that this new ECF sigma factor could play a role in the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in motility behavior during both stages of the complex M. xanthus life cycle. PMID:9791117

  3. Identification of inhibitors of a bacterial sigma factor using a new high-throughput screening assay.

    PubMed

    El-Mowafi, S A; Sineva, E; Alumasa, J N; Nicoloff, H; Tomsho, J W; Ades, S E; Keiler, K C

    2015-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria are formidable pathogens because their cell envelope presents an adaptable barrier to environmental and host-mediated challenges. The stress response pathway controlled by the alternative sigma factor σ(E) is critical for maintenance of the cell envelope. Because σ(E) is required for the virulence or viability of several Gram-negative pathogens, it might be a useful target for antibiotic development. To determine if small molecules can inhibit the σ(E) pathway, and to permit high-throughput screening for antibiotic lead compounds, a σ(E) activity assay that is compatible with high-throughput screening was developed and validated. The screen employs a biological assay with positive readout. An Escherichia coli strain was engineered to express yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) under negative regulation by the σ(E) pathway, such that inhibitors of the pathway increase the production of YFP. To validate the screen, the reporter strain was used to identify σ(E) pathway inhibitors from a library of cyclic peptides. Biochemical characterization of one of the inhibitory cyclic peptides showed that it binds σ(E), inhibits RNA polymerase holoenzyme formation, and inhibits σ(E)-dependent transcription in vitro. These results demonstrate that alternative sigma factors can be inhibited by small molecules and enable high-throughput screening for inhibitors of the σ(E) pathway. PMID:25331704

  4. Global gene expression and the role of sigma factors in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in interactions with epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Ying; Lenz, Jonathan; Arvidson, Cindy Grove

    2005-08-01

    Like many bacterial pathogens, Neisseria gonorrhoeae must adapt to environmental changes in order to successfully colonize and proliferate in a new host. Modulation of gene expression in response to environmental signals is an efficient mechanism used by bacteria to achieve this goal. Using DNA microarrays and a tissue culture model for gonococcal infection, we examined global changes in gene expression in N. gonorrhoeae in response to adherence to host cells. Among those genes induced upon adherence to human epithelial cells in culture was rpoH, which encodes a homolog of the heat shock sigma factor, sigma(32) (RpoH), as well as genes of the RpoH regulon, groEL and groES. Attempts to construct an rpoH null mutant in N. gonorrhoeae were unsuccessful, suggesting that RpoH is essential for viability of N. gonorrhoeae. The extracytoplasmic sigma factor, RpoE (sigma(E)), while known to regulate rpoH in other bacteria, was found not to be necessary for the up-regulation of rpoH in gonococci upon adherence to host cells. To examine the role of RpoH in host cell interactions, an N. gonorrhoeae strain conditionally expressing rpoH was constructed. The results of our experiments showed that while induction of rpoH expression is not necessary for adherence of gonococci to epithelial cells, it is important for the subsequent invasion step, as gonococci depleted for rpoH invade cells two- to threefold less efficiently than a wild-type strain. Taken together, these results indicate that sigma(32), but not sigma(E), is important for the response of gonococci in the initial steps of an infection. PMID:16040997

  5. Inhibition of transcription in Staphylococcus aureus by a primary sigma factor-binding polypeptide from phage G1.

    PubMed

    Dehbi, Mohammed; Moeck, Gregory; Arhin, Francis F; Bauda, Pascale; Bergeron, Dominique; Kwan, Tony; Liu, Jing; McCarty, John; Dubow, Michael; Pelletier, Jerry

    2009-06-01

    The primary sigma factor of Staphylococcus aureus, sigma(SA), regulates the transcription of many genes, including several essential genes, in this bacterium via specific recognition of exponential growth phase promoters. In this study, we report the existence of a novel staphylococcal phage G1-derived growth inhibitory polypeptide, referred to as G1ORF67, that interacts with sigma(SA) both in vivo and in vitro and regulates its activity. Delineation of the minimal domain of sigma(SA) that is required for its interaction with G1ORF67 as amino acids 294 to 360 near the carboxy terminus suggests that the G1 phage-encoded anti-sigma factor may occlude the -35 element recognition domain of sigma(SA). As would be predicted by this hypothesis, the G1ORF67 polypeptide abolished both RNA polymerase core-dependent binding of sigma(SA) to DNA and sigma(SA)-dependent transcription in vitro. While G1ORF67 profoundly inhibits transcription when expressed in S. aureus cells in mode of action studies, our finding that G1ORF67 was unable to inhibit transcription when expressed in Escherichia coli concurs with its inability to inhibit transcription by the E. coli holoenzyme in vitro. These features demonstrate the selectivity of G1ORF67 for S. aureus RNA polymerase. We predict that G1ORF67 is one of the central polypeptides in the phage G1 strategy to appropriate host RNA polymerase and redirect it to phage reproduction. PMID:19376864

  6. Identifying a Core RNA Polymerase Surface Critical for Interactions with a Sigma-Like Specificity Factor

    PubMed Central

    Cliften, Paul F.; Jang, Sei-Heon; Jaehning, Judith A.

    2000-01-01

    Cyclic interactions occurring between a core RNA polymerase (RNAP) and its initiation factors are critical for transcription initiation, but little is known about subunit interaction. In this work we have identified regions of the single-subunit yeast mitochondrial RNAP (Rpo41p) important for interaction with its sigma-like specificity factor (Mtf1p). Previously we found that the whole folded structure of both polypeptides as well as specific amino acids in at least three regions of Mtf1p are required for interaction. In this work we started with an interaction-defective point mutant in Mtf1p (V135A) and used a two-hybrid selection to isolate suppressing mutations in the core polymerase. We identified suppressors in three separate regions of the RNAP which, when modeled on the structure of the closely related phage T7 RNAP, appear to lie on one surface of the protein. Additional point mutations and biochemical assays were used to confirm the importance of each region for Rpo41p-Mtf1p interactions. Remarkably, two of the three suppressors are found in regions required by T7 RNAP for DNA sequence recognition and promoter melting. Although these essential regions of the phage RNAP are poorly conserved with the mitochondrial RNAPs, they are conserved among the mitochondrial enzymes. The organellar RNAPs appear to use this surface in an alternative way for interactions with their separate sigma-like specificity factor, which, like its bacterial counterpart, provides promoter recognition and DNA melting functions to the holoenzyme. PMID:10958696

  7. Arabidopsis Sigma Factor Binding Proteins Are Activators of the WRKY33 Transcription Factor in Plant Defense[W

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Zhibing; Li, Ying; Wang, Fei; Cheng, Yuan; Fan, Baofang; Yu, Jing-Quan; Chen, Zhixiang

    2011-01-01

    Necrotrophic pathogens are important plant pathogens that cause many devastating plant diseases. Despite their impact, our understanding of the plant defense response to necrotrophic pathogens is limited. The WRKY33 transcription factor is important for plant resistance to necrotrophic pathogens; therefore, elucidation of its functions will enhance our understanding of plant immunity to necrotrophic pathogens. Here, we report the identification of two WRKY33-interacting proteins, nuclear-encoded SIGMA FACTOR BINDING PROTEIN1 (SIB1) and SIB2, which also interact with plastid-encoded plastid RNA polymerase SIGMA FACTOR1. Both SIB1 and SIB2 contain an N-terminal chloroplast targeting signal and a putative nuclear localization signal, suggesting that they are dual targeted. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation indicates that WRKY33 interacts with SIBs in the nucleus of plant cells. Both SIB1 and SIB2 contain a short VQ motif that is important for interaction with WRKY33. The two VQ motif–containing proteins recognize the C-terminal WRKY domain and stimulate the DNA binding activity of WRKY33. Like WRKY33, both SIB1 and SIB2 are rapidly and strongly induced by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Resistance to B. cinerea is compromised in the sib1 and sib2 mutants but enhanced in SIB1-overexpressing transgenic plants. These results suggest that dual-targeted SIB1 and SIB2 function as activators of WRKY33 in plant defense against necrotrophic pathogens. PMID:21990940

  8. AtSIG6, a plastid sigma factor from Arabidopsis, reveals functional impact of cpCK2 phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Schweer, Jennifer; Türkeri, Hacer; Link, Brigitte; Link, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Plastids contain sigma factors, i.e. gene-regulatory proteins for promoter binding and transcription initiation. Despite the physical and functional similarity shared with their prokaryotic counterparts, the plant sigma factors have distinguishing features: most notably the existence of a variable extra sequence comprising their N-terminal portions. This distinct architecture is reflected by functional differences, including phosphorylation control by organellar protein kinase(s) closely related to nucleocytosolic, rather than bacterial-type, enzymes. In particular, cpCK2, a nuclear-coded plastid-targeted casein kinase 2, has been implicated as a key component in plant sigma factor phosphorylation and transcriptional regulation (Eur. J. Biochem. 269, 2002, 3329; Planta, 219, 2004, 298). Although this notion is based mainly on biochemical evidence and in vitro systems, the recent availability of Arabidopsis sigma knock-out lines for complementation by intact and mutant sigma cDNAs has opened up new strategies for the study of transcription regulatory mechanisms in vivo. Using Arabidopsis sigma factor 6 (AtSIG6) as a paradigm, we present data suggesting that: (i) this factor is a substrate for regulatory phosphorylation by cpCK2 both in vitro and in vivo; (ii) cpCK2 phosphorylation of SIG6 occurs at multiple sites, which can widely differ in their effect on the visual and/or molecular phenotype; (iii) in vivo usage of the perhaps most critical cpCK2 site defined by Ser174 requires (pre-)phosphorylation at the n + 3 serine residue Ser177, pointing to ‘pathfinder’ kinase activity capable of generating a functional cpCK2 substrate site. PMID:20088902

  9. Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA010 Proteome Implicates Extracytoplasmic Function Sigma Factor in Stress Response

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Michael S.; Hurst, Gregory B.; Lu, Tse-Yuan S.; Perry, Leslie M.; Pan, Chongle; Lankford, Patricia K.; Pelletier, Dale A.

    2015-04-08

    Rhodopseudomonas palustris encodes 16 extracytoplasmic function (ECF) σ factors. In this paper, to begin to investigate the regulatory network of one of these ECF σ factors, the whole proteome of R. palustris CGA010 was quantitatively analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry from cultures episomally expressing the ECF σRPA4225 (ecfT) versus a WT control. Among the proteins with the greatest increase in abundance were catalase KatE, trehalose synthase, a DPS-like protein, and several regulatory proteins. Alignment of the cognate promoter regions driving expression of several upregulated proteins suggested a conserved binding motif in the -35 and -10 regions with the consensus sequence GGAAC-18N-TT. Additionally, the putative anti-σ factor RPA4224, whose gene is contained in the same predicted operon as RPA4225, was identified as interacting directly with the predicted response regulator RPA4223 by mass spectrometry of affinity-isolated protein complexes. Furthermore, another gene (RPA4226) coding for a protein that contains a cytoplasmic histidine kinase domain is located immediately upstream of RPA4225. The genomic organization of orthologs for these four genes is conserved in several other strains of R. palustris as well as in closely related α-Proteobacteria. Finally, taken together, these data suggest that ECF σRPA4225 and the three additional genes make up a sigma factor mimicry system in R. palustris.

  10. Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA010 Proteome Implicates Extracytoplasmic Function Sigma Factor in Stress Response

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Allen, Michael S.; Hurst, Gregory B.; Lu, Tse-Yuan S.; Perry, Leslie M.; Pan, Chongle; Lankford, Patricia K.; Pelletier, Dale A.

    2015-04-08

    Rhodopseudomonas palustris encodes 16 extracytoplasmic function (ECF) σ factors. In this paper, to begin to investigate the regulatory network of one of these ECF σ factors, the whole proteome of R. palustris CGA010 was quantitatively analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry from cultures episomally expressing the ECF σRPA4225 (ecfT) versus a WT control. Among the proteins with the greatest increase in abundance were catalase KatE, trehalose synthase, a DPS-like protein, and several regulatory proteins. Alignment of the cognate promoter regions driving expression of several upregulated proteins suggested a conserved binding motif in the -35 and -10 regions with the consensus sequencemore » GGAAC-18N-TT. Additionally, the putative anti-σ factor RPA4224, whose gene is contained in the same predicted operon as RPA4225, was identified as interacting directly with the predicted response regulator RPA4223 by mass spectrometry of affinity-isolated protein complexes. Furthermore, another gene (RPA4226) coding for a protein that contains a cytoplasmic histidine kinase domain is located immediately upstream of RPA4225. The genomic organization of orthologs for these four genes is conserved in several other strains of R. palustris as well as in closely related α-Proteobacteria. Finally, taken together, these data suggest that ECF σRPA4225 and the three additional genes make up a sigma factor mimicry system in R. palustris.« less

  11. Bacillus subtilis 168 gene lytF encodes a gamma-D-glutamate-meso-diaminopimelate muropeptidase expressed by the alternative vegetative sigma factor, sigmaD.

    PubMed

    Margot, P; Pagni, M; Karamata, D

    1999-01-01

    A gamma-D-glutamate-meso-diaminopimelate muropeptidase was detected in the vegetative growth phase of Bacillus subtilis 168. It is encoded by the monocistronic lytF operon expressed by the alternative vegetative sigma factor, sigmaD. Sequence analysis of LytF revealed two domains, an organization common to exoproteins of B. subtilis as well as to those from other organisms. The N-terminal domain contains a fivefold-repeated motif attributed to cell wall binding, whilst the C-terminal domain is probably endowed with the catalytic activity. Overexpression of LytF allowed its purification and biochemical characterization. Inactivation of lytF led to the loss of the cell-wall-bound protein 49' (CWBP49') and of the corresponding lytic activity as revealed by renaturation gel assay. Native cell walls prepared from the multiple lytC lytD lytE lytF-deficient mutant did not exhibit any autolysis, whereas walls prepared from a strain endowed with LytF but not with the other three enzymes underwent a slight lysis. Analysis of degradation products of cell wall devoid of teichoic-acid-bound O-esterified D-alanine unambiguously confirmed that LytF cuts the gamma-D-glutamate-mesodiaminopimelate bond. PMID:10206711

  12. Identification of the HrpS binding site in the hrpL promoter and effect of the RpoN binding site of HrpS on the regulation of the type III secretion system in Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Sundin, George W; Zhao, Youfu

    2016-06-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a key pathogenicity factor in Erwinia amylovora. Previous studies have demonstrated that the T3SS in E. amylovora is transcriptionally regulated by an RpoN-HrpL sigma factor cascade, which is activated by the bacterial alarmone (p)ppGpp. In this study, the binding site of HrpS, an enhancer binding protein, was identified for the first time in plant-pathogenic bacteria. Complementation of the hrpL mutant with promoter deletion constructs of the hrpL gene and promoter activity analyses using various lengths of the hrpL promoter fused to a promoter-less green fluorescent protein (gfp) reporter gene delineated the upstream region for HrpS binding. Sequence analysis revealed a dyad symmetry sequence between -138 and -125 nucleotides (TGCAA-N4-TTGCA) as the potential HrpS binding site, which is conserved in the promoter of the hrpL gene among plant enterobacterial pathogens. Results of quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and electrophoresis mobility shift assay coupled with site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) analysis showed that the intact dyad symmetry sequence was essential for HrpS binding, full activation of T3SS gene expression and virulence. In addition, the role of the GAYTGA motif (RpoN binding site) of HrpS in the regulation of T3SS gene expression in E. amylovora was characterized by complementation of the hrpS mutant using mutant variants generated by SDM. Results showed that a Y100F substitution of HrpS complemented the hrpS mutant, whereas Y100A and Y101A substitutions did not. These results suggest that tyrosine (Y) and phenylalanine (F) function interchangeably in the conserved GAYTGA motif of HrpS in E. amylovora. PMID:26440313

  13. The alternate sigma factor RpoS protects against silver ion toxicity in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alternative sigma factor, RpoS controls the expression of many stress response genes, including genes involved in acid and oxidative stresses. In this study, we demonstrated metal tolerance in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, and silver ion showed the highest toxicity among the tested metal ions...

  14. Functional analysis of PSPTO_1203 a FecI-like ECF Sigma Factor of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have been investigating how P. syringae responds to limited iron availability, a common stress in aerobic environments. We are mainly focused on the role of the extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors, which are one of the mechanisms used by bacteria to adjust gene regulation in response to...

  15. Expression of the Arabidopsis Sigma Factor SIG5 Is Photoreceptor and Photosynthesis Controlled

    PubMed Central

    Mellenthin, Marina; Ellersiek, Ulrike; Börger, Anna; Baier, Margarete

    2014-01-01

    Two collections of Arabidopsis GAL4 enhancer trap lines were screened for light-intensity dependent reporter gene activation. Line N9313 was isolated for its strong light-intensity regulation. The T-DNA element trapped distant enhancers of the SIG5 promoter, which drives expression of a sigma factor involved in regulation of chloroplast genes for photosystem II core proteins. The T-DNA insertion 715 bp upstream of the transcription initiation site splits the promoter in a distal and proximal part. Both parts are sensitive to blue and red light and depend on photosynthetic electron transport activity between photosystem II and the plastoquinone pool. The mainblue-light sensitivity is localized within a 196-bp sequence (–887 to –691 bp) in the proximal promoter region It is preferentially CRY1 and PHYB controlled. Type-I and type-II phytochromes mediate red-light sensitivity via various promoter elements spread over the proximal and distal upstream region. This work characterizes SIG5 as an anterograde control factor of chloroplast gene expression, which is controlled by chloroplast signals in a retrograde manner. PMID:27135509

  16. Stress Response in Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA010 is Mediated by an Extracytoplasmic Function Sigma Factor

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Allen, Michael S; Hurst, Gregory; Lu, Tse-Yuan S; Leslie, Perry M; Pan, Chongle; Lankford, Patricia K; Pelletier, Dale A

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the roles of the 16 extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors in Rhodopseudomonas palustris gene regulation. To begin to address this deficiency, the whole proteome of R. palustris CGA010 was analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry from cultures episomally expressing the ECF RPA4225. Among the proteins with the greatest increase in abundance were the catalase KatE, trehalose synthase, a DPS-like protein, and several regulatory proteins. Alignment of the cognate promoter regions driving expression of several up-regulated proteins revealed a conserved binding motif in the -35 and -10 regions with the consensus sequence GGAAC-18N-TT. Analysis of the genomemore » revealed the occurrence of this motif in the promoters of over 150 genes, including general stress proteins, ATP-dependent DNA ligase, two Ku-domain-containing proteins, and the heat-shock m factor rpoH. Additionally, the putative anti- m factor RPA4224, whose gene is contained in the same predicted operon as RPA4225, was identified as interacting directly with the predicted response regulator RPA4223 by mass spectrometry of affinity isolated protein complexes. Furthermore, another protein containing a cytoplasmic histidine kinase domain is located immediately upstream of RPA4225. The genomic organization of homologues for these four genes is conserved in several other strains of R. palustris as well as in closely related \\-proteobacteria. Taken together, these data suggest that ECF RPA4225 controls a global stress regulon that is in turn controlled via a phosphorelay mechanism involving a histidine kinase sensor, a response regulator, and an anti m factor that are conserved among several members of \\-proteobacteria.« less

  17. The key sigma factor of transition phase, SigH, controls sporulation, metabolism, and virulence factor expression in Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Saujet, Laure; Monot, Marc; Dupuy, Bruno; Soutourina, Olga; Martin-Verstraete, Isabelle

    2011-07-01

    Toxin synthesis in Clostridium difficile increases as cells enter into stationary phase. We first compared the expression profiles of strain 630E during exponential growth and at the onset of stationary phase and showed that genes involved in sporulation, cellular division, and motility, as well as carbon and amino acid metabolism, were differentially expressed under these conditions. We inactivated the sigH gene, which encodes an alternative sigma factor involved in the transition to post-exponential phase in Bacillus subtilis. Then, we compared the expression profiles of strain 630E and the sigH mutant after 10 h of growth. About 60% of the genes that were differentially expressed between exponential and stationary phases, including genes involved in motility, sporulation, and metabolism, were regulated by SigH, which thus appears to be a key regulator of the transition phase in C. difficile. SigH positively controls several genes required for sporulation. Accordingly, sigH inactivation results in an asporogeneous phenotype. The spo0A and CD2492 genes, encoding the master regulator of sporulation and one of its associated kinases, and the spoIIA operon were transcribed from a SigH-dependent promoter. The expression of tcdA and tcdB, encoding the toxins, and of tcdR, encoding the sigma factor required for toxin production, increased in a sigH mutant. Finally, SigH regulates the expression of genes encoding surface-associated proteins, such as the Cwp66 adhesin, the S-layer precursor, and the flagellum components. Among the 286 genes positively regulated by SigH, about 40 transcriptional units presenting a SigH consensus in their promoter regions are good candidates for direct SigH targets. PMID:21572003

  18. Nucleotide sequence of the rpoN gene and characterization of two downstream open reading frames in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Jin, S; Ishimoto, K; Lory, S

    1994-01-01

    The rpoN gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is required for the expression of a number of diverse genes, ranging from several classes of bacterial adhesins to enzymes for amino acid biosynthesis. The nucleotide sequence of the rpoN gene and its flanking region has been determined. The deduced amino acid sequence of the rpoN product is highly homologous to sequences of RpoN proteins of other microorganisms. Moreover, two open reading frames (ORF1 and ORF2) encoding peptides of 103 and 154 amino acids long, respectively, were found downstream of the rpoN gene. These two ORF products have a high degree of amino acid sequence homology with products of similar ORFs located adjacent to the rpoN genes in other microorganisms. Mutations in either ORF lead to a significant increase in P. aeruginosa generation time when propagated on minimal medium. These mutations had no effect on the expression of pilin or flagellin genes, whose expression depends on RpoN. Complementation analysis showed that the two ORFs are in the same transcriptional unit and the growth defects of the two ORF mutants on minimal medium are due to mutational effects on ORF2. The adverse effect of the ORF mutations on the growth of P. aeruginosa in minimal media can be suppressed by the addition of glutamine but not arginine, glutamate, histidine, or proline. Since rpoN mutants of P. aeruginosa display this same amino acid requirement for growth, the ORF2 product very likely functions as a coinducer of some but not all of the RpoN-controlled genes. Images PMID:8113171

  19. Processing of cell-surface signalling anti-sigma factors prior to signal recognition is a conserved autoproteolytic mechanism that produces two functional domains.

    PubMed

    Bastiaansen, Karlijn C; Otero-Asman, Joaquín R; Luirink, Joen; Bitter, Wilbert; Llamas, María A

    2015-09-01

    Cell-surface signalling (CSS) enables Gram-negative bacteria to transduce an environmental signal into a cytosolic response. This regulatory cascade involves an outer membrane receptor that transmits the signal to an anti-sigma factor in the cytoplasmic membrane, allowing the activation of an extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor. Recent studies have demonstrated that RseP-mediated proteolysis of the anti-sigma factors is key to σ(ECF) activation. Using the Pseudomonas aeruginosa FoxR anti-sigma factor, we show here that RseP is responsible for the generation of an N-terminal tail that likely contains pro-sigma activity. Furthermore, it has been reported previously that this anti-sigma factor is processed in two separate domains prior to signal recognition. Here, we demonstrate that this process is common in these types of proteins and that the processing event is probably due to autoproteolytic activity. The resulting domains interact and function together to transduce the CSS signal. However, our results also indicate that this processing event is not essential for activity. In fact, we have identified functional CSS anti-sigma factors that are not cleaved prior to signal perception. Together, our results indicate that CSS regulation can occur through both complete and initially processed anti-sigma factors. PMID:25581349

  20. Transcriptional regulation of the operon encoding stress-responsive ECF sigma factor SigH and its anti-sigma factor RshA, and control of its regulatory network in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The expression of genes in Corynebacterium glutamicum, a Gram-positive non-pathogenic bacterium used mainly for the industrial production of amino acids, is regulated by seven different sigma factors of RNA polymerase, including the stress-responsive ECF-sigma factor SigH. The sigH gene is located in a gene cluster together with the rshA gene, putatively encoding an anti-sigma factor. The aim of this study was to analyze the transcriptional regulation of the sigH and rshA gene cluster and the effects of RshA on the SigH regulon, in order to refine the model describing the role of SigH and RshA during stress response. Results Transcription analyses revealed that the sigH gene and rshA gene are cotranscribed from four sigH housekeeping promoters in C. glutamicum. In addition, a SigH-controlled rshA promoter was found to only drive the transcription of the rshA gene. To test the role of the putative anti-sigma factor gene rshA under normal growth conditions, a C. glutamicum rshA deletion strain was constructed and used for genome-wide transcription profiling with DNA microarrays. In total, 83 genes organized in 61 putative transcriptional units, including those previously detected using sigH mutant strains, exhibited increased transcript levels in the rshA deletion mutant compared to its parental strain. The genes encoding proteins related to disulphide stress response, heat stress proteins, components of the SOS-response to DNA damage and proteasome components were the most markedly upregulated gene groups. Altogether six SigH-dependent promoters upstream of the identified genes were determined by primer extension and a refined consensus promoter consisting of 45 original promoter sequences was constructed. Conclusions The rshA gene codes for an anti-sigma factor controlling the function of the stress-responsive sigma factor SigH in C. glutamicum. Transcription of rshA from a SigH-dependent promoter may serve to quickly shutdown the SigH-dependent stress

  1. Global Analysis of Salmonella Alternative Sigma Factor E on Protein Translation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Overall, Christopher C.; Johnson, Rudd C.; Kidwai, Afshan S.; McDermott, Jason E.; Ansong, Charles; Heffron, Fred; Cambronne, Eric D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2015-01-01

    The alternative sigma factor E (σE) is critical for response to extracytoplasmic stress in Salmonella. Extensive studies have been conducted on σE-regulated gene expression, particularly at the transcriptional level. Increasing evidence suggests however that σE may indirectly participate in post-transcriptional regulation. In this study, we conducted sample-matched global proteomic and transcriptomic analyses to determine the level of regulation mediated by σE in Salmonella. Samples were analyzed from wild-type and isogenic rpoE mutant Salmonella cultivated in three different conditions: nutrient-rich and conditions that mimic early and late intracellular infection. We found that 30% of the observed proteome was regulated by σE combining all three conditions. In different growth conditions, σE affected the expression of a broad spectrum of Salmonella proteins required for miscellaneous functions. Those involved in transport and binding, protein synthesis, and stress response were particularly highlighted. By comparing transcriptomic and proteomic data, we identified genes post-transcriptionally regulated by σE and found that post-transcriptional regulation was responsible for a majority of changes observed in the σE-regulated proteome. Further, comparison of transcriptomic and proteomic data from hfq mutant of Salmonella demonstrated that σE-mediated post-transcriptional regulation was partially dependent on the RNA-binding protein Hfq. PMID:25686268

  2. Improving furfural tolerance of Zymomonas mobilis by rewiring a sigma factor RpoD protein.

    PubMed

    Tan, Fu-Rong; Dai, Li-Chun; Wu, Bo; Qin, Han; Shui, Zong-Xia; Wang, Jing-Li; Zhu, Qi-Li; Hu, Qi-Chun; Ruan, Zhi-Yong; He, Ming-Xiong

    2015-06-01

    Furfural from lignocellulosic hydrolysates is the key inhibitor for bio-ethanol fermentation. In this study, we report a strategy of improving the furfural tolerance in Zymomonas mobilis on the transcriptional level by engineering its global transcription sigma factor (σ(70), RpoD) protein. Three furfural tolerance RpoD mutants (ZM4-MF1, ZM4-MF2, and ZM4-MF3) were identified from error-prone PCR libraries. The best furfural-tolerance strain ZM4-MF2 reached to the maximal cell density (OD600) about 2.0 after approximately 30 h, while control strain ZM4-rpoD reached its highest cell density of about 1.3 under the same conditions. ZM4-MF2 also consumed glucose faster and yield higher ethanol; expression levels and key Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway enzymatic activities were also compared to control strain under furfural stress condition. Our results suggest that global transcription machinery engineering could potentially be used to improve stress tolerance and ethanol production in Z. mobilis. PMID:25895089

  3. Predicting strength and function for promoters of the Escherichia coli alternative sigma factor, σE

    PubMed Central

    Rhodius, Virgil A.; Mutalik, Vivek K.

    2010-01-01

    Sequenced bacterial genomes provide a wealth of information but little understanding of transcriptional regulatory circuits largely because accurate prediction of promoters is difficult. We examined two important issues for accurate promoter prediction: (1) the ability to predict promoter strength and (2) the sequence properties that distinguish between active and weak/inactive promoters. We addressed promoter prediction using natural core promoters recognized by the well-studied alternative sigma factor, Escherichia coli σE, as a representative of group 4 σs, the largest σ group. To evaluate the contribution of sequence to promoter strength and function, we used modular position weight matrix models comprised of each promoter motif and a penalty score for suboptimal motif location. We find that a combination of select modules is moderately predictive of promoter strength and that imposing minimal motif scores distinguished active from weak/inactive promoters. The combined -35/-10 score is the most important predictor of activity. Our models also identified key sequence features associated with active promoters. A conserved “AAC” motif in the -35 region is likely to be a general predictor of function for promoters recognized by group 4 σs. These results provide valuable insights into sequences that govern promoter strength, distinguish active and inactive promoters for the first time, and are applicable to both in vivo and in vitro measures of promoter strength. PMID:20133665

  4. Overlapping Alternative Sigma Factor Regulons in the Response to Singlet Oxygen in Rhodobacter sphaeroides▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Nuss, Aaron M.; Glaeser, Jens; Berghoff, Bork A.; Klug, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    Organisms performing photosynthesis in the presence of oxygen have to cope with the formation of highly reactive singlet oxygen (1O2) and need to mount an adaptive response to photooxidative stress. Here we show that the alternative sigma factors RpoHI and RpoHII are both involved in the 1O2 response and in the heat stress response in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. We propose RpoHII to be the major player in the 1O2 response, whereas RpoHI is more important for the heat stress response. Mapping of the 5′ ends of RpoHII- and also RpoHI/RpoHII-dependent transcripts revealed clear differences in the −10 regions of the putative promoter sequences. By using bioinformatic tools, we extended the RpoHII regulon, which includes genes induced by 1O2 exposure. These genes encode proteins which are, e.g., involved in methionine sulfoxide reduction and in maintaining the quinone pool. Furthermore, we identified small RNAs which depend on RpoHI and RpoHII and are likely to contribute to the defense against photooxidative stress and heat stress. PMID:20304993

  5. Enhanced Promoter Activity by Replenishment of Sigma Factor rpoE in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liuni; Li, Ying; Tian, Pingfang

    2016-06-01

    Plasmid-dependent overexpression of enzyme(s) aims to divert carbon flux toward a desired compound. One drawback of this strategy is compromise of growth due to massive consumption of host resources. Here we show that replenishment of sigma factor rpoE improves the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae. The gene rpoE was expressed alone or coexpressed with Ald4 (an aldehyde dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in K. pneumoniae. We found that the Ald4 activity was higher in the strain coexpressing Ald4 and rpoE (32.3 U/mg) than that expressing Ald4 alone (29.9 U/mg). Additionally, under shake-flask conditions, the strain coexpressing Ald4 and rpoE produced 0.5 g 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) and 9.8 g 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) per liter in 24 h, which were 1.6- and 0.85-fold enhancement, respectively, compared to those expressing Ald4 alone. Notably, under non-optimized bioreactor conditions, the strain coexpressing Ald4 and rpoE produced 13.5 g 3-HP and 37.8 g 1,3-PD per liter with glycerol conversion ratio of 0.45 mol/mol. These results indicate that replenishment of rpoE enhanced promoter activity and stimulated glycerol consumption. PMID:27570311

  6. Global analysis of Salmonella alternative sigma factor E on protein translation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jie; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Overall, Christopher C.; Johnson, Rudd; Kidwai, Afshan S.; McDermott, Jason E.; Ansong, Charles; Heffron, Fred; Cambronne, Eric; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2015-04-03

    The alternative sigma factor E (σE) is critical for response to extracytoplasmic stress in Salmonella. Extensive studies have been conducted on σE-regulated gene expression, particularly at the transcriptional level. Increasing evidence suggests however that σE may indirectly participate in post-transcriptional regulation. In this study, we conducted sample-matched global proteomic and transcriptomic analyses to determine the level of regulation mediated by σE in Salmonella. Samples were analyzed from wild type and isogenic rpoE mutant Salmonella cultivated in three different conditions; nutrient-rich and conditions that mimic early and late intracellular infection. We found that 30% of the observed proteome was regulated by σE combining all three conditions. In different growth conditions, σE affected the expression of a broad spectrum of Salmonella proteins required for miscellaneous functions. Those involved in transport and binding, protein synthesis, and stress response were particularly highlighted. By comparing transcriptomic and proteomic data, we identified genes post-transcriptionally regulated by σE and found that post-transcriptional regulation was responsible for a majority of changes observed in the σE-regulated proteome. Further, comparison of transcriptomic and proteomic data from hfq mutant of Salmonella demonstrated that σE–mediated post-transcriptional regulation was partially dependent on the RNA-binding protein Hfq.

