Note: This page contains sample records for the topic rt env shiv from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Pulmonary Vascular Lesions Are Common in SIV- and SHIV-env-Infected Macaques  

PubMed Central

Abstract The lack of animal models of HIV-related pulmonary arterial hypertension (HIV-PAH) severely limits investigation of this serious disease. While histological evidence of HIV-PAH has been demonstrated in macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) as well as with chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) containing HIV-1-derived Nef protein, other primate models have not been studied. The objective was to document and describe the development of pulmonary vascular changes in macaques infected with SIV or with SIV containing HIV-1-derived envelope protein (SHIV-env). Lung tissue was obtained at necropsy from 13 SHIV (89.6P)-env-infected macaques and 10 SIV (?B670)-infected macaques. Pulmonary arterial pathology, including arterial hyperplasia and the presence of plexiform lesions, was compared to normal monkey lung. Pulmonary artery hyperplasia was present in 8 of 13 (62%) SHIV-env-infected macaques and 4/10 (36%) SIV-infected macaques. The most common histopathological lesions were intimal and medial hyperplasia of medium and large pulmonary arteries. Hyperplastic lesions were predominantly due to smooth muscle cell hyperplasia. This is the first report of pulmonary vascular lesions in SHIV-env-infected macaques and confirms prior reports of pulmonary vasculopathy in SIV-infected macaques. The finding of pulmonary arteriopathy in monkeys infected with SHIV not containing HIV-nef suggests that other factors might also be important in the development of HIV-PAH. This SHIV-env model provides a new means to investigate HIV-PAH.

Brower, Alexandra; Kling, Heather; Shipley, Tim; Kristoff, Jan; Reinhart, Todd A.; Murphey-Corb, Michael; Gladwin, Mark T.; Champion, Hunter C.; Morris, Alison; Norris, Karen A.

2011-01-01

2

Comparison of Vaccine Strategies Using Recombinant env–gag–pol MVA with or without an Oligomeric Env Protein Boost in the SHIV Rhesus Macaque Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhesus macaques were immunized with a replication-deficient vaccinia virus (MVA) expressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 89.6 envelope (env) and SIV gagpol (MVA\\/SHIV89.6) with or without a protein boost consisting of soluble 89.6 env (gp140). Immunization with MVA\\/SHIV89.6 alone elicited binding antibodies in all animals and neutralizing antibodies in 5 of 15 animals. Both types of antibodies were enhanced by

Patricia L. Earl; Linda S. Wyatt; David C. Montefiori; Miroslawa Bilska; Ruth Woodward; Phillip D. Markham; James D. Malley; Thorsten U. Vogel; Todd M. Allen; David I. Watkins; Nancy Miller; Bernard Moss

2002-01-01

3

SHIV-1157i and passaged progeny viruses encoding R5 HIV-1 clade C env cause AIDS in rhesus monkeys  

PubMed Central

Background Infection of nonhuman primates with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) strains is widely used to study lentiviral pathogenesis, antiviral immunity and the efficacy of AIDS vaccine candidates. SHIV challenges allow assessment of anti-HIV-1 envelope responses in primates. As such, SHIVs should mimic natural HIV-1 infection in humans and, to address the pandemic, encode HIV-1 Env components representing major viral subtypes worldwide. Results We have developed a panel of clade C R5-tropic SHIVs based upon env of a Zambian pediatric isolate of HIV-1 clade C, the world's most prevalent HIV-1 subtype. The parental infectious proviral clone, SHIV-1157i, was rapidly passaged through five rhesus monkeys. After AIDS developed in the first animal at week 123 post-inoculation, infected blood was infused into a sixth monkey. Virus reisolated at this late stage was still exclusively R5 tropic and mucosally transmissible. Here we describe the long-term follow-up of this initial cohort of six monkeys. Two have remained non-progressors, whereas the other four gradually progressed to AIDS within 123–270 weeks post-exposure. Two progressors succumbed to opportunistic infections, including a case of SV40 encephalitis. Conclusion These data document the disease progression induced by the first mucosally transmissible, pathogenic R5 non-clade B SHIV and suggest that SHIV-1157i-derived viruses, including the late-stage, highly replication-competent SHIV-1157ipd3N4 previously described (Song et al., 2006), display biological characteristics that mirror those of HIV-1 clade C and support their expanded use for AIDS vaccine studies in nonhuman primates.

Humbert, Michael; Rasmussen, Robert A; Song, Ruijiang; Ong, Helena; Sharma, Prachi; Chenine, Agnes L; Kramer, Victor G; Siddappa, Nagadenahalli B; Xu, Weidong; Else, James G; Novembre, Francis J; Strobert, Elizabeth; O'Neil, Shawn P; Ruprecht, Ruth M

2008-01-01

4

Prophylactic and therapeutic effect of AZT/3TC in RT-SHIV infected Chinese-origin rhesus macaques  

PubMed Central

Background The precise efficacy of nucleoside analogue reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in preventing and inhibiting virus replication remains unknown in RT-SHIV infected Chinese-origin rhesus macaques (Ch RM). Findings Ch RM were inoculated intravenously with 200 TCID50 RT-SHIV and treated by gavage with NRTIs (20 mg AZT and 10 mg 3TC twice per day) for four consecutive weeks beginning at one hour, on day 217 or 297 post inoculation, respectively. Treatment with AZT/3TC inhibited transiently RT-SHIV replication during chronic infection, but did not significantly affect peripheral blood CD4+ T cells in macaques. Treatment with AZT/3TC at 1 hour post infection prevented RT-SHIV infection in two out of four animals during the 120-day observation period. Conclusions Therefore, the Ch RM model with RT-SHIV infection can be used to evaluate the efficacy of new NRTIs.

2014-01-01

5

RT-SHIV subpopulation dynamics in infected macaques during anti-HIV therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To study the dynamics of wild-type and drug-resistant HIV-1 RT variants, we developed a methodology that follows the fates of individual genomes over time within the viral quasispecies. Single genome sequences were obtained from 3 pigtail macaques infected with a recombinant simian immunodeficiency virus containing the RT coding region from HIV-1 (RT-SHIV) and treated with short-course efavirenz monotherapy 13

Wei Shao; Mary Kearney; Frank Maldarelli; John W Mellors; Robert M Stephens; Jeffrey D Lifson; Vineet N KewalRamani; Zandrea Ambrose; John M Coffin; Sarah E Palmer

2009-01-01

6

A Potent Combination Microbicide that Targets SHIV-RT, HSV-2 and HPV  

PubMed Central

Prevalent infection with human herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2) or human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. Microbicides that target HIV as well as these sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may more effectively limit HIV incidence. Previously, we showed that a microbicide gel (MZC) containing MIV-150, zinc acetate (ZA) and carrageenan (CG) protected macaques against simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-RT) infection and that a ZC gel protected mice against HSV-2 infection. Here we evaluated a modified MZC gel (containing different buffers, co-solvents, and preservatives suitable for clinical testing) against both vaginal and rectal challenge of animals with SHIV-RT, HSV-2 or HPV. MZC was stable and safe in vitro (cell viability and monolayer integrity) and in vivo (histology). MZC protected macaques against vaginal (p<0.0001) SHIV-RT infection when applied up to 8 hours (h) prior to challenge. When used close to the time of challenge, MZC prevented rectal SHIV-RT infection of macaques similar to the CG control. MZC significantly reduced vaginal (p<0.0001) and anorectal (p?=?0.0187) infection of mice when 106 pfu HSV-2 were applied immediately after vaginal challenge and also when 5×103 pfu were applied between 8 h before and 4 h after vaginal challenge (p<0.0248). Protection of mice against 8×106 HPV16 pseudovirus particles (HPV16 PsV) was significant for MZC applied up to 24 h before and 2 h after vaginal challenge (p<0.0001) and also if applied 2 h before or after anorectal challenge (p<0.0006). MZC provides a durable window of protection against vaginal infection with these three viruses and, against HSV-2 and HPV making it an excellent candidate microbicide for clinical use.

Kizima, Larisa; Rodriguez, Aixa; Kenney, Jessica; Derby, Nina; Mizenina, Olga; Menon, Radhika; Seidor, Samantha; Zhang, Shimin; Levendosky, Keith; Jean-Pierre, Ninochka; Pugach, Pavel; Villegas, Guillermo; Ford, Brian E.; Gettie, Agegnehu; Blanchard, James; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Paglini, Gabriela; Teleshova, Natalia; Zydowsky, Thomas M.; Robbiani, Melissa; Fernandez-Romero, Jose A.

2014-01-01

7

A Potent Combination Microbicide that Targets SHIV-RT, HSV-2 and HPV.  