  7. Global Analysis of Salmonella Alternative Sigma Factor E on Protein Translation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jie; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Overall, Christopher C.; Johnson, Rudd C.; Kidwai, Afshan S.; McDermott, Jason E.; Ansong, Charles; Heffron, Fred; Cambronne, Eric D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2015-02-16

    The alternative sigma factor E (σE) is critical for response to extracytoplasmic stress in Salmonella. Extensive studies have been conducted on σE-regulated gene expression, particularly at the transcriptional level. Increasing evidence suggests however that σE may indirectly participate in post-transcriptional regulation. Here in this study, we conducted sample-matched global proteomic and transcriptomic analyses to determine the level of regulation mediated by σE in Salmonella. We analysed samples from wild type and isogenic rpoE mutant Salmonella cultivated in three different conditions; nutrient-rich and conditions that mimic early and late intracellular infection. We found that 30% of the observed proteome was regulated by σE combining all three conditions. In different growth conditions, σE affected the expression of a broad spectrum of Salmonella proteins required for miscellaneous functions. Those involved in transport and binding, protein synthesis, and stress response were particularly highlighted. By comparing transcriptomic and proteomic data, we identified genes post-transcriptionally regulated by σE and found that post-transcriptional regulation was responsible for a majority of changes observed in the σE-regulated proteome. Further, comparison of transcriptomic and proteomic data from hfq mutant of Salmonella demonstrated that σE–mediated post-transcriptional regulation was partially dependent on the RNA-binding protein Hfq.

  8. Global Analysis of Salmonella Alternative Sigma Factor E on Protein Translation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Jie; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Overall, Christopher C.; Johnson, Rudd C.; Kidwai, Afshan S.; McDermott, Jason E.; Ansong, Charles; Heffron, Fred; Cambronne, Eric D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2015-02-16

    The alternative sigma factor E (σE) is critical for response to extracytoplasmic stress in Salmonella. Extensive studies have been conducted on σE-regulated gene expression, particularly at the transcriptional level. Increasing evidence suggests however that σE may indirectly participate in post-transcriptional regulation. Here in this study, we conducted sample-matched global proteomic and transcriptomic analyses to determine the level of regulation mediated by σE in Salmonella. We analysed samples from wild type and isogenic rpoE mutant Salmonella cultivated in three different conditions; nutrient-rich and conditions that mimic early and late intracellular infection. We found that 30% of the observed proteome was regulatedmore » by σE combining all three conditions. In different growth conditions, σE affected the expression of a broad spectrum of Salmonella proteins required for miscellaneous functions. Those involved in transport and binding, protein synthesis, and stress response were particularly highlighted. By comparing transcriptomic and proteomic data, we identified genes post-transcriptionally regulated by σE and found that post-transcriptional regulation was responsible for a majority of changes observed in the σE-regulated proteome. Further, comparison of transcriptomic and proteomic data from hfq mutant of Salmonella demonstrated that σE–mediated post-transcriptional regulation was partially dependent on the RNA-binding protein Hfq.« less

  9. The putative sigma factor KatF is regulated posttranscriptionally during carbon starvation.

    PubMed

    McCann, M P; Fraley, C D; Matin, A

    1993-04-01

    Transcriptional and translational 'lacZ reporter fusions were constructed to the katF gene, which encodes a putative sigma factor centrally involved in starvation-mediated general resistance in Escherichia coli. Transcription of katF was found to increase ca. twofold after carbon starvation in minimal medium. The protein fusion containing the longest fragment of katF induced ca. eightfold under the same conditions, whereas fusions to shorter segments showed only a twofold increase in expression. The protein fusion was expressed at higher levels in a strain containing a katF::Tn10 mutation, indicating katF autoregulation. The posttranscriptional regulation of katF by starvation did not require a component of the spent minimal medium. katF was also posttranscriptionally regulated during entry into late log phase in complex medium. This induction was coincident with an increase in katE transcription, suggesting that the cellular concentration of KatF directly followed the induction of the katF protein fusion. PMID:8458856

  10. Human Serum-Specific Activation of Alternative Sigma Factors, the Stress Responders in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed

    Tang-Siegel, Gaoyan; Bumgarner, Roger; Ruiz, Teresa; Kittichotirat, Weerayuth; Chen, Weizhen; Chen, Casey

    2016-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a known pathogen causing periodontal disease and infective endocarditis, is a survivor in the periodontal pocket and blood stream; both environments contain serum as a nutrient source. To screen for unknown virulence factors associated with this microorganism, A. actinomycetemcomitans was grown in serum-based media to simulate its in vivo environment. Different strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans showed distinct growth phenotypes only in the presence of human serum, and they were grouped into high- and low-responder groups. High-responders comprised mainly serotype c strains, and showed an unusual growth phenomenon, featuring a second, rapid increase in turbidity after 9-h incubation that reached a final optical density 2- to 7-fold higher than low-responders. Upon further investigation, the second increase in turbidity was not caused by cell multiplication, but by cell death. Whole transcriptomic analysis via RNA-seq identified 35 genes that were up-regulated by human serum, but not horse serum, in high-responders but not in low-responders, including prominently an alternative sigma factor rpoE (σE). A lacZ reporter construct driven by the 132-bp rpoE promoter sequence of A. actinomycetemcomitans responded dramatically to human serum within 90 min of incubation only when the construct was carried by a high responder strain. The rpoE promoter is 100% identical among high- and low-responder strains. Proteomic investigation showed potential interactions between human serum protein, e.g. apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) and A. actinomycetemcomitans. The data clearly indicated a different activation process for rpoE in high- versus low-responder strains. This differential human serum-specific activation of rpoE, a putative extra-cytoplasmic stress responder and global regulator, suggests distinct in vivo adaptations among different strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans. PMID:27490177

  11. Human Serum-Specific Activation of Alternative Sigma Factors, the Stress Responders in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    PubMed Central

    Tang-Siegel, Gaoyan; Bumgarner, Roger; Ruiz, Teresa; Kittichotirat, Weerayuth; Chen, Weizhen; Chen, Casey

    2016-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a known pathogen causing periodontal disease and infective endocarditis, is a survivor in the periodontal pocket and blood stream; both environments contain serum as a nutrient source. To screen for unknown virulence factors associated with this microorganism, A. actinomycetemcomitans was grown in serum-based media to simulate its in vivo environment. Different strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans showed distinct growth phenotypes only in the presence of human serum, and they were grouped into high- and low-responder groups. High-responders comprised mainly serotype c strains, and showed an unusual growth phenomenon, featuring a second, rapid increase in turbidity after 9-h incubation that reached a final optical density 2- to 7-fold higher than low-responders. Upon further investigation, the second increase in turbidity was not caused by cell multiplication, but by cell death. Whole transcriptomic analysis via RNA-seq identified 35 genes that were up-regulated by human serum, but not horse serum, in high-responders but not in low-responders, including prominently an alternative sigma factor rpoE (σE). A lacZ reporter construct driven by the 132-bp rpoE promoter sequence of A. actinomycetemcomitans responded dramatically to human serum within 90 min of incubation only when the construct was carried by a high responder strain. The rpoE promoter is 100% identical among high- and low-responder strains. Proteomic investigation showed potential interactions between human serum protein, e.g. apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) and A. actinomycetemcomitans. The data clearly indicated a different activation process for rpoE in high- versus low-responder strains. This differential human serum-specific activation of rpoE, a putative extra-cytoplasmic stress responder and global regulator, suggests distinct in vivo adaptations among different strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans. PMID:27490177

  12. Increased bioplastic production with an RNA polymerase sigma factor SigE during nitrogen starvation in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Osanai, Takashi; Numata, Keiji; Oikawa, Akira; Kuwahara, Ayuko; Iijima, Hiroko; Doi, Yoshiharu; Tanaka, Kan; Saito, Kazuki; Hirai, Masami Yokota

    2013-12-01

    Because cyanobacteria directly harvest CO2 and light energy, their carbon metabolism is important for both basic and applied sciences. Here, we show that overexpression of the sigma factor sigE in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 widely changes sugar catabolism and increases production of the biodegradable polyester polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) during nitrogen starvation. sigE overexpression elevates the levels of proteins implicated in glycogen catabolism, the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis. PHB accumulation is enhanced by sigE overexpression under nitrogen-limited conditions, yet the molecular weights of PHBs synthesized by the parental glucose-tolerant and sigE overexpression strain are similar. Although gene expression induced by nitrogen starvation is changed and other metabolites (such as GDP-mannose and citrate) accumulate under sigE overexpression, genetic engineering of this sigma factor altered the metabolic pathway from glycogen to PHB during nitrogen starvation. PMID:23861321

  13. Region 4 of Rhizobium etli Primary Sigma Factor (SigA) Confers Transcriptional Laxity in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Santillán, Orlando; Ramírez-Romero, Miguel A; Lozano, Luis; Checa, Alberto; Encarnación, Sergio M; Dávila, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Sigma factors are RNA polymerase subunits engaged in promoter recognition and DNA strand separation during transcription initiation in bacteria. Primary sigma factors are responsible for the expression of housekeeping genes and are essential for survival. RpoD, the primary sigma factor of Escherichia coli, a γ-proteobacteria, recognizes consensus promoter sequences highly similar to those of some α-proteobacteria species. Despite this resemblance, RpoD is unable to sustain transcription from most of the α-proteobacterial promoters tested so far. In contrast, we have found that SigA, the primary sigma factor of Rhizobium etli, an α-proteobacteria, is able to transcribe E. coli promoters, although it exhibits only 48% identity (98% coverage) to RpoD. We have called this the transcriptional laxity phenomenon. Here, we show that SigA partially complements the thermo-sensitive deficiency of RpoD285 from E. coli strain UQ285 and that the SigA region σ4 is responsible for this phenotype. Sixteen out of 74 residues (21.6%) within region σ4 are variable between RpoD and SigA. Mutating these residues significantly improves SigA ability to complement E. coli UQ285. Only six of these residues fall into positions already known to interact with promoter DNA and to comprise a helix-turn-helix motif. The remaining variable positions are located on previously unexplored sites inside region σ4, specifically into the first two α-helices of the region. Neither of the variable positions confined to these helices seem to interact directly with promoter sequence; instead, we adduce that these residues participate allosterically by contributing to correct region folding and/or positioning of the HTH motif. We propose that transcriptional laxity is a mechanism for ensuring transcription in spite of naturally occurring mutations from endogenous promoters and/or horizontally transferred DNA sequences, allowing survival and fast environmental adaptation of α-proteobacteria. PMID

  14. Region 4 of Rhizobium etli Primary Sigma Factor (SigA) Confers Transcriptional Laxity in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Santillán, Orlando; Ramírez-Romero, Miguel A.; Lozano, Luis; Checa, Alberto; Encarnación, Sergio M.; Dávila, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Sigma factors are RNA polymerase subunits engaged in promoter recognition and DNA strand separation during transcription initiation in bacteria. Primary sigma factors are responsible for the expression of housekeeping genes and are essential for survival. RpoD, the primary sigma factor of Escherichia coli, a γ-proteobacteria, recognizes consensus promoter sequences highly similar to those of some α-proteobacteria species. Despite this resemblance, RpoD is unable to sustain transcription from most of the α-proteobacterial promoters tested so far. In contrast, we have found that SigA, the primary sigma factor of Rhizobium etli, an α-proteobacteria, is able to transcribe E. coli promoters, although it exhibits only 48% identity (98% coverage) to RpoD. We have called this the transcriptional laxity phenomenon. Here, we show that SigA partially complements the thermo-sensitive deficiency of RpoD285 from E. coli strain UQ285 and that the SigA region σ4 is responsible for this phenotype. Sixteen out of 74 residues (21.6%) within region σ4 are variable between RpoD and SigA. Mutating these residues significantly improves SigA ability to complement E. coli UQ285. Only six of these residues fall into positions already known to interact with promoter DNA and to comprise a helix-turn-helix motif. The remaining variable positions are located on previously unexplored sites inside region σ4, specifically into the first two α-helices of the region. Neither of the variable positions confined to these helices seem to interact directly with promoter sequence; instead, we adduce that these residues participate allosterically by contributing to correct region folding and/or positioning of the HTH motif. We propose that transcriptional laxity is a mechanism for ensuring transcription in spite of naturally occurring mutations from endogenous promoters and/or horizontally transferred DNA sequences, allowing survival and fast environmental adaptation of α-proteobacteria. PMID

  15. Amplification of the housekeeping sigma factor in Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 enhances antibiotic production and improves biocontrol abilities.

    PubMed Central

    Schnider, U; Keel, C; Blumer, C; Troxler, J; Défago, G; Haas, D

    1995-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 produces a variety of secondary metabolites, in particular the antibiotics pyoluteorin and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, and protects various plants from diseases caused by soilborne pathogenic fungi. The rpoD gene encoding the housekeeping sigma factor sigma 70 of P. fluorescens was sequenced. The deduced RpoD protein showed 83% identity with RpoD of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 67% identity with RpoD of Escherichia coli. Attempts to inactivate the single chromosomal rpoD gene of strain CHA0 were unsuccessful, indicating an essential role of this gene. When rpoD was carried by an IncP vector in strain CHA0, the production of both antibiotics was increased severalfold and, in parallel, protection of cucumber against disease caused by Pythium ultimum was improved, in comparison with strain CHA0. PMID:7665535

  16. Eep confers lysozyme resistance to enterococcus faecalis via the activation of the extracytoplasmic function sigma factor SigV.

    PubMed

    Varahan, Sriram; Iyer, Vijayalakshmi S; Moore, William T; Hancock, Lynn E

    2013-07-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a commensal bacterium found in the gastrointestinal tract of most mammals, including humans, and is one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. One of the hallmarks of E. faecalis pathogenesis is its unusual ability to tolerate high concentrations of lysozyme, which is an important innate immune component of the host. Previous studies have shown that the presence of lysozyme leads to the activation of SigV, an extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor in E. faecalis, and that the deletion of sigV increases the susceptibility of the bacterium toward lysozyme. Here, we describe the contribution of Eep, a membrane-bound zinc metalloprotease, to the activation of SigV under lysozyme stress by its effects on the stability of the anti-sigma factor RsiV. We demonstrate that the Δeep mutant phenocopies the ΔsigV mutant in lysozyme, heat, ethanol, and acid stress susceptibility. We also show, using an immunoblot analysis, that in an eep deletion mutant, the anti-sigma factor RsiV is only partially degraded after lysozyme exposure, suggesting that RsiV is processed by unknown protease(s) prior to the action of Eep. An additional observation is that the deletion of rsiV, which results in constitutive SigV expression, leads to chaining of cells, suggesting that SigV might be involved in regulating cell wall-modifying enzymes important in cell wall turnover. We also demonstrate that, in the absence of eep or sigV, enterococci bind significantly more lysozyme, providing a plausible explanation for the increased sensitivity of these mutants toward lysozyme. PMID:23645601

  17. A method for the identification of promoters recognized by RNA polymerase containing a particular sigma factor: cloning of a developmentally regulated promoter and corresponding gene directed by the Streptomyces aureofaciens sigma factor RpoZ.

    PubMed

    Nováková, R; Sevcíková, B; Kormanec, J

    1998-02-16

    We have developed a method for the identification of promoters recognized by a particular sigma factor of RNA polymerase, based on a two-compatible plasmid system in Escherichia coli (Ec). Using the method, a DNA fragment containing the promoter, PREN40, recognized by sporulation-specific Streptomyces aureofaciens (Sa) sigma factor RpoZ, was cloned. High-resolution S1 nuclease mapping using RNA prepared from Ec, and Sa from various developmental stages has shown a high degree of similarity of PREN40 to consensus sequence of flagellar and chemotaxis promoters. The promoter was induced at the time of aerial mycelium formation, and was off in the Sa strain with the rpoZ-disrupted gene. A promoter-bearing DNA fragment was inserted into the promoter-probe plasmid pARC1 to give expression patterns consistent with the results of direct RNA analysis. The region downstream of the promoter was cloned in Sa. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame (ORF) of 283 amino acids (Mr 30006), encoding a highly basic (pI 12.35) protein with high percentage of serine, threonine and alanine (41.8%). PMID:9479043

  18. Extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor σF is involved in Caulobacter crescentus response to heavy metal stress

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The α-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus inhabits low-nutrient environments and can tolerate certain levels of heavy metals in these sites. It has been reported that C. crescentus responds to exposure to various heavy metals by altering the expression of a large number of genes. Results In this work, we show that the ECF sigma factor σF is one of the regulatory proteins involved in the control of the transcriptional response to chromium and cadmium. Microarray experiments indicate that σF controls eight genes during chromium stress, most of which were previously described as induced by heavy metals. Surprisingly, σF itself is not strongly auto-regulated under metal stress conditions. Interestingly, σF-dependent genes are not induced in the presence of agents that generate reactive oxygen species. Promoter analyses revealed that a conserved σF-dependent sequence is located upstream of all genes of the σF regulon. In addition, we show that the second gene in the sigF operon acts as a negative regulator of σF function, and the encoded protein has been named NrsF (Negative regulator of sigma F). Substitution of two conserved cysteine residues (C131 and C181) in NrsF affects its ability to maintain the expression of σF-dependent genes at basal levels. Furthermore, we show that σF is released into the cytoplasm during chromium stress and in cells carrying point mutations in both conserved cysteines of the protein NrsF. Conclusion A possible mechanism for induction of the σF-dependent genes by chromium and cadmium is the inactivation of the putative anti-sigma factor NrsF, leading to the release of σF to bind RNA polymerase core and drive transcription of its regulon. PMID:22985357

  19. Dual-specificity anti-sigma factor reinforces control of cell-type specific gene expression in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Mónica; Gao, JinXin; Bota, João; Bate, Ashley R; Meisner, Jeffrey; Eichenberger, Patrick; Moran, Charles P; Henriques, Adriano O

    2015-04-01

    Gene expression during spore development in Bacillus subtilis is controlled by cell type-specific RNA polymerase sigma factors. σFand σE control early stages of development in the forespore and the mother cell, respectively. When, at an intermediate stage in development, the mother cell engulfs the forespore, σF is replaced by σG and σE is replaced by σK. The anti-sigma factor CsfB is produced under the control of σF and binds to and inhibits the auto-regulatory σG, but not σF. A position in region 2.1, occupied by an asparagine in σG and by a glutamate in οF, is sufficient for CsfB discrimination of the two sigmas, and allows it to delay the early to late switch in forespore gene expression. We now show that following engulfment completion, csfB is switched on in the mother cell under the control of σK and that CsfB binds to and inhibits σE but not σK, possibly to facilitate the switch from early to late gene expression. We show that a position in region 2.3 occupied by a conserved asparagine in σE and by a conserved glutamate in σK suffices for discrimination by CsfB. We also show that CsfB prevents activation of σG in the mother cell and the premature σG-dependent activation of σK. Thus, CsfB establishes negative feedback loops that curtail the activity of σE and prevent the ectopic activation of σG in the mother cell. The capacity of CsfB to directly block σE activity may also explain how CsfB plays a role as one of the several mechanisms that prevent σE activation in the forespore. Thus the capacity of CsfB to differentiate between the highly similar σF/σG and σE/σK pairs allows it to rinforce the cell-type specificity of these sigma factors and the transition from early to late development in B. subtilis, and possibly in all sporeformers that encode a CsfB orthologue. PMID:25835496

  20. Dual-Specificity Anti-sigma Factor Reinforces Control of Cell-Type Specific Gene Expression in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Mónica; Gao, JinXin; Bota, João; Bate, Ashley R.; Meisner, Jeffrey; Eichenberger, Patrick; Moran, Charles P.; Henriques, Adriano O.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression during spore development in Bacillus subtilis is controlled by cell type-specific RNA polymerase sigma factors. σFand σE control early stages of development in the forespore and the mother cell, respectively. When, at an intermediate stage in development, the mother cell engulfs the forespore, σF is replaced by σG and σE is replaced by σK. The anti-sigma factor CsfB is produced under the control of σF and binds to and inhibits the auto-regulatory σG, but not σF. A position in region 2.1, occupied by an asparagine in σG and by a glutamate in οF, is sufficient for CsfB discrimination of the two sigmas, and allows it to delay the early to late switch in forespore gene expression. We now show that following engulfment completion, csfB is switched on in the mother cell under the control of σK and that CsfB binds to and inhibits σE but not σK, possibly to facilitate the switch from early to late gene expression. We show that a position in region 2.3 occupied by a conserved asparagine in σE and by a conserved glutamate in σK suffices for discrimination by CsfB. We also show that CsfB prevents activation of σG in the mother cell and the premature σG-dependent activation of σK. Thus, CsfB establishes negative feedback loops that curtail the activity of σE and prevent the ectopic activation of σG in the mother cell. The capacity of CsfB to directly block σE activity may also explain how CsfB plays a role as one of the several mechanisms that prevent σE activation in the forespore. Thus the capacity of CsfB to differentiate between the highly similar σF/σG and σE/σK pairs allows it to rinforce the cell-type specificity of these sigma factors and the transition from early to late development in B. subtilis, and possibly in all sporeformers that encode a CsfB orthologue. PMID:25835496

  1. Whole-genome phylogenies of the family Bacillaceae and expansion of the sigma factor gene family in the Bacillus cereus species-group

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Bacillus cereus sensu lato group consists of six species (B. anthracis, B. cereus, B. mycoides, B. pseudomycoides, B. thuringiensis, and B. weihenstephanensis). While classical microbial taxonomy proposed these organisms as distinct species, newer molecular phylogenies and comparative genome sequencing suggests that these organisms should be classified as a single species (thus, we will refer to these organisms collectively as the Bc species-group). How do we account for the underlying similarity of these phenotypically diverse microbes? It has been established for some time that the most rapidly evolving and evolutionarily flexible portions of the bacterial genome are regulatory sequences and transcriptional networks. Other studies have suggested that the sigma factor gene family of these organisms has diverged and expanded significantly relative to their ancestors; sigma factors are those portions of the bacterial transcriptional apparatus that control RNA polymerase recognition for promoter selection. Thus, examining sigma factor divergence in these organisms would concurrently examine both regulatory sequences and transcriptional networks important for divergence. We began this examination by comparison to the sigma factor gene set of B. subtilis. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the Bc species-group utilizing 157 single-copy genes of the family Bacillaceae suggests that several taxonomic revisions of the genus Bacillus should be considered. Within the Bc species-group there is little indication that the currently recognized species form related sub-groupings, suggesting that they are members of the same species. The sigma factor gene family encoded by the Bc species-group appears to be the result of a dynamic gene-duplication and gene-loss process that in previous analyses underestimated the true heterogeneity of the sigma factor content in the Bc species-group. Conclusions Expansion of the sigma factor gene family appears to have preferentially

  2. Calculated hydroxyl A2 sigma --> X2 pi (0, 0) band emission rate factors applicable to atmospheric spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cageao, R. P.; Ha, Y. L.; Jiang, Y.; Morgan, M. F.; Yung, Y. L.; Sander, S. P.

    1997-01-01

    A calculation of the A2 sigma --> X2 pi (0, 0) band emission rate factors and line center absorption cross sections of OH applicable to its measurement using solar resonant fluorescence in the terrestrial atmosphere is presented in this paper. The most accurate available line parameters have been used. Special consideration has been given to the solar input flux because of its highly structured Fraunhofer spectrum. The calculation for the OH atmospheric emission rate factor in the solar resonant fluorescent case is described in detail with examples and intermediate results. Results of this calculation of OH emission rate factors for individual rotational lines are on average 30% lower than the values obtained in an earlier work.

  3. Functional characterization of the principal sigma factor RpoD of phytoplasmas via an in vitro transcription assay

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Chihiro; Komatsu, Ken; Maejima, Kensaku; Nijo, Takamichi; Kitazawa, Yugo; Tomomitsu, Tatsuya; Yusa, Akira; Himeno, Misako; Oshima, Kenro; Namba, Shigetou

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplasmas (class, Mollicutes) are insect-transmissible and plant-pathogenic bacteria that multiply intracellularly in both plants and insects through host switching. Our previous study revealed that phytoplasmal sigma factor rpoD of OY-M strain (rpoDOY) could be a key regulator of host switching, because the expression level of rpoDOY was higher in insect hosts than in plant hosts. In this study, we developed an in vitro transcription assay system to identify RpoDOY-dependent genes and the consensus promoter elements. The assay revealed that RpoDOY regulated some housekeeping, virulence, and host–phytoplasma interaction genes of OY-M strain. The upstream region of the transcription start sites of these genes contained conserved –35 and –10 promoter sequences, which were similar to the typical bacterial RpoD-dependent promoter elements, while the –35 promoter elements were variable. In addition, we searched putative RpoD-dependent genes based on these promoter elements on the whole genome sequence of phytoplasmas using in silico tools. The phytoplasmal RpoD seems to mediate the transcription of not only many housekeeping genes as the principal sigma factor, but also the virulence- and host-phytoplasma interaction-related genes exhibiting host-specific expression patterns. These results indicate that more complex mechanisms exist than previously thought regarding gene regulation enabling phytoplasmas to switch hosts. PMID:26150080

  4. Knockout of Extracytoplasmic Function Sigma Factor ECF-10 Affects Stress Resistance and Biofilm Formation in Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    PubMed Central

    Tettmann, Beatrix; Dötsch, Andreas; Armant, Olivier; Fjell, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida is a Gram-negative soil bacterium which is well-known for its versatile lifestyle, controlled by a large repertoire of transcriptional regulators. Besides one- and two-component regulatory systems, the genome of P. putida reveals 19 extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors involved in the adaptation to changing environmental conditions. In this study, we demonstrate that knockout of extracytoplasmic function sigma factor ECF-10, encoded by open reading frame PP4553, resulted in 2- to 4-fold increased antibiotic resistance to quinolone, β-lactam, sulfonamide, and chloramphenicol antibiotics. In addition, the ECF-10 mutant exhibited enhanced formation of biofilms after 24 h of incubation. Transcriptome analysis using Illumina sequencing technology resulted in the detection of 12 genes differentially expressed (>2-fold) in the ECF-10 knockout mutant strain compared to their levels of expression in wild-type cells. Among the upregulated genes were ttgA, ttgB, and ttgC, which code for the major multidrug efflux pump TtgABC in P. putida KT2440. Investigation of an ECF-10 and ttgA double-knockout strain and a ttgABC-overexpressing strain demonstrated the involvement of efflux pump TtgABC in the stress resistance and biofilm formation phenotypes of the ECF-10 mutant strain, indicating a new role for this efflux pump beyond simple antibiotic resistance in P. putida KT2440. PMID:24907323

  5. The anti-sigma factor RsrA responds to oxidative stress by reburying its hydrophobic core

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekar, Karthik V.; Zdanowski, Konrad; Yan, Jun; Hopper, Jonathan T. S.; Francis, Marie-Louise R.; Seepersad, Colin; Sharp, Connor; Pecqueur, Ludovic; Werner, Jörn M.; Robinson, Carol V.; Mohammed, Shabaz; Potts, Jennifer R.; Kleanthous, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Redox-regulated effector systems that counteract oxidative stress are essential for all forms of life. Here we uncover a new paradigm for sensing oxidative stress centred on the hydrophobic core of a sensor protein. RsrA is an archetypal zinc-binding anti-sigma factor that responds to disulfide stress in the cytoplasm of Actinobacteria. We show that RsrA utilizes its hydrophobic core to bind the sigma factor σR preventing its association with RNA polymerase, and that zinc plays a central role in maintaining this high-affinity complex. Oxidation of RsrA is limited by the rate of zinc release, which weakens the RsrA–σR complex by accelerating its dissociation. The subsequent trigger disulfide, formed between specific combinations of RsrA's three zinc-binding cysteines, precipitates structural collapse to a compact state where all σR-binding residues are sequestered back into its hydrophobic core, releasing σR to activate transcription of anti-oxidant genes. PMID:27432510

  6. Expanding the Regulatory Network Governed by the Extracytoplasmic Function Sigma Factor σH in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Toyoda, Koichi; Teramoto, Haruhiko; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    The extracytoplasmic function sigma factor σH is responsible for the heat and oxidative stress response in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Due to the hierarchical nature of the regulatory network, previous transcriptome analyses have not been able to discriminate between direct and indirect targets of σH. Here, we determined the direct genome-wide targets of σH using chromatin immunoprecipitation with microarray technology (ChIP-chip) for analysis of a deletion mutant of rshA, encoding an anti-σ factor of σH. Seventy-five σH-dependent promoters, including 39 new ones, were identified. σH-dependent, heat-inducible transcripts for several of the new targets, including ilvD encoding a labile Fe-S cluster enzyme, dihydroxy-acid dehydratase, were detected, and their 5′ ends were mapped to the σH-dependent promoters identified. Interestingly, functional internal σH-dependent promoters were found in operon-like gene clusters involved in the pentose phosphate pathway, riboflavin biosynthesis, and Zn uptake. Accordingly, deletion of rshA resulted in hyperproduction of riboflavin and affected expression of Zn-responsive genes, possibly through intracellular Zn overload, indicating new physiological roles of σH. Furthermore, sigA encoding the primary σ factor was identified as a new target of σH. Reporter assays demonstrated that the σH-dependent promoter upstream of sigA was highly heat inducible but much weaker than the known σA-dependent one. Our ChIP-chip analysis also detected the σH-dependent promoters upstream of rshA within the sigH-rshA operon and of sigB encoding a group 2 σ factor, supporting the previous findings of their σH-dependent expression. Taken together, these results reveal an additional layer of the sigma factor regulatory network in C. glutamicum. PMID:25404703

  7. Evolution of a Sigma Factor: An All-In-One of Gene Duplication, Horizontal Gene Transfer, Purifying Selection, and Promoter Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    López-Leal, Gamaliel; Cevallos, Miguel A.; Castillo-Ramírez, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Sigma factors are an essential part of bacterial gene regulation and have been extensively studied as far as their molecular mechanisms and protein structure are concerned. However, their molecular evolution, especially for the alternative sigma factors, is poorly understood. Here, we analyze the evolutionary forces that have shaped the rpoH sigma factors within the alphaproteobacteria. We found that an ancient duplication gave rise to two major groups of rpoH sigma factors and that after this event horizontal gene transfer (HGT) occurred in rpoH1 group. We also noted that purifying selection has differentially affected distinct parts of the gene; singularly, the gene segment that encodes the region 4.2, which interacts with the −35 motif of the RpoH-dependent genes, has been under relaxed purifying selection. Furthermore, these two major groups are clearly differentiated from one another regarding their promoter selectivity, as rpoH1 is under the transcriptional control of σ70 and σ32, whereas rpoH2 is under the transcriptional control of σ24. Our results suggest a scenario in which HGT, gene loss, variable purifying selection and clear promoter specialization occurred after the ancestral duplication event. More generally, our study offers insights into the molecular evolution of alternative sigma factors and highlights the importance of analyzing not only the coding regions but also the promoter regions. PMID:27199915

  8. Cloning, disruption, and transcriptional analysis of three RNA polymerase sigma factor genes of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).

    PubMed Central

    Buttner, M J; Chater, K F; Bibb, M J

    1990-01-01

    The rpoD gene of Myxococcus xanthus was used as a probe to isolate three Streptomyces coelicolor genes, hrdB, hrdC, and hrdD, which appear to encode RNA polymerase sigma factors extremely similar to the sigma 70 polypeptide of Escherichia coli. Gene disruption experiments suggested that hrdB is essential in S. coelicolor A3(2) but showed that hrdC and hrdD mutants are viable and are apparently unaffected in differentiation, gross morphology, and antibiotic production. S1 nuclease mapping showed that hrdB and hrdD, but not hrdC, were transcribed in liquid culture. The most upstream of two hrdD promoters is internal to an open reading frame (ORF X) on the opposite strand. The predicted product of this gene is homologous to the phosphinothricin acetyltransferases of Streptomyces hygroscopicus and Streptomyces viridochromogenes. The possible significance of the overlapping and divergent transcription of hrdD and ORF X is discussed. A general method for in vivo gene replacement was developed that allowed a positive selection for the desired mutants even in the absence of a mutant phenotype; it was used to isolate a stable hrdC mutant. Images PMID:2160942

  9. Subfunctionalization of Sigma Factors during the Evolution of Land Plants Based on Mutant Analysis of Liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha L.) MpSIG1

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Minoru; Takami, Tsuneaki; Peng, Lianwei; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kohchi, Takayuki; Shikanai, Toshiharu; Nishimura, Yoshiki

    2013-01-01

    Sigma factor is a subunit of plastid-encoded RNA polymerase that regulates the transcription of plastid-encoded genes by recognizing a set of promoters. Sigma factors have increased in copy number and have diversified during the evolution of land plants, but details of this process remain unknown. Liverworts represent the basal group of embryophytes and are expected to retain the ancestral features of land plants. In liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha L.), we isolated and characterized a T-DNA-tagged mutant (Mpsig1) of sigma factor 1 (MpSIG1). The mutant did not show any visible phenotypes, implying that MpSIG1 function is redundant with that of other sigma factors. However, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and RNA gel blot analysis revealed that genes related to photosynthesis were downregulated, resulting in the minor reduction of some protein complexes. The transcript levels of genes clustered in the petL, psaA, psbB, psbK, and psbE operons of liverwort were lower than those in the wild type, a result similar to that in the SIG1 defective mutant in rice (Oryza sativa). Overexpression analysis revealed primitive functional divergence between the SIG1 and SIG2 proteins in bryophytes, whereas these proteins still retain functional redundancy. We also discovered that the predominant sigma factor for ndhF mRNA expression has been diversified in liverwort, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and rice. Our study shows the ancestral function of SIG1 and the process of functional partitioning (subfunctionalization) of sigma factors during the evolution of land plants. PMID:24025801

  10. A two-component system regulates gene expression of the type IX secretion component proteins via an ECF sigma factor

    PubMed Central

    Kadowaki, Tomoko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Naito, Mariko; Sato, Keiko; Kikuchi, Yuichiro; Kondo, Yoshio; Shoji, Mikio; Nakayama, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes potent pathogenic proteases, gingipains, via the type IX secretion system (T9SS). This system comprises at least 11 components; however, the regulatory mechanism of their expression has not yet been elucidated. Here, we found that the PorY (PGN_2001)-PorX (PGN_1019)-SigP (PGN_0274) cascade is involved in the regulation of T9SS. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis revealed a direct interaction between a recombinant PorY (rPorY) and a recombinant PorX (rPorX). rPorY autophosphorylated and transferred a phosphoryl group to rPorX in the presence of Mn2+. These results demonstrate that PorX and PorY act as a response regulator and a histidine kinase, respectively, of a two component system (TCS), although they are separately encoded on the chromosome. T9SS component-encoding genes were down-regulated in a mutant deficient in a putative extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor, PGN_0274 (SigP), similar to the porX mutant. Electrophoretic gel shift assays showed that rSigP bound to the putative promoter regions of T9SS component-encoding genes. The SigP protein was lacking in the porX mutant. Co-immunoprecipitation and SPR analysis revealed the direct interaction between SigP and PorX. Together, these results indicate that the PorXY TCS regulates T9SS-mediated protein secretion via the SigP ECF sigma factor. PMID:26996145

  11. A two-component system regulates gene expression of the type IX secretion component proteins via an ECF sigma factor.

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Tomoko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Naito, Mariko; Sato, Keiko; Kikuchi, Yuichiro; Kondo, Yoshio; Shoji, Mikio; Nakayama, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes potent pathogenic proteases, gingipains, via the type IX secretion system (T9SS). This system comprises at least 11 components; however, the regulatory mechanism of their expression has not yet been elucidated. Here, we found that the PorY (PGN_2001)-PorX (PGN_1019)-SigP (PGN_0274) cascade is involved in the regulation of T9SS. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis revealed a direct interaction between a recombinant PorY (rPorY) and a recombinant PorX (rPorX). rPorY autophosphorylated and transferred a phosphoryl group to rPorX in the presence of Mn(2+). These results demonstrate that PorX and PorY act as a response regulator and a histidine kinase, respectively, of a two component system (TCS), although they are separately encoded on the chromosome. T9SS component-encoding genes were down-regulated in a mutant deficient in a putative extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor, PGN_0274 (SigP), similar to the porX mutant. Electrophoretic gel shift assays showed that rSigP bound to the putative promoter regions of T9SS component-encoding genes. The SigP protein was lacking in the porX mutant. Co-immunoprecipitation and SPR analysis revealed the direct interaction between SigP and PorX. Together, these results indicate that the PorXY TCS regulates T9SS-mediated protein secretion via the SigP ECF sigma factor. PMID:26996145

  12. Role of the response regulator RssB in sigma recognition and initiation of sigma proteolysis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Klauck, E; Lingnau, M; Hengge-Aronis, R

    2001-06-01

    In growing Escherichia coli cells, the master regulator of the general stress response, sigmaS (RpoS), is subject to rapid proteolysis. In response to stresses such as sudden carbon starvation, osmotic upshift or shift to acidic pH, sigmaS degradation is inhibited, sigmaS accumulates and numerous sigmaS-dependent genes with stress-protective functions are activated. sigmaS proteolysis is dependent on ClpXP protease and the response regulator RssB, whose phosphorylated form binds directly to sigmaS in vitro. Here, we show that substitutions of aspartate 58 (D58) in RssB, which result in higher sigmaS levels in vivo, produce RssB variants unable to bind sigmaS in vitro. Thus, RssB is the direct substrate recognition factor in sigmaS proteolysis, whose affinity for sigmaS depends on phosphorylation of its D58 residue. RssB does not dimerize or oligomerize upon this phosphorylation and sigmaS binding, and RssB and sigmaS exhibit a 1:1 stoichiometry in the complex. The receiver as well as the output domain of RssB are required for sigmaS binding (as shown in vivo and in vitro) and for complementation of an rssB null mutation. Thus, the N-terminal receiver domain plays an active and positive role in RssB function. Finally, we demonstrate that RssB is not co-degraded with sigmaS, i.e. RssB has a catalytic role in the initiation of sigmaS turnover. A model is presented that integrates the details of RssB-sigmaS interaction, the RssB catalytic cycle and potential stress signal input in the control of sigmaS proteolysis. PMID:11442836

  13. Six sigma.

    PubMed

    Carter, Pam

    2010-12-01

    When I was first introduced to the Six Sigma process, I resisted it with every ounce of energy I had. I continuously fabricated reasons so that I was unable to complete the training that my company required. When it came time for my performance review, I could not hide the truth from my manager; I had not completed the required training. It was then that I began my journey into the world of Six Sigma. Once I understood that a black belt and a green belt certification had nothing to do with karate, I felt much better. PMID:21117529

  14. Hyperosmotic shock induces the sigma32 and sigmaE stress regulons of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, A A; Baneyx, F

    1999-12-01

    The rise in the levels of sigmaS that accompanies hyperosmotic shock plays an important role in Escherichia coli survival by increasing the transcription of genes involved in the synthesis and transport of osmoprotectants. To determine if other stress regulons collaborate with sigmaS in dealing with high osmolality, we used single copy fusions of lacZ to representative promoters induced by protein misfolding in the cytoplasm (dnaK and ibp ), extracytoplasmic stress [P3rpoH and htrA(degP )] and cold shock (cspA). Both the sigma32-dependent, dnaK and ibp, promoters, and the sigmaE-dependent, P3rpoH and htrA, promoters were rapidly but transiently induced when mid-exponential phase cells were treated with 0.464 M sucrose. The cspA promoter, however, did not respond to the same treatment. Overproduction of the cytoplasmic domain of the sigmaE anti-sigma factor, RseA, reduced the magnitude of osmotic induction in lambdaphi(P3rpoH:lacZ ) lysogens, but had no effect on the activation of the dnaK and ibp promoters. Similarly, induction of the dnaK:lacZ and ibp:lacZ fusions was not altered in either rpoS or ompR genetic backgrounds. Osmotic upshift led to a twofold increase in the enzymatic activity of the lambdaTLF247 rpoH:lacZ translational fusion whether or not the cells were treated with rifampicin, indicating that both heat shock and exposure to high osmolality trigger a transient increase in rpoH translation. Our results suggest that the sigma32, sigmaE and sigmaS regulons closely co-operate in the managment of hyperosmotic stress. Induction of the sigma32 and sigmaE regulons appears to be an emergency response required to repair protein misfolding and facilitate the proper folding of proteins that are rapidly synthesized following loss of turgor, while providing a mechanism to increase the activity of sigmaS, the primary stress factor in osmoadaptation. PMID:10594827

  15. Genome-scale reconstruction of the sigma factor network in Escherichia coli: topology and functional states

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background At the beginning of the transcription process, the RNA polymerase (RNAP) core enzyme requires a σ-factor to recognize the genomic location at which the process initiates. Although the crucial role of σ-factors has long been appreciated and characterized for many individual promoters, we do not yet have a genome-scale assessment of their function. Results Using multiple genome-scale measurements, we elucidated the network of σ-factor and promoter interactions in Escherichia coli. The reconstructed network includes 4,724 σ-factor-specific promoters corresponding to transcription units (TUs), representing an increase of more than 300% over what has been previously reported. The reconstructed network was used to investigate competition between alternative σ-factors (the σ70 and σ38 regulons), confirming the competition model of σ substitution and negative regulation by alternative σ-factors. Comparison with σ-factor binding in Klebsiella pneumoniae showed that transcriptional regulation of conserved genes in closely related species is unexpectedly divergent. Conclusions The reconstructed network reveals the regulatory complexity of the promoter architecture in prokaryotic genomes, and opens a path to the direct determination of the systems biology of their transcriptional regulatory networks. PMID:24461193

  16. Extracytoplasmic Function (ECF) Sigma Factor Gene Regulation in Pseudomonas syringae: Integrated Molecular and Computational Characterization of PvdS-Regulated Promoters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor PvdS regulates the expression of genes required for the biosynthesis and transport of pyoverdine, a siderophore that functions in iron acquisition. The production of pyoverdine is a distinctive trait of the fluorescent pseudomonads and the regulation ...

  17. Escherichia coli FtsH is a membrane-bound, ATP-dependent protease which degrades the heat-shock transcription factor sigma 32.

    PubMed Central

    Tomoyasu, T; Gamer, J; Bukau, B; Kanemori, M; Mori, H; Rutman, A J; Oppenheim, A B; Yura, T; Yamanaka, K; Niki, H

    1995-01-01

    Escherichia coli FtsH is an essential integral membrane protein that has an AAA-type ATPase domain at its C-terminal cytoplasmic part, which is homologous to at least three ATPase subunits of the eukaryotic 26S proteasome. We report here that FtsH is involved in degradation of the heat-shock transcription factor sigma 32, a key element in the regulation of the E. coli heat-shock response. In the temperature-sensitive ftsH1 mutant, the amount of sigma 32 at a non-permissive temperature was higher than in the wild-type under certain conditions due to a reduced rate of degradation. In an in vitro system with purified components, FtsH catalyzed ATP-dependent degradation of biologically active histidine-tagged sigma 32. FtsH has a zinc-binding motif similar to the active site of zinc-metalloproteases. Protease activity of FtsH for histidine-tagged sigma 32 was stimulated by Zn2+ and strongly inhibited by the heavy metal chelating agent o-phenanthroline. We conclude that FtsH is a novel membrane-bound, ATP-dependent metalloprotease with activity for sigma 32. These findings indicate a new mechanism of gene regulation in E. coli. Images PMID:7781608

  18. The extra-cytoplasmic function sigma factor sigX modulates biofilm and virulence-related properties in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Gicquel, Gwendoline; Bouffartigues, Emeline; Bains, Manjeet; Oxaran, Virginie; Rosay, Thibaut; Lesouhaitier, Olivier; Connil, Nathalie; Bazire, Alexis; Maillot, Olivier; Bénard, Magalie; Cornelis, Pierre; Hancock, Robert E W; Dufour, Alain; Feuilloley, Marc G J; Orange, Nicole; Déziel, Eric; Chevalier, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    SigX, one of the 19 extra-cytoplasmic function sigma factors of P. aeruginosa, was only known to be involved in transcription of the gene encoding the major outer membrane protein OprF. We conducted a comparative transcriptomic study between the wildtype H103 strain and its sigX mutant PAOSX, which revealed a total of 307 differentially expressed genes that differed by more than 2 fold. Most dysregulated genes belonged to six functional classes, including the "chaperones and heat shock proteins", "antibiotic resistance and susceptibility", "energy metabolism", "protein secretion/export apparatus", and "secreted factors", and "motility and attachment" classes. In this latter class, the large majority of the affected genes were down-regulated in the sigX mutant. In agreement with the array data, the sigX mutant was shown to demonstrate substantially reduced motility, attachment to biotic and abiotic surfaces, and biofilm formation. In addition, virulence towards the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was reduced in the sigX mutant, suggesting that SigX is involved in virulence-related phenotypes. PMID:24260387

  19. Tailoring of global transcription sigma D factor by random mutagenesis to improve Escherichia coli tolerance towards low-pHs.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xi; Jiang, Ling; Zhu, Liying; Xu, Qing; Xu, Xian; Huang, He

    2016-04-20

    Bioconversion processes of organic acid or acid hydrolysis of raw material for microbial metabolism often suffer limitations as a result of microbial sensitivity in low-pH conditions. We adopted a three-step method called RAndom Insertional-deletional Strand Exchange mutagenesis (RAISE) to engineer the components of global regulator Sigma D factor (RpoD) of Escherichia coli to improve its acid tolerance. The best strain Mutant VII was identified from random mutagenesis libraries based on the growth performance, which exhibited much higher growth rate than the control (0.22h(-1) vs. 0.15h(-1)) at pH as low as 3.17. Combined transcriptome and phenome analysis of E. coli was carried out to better understand the global effects of RpoD on the regulatory networks. Our analysis showed that 95 (2.1%) of all E. coli genes were induced and 178 (4.0%) genes were repressed, including those for trehalose biosynthesis, nucleotides biosynthesis, carbon metabolism, amino acid utilization, except for acid resistance. Also regulated were the master regulators (ArcA, EvgA, H-NS and RpoS) and gene/operon-specific transcription factors (GadX, GadW, AppY, YdeO, KdgR). These results demonstrated that RpoD acts as global regulator in the growth phase of E. coli and consequently improves acid tolerances. PMID:26971973

  20. Regulated proteolysis of the alternative sigma factor SigX in Streptococcus mutans: implication in the escape from competence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background SigX (σX), the alternative sigma factor of Streptococcus mutans, is the key regulator for transcriptional activation of late competence genes essential for taking up exogenous DNA. Recent studies reveal that adaptor protein MecA and the protease ClpC act as negative regulators of competence by a mechanism that involves MecA-mediated proteolysis of SigX by the ClpC in S. mutans. However, the molecular detail how MecA and ClpC negatively regulate competence in this species remains to be determined. Here, we provide evidence that adaptor protein MecA targets SigX for degradation by the protease complex ClpC/ClpP when S. mutans is grown in a complex medium. Results By analyzing the cellular levels of SigX, we demonstrate that the synthesis of SigX is transiently induced by competence-stimulating peptide (CSP), but the SigX is rapidly degraded during the escape from competence. A deletion of MecA, ClpC or ClpP results in the cellular accumulation of SigX and a prolonged competence state, while an overexpression of MecA enhances proteolysis of SigX and accelerates the escape from competence. In vitro protein-protein interaction assays confirm that MecA interacts with SigX via its N-terminal domain (NTD1–82) and with ClpC via its C-terminal domain (CTD123–240). Such an interaction mediates the formation of a ternary SigX-MecA-ClpC complex, triggering the ATP-dependent degradation of SigX in the presence of ClpP. A deletion of the N-terminal or C-terminal domain of MecA abolishes its binding to SigX or ClpC. We have also found that MecA-regulated proteolysis of SigX appears to be ineffective when S. mutans is grown in a chemically defined medium (CDM), suggesting the possibility that an unknown mechanism may be involved in negative regulation of MecA-mediated proteolysis of SigX under this condition. Conclusion Adaptor protein MecA in S. mutans plays a crucial role in recognizing and targeting SigX for degradation by the protease ClpC/ClpP. Thus, Mec

  1. An extracytoplasmic function sigma factor-dependent periplasmic glutathione peroxidase is involved in oxidative stress response of Shewanella oneidensis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dai, Jingcheng; Wei, Hehong; Tian, Chunyuan; Damron, Fredrick; Zhou, Jizhong; Qiu, Dongru

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bacteria use alternative sigma factors (σs) to regulate condition-specific gene expression for survival and Shewanella harbors multiple ECF (extracytoplasmic function) σ genes and cognate anti-sigma factor genes. Here we comparatively analyzed two of the rpoE-like operons in the strain MR-1: rpoE-rseA-rseB-rseC and rpoE2-chrR. Results: RpoE was important for bacterial growth at low and high temperatures, in the minimal medium, and high salinity. The degP/htrA orthologue, required for growth of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at high temperature, is absent in Shewanella, while the degQ gene is RpoE-regulated and is required for bacterial growth at high temperature. RpoE2 was essentialmore » for the optimal growth in oxidative stress conditions because the rpoE2 mutant was sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and paraquat. The operon encoding a ferrochelatase paralogue (HemH2) and a periplasmic glutathione peroxidase (PgpD) was identified as RpoE2-dependent. PgpD exhibited higher activities and played a more important role in the oxidative stress responses than the cytoplasmic glutathione peroxidase CgpD under tested conditions. The rpoE2-chrR operon and the identified regulon genes, including pgpD and hemH2, are coincidently absent in several psychrophilic and/or deep-sea Shewanella strains. Conclusion: In S. oneidensis MR-1, the RpoE-dependent degQ gene is required for optimal growth under high temperature. The rpoE2 and RpoE2-dependent pgpD gene encoding a periplasmic glutathione peroxidase are involved in oxidative stress responses. But rpoE2 is not required for bacterial growth at low temperature and it even affected bacterial growth under salt stress, indicating that there is a tradeoff between the salt resistance and RpoE2-mediated oxidative stress responses.« less

  2. An extracytoplasmic function sigma factor-dependent periplasmic glutathione peroxidase is involved in oxidative stress response of Shewanella oneidensis

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Jingcheng; Wei, Hehong; Tian, Chunyuan; Damron, Fredrick; Zhou, Jizhong; Qiu, Dongru

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bacteria use alternative sigma factors (σs) to regulate condition-specific gene expression for survival and Shewanella harbors multiple ECF (extracytoplasmic function) σ genes and cognate anti-sigma factor genes. Here we comparatively analyzed two of the rpoE-like operons in the strain MR-1: rpoE-rseA-rseB-rseC and rpoE2-chrR. Results: RpoE was important for bacterial growth at low and high temperatures, in the minimal medium, and high salinity. The degP/htrA orthologue, required for growth of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at high temperature, is absent in Shewanella, while the degQ gene is RpoE-regulated and is required for bacterial growth at high temperature. RpoE2 was essential for the optimal growth in oxidative stress conditions because the rpoE2 mutant was sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and paraquat. The operon encoding a ferrochelatase paralogue (HemH2) and a periplasmic glutathione peroxidase (PgpD) was identified as RpoE2-dependent. PgpD exhibited higher activities and played a more important role in the oxidative stress responses than the cytoplasmic glutathione peroxidase CgpD under tested conditions. The rpoE2-chrR operon and the identified regulon genes, including pgpD and hemH2, are coincidently absent in several psychrophilic and/or deep-sea Shewanella strains. Conclusion: In S. oneidensis MR-1, the RpoE-dependent degQ gene is required for optimal growth under high temperature. The rpoE2 and RpoE2-dependent pgpD gene encoding a periplasmic glutathione peroxidase are involved in oxidative stress responses. But rpoE2 is not required for bacterial growth at low temperature and it even affected bacterial growth under salt stress, indicating that there is a tradeoff between the salt resistance and RpoE2-mediated oxidative stress responses.

  3. Sigma Factor SigB Is Crucial to Mediate Staphylococcus aureus Adaptation during Chronic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Tuchscherr, Lorena; Bischoff, Markus; Lattar, Santiago M.; Noto Llana, Mariangeles; Pförtner, Henrike; Niemann, Silke; Geraci, Jennifer; Van de Vyver, Hélène; Fraunholz, Martin J.; Cheung, Ambrose L.; Herrmann, Mathias; Völker, Uwe; Sordelli, Daniel O.; Peters, Georg; Löffler, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that causes a range of infections from acute invasive to chronic and difficult-to-treat. Infection strategies associated with persisting S. aureus infections are bacterial host cell invasion and the bacterial ability to dynamically change phenotypes from the aggressive wild-type to small colony variants (SCVs), which are adapted for intracellular long-term persistence. The underlying mechanisms of the bacterial switching and adaptation mechanisms appear to be very dynamic, but are largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the role and the crosstalk of the global S. aureus regulators agr, sarA and SigB by generating single, double and triple mutants, and testing them with proteome analysis and in different in vitro and in vivo infection models. We were able to demonstrate that SigB is the crucial factor for adaptation in chronic infections. During acute infection, the bacteria require the simultaneous action of the agr and sarA loci to defend against invading immune cells by causing inflammation and cytotoxicity and to escape from phagosomes in their host cells that enable them to settle an infection at high bacterial density. To persist intracellularly the bacteria subsequently need to silence agr and sarA. Indeed agr and sarA deletion mutants expressed a much lower number of virulence factors and could persist at high numbers intracellularly. SigB plays a crucial function to promote bacterial intracellular persistence. In fact, ΔsigB-mutants did not generate SCVs and were completely cleared by the host cells within a few days. In this study we identified SigB as an essential factor that enables the bacteria to switch from the highly aggressive phenotype that settles an acute infection to a silent SCV-phenotype that allows for long-term intracellular persistence. Consequently, the SigB-operon represents a possible target to develop preventive and therapeutic strategies against chronic and therapy-refractory infections. PMID

  4. Induction of a stable sigma factor SigR by translation-inhibiting antibiotics confers resistance to antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ji-Sun; Oh, Gyeong-Seok; Ryoo, Sungweon; Roe, Jung-Hye

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic-producing streptomycetes are rich sources of resistance mechanisms against endogenous and exogenous antibiotics. An ECF sigma factor σR (SigR) is known to govern the thiol-oxidative stress response in Streptomyces coelicolor. Amplification of this response is achieved by producing an unstable isoform of σR called σR′. In this work, we present evidence that antibiotics induce the SigR regulon via a redox-independent pathway, leading to antibiotic resistance. The translation-inhibiting antibiotics enhanced the synthesis of stable σR, eliciting a prolonged response. WblC/WhiB7, a WhiB-like DNA-binding protein, is responsible for inducing sigRp1 transcripts encoding the stable σR. The amount of WblC protein and its binding to the sigRp1 promoter in vivo increased upon antibiotic treatment. A similar phenomenon appears to exist in Mycobacterium tuberculosis as well. These findings reveal a novel antibiotic-induced resistance mechanism conserved among actinomycetes, and also give an explicit example of overlap in cellular damage and defense mechanisms between thiol-oxidative and anti- translational stresses. PMID:27346454

  5. Expression of Clostridium difficile Toxins A and B and Their Sigma Factor TcdD Is Controlled by Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Sture; Dupuy, Bruno; Mukherjee, Kakoli; Norin, Elisabeth; Burman, Lars G.; Åkerlund, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Growth temperature was found to control the expression of toxins A and B in Clostridium difficile VPI 10463, with a maximum at 37°C and low levels at 22 and 42°C in both peptone yeast (PY) and defined media. The up-regulation of toxin A and B mRNA and protein levels upon temperature upshift from 22 to 37°C followed the same kinetics, showing that temperature control occurred at the level of transcription. Experiments with Clostridium perfringens using gusA as a reporter gene demonstrated that both toxin gene promoters were temperature controlled and that their high activity at 37°C was dependent on the alternative sigma factor TcdD. Furthermore, tcdD was found to be autoinduced at 37°C. Glucose down-regulated all these responses in the C. perfringens constructs, similar to its impact on toxin production in C. difficile PY broth cultures. C. difficile proteins induced at 37°C and thus coregulated with the toxins by temperature were demonstrated by two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identified as enzymes involved in butyric acid production and as electron carriers in oxidation-reduction reactions. The regulation of toxin production in C. difficile by temperature is a novel finding apparently reflecting an adaptation of the expression of its virulence to mammalian hosts. PMID:12654792

  6. The Extra-Cytoplasmic Function Sigma Factor SigX Modulates Biofilm and Virulence-Related Properties in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Gicquel, Gwendoline; Bouffartigues, Emeline; Bains, Manjeet; Oxaran, Virginie; Rosay, Thibaut; Lesouhaitier, Olivier; Connil, Nathalie; Bazire, Alexis; Maillot, Olivier; Bénard, Magalie; Cornelis, Pierre; Hancock, Robert E. W.; Dufour, Alain; Feuilloley, Marc G. J.; Orange, Nicole; Déziel, Eric; Chevalier, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    SigX, one of the 19 extra-cytoplasmic function sigma factors of P. aeruginosa, was only known to be involved in transcription of the gene encoding the major outer membrane protein OprF. We conducted a comparative transcriptomic study between the wildtype H103 strain and its sigX mutant PAOSX, which revealed a total of 307 differentially expressed genes that differed by more than 2 fold. Most dysregulated genes belonged to six functional classes, including the “chaperones and heat shock proteins”, “antibiotic resistance and susceptibility”, “energy metabolism”, “protein secretion/export apparatus”, and “secreted factors”, and “motility and attachment” classes. In this latter class, the large majority of the affected genes were down-regulated in the sigX mutant. In agreement with the array data, the sigX mutant was shown to demonstrate substantially reduced motility, attachment to biotic and abiotic surfaces, and biofilm formation. In addition, virulence towards the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was reduced in the sigX mutant, suggesting that SigX is involved in virulence-related phenotypes. PMID:24260387

  7. The Key Sigma Factor of Transition Phase, SigH, Controls Sporulation, Metabolism, and Virulence Factor Expression in Clostridium difficile▿†

    PubMed Central

    Saujet, Laure; Monot, Marc; Dupuy, Bruno; Soutourina, Olga; Martin-Verstraete, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Toxin synthesis in Clostridium difficile increases as cells enter into stationary phase. We first compared the expression profiles of strain 630E during exponential growth and at the onset of stationary phase and showed that genes involved in sporulation, cellular division, and motility, as well as carbon and amino acid metabolism, were differentially expressed under these conditions. We inactivated the sigH gene, which encodes an alternative sigma factor involved in the transition to post-exponential phase in Bacillus subtilis. Then, we compared the expression profiles of strain 630E and the sigH mutant after 10 h of growth. About 60% of the genes that were differentially expressed between exponential and stationary phases, including genes involved in motility, sporulation, and metabolism, were regulated by SigH, which thus appears to be a key regulator of the transition phase in C. difficile. SigH positively controls several genes required for sporulation. Accordingly, sigH inactivation results in an asporogeneous phenotype. The spo0A and CD2492 genes, encoding the master regulator of sporulation and one of its associated kinases, and the spoIIA operon were transcribed from a SigH-dependent promoter. The expression of tcdA and tcdB, encoding the toxins, and of tcdR, encoding the sigma factor required for toxin production, increased in a sigH mutant. Finally, SigH regulates the expression of genes encoding surface-associated proteins, such as the Cwp66 adhesin, the S-layer precursor, and the flagellum components. Among the 286 genes positively regulated by SigH, about 40 transcriptional units presenting a SigH consensus in their promoter regions are good candidates for direct SigH targets. PMID:21572003