PubMed

Prevalent infection with human herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2) or human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. Microbicides that target HIV as well as these sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may more effectively limit HIV incidence. Previously, we showed that a microbicide gel (MZC) containing MIV-150, zinc acetate (ZA) and carrageenan (CG) protected macaques against simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-RT) infection and that a ZC gel protected mice against HSV-2 infection. Here we evaluated a modified MZC gel (containing different buffers, co-solvents, and preservatives suitable for clinical testing) against both vaginal and rectal challenge of animals with SHIV-RT, HSV-2 or HPV. MZC was stable and safe in vitro (cell viability and monolayer integrity) and in vivo (histology). MZC protected macaques against vaginal (p<0.0001) SHIV-RT infection when applied up to 8 hours (h) prior to challenge. When used close to the time of challenge, MZC prevented rectal SHIV-RT infection of macaques similar to the CG control. MZC significantly reduced vaginal (p<0.0001) and anorectal (p?=?0.0187) infection of mice when 106 pfu HSV-2 were applied immediately after vaginal challenge and also when 5×103 pfu were applied between 8 h before and 4 h after vaginal challenge (p<0.0248). Protection of mice against 8×106 HPV16 pseudovirus particles (HPV16 PsV) was significant for MZC applied up to 24 h before and 2 h after vaginal challenge (p<0.0001) and also if applied 2 h before or after anorectal challenge (p<0.0006). MZC provides a durable window of protection against vaginal infection with these three viruses and, against HSV-2 and HPV making it an excellent candidate microbicide for clinical use. PMID:24740100

Kizima, Larisa; Rodríguez, Aixa; Kenney, Jessica; Derby, Nina; Mizenina, Olga; Menon, Radhika; Seidor, Samantha; Zhang, Shimin; Levendosky, Keith; Jean-Pierre, Ninochka; Pugach, Pavel; Villegas, Guillermo; Ford, Brian E; Gettie, Agegnehu; Blanchard, James; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Paglini, Gabriela; Teleshova, Natalia; Zydowsky, Thomas M; Robbiani, Melissa; Fernández-Romero, José A

2014-01-01

8

Variation of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 reverse transcriptase within the simian immunodeficiency virus genome of RT-SHIV.  

PubMed

RT-SHIV is a chimera of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) containing the reverse transcriptase (RT)-encoding region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) within the backbone of SIVmac239. It has been used in a non-human primate model for studies of non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTI) and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We and others have identified several mutations that arise in the "foreign" HIV-1 RT of RT-SHIV during in vivo replication. In this study we catalogued amino acid substitutions in the HIV-1 RT and in regions of the SIV backbone with which RT interacts that emerged 30 weeks post-infection from seven RT-SHIV-infected rhesus macaques. The virus set points varied from relatively high virus load, moderate virus load, to undetectable virus load. The G196R substitution in RT was detected from 6 of 7 animals at week 4 post-infection and remained in virus from 4 of 6 animals at week 30. Virus from four high virus load animals showed several common mutations within RT, including L74V or V75L, G196R, L214F, and K275R. The foreign RT from high virus load isolates exhibited as much variation as that of the highly variable envelope surface glycoprotein, and 10-fold higher than that of the native RT of SIVmac239. Isolates from moderate virus load animals showed much less variation in the foreign RT than the high virus load isolates. No variation was found in SIVmac239 genes known to interact with RT. Our results demonstrate substantial adaptation of the foreign HIV-1 RT in RT-SHIV-infected macaques, which most likely reflects selective pressure upon the foreign RT to attain optimal activity within the context of the chimeric RT-SHIV and the rhesus macaque host. PMID:24498008

Wadford, Debra A; Kauffman, Robert C; Deere, Jesse D; Aoki, Scott T; Stanton, Richard A; Higgins, Joanne; Van Rompay, Koen K A; Villalobos, Andradi; Nettles, James H; Schinazi, Raymond F; Pedersen, Niels C; North, Thomas W

2014-01-01

9

Analysis of multiply spliced transcripts in lymphoid tissue reservoirs of rhesus macaques infected with RT-SHIV during HAART.  

PubMed

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can reduce levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to undetectable levels in infected individuals, but the virus is not eradicated. The mechanisms of viral persistence during HAART are poorly defined, but some reservoirs have been identified, such as latently infected resting memory CD4? T cells. During latency, in addition to blocks at the initiation and elongation steps of viral transcription, there is a block in the export of viral RNA (vRNA), leading to the accumulation of multiply-spliced transcripts in the nucleus. Two of the genes encoded by the multiply-spliced transcripts are Tat and Rev, which are essential early in the viral replication cycle and might indicate the state of infection in a given population of cells. Here, the levels of multiply-spliced transcripts were compared to the levels of gag-containing RNA in tissue samples from RT-SHIV-infected rhesus macaques treated with HAART. Splice site sequence variation was identified during development of a TaqMan PCR assay. Multiply-spliced transcripts were detected in gastrointestinal and lymphatic tissues, but not the thymus. Levels of multiply-spliced transcripts were lower than levels of gag RNA, and both correlated with plasma virus loads. The ratio of multiply-spliced to gag RNA was greatest in the gastrointestinal samples from macaques with plasma virus loads <50 vRNA copies per mL at necropsy. Levels of gag RNA and multiply-spliced mRNA in tissues from RT-SHIV-infected macaques correlate with plasma virus load. PMID:24505331

Deere, Jesse D; Kauffman, Robert C; Cannavo, Elda; Higgins, Joanne; Villalobos, Andradi; Adamson, Lourdes; Schinazi, Raymond F; Luciw, Paul A; North, Thomas W

2014-01-01

10

Residual viremia in an RT-SHIV rhesus macaque HAART model marked by the presence of a predominant plasma clone and a lack of viral evolution.  

PubMed

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) significantly reduces HIV-1 replication and prevents progression to AIDS. However, residual low-level viremia (LLV) persists and long-lived viral reservoirs are maintained in anatomical sites. These reservoirs permit a recrudescence of viremia upon cessation of therapy and thus HAART must be maintained indefinitely. HIV-1 reservoirs include latently infected resting memory CD4? T-cells and macrophages which may contribute to residual viremia. It has not been conclusively determined if a component of LLV may also be due to residual replication in cells with sub-therapeutic drug levels and/or long-lived chronically infected cells. In this study, RT-SHIV(mac239) diversity was characterized in five rhesus macaques that received a five-drug HAART regimen [tenofovir, emtricitabine, zidovudine, amdoxovir, (A, C, T, G nucleoside analogs) and the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor efavirenz]. Before maximal viral load suppression, longitudinal plasma viral RNA RT diversity was analyzed using a 454 sequencer. After suppression, LLV RT diversity (amino acids 65-210) was also assessed. LLV samples had viral levels less than our standard detection limit (50 viral RNA copies/mL) and few transient blips <200 RNA copies/mL. HAART was discontinued in three macaques after 42 weeks of therapy resulting in viral rebound. The level of viral divergence and the prevalence of specific alleles in LLV was similar to pre-suppression viremia. While some LLV sequences contained mutations not observed in the pre-suppression profile, LLV was not characterized by temporal viral evolution or apparent selection of drug resistance mutations. Similarly, resistance mutations were not detected in the viral rebound population. Interestingly, one macaque maintained a putative LLV predominant plasma clone sequence. Together, these results suggest that residual replication did not markedly contribute to LLV and that this model mimics the prevalence and phylogenetic characteristics of LLV during human HAART. Therefore, this model may be ideal for testing HIV-1 eradication strategies. PMID:24505452

Kauffman, Robert C; Villalobos, Andradi; Bowen, Joanne H; Adamson, Lourdes; Schinazi, Raymond F

2014-01-01

11

A Simian Human Immunodeficiency Virus with a Nonfunctional Vpu (? vpuSHIV KU-1bMC33) Isolated from a Macaque with NeuroAIDS Has Selected for Mutations in Env and Nef That Contributed to Its Pathogenic Phenotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that passage of nonpathogenic SHIV-4 through a series of macaques results in the selection of variants of the virus that are capable of causing rapid subtotal loss of CD4+ T cells and AIDS within 6–8 months following inoculation into pig-tailed macaques. Using a pathogenic variant of SHIV-4 known as SHIVKU-1bMC33, we reported that a mutant of

Dinesh K. Singh; Coleen McCormick; Erik Pacyniak; Kathi Lawrence; Steven B. Dalton; Dave M. Pinson; Francis Sun; Nancy E. J. Berman; Meredith Calvert; Robert S. Gunderson; Scott W. Wong; Edward B. Stephens

2001-01-01

12

Incorporation of CD40 ligand into SHIV virus-like particles (VLP) enhances SHIV-VLP-induced dendritic cell activation and boosts immune responses against HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engagement of CD40 with CD40L induces dendritic cell (DC) maturation and activation, thereby promoting immune responses. The objective of this study was to investigate whether immunization with chimeric CD40L\\/SHIV virus-like particles (CD40L\\/SHIV-VLP) could enhance immune responses to SIV Gag and HIV Env proteins by directly activating DCs. We found that CD83, CD40, and CD86 were significantly up-regulated and significantly increased

Rongxin Zhang; Sheng Zhang; Min Li; Changyi Chen; Qizhi Yao

2010-01-01

13

Residual Viremia in an RT-SHIV Rhesus Macaque HAART Model Marked by the Presence of a Predominant Plasma Clone and a Lack of Viral Evolution  

PubMed Central

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) significantly reduces HIV-1 replication and prevents progression to AIDS. However, residual low-level viremia (LLV) persists and long-lived viral reservoirs are maintained in anatomical sites. These reservoirs permit a recrudescence of viremia upon cessation of therapy and thus HAART must be maintained indefinitely. HIV-1 reservoirs include latently infected resting memory CD4+ T-cells and macrophages which may contribute to residual viremia. It has not been conclusively determined if a component of LLV may also be due to residual replication in cells with sub-therapeutic drug levels and/or long-lived chronically infected cells. In this study, RT-SHIVmac239 diversity was characterized in five rhesus macaques that received a five-drug HAART regimen [tenofovir, emtricitabine, zidovudine, amdoxovir, (A, C, T, G nucleoside analogs) and the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor efavirenz]. Before maximal viral load suppression, longitudinal plasma viral RNA RT diversity was analyzed using a 454 sequencer. After suppression, LLV RT diversity (amino acids 65-210) was also assessed. LLV samples had viral levels less than our standard detection limit (50 viral RNA copies/mL) and few transient blips <200 RNA copies/mL. HAART was discontinued in three macaques after 42 weeks of therapy resulting in viral rebound. The level of viral divergence and the prevalence of specific alleles in LLV was similar to pre-suppression viremia. While some LLV sequences contained mutations not observed in the pre-suppression profile, LLV was not characterized by temporal viral evolution or apparent selection of drug resistance mutations. Similarly, resistance mutations were not detected in the viral rebound population. Interestingly, one macaque maintained a putative LLV predominant plasma clone sequence. Together, these results suggest that residual replication did not markedly contribute to LLV and that this model mimics the prevalence and phylogenetic characteristics of LLV during human HAART. Therefore, this model may be ideal for testing HIV-1 eradication strategies.