  8. Decoding Biomass-Sensing Regulons of Clostridium thermocellum Alternative Sigma-I Factors in a Heterologous Bacillus subtilis Host System

    PubMed Central

    Rozman Grinberg, Inna; Garty, Yuval; Bayer, Edward A.; Shoham, Yuval; Lamed, Raphael; Borovok, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    The Gram-positive, anaerobic, cellulolytic, thermophile Clostridium (Ruminiclostridium) thermocellum secretes a multi-enzyme system called the cellulosome to solubilize plant cell wall polysaccharides. During the saccharolytic process, the enzymatic composition of the cellulosome is modulated according to the type of polysaccharide(s) present in the environment. C. thermocellum has a set of eight alternative RNA polymerase sigma (σ) factors that are activated in response to extracellular polysaccharides and share sequence similarity to the Bacillus subtilis σI factor. The aim of the present work was to demonstrate whether individual C. thermocellum σI-like factors regulate specific cellulosomal genes, focusing on C. thermocellum σI6 and σI3 factors. To search for putative σI6- and σI3-dependent promoters, bioinformatic analysis of the upstream regions of the cellulosomal genes was performed. Because of the limited genetic tools available for C. thermocellum, the functionality of the predicted σI6- and σI3-dependent promoters was studied in B. subtilis as a heterologous host. This system enabled observation of the activation of 10 predicted σI6-dependent promoters associated with the C. thermocellum genes: sigI6 (itself, Clo1313_2778), xyn11B (Clo1313_0522), xyn10D (Clo1313_0177), xyn10Z (Clo1313_2635), xyn10Y (Clo1313_1305), cel9V (Clo1313_0349), cseP (Clo1313_2188), sigI1 (Clo1313_2174), cipA (Clo1313_0627), and rsgI5 (Clo1313_0985). Additionally, we observed the activation of 4 predicted σI3-dependent promoters associated with the C. thermocellum genes: sigI3 (itself, Clo1313_1911), pl11 (Clo1313_1983), ce12 (Clo1313_0693) and cipA. Our results suggest possible regulons of σI6 and σI3 in C. thermocellum, as well as the σI6 and σI3 promoter consensus sequences. The proposed -35 and -10 promoter consensus elements of σI6 are CNNAAA and CGAA, respectively. Additionally, a less conserved CGA sequence next to the C in the -35 element and a highly

  9. Decoding Biomass-Sensing Regulons of Clostridium thermocellum Alternative Sigma-I Factors in a Heterologous Bacillus subtilis Host System.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Gutiérrez, Iván; Ortiz de Ora, Lizett; Rozman Grinberg, Inna; Garty, Yuval; Bayer, Edward A; Shoham, Yuval; Lamed, Raphael; Borovok, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    The Gram-positive, anaerobic, cellulolytic, thermophile Clostridium (Ruminiclostridium) thermocellum secretes a multi-enzyme system called the cellulosome to solubilize plant cell wall polysaccharides. During the saccharolytic process, the enzymatic composition of the cellulosome is modulated according to the type of polysaccharide(s) present in the environment. C. thermocellum has a set of eight alternative RNA polymerase sigma (σ) factors that are activated in response to extracellular polysaccharides and share sequence similarity to the Bacillus subtilis σI factor. The aim of the present work was to demonstrate whether individual C. thermocellum σI-like factors regulate specific cellulosomal genes, focusing on C. thermocellum σI6 and σI3 factors. To search for putative σI6- and σI3-dependent promoters, bioinformatic analysis of the upstream regions of the cellulosomal genes was performed. Because of the limited genetic tools available for C. thermocellum, the functionality of the predicted σI6- and σI3-dependent promoters was studied in B. subtilis as a heterologous host. This system enabled observation of the activation of 10 predicted σI6-dependent promoters associated with the C. thermocellum genes: sigI6 (itself, Clo1313_2778), xyn11B (Clo1313_0522), xyn10D (Clo1313_0177), xyn10Z (Clo1313_2635), xyn10Y (Clo1313_1305), cel9V (Clo1313_0349), cseP (Clo1313_2188), sigI1 (Clo1313_2174), cipA (Clo1313_0627), and rsgI5 (Clo1313_0985). Additionally, we observed the activation of 4 predicted σI3-dependent promoters associated with the C. thermocellum genes: sigI3 (itself, Clo1313_1911), pl11 (Clo1313_1983), ce12 (Clo1313_0693) and cipA. Our results suggest possible regulons of σI6 and σI3 in C. thermocellum, as well as the σI6 and σI3 promoter consensus sequences. The proposed -35 and -10 promoter consensus elements of σI6 are CNNAAA and CGAA, respectively. Additionally, a less conserved CGA sequence next to the C in the -35 element and a highly

  10. Stress sigma factor RpoS degradation and translation are sensitive to the state of central metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Battesti, Aurelia; Majdalani, Nadim; Gottesman, Susan

    2015-01-01

    RpoS, the stationary phase/stress sigma factor of Escherichia coli, regulates a large cohort of genes important for the cell to deal with suboptimal conditions. Its level increases quickly in the cell in response to many stresses and returns to low levels when growth resumes. Increased RpoS results from increased translation and decreased RpoS degradation. Translation is positively regulated by small RNAs (sRNAs). Protein stability is positively regulated by anti-adaptors, which prevent the RssB adaptor-mediated degradation of RpoS by the ClpXP protease. Inactivation of aceE, a subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), was found to increase levels of RpoS by affecting both translation and protein degradation. The stabilization of RpoS in aceE mutants is dependent on increased transcription and translation of IraP and IraD, two known anti-adaptors. The aceE mutation also leads to a significant increase in rpoS translation. The sRNAs known to positively regulate RpoS are not responsible for the increased translation; sequences around the start codon are sufficient for the induction of translation. PDH synthesizes acetyl-CoA; acetate supplementation allows the cell to synthesize acetyl-CoA by an alternative, less favored pathway, in part dependent upon RpoS. Acetate addition suppressed the effects of the aceE mutant on induction of the anti-adaptors, RpoS stabilization, and rpoS translation. Thus, the bacterial cell responds to lowered levels of acetyl-CoA by inducing RpoS, allowing reprogramming of E. coli metabolism. PMID:25847996

  11. The Sigma Factor AlgU Plays a Key Role in Formation of Robust Biofilms by Nonmucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa▿

    PubMed Central

    Bazire, Alexis; Shioya, Kouki; Soum-Soutéra, Emmanuelle; Bouffartigues, Emeline; Ryder, Cynthia; Guentas-Dombrowsky, Linda; Hémery, Gaëlle; Linossier, Isabelle; Chevalier, Sylvie; Wozniak, Daniel J.; Lesouhaitier, Olivier; Dufour, Alain

    2010-01-01

    The extracytoplasmic function sigma factor AlgU of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is responsible for alginate overproduction, leading to mucoidy and chronic infections of cystic fibrosis patients. We investigated here the role of AlgU in the formation of nonmucoid biofilms. The algU mutant of P. aeruginosa PAO1 (PAOU) showed a dramatic impairment in biofilm formation under dynamic conditions. PAOU was defective both in cell attachment to glass and in development of robust, shear-resistant biofilms. This was explained by an impaired production of extracellular matrix, specifically of the exopolysaccharide Psl, as revealed by microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Complementing the algU mutation with a plasmid-borne algU gene restored wild-type phenotypes. Compared with that in PAO1, expression of the psl operon was reduced in the PAOU strain, and the biofilm formation ability of this strain was partially restored by inducing the transcription of the psl operon. Furthermore, expression of the lectin-encoding lecA and lecB genes was reduced in the PAOU strain. In agreement with the requirement of LecB for type IV pilus biogenesis, PAOU displayed impaired twitching motility. Collectively, these genetic downregulation events explain the biofilm formation defect of the PAOU mutant. Promoter mapping indicated that AlgU is probably not directly responsible for transcription of the psl operon and the lec genes, but AlgU is involved in the expression of the ppyR gene, whose product was reported to positively control psl expression. Expressing the ppyR gene in PAOU partially restored the formation of robust biofilms. PMID:20348252

  12. Stress sigma factor RpoS degradation and translation are sensitive to the state of central metabolism.

    PubMed

    Battesti, Aurelia; Majdalani, Nadim; Gottesman, Susan

    2015-04-21

    RpoS, the stationary phase/stress sigma factor of Escherichia coli, regulates a large cohort of genes important for the cell to deal with suboptimal conditions. Its level increases quickly in the cell in response to many stresses and returns to low levels when growth resumes. Increased RpoS results from increased translation and decreased RpoS degradation. Translation is positively regulated by small RNAs (sRNAs). Protein stability is positively regulated by anti-adaptors, which prevent the RssB adaptor-mediated degradation of RpoS by the ClpXP protease. Inactivation of aceE, a subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), was found to increase levels of RpoS by affecting both translation and protein degradation. The stabilization of RpoS in aceE mutants is dependent on increased transcription and translation of IraP and IraD, two known anti-adaptors. The aceE mutation also leads to a significant increase in rpoS translation. The sRNAs known to positively regulate RpoS are not responsible for the increased translation; sequences around the start codon are sufficient for the induction of translation. PDH synthesizes acetyl-CoA; acetate supplementation allows the cell to synthesize acetyl-CoA by an alternative, less favored pathway, in part dependent upon RpoS. Acetate addition suppressed the effects of the aceE mutant on induction of the anti-adaptors, RpoS stabilization, and rpoS translation. Thus, the bacterial cell responds to lowered levels of acetyl-CoA by inducing RpoS, allowing reprogramming of E. coli metabolism. PMID:25847996

  13. Sigma-1 receptor mediates cocaine-induced transcriptional regulation by recruiting chromatin-remodeling factors at the nuclear envelope

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Shang-Yi A.; Chuang, Jian-Ying; Tsai, Meng-Shan; Wang, Xiao-fei; Hung, Jan-Jong; Chang, Wen-Chang; Bonci, Antonello; Su, Tsung-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) chaperone at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays important roles in cellular regulation. Here we found a new function of Sig-1R, in that it translocates from the ER to the nuclear envelope (NE) to recruit chromatin-remodeling molecules and regulate the gene transcription thereof. Sig-1Rs mainly reside at the ER–mitochondrion interface. However, on stimulation by agonists such as cocaine, Sig-1Rs translocate from ER to the NE, where Sig-1Rs bind NE protein emerin and recruit chromatin-remodeling molecules, including lamin A/C, barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF), and histone deacetylase (HDAC), to form a complex with the gene repressor specific protein 3 (Sp3). Knockdown of Sig-1Rs attenuates the complex formation. Cocaine was found to suppress the gene expression of monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) in the brain of wild-type but not Sig-1R knockout mouse. A single dose of cocaine (20 mg/kg) in rats suppresses the level of MAOB at nuclear accumbens without affecting the level of dopamine transporter. Daily injections of cocaine in rats caused behavioral sensitization. Withdrawal from cocaine in cocaine-sensitized rats induced an apparent time-dependent rebound of the MAOB protein level to about 200% over control on day 14 after withdrawal. Treatment of cocaine-withdrawn rats with the MAOB inhibitor deprenyl completely alleviated the behavioral sensitization to cocaine. Our results demonstrate a role of Sig-1R in transcriptional regulation and suggest cocaine may work through this newly discovered genomic action to achieve its addictive action. Results also suggest the MAOB inhibitor deprenyl as a therapeutic agent to block certain actions of cocaine during withdrawal. PMID:26554014

  14. Sigma-1 receptor mediates cocaine-induced transcriptional regulation by recruiting chromatin-remodeling factors at the nuclear envelope.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shang-Yi A; Chuang, Jian-Ying; Tsai, Meng-Shan; Wang, Xiao-Fei; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Hung, Jan-Jong; Chang, Wen-Chang; Bonci, Antonello; Su, Tsung-Ping

    2015-11-24

    The sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) chaperone at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays important roles in cellular regulation. Here we found a new function of Sig-1R, in that it translocates from the ER to the nuclear envelope (NE) to recruit chromatin-remodeling molecules and regulate the gene transcription thereof. Sig-1Rs mainly reside at the ER-mitochondrion interface. However, on stimulation by agonists such as cocaine, Sig-1Rs translocate from ER to the NE, where Sig-1Rs bind NE protein emerin and recruit chromatin-remodeling molecules, including lamin A/C, barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF), and histone deacetylase (HDAC), to form a complex with the gene repressor specific protein 3 (Sp3). Knockdown of Sig-1Rs attenuates the complex formation. Cocaine was found to suppress the gene expression of monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) in the brain of wild-type but not Sig-1R knockout mouse. A single dose of cocaine (20 mg/kg) in rats suppresses the level of MAOB at nuclear accumbens without affecting the level of dopamine transporter. Daily injections of cocaine in rats caused behavioral sensitization. Withdrawal from cocaine in cocaine-sensitized rats induced an apparent time-dependent rebound of the MAOB protein level to about 200% over control on day 14 after withdrawal. Treatment of cocaine-withdrawn rats with the MAOB inhibitor deprenyl completely alleviated the behavioral sensitization to cocaine. Our results demonstrate a role of Sig-1R in transcriptional regulation and suggest cocaine may work through this newly discovered genomic action to achieve its addictive action. Results also suggest the MAOB inhibitor deprenyl as a therapeutic agent to block certain actions of cocaine during withdrawal. PMID:26554014

  15. The Clostridium difficile Dlt Pathway Is Controlled by the Extracytoplasmic Function Sigma Factor σV in Response to Lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Woods, Emily C; Nawrocki, Kathryn L; Suárez, Jose M; McBride, Shonna M

    2016-06-01

    Clostridium difficile (also known as Peptoclostridium difficile) is a major nosocomial pathogen and a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea throughout the world. Colonization of the intestinal tract is necessary for C. difficile to cause disease. Host-produced antimicrobial proteins (AMPs), such as lysozyme, are present in the intestinal tract and can deter colonization by many bacterial pathogens, and yet C. difficile is able to survive in the colon in the presence of these AMPs. Our prior studies established that the Dlt pathway, which increases the surface charge of the bacterium by addition of d-alanine to teichoic acids, is important for C. difficile resistance to a variety of AMPs. We sought to determine what genetic mechanisms regulate expression of the Dlt pathway. In this study, we show that a dlt null mutant is severely attenuated for growth in lysozyme and that expression of the dltDABC operon is induced in response to lysozyme. Moreover, we found that a mutant lacking the extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor σ(V) does not induce dlt expression in response to lysozyme, indicating that σ(V) is required for regulation of lysozyme-dependent d-alanylation of the cell wall. Using reporter gene fusions and 5' RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) analysis, we identified promoter elements necessary for lysozyme-dependent and lysozyme-independent dlt expression. In addition, we observed that both a sigV mutant and a dlt mutant are more virulent in a hamster model of infection. These findings demonstrate that cell wall d-alanylation in C. difficile is induced by lysozyme in a σ(V)-dependent manner and that this pathway impacts virulence in vivo. PMID:27068095

  16. Global Repression of Host-Associated Genes of the Lyme Disease Spirochete through Post-Transcriptional Modulation of the Alternative Sigma Factor RpoS

    PubMed Central

    Dulebohn, Daniel P.; Hayes, Beth M.; Rosa, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, is a vector-borne pathogen that transits between Ixodes ticks and vertebrate hosts. During the natural infectious cycle, spirochetes must globally adjust their transcriptome to survive in these dissimilar environments. One way B. burgdorferi accomplishes this is through the use of alternative sigma factors to direct transcription of specific genes. RpoS, one of only three sigma factors in B. burgdorferi, controls expression of genes required during tick-transmission and infection of the mammalian host. How spirochetes switch between different sigma factors during the infectious cycle has remained elusive. Here we establish a role for a novel protein, BBD18, in the regulation of the virulence-associated sigma factor RpoS. Constitutive expression of BBD18 repressed transcription of RpoS-dependent genes to levels equivalent to those observed in an rpoS mutant. Consistent with the global loss of RpoS-dependent transcripts, we were unable to detect RpoS protein. However, constitutive expression of BBD18 did not diminish the amount of rpoS transcript, indicating post-transcriptional regulation of RpoS by BBD18. Interestingly, BBD18-mediated repression of RpoS is independent of both the rpoS promoter and the 5’ untranslated region, suggesting a mechanism of protein destabilization rather than translational control. We propose that BBD18 is a novel regulator of RpoS and its activity likely represents a first step in the transition from an RpoS-ON to an RpoS-OFF state, when spirochetes transition from the host to the tick vector. PMID:24671196

  17. Self-cleavage of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cell-surface Signaling Anti-sigma Factor FoxR Occurs through an N-O Acyl Rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Bastiaansen, Karlijn C; van Ulsen, Peter; Wijtmans, Maikel; Bitter, Wilbert; Llamas, María A

    2015-05-01

    The Fox system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a cell-surface signaling (CSS) pathway employed by the bacterium to sense and respond to the presence of the heterologous siderophore ferrioxamine in the environment. This regulatory pathway controls the transcription of the foxA ferrioxamine receptor gene through the extracytoplasmic function sigma factor σ(FoxI). In the absence of ferrioxamine, the activity of σ(FoxI) is inhibited by the transmembrane anti-sigma factor FoxR. Upon binding of ferrioxamine by the FoxA receptor, FoxR is processed by a complex proteolytic cascade leading to the release and activation of σ(FoxI). Interestingly, we have recently shown that FoxR undergoes self-cleavage between the periplasmic Gly-191 and Thr-192 residues independent of the perception of ferrioxamine. This autoproteolytic event, which is widespread among CSS anti-sigma factors, produces two distinct domains that interact and function together to transduce the presence of the signal. In this work, we provide evidence that the self-cleavage of FoxR is not an enzyme-dependent process but is induced by an N-O acyl rearrangement. Mutation analysis showed that the nucleophilic side chain of the Thr-192 residue at +1 of the cleavage site is required for an attack on the preceding Gly-191, after which the resulting ester bond is likely hydrolyzed. Because the cleavage site is well preserved and the hydrolysis of periplasmic CSS anti-sigma factors is widely observed, we hypothesize that cleavage via an N-O acyl rearrangement is a conserved feature of these proteins. PMID:25809487

  18. Self-cleavage of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cell-surface Signaling Anti-sigma Factor FoxR Occurs through an N-O Acyl Rearrangement*

    PubMed Central

    Bastiaansen, Karlijn C.; van Ulsen, Peter; Wijtmans, Maikel; Bitter, Wilbert; Llamas, María A.

    2015-01-01

    The Fox system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a cell-surface signaling (CSS) pathway employed by the bacterium to sense and respond to the presence of the heterologous siderophore ferrioxamine in the environment. This regulatory pathway controls the transcription of the foxA ferrioxamine receptor gene through the extracytoplasmic function sigma factor σFoxI. In the absence of ferrioxamine, the activity of σFoxI is inhibited by the transmembrane anti-sigma factor FoxR. Upon binding of ferrioxamine by the FoxA receptor, FoxR is processed by a complex proteolytic cascade leading to the release and activation of σFoxI. Interestingly, we have recently shown that FoxR undergoes self-cleavage between the periplasmic Gly-191 and Thr-192 residues independent of the perception of ferrioxamine. This autoproteolytic event, which is widespread among CSS anti-sigma factors, produces two distinct domains that interact and function together to transduce the presence of the signal. In this work, we provide evidence that the self-cleavage of FoxR is not an enzyme-dependent process but is induced by an N-O acyl rearrangement. Mutation analysis showed that the nucleophilic side chain of the Thr-192 residue at +1 of the cleavage site is required for an attack on the preceding Gly-191, after which the resulting ester bond is likely hydrolyzed. Because the cleavage site is well preserved and the hydrolysis of periplasmic CSS anti-sigma factors is widely observed, we hypothesize that cleavage via an N-O acyl rearrangement is a conserved feature of these proteins. PMID:25809487

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of two domains of a bilobed extra-cytoplasmic function sigma factor SigC from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, Krishan Gopal; Gopal, B.

    2005-08-01

    Expression, purification and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the two domains of the sigma factor SigC from M. tuberculosis are reported. Sigma factors are transcription-regulatory proteins that bind to RNA polymerase and facilitate promoter recognition. The so-called extracytoplasmic function sigma factors help a bacterium to respond to environmental conditions. Mycobacterium tuberculosis SigC (σ{sup C}) is an extracytoplasmic sigma factor that is essential for lethality in a mouse model of infection and is conserved in all pathogenic mycobacterial species. This protein consists of two domains that are connected by an ∼25-amino-acid linker. The N-terminal domain contains the σ{sub 2} DNA-binding motif, whereas the σ{sub 4} motif is located in the C-terminal domain. Native σ{sup C} did not yield diffraction-quality crystals. However, two of its domains have been cloned, expressed and crystallized: σ{sub 2}{sup C} (12.3 kDa) and σ{sub c}{sup C} (7.5 kDa). The σ{sub c}{sup C} crystals belong to the hexagonal space group P6{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 85.28, c = 79.63 Å, and native X-ray diffraction data were collected from this domain to 2.7 Å on an in-house X-ray home source. The σ{sub 4}{sup C} crystals belong to the cubic space group F23, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 161.21 Å. X-ray diffraction data were collected from this domain to 3.1 Å, also on an in-house X-ray source.

  20. 14-3-3 sigma and 14-3-3 zeta plays an opposite role in cell growth inhibition mediated by transforming growth factor-beta 1.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hye-Young; Jeon, Woo-Kwang; Bae, Eun-Jin; Kim, Shin-Tae; Lee, Ho-Jae; Kim, Seong-Jin; Kim, Byung-Chul

    2010-03-01

    The expression of 14-3-3 proteins is dysregulated in various types of cancer. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of 14-3-3 zeta and 14-3-3 sigma on cell growth inhibition mediated by transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1). Mouse mammary epithelial cells (Eph4) that are transformed with oncogenic c-H-Ras (EpRas) and no longer sensitive to TGF-beta1-mediated growth inhibition displayed increased expression of 14-3-3 zeta and decreased expression of 14-3-3 sigma compared with parental Eph4 cells. Using small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown and overexpression of 14-3-3 sigma or 14-3-3 zeta, we showed that 14-3-3 sigma is required for TGF-beta1-mediated growth inhibition whereas 14-3-3 zeta negatively modulates this growth inhibitory response. Notably, overexpression of 14-3-3 zeta increased the level of Smad3 protein that is phosphorylated at linker regions and cannot mediate the TGF-beta1 growth inhibitory response. Consistent with this finding, mutation of the 14-3-3 zeta phosphorylation sites in Smad3 markedly reduced the 14-3-3 zeta-mediated inhibition of TGF-beta1-induced p15 promoter-reporter activity and cell cycle arrest, suggesting that these residues are critical targets of 14-3-3 zeta in the suppression of TGF-beta1-mediated growth. Taken together, our findings indicate that dysregulation of 14-3-3 sigma or 14-3-3 zeta contributes to TGF-beta1 resistance in cancer cells. PMID:20082218

  1. In depth analysis of the mechanism of action of metal-dependent sigma factors: characterization of CorE2 from Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Marcos-Torres, Francisco Javier; Pérez, Juana; Gómez-Santos, Nuria; Moraleda-Muñoz, Aurelio; Muñoz-Dorado, José

    2016-01-01

    Extracytoplasmic function sigma factors represent the third pillar of signal-transduction mechanisms in bacteria. The variety of stimuli they recognize and mechanisms of action they use have allowed their classification into more than 50 groups. We have characterized CorE2 from Myxococcus xanthus, which belongs to group ECF44 and upregulates the expression of two genes when it is activated by cadmium and zinc. Sigma factors of this group contain a Cys-rich domain (CRD) at the C terminus which is essential for detecting metals. Point mutations at the six Cys residues of the CRD have revealed the contribution of each residue to CorE2 activity. Some of them are essential, while others are either dispensable or their mutations only slightly affect the activity of the protein. However, importantly, mutation of Cys174 completely shifts the specificity of CorE2 from cadmium to copper, indicating that the Cys arrangement of the CRD determines the metal specificity. Moreover, the conserved CxC motif located between the σ2 domain and the σ4.2 region has also been found to be essential for activity. The results presented here contribute to our understanding of the mechanism of action of metal-dependent sigma factors and help to define new common features of the members of this group of regulators. PMID:26951374

  2. Mutations in the Primary Sigma Factor σA and Termination Factor Rho That Reduce Susceptibility to Cell Wall Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Heon

    2014-01-01

    Combinations of glycopeptides and β-lactams exert synergistic antibacterial activity, but the evolutionary mechanisms driving resistance to both antibiotics remain largely unexplored. By repeated subculturing with increasing vancomycin (VAN) and cefuroxime (CEF) concentrations, we isolated an evolved strain of the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis with reduced susceptibility to both antibiotics. Whole-genome sequencing revealed point mutations in genes encoding the major σ factor of RNA polymerase (sigA), a cell shape-determining protein (mreB), and the ρ termination factor (rho). Genetic-reconstruction experiments demonstrated that the G-to-C substitution at position 336 encoded by sigA (sigAG336C), in the domain that recognizes the −35 promoter region, is sufficient to reduce susceptibility to VAN and works cooperatively with the rhoG56C substitution to increase CEF resistance. Transcriptome analyses revealed that the sigAG336C substitution has wide-ranging effects, including elevated expression of the general stress σ factor (σB) regulon, which is required for CEF resistance, and decreased expression of the glpTQ genes, which leads to fosfomycin (FOS) resistance. Our findings suggest that mutations in the core transcriptional machinery may facilitate the evolution of resistance to multiple cell wall antibiotics. PMID:25112476

  3. Responsibility Factors of Reducing Inefficiencies in Information System Processes and Their Role on Intention to Acquire Six Sigma Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hejazi, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Organizations worldwide have been turning to Six Sigma program (SSP) to eliminate the defects in their products or drive out the variability in their processes to attain a competitive advantage in their marketplace. An effective certification program has been touted as a major contributor to successful implementation of SSP. An effective…

  4. The Putative Lactococcal Extracytoplasmic Function Anti-Sigma Factor Llmg2447 Determines Resistance to the Cell Wall-Active Bacteriocin Lcn972

    PubMed Central

    Roces, Clara; Pérez, Verónica; Campelo, Ana B.; Blanco, Diego; Kok, Jan; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Rodríguez, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Lactococcin 972 (Lcn972) is a cell wall-active bacteriocin that inhibits cell wall biosynthesis in Lactococcus lactis. In this work, the transcriptomes of the Lcn972-resistant (Lcnr) mutant L. lactis D1 and its parent strain were compared to identify factors involved in Lcn972 resistance. Upregulated genes included members of the cell envelope stress (CesSR) regulon, the penicillin-binding protein pbpX gene and gene llmg2447, which may encode a putative extracytoplasmic function (ECF) anti-sigma factor. The gene llmg2447 is located downstream of the nonfunctional ECF gene sigXpseudo. Nisin-controlled expression of llmg2447 led to high Lcn972 resistance in L. lactis, with no cross-resistance to other cell wall-active antimicrobials. Upregulation of llmg2447 in L. lactis D1 (Lcnr) was linked to the integration of insertion element IS981 into the llmg2447 promoter region, replacing the native −35 box and activating the otherwise silent promoter P2447. This is the first example of an orphan ECF anti-sigma factor involved in bacteriocin resistance. This new role in neutralizing cell wall-active compounds (e.g., Lcn972) could have evolved from a putative primary function of Llmg2447 in sensing cell envelope stress. PMID:22890757

  5. Group 3 sigma factor gene, sigJ, a key regulator of desiccation tolerance, regulates the synthesis of extracellular polysaccharide in cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Hidehisa; Okamoto, Shinobu; Tsumuraya, Yoichi; Ohmori, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The changes in the expression of sigma factor genes during dehydration in terrestrial Nostoc HK-01 and aquatic Anabaena PCC 7120 were determined. The expression of the sigJ gene in terrestrial Nostoc HK-01, which is homologous to sigJ (alr0277) in aquatic Anabaena PCC 7120, was significantly induced in the mid-stage of dehydration. We constructed a higher-expressing transformant of the sigJ gene (HE0277) in Anabaena PCC 7120, and the transformant acquired desiccation tolerance. The results of Anabaena oligonucleotide microarray experiments showed that a comparatively large number of genes relating to polysaccharide biosynthesis were upregulated in the HE0277 cells. The extracellular polysaccharide released into the culture medium of the HE0277 cells was as much as 3.2-fold more than that released by the control cells. This strongly suggests that the group 3 sigma factor gene sigJ is fundamental and conducive to desiccation tolerance in these cyanobacteria. PMID:17376888

  6. Sigma factor selectivity in Borrelia burgdorferi: RpoS recognition of the ospE/ospF/elp promoters is dependent on the sequence of the -10 region.

    PubMed

    Eggers, Christian H; Caimano, Melissa J; Radolf, Justin D

    2006-03-01

    Members of the ospE/ospF/elp lipoprotein gene families of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, are transcriptionally upregulated in response to the influx of blood into the midgut of an infected tick. We recently have demonstrated that despite the high degree of similarity between the promoters of the ospF (P(ospF)) and ospE (P(ospE)) genes of B. burgdorferi strain 297, the differential expression of ospF is RpoS-dependent, while ospE is controlled by sigma(70). Herein we used wild-type and RpoS-deficient strains of B. burgdorferi and Escherichia coli to analyse transcriptional reporters consisting of a green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene fused to P(ospF), P(ospE), or two hybrid promoters in which the -10 regions of P(ospF) and P(ospE) were switched [P(ospF ) ((E - 10)) and P(ospE) ((F - 10)) respectively]. We found that the P(ospF)-10 region is both necessary and sufficient for RpoS-dependent recognition in B. burgdorferi, while sigma(70) specificity for P(ospE) is dependent on elements outside of the -10 region. In E. coli, sigma factor selectivity for these promoters was much more permissive, with expression of each being primarily due to sigma(70). Alignment of the sequences upstream of each of the ospE/ospF/elp genes from B. burgdorferi strains 297 and B31 revealed that two B31 ospF paralogues [erpK (BBM38) and erpL (BBO39)] have -10 regions virtually identical to that of P(ospF). Correspondingly, expression of gfp reporters based on the erpK and erpL promoters was RpoS-dependent. Thus, the sequence of the P(ospF)-10 region appears to serve as a motif for RpoS recognition, the first described for any B. burgdorferi promoter. Taken together, our data support the notion that B. burgdorferi utilizes sequence differences at the -10 region as one mechanism for maintaining the transcriptional integrity of RpoS-dependent and -independent genes activated at the onset of tick feeding. PMID:16553889

  7. The Rsb Phosphoregulatory Network Controls Availability of the Primary Sigma Factor in Chlamydia trachomatis and Influences the Kinetics of Growth and Development

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Christopher C.; Griffiths, Cherry; Nicod, Sophie S.; Lowden, Nicole M.; Wigneshweraraj, Sivaramesh; Fisher, Derek J.; McClure, Myra O.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human pathogen that exhibits stage-specific gene transcription throughout a biphasic developmental cycle. The mechanisms that control modulation in transcription and associated phenotypic changes are poorly understood. This study provides evidence that a switch-protein kinase regulatory network controls availability of σ66, the main sigma subunit for transcription in Chlamydia. In vitro analysis revealed that a putative switch-protein kinase regulator, RsbW, is capable of interacting directly with σ66, as well as phosphorylating its own antagonist, RsbV1, rendering it inactive. Conversely, the putative PP2C-like phosphatase domain of chlamydial RsbU was capable of reverting RsbV1 into its active state. Recent advances in genetic manipulation of Chlamydia were employed to inactivate rsbV1, as well as to increase the expression levels of rsbW or rsbV1, in vivo. Representative σ66-dependent gene transcription was repressed in the absence of rsbV1 or upon increased expression of RsbW, and increased upon elevated expression of RsbV1. These effects on housekeeping transcription were also correlated to several measures of growth and development. A model is proposed where the relative levels of active antagonist (RsbV1) and switch-protein anti-sigma factor (RsbW) control the availability of σ66 and subsequently act as a molecular 'throttle' for Chlamydia growth and development. PMID:26313645

  8. ςBldN, an Extracytoplasmic Function RNA Polymerase Sigma Factor Required for Aerial Mycelium Formation in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)

    PubMed Central

    Bibb, Maureen J.; Molle, Virginie; Buttner, Mark J.

    2000-01-01

    Sporulation mutants of Streptomyces coelicolor appear white because they are defective in the synthesis of the gray polyketide spore pigment, and such white (whi) mutants have been used to define 13 sporulation loci. whiN, one of five new whi loci identified in a recent screen of NTG (N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine)-induced whi strains (N. J. Ryding et al., J. Bacteriol. 181:5419–5425, 1999), was defined by two mutants, R112 and R650. R650 produced frequent spores that were longer than those of the wild type. In contrast, R112 produced long, straight, undifferentiated hyphae, although rare spore chains were observed, sometimes showing highly irregular septum placement. Subcloning and sequencing showed that whiN encodes a member of the extracytoplasmic function subfamily of RNA polymerase sigma factors and that the sigma factor has an unusual N-terminal extension of approximately 86 residues that is not present in other sigma factors. A constructed whiN null mutant failed to form aerial mycelium (the “bald” phenotype) and, as a consequence, whiN was renamed bldN. This observation was not totally unexpected because, on some media, the R112 point mutant produced substantially less aerial mycelium than its parent, M145. The bldN null mutant did not fit simply into the extracellular signaling cascade proposed for S. coelicolor bld mutants. Expression of bldN was analyzed during colony development in wild-type and aerial mycelium-deficient bld strains. bldN was transcribed from a single promoter, bldNp. bldN transcription was developmentally regulated, commencing approximately at the time of aerial mycelium formation, and depended on bldG and bldH, but not on bldA, bldB, bldC, bldF, bldK, or bldJ or on bldN itself. Transcription from the p1 promoter of the response-regulator gene bldM depended on bldN in vivo, and the bldMp1 promoter was shown to be a direct biochemical target for ςBldN holoenzyme in vitro. PMID:10913095

  9. The Sigma Factor AlgU (AlgT) Controls Exopolysaccharide Production and Tolerance towards Desiccation and Osmotic Stress in the Biocontrol Agent Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0

    PubMed Central

    Schnider-Keel, Ursula; Lejbølle, Kirsten Bang; Baehler, Eric; Haas, Dieter; Keel, Christoph

    2001-01-01

    A variety of stress situations may affect the activity and survival of plant-beneficial pseudomonads added to soil to control root diseases. This study focused on the roles of the sigma factor AlgU (synonyms, AlgT, RpoE, and ς22) and the anti-sigma factor MucA in stress adaptation of the biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0. The algU-mucA-mucB gene cluster of strain CHA0 was similar to that of the pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas syringae. Strain CHA0 is naturally nonmucoid, whereas a mucA deletion mutant or algU-overexpressing strains were highly mucoid due to exopolysaccharide overproduction. Mucoidy strictly depended on the global regulator GacA. An algU deletion mutant was significantly more sensitive to osmotic stress than the wild-type CHA0 strain and the mucA mutant were. Expression of an algU′-′lacZ reporter fusion was induced severalfold in the wild type and in the mucA mutant upon exposure to osmotic stress, whereas a lower, noninducible level of expression was observed in the algU mutant. Overexpression of algU did not enhance tolerance towards osmotic stress. AlgU was found to be essential for tolerance of P. fluorescens towards desiccation stress in a sterile vermiculite-sand mixture and in a natural sandy loam soil. The size of the population of the algU mutant declined much more rapidly than the size of the wild-type population at soil water contents below 5%. In contrast to its role in pathogenic pseudomonads, AlgU did not contribute to tolerance of P. fluorescens towards oxidative and heat stress. In conclusion, AlgU is a crucial determinant in the adaptation of P. fluorescens to dry conditions and hyperosmolarity, two major stress factors that limit bacterial survival in the environment. PMID:11722923

  10. Domain movements of the enhancer-dependent sigma factor drive DNA delivery into the RNA polymerase active site: insights from single molecule studies

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Amit; Leach, Robert N.; Gell, Christopher; Zhang, Nan; Burrows, Patricia C.; Shepherd, Dale A.; Wigneshweraraj, Sivaramesh; Smith, David Alastair; Zhang, Xiaodong; Buck, Martin; Stockley, Peter G.; Tuma, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of bacterial promoters is regulated by two distinct classes of sequence-specific sigma factors, σ70 or σ54, that differ both in their primary sequence and in the requirement of the latter for activation via enhancer-bound upstream activators. The σ54 version controls gene expression in response to stress, often mediating pathogenicity. Its activator proteins are members of the AAA+ superfamily and use adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis to remodel initially auto-inhibited holoenzyme promoter complexes. We have mapped this remodeling using single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy. Initial remodeling is nucleotide-independent and driven by binding both ssDNA during promoter melting and activator. However, DNA loading into the RNA polymerase active site depends on co-operative ATP hydrolysis by the activator. Although the coupled promoter recognition and melting steps may be conserved between σ70 and σ54, the domain movements of the latter have evolved to require an activator ATPase. PMID:24553251

  11. Domain movements of the enhancer-dependent sigma factor drive DNA delivery into the RNA polymerase active site: insights from single molecule studies.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Amit; Leach, Robert N; Gell, Christopher; Zhang, Nan; Burrows, Patricia C; Shepherd, Dale A; Wigneshweraraj, Sivaramesh; Smith, David Alastair; Zhang, Xiaodong; Buck, Martin; Stockley, Peter G; Tuma, Roman

    2014-04-01

    Recognition of bacterial promoters is regulated by two distinct classes of sequence-specific sigma factors, σ(70) or σ(54), that differ both in their primary sequence and in the requirement of the latter for activation via enhancer-bound upstream activators. The σ(54) version controls gene expression in response to stress, often mediating pathogenicity. Its activator proteins are members of the AAA+ superfamily and use adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis to remodel initially auto-inhibited holoenzyme promoter complexes. We have mapped this remodeling using single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy. Initial remodeling is nucleotide-independent and driven by binding both ssDNA during promoter melting and activator. However, DNA loading into the RNA polymerase active site depends on co-operative ATP hydrolysis by the activator. Although the coupled promoter recognition and melting steps may be conserved between σ(70) and σ(54), the domain movements of the latter have evolved to require an activator ATPase. PMID:24553251

  12. Preparation and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of crystals of bacterial flagellar sigma factor σ{sup 28} in complex with the σ{sup 28}-binding region of its antisigma factor, FlgM

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Kengo; Ichihara, Hisako; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Ishihama, Akira; Hakoshima, Toshio

    2007-03-01

    A complex of E. coli flagellar and chemotaxis-specific sigma factor σ{sup 28} bound to the σ{sup 28}-binding region of its antisigma factor FlgM was crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.7 Å. The sigma 28 kDa (σ{sup 28}) factor is a transcription factor specific for the expression of bacterial flagellar and chemotaxis genes. Its antisigma factor, FlgM, binds σ{sup 28} factor and inhibits its activity as a transcription factor. In this study, crystals of the complex between Escherichia coli σ{sup 28} and the C-terminal σ{sup 28}-binding region of FlgM were obtained. The crystals belong to space group P3{sub 1}21 or P3{sub 2}21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 106.7 (2), c = 51.74 (3) Å, containing one complex in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. An X-ray intensity data set was collected to a resolution of 2.7 Å.

  13. Transcription of the oprF Gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Is Dependent Mainly on the SigX Sigma Factor and Is Sucrose Induced

    PubMed Central

    Bouffartigues, Emeline; Gicquel, Gwendoline; Bazire, Alexis; Bains, Manjeet; Maillot, Olivier; Vieillard, Julien; Feuilloley, Marc G. J.; Orange, Nicole; Hancock, R. E. W.; Dufour, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The OprF porin is the major outer membrane protein of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. OprF is involved in several crucial functions, including cell structure, outer membrane permeability, environmental sensing, and virulence. The oprF gene is preceded by the sigX gene, which encodes the poorly studied extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor SigX. Three oprF promoters were previously identified. Two intertwined promoters dependent on σ70 and SigX are located in the sigX-oprF intergenic region, whereas a promoter dependent on the ECF AlgU lies within the sigX gene. An additional promoter was found in the cmpX-sigX intergenic region. In this study, we dissected the contribution of each promoter region and of each sigma factor to oprF transcription using transcriptional fusions. In Luria-Bertani (LB) medium, the oprF-proximal region (sigX-oprF intergenic region) accounted for about 80% of the oprF transcription, whereas the AlgU-dependent promoter had marginal activity. Using the sigX mutant PAOSX, we observed that the SigX-dependent promoter was largely predominant over the σ70-dependent promoter. oprF transcription was increased in response to low NaCl or high sucrose concentrations, and this induced transcription was strongly impaired in the absence of SigX. The lack of OprF itself increased oprF transcription. Since these conditions led to cell wall alterations, oprF transcription could be activated by signals triggered by perturbation of the cell envelope. PMID:22685281

  14. Expression of the translocator protein (TSPO) from Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 requires the stress regulatory sigma factors AlgU and RpoH.

    PubMed

    Leneveu-Jenvrin, Charlène; Bouffartigues, Emeline; Maillot, Olivier; Cornelis, Pierre; Feuilloley, Marc G J; Connil, Nathalie; Chevalier, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The translocator protein (TSPO), previously designated as peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor, is an evolutionary conserved protein that is found in many Eukarya, Archae, and Bacteria, in which it plays several important functions including for example membrane biogenesis, signaling, and stress response. A tspo homolog gene has been identified in several members of the Pseudomonas genus, among which the soil bacterium P. fluorescens Pf0-1. In this bacterium, the tspo gene is located in the vicinity of a putative hybrid histidine kinase-encoding gene. Since tspo has been involved in water stress related response in plants, we explored the effects of hyperosmolarity and temperature on P. fluorescens Pf0-1 tspo expression using a strategy based on lux-reporter fusions. We show that the two genes Pfl01_2810 and tspo are co-transcribed forming a transcription unit. The expression of this operon is growth phase-dependent and is increased in response to high concentrations of NaCl, sucrose and to a D-cycloserine treatment, which are conditions leading to activity of the major cell wall stress responsive extracytoplasmic sigma factor AlgU. Interestingly, the promoter region activity is strongly lowered in a P. aeruginosa algU mutant, suggesting that AlgU may be involved at least partly in the molecular mechanism leading to Pfl01_2810-tspo expression. In silico analysis of this promoter region failed to detect an AlgU consensus binding site; however, a putative binding site for the heat shock response RpoH sigma factor was detected. Accordingly, the promoter activity of the region containing this sequence is increased in response to high growth temperature and slightly lowered in a P. aeruginosa rpoH mutant strain. Taken together, our data suggest that P. fluorescens tspo gene may belong at least partly to the cell wall stress response. PMID:26441945

  15. Expression of the translocator protein (TSPO) from Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 requires the stress regulatory sigma factors AlgU and RpoH

    PubMed Central

    Leneveu-Jenvrin, Charlène; Bouffartigues, Emeline; Maillot, Olivier; Cornelis, Pierre; Feuilloley, Marc G. J.; Connil, Nathalie; Chevalier, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The translocator protein (TSPO), previously designated as peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor, is an evolutionary conserved protein that is found in many Eukarya, Archae, and Bacteria, in which it plays several important functions including for example membrane biogenesis, signaling, and stress response. A tspo homolog gene has been identified in several members of the Pseudomonas genus, among which the soil bacterium P. fluorescens Pf0-1. In this bacterium, the tspo gene is located in the vicinity of a putative hybrid histidine kinase-encoding gene. Since tspo has been involved in water stress related response in plants, we explored the effects of hyperosmolarity and temperature on P. fluorescens Pf0-1 tspo expression using a strategy based on lux-reporter fusions. We show that the two genes Pfl01_2810 and tspo are co-transcribed forming a transcription unit. The expression of this operon is growth phase-dependent and is increased in response to high concentrations of NaCl, sucrose and to a D-cycloserine treatment, which are conditions leading to activity of the major cell wall stress responsive extracytoplasmic sigma factor AlgU. Interestingly, the promoter region activity is strongly lowered in a P. aeruginosa algU mutant, suggesting that AlgU may be involved at least partly in the molecular mechanism leading to Pfl01_2810-tspo expression. In silico analysis of this promoter region failed to detect an AlgU consensus binding site; however, a putative binding site for the heat shock response RpoH sigma factor was detected. Accordingly, the promoter activity of the region containing this sequence is increased in response to high growth temperature and slightly lowered in a P. aeruginosa rpoH mutant strain. Taken together, our data suggest that P. fluorescens tspo gene may belong at least partly to the cell wall stress response. PMID:26441945

  16. SIGffRid: A tool to search for sigma factor binding sites in bacterial genomes using comparative approach and biologically driven statistics

    PubMed Central

    Touzain, Fabrice; Schbath, Sophie; Debled-Rennesson, Isabelle; Aigle, Bertrand; Kucherov, Gregory; Leblond, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Background Many programs have been developed to identify transcription factor binding sites. However, most of them are not able to infer two-word motifs with variable spacer lengths. This case is encountered for RNA polymerase Sigma (σ) Factor Binding Sites (SFBSs) usually composed of two boxes, called -35 and -10 in reference to the transcription initiation point. Our goal is to design an algorithm detecting SFBS by using combinational and statistical constraints deduced from biological observations. Results We describe a new approach to identify SFBSs by comparing two related bacterial genomes. The method, named SIGffRid (SIGma Factor binding sites Finder using R'MES to select Input Data), performs a simultaneous analysis of pairs of promoter regions of orthologous genes. SIGffRid uses a prior identification of over-represented patterns in whole genomes as selection criteria for potential -35 and -10 boxes. These patterns are then grouped using pairs of short seeds (of which one is possibly gapped), allowing a variable-length spacer between them. Next, the motifs are extended guided by statistical considerations, a feature that ensures a selection of motifs with statistically relevant properties. We applied our method to the pair of related bacterial genomes of Streptomyces coelicolor and Streptomyces avermitilis. Cross-check with the well-defined SFBSs of the SigR regulon in S. coelicolor is detailed, validating the algorithm. SFBSs for HrdB and BldN were also found; and the results suggested some new targets for these σ factors. In addition, consensus motifs for BldD and new SFBSs binding sites were defined, overlapping previously proposed consensuses. Relevant tests were carried out also on bacteria with moderate GC content (i.e. Escherichia coli/Salmonella typhimurium and Bacillus subtilis/Bacillus licheniformis pairs). Motifs of house-keeping σ factors were found as well as other SFBSs such as that of SigW in Bacillus strains. Conclusion We demonstrate

  17. Comparative Sigma Factor-mRNA Levels in Mycobacterium marinum under Stress Conditions and during Host Infection.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, B M Fredrik; Das, Sarbashis; Behra, Phani Rama Krishna; Jordan, Heather R; Ramesh, Malavika; Mallick, Amrita; Root, Kate M; Cheramie, Martin N; de la Cruz Melara, Irma; Small, Pamela L C; Dasgupta, Santanu; Ennis, Don G; Kirsebom, Leif A

    2015-01-01

    We have used RNASeq and qRT-PCR to study mRNA levels for all σ-factors in different Mycobacterium marinum strains under various growth and stress conditions. We also studied their levels in M. marinum from infected fish and mosquito larvae. The annotated σ-factors were expressed and transcripts varied in relation to growth and stress conditions. Some were highly abundant such as sigA, sigB, sigC, sigD, sigE and sigH while others were not. The σ-factor mRNA profiles were similar after heat stress, during infection of fish and mosquito larvae. The similarity also applies to some of the known heat shock genes such as the α-crystallin gene. Therefore, it seems probable that the physiological state of M. marinum is similar when exposed to these different conditions. Moreover, the mosquito larvae data suggest that this is the state that the fish encounter when infected, at least with respect to σ-factor mRNA levels. Comparative genomic analysis of σ-factor gene localizations in three M. marinum strains and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv revealed chromosomal rearrangements that changed the localization of especially sigA, sigB, sigD, sigE, sigF and sigJ after the divergence of these two species. This may explain the variation in species-specific expression upon exposure to different growth conditions. PMID:26445268

  18. Comparative Sigma Factor-mRNA Levels in Mycobacterium marinum under Stress Conditions and during Host Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, B. M. Fredrik; Das, Sarbashis; Behra, Phani Rama Krishna; Jordan, Heather R.; Ramesh, Malavika; Mallick, Amrita; Root, Kate M.; Cheramie, Martin N.; de la Cruz Melara, Irma; Small, Pamela L. C.; Dasgupta, Santanu; Ennis, Don G.; Kirsebom, Leif A.

    2015-01-01

    We have used RNASeq and qRT-PCR to study mRNA levels for all σ-factors in different Mycobacterium marinum strains under various growth and stress conditions. We also studied their levels in M. marinum from infected fish and mosquito larvae. The annotated σ-factors were expressed and transcripts varied in relation to growth and stress conditions. Some were highly abundant such as sigA, sigB, sigC, sigD, sigE and sigH while others were not. The σ-factor mRNA profiles were similar after heat stress, during infection of fish and mosquito larvae. The similarity also applies to some of the known heat shock genes such as the α-crystallin gene. Therefore, it seems probable that the physiological state of M. marinum is similar when exposed to these different conditions. Moreover, the mosquito larvae data suggest that this is the state that the fish encounter when infected, at least with respect to σ-factor mRNA levels. Comparative genomic analysis of σ-factor gene localizations in three M. marinum strains and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv revealed chromosomal rearrangements that changed the localization of especially sigA, sigB, sigD, sigE, sigF and sigJ after the divergence of these two species. This may explain the variation in species-specific expression upon exposure to different growth conditions. PMID:26445268

  19. The Extracytoplasmic Function Sigma Factor SigY Is Important for Efficient Maintenance of the Spβ Prophage That Encodes Sublancin in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Rebecca; Gutierrez, Alba; Reyes, Jasmin

    2012-01-01

    Many strains of the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis are capable of producing and being resistant to the antibiotic sublancin because they harbor the Spβ prophage. This 135 kb viral genome is integrated into the circular DNA chromosome of B. subtilis, and contains genes for the production of and resistance to sublancin. We investigated the role of SigY in sublancin production and resistance, finding that it is important for efficient maintenance of the Spβ prophage. We were unable to detect the prophage in mutants lacking SigY. Additionally, these mutants were no longer able to produce sublancin, were sensitive to killing by this factor, and displayed a delay in sporulation. Wild-type cells with normal SigY activity were found to partially lose the Spβ prophage during growth and early sporulation, suggesting a mechanism for the bistable outcome of sibling cells capable of killing and of being killed. The appropriate regulation of SigY appears to be essential for growth as evidenced by the inability to disrupt the gene for its putative antisigma. Our results confirm a role for SigY in antibiotic production and resistance, as has been found for other members of the extracytoplasmic function sigma factor family in B. subtilis, and shows that this role is achieved by affecting maintenance of the Spβ prophage. PMID:22400495

  20. The Staphylococcus aureus Alternative Sigma Factor ςB Controls the Environmental Stress Response but Not Starvation Survival or Pathogenicity in a Mouse Abscess Model

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Pan F.; Foster, Simon J.; Ingham, Eileen; Clements, Mark O.

    1998-01-01

    The role of ςB, an alternative sigma factor of Staphylococcus aureus, has been characterized in response to environmental stress, starvation-survival and recovery, and pathogenicity. ςB was mainly expressed during the stationary phase of growth and was repressed by 1 M sodium chloride. A sigB insertionally inactivated mutant was created. In stress resistance studies, ςB was shown to be involved in recovery from heat shock at 54°C and in acid and hydrogen peroxide resistance but not in resistance to ethanol or osmotic shock. Interestingly, S. aureus acquired increased acid resistance when preincubated at a sublethal pH 4 prior to exposure to a lethal pH 2. This acid-adaptive response resulting in tolerance was mediated via sigB. However, ςB was not vital for the starvation-survival or recovery mechanisms. ςB does not have a major role in the expression of the global regulator of virulence determinant biosynthesis, staphylococcal accessory regulator (sarA), the production of a number of representative virulence factors, and pathogenicity in a mouse subcutaneous abscess model. However, SarA upregulates sigB expression in a growth-phase-dependent manner. Thus, ςB expression is linked to the processes controlling virulence determinant production. The role of ςB as a major regulator of the stress response, but not of starvation-survival, is discussed. PMID:9829915

  1. Manage your human sigma.

    PubMed

    Fleming, John H; Coffman, Curt; Harter, James K

    2005-01-01

    If sales and service organizations are to improve, they must learn to measure and manage the quality of the employee-customer encounter. Quality improvement methodologies such as Six Sigma are extremely useful in manufacturing contexts, but they're less useful when it comes to human interactions. To address this problem, the authors have developed a quality improvement approach they refer to as Human Sigma. It weaves together a consistent method for assessing the employee-customer encounter and a disciplined process for managing and improving it. There are several core principles for measuring and managing the employee-customer encounter: It's important not to think like an economist or an engineer when assessing interactions because emotions inform both sides' judgments and behavior. The employee-customer encounter must be measured and managed locally, because there are enormous variations in quality at the work-group and individual levels. And to improve the quality of the employee-customer interaction, organizations must conduct both short-term, transactional interventions and long-term, transformational ones. Employee engagement and customer engagement are intimately connected--and, taken together, they have an outsized effect on financial performance. They therefore need to be managed holistically. That is, the responsibility for measuring and monitoring the health of employee-customer relationships must reside within a single organizational structure, with an executive champion who has the authority to initiate and manage change. Nevertheless, the local manager remains the single most important factor in local group performance. A local manager whose work group shows suboptimal performance should be encouraged to conduct interventions, such as targeted training, performance reviews, action learning, and individual coaching. PMID:16028821

  2. Roles of Group 2 Sigma Factors in Acclimation of the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 to Nitrogen Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Antal, Taras; Kurkela, Juha; Parikainen, Marjaana; Kårlund, Anna; Hakkila, Kaisa; Tyystjärvi, Esa; Tyystjärvi, Taina

    2016-06-01

    Acclimation of cyanobacteria to environmental conditions is mainly controlled at the transcriptional level, and σ factors of the RNA polymerase have a central role in this process. The model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 has four non-essential group 2 σ factors (SigB, SigC, SigD and SigE) that regulate global metabolic responses to various adverse environmental conditions. Here we show that although none of the group 2 σ factors is essential for the major metabolic realignments induced by a short period of nitrogen starvation, the quadruple mutant without any group 2 σ factors and triple mutants missing both SigB and SigD grow slowly in BG-11 medium containing only 5% of the nitrate present in standard BG-11. These ΔsigBCDE, ΔsigBCD and ΔsigBDE strains lost PSII activity rapidly in low nitrogen and accumulated less glycogen than the control strain. An abnormally high glycogen content was detected in ΔsigBCE (SigD is active), while the carotenoid content became high in ΔsigCDE (SigB is active), indicating that SigB and SigD regulate the partitioning of carbon skeletons in low nitrogen. Long-term survival and recovery of the cells after nitrogen deficiency was strongly dependent on group 2 σ factors. The quadruple mutant and the ΔsigBDE strain (only SigC is active) recovered more slowly from nitrogen deficiency than the control strain, and ΔsigBCDE in particular lost viability during nitrogen starvation. Nitrogen deficiency-induced changes in the pigment content of the control strain recovered essentially in 1 d in nitrogen-replete medium, but little recovery occurred in ΔsigBCDE and ΔsigBDE. PMID:27095737

  3. Determinants of redox sensitivity in RsrA, a zinc-containing anti-sigma factor for regulating thiol oxidative stress response

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yong-Gyun; Cho, Yoo-Bok; Kim, Min-Sik; Yoo, Ji-Sun; Hong, Seok-Hyeon; Roe, Jung-Hye

    2011-01-01

    Various environmental oxidative stresses are sensed by redox-sensitive regulators through cysteine thiol oxidation or modification. A few zinc-containing anti-sigma (ZAS) factors in actinomycetes have been reported to respond sensitively to thiol oxidation, among which RsrA from Streptomyces coelicolor is best characterized. It forms disulfide bonds upon oxidation and releases bound SigR to activate thiol oxidative stress response genes. Even though numerous ZAS proteins exist in bacteria, features that confer redox sensitivity to a subset of these have been uncharacterized. In this study, we identified seven additional redox-sensitive ZAS factors from actinomycetes. Comparison with redox-insensitive ZAS revealed characteristic sequence patterns. Domain swapping demonstrated the significance of the region K33FEHH37FEEC41SPC44LEK47 that encompass the conserved HX3CX2C (HCC) motif. Mutational effect of each residue on diamide responsive induction of SigR target genes in vivo demonstrated that several residues, especially those that flank two cysteines (E39, E40, L45, E46), contribute to redox sensitivity. These residues are well conserved among redox-sensitive ZAS factors, and hence are proposed as redox-determinants in sensitive ZAS. H37A, C41A, C44A and F38A mutations, in contrast, compromised SigR-binding activity significantly, apparently affecting structural integrity of RsrA. The residue pattern around HCC motif could therefore serve as an indicator to predict redox-sensitive ZAS factors from sequence information. PMID:21685450

  4. Resilience in the Face of Uncertainty: Sigma Factor B Fine-Tunes Gene Expression To Support Homeostasis in Gram-Positive Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Guldimann, Claudia; Boor, Kathryn J; Wiedmann, Martin; Guariglia-Oropeza, Veronica

    2016-08-01

    Gram-positive bacteria are ubiquitous and diverse microorganisms that can survive and sometimes even thrive in continuously changing environments. The key to such resilience is the ability of members of a population to respond and adjust to dynamic conditions in the environment. In bacteria, such responses and adjustments are mediated, at least in part, through appropriate changes in the bacterial transcriptome in response to the conditions encountered. Resilience is important for bacterial survival in diverse, complex, and rapidly changing environments and requires coordinated networks that integrate individual, mechanistic responses to environmental cues to enable overall metabolic homeostasis. In many Gram-positive bacteria, a key transcriptional regulator of the response to changing environmental conditions is the alternative sigma factor σ(B) σ(B) has been characterized in a subset of Gram-positive bacteria, including the genera Bacillus, Listeria, and Staphylococcus Recent insight from next-generation-sequencing results indicates that σ(B)-dependent regulation of gene expression contributes to resilience, i.e., the coordination of complex networks responsive to environmental changes. This review explores contributions of σ(B) to resilience in Bacillus, Listeria, and Staphylococcus and illustrates recently described regulatory functions of σ(B). PMID:27208112

  5. The nuclear-encoded sigma factor SIG4 directly activates transcription of chloroplast psbA and ycf17 genes in the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Gaku; Imamura, Sousuke; Era, Atsuko; Miyagishima, Shin-ya; Hanaoka, Mitsumasa; Tanaka, Kan

    2015-05-01

    The plant organelle chloroplast originated from the endosymbiosis of a cyanobacterial-like photosynthetic bacterium, and still retains its own genome derived from this ancestor. We have been focusing on a unicellular red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae, as a model photosynthetic eukaryote. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptional specificity of SIG4, which is one of four nuclear-encoded chloroplast RNA polymerase sigma factors in this alga. Accumulation of the SIG4 protein was observed in response to nitrogen depletion or high light conditions. By comparing the chloroplast transcriptomes under nitrogen depletion and SIG4-overexpressing conditions, we identified several candidate genes as SIG4 targets. Together with the results of chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, the promoters of the psbA (encoding the D1 protein of the photosystem II reaction center) and ycf17 (encoding a protein of the early light-inducible protein family) genes were shown to be direct activation targets. The phycobilisome (PBS) CpcB protein was decreased by SIG4 overexpression, which suggests the negative involvement of SIG4 in PBS accumulation. PMID:25883111

  6. The anti-sigma factor TcdC modulates hypervirulence in an epidemic BI/NAP1/027 clinical isolate of Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Carter, Glen P; Douce, Gillian R; Govind, Revathi; Howarth, Pauline M; Mackin, Kate E; Spencer, Janice; Buckley, Anthony M; Antunes, Ana; Kotsanas, Despina; Jenkin, Grant A; Dupuy, Bruno; Rood, Julian I; Lyras, Dena

    2011-10-01

    Nosocomial infections are increasingly being recognised as a major patient safety issue. The modern hospital environment and associated health care practices have provided a niche for the rapid evolution of microbial pathogens that are well adapted to surviving and proliferating in this setting, after which they can infect susceptible patients. This is clearly the case for bacterial pathogens such as Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus (VRE) species, both of which have acquired resistance to antimicrobial agents as well as enhanced survival and virulence properties that present serious therapeutic dilemmas for treating physicians. It has recently become apparent that the spore-forming bacterium Clostridium difficile also falls within this category. Since 2000, there has been a striking increase in C. difficile nosocomial infections worldwide, predominantly due to the emergence of epidemic or hypervirulent isolates that appear to possess extended antibiotic resistance and virulence properties. Various hypotheses have been proposed for the emergence of these strains, and for their persistence and increased virulence, but supportive experimental data are lacking. Here we describe a genetic approach using isogenic strains to identify a factor linked to the development of hypervirulence in C. difficile. This study provides evidence that a naturally occurring mutation in a negative regulator of toxin production, the anti-sigma factor TcdC, is an important factor in the development of hypervirulence in epidemic C. difficile isolates, presumably because the mutation leads to significantly increased toxin production, a contentious hypothesis until now. These results have important implications for C. difficile pathogenesis and virulence since they suggest that strains carrying a similar mutation have the inherent potential to develop a hypervirulent phenotype. PMID:22022270

  7. Alternative Sigma Factors SigF, SigE, and SigG Are Essential for Sporulation in Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, David G.; Zhang, Zhen; Korkeala, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum produces heat-resistant endospores that may germinate and outgrow into neurotoxic cultures in foods. Sporulation is regulated by the transcription factor Spo0A and the alternative sigma factors SigF, SigE, SigG, and SigK in most spore formers studied to date. We constructed mutants of sigF, sigE, and sigG in C. botulinum ATCC 3502 and used quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR and electron microscopy to assess their expression of the sporulation pathway on transcriptional and morphological levels. In all three mutants the expression of spo0A was disrupted. The sigF and sigE mutants failed to induce sigG and sigK beyond exponential-phase levels and halted sporulation during asymmetric cell division. In the sigG mutant, peak transcription of sigE was delayed and sigK levels remained lower than that in the parent strain. The sigG mutant forespore was engulfed by the mother cell and possessed a spore coat but no peptidoglycan cortex. The findings suggest that SigF and SigE of C. botulinum ATCC 3502 are essential for early sporulation and late-stage induction of sigK, whereas SigG is essential for spore cortex formation but not for coat formation, as opposed to previous observations in B. subtilis sigG mutants. Our findings add to a growing body of evidence that regulation of sporulation in C. botulinum ATCC 3502, and among the clostridia, differs from the B. subtilis model. PMID:24928875

  8. Phosphotransferase system-dependent extracellular growth of listeria monocytogenes is regulated by alternative sigma factors σL and σH.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siyun; Orsi, Renato H; Tang, Silin; Zhang, Wei; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J

    2014-12-01

    Alternative sigma (σ) factors and phosphotransferase systems (PTSs) play pivotal roles in the environmental adaptation and virulence of Listeria monocytogenes. The growth of the L. monocytogenes parent strain 10403S and 15 isogenic alternative σ factor mutants was assessed in defined minimal medium (DM) with PTS-dependent or non-PTS-dependent carbon sources at 25°C or 37°C. Overall, our results suggested that the regulatory effect of alternative σ factors on the growth of L. monocytogenes is dependent on the temperature and the carbon source. One-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) showed that the factor "strain" had a significant effect on the maximum growth rate (μmax), lag phase duration (λ), and maximum optical density (ODmax) in PTS-dependent carbon sources (P < 0.05) but not in a non-PTS-dependent carbon source. Also, the ODmax was not affected by strain for any of the three PTS-dependent carbon sources at 25°C but was affected by strain at 37°C. Monitoring by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that transcript levels for lmo0027, a glucose-glucoside PTS permease (PTS(Glc)-1)-encoding gene, were higher in the absence of σ(L), and lower in the absence of σ(H), than in the parent strain. Our data thus indicate that σ(L) negatively regulates lmo0027 and that the increased μmax observed for the ΔsigL strain in DM with glucose may be associated with increased expression of PTS(Glc)-1 encoded by lmo0027. Our findings suggest that σ(H) and σ(L) mediate the PTS-dependent growth of L. monocytogenes through complex transcriptional regulations and fine-tuning of the expression of specific pts genes, including lmo0027. Our findings also reveal a more important and complex role of alternative σ factors in the regulation of growth in different sugar sources than previously assumed. PMID:25281379

  9. Supersymmetric sigma models

    SciTech Connect

    Bagger, J.A.