Kauffman, Robert C.; Villalobos, Andradi; Bowen, Joanne H.; Adamson, Lourdes; Schinazi, Raymond F.

2014-01-01

14

Fusion of the upstream vpu sequences to the env of simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV KU-1bMC33) results in the synthesis of two envelope precursor proteins, increased numbers of virus particles associated with the cell surface and is pathogenic for pig-tailed macaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that the gene coding for the Vpu protein of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is 5? to the env gene, is in a different reading frame, and overlaps the env by 90 nucleotides. In this study, we examined the processing of the Env protein as well as the maturation and infectivity of a virus

David R Hout; Melissa L Gomez; Erik Pacyniak; Ellyn R Mulcahy; Lisa M Gomez; Mollie Jackson; Melissa Flick; Barbara Fegley; Coleen McCormick; Billie J Wisdom; Nathan Culley; David M Pinson; Michael Powers; Scott W Wong; Edward B Stephens

2004-01-01

15

A Replication-Competent Adenovirus-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (Ad-HIV) tat and Ad-HIV env Priming\\/Tat and Envelope Protein Boosting Regimen Elicits Enhanced Protective Efficacy against Simian\\/Human Immunodeficiency Virus SHIV89.6P Challenge in Rhesus Macaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously demonstrated that replication-competent adenovirus (Ad)-simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) recombinant prime\\/protein boost regimens elicit potent immunogenicity and strong, durable protection of rhesus macaques against SIVmac251. Additionally, native Tat vaccines have conferred strong protection against simian\\/human immunodeficiency virus SHIV89.6P challenge of cynomolgus monkeys, while native, inactivated, or vectored Tat vaccines have failed to elicit similar protective efficacy in rhesus macaques.

Thorsten Demberg; Ruth H. Florese; Megan J. Heath; Kay Larsen; Irene Kalisz; V. S. Kalyanaraman; Eun Mi Lee; Ranajit Pal; David Venzon; Richard Grant; L. Jean Patterson; Birgit Korioth-Schmitz; Adam Buzby; Dilani Dombagoda; David C. Montefiori; Norman L. Letvin; Aurelio Cafaro; Barbara Ensoli; Marjorie Robert-Guroff

2007-01-01

16

Impact of antibody quality and anamnestic response on viremia control post-challenge in a combined Tat/Env vaccine regimen in rhesus macaques.  

PubMed

Previously, priming rhesus macaques with Adenovirus type 5 host range mutant-recombinants encoding Tat and Env and boosting with Tat and Env protein in MPL-SE controlled chronic viremia by 4 logs following homologous intravenous SHIV89.6P challenge. Here we evaluated Tat, Env, and Tat/Env regimens for immunogenicity and protective efficacy using clade C Env, alum adjuvant, and a heterologous intrarectal SHIV1157ipd3N4 challenge. Despite induction of strong cellular and humoral immunity, Tat/Env group T and B-cell memory responses were not significantly enhanced over Tat- or Env-only groups. Lack of viremia control post-challenge was attributed to lower avidity Env antibodies and no anamnestic ADCC response or SHIV1157ipd3N4 neutralizing antibody development post-challenge. Poor biologic activity of the Tat immunogen may have impaired Tat immunity. In the absence of sterilizing immunity, strong anamnestic responses to heterologous virus can help control viremia. Both antibody breadth and optimal adjuvanticity are needed to elicit high-quality antibody for protective efficacy. PMID:23528732

Demberg, Thorsten; Brocca-Cofano, Egidio; Kuate, Seraphin; Aladi, Stanley; Vargas-Inchaustegui, Diego A; Venzon, David; Kalisz, Irene; Kalyanaraman, V S; Lee, Eun Mi; Pal, Ranajit; DiPasquale, Janet; Ruprecht, Ruth M; Montefiori, David C; Srivastava, Indresh; Barnett, Susan W; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

2013-06-01

17

An intravaginal ring that releases the NNRTI MIV-150 reduces SHIV transmission in macaques.  

PubMed

Microbicides may prevent HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in women; however, determining the optimal means of delivery of active pharmaceutical ingredients remains a major challenge. We previously demonstrated that a vaginal gel containing the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor MIV-150 partially protected macaques from SHIV-RT (simian/HIV reverse transcriptase) infection, and the addition of zinc acetate rendered the gel significantly protective. We test the activity of MIV-150 without the addition of zinc acetate when delivered from either ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) or silicone intravaginal rings (IVRs). MIV-150 was successfully delivered, because it was detected in vaginal fluids and tissues by radioimmunoassay in pharmacokinetic studies. Moreover, EVA IVRs significantly protected macaques from SHIV-RT infection. Our results demonstrate that MIV-150-containing IVRs have the potential to prevent HIV infection and highlight the possible use of IVRs for delivering drugs that block HIV and other STIs. PMID:22956201

Singer, Rachel; Mawson, Paul; Derby, Nina; Rodriguez, Aixa; Kizima, Larisa; Menon, Radhika; Goldman, Daniel; Kenney, Jessica; Aravantinou, Meropi; Seidor, Samantha; Gettie, Agegnehu; Blanchard, James; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Fernández-Romero, José A; Robbiani, Melissa; Zydowsky, Thomas M

2012-09-01

18

Variations in the Biological Functions of HIV-1 Clade C Envelope in a SHIV-Infected Rhesus Macaque during Disease Progression  

PubMed Central

A better understanding of how the biological functions of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) changes during disease progression may aid the design of an efficacious anti-HIV-1 vaccine. Although studies from patient had provided some insights on this issue, the differences in the study cohorts and methodology had make it difficult to reach a consensus of the variations in the HIV-1 Env functions during disease progression. To this end, an animal model that can be infected under controlled environment and reflect the disease course of HIV-1 infection in human will be beneficial. Such an animal model was previously demonstrated by the infection of macaque with SHIV, expressing HIV-1 clade C Env V1-V5 region. By using this model, we examined the changes in biological functions of Env in the infected animal over the entire disease course. Our data showed an increase in the neutralization resistance phenotype over time and coincided with the decrease in the net charges of the V1-V5 region. Infection of PBMC with provirus expressing various Env clones, isolated from the infected animal over time, showed a surprisingly better replicative fitness for viruses expressing the Env from early time point. Biotinylation and ELISA data also indicated a decrease of cell-surface-associated Env and virion-associated gp120 content with disease progression. This decrease did not affect the CD4-binding capability of Env, but were positively correlated with the decrease of Env fusion ability. Interestingly, some of these changes in biological functions reverted to the pre-AIDS level during advance AIDS. These data suggested a dynamic relationship between the Env V1-V5 region with the host immune pressure. The observed changes of biological functions in this setting might reflect and predict those occurring during natural disease progression in human.

Tso, For Yue; Abrahamyan, Levon; Hu, Shiu-Lok; Ruprecht, Ruth M.; Wood, Charles

2013-01-01

19

Preclinical studies of human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS vaccines: inverse correlation between avidity of anti-Env antibodies and peak postchallenge viremia.  

PubMed

A major challenge for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS vaccines is the elicitation of anti-Env antibodies (Ab) capable of neutralizing the diversity of isolates in the pandemic. Here, we show that high-avidity, but nonneutralizing, Abs can have an inverse correlation with peak postchallenge viremia for a heterologous challenge. Vaccine studies were conducted in rhesus macaques using DNA priming followed by modified vaccinia Ankara boosting with HIV type 1 (HIV-1) immunogens that express virus-like particles displaying CCR5-tropic clade B (strain ADA) or clade C (IN98012) Envs. Rhesus granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor was used as an adjuvant for enhancing the avidity of anti-Env Ab responses. Challenge was with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-162P3, a CCR5-tropic clade B chimera of SIV and HIV-1. Within the groups receiving the clade B vaccine, a strong inverse correlation was found between the avidity of anti-Env Abs and peak postchallenge viremia. This correlation required the use of native but not gp120 or gp140 forms of Env for avidity assays. The high-avidity Ab elicited by the ADA Env had excellent breadth for the Envs of incident clade B but not clade C isolates, whereas the high-avidity Ab elicited by the IN98012 Env had excellent breadth for incident clade C but not clade B isolates. High-avidity Ab elicited by a SHIV vaccine with a dual-tropic clade B Env (89.6) had limited breadth for incident isolates. Our results suggest that certain Envs can elicit nonneutralizing but high-avidity Ab with broad potential for blunting incident infections of the same clade. PMID:19224993

Zhao, Jun; Lai, Lilin; Amara, Rama Rao; Montefiori, David C; Villinger, Francois; Chennareddi, Lakshmi; Wyatt, Linda S; Moss, Bernard; Robinson, Harriet L

2009-05-01

20

GM-CSF DNA: an adjuvant for higher avidity IgG, rectal IgA, and increased protection against the acute phase of a SHIV-89.6P challenge by a DNA/MVA immunodeficiency virus vaccine.  