    1984-09-01

    We begin to construct the most general supersymmetric Lagrangians in one, two and four dimensions. We find that the matter couplings have a natural interpretation in the language of the nonlinear sigma model.

  10. MexCD-OprJ multidrug efflux system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: involvement in chlorhexidine resistance and induction by membrane-damaging agents dependent upon the AlgU stress response sigma factor.

    PubMed

    Fraud, Sebastien; Campigotto, Aaron J; Chen, Zhilin; Poole, Keith

    2008-12-01

    The biocide chlorhexidine (CHX) as well as additional membrane-active agents were shown to induce expression of the mexCD-oprJ multidrug efflux operon, dependent upon the AlgU stress response sigma factor. Hyperexpression of this efflux system in nfxB mutants was also substantially AlgU dependent. CHX resistance correlated with efflux gene expression in various mutants, consistent with MexCD-OprJ being a determinant of CHX resistance. PMID:18838593

  11. Two stress sensor proteins for the expression of sigmaE regulon: DegS and RseB.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Young

    2015-05-01

    In E. coli, sigmaE-dependent transcription is controlled by regulated-proteolysis of RseA. RseA, which holds sigmaE as an anti-sigma factor, is sequentially digested by DegS, RseP and cytoplasmic proteases to liberate sigmaE in response to dysfunction in outer-membrane biogenesis. Additionally, the sequential proteolysis is regulated by RseB binding to RseA (Fig. 1A). Direct interaction between RseA and RseB inhibits RseA-cleavage by DegS. Both proteolytic activation of DegS and binding disruption of RseB are thus required to initiate sigmaE-stress response. For the induction of sigmaEstress response, DegS and RseB recognize the states of OMP and LPS for outer-membrane biogenesis. DegS is activated by binding of unfolded OMPs and RseB binding to RseA is antagonized by LPS accumulated in periplasm. In this regard, DegS and RseB are proposed to be stress sensor proteins for sigmaE signal transduction. Interestingly, biogenesis of OMP and LPS appears to cross-talk with each other, indicating that dysfunction of either OMP or LPS can initiate RseA proteolysis. This review aims to briefly introduce two stress sensor proteins, DegS and RseB, which regulate sigmaEdependent transcription. PMID:25935301

  12. Negative regulation of Germination-Arrest Factor (GAF) production in Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6 by a putative extracytoplasmic function sigma factor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6 secretes a Germination-Arrest Factor (GAF) that we have previously identified as 4-formylaminooxyvinylglycine. GAF irreversibly inhibits germination of the seeds of numerous grassy weed species and selectively inhibits growth of the bacterial plant pathogen Erwinia amylo...

  13. Induction of Fibronectin Adhesins in Quinolone-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus by Subinhibitory Levels of Ciprofloxacin or by Sigma B Transcription Factor Activity Is Mediated by Two Separate Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dongmei; Renzoni, Adriana; Estoppey, Tristan; Bisognano, Carmelo; Francois, Patrice; Kelley, William L.; Lew, Daniel P.; Schrenzel, Jacques; Vaudaux, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    We recently reported on the involvement of a RecA-LexA-dependent pathway in the ciprofloxacin-triggered upregulation of fibronectin-binding proteins (FnBPs) by fluoroquinolone-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The potential additional contribution of the transcription factor sigma B (SigB) to the ciprofloxacin-triggered upregulation of FnBPs was studied in isogenic mutants of fluoroquinolone-resistant strain RA1 (a topoisomerase IV gyrase double mutant of S. aureus NCTC strain 8325), which exhibited widely different levels of SigB activity, as assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR of their respective sigB and SigB-dependent asp23 transcript levels. These mutants were Tn551 insertion sigB strain TE1 and rsbU+ complemented strain TE2, which exhibited a wild-type SigB operon. Levels of FnBP surface display and fibronectin-mediated adhesion were lower in sigB mutant TE1 or higher in the rsbU+-restored strain TE2 compared to their sigB+ but rsbU parent, strain RA1, exhibiting low levels of SigB activity. Steady-state fnbA and fnbB transcripts levels were similar in strains TE1 and RA1 but increased by 4- and 12-fold, respectively, in strain TE2 compared to those in strain RA1. In contrast, fibronectin-mediated adhesion of strains TE1, RA1, and TE2 was similarly enhanced by growth in the presence of one-eighth the MIC of ciprofloxacin, which led to a significantly higher increase in their fnbB transcript levels compared to the increase in their fnbA transcript levels. Increased SigB levels led to a significant reduction in agr RNAIII; in contrast, it led to a slight increase in sarA transcript levels. In conclusion, upregulation of FnBPs by increased SigB levels and ciprofloxacin exposure in fluoroquinolone-resistant S. aureus occurs via independent pathways whose concerted actions may significantly promote bacterial adhesion and colonization. PMID:15728884

  14. Study ofe+e- to Lambda anti-Lambda, Lambda anti-Sigma^0,Sigma^0 anti-Sigma^0 using Initial State Radiation with BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.

    2007-09-14

    We study the e+e- --> Lambda anti-Lambda gamma, Lambda anti-Sigma0 gamma, Sigma0 anti-Sigma0 gamma processes using 230 fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the BaBar detector at e+e- center-of-mass energy of 10.58 GeV. From the analysis of the baryon-antibaryon mass spectra the cross sections for e+e- --> Lambda anti-Lambda, Lambda anti-Sigma0, Sigma0 anti-Sigma0 are measured in the dibaryon mass range from threshold up to 3 GeV/c{sup 2}. The ratio of electric and magnetic form factors, |G{sub E}/G{sub M}|, is measured for e+e- --> Lambda anti-Lambda, and limits on the relative phase between Lambda form factors are obtained. We also measure the J/psi --> Lambda anti-Lambda, Sigma0 anti-Sigma0 and psi(2S) --> Lambda anti-Lambda branching fractions.

  15. The Architects of Modern Physics & Sigma Pi Sigma Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Gary

    2004-10-01

    While the tools of modern physics were being honed throughout the last century, physicist Marsh W. White (no relation) served as the installation officer for over 200 chapters of the physics honor society, Sigma Pi Sigma. Years earlier, though, his 1926 thesis ``The Energy of High Velocity Electrons'' served as a direct test of one of Einstein's most radical 1905 ideas. The ``red books'' of Sigma Pi Sigma, into which all inductees pen their names, include some of the most talented quantum mechanics of the 20th century, such as Edward Teller and George Gamow. In this talk, I will review these and other links between Sigma Pi Sigma and some of the architects of modern physics.

  16. Regulation of sigma S degradation in Salmonella enterica var typhimurium: in vivo interactions between sigma S, the response regulator MviA(RssB) and ClpX.

    PubMed

    Moreno, M; Audia, J P; Bearson, S M; Webb, C; Foster, J W

    2000-04-01

    The alternate sigma factor sigmaS plays an important role in the survival of Salmonella typhimurium following sudden encounters with a variety of stress conditions. The level of sigmaS is very low in rapidly growing cells but dramatically increases as those cells encounter environmental stress or enter into stationary phase. This increase is due in large measure to the stabilization of sigmaS protein against degradation by the ClpXP protease. The MviA protein, also known as RssB or SprE in Escherichia coli, is a putative member of a two component signal transduction system that plays a central role in facilitating sigmaS degradation by ClpXP. In contrast to most two-component systems, MviA does not appear to regulate gene expression but is believed to interact directly with sigmaS and somehow facilitate degradation. We now provide evidence that MviA(RssB) directly interacts both with sigmaS and ClpX in vivo, presumably enabling presentation of sigmaS to the ClpP protease. Interactions were demonstrated using a bacterial two-hybrid system in which sigmaS, MviA, and ClpX were fused to separate moieties of Bordetella pertussis CyaA (adenylate cyclase). Paired hybrid plasmids containing Cya'-MviA/RpoS-'Cya or Cya'-MviA/ClpX-'Cya successfully reconstituted adenylate cyclase activity in both S. typhimurium and E. coli. However, no direct interactions were detected between ClpX and RpoS. A second series of experiments has indicated that the interaction between MviA and sigmaS requires the N-terminus but not the C-terminus of MviA. Cellular levels of MviA appear to be very low in the cell based on lacZ fusion, Western blot and Northern blot analyses suggesting a catalytic role for MviA in sigmaS degradation. Mutagenesis of MviA residue D58, a canonical residue subject to phosphorylation in many two-component systems, decreased the ability of MviA to facilitate sigmaS turnover in vivo confirming that phosphorylation of MviA increases MviA activity. PMID:10939250

  17. Identification of a putative alternate sigma factor and characterization of a multicomponent regulatory cascade controlling the expression of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae Pss61 hrp and hrmA genes.

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Y; Heu, S; Yi, J; Lu, Y; Hutcheson, S W

    1994-01-01

    The Pseudomonas syringae hrp and hrmA genes controlling pathogenicity and elicitation of the hypersensitive response and the avr genes controlling host range have been shown previously to be regulated by carbon, nitrogen, pH, osmolarity, and hypothetical plant factors. In P. syringae pv. syringae Pss61, inactivation of hrp complementation groups II and XIII reduced expression of a plasmid-borne hrmA'-lacZ fusion. The hrp regions II and XIII were cloned on separate plasmids and shown to enhance the activity of the hrmA promoter in Escherichia coli MC4100 transformants at least 100-fold. The nucleotide sequence of region XIII revealed two open reading frames (hrpR and hrpS) whose deduced products share homology with P. syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121 HrpS and are both related to the NtrC family of two-component signal transduction systems. HrpR and HrpS differ from most members of the protein family by lacking an amino-terminal domain which modulates the regulatory activity. A single open reading frame, hrpL, whose product shares homology with AlgU, a putative alternate sigma factor of P. aeruginosa, as well as with the related alternate sigma factors was identified within region II. Key domains are partially conserved. Inactivation of hrpS in Pss61 repressed expression of a plasmid-borne hrpL'-lacZ fusion carried by pYXPL1R, and transformation of MC4100(pYXPL1R) with a plasmid carrying hrpRS increased hrpL promoter activity at least 200-fold. Neither hrpS nor hrpR, when cloned on separate plasmids, activated the hrpL promoter activity individually. The expression of hrpL when directed by a lac promoter was sufficient to express a set of plasmid-borne hrmA'-, hrpJ'-, and hrpZ'-lacZ fusions independently of other hrp genes. The results indicate that hrpRS and hrpL are part of a regulatory cascade in which HrpR and HrpS activate expression of hrpL and HrpL, a putative sigma factor, induces expression of HrpL-responsive genes. Images PMID:8106313

  18. Expression of the chaplin and rodlin hydrophobic sheath proteins in Streptomyces venezuelae is controlled by σ(BldN) and a cognate anti-sigma factor, RsbN.

    PubMed

    Bibb, Maureen J; Domonkos, Agota; Chandra, Govind; Buttner, Mark J

    2012-06-01

    The chaplin and rodlin proteins together constitute the major components of the hydrophobic sheath that coats the aerial hyphae and spores in Streptomyces, and mutants lacking the chaplins are unable to erect aerial hyphae and differentiate on minimal media. We have gained insight into the developmental regulation of the chaplin (chp) and rodlin (rdl) genes by exploiting a new model species, Streptomyces venezuelae, which sporulates in liquid culture. Using microarrays, the chaplin and rodlin genes were found to be highly induced during submerged sporulation in a bldN-dependent manner. Using σ(BldN) ChIP-chip, we show that this dependence arises because the chaplin and rodlin genes are direct biochemical targets of σ(BldN) . sven3186 (here named rsbN for regulator of sigma BldN), the gene lying immediately downstream of bldN, was also identified as a target of σ(BldN) . Disruption of rsbN causes precocious sporulation and biochemical experiments demonstrate that RsbN functions as a σ(BldN) -specific anti-sigma factor. PMID:22582857

  19. Genetic evidence for interaction of sigma E with the spoIIID promoter in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Tatti, K M; Jones, C H; Moran, C P

    1991-01-01

    During sporulation in Bacillus subtilis, new RNA polymerase sigma factors are produced. These sigma factors direct the transcription of genes that are required for this cellular differentiation. In order to determine the role of each sigma factor in this process, it is necessary to know which promoters are recognized by each sigma factor. The spoIIID gene product plays an important role in the establishment of mother cell-specific gene expression during sporulation. We found that substitution of an alanine at position 124 of the sporulation-specific sigma factor sigma E suppressed the effect of a single-base-pair transition at position -13 of the spoIIID promoter. This alanine substitution in sigma E did not suppress the effect of a transversion at position -12 of the spoIIID promoter. The allele specificity of the interaction between sigma E and the spoIIID promoter is strong evidence that sigma E directs transcription from the spoIIID promoter during sporulation. Position 124 in sigma E is located within a region that is highly conserved among the regions in other sigma factors that probably interact with the -10 regions of their cognate promoters. Images FIG. 1 PMID:1744038

  20. Observation of the Heavy Baryons Sigma b and Sigma b*.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Abulencia, A; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carillo, S; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Cilijak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; DaRonco, S; Datta, M; D'Auria, S; Davies, T; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Delli Paoli, F; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Dörr, C; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Forrester, S; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garberson, F; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kraan, A C; Kraus, J; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tesarek, R J; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuno, S; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vazquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, J; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2007-11-16

    We report an observation of new bottom baryons produced in pp collisions at the Tevatron. Using 1.1 fb(-1) of data collected by the CDF II detector, we observe four Lambda b 0 pi+/- resonances in the fully reconstructed decay mode Lambda b 0-->Lambda c + pi-, where Lambda c+-->pK* pi+. We interpret these states as the Sigma b(*)+/- baryons and measure the following masses: m Sigma b+=5807.8 -2.2 +2.0(stat.)+/-1.7(syst.) MeV/c2, m Sigma b- =5815.2+/-1.0(stat.)+/-1.7(syst.) MeV/c2, and m(Sigma b*)-m(Sigma b)=21.2-1.9 +2.0(stat.)-0.3+0.4(syst.) MeV/c2. PMID:18233134

  1. sigma(B) and sigma(L) contribute to Listeria monocytogenes 10403S response to the antimicrobial peptides SdpC and nisin.

    PubMed

    Palmer, M Elizabeth; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J

    2009-11-01

    The ability of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to survive antimicrobial treatments is a public health concern; therefore, this study was designed to investigate genetic mechanisms contributing to antimicrobial response in L. monocytogenes. In previous studies, the putative bacteriocin immunity gene lmo2570 was predicted to be regulated by the stress responsive alternative sigma factor, sigma(B). As the alternative sigma factor sigma(L) controls expression of genes important for resistance to some antimicrobial peptides, we hypothesized roles for lmo2570, sigma(B), and sigma(L) in L. monocytogenes antimicrobial response. Results from phenotypic characterization of a L. monocytogenes lmo2570 null mutant suggested that this gene does not contribute to resistance to nisin or to SdpC, an antimicrobial peptide produced by some strains of Bacillus subtilis. While lmo2570 transcript levels were confirmed to be sigma(B) dependent, they were sigma(L) independent and were not affected by the presence of nisin under the conditions used in this study. In spot-on-lawn assays with the SdpC-producing B. subtilis EG351, the L. monocytogenes DeltasigB, DeltasigL, and DeltasigB/DeltasigL strains all showed increased sensitivity to SdpC, indicating that both sigma(B) and sigma(L) regulate genes contributing to SdpC resistance. Nisin survival assays showed that sigma(B) and sigma(L) both affect L. monocytogenes sensitivity to nisin in broth survival assays; that is, a sigB null mutant is more resistant than the parent strain to nisin, while a sigB null mutation in DeltasigL background leads to reduced nisin resistance. In summary, while the sigma(B)-dependent lmo2570 does not contribute to resistance of L. monocytogenes to nisin or SdpC, both sigma(B) and sigma(L) contribute to the L. monocytogenes antimicrobial response. PMID:19642919

  2. Sigma receptors and cocaine abuse.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sanju; Mesangeau, Christophe; Poupaert, Jacques H; McCurdy, Christopher R

    2011-01-01

    Sigma receptors have been well documented as a protein target for cocaine and have been shown to be involved in the toxic and stimulant actions of cocaine. Strategies to reduce the access of cocaine to sigma receptors have included antisense oligonucleotides to the sigma-1 receptor protein as well as small molecule ligand with affinity for sigma receptor sites. These results have been encouraging as novel protein targets that can attenuate the actions of cocaine are desperately needed as there are currently no medications approved for treatment of cocaine toxicity or addiction. Many years of research in this area have yet to produce an effective treatment and much focus was on dopamine systems. A flurry of research has been carried out to elucidate the role of sigma receptors in the blockade of cocaine effects but this research has yet to yield a clinical agent. This review summarizes the work to date on the linkage of sigma receptors and the actions of cocaine and the progress that has been made with regard to small molecules. Although there is still a lack of an agent in clinical trials with a sigma receptor mechanism of action, work is progressing and the ligands are becoming more selective for sigma systems and the potential remains high. PMID:21050176

  3. Protein level identification of the Listeria monocytogenes Sigma H, Sigma L, and Sigma C regulons

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transcriptional regulation by alternative sigma (σ) factors represents an important mechanism that allows bacteria to rapidly regulate transcript and protein levels in response to changing environmental conditions. While the role of the alternative σ factor σB has been comparatively well characterized in L. monocytogenes, our understanding of the roles of the three other L. monocytogenes alternative σ factors is still limited. In this study, we employed a quantitative proteomics approach using Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) to characterize the L. monocytogenes σL, σH, and σC protein regulons. Proteomic comparisons used a quadruple alternative σ factor mutant strain (ΔBCHL) and strains expressing a single alternative σ factor (i.e., σL, σH, and σC; strains ΔBCH, ΔBCL, and ΔBHL) to eliminate potential redundancies between σ factors. Results Among the three alternative σ factors studied here, σH provides positive regulation for the largest number of proteins, consistent with previous transcriptomic studies, while σL appears to contribute to negative regulation of a number of proteins. σC was found to regulate a small number of proteins in L. monocytogenes grown to stationary phase at 37°C. Proteins identified as being regulated by multiple alternative σ factors include MptA, which is a component of a PTS system with a potential role in regulation of PrfA activity. Conclusions This study provides initial insights into global regulation of protein production by the L. monocytogenes alternative σ factors σL, σH, and σC. While, among these σ factors, σH appears to positively regulate the largest number of proteins, we also identified PTS systems that appear to be co-regulated by multiple alternative σ factors. Future studies should not only explore potential roles of alternative σ factors in activating a “cascade” of PTS systems that potentially regulate PrfA, but also may want to explore the

  4. Sigma-model aether

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Sean M.; Dulaney, Timothy R.; Gresham, Moira I.; Tam, Heywood

    2009-03-15

    Theories of low-energy Lorentz violation by a fixed-norm 'aether' vector field with two-derivative kinetic terms have a globally bounded Hamiltonian and are perturbatively stable only if the vector is timelike and the kinetic term in the action takes the form of a sigma model. Here we investigate the phenomenological properties of this theory. We first consider the propagation of modes in the presence of gravity and show that there is a unique choice of curvature coupling that leads to a theory without superluminal modes. Experimental constraints on this theory come from a number of sources, and we examine bounds in a two-dimensional parameter space. We then consider the cosmological evolution of the aether, arguing that the vector will naturally evolve to be orthogonal to constant-density hypersurfaces in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology. Finally, we examine cosmological evolution in the presence of an extra compact dimension of space, concluding that a vector can maintain a constant projection along the extra dimension in an expanding universe only when the expansion is exponential.

  5. {sigma} Hyperons in the Nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Bart, S.; Chrien, R. E.; Franklin, W. A.; Fukuda, T.; Hayano, R. S.; Hicks, K.; Hungerford, E. V.; Michael, R.; Miyachi, T.; Nagae, T.

    1999-12-20

    A search for {sigma} hypernuclear states in p -shell hypernuclei has been performed with the Moby Dick spectrometer and the low energy separated beam (LESB-2) at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (BNL AGS). Unlike some previously published reports, no narrow states have been observed for targets of {sup 6}Li and {sup 9}Be in (K{sup -}, {pi}{sup {+-}}) reactions, either for bound state or continuum regions. Together with the previously reported J=0 , T=1/2 bound state in {sup 4}{sub {sigma}} He , these results demonstrate the crucial role of isospin in {sigma} hypernuclei. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  6. Alternate Sigma Factor RpoS Is Required for the In Vivo-Specific Repression of Borrelia burgdorferi Plasmid lp54-Borne ospA and lp6.6 Genes

    PubMed Central

    Caimano, Melissa J.; Eggers, Christian H.; Gonzalez, Cynthia A.; Radolf, Justin D.

    2005-01-01

    While numerous positively regulated loci have been characterized during the enzootic cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi, very little is known about the mechanism(s) involved in the repression of borrelial loci either during tick feeding or within the mammalian host. Here, we report that the alternative sigma factor RpoS is required for the in vivo-specific repression of at least two RpoD-dependent B. burgdorferi loci, ospA and lp6.6. The downregulation of ospA and Ip6.6 appears to require either a repressor molecule whose expression is RpoS dependent or an accessory factor which enables RpoS to directly interact with the ospA and Ip6.6 promoter elements, thereby blocking transcription by RpoD. The central role for RpoS during the earliest stages of host adaptation suggests that tick feeding imparts signals to spirochetes that trigger the RpoS-dependent repression, as well as expression, of in vivo-specific virulence factors critical for the tick-to-mammalian host transition. PMID:16267308

  7. Running Head: Implementing Six Sigma Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Jamie Eleaitia Mae

    2005-01-01

    Six Sigma is an organization wide program that provides common set of goals, language, and methodology for improving the overall quality of the processes within the organization (Davis & Heineke 2004). Six Sigma main concern is for the customer. What will the customers want? Need? Six Sigma has a model that helps Sigma get implemented DMAIC model…

  8. Statistical software for microcomputers: SigmaPlot 2000 and SigmaStat2

    PubMed

    Kornbrot

    2000-11-01

    I cannot see any advantages for SigmaStat. SigmaPlot does indeed have many excellent features and any psychologist could feel proud of many of the graphs it produces (not the box plots). As to the competition, JMP-IN produces a similar rage of graphs (and a rotating 3D plot for factor analysis), but has much less flexibility about appearance in terms of colours, fills and other features of graph elements. It can also be difficult to make different graphs the same size appear neatly on the page. STATVIEW produces less graph forms, and does not perform the non-linear regression, but has similar excellent control of the colour, form and sizing of different graph elements. Both STATIVEW and JMP-IN have well implemented 'by variable' facilities and produce graphs well linked to their associated statistical analyses. SigmaPlot wins on the flexibility of its error bars. However, EXCEL and other spreadsheets are also well worth considering, as they produce the same range of graphics and are equally flexible over error bars. An experimenter would have to be very sure that the slight advantages in flexibility of presentation from SigmaPlot outweighed the hassle of having to totally re-organize their data. PMID:11109711

  9. An evaluation of the rate of absorption of solar radiation in the O2(X3Sigma-g - b1Sigma-g) transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.

    1993-07-01

    The rate at which molecular oxygen absorbs radiation in the O2(X3Sigma-g - b1Sigma-g) transition is calculated using a line-by-line radiative transfer model. This rate is critical to the determination of the population of the O2(b1Sigma-g) state required for studies of the O2(b1Sigma-g - X3Sigma-g) dayglow, the O2(a1Delta-g - X3Sigma-g) dayglow, and possibly the rates of oxidation of H2 and N2O. Previous evaluations of this rate (which is sometimes called the g-factor) have significantly overestimated its value. The rate is tabulated as a function of altitude, pressure, and solar zenith angle.

  10. An evaluation of the rate of absorption of solar radiation in the O2(X3Sigma-g - b1Sigma-g) transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.

    1993-01-01

    The rate at which molecular oxygen absorbs radiation in the O2(X3Sigma-g - b1Sigma-g) transition is calculated using a line-by-line radiative transfer model. This rate is critical to the determination of the population of the O2(b1Sigma-g) state required for studies of the O2(b1Sigma-g - X3Sigma-g) dayglow, the O2(a1Delta-g - X3Sigma-g) dayglow, and possibly the rates of oxidation of H2 and N2O. Previous evaluations of this rate (which is sometimes called the g-factor) have significantly overestimated its value. The rate is tabulated as a function of altitude, pressure, and solar zenith angle.

  11. Transition probabilities of the B-prime 1Sigma(u)(+) to X 1Sigma(g)(+) system of molecular hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, T. L.; Dalgarno, A.; Posen, A.

    1985-01-01

    From published potential energy curves and transition dipole moments, there are obtained by numerical integration of the equations of nuclear motion the vibrational eigenfunctions of the X 1Sigma(g)(+) and B-prime 1Sigma(u)(+) states of H2. The probabilities of radiative transitions from the discrete vibrational levels of the excited B-prime 1Sigma(u)(+) electronic state of H2 to the discrete and continuum vibrational levels of the ground X 1Sigma(g)(+) electronic state are calculated. The Franck-Condon factors are also presented.

  12. Ribosomal Protein S1 Specifically Binds to the 5′ Untranslated Region of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Stationary-Phase Sigma Factor rpoS mRNA in the Logarithmic Phase of Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ševo, Milica; Buratti, Emanuele; Venturi, Vittorio

    2004-01-01

    The rpoS gene encodes the stationary-phase sigma factor (RpoS or σs), which was identified in several gram-negative bacteria as a central regulator controlling the expression of genes involved in cell survival in response to cessation of growth (stationary phase) and providing cross-protection against various stresses. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the levels of σs increase dramatically at the onset of the stationary phase and are regulated at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. The P. aeruginosa rpoS gene is transcribed as a monocistronic rpoS mRNA transcript comprised of an unusually long 373-bp 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR). In this study, the 5′ UTR and total protein extracts from P. aeruginosa logarithmic and stationary phases of growth were used in order to investigate the protein-RNA interactions that may modulate the translational process. It was observed that a 69-kDa protein, which corresponded to ribosomal protein S1, preferentially binds the 5′ UTR of the rpoS mRNA in the logarithmic phase and not in the stationary phase. This is the first report of a protein-rpoS mRNA 5′ UTR interaction in P. aeruginosa, and the possible involvement of protein S1 in translation regulation of rpoS is discussed. PMID:15262927

  13. Characterization of the genes coding for the putative sigma factor AlgU and its regulators MucA, MucB, MucC, and MucD in Azotobacter vinelandii and evaluation of their roles in alginate biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Salazar, J M; Moreno, S; Nájera, R; Boucher, J C; Espín, G; Soberón-Chávez, G; Deretic, V

    1996-01-01

    The study of the biosynthesis of alginate, the exopolysaccharide produced by Azotobacter vinelandii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has biotechnological and medical significance. We report here the identification of the A. vinelandii genes coding for the putative sigma factor AlgU and its negative regulators MucA and MucB through the suppression of the highly mucoid phenotype of an A. vinelandii strain by a plasmid encoding MucA and MucB. The sequences of the A. vinelandii algU, mucA, and mucB genes are highly homologous to those of the corresponding P. aeruginosa genes, AlgU shows 93% identity, and MucA and MucB are 64.4 and 63.9% identical, respectively. Forming part of the same operon as algU, mucA, and mucB, two additional genes (mucC and mucD) were identified and sequenced; the product of the former gene is homologous to ORF4 of Photobacterium sp. strain SS9, and that of the latter gene belongs to the HtrA serine protease family. Interestingly, the nonmucoid A. vinelandii UW136 had a 0.9-kb insertion within the algU gene. A strong correlation between AlgU activity and alginate production by A. vinelandii was also found, as reflected in the level of algD transcription. PMID:8606151

  14. Machine Process Capability Information Through Six Sigma

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, M.F.