PubMed

Single intradermal or intramuscular inoculations of GM-CSF DNA with the DNA prime for a simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-89.6 vaccine, which consists of DNA priming followed by modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) boosting, increased protection of both the blood and intestines against the acute phase of an intrarectal SHIV-89.6P challenge. GM-CSF appeared to contribute to protection by enhancing two antibody responses: the avidity maturation of anti-Env IgG in blood (p=or<0.01) and the presence of long lasting anti-viral IgA in rectal secretions (p<0.01). The avidity of anti-Env IgG showed strong correlations with protection both pre and post challenge. Animals with the highest avidity anti-Env Ab had 1000-fold reductions in peak viremia over those with the lowest avidity anti-Env Ab. The enhanced IgA response was associated with the best protection, but did not achieve significance. PMID:17698160

Lai, Lilin; Vödrös, Dalma; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Montefiori, David C; Wilson, Robert L; Akerstrom, Vicki L; Chennareddi, Lakshmi; Yu, Tianwei; Kannanganat, Sunil; Ofielu, Lazarus; Villinger, Francois; Wyatt, Linda S; Moss, Bernard; Amara, Rama Rao; Robinson, Harriet L

2007-12-01

21

Inclusion of a CRF01_AE HIV envelope protein boost with a DNA/MVA prime-boost vaccine: Impact on humoral and cellular immunogenicity and viral load reduction after SHIV-E challenge.  

PubMed

The current study assessed the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of various prime-boost vaccine regimens in rhesus macaques using combinations of recombinant DNA (rDNA), recombinant MVA (rMVA), and subunit gp140 protein. The rDNA and rMVA vectors were constructed to express Env from HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE and Gag-Pol from CRF01_AE or SIVmac 239. One of the rMVAs, MVA/CMDR, has been recently tested in humans. Immunizations were administered at months 0 and 1 (prime) and months 3 and 6 (boost). After priming, HIV env-specific serum IgG was detected in monkeys receiving gp140 alone or rMVA but not in those receiving rDNA. Titers were enhanced in these groups after boosting either with gp140 alone or with rMVA plus gp140. The groups that received the rDNA prime developed env-specific IgG after boosting with rMVA with or without gp140. HIV Env-specific serum IgG binding antibodies were elicited more frequently and of higher titer, and breadth of neutralizing antibodies was increased with the inclusion of the subunit Env boost. T cell responses were measured by tetramer binding to Gag p11c in Mamu-A*01 macaques, and by IFN-? ELISPOT assay to SIV-Gag. T cell responses were induced after vaccination with the highest responses seen in macaques immunized with rDNA and rMVA. Macaques were challenged intravenously with a novel SHIV-E virus (SIVmac239 Gag-Pol with an HIV-1 subtype E-Env CAR402). Post challenge with SHIV-E, antibody titers were boosted in all groups and peaked at 4 weeks. Robust T cell responses were seen in all groups post challenge and in macaques immunized with rDNA and rMVA a clear boosting of responses was seen. A greater than two-log drop in RNA copies/ml at peak viremia and earlier set point was achieved in macaques primed with rDNA, and boosted with rMVA/SHIV-AE plus gp140. Post challenge viremia in macaques immunized with other regimens was not significantly different to that of controls. These results demonstrate that a gp140 subunit and inclusion of SIV Gag-Pol may be critical for control of SHIV post challenge. PMID:22234262

Cox, Josephine H; Ferrari, Maria G; Earl, Patricia; Lane, James R; Jagodzinski, Linda L; Polonis, Victoria R; Kuta, Ellen G; Boyer, Jean D; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; Eller, Leigh-Anne; Pham, Doan-Trang; Hart, Lydia; Montefiori, David; Ferrari, Guido; Parrish, Stephanie; Weiner, David B; Moss, Bernard; Kim, Jerome H; Birx, Deborah; VanCott, Thomas C

2012-02-27

22

Protective efficacy of nonpathogenic nef-deleted SHIV vaccination combined with recombinant IFN-gamma administration against a pathogenic SHIV challenge in rhesus monkeys.  

PubMed

We previously reported that a nef-deleted SHIV (SHIV-NI) is nonpathogenic and gave macaques protection from challenge infection with pathogenic SHIV-C2/1. To investigate whether IFN-gamma augments the immune response induced by this vaccination, we examined the antiviral and adjuvant effect of recombinant human IFN-gamma (rIFN-gamma) in vaccinated and unvaccinated monkeys. Nine monkeys were vaccinated with nef-deleted nonpathogenic SHIV-NI. Four of them were administered with rIFN-gamma and the other five monkeys were administered with placebo. After the challenge with pathogenic SHIV-C2/1, CD4(+) T-cell counts were maintained similarly in monkeys of both groups, while those of the unvaccinated monkeys decreased dramatically at 2 weeks after challenge. However, the peaks of plasma viral load were reduced to 100-fold in SHIV-NI vaccinated monkeys combined with rIFN-gamma compared with those in SHIV-NI vaccinated monkeys without rIFN-gamma. The peaks of plasma viral load were inversely correlated with the number of SIV Gag-specific IFN-gamma-producing cells. In SHIV-NI-vaccinated monkeys with rIFN-gamma, the number of SIV Gag-specific IFN-gamma-producing cells of PBMCs increased 2-fold compared with those in SHIV-NI-vaccinated monkeys without rIFN-gamma, and the NK activity and MIP-1alpha production of PBMCs were also enhanced. Thus, vaccination of SHIV-NI in combination with rIFN-gamma was more effective in modulating the antiviral immune system into a Th1 type response than SHIV-NI vaccination alone. These results suggest that IFN-gamma augmented the anti-viral effect by enhancing innate immunity and shifting the immune response to Th1. PMID:16365534

Kaneyasu, Kentaro; Kita, Masakazu; Ohkura, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Ibuki, Kentaro; Enose, Yoshimi; Sato, Akihiko; Kodama, Makoto; Miura, Tomoyuki; Hayami, Masanori

2005-01-01

23

Quantitation of HERV-K env gene expression and splicing in human breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) comprise up to 8% of the human genome. In previous studies, we demonstrated that type 1 HERV-K envelope (env) transcripts are expressed in most human breast cancers, but not in normal breast tissues. In the current study, we report that type 2 HERV-K env transcripts are also present in human breast cancers. By real-time RT–PCR, the

Feng Wang-Johanning; Andra R Frost; Bixi Jian; Lidia Epp; Danielle W Lu; Gary L Johanning

2003-01-01

24

Anti-HIV IgA Isotypes: Differential Virion Capture and Inhibition of Transcytosis are Linked to Prevention of Mucosal R5 SHIV Transmission  

PubMed Central

Objective Although passive immunization with anti-HIV-1 Env IgG1 neutralizing monoclonal Abs (nmAbs) prevented simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection in rhesus monkeys (RMs), IgA nmAbs have not been tested. Here, we sought to determine whether human anti-HIV-1 dimeric (d)IgA1, dIgA2, and IgG1 differ in their ability to prevent mucosal R5 SHIV acquisition in RMs. Design DIgA1, dIgA2, and IgG1 versions of nmAb HGN194 were applied intrarectally (i.r.) in three RM groups 30 min before i.r. SHIV challenge. Methods After a control pharmacokinetic study showed that nmAb concentrations in rectal fluids over time were similar for all HGN194 isotypes, control and nmAb-treated animals were challenged i.r. with an R5 SHIV, and viral loads were monitored. Results Unexpectedly, dIgA1 provided the best protection in vivo – although all nmAbs showed similar neutralizing activity in vitro. Five out of the six dIgA1-treated RMs remained virus-free compared to only one out of six animals given dIgA2 (P=0.045 by log rank test) and two out of six RMs treated with IgG1 forms of the nmAb (P=0.12). Protection correlated significantly with virion capture activity by a given nmAb form, as well as inhibition of transcytosis of cell-free virus across an epithelial cell layer in vitro. Conclusions Our data imply that dIgA1-mediated capturing of virions in mucosal secretions and inhibition of transcytosis can provide significant prevention of lentiviral acquisition – over and above direct virus neutralization. Vaccine strategies that induce mucosal IgA, especially IgA1, should be developed as first-line of defense against HIV-1, a virus predominantly transmitted mucosally.

Watkins, Jennifer D.; Sholukh, Anton M.; Mukhtar, Muhammad M.; Siddappa, Nagadenahalli B.; Lakhashe, Samir K.; Kim, Mikyung; Reinherz, Ellis L.; Gupta, Sandeep; Forthal, Donald N.; Sattentau, Quentin; Villinger, Francois; Corti, Davide; Ruprecht, Ruth M.

2014-01-01

25

Altered gene expression in asymptomatic SHIV-infected rhesus macaques (Macacca mulatta)  

PubMed Central

Simian-Human immunodeficiency virus is a chimeric virus which, in rhesus macaques (Macacca mulatta) closely imitates immunodeficiency virus infection in human (HIV). A relatively new way to study pathogenesis of viral infection is to study alterations in host gene expression induced by the virus. SHIV infection with certain strains does not result in clinical signs. We hypothesized that alterations in gene expression relating to the immune system would be present in SHIV-infected animals despite the lack of clinical signs. Splenic tissue from four adult male Indian-origin Rhesus monkeys serologically positive for non-pathogenic SHIV 89.6 was processed by cDNA microarray analysis. Results were compared with the corresponding outcome using splenic tissues from four unexposed adult male Rhesus monkeys. Subsequent gene analysis confirmed statistically significant variations between control and infected samples. Interestingly, SHIV-infected monkeys exhibited altered expression in genes related to apoptosis, signal transduction, T and B lymphocyte activation and importantly, to immune regulation. Although infected animals appeared asymptomatic, our study demonstrated that SHIV-infected monkeys cannot reliably be used in studies of other infectious agents as their baseline gene expression differs from that of normal Rhesus monkeys. The gene expression differences in SHIV-infected animals relative to uninfected animals offer additional clues to the pathogenesis of altered immune function in response to secondary infection.

Carroll, Erica E; Hammamieh, Rasha; Chakraborty, Nabarun; Phillips, Aaron T; Miller, Stacy-Ann M; Jett, Marti

2006-01-01

26

Generation and mucosal transmissibility of emtricitabine- and tenofovir-resistant SHIV162P3 mutants in macaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission of drug-resistant HIV has been widely documented. We generated tenofovir (TFV)- and emtricitabine (FTC)-resistant SHIV162P3 mutants that can be used to investigate the transmission efficiency of drug-resistant viruses and their impact on the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis. Both SHIV162p3M184V and SHIV162p3K65R replicated in vitro at high titers. Drug resistance profiles were similar to those seen in HIV. Virus infectivity

Mian-er Cong; Ae S. Youngpairoj; Wutyi Aung; Sunita Sharma; James Mitchell; Charles Dobard; Walid Heneine; J. Gerardo Garcia-Lerma

2011-01-01

27

SHIV162P3 Infection of Rhesus Macaques Given Maraviroc Gel Vaginally Does Not Involve Resistant Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maraviroc (MVC) gels are effective at protecting rhesus macaques from vaginal SHIV transmission, but breakthrough infections can occur. To determine the effects of a vaginal MVC gel on infecting SHIV populations in a macaque model, we analyzed plasma samples from three rhesus macaques that received a MVC vaginal gel (day 0) but became infected after high-dose SHIV-162P3 vaginal challenge. Two

Athe M. N. Tsibris; Urboshi Pal; Allison L. Schure; Ronald S. Veazey; Kevin J. Kunstman; Timothy J. Henrich; P. J. Klasse; Steven M. Wolinsky; Daniel R. Kuritzkes; John P. Moore

2011-01-01

28

Incorporation of chimeric HIV-SIV-Env and modified HIV-Env proteins into HIV pseudovirions  

SciTech Connect

Low level incorporation of the viral glycoprotein (Env) into human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) particles is a major drawback for vaccine strategies against HIV/AIDS in which HIV particles are used as immunogen. Within this study, we have examined two strategies aimed at achieving higher levels of Env incorporation into non-infectious pseudovirions (PVs). First, we have generated chimeric HIV/SIV Env proteins containing the truncated C-terminal tail region of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mac239-Env767{sup stop}, which mediates strongly increased incorporation of SIV-Env into SIV particles. In a second strategy, we have employed a truncated HIV-Env protein (Env-Tr752{sup N750K}) which we have previously demonstrated to be incorporated into HIV virions, generated in infected T-cells, to a higher level than that of Wt-HIV-Env. Although the chimeric HIV/SIV Env proteins were expressed at the cell surface and induced increased levels of cell-cell fusion in comparison to Wt-HIV-Env, they did not exhibit increased incorporation into either HIV-PVs or SIV-PVs. Only Env-Tr752{sup N750K} exhibited significantly higher (threefold) levels of incorporation into HIV-PVs, an improvement, which, although not dramatic, is worthwhile for the large-scale preparation of non-infectious PVs for vaccine studies aimed at inducing Env humoral responses.

Devitt, Gerard [Forschungsschwerpunkt Infektion und Krebs, F020, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld 242, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Emerson, Vanessa [Forschungsschwerpunkt Infektion und Krebs, F020, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld 242, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Holtkotte, Denise [Forschungsschwerpunkt Infektion und Krebs, F020, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld 242, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Pfeiffer, Tanya [Forschungsschwerpunkt Infektion und Krebs, F020, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld 242, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Pisch, Thorsten [Forschungsschwerpunkt Infektion und Krebs, F020, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld 242, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bosch, Valerie [Forschungsschwerpunkt Infektion und Krebs, F020, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld 242, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: v.bosch@dkfz.de

2007-05-10

29

An Antiretroviral/Zinc Combination Gel Provides 24 Hours of Complete Protection against Vaginal SHIV Infection in Macaques  

PubMed Central

Background Repeated use, coitus-independent microbicide gels that do not contain antiretroviral agents also used as first line HIV therapy are urgently needed to curb HIV spread. Current formulations require high doses (millimolar range) of antiretroviral drugs and typically only provide short-term protection in macaques. We used the macaque model to test the efficacy of a novel combination microbicide gel containing zinc acetate and micromolar doses of the novel non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor MIV-150 for up to 24 h after repeated gel application. Methods and Findings Rhesus macaques were vaginally challenged with SHIV-RT up to 24 h after repeated administration of microbicide versus placebo gels. Infection status was determined by measuring virologic and immunologic parameters. Combination microbicide gels containing 14 mM zinc acetate dihydrate and 50 µM MIV-150 afforded full protection (21 of 21 animals) for up to 24 h after 2 weeks of daily application. Partial protection was achieved with the MIV-150 gel (56% of control at 8 h after last application, 11% at 24 h), while the zinc acetate gel afforded more pronounced protection (67% at 8–24 h). Marked protection persisted when the zinc acetate or MIV-150/zinc acetate gels were applied every other day for 4 weeks prior to challenge 24 h after the last gel was administered (11 of 14 protected). More MIV-150 was associated with cervical tissue 8 h after daily dosing of MIV-150/zinc acetate versus MIV-150, while comparable MIV-150 levels were associated with vaginal tissues and at 24 h. Conclusions A combination MIV-150/zinc acetate gel and a zinc acetate gel provide significant protection against SHIV-RT infection for up to 24 h. This represents a novel advancement, identifying microbicides that do not contain anti-viral agents used to treat HIV infection and which can be used repeatedly and independently of coitus, and underscores the need for future clinical testing of their safety and ability to prevent HIV transmission in humans.

Singer, Rachel; Hsu, Mayla; Rodriguez, Aixa; Kizima, Larisa; Abraham, Ciby J.; Menon, Radhika; Seidor, Samantha; Chudolij, Anne; Gettie, Agegnehu; Blanchard, James; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Piatak, Michael; Fernandez-Romero, Jose A.; Zydowsky, Thomas M.; Robbiani, Melissa

2011-01-01

30

Mechanisms for Env Glycoprotein Acquisition by Retroviruses  

PubMed Central

Abstract A mandatory step in the formation of an infectious retroviral particle is the acquisition of its envelope glycoprotein (Env). This step invariably occurs by Env positioning itself in the host membrane at the location of viral budding and being incorporated along with the host membrane into the viral particle. In some ways, this step of the viral life cycle would appear to be imprecise. There is no specific sequence in Env or in the retroviral structural protein, Gag, that is inherently required for the production of an infectious Env-containing particle. Additionally, Env-defective proviruses can efficiently produce infectious particles with any of a number of foreign retroviral Env glycoproteins or even glycoproteins from unrelated viral families, a process termed pseudotyping. However, mounting evidence suggests that Env incorporation is neither passive nor random. Rather, several redundant mechanisms appear to contribute to the carefully controlled process of Env acquisition, many of which are apparently used by a wide variety of enveloped viruses. This review presents and discusses the evidence for these different mechanisms contributing to incorporation.

2011-01-01

31

Prime-boost vaccination with heterologous live vectors encoding SIV gag and multimeric HIV-1 gp160 protein: efficacy against repeated mucosal R5 clade C SHIV challenges  

PubMed Central

We sought to induce primate immunodeficiency virus-specific cellular and neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses in rhesus macaques (RM) through a bimodal vaccine approach. RM were immunized intragastrically (i.g.) with the live-attenuated Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) vector Lmdd-BdopSIVgag encoding SIVmac239 gag. SIV Gag-specific cellular responses were boosted by intranasal and intratracheal administration of replication-competent adenovirus (Ad5hr-SIVgag) encoding the same gag. To broaden antiviral immunity, the RM were immunized with multimeric HIV clade C (HIV-C) gp160 and HIV Tat. SIV Gag-specific cellular immune responses and HIV-1 nAb developed in some RM. The animals were challenged intrarectally with five low doses of R5 SHIV-1157ipEL-p, encoding a heterologous HIV-C Env (22.1% divergent to the Env immunogen). All five controls became viremic. One out of ten vaccinees was completely protected and another had low peak viremia. Sera from the completely and partially protected RM neutralized the challenge virus >90%; these RM also had strong SIV Gag-specific proliferation of CD8+ T cells. Peak and area under the curve of plasma viremia (during acute phase) among vaccinees was lower than for controls, but did not attain significance. The completely protected RM showed persistently low numbers of the ?4?7-expressing CD4+ T cells; the latter have been implicated as preferential virus targets in-vivo. Thus, vaccine-induced immune responses and relatively lower numbers of potential target cells were associated with protection.