    1998-03-13

    A project investigating details concerning machine process capability information and its accessibility has been conducted. The thesis of the project proposed designing a part (denoted as a machine capability workpiece) based on the major machining features of a given machine. Parts are machined and measured to gather representative production, short-term variation. The information is utilized to predict the expected defect rate, expressed in terms of a composite sigma level process capability index, for a production part. Presently, decisions concerning process planning, particularly what machine will statistically produce the minimum amount of defects based on machined features and associated tolerances, are rarely made. Six sigma tools and methodology were employed to conduct this investigation at AlliedSignal FM and T. Tools such as the thought process map, factor relationship diagrams, and components of variance were used. This study is progressing toward completion. This research study was an example of how machine process capability information may be gathered for milling planar faces (horizontal) and slot features. The planning method used to determine where and how to gather variation for the part to be designed is known as factor relationship diagramming. Components-of-variation is then applied to the gathered data to arrive at the contributing level of variation illustrated within the factor relationship diagram. The idea of using this capability information beyond process planning to the other business enterprise operations is proposed.

  15. Nitrogen-dependent regulation of medium-chain length polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis genes in pseudomonads.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Nils; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2005-02-01

    Comparative transcriptional analysis of polyhdroxyalkanoate (PHA) biosynthesis genes with wild type strains and mutants, which lack the intact alternative sigma factor gene rpoN, was performed using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. In Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, phaI and phaF were co-transcribed. PhaF was a negative regulator of transcription of PHA synthase gene phaC1 but did not serve as auto-repressor. However, the alternative sigma factor RpoN is suggested as negative regulator of phaF transcription. In P. putida, phaI-phaF transcription is strongly dependent on nitrogen availability and PHA accumulation, whereas phaF transcription is not. These data suggested a differential regulation of phaF and phaIF. The phaC1 gene transcription occurred almost independently by of RpoN or nitrogen availability in both pseudomonads. PMID:15742151

  16. The sausage sigma model revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suneeta, Vardarajan

    2015-06-01

    Fateev’s sausage sigma models in two and three dimensions are known to be integrable. We study their stability under renormalization group (RG) flow in the target space by using results from the mathematics of Ricci flow. We show that the three-dimensional sausage is unstable, whereas the two-dimensional sausage appears to be stable at least at leading order as it approaches the sphere. We speculate that the stability results obtained are linked to the classification of ancient solutions to Ricci flow (i.e., sigma models that are nonperturbative in the infrared regime) in two and three dimensions. We also describe a class of perturbations of the three-dimensional sausage (with the same continuous symmetries) which remarkably decouple. This indicates that there could be a new solution to RG flow, which is described at least perturbatively as a deformation of the sausage.

  17. Transcription of Ehrlichia chaffeensis Genes Is Accomplished by RNA Polymerase Holoenzyme Containing either Sigma 32 or Sigma 70

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huitao; Von Ohlen, Tonia; Cheng, Chuanmin; Faburay, Bonto; Ganta, Roman R.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial gene transcription is initiated by RNA polymerase containing a sigma factor. To understand gene regulation in Ehrlichia chaffeensis, an important tick-transmitted rickettsiae responsible for human monocytic ehrlichiosis, we initiated studies evaluating the transcriptional machinery of several genes of this organism. We mapped the transcription start sites of 10 genes and evaluated promoters of five genes (groE, dnaK, hup, p28-Omp14 and p28-Omp19 genes). We report here that the RNA polymerase binding elements of E. chaffeensis gene promoters are highly homologous for its only two transcription regulators, sigma 32 and sigma 70, and that gene expression is accomplished by either of the transcription regulators. RNA analysis revealed that although transcripts for both sigma 32 and sigma 70 are upregulated during the early replicative stage, their expression patterns remained similar for the entire replication cycle. We further present evidence demonstrating that the organism’s -35 motifs are essential to transcription initiations. The data suggest that E. chaffeensis gene regulation has evolved to support the organism’s growth, possibly to facilitate its intraphagosomal growth. Considering the limited availability of genetic tools, this study offers a novel alternative in defining gene regulation in E. chaffeensis and other related intracellular pathogens. PMID:24278458

  18. Integration Host Factor Is Required for RpoN-Dependent hrpL Gene Expression and Controls Motility by Positively Regulating rsmB sRNA in Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Zhao, Youfu

    2016-01-01

    Erwinia amylovora requires an hrp-type III secretion system (T3SS) to cause disease. It has been reported that HrpL, the master regulator of T3SS, is transcriptionally regulated by sigma factor 54 (RpoN), YhbH, and HrpS. In this study, the role of integration host factor (IHF) in regulating hrpL and T3SS gene expression was investigated. IHF is a nucleoid-associated protein that regulates gene expression by influencing nucleoid structure and DNA bending. Our results showed that both ihfA and ihfB mutants of E. amylovora did not induce necrotic lesions on pear fruits. Growth of both mutants was greatly reduced, and expression of the hrpL and T3SS genes was significantly down-regulated as compared with those of the wild type. In addition, expression of the ihfA, but not the ihfB gene, was under auto-suppression by IHF. Furthermore, both ihfA and ihfB mutants were hypermotile, due to significantly reduced expression of small RNA (sRNA) rsmB. Electrophoresis mobility shift assay further confirmed that IHF binds to the promoters of the hrpL and ihfA genes, as well as the rsmB sRNA gene. These results indicate that IHF is required for RpoN-dependent hrpL gene expression and virulence, and controls motility by positively regulating the rsmB sRNA in E. amylovora. PMID:26368515

  19. Synthesis of sigma 29, an RNA polymerase specificity determinant, is a developmentally regulated event in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Trempy, J E; Morrison-Plummer, J; Haldenwang, W G

    1985-01-01

    Using an immunological probe, we have determined that the synthesis of the Bacillus subtilis RNA polymerase promoter specificity determinant sigma 29 is a developmentally regulated event. sigma 29 is absent from vegetatively growing cells but is abundant in sporulating cells for a restricted (2-h) period during differentiation (hour 2 to hour 4 into the sporeforming process). The narrowness of this period suggests that sigma 29 is a regulatory factor that directs the transcription of a subpopulation of genes at a precise, intermediate stage of spore formation. This view predicts that sigma 29 should be dispensable for early sporulation events. We verified this prediction by an analysis of sigma 29 accumulation in mutants that are blocked at different stages of sporulation in which we show that cells can advance to at least an intermediate point in development (stage III) in the absence of detectable sigma 29. Lastly, our anti-sigma 29 antibody probe detected a second, previously unrecognized protein in Bacillus cell extracts that may be a precursor to sigma 29. This protein, P31 (molecular weight, 31,000) is synthesized earlier in sporulation than is sigma 29. It has a peptide profile that is similar to sigma 29 and is present in all Bacillus subtilis Spo- mutants that were tested and found to still be able to accumulate sigma 29. Images PMID:3918005

  20. Structural determinants of sigma receptor affinity

    SciTech Connect

    Largent, B.L.; Wikstroem, H.G.; Gundlach, A.L.; Snyder, S.H.

    1987-12-01

    The structural determinants of sigma receptor affinity have been evaluated by examining a wide range of compounds related to opioids, neuroleptics, and phenylpiperidine dopaminergic structures for affinity at sigma receptor-binding sites labeled with (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-PPP. Among opioid compounds, requirements for sigma receptor affinity differ strikingly from the determinants of affinity for conventional opiate receptors. Sigma sites display reverse stereoselectivity to classical opiate receptors. Multi-ringed opiate-related compounds such as morphine and naloxone have negligible affinity for sigma sites, with the highest sigma receptor affinity apparent for benzomorphans which lack the C ring of opioids. Highest affinity among opioids and other compounds occurs with more lipophilic N-substituents. This feature is particularly striking among the 3-PPP derivatives as well as the opioids. The butyrophenone haloperidol is the most potent drug at sigma receptors we have detected. Among the series of butyrophenones, receptor affinity is primarily associated with the 4-phenylpiperidine moiety. Conformational calculations for various compounds indicate a fairly wide range of tolerance for distances between the aromatic ring and the amine nitrogen, which may account for the potency at sigma receptors of structures of considerable diversity. Among the wide range of structures that bind to sigma receptor-binding sites, the common pharmacophore associated with high receptor affinity is a phenylpiperidine with a lipophilic N-substituent.

  1. Optimization of steel bar manufacturing process using six sigma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeem, Khawar; Ullah, Misbah; Tariq, Adnan; Maqsood, Shahid; Akhtar, Rehman; Nawaz, Rashid; Hussain, Iftikhar

    2016-03-01

    Optimization of a manufacturing process results in higher productivity and reduced wastes. Production parameters of a local steel bar manufacturing industry of Pakistan is optimized by using six Sigma-Define, measure, analyze, improve, and controlmethodology. Production data is collected and analyzed. After analysis, experimental design result is used to identify significant factors affecting process performance. The significant factors are controlled to optimized level using two-level factorial design method. A regression model is developed that helps in the estimation of response under multi variable input values. Model is tested, verified, and validated by using industrial data collected at a local steel bar manufacturing industry of Peshawar(Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan). The sigma level of the manufacturing process is improved to 4.01 from 3.58. The novelty of the research is the identification of the significant factors along with the optimum levels that affects the process yield, and the methodology to optimize the steel bar manufacturing process.

  2. Electromagnetic Decay of the $\\Sigma^{0}(1385)$ to $\\Lambda\\gamma$

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Dustin; Adhikari, Krishna; Adikaram-Mudiyanselage, Dasuni; Aghasyan, Mher; Amaryan, Moscov; Baghdasaryan, Hovhannes; Ball, J P; Ball, Jacques; Battaglieri, Marco; Batourine, V; Bedlinskiy, Ivan; Bennett, Robert; Biselli, Angela; Branford, Derek; Briscoe, Wilbert; Brooks, William; Burkert, Volker; Careccia, Sharon; Carman, Daniel; Casey, Liam; Cole, Philip; Contalbrigo, Marco; Crede, Volker; D'Angelo, Annalisa; Daniel, AJI; Dashyan, Natalya; De Vita, Raffaella; De Sanctis, Enzo; Deur, Alexandre; Dey, Biplap; Dickson, Richard; Djalali, Chaden; Doughty, David; Dupre, Raphael; Egiyan, Hovanes; El Alaoui, Ahmed; Elfassi, Lamiaa; Eugenio, Paul; Fedotov, Gleb; Fegan, Stuart; Forest, Tony; Gabrielyan, Marianna; Gavalian, Gagik; Gevorgyan, Nerses; Giovanetti, Kevin; Girod, Francois-Xavier; Gohn, Wesley; Golovach, Evgeny; Gothe, Ralf; Graham, Lewis; Guidal, Michel; Guegan, Baptiste; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hakobyan, Hayk; Hanretty, Charles; Holtrop, Maurik; Ilieva, Yordanka; Ireland, David; Isupov, Evgeny; Jawalkar, Sucheta; Jenkins, David; Jo, Hyon-Suk; Joo, Kyungseon; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Khetarpal, Puneet; Kim, Andrey; Kim, Wooyoung; Klein, Andreas; Klein, Franz; Konczykowski, Piotr; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Viacheslav; Lu, Haiyun; MacGregor, Ian; Markov, Nikolai; McAndrew, Josephine; KcKinnon, Bryan; Meyer, Curtis; Micherdzinska, Anna; Mirazita, Marco; Mokeev, Viktor; Moreno, Brahim; Moriya, Kei; Morrison, Brian; Moutarde, Herve; Munevar Espitia, Edwin; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Ni, Andrey; Niccolai, Silvia; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ostrovidov, Alexander; Paremuzyan, Rafayel; Park, Kijun; Park, Sungkyun; Pasyuk, Eugene; Pasyuk, Evgueni; Pereira, Sergio; Pappalardo, Luciano; Pisano, Silvia; Pogorelko, Oleg; Pozdnyakov, Sergey; Price, John; Procureur, Sebastien; Protopopescu, Dan; Raue, Brian; Ripani, Marco; Ritchie, Barry; Rosner, Guenther; Rossi, Patrizia; Sabatie, Franck; Saini, Mukesh; Salgado, Carlos; Schott, Diane; Schumacher, Reinhard; Seder, Erin; Seraydaryan, Heghine; Sharabian, Youri; Smith, Elton; Smith, Gregory; Sober, Daniel; Stepanyan, Stepan; Stoler, Paul; Strakovski, Igor; Strauch, Steffen; Taiuti, Mauro; Tang, Wei; Taylor, Charles; Vernarsky, Brian; Vineyard, Michael; Voutier, Eric; Weinstein, Lawrence; Watts, Daniel; Wood, Michael; Zachariou, Nicholas; Zana, Lorenzo; Zhao, Bo; Zhao, Zhiwen

    2011-04-01

    The electromagnetic decay $\\Sigma^0(1385) \\to \\Lambda \\gamma$ was studied using the CLAS detector at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. A real photon beam with a maximum energy of 3.8 GeV was incident on a proton target, producing an exclusive final state of $K^+\\Sigma^{*0}$. We report the decay widths ratio $\\Sigma^0(1385) \\to \\Lambda\\gamma$/ $\\Sigma^0(1385) \\to \\Lambda\\pi^0$ = $1.42 \\pm 0.12(\\text{stat})_{-0.07}^{+0.11}(\\text{sys})$%. This ratio is larger than most theoretical predictions by factors ranging from 1.5-3, but is consistent with the only other experimental measurement. From the reported ratio we calculate the partial width and electromagnetic transition magnetic moment for $\\Sigma^0(1385) \\to \\Lambda\\gamma$.

  3. Sigma 2 Graphic Display Software Program Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. T.

    1973-01-01

    A general purpose, user oriented graphic support package was implemented. A comprehensive description of the two software components comprising this package is given: Display Librarian and Display Controller. These programs have been implemented in FORTRAN on the XDS Sigma 2 Computer Facility. This facility consists of an XDS Sigma 2 general purpose computer coupled to a Computek Display Terminal.

  4. Effects of sigmaS and the transcriptional activator AppY on induction of the Escherichia coli hya and cbdAB-appA operons in response to carbon and phosphate starvation.

    PubMed Central

    Atlung, T; Knudsen, K; Heerfordt, L; Brøndsted, L

    1997-01-01

    The transcriptional regulation of two energy metabolism operons, hya and cbdAB-appA, has been investigated during carbon and phosphate starvation. The hya operon encodes hydrogenase 1, and the cbdAB-appA operon encodes cytochrome bd-II oxidase and acid phosphatase, pH 2.5. Both operons are targets for the transcriptional activator AppY. In exponential growth, expression of the hya and cbd operons was reduced in an rpoS mutant lacking the RNA polymerase sigmaS factor, and the induction of the two operons by entry into stationary phase in rich medium was strongly dependent on sigmaS. Both operons were induced by carbon starvation, but only induction of the hya operon was dependent on sigmaS, whereas that of the cbd promoter was dependent on AppY. The appY gene also showed sigmaS-dependent induction by carbon starvation. The cbd and hya operons were also found to exhibit a sigmaS-dependent transient twofold induction by osmotic upshift. Like the cbd operon, the hya operon was highly induced by phosphate starvation. For both operons the induction was strongly dependent on AppY. The induction ratio of the two operons was the same in rpoS+ and rpoS mutant strains, indicating that the phosphate starvation-induced increase in sigmaS concentration is not involved in the phosphate regulation of these operons. PMID:9079897

  5. Effects of sigmaS and the transcriptional activator AppY on induction of the Escherichia coli hya and cbdAB-appA operons in response to carbon and phosphate starvation.

    PubMed

    Atlung, T; Knudsen, K; Heerfordt, L; Brøndsted, L

    1997-04-01

    The transcriptional regulation of two energy metabolism operons, hya and cbdAB-appA, has been investigated during carbon and phosphate starvation. The hya operon encodes hydrogenase 1, and the cbdAB-appA operon encodes cytochrome bd-II oxidase and acid phosphatase, pH 2.5. Both operons are targets for the transcriptional activator AppY. In exponential growth, expression of the hya and cbd operons was reduced in an rpoS mutant lacking the RNA polymerase sigmaS factor, and the induction of the two operons by entry into stationary phase in rich medium was strongly dependent on sigmaS. Both operons were induced by carbon starvation, but only induction of the hya operon was dependent on sigmaS, whereas that of the cbd promoter was dependent on AppY. The appY gene also showed sigmaS-dependent induction by carbon starvation. The cbd and hya operons were also found to exhibit a sigmaS-dependent transient twofold induction by osmotic upshift. Like the cbd operon, the hya operon was highly induced by phosphate starvation. For both operons the induction was strongly dependent on AppY. The induction ratio of the two operons was the same in rpoS+ and rpoS mutant strains, indicating that the phosphate starvation-induced increase in sigmaS concentration is not involved in the phosphate regulation of these operons. PMID:9079897

  6. Epitope mapping and functional analysis of sigma A and sigma NS proteins of avian reovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Pi H.; Li, Ying J.; Su, Yu P.; Lee, Long H.; Liu, Hung J. . E-mail: hjliu@mail.npust.edu.tw

    2005-02-20

    We have previously shown that avian reovirus (ARV) {sigma}A and {sigma}NS proteins possess dsRNA and ssRNA binding activity and suggested that there are two epitopes on {sigma}A (I and II) and three epitopes (A, B, and C) on {sigma}NS. To further define the location of epitopes on {sigma}A and {sigma}NS proteins and to further elucidate the biological functions of these epitopes by using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 62, 1F9, H1E1, and 4A123 against the ARV S1133 strain, the full-length and deletion fragments of S2 and S4 genes of ARV generated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were cloned into pET32 expression vectors and the fusion proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 strain. Epitope mapping using MAbs and E. coli-expressed deletion fragments of {sigma}A and {sigma}NS of the ARV S1133 strain, synthetic peptides, and the cross reactivity of MAbs to heterologous ARV strains demonstrated that epitope II on {sigma}A was located at amino acid residues {sup 340}QWVMAGLVSAA{sup 350} and epitope B on {sigma}NS at amino acid residues {sup 180}MLDMVDGRP{sup 188}. The MAbs (62, 1F9, and H1E1) directed against epitopes II and B did not require the native conformation of {sigma}A and {sigma}NS, suggesting that their binding activities were conformation-independent. On the other hand, MAb 4A123 only reacted with complete {sigma}NS but not with truncated {sigma}NS fusion proteins in Western blot, suggesting that the binding activity of MAb to epitope A on {sigma}NS was conformation-dependent. Amino acid sequence analysis and the binding assays of MAb 62 to heterologous ARV strains suggested that epitope II on {sigma}A was highly conserved among ARV strains and that this epitope is suitable as a serological marker for the detection of ARV antibodies following natural infection in chickens. On the contrary, an amino acid substitution at position 183 (M to V) in epitope B of ARV could hinder the reactivity of the {sigma}NS with MAb 1F9. The {sigma}NS of ARV with ss

  7. Search for Sigma--Delta hypernuclear conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukhari, Masroor Hassan Haider Shah

    This research was aimed at the study of the in-flight A=3 (K- , pi+/-) reactions leading to in situ nuclear formation of a Sigma hyperon, its interactions with nucleons, and subsequent conversion into a Λ hyperon. The analysis was based upon the data from the Brookhaven National Laboratory experiment E774 carried out at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron. This experiment comprised a two-layered scintillation counting barrel detector and two spectrometers to detect the missing mass in the reaction on a 3He target, resulting in the Sigma hypernucleus formation. A Monte Carlo simulation of the experiment was written within the framework of the GEANT simulation tool, incorporating physics generators for all the involved channels and the technique of multiplicity tagging. The objective was to obtain and analyze the relevant multiplicities of the involved channels which could result from the primary reaction. Analysis of results from simulations and their comparison with the experimental data revealed insight into the interactions of a Sigma within the nucleus and helped identify the multiplicities which corresponded to the true Sigma-Λ conversion events. On the basis of this analysis, the three-body system SigmaNN in the s-shell and the SigmaN → ΛN conversion were investigated. In the second phase of this study, a theoretical model for the calculation of scattering parameters and relative cross section for (Sigma-.2 H) production leading to Sigma-Λ conversion was developed. This was based on the effective range expansion and a plane wave impulse approximation (PWIA) paradigm. Both the scattering and absorption amplitudes, corresponding to s-wave SigmaSigma and SigmaΛ scattering states, respectively, were calculated. Finally the parameters (and corresponding cross section) were extracted by fitting the simulated model to the experiment data. The nature of the obtained parameters and shape of the cross section shed significant light on the Sigma-Λ conversion

  8. Interaction of sigma 70 with Escherichia coli RNA polymerase core enzyme studied by surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, A L; Hughes, A D; Tufail, U; Baumann, C G; Scott, D J; Hoggett, J G

    2000-09-22

    The interaction between the core form of bacterial RNA polymerases and sigma factors is essential for specific promoter recognition, and for coordinating the expression of different sets of genes in response to varying cellular needs. The interaction between Escherichia coli core RNA polymerase and sigma 70 has been investigated by surface plasmon resonance. The His-tagged form of sigma 70 factor was immobilised on a Ni2+-NTA chip for monitoring its interaction with core polymerase. The binding constant for the interaction was found to be 1.9x10(-7) M, and the dissociation rate constant for release of sigma from core, in the absence of DNA or transcription, was 4x10(-3) s(-1), corresponding to a half-life of about 200 s. PMID:11007979

  9. SIGMA WEB INTERFACE FOR REACTOR DATA APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko,B.; Sonzogni, A.A.

    2010-05-09

    We present Sigma Web interface which provides user-friendly access for online analysis and plotting of the evaluated and experimental nuclear reaction data stored in the ENDF-6 and EXFOR formats. The interface includes advanced browsing and search capabilities, interactive plots of cross sections, angular distributions and spectra, nubars, comparisons between evaluated and experimental data, computations for cross section data sets, pre-calculated integral quantities, neutron cross section uncertainties plots and visualization of covariance matrices. Sigma is publicly available at the National Nuclear Data Center website at http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/sigma.

  10. Pharmacological and autoradiographic characterization of sigma receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Largent, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    The existence of three types of opioid receptors - ..mu.., kappa, and sigma - was postulated to explain the effects of different opioids in the chronic spinal dog. Sigma receptors, named for the prototypic agonist SKF 10,047 (N-allylnormetazocine), were suggested to mediate the psychotomimetic-like effects of SKF 10,047 in the dog. 3-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)piperidine (3-PPP) has been proposed as a selective dopamine autoreceptor agonist. However, the drug specificity of (+)(/sup 3/H)3-PPP binding in brain is identical to that of sigma receptor binding sites which may mediate psychotomimetic effects of some opioids. Pharmacological and autoradiographic analyses reveal that (+)(/sup 3/H)SKF 10,047, the prototypic sigma agonist, labels two sites in brain. The drug specificity of the high affinity site for (+)(/sup 3/H)SKF 10,047 resembles that of putative sigma receptors labeled with (+)(/sup 3/H)3-PPP, being potently inhibited by (+)3-PPP, haloperidol, and (+/-)pentazocine, and demonstrating stereoselectivity for the (+) isomer of SKF 10,047. Autoradiographic localizations of high affinity (+)(/sup 3/H)SKF 10,047 binding sites closely resemble those of (+)(/sup 3/H)3-PPP labeled sites with high levels of binding in the hippocampal pyramidal cell layer, hypothalamus, and pontine and cranial nerve nuclei. Thus, putative sigma receptors and PCP receptors represent distinct receptor populations in brain. This proposal is supported by the presence of sigma binding sites - and absence of PCP receptors - on NCB-20 cell membranes, a hybrid neurotumor cell line that provides a model system for the physiological and biochemical study of sigma receptors.

  11. Inclusive Sigma- photoproduction on the neutron via the reaction gamma n (p) ---> K+ Sigma- (p)

    SciTech Connect

    Jorn Langheinrich; Ana Lima; Barry Berman

    2006-06-01

    The analysis described here is part of a comprehensive survey of the elementary strangeness photoproduction cross sections on the nucleon. The six elementary strangeness reactions are {gamma}n {yields} K{sup 0}{Lambda} and {gamma}p {yields} K{sup +}{Lambda} {gamma}n {yields} K{sup 0}{Sigma}{sup 0} and {gamma}p {yields} K{sup +}{Sigma}{sup 0} {gamma}n {yields} K{sup +}{Sigma}{sup -} and {gamma}p {yields} K{sup 0}{Sigma}|{sup +}

  12. Towards Resolving the Crab Sigma-Problem: A Linear Accelerator?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Contopoulos, Ioannis; Kazanas, Demosthenes; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Using the exact solution of the axisymmetric pulsar magnetosphere derived in a previous publication and the conservation laws of the associated MHD flow, we show that the Lorentz factor of the outflowing plasma increases linearly with distance from the light cylinder. Therefore, the ratio of the Poynting to particle energy flux, generically referred to as sigma, decreases inversely proportional to distance, from a large value (typically approx. greater than 10(exp 4)) near the light cylinder to sigma approx. = 1 at a transition distance R(sub trans). Beyond this distance the inertial effects of the outflowing plasma become important and the magnetic field geometry must deviate from the almost monopolar form it attains between R(sub lc), and R(sub trans). We anticipate that this is achieved by collimation of the poloidal field lines toward the rotation axis, ensuring that the magnetic field pressure in the equatorial region will fall-off faster than 1/R(sup 2) (R being the cylindrical radius). This leads both to a value sigma = a(sub s) much less than 1 at the nebular reverse shock at distance R(sub s) (R(sub s) much greater than R(sub trans)) and to a component of the flow perpendicular to the equatorial component, as required by observation. The presence of the strong shock at R = R(sub s) allows for the efficient conversion of kinetic energy into radiation. We speculate that the Crab pulsar is unique in requiring sigma(sub s) approx. = 3 x 10(exp -3) because of its small translational velocity, which allowed for the shock distance R(sub s) to grow to values much greater than R(sub trans).

  13. Six Lessons We Learned Applying Six Sigma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Napoleon; Casleton, Christa H.

    2005-01-01

    As Chief Financial Officer of Kennedy Space Center (KSC), I'm not only responsible for financial planning and accounting but also for building strong partnerships with the CFO customers, who include Space Shuttle and International Space Station operations as well all who manage the KSC Spaceport. My never ending goal is to design, manage and continuously improve our core business processes so that they deliver world class products and services to the CFO's customers. I became interested in Six Sigma as Christa Casleton (KSC's first Six Sigma Black belt) applied Six Sigma tools and methods to our Plan and Account for Travel Costs Process. Her analysis was fresh, innovative and thorough but, even more impressive, was her approach to ensure ongoing, continuous process improvement. Encouraged by the results, I launched two more process improvement initiatives aimed at applying Six Sigma principles to CFO processes that not only touch most of my employees but also have direct customer impact. As many of you know, Six Sigma is a measurement scale that compares the output of a process with customer requirements. That's straight forward, but demands that you not only understand your processes but also know your products and the critical customer requirements. The objective is to isolate and eliminate the causes of process variation so that the customer sees consistently high quality.

  14. LINE ABSORPTION OSCILLATOR STRENGTHS FOR THE c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3)-X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub g}(0-5) BANDS IN N{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Lavin, C.; Velasco, A. M.

    2011-09-20

    Theoretical absorption oscillator strengths and emission branching ratios for rotational lines of the c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3)-X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub g}(0-5) bands of molecular nitrogen are reported. The calculations have been performed with the molecular quantum defect orbital method, which has proved to be reliable in previous studies of rovibronic transitions in diatomic molecules. The strong interaction between c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3) and b' {sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(10) states has been analyzed through an interaction matrix that includes rotational terms. Owing to the perturbation, the c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3)-X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub g}(0), c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3)-X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub g}(1), and c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3)-X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub g}(5) bands are not weak, in contrast to what would be expected on the basis of the Franck-Condon principle. Moreover, the intensity distribution of the rotational lines within each of the vibronic bands deviates from considerations based on Hoenl-London factors. In this work, we provide data that may be useful to interpret spectra from atmospheres of the Earth, Titan, and Triton, in which transitions from the c'{sub 4}{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u}(3) level have been detected.

  15. A Lean Six Sigma journey in radiology.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Ronald V; Musitano, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The department of radiology at Akron Children's Hospital embarked on a Lean Six Sigma mission as part of a hospital wide initiative to show increased customer satisfaction, reduce employee dissatisfaction and frustration, and decrease costs. Three processes that were addressed were reducing the MRI scheduling back-log, reconciling discrepancies in billing radiology procedures, and implementing a daily management system. Keys to success is that managers provide opportunities to openly communicate between department sections to break down barriers. Executive leaders must be engaged in Lean Six Sigma for the company to be successful. PMID:21793459

  16. Sigma-nucleus potential in A=28.

    PubMed

    Noumi, H; Saha, P K; Abe, D; Ajimura, S; Aoki, K; Bhang, H C; Endo, T; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, T; Guo, H C; Imai, K; Hashimoto, O; Hotchi, H; Kim, E H; Kim, J H; Kishimoto, T; Krutenkova, A; Maeda, K; Nagae, T; Nakamura, M; Outa, H; Sekimoto, M; Saito, T; Sakaguchi, A; Sato, Y; Sawafta, R; Shimizu, Y; Takahashi, T; Tang, L; Tamura, H; Tanida, K; Watanabe, T; Xia, H H; Zhou, S H; Zhu, L H; Zhu, X F

    2002-08-12

    We have studied the (pi(-),K+) reaction on a silicon target to investigate the sigma-nucleus potential. The inclusive spectrum was measured at a beam momentum of 1.2 GeV/c with an energy resolution of 3.3 MeV (FWHM) by employing the superconducting kaon spectrometer system. The spectrum was compared with theoretical calculations within the framework of the distorted-wave impulse approximation, which demonstrates that a strongly repulsive sigma-nucleus potential with a nonzero size of the imaginary part reproduces the observed spectrum. PMID:12190516

  17. A K3 sigma model with : symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Taormina, Anne; Volpato, Roberto; Wendland, Katrin

    2014-02-01

    The K3 sigma model based on the -orbifold of the D 4-torus theory is studied. It is shown that it has an equivalent description in terms of twelve free Majorana fermions, or as a rational conformal field theory based on the affine algebra . By combining these different viewpoints we show that the = (4 , 4) preserving symmetries of this theory are described by the discrete symmetry group : . This model therefore accounts for one of the largest maximal symmetry groups of K3 sigma models. The symmetry group involves also generators that, from the orbifold point of view, map untwisted and twisted sector states into one another.