Lakhashe, Samir K.; Velu, Vijayakumar; Sciaranghella, Gaia; Siddappa, Nagadenahalli B.; DiPasquale, Janet M.; Hemashettar, Girish; Yoon, John K.; Rasmussen, Robert A.; Yang, Feng; Lee, Sandra J.; Montefiori, David C.; Novembre, Francis J.; Villinger, Francois; Amara, Rama Rao; Kahn, Maria; Hu, Shiu-Lok; Li, Sufen; Li, Zhongxia; Frankel, Fred R.; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie; Johnson, Welkin E.; Lieberman, Judy; Ruprecht, Ruth M.

2011-01-01

32

Prime-boost vaccination with heterologous live vectors encoding SIV gag and multimeric HIV-1 gp160 protein: efficacy against repeated mucosal R5 clade C SHIV challenges.  

PubMed

We sought to induce primate immunodeficiency virus-specific cellular and neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses in rhesus macaques (RM) through a bimodal vaccine approach. RM were immunized intragastrically (i.g.) with the live-attenuated Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) vector Lmdd-BdopSIVgag encoding SIVmac239 gag. SIV Gag-specific cellular responses were boosted by intranasal and intratracheal administration of replication-competent adenovirus (Ad5hr-SIVgag) encoding the same gag. To broaden antiviral immunity, the RM were immunized with multimeric HIV clade C (HIV-C) gp160 and HIV Tat. SIV Gag-specific cellular immune responses and HIV-1 nAb developed in some RM. The animals were challenged intrarectally with five low doses of R5 SHIV-1157ipEL-p, encoding a heterologous HIV-C Env (22.1% divergent to the Env immunogen). All five controls became viremic. One out of ten vaccinees was completely protected and another had low peak viremia. Sera from the completely and partially protected RM neutralized the challenge virus > 90%; these RM also had strong SIV Gag-specific proliferation of CD8? T cells. Peak and area under the curve of plasma viremia (during acute phase) among vaccinees was lower than for controls, but did not attain significance. The completely protected RM showed persistently low numbers of the ?4?7-expressing CD4? T cells; the latter have been implicated as preferential virus targets in vivo. Thus, vaccine-induced immune responses and relatively lower numbers of potential target cells were associated with protection. PMID:21693155

Lakhashe, Samir K; Velu, Vijayakumar; Sciaranghella, Gaia; Siddappa, Nagadenahalli B; Dipasquale, Janet M; Hemashettar, Girish; Yoon, John K; Rasmussen, Robert A; Yang, Feng; Lee, Sandra J; Montefiori, David C; Novembre, Francis J; Villinger, François; Amara, Rama Rao; Kahn, Maria; Hu, Shiu-Lok; Li, Sufen; Li, Zhongxia; Frankel, Fred R; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie; Johnson, Welkin E; Lieberman, Judy; Ruprecht, Ruth M

2011-08-01

33

Two Groups of Endogenous MMTV Related Retroviral env Transcripts Expressed in Human Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human genome contains at least 50 copies of the human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) family which is related to the\\u000a mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV). Some members have been shown to be transcriptionally active and to have large open reading\\u000a frames. Using the RT-PCR method we have investigated the HERV-K env transcription pattern in several malignant tissues and\\u000a in

Andreas Willer; Susanne Saußele; Wolfgang Gimbel; Wolfgang Zeifarth; Peter Kister

1997-01-01

34

Envelope Glycoprotein Determinants of Neutralization Resistance in a Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (SHIV-HXBc2P 3.2) Derived by Passage in Monkeys  

PubMed Central

The simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV-HXBc2 contains the envelope glycoproteins of a laboratory-adapted, neutralization-sensitive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variant, HXBc2. Serial in vivo passage of the nonpathogenic SHIV-HXBc2 generated SHIV KU-1, which causes rapid CD4+ T-cell depletion and an AIDS-like illness in monkeys. A molecularly cloned pathogenic SHIV, SHIV-HXBc2P 3.2, was derived from the SHIV KU-1 isolate and differs from the parental SHIV-HXBc2 by only 12 envelope glycoprotein amino acid residues. Relative to SHIV-HXBc2, SHIV-HXBc2P 3.2 was resistant to neutralization by all of the antibodies tested with the exception of the 2G12 antibody. The sequence changes responsible for neutralization resistance were located in variable regions of the gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein and in the gp41 transmembrane envelope glycoprotein. The 2G12 antibody, which neutralized SHIV-HXBc2 and SHIV-HXBc2P 3.2 equally, bound the HXBc2 and HXBc2P 3.2 envelope glycoproteins on the cell surface comparably. The ability of the other tested antibodies to achieve saturation was less for the HXBc2P 3.2 envelope glycoproteins than for the HXBc2 envelope glycoproteins, even though the affinity of the antibodies for the two envelope glycoproteins was similar. Thus, a highly neutralization-sensitive SHIV, by modifying both gp120 and gp41 glycoproteins, apparently achieves a neutralization-resistant state by decreasing the saturability of its envelope glycoproteins by antibodies.

Si, Zhihai; Cayabyab, Mark; Sodroski, Joseph

2001-01-01

35

MiniCD4 Microbicide Prevents HIV Infection of Human Mucosal Explants and Vaginal Transmission of SHIV162P3 in Cynomolgus Macaques  

PubMed Central

In complement to an effective vaccine, development of potent anti-HIV microbicides remains an important priority. We have previously shown that the miniCD4 M48U1, a functional mimetic of sCD4 presented on a 27 amino-acid stable scaffold, inhibits a broad range of HIV-1 isolates at sub-nanomolar concentrations in cellular models. Here, we report that M48U1 inhibits efficiently HIV-1Ba-L in human mucosal explants of cervical and colorectal tissues. In vivo efficacy of M48U1 was evaluated in nonhuman primate (NHP) model of mucosal challenge with SHIV162P3 after assessing pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a miniCD4 gel formulation in sexually matured female cynomolgus macaques. Among 12 females, half were treated with hydroxyethylcellulose-based gel (control), the other half received the same gel containing 3 mg/g of M48U1, one hour before vaginal route challenge with 10 AID50 of SHIV162P3. All control animals were infected with a peak plasma viral load of 105–106 viral RNA (vRNA) copies per mL. In animals treated with miniCD4, 5 out of 6 were fully protected from acquisition of infection, as assessed by qRT-PCR for vRNA detection in plasma, qPCR for viral DNA detection in PBMC and lymph node cells. The only infected animal in this group had a delayed peak of viremia of one week. These results demonstrate that M48U1 miniCD4 acts in vivo as a potent entry inhibitor, which may be considered in microbicide developments.

Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Morellato-Castillo, Laurence; Brouwers, Joachim; Augustijns, Patrick; Bouchemal, Kawthar; Ponchel, Gilles; Ramos, Oscar H. P.; Herrera, Carolina; Stefanidou, Martha; Shattock, Robin; Heyndrickx, Leo; Vanham, Guido; Kessler, Pascal; Le Grand, Roger; Martin, Loic

2012-01-01

36

Retroviral Env Glycoprotein Trafficking and Incorporation into Virions  

PubMed Central

Together with the Gag protein, the Env glycoprotein is a major retroviral structural protein and is essential for forming infectious virus particles. Env is synthesized, processed, and transported to certain microdomains at the plasma membrane and takes advantage of the same host machinery for its trafficking as that used by cellular glycoproteins. Incorporation of Env into progeny virions is probably mediated by the interaction between Env and Gag, in some cases with the additional involvement of certain host factors. Although several general models have been proposed to explain the incorporation of retroviral Env glycoproteins into virions, the actual mechanism for this process is still unclear, partly because structural data on the Env protein cytoplasmic tail is lacking. This paper presents the current understanding of the synthesis, trafficking, and virion incorporation of retroviral Env proteins.

Murakami, Tsutomu

2012-01-01

37

Prevention of vaginal SHIV transmission in rhesus macaques through inhibition of CCR5.  

PubMed

Topical agents, such as microbicides, that can protect against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission are urgently needed. Using a chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV SF162), which is tropic for the chemokine receptor CCR5, we report that topical application of high doses of PSC-RANTES, an amino terminus-modified analog of the chemokine RANTES, provided potent protection against vaginal challenge in rhesus macaques. These experimental findings have potentially important implications for understanding vaginal transmission of HIV and the design of strategies for its prevention. PMID:15486300

Lederman, Michael M; Veazey, Ronald S; Offord, Robin; Mosier, Donald E; Dufour, Jason; Mefford, Megan; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Salkowitz, Janelle R; Rodriguez, Benigno; Blauvelt, Andrew; Hartley, Oliver

2004-10-15

38

Vaccination against Heterologous R5 Clade C SHIV: Prevention of Infection and Correlates of Protection  

PubMed Central

A safe, efficacious vaccine is required to stop the AIDS pandemic. Disappointing results from the STEP trial implied a need to include humoral anti-HIV-1 responses, a notion supported by RV144 trial data even though correlates of protection are unknown. We vaccinated rhesus macaques with recombinant simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag-Pol particles, HIV-1 Tat and trimeric clade C (HIV-C) gp160, which induced cross-neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and robust cellular immune responses. After five low-dose mucosal challenges with a simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) that encoded a heterologous R5 HIV-C envelope (22.1% divergence from the gp160 immunogen), 94% of controls became viremic, whereas one third of vaccinees remained virus-free. Upon high-dose SHIV rechallenge, all controls became infected, whereas some vaccinees remained aviremic. Peak viremia was inversely correlated with both cellular immunity (p<0.001) and cross-nAb titers (p<0.001). These data simultaneously linked cellular as well as humoral immune responses with the degree of protection for the first time.

Lakhashe, Samir K.; Wang, Wendy; Siddappa, Nagadenahalli B.; Hemashettar, Girish; Polacino, Patricia; Hu, Shiu-Lok; Villinger, Francois; Else, James G.; Novembre, Francis J.; Yoon, John K.; Lee, Sandra J.; Montefiori, David C.

2011-01-01

39

Therapeutic Efficacy of Potent Neutralizing HIV-1-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies in SHIV-Infected Rhesus Monkeys  

PubMed Central

HIV-1-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with extraordinary potency and breadth have recently been described. In humanized mice, combinations of mAbs have been shown to suppress viremia, but the therapeutic potential of these mAbs has not yet been evaluated in primates with an intact immune system. Here we show that administration of a cocktail of HIV-1-specific mAbs, as well as the single glycan-dependent mAb PGT121, resulted in a rapid and precipitous decline of plasma viremia to undetectable levels in rhesus monkeys chronically infected with the pathogenic virus SHIV-SF162P3. A single mAb infusion afforded up to a 3.1 log decline of plasma viral RNA in 7 days and also reduced proviral DNA in peripheral blood, gastrointestinal mucosa, and lymph nodes without the development of viral resistance. Moreover, following mAb administration, host Gag-specific T lymphocyte responses exhibited improved functionality. Virus rebounded in the majority of animals after a median of 56 days when serum mAb titers had declined to undetectable levels, although a subset of animals maintained long-term virologic control in the absence of further mAb infusions. These data demonstrate a profound therapeutic effect of potent neutralizing HIV-1-specific mAbs in SHIV-infected rhesus monkeys as well as an impact on host immune responses. Our findings strongly encourage the investigation of mAb therapy for HIV-1 in humans.

Barouch, Dan H.; Whitney, James B.; Moldt, Brian; Klein, Florian; Oliveira, Thiago Y.; Liu, Jinyan; Stephenson, Kathryn E.; Chang, Hui-Wen; Shekhar, Karthik; Gupta, Sanjana; Nkolola, Joseph P.; Seaman, Michael S.; Smith, Kaitlin M.; Borducchi, Erica N.; Cabral, Crystal; Smith, Jeffrey Y.; Blackmore, Stephen; Sanisetty, Srisowmya; Perry, James R.; Beck, Matthew; Lewis, Mark G.; Rinaldi, William; Chakraborty, Arup K.; Poignard, Pascal; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Burton, Dennis R.

2014-01-01

40

Aaron Shepard's RT Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aaron Shepard, author of Stories on Stage: Scripts for Reader's Theater (H.W. Wilson, 1993), has provided this web site as a way to broaden interest in the reader's theater (RT) genre. Using minimal (or no) sets, props, and costumes, RT performances are opportunities for students to participate in short dramatic adaptations of prose or dramatic works. Of the RT scripts available on the site, several are original and several are adaptations of well-known short stories. There are twelve scripts for grade, middle, and high school, and five for college classes.

Shepard, Aaron.

1996-01-01

41

SHIV-162P3 Infection of Rhesus Macaques Given Maraviroc Gel Vaginally Does Not Involve Resistant Viruses  

PubMed Central

Maraviroc (MVC) gels are effective at protecting rhesus macaques from vaginal SHIV transmission, but breakthrough infections can occur. To determine the effects of a vaginal MVC gel on infecting SHIV populations in a macaque model, we analyzed plasma samples from three rhesus macaques that received a MVC vaginal gel (day 0) but became infected after high-dose SHIV-162P3 vaginal challenge. Two infected macaques that received a placebo gel served as controls. The infecting SHIV-162P3 stock had an overall mean genetic distance of 0.294±0.027%; limited entropy changes were noted across the envelope (gp160). No envelope mutations were observed consistently in viruses isolated from infected macaques at days 14–21, the time of first detectable viremia, nor selected at later time points, days 42–70. No statistically significant differences in MVC susceptibilities were observed between the SHIV inoculum (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] 1.87 nM) and virus isolated from the three MVC-treated macaques (MVC IC50 1.18 nM, 1.69 nM, and 1.53 nM, respectively). Highlighter plot analyses suggested that infection was established in each MVC-treated animal by one founder virus genotype. The expected Poisson distribution of pairwise Hamming Distance frequency counts was observed and a phylogenetic analysis did not identify infections with distinct lineages from the challenge stock. These data suggest that breakthrough infections most likely result from incomplete viral inhibition and not the selection of MVC-resistant variants.

Tsibris, Athe M. N.; Pal, Urboshi; Schure, Allison L.; Veazey, Ronald S.; Kunstman, Kevin J.; Henrich, Timothy J.; Klasse, P. J.; Wolinsky, Steven M.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Moore, John P.

2011-01-01

42

Antibody-mediated immunotherapy of macaques chronically infected with SHIV suppresses viraemia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutralizing antibodies can confer immunity to primate lentiviruses by blocking infection in macaque models of AIDS. However, earlier studies of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) neutralizing antibodies administered to infected individuals or humanized mice reported poor control of virus replication and the rapid emergence of resistant variants. A new generation of anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies, possessing extraordinary potency and breadth of neutralizing activity, has recently been isolated from infected individuals. These neutralizing antibodies target different regions of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein including the CD4-binding site, glycans located in the V1/V2, V3 and V4 regions, and the membrane proximal external region of gp41 (refs 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14). Here we have examined two of the new antibodies, directed to the CD4-binding site and the V3 region (3BNC117 and 10-1074, respectively), for their ability to block infection and suppress viraemia in macaques infected with the R5 tropic simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-AD8, which emulates many of the pathogenic and immunogenic properties of HIV-1 during infections of rhesus macaques. Either antibody alone can potently block virus acquisition. When administered individually to recently infected macaques, the 10-1074 antibody caused a rapid decline in virus load to undetectable levels for 4-7days, followed by virus rebound during which neutralization-resistant variants became detectable. When administered together, a single treatment rapidly suppressed plasma viraemia for 3-5weeks in some long-term chronically SHIV-infected animals with low CD4+ T-cell levels. A second cycle of anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibody therapy, administered to two previously treated animals, successfully controlled virus rebound. These results indicate that immunotherapy or a combination of immunotherapy plus conventional antiretroviral drugs might be useful as a treatment for chronically HIV-1-infected individuals experiencing immune dysfunction.

Shingai, Masashi; Nishimura, Yoshiaki; Klein, Florian; Mouquet, Hugo; Donau, Olivia K.; Plishka, Ronald; Buckler-White, Alicia; Seaman, Michael; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Dimitrov, Dimiter; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Martin, Malcolm A.

2013-11-01

43

Antibody-mediated immunotherapy of macaques chronically infected with SHIV suppresses viraemia.  

PubMed

Neutralizing antibodies can confer immunity to primate lentiviruses by blocking infection in macaque models of AIDS. However, earlier studies of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) neutralizing antibodies administered to infected individuals or humanized mice reported poor control of virus replication and the rapid emergence of resistant variants. A new generation of anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies, possessing extraordinary potency and breadth of neutralizing activity, has recently been isolated from infected individuals. These neutralizing antibodies target different regions of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein including the CD4-binding site, glycans located in the V1/V2, V3 and V4 regions, and the membrane proximal external region of gp41 (refs 9-14). Here we have examined two of the new antibodies, directed to the CD4-binding site and the V3 region (3BNC117 and 10-1074, respectively), for their ability to block infection and suppress viraemia in macaques infected with the R5 tropic simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-AD8, which emulates many of the pathogenic and immunogenic properties of HIV-1 during infections of rhesus macaques. Either antibody alone can potently block virus acquisition. When administered individually to recently infected macaques, the 10-1074 antibody caused a rapid decline in virus load to undetectable levels for 4-7?days, followed by virus rebound during which neutralization-resistant variants became detectable. When administered together, a single treatment rapidly suppressed plasma viraemia for 3-5?weeks in some long-term chronically SHIV-infected animals with low CD4(+) T-cell levels. A second cycle of anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibody therapy, administered to two previously treated animals, successfully controlled virus rebound. These results indicate that immunotherapy or a combination of immunotherapy plus conventional antiretroviral drugs might be useful as a treatment for chronically HIV-1-infected individuals experiencing immune dysfunction. PMID:24172896