  18. All optical binary delta-sigma modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayeh, Mohammad R.; Siahmakoun, Azad

    2005-09-01

    This paper describes a novel A/D converter called "Binary Delta-Sigma Modulator" (BDSM) which operates only with nonnegative signal with positive feedback and binary threshold. This important modification to the conventional delta-sigma modulator makes the high-speed (>100GHz) all-optical implementation possible. It has also the capability to modify its own sampling frequency as well as its input dynamic range. This adaptive feature helps designers to optimize the system performance under highly noisy environment and also manage the power consumption of the A/D converters.

  19. Identification of sigma S-regulated genes in Salmonella typhimurium: complementary regulatory interactions between sigma S and cyclic AMP receptor protein.

    PubMed Central

    Fang, F C; Chen, C Y; Guiney, D G; Xu, Y

    1996-01-01

    sigma S (RpoS)-regulated lacZ transcriptional fusions in Salmonella typhimurium were identified from a MudJ transposon library by placing the rpoS gene under the control of the araBAD promoter and detecting lacZ expression in the presence or absence of arabinose supplementation. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of bacteria carrying PBAD::rpoS demonstrated arabinose-dependent rpoS expression during all phases of growth. sigma S-dependent gene expression of individual gene fusions was confirmed by P22-mediated transduction of the MudJ insertions into wild-type or rpoS backgrounds. Analysis of six insertions revealed the known sigma S-regulated gene otsA, as well as five novel loci. Each of these genes is maximally expressed in stationary phase, and all but one show evidence of cyclic AMP receptor protein-dependent repression during logarithmic growth which is relieved in stationary phase. For these genes, as well as for the sigma S-regulated spvB plasmid virulence gene, a combination of rpoS overexpression and crp inactivation can result in high-level expression during logarithmic growth. The approach used to identify sigma S-regulated genes in this study provides a general method for the identification of genes controlled by trans-acting regulatory factors. PMID:8752327

  20. Do narrow {Sigma}-hypernuclear states exist?

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    Reports of narrow states in {Sigma}-hypernucleus production have appeared from time to time. The present experiment is a repeat of the first and seemingly most definitive such experiment, that on a target of {sup 9}Be, but with much better statistics. No narrow states were observed.

  1. How Six Sigma Methodology Improved Doctors' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zafiropoulos, George

    2015-01-01

    Six Sigma methodology was used in a District General Hospital to assess the effect of the introduction of an educational programme to limit unnecessary admissions. The performance of the doctors involved in the programme was assessed. Ishikawa Fishbone and 5 S's were initially used and Pareto analysis of their findings was performed. The results…

  2. Improving Learning Outcome Using Six Sigma Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetteh, Godson A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to apply the Six Sigma methodology to identify the attributes of a lecturer that will help improve a student's prior knowledge of a discipline from an initial "x" per cent knowledge to a higher "y" per cent of knowledge. Design/methodology/approach: The data collection method…

  3. Need of Six Sigma in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Dheeraj

    2007-01-01

    The marching trend of the new economic order has generated a new capsule of SIX SIGMA as a unified approach to process excellence. The tests reveal that it has transformed some of the most successful companies in the world like Motorola, GE etc. It is activated as an approach to aiming at the target by changing the culture of a company, involving…

  4. The science of Six Sigma in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Guinane, Carole S; Davis, Noreen H

    2004-01-01

    Six Sigma applied to hospital processes and services can lead to breakthrough improvements, near-perfect outcomes, and zero defects. It is wise to consider this aspect of quality science as part of an overall Total Quality Management program. Senior leadership support and involvement is critical to the success of this strategy. PMID:15604839

  5. Six Sigma and Introductory Statistics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maleyeff, John; Kaminsky, Frank C.

    2002-01-01

    A conflict exists between the way statistics is practiced in contemporary business environments and the way statistics is taught in schools of management. While businesses are embracing programs, such as six sigma and TQM, that bring statistical methods to the forefront of management decision making, students do not graduate with the skills to…

  6. Quasifree Electroproduction of Lambda, Sigma0, and sigma-Hyperons on Carbon and Aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Wendy Hinton

    2001-05-01

    The first study of (e,e',K+) on carbon and aluminum was performed at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) using the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). The scattered electron and electroproduced kaon were detected in coincidence in the Hall C End Station using the High Momentum Spectrometer and Short Orbit Spectrometer. The quasifree production of the Lambda, Sigma0, and Sigma- hyperons was studied. The Lambda-dependence of the effective nucleon number was obtained. The cross section data were fit to a power law ({approx}Aa) with a = 0.88 +/- 0.10, consistent with the K+'s relatively long nuclear mean free path. A large enhancement in the Sigma0+Sigma- / Lambda ratio is seen. A feasibility test for hypernuclear spectroscopy on C-12 and Al-27 with the HMS-SOS was performed.

  7. Six Sigma methods applied to cryogenic coolers assembly line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventre, Jean-Marc; Germain-Lacour, Michel; Martin, Jean-Yves; Cauquil, Jean-Marc; Benschop, Tonny; Griot, René

    2009-05-01

    Six Sigma method have been applied to manufacturing process of a rotary Stirling cooler: RM2. Name of the project is NoVa as main goal of the Six Sigma approach is to reduce variability (No Variability). Project has been based on the DMAIC guideline following five stages: Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve, Control. Objective has been set on the rate of coolers succeeding performance at first attempt with a goal value of 95%. A team has been gathered involving people and skills acting on the RM2 manufacturing line. Measurement System Analysis (MSA) has been applied to test bench and results after R&R gage show that measurement is one of the root cause for variability in RM2 process. Two more root causes have been identified by the team after process mapping analysis: regenerator filling factor and cleaning procedure. Causes for measurement variability have been identified and eradicated as shown by new results from R&R gage. Experimental results show that regenerator filling factor impacts process variability and affects yield. Improved process haven been set after new calibration process for test bench, new filling procedure for regenerator and an additional cleaning stage have been implemented. The objective for 95% coolers succeeding performance test at first attempt has been reached and kept for a significant period. RM2 manufacturing process is now managed according to Statistical Process Control based on control charts. Improvement in process capability have enabled introduction of sample testing procedure before delivery.

  8. Operational excellence (six sigma) philosophy: Application to software quality assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, M.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on operational excellence philosophy of six sigma applied to software quality assurance. This report outlines the following: goal of six sigma; six sigma tools; manufacturing vs administrative processes; Software quality assurance document inspections; map software quality assurance requirements document; failure mode effects analysis for requirements document; measuring the right response variables; and questions.

  9. Incorporating Six Sigma Methodology Training into Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dai, Lenore L.

    2007-01-01

    Six Sigma is a buzz term in today's technology and business world and there has been increasing interest to initiate Six Sigma training in college education. We have successfully incorporated Six Sigma methodology training into a traditional chemical engineering course, Engineering Experimentation, at Texas Tech University. The students have…

  10. A structural model of anti-anti-[sigma];#963; inhibition by a two-component receiver domain: the PhyR stress response regulator

    SciTech Connect

    Herrou, Julien; Foreman, Robert; Fiebig, Aretha; Crosson, Sean

    2012-03-30

    PhyR is a hybrid stress regulator conserved in {alpha}-proteobacteria that contains an N-terminal {sigma}-like (SL) domain and a C-terminal receiver domain. Phosphorylation of the receiver domain is known to promote binding of the SL domain to an anti-{sigma} factor. PhyR thus functions as an anti-anti-{sigma} factor in its phosphorylated state. We present genetic evidence that Caulobacter crescentus PhyR is a phosphorylation-dependent stress regulator that functions in the same pathway as {sigma}{sup T} and its anti-{sigma} factor, NepR. Additionally, we report the X-ray crystal structure of PhyR at 1.25 {angstrom} resolution, which provides insight into the mechanism of anti-anti-{sigma} regulation. Direct intramolecular contact between the PhyR receiver and SL domains spans regions {sigma}{sub 2} and {sigma}{sub 4}, likely serving to stabilize the SL domain in a closed conformation. The molecular surface of the receiver domain contacting the SL domain is the structural equivalent of {alpha}4-{beta}5-{alpha}5, which is known to undergo dynamic conformational change upon phosphorylation in a diverse range of receiver proteins. We propose a structural model of PhyR regulation in which receiver phosphorylation destabilizes the intramolecular interaction between SL and receiver domains, thereby permitting regions {sigma}{sub 2} and {sigma}{sub 4} in the SL domain to open about a flexible connector loop and bind anti-{sigma} factor.

  11. Non-compact nonlinear sigma models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rham, Claudia; Tolley, Andrew J.; Zhou, Shuang-Yong

    2016-09-01

    The target space of a nonlinear sigma model is usually required to be positive definite to avoid ghosts. We introduce a unique class of nonlinear sigma models where the target space metric has a Lorentzian signature, thus the associated group being non-compact. We show that the would-be ghost associated with the negative direction is fully projected out by 2 second-class constraints, and there exist stable solutions in this class of models. This result also has important implications for Lorentz-invariant massive gravity: There exist stable nontrivial vacua in massive gravity that are free from any linear vDVZ-discontinuity and a Λ2 decoupling limit can be defined on these vacua.

  12. Pharmacology and therapeutic potential of sigma(1) receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Cobos, E J; Entrena, J M; Nieto, F R; Cendán, C M; Del Pozo, E

    2008-12-01

    Sigma (sigma) receptors, initially described as a subtype of opioid receptors, are now considered unique receptors. Pharmacological studies have distinguished two types of sigma receptors, termed sigma(1) and sigma(2). Of these two subtypes, the sigma(1) receptor has been cloned in humans and rodents, and its amino acid sequence shows no homology with other mammalian proteins. Several psychoactive drugs show high to moderate affinity for sigma(1) receptors, including the antipsychotic haloperidol, the antidepressant drugs fluvoxamine and sertraline, and the psychostimulants cocaine and methamphetamine; in addition, the anticonvulsant drug phenytoin allosterically modulates sigma(1) receptors. Certain neurosteroids are known to interact with sigma(1) receptors, and have been proposed to be their endogenous ligands. These receptors are located in the plasma membrane and in subcellular membranes, particularly in the endoplasmic reticulum, where they play a modulatory role in intracellular Ca(2+) signaling. Sigma(1) receptors also play a modulatory role in the activity of some ion channels and in several neurotransmitter systems, mainly in glutamatergic neurotransmission. In accordance with their widespread modulatory role, sigma(1) receptor ligands have been proposed to be useful in several therapeutic fields such as amnesic and cognitive deficits, depression and anxiety, schizophrenia, analgesia, and against some effects of drugs of abuse (such as cocaine and methamphetamine). In this review we provide an overview of the present knowledge of sigma(1) receptors, focussing on sigma(1) ligand neuropharmacology and the role of sigma(1) receptors in behavioral animal studies, which have contributed greatly to the potential therapeutic applications of sigma(1) ligands. PMID:19587856

  13. Strangeness and meson-nucleon sigma terms

    SciTech Connect

    Dahiya, Harleen; Sharma, Neetika

    2011-10-21

    The chiral constituent quark model ({chi}CQM) has been extended to calculate the flavor structure of the nucleon through the meson-nucleon sigma terms which have large contributions from the quark sea and are greatly affected by chiral symmetry breaking and SU(3) symmetry breaking. The hidden strangeness component in the nucleon has also been investigated and its significant contribution is found to be consistent with the recent available experimental observations.

  14. Phantom black holes and sigma models

    SciTech Connect

    Azreg-Aienou, Mustapha; Clement, Gerard; Fabris, Julio C.; Rodrigues, Manuel E.

    2011-06-15

    We construct static multicenter solutions of phantom Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory from null geodesics of the target space, leading to regular black holes without spatial symmetry for certain discrete values of the dilaton coupling constant. We also discuss the three-dimensional gravitating sigma models obtained by reduction of phantom Einstein-Maxwell, phantom Kaluza-Klein and phantom Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton-axion theories. In each case, we generate by group transformations phantom charged black hole solutions from a neutral seed.

  15. Production of the SIGMA(0)(C) and SIGMA(++)(C) by High Energy Neutrons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladbury, Raymond Llewellyn, Jr.

    We present the first observation of hadroproduction of the Sigma_sp{c}{++ } and Sigma_sp{c }{0}, decaying into Lambda _{c}pi. The daughter Lambda_{c} is observed in the decay modes pKpi and pK _{s}pipi. The Experiment was conducted at a broadband neutron beam in the Proton East area of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. A two-magnet multiparticle spectrometer equipped with proportional wire chambers and a high resolution MWPC vertex detector was used to momentum analyze charged particles produced in the interactions of neutrons on targets of beryllium, silicon and tungsten. Particles were identified using three Cerenkov counters. The beam energy for each event was reconstructed using hadronic and electromagnetic calorimetry. The mass differences delta m_ {Sigma_sp{c}{++}- Lambda_{c}}, delta m_{Sigma_sp{c }{0}-Lambda_{c}} and delta m_{Sigma _sp{c}{++}-Sigma_sp {c}{0}} are measured and found to be 166.4 +/-.3 +/- 2.0 MeV/c^2, 178.5 +/-.3 +/- 2.5MeV/c ^2 and -12.1 +/- .4 +/- 2.8MeV/c^2 . This last value is larger in magnitude than the predictions of most theoretical calculations. We also report measurements of particle to antiparticle ratios, x_{f} dependence, A dependence, and p_{t} dependence of the production cross sections. The total production cross sections of the Sigma_sp{c} {0} and Sigma_sp {c}{++} are calculated, assuming {dsigmaover dx_{f }} ~ (1 -x)^4, linear atomic weight dependence, B(Lambda_{c} to pKpi) =.022, and symmetric production of particle and antiparticle. From this, and the value of sigma cdot B( Lambda_{c} to pK_sp{s}{0} pipi), calculated under the same assumptions, we calculate the ratio of branching fractions {B(Lambda_{c} to p| K^{0}pipi)}over {B(Lambda_{c}to pKpi) }. We conclude that the level of charm production indicated by our measurements is substantially higher than that predicted by first order gluon-gluon fusion.

  16. The Anti-sigma Factor RsiV Is a Bacterial Receptor for Lysozyme: Co-crystal Structure Determination and Demonstration That Binding of Lysozyme to RsiV Is Required for σV Activation.

    PubMed

    Hastie, Jessica L; Williams, Kyle B; Bohr, Lindsey L; Houtman, Jon C; Gakhar, Lokesh; Ellermeier, Craig D

    2016-09-01

    σ factors provide RNA polymerase with promoter specificity in bacteria. Some σ factors require activation in order to interact with RNA polymerase and transcribe target genes. The Extra-Cytoplasmic Function (ECF) σ factor, σV, is encoded by several Gram-positive bacteria and is specifically activated by lysozyme. This activation requires the proteolytic destruction of the anti-σ factor RsiV via a process of regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP). In many cases proteases that cleave at site-1 are thought to directly sense a signal and initiate the RIP process. We previously suggested binding of lysozyme to RsiV initiated the proteolytic destruction of RsiV and activation of σV. Here we determined the X-ray crystal structure of the RsiV-lysozyme complex at 2.3 Å which revealed that RsiV and lysozyme make extensive contacts. We constructed RsiV mutants with altered abilities to bind lysozyme. We find that mutants that are unable to bind lysozyme block site-1 cleavage of RsiV and σV activation in response to lysozyme. Taken together these data demonstrate that RsiV is a receptor for lysozyme and binding of RsiV to lysozyme is required for σV activation. In addition, the co-structure revealed that RsiV binds to the lysozyme active site pocket. We provide evidence that in addition to acting as a sensor for the presence of lysozyme, RsiV also inhibits lysozyme activity. Thus we have demonstrated that RsiV is a protein with multiple functions. RsiV inhibits σV activity in the absence of lysozyme, RsiV binds lysozyme triggering σV activation and RsiV inhibits the enzymatic activity of lysozyme. PMID:27602573

  17. Improving Quality of Seal Leak Test Product using Six Sigma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luthfi Malik, Abdullah; Akbar, Muhammad; Irianto, Dradjad

    2016-02-01

    Seal leak test part is a polyurethane material-based product. Based on past data, defect level of this product was 8%, higher than the target of 5%. Quality improvement effort was done using six sigma method that included phases of define, measure, analyse, improve, and control. In the design phase, a Delphi method was used to identify factors that were critical to quality. In the measure phase, stability and process capability was measured. Fault tree analysis (FTA) and failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) were used in the next phase to analize the root cause and to determine the priority issues. Improve phase was done by compiling, selecting, and designing alternative repair. Some improvement efforts were identified, i.e. (i) making a checklist for maintenance schedules, (ii) making written reminder form, (iii) modifying the SOP more detail, and (iv) performing a major service to the vacuum machine. To ensure the continuity of improvement efforts, some control activities were executed, i.e. (i) controlling, monitoring, documenting, and setting target frequently, (ii) implementing reward and punishment system, (iii) adding cleaning tool, and (iv) building six sigma organizational structure.

  18. {Sigma}{sub b,c} to Nucleon Transitions in Light Cone QCD Sum Rules

    SciTech Connect

    Bayar, M.; Azizi, K.; Zeyrek, M. T.

    2011-05-23

    The loop level flavor changing neutral current transitions of the {Sigma}{sub b}{yields}nl{sup +}l{sup -} and {Sigma}{sub c}{yields}pl{sup +}l{sup -} are investigated in the light cone QCD sum rules approach. Using the most general form of the interpolating current for {Sigma}{sub Q}, Q = b or c, the transition form factors are calculated using two sets of input parameters entering the nucleon distribution amplitudes, namely, QCD sum rules and lattice QCD inputs. The obtained results are used to estimate the decay rates of the corresponding transitions. Since such type transitions occurred at loop level in the standard model, they can be considered as good candidates to search for the new physics effects beyond the SM.

  19. Electron-Impact Excitation of the B ^1SIGMA^+, C^1SIGMA^+ and E^1PI States of

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanik, I.; Ratliff, M.; Trajmar, S.

    1993-01-01

    Electron impact excitation of CO plays an important role in planetary atmospheres andinterstellar clouds. At the present time, serious discrepancies exist among excitation cross sectionsreported in the literature for this molecule. We measured electron impact excitation cross sections forB^1SIGMA^+right arrowX^1SIGMA^+, C^1SIGMA^+right arrowX^1SIGMA^+ and E^1PIrightarrowX^1SIGMA^+ states of CO at 100eV impact energy using electron energy-loss spectroscopy.

  20. Allosteric modulation of sigma-1 receptors by SKF83959 inhibits microglia-mediated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhuang; Li, Linlang; Zheng, Long-Tai; Xu, Zhihong; Guo, Lin; Zhen, Xuechu

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that sigma-1 receptor orthodox agonists can inhibit neuroinflammation. SKF83959 (3-methyl-6-chloro-7,8-hydroxy-1-[3-methylphenyl]-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine), an atypical dopamine receptor-1 agonist, has been recently identified as a potent allosteric modulator of sigma-1 receptor. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of SKF83959 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia. Our results indicated that SKF83959 significantly suppressed the expression/release of the pro-inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and inhibited the generation of reactive oxygen species. All of these responses were blocked by selective sigma-1 receptor antagonists (BD1047 or BD1063) and by ketoconazole (an inhibitor of enzyme cytochrome c17 to inhibit the synthesis of endogenous dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA). Additionally, we found that SKF83959 promoted the binding activity of DHEA with sigma-1 receptors, and enhanced the inhibitory effects of DHEA on LPS-induced microglia activation in a synergic manner. Furthermore, in a microglia-conditioned media system, SKF83959 inhibited the cytotoxicity of conditioned medium generated by LPS-activated microglia toward HT-22 neuroblastoma cells. Taken together, our study provides the first evidence that allosteric modulation of sigma-1 receptors by SKF83959 inhibits microglia-mediated inflammation. SKF83959 is a potent allosteric modulator of sigma-1 receptor. Our results indicated that SKF83959 enhanced the activity of endogenous dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in a synergic manner, and inhibited the activation of BV2 microglia and the expression/release of the pro-inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). PMID:26031312

  1. Transcription of two sigma 70 homologue genes, sigA and sigB, in stationary-phase Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y; Coates, A R

    1999-01-01

    The sigA and sigB genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis encode two sigma 70-like sigma factors of RNA polymerase. While transcription of the sigA gene is growth rate independent, sigB transcription is increased during entry into stationary phase. The sigA gene transcription is unresponsive to environmental stress but that of sigB is very responsive, more so in stationary-phase growth than in log-phase cultures. These data suggest that SigA is a primary sigma factor which, like sigma70, controls the transcription of the housekeeping type of promoters. In contrast, SigB, although showing some overlap in function with SigA, is more like the alternative sigma factor, sigmaS, which controls the transcription of the gearbox type of promoters. Primer extension analysis identified the RNA start sites for both genes as 129 nucleotides upstream to the GTG start codon of sigA and 27 nucleotides from the ATG start codon of sigB. The -10 promoter of sigA but not that of sigB was similar to the sigma70 promoter. The half-life of the sigA transcript was very long, and this is likely to play an important part in its regulation. In contrast, the half-life of the sigB transcript was short, about 2 min. These results demonstrate that the sigB gene may control the regulons of stationary phase and general stress resistance, while sigA may be involved in the housekeeping regulons. PMID:9882660

  2. Mechanistic Implications of the Unique Structural Features and Dimerization of the Cytoplasmic Domain of the Pseudomonas Sigma Regulator, PupR.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jaime L; Balbo, Andrea; Neau, David B; Chakravarthy, Srinivas; Zhao, Huaying; Sinha, Sangita C; Colbert, Christopher L

    2015-09-29

    Gram-negative bacteria tightly regulate intracellular levels of iron, an essential nutrient. To ensure this strict control, some outer membrane TonB-dependent transporters (TBDTs) that are responsible for iron import stimulate their own transcription in response to extracellular binding by an iron-laden siderophore. This process is mediated by an inner membrane sigma regulator protein (an anti-sigma factor) that transduces an unknown periplasmic signal from the TBDT to release an intracellular sigma factor from the inner membrane, which ultimately upregulates TBDT transcription. Here, we use the Pseudomonas putida ferric-pseudobactin BN7/BN8 sigma regulator, PupR, as a model system to understand the molecular mechanism of this conserved class of sigma regulators. We have determined the X-ray crystal structure of the cytoplasmic anti-sigma domain (ASD) of PupR to 2.0 Å. Size exclusion chromatography, small-angle X-ray scattering, and sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation all indicate that, in contrast to other ASDs, the PupR-ASD exists as a dimer in solution. Mutagenesis of residues at the dimer interface identified from the crystal structure disrupts dimerization and protein stability, as determined by sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation and thermal denaturation circular dichroism spectroscopy. These combined results suggest that this type of inner membrane sigma regulator may utilize an unusual mechanism to sequester their cognate sigma factors and prevent transcription activation. PMID:26313375

  3. Mechanistic Implications of the Unique Structural Features and Dimerization of the Cytoplasmic Domain of the Pseudomonas Sigma Regulator, PupR

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Jaime L.; Balbo, Andrea; Neau, David B.; Chakravarthy, Srinivas; Zhao, Huaying; Sinha, Sangita C.; Colbert, Christopher L.

    2015-09-29

    Gram-negative bacteria tightly regulate intracellular levels of iron, an essential nutrient. To ensure this tight regulation, some outer membrane TonB-dependent transporters (TBDTs) that are responsible for iron import stimulate their own transcription in response to extracellular binding by an iron-laden siderophore. This process is mediated by an inner membrane sigma regulator protein (an anti-sigma factor) that transduces an unknown periplasmic signal from the TBDT to release an intracellular sigma factor from the inner membrane, which ultimately upregulates TBDT transcription. Here we use the Pseudomonas putida ferric-pseudobactin BN7/BN8 sigma regulator, PupR, as a model system to understand the molecular mechanism of this conserved class of sigma regulators. We have determined the X-ray crystal structure of the cytoplasmic anti-sigma domain (ASD) of PupR to 2.0 Å. Size exclusion chromatography, small angle X-ray scattering, and sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation, all indicate that in contrast to other ASDs, the PupR-ASD exists as a dimer in solution. Mutagenesis of residues at the dimer interface identified from the crystal structure disrupts dimerization and protein stability, as determined by sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation and thermal denaturation circular dichroism spectroscopy. Lastly, these combined results suggest that this type of inner membrane sigma regulator may utilize an unusual mechanism to sequester their cognate sigma factors and prevent transcription activation.

  4. Mechanistic Implications of the Unique Structural Features and Dimerization of the Cytoplasmic Domain of the Pseudomonas Sigma Regulator, PupR

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jensen, Jaime L.; Balbo, Andrea; Neau, David B.; Chakravarthy, Srinivas; Zhao, Huaying; Sinha, Sangita C.; Colbert, Christopher L.

    2015-09-29

    Gram-negative bacteria tightly regulate intracellular levels of iron, an essential nutrient. To ensure this tight regulation, some outer membrane TonB-dependent transporters (TBDTs) that are responsible for iron import stimulate their own transcription in response to extracellular binding by an iron-laden siderophore. This process is mediated by an inner membrane sigma regulator protein (an anti-sigma factor) that transduces an unknown periplasmic signal from the TBDT to release an intracellular sigma factor from the inner membrane, which ultimately upregulates TBDT transcription. Here we use the Pseudomonas putida ferric-pseudobactin BN7/BN8 sigma regulator, PupR, as a model system to understand the molecular mechanism ofmore » this conserved class of sigma regulators. We have determined the X-ray crystal structure of the cytoplasmic anti-sigma domain (ASD) of PupR to 2.0 Å. Size exclusion chromatography, small angle X-ray scattering, and sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation, all indicate that in contrast to other ASDs, the PupR-ASD exists as a dimer in solution. Mutagenesis of residues at the dimer interface identified from the crystal structure disrupts dimerization and protein stability, as determined by sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation and thermal denaturation circular dichroism spectroscopy. Lastly, these combined results suggest that this type of inner membrane sigma regulator may utilize an unusual mechanism to sequester their cognate sigma factors and prevent transcription activation.« less

  5. Sigma meson and lowest possible glueball candidate in an extended linear {sigma} model

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, Tamal K.; Huang Mei; Yan Qishu

    2012-10-23

    We formulate an extended linear {sigma} model of a quarkonia nonet and a tetraquark nonet as well as a complex iso-singlet (glueball) field to study the low-lying scalar meson. Chiral symmetry and U{sub A}(1) symmetry and their breaking play important role to shape the scalar meson spectrum in our work. Based on our study we will comment on what may be the mass of the lowest possible scalar and pseudoscalar glueball states. We will also discuss on what may be the nature of the sigma or f{sub 0}(600) meson.

  6. Different intracellular distribution of avian reovirus core protein sigmaA in cells of avian and mammalian origin

    SciTech Connect

    Vazquez-Iglesias, Lorena; Lostale-Seijo, Irene; Martinez-Costas, Jose; Benavente, Javier

    2012-10-25

    A comparative analysis of the intracellular distribution of avian reovirus (ARV) core protein sigmaA in cells of avian and mammalian origin revealed that, whereas the viral protein accumulates in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of avian cells, most sigmaA concentrates in the nucleoplasm of mammalian cells in tight association with the insoluble nuclear matrix fraction. Our results further showed that sigmaA becomes arrested in the nucleoplasm of mammalian cells via association with mammalian cell-specific factors and that this association prevents nucleolar targeting. Inhibition of RNA polymerase II activity, but not of RNA polymerase I activity, in infected mammalian cells induces nucleus-to-cytoplasm sigmaA translocation through a CRM1- and RanGTP-dependent mechanism, yet a heterokaryon assay suggests that sigmaA does not shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm. The scarcity of sigmaA in cytoplasmic viral factories of infected mammalian cells could be one of the factors contributing to limited ARV replication in mammalian cells.

  7. Lambda and Sigma photoproduction on the neutron

    SciTech Connect

    P. Nadel-Turonski; B. L. Berman

    2006-06-01

    The gamma n --> K^0_s Y and gamma n --> K^+Sigma^-(1385) channels are being analyzed using the CLAS g10 data set. As recent calculations show a large sensitivity of, e.g., the proposed D_13(1900) resonance to polarization observables, we hope to extend this study by making a new experiment with polarized real photon beams and an LD_2 target in CLAS, to measure all gamma(pol) n --> K(pol)Y reactions. N* decays to low-lying KY* and K*Y states, as well as Y(pol)-N final state interactions would also be investigated.

  8. Sigma model BPS lumps on a torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamula, Atsushi; Sasaki, Shin

    2012-09-01

    We study doubly periodic Bogomol’nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield lumps in supersymmetric CPN-1 nonlinear sigma models on a torus T2. Following the philosophy of the Harrington-Shepard construction of calorons in Yang-Mills theory, we obtain the n-lump solutions on compact spaces by suitably arranging the n lumps on R2 at equal intervals. We examine the modular invariance of the solutions and find that there are no modular invariant solutions for n=1, 2 in this construction.

  9. Properties of the sigma meson at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, J. R. Morones; Aguirre, A. J. Garza; Flores-Baez, Francisco V.

    2015-12-01

    We study the changes of the mass and width of the sigma meson in the framework of the Linear Sigma Model at finite temperature, in the one-loop approximation. We have found that as the temperature increases, the mass of sigma shifts down. We have also analyzed the σ-spectral function and we observe an enhancement at the threshold which is a signature of partial restoration of chiral symmetry, also interpreted as a tendency to chiral phase transition. Additionally, we studied the width of the sigma, when the threshold enhancement takes place, for different values of the sigma mass. We found that there is a brief enlargement followed by an abrupt fall in the width as the temperature increases, which is also related with the restoration of chiral symmetry and an indication that the sigma is a bound state of two pions.

  10. Formation sigma measurement from thermal neutron detection

    SciTech Connect

    Albats, P.; Hertzog, R.C.; Mahdavi, M.

    1993-08-10

    In a logging system including a sonde for traversing a borehole at a controlled speed between spaced apart elevations in an earth formation, means carried by the sonde for irradiating the formation and generating detector signals indicative of the response of the borehole environment in and around the sonde to the radiation, and data processing means for computing at least one characteristic of the borehole environment from the detector signals, said at least one characteristic including the macroscopic thermal absorption cross section of the formation (formation sigma), the logging method is described using said sonde comprising the steps of: (a) irradiating the formation with a pulsed source of high energy neutrons as the sonde traverses the borehole, whereby the neutrons generated at each pulse interact with the borehole environment to produce a neutron population having a space, time and energy distribution including epithermal and thermal energies; (b) with a detector that has an azimuthally limited angle of receptivity, detecting the time-dependent population of thermal neutrons at an eccentric position in the borehole during a period of time between successive source pulses and generating a thermal neutron detector signal commensurate with said time-dependent population; and (c) from the thermal neutron detector signal, computing the value of formation sigma at the elevation of said eccentric position.