Shingai, Masashi; Nishimura, Yoshiaki; Klein, Florian; Mouquet, Hugo; Donau, Olivia K; Plishka, Ronald; Buckler-White, Alicia; Seaman, Michael; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Dimitrov, Dimiter S; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Martin, Malcolm A

2013-11-14

44

envM genes of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

Conjugation and bacteriophage P1 transduction experiments in Escherichia coli showed that resistance to the antibacterial compound diazaborine is caused by an allelic form of the envM gene. The envM gene from Salmonella typhimurium was cloned and sequenced. It codes for a 27,765-dalton protein. The plasmids carrying this DNA complemented a conditionally lethal envM mutant of E. coli. Recombinant plasmids containing gene envM from a diazaborine-resistant S. typhimurium strain conferred the drug resistance phenotype to susceptible E. coli cells. A guanine-to-adenine exchange in the envM gene changing a Gly codon to a Ser codon was shown to be responsible for the resistance character. Upstream of envM a small gene coding for a 10,445-dalton protein was identified. Incubating a temperature-sensitive E. coli envM mutant at the nonpermissive temperature caused effects on the cells similar to those caused by treatment with diazaborine, i.e., inhibition of fatty acid, phospholipid, and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, induction of a 28,000-dalton inner membrane protein, and change in the ratio of the porins OmpC and OmpF. Images

Turnowsky, F; Fuchs, K; Jeschek, C; Hogenauer, G

1989-01-01

45

envM genes of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Conjugation and bacteriophage P1 transduction experiments in Escherichia coli showed that resistance to the antibacterial compound diazaborine is caused by an allelic form of the envM gene. The envM gene from Salmonella typhimurium was cloned and sequenced. It codes for a 27,765-dalton protein. The plasmids carrying this DNA complemented a conditionally lethal envM mutant of E. coli. Recombinant plasmids containing gene envM from a diazaborine-resistant S. typhimurium strain conferred the drug resistance phenotype to susceptible E. coli cells. A guanine-to-adenine exchange in the envM gene changing a Gly codon to a Ser codon was shown to be responsible for the resistance character. Upstream of envM a small gene coding for a 10,445-dalton protein was identified. Incubating a temperature-sensitive E. coli envM mutant at the nonpermissive temperature caused effects on the cells similar to those caused by treatment with diazaborine, i.e., inhibition of fatty acid, phospholipid, and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, induction of a 28,000-dalton inner membrane protein, and change in the ratio of the porins OmpC and OmpF. PMID:2687243

Turnowsky, F; Fuchs, K; Jeschek, C; Högenauer, G

1989-12-01

46

Analysis of Dominant-Negative Effects of Mutant Env Proteins of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Env protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is assembled into a stable trimer, and oligomerization is required for maintenance of viral infectivity. This property of Env suggests that Env mutants may have a dominant-negative effect on virus infectivity. To investigate this possibility, we established a packaging cell line in which both wild-type and mutant Env proteins could be

Yasumasa Iwatani; Kumi Kawano; Takaharu Ueno; Masakazu Tanaka; Akinori Ishimoto; Masahiko Ito; Hiroyuki Sakai

2001-01-01

47

In Vitro Neutralization of Low Dose Inocula at Physiological Concentrations of a Monoclonal Antibody Which Protects Macaques against SHIV Challenge  

PubMed Central

Background Passive transfer of antibodies can be protective in the simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) – rhesus macaque challenge model. The human monoclonal antibody IgG1 b12 neutralizes human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) in vitro and protects against challenge by SHIV. Our hypothesis is that neutralizing antibodies can only completely inactivate a relatively small number of infectious virus. Methods And Findings We have used GHOST cell assays to quantify individual infectious events with HIV-1SF162 and its SHIV derivatives: the relatively neutralization sensitive SHIVSF162P4 isolate and the more resistant SHIVSF162P3. A plot of the number of fluorescent GHOST cells with increasing HIV-1SF162 dose is not linear. It is likely that with high-dose inocula, infection with multiple virus produces additive fluorescence in individual cells. In studies of the neutralization kinetics of IgG1 b12 against these isolates, events during the absorption phase of the assay, as well as the incubation phase, determine the level of neutralization. It is possible that complete inactivation of a virus is limited to the time it is exposed on the cell surface. Assays can be modified so that neutralization of these very low doses of virus can be quantified. A higher concentration of antibody is required to neutralize the same dose of resistant SHIVSF162P3 than the sensitive SHIVSF162P4. In the absence of selection during passage, the density of the CCR5 co-receptor on the GHOST cell surface is reduced. Changes in the CD4 : CCR5 density ratio influence neutralization. Conclusions Low concentrations of IgG1 b12 completely inactivate small doses of the neutralization resistant SHIV SF162P3. Assays need to be modified to quantify this effect. Results from modified assays may predict protection following repeated low-dose shiv challenges in rhesus macaques. It should be possible to induce this level of antibody by vaccination so that modified assays could predict the outcome of human trials.

Davis, David; Koornstra, Wim; Fagrouch, Zahra; Verschoor, Ernst J.; Heeney, Jonathan L.; Bogers, Willy M. J. M.

2013-01-01

48

Longitudinal study to assess the safety and efficacy of a live-attenuated SHIV vaccine in long term immunized rhesus macaques  

SciTech Connect

Live-attenuated viruses derived from SIV and SHIV have provided the most consistent protection against challenge with pathogenic viruses, but concerns regarding their long-term safety and efficacy have hampered their clinical usefulness. We report a longitudinal study in which we evaluated the long-term safety and efficacy of {delta}vpuSHIV{sub PPC}, a live virus vaccine derived from SHIV{sub PPC}. Macaques were administered two inoculations of {delta}vpuSHIV{sub PPC}, three years apart, and followed for eight years. None of the five vaccinated macaques developed an AIDS-like disease from the vaccine. At eight years, macaques were challenged with pathogenic SIV and SHIV. None of the four macaques with detectable cellular-mediated immunity prior to challenge had detectable viral RNA in the plasma. This study demonstrates that multiple inoculations of a live vaccine virus can be used safely and can significantly extend the efficacy of the vaccine, as compared to a single inoculation, which is efficacious for approximately three years.

Yankee, Thomas M. [Department of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics, and Immunology, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3025 WHW - MS 3029, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)], E-mail: tyankee@kumc.edu; Sheffer, Darlene; Liu Zhengian; Dhillon, Sukhbir; Jia Fenglan; Chebloune, Yahia [Department of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics, and Immunology, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3025 WHW - MS 3029, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Stephens, Edward B. [Department of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics, and Immunology, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3025 WHW - MS 3029, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Narayan, Opendra [Department of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics, and Immunology, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3025 WHW - MS 3029, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)

2009-01-05

49

Identification of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVMAC env gene products.  

PubMed

A monoclonal antibody recognizing an antigenic determinant on the env transmembrane protein, gp32 of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVMAC has been developed and designated SF8/5E11. The reactivity of this antibody was found to be type specific, since it did not cross-react with either SIVSMM or SIVMNe transmembrane proteins. The availability of both this antibody and the complete nucleotide sequence of SIVMAC allowed us to define the organization of the env gene products of this virus. Radiolabel sequencing of the amino termini of both gp160 and gp32 confirmed the positions of both cleavage sites predicted by alignment of the inferred amino acid sequences of the SIVMAC and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 env genes. The cleavage site between the signal peptide and the external env glycoprotein resides between the cysteine residue at position 21 and the threonine residue at position 22, starting from the first residue after the env gene initiator methionine. The env precursor polyprotein gp160 is cleaved between arginine 526 and glycine 527 to give rise to the external glycoprotein and the transmembrane of SIVMAC. PMID:2464704

Veronese, F D; Joseph, B; Copeland, T D; Oroszlan, S; Gallo, R C; Sarngadharan, M G

1989-03-01

50

Tail-interacting protein TIP47 is a connector between Gag and Env and is required for Env incorporation into HIV-1 virions  

PubMed Central

The presence of the envelope glycoprotein Env in HIV-1 virions is essential for infectivity. To date, the molecular mechanism by which Env is packaged into virions has been largely unknown. Here, we show that TIP47 (tail-interacting protein of 47 kDa), which has been shown to interact with Env, also binds the MA (matrix) domain of HIV-1 Gag protein and that these three proteins form a ternary complex. Mutations in Gag that abrogate interaction with TIP47 inhibit Env incorporation and virion infectivity as well as colocalization between Gag and Env. We also show that TIP47 silencing impairs Env incorporation and infectivity and abolishes coimmunoprecipitation of Gag with Env. In contrast, overexpression of TIP47 increases Env packaging. Last, we demonstrate that TIP47 can interact simultaneously with Env and Gag. Taken together, our results show that TIP47 is a cellular cofactor that plays an essential role in Env incorporation, allowing the encounter and the physical association between HIV-1 Gag and Env proteins during the viral assembly process.

Lopez-Verges, Sandra; Camus, Gregory; Blot, Guillaume; Beauvoir, Roxane; Benarous, Richard; Berlioz-Torrent, Clarisse

2006-01-01

51

Biodegradation of ether pollutants by Pseudonocardia sp. strain ENV478.  

PubMed

A bacterium designated Pseudonocardia sp. strain ENV478 was isolated by enrichment culturing on tetrahydrofuran (THF) and was screened to determine its ability to degrade a range of ether pollutants. After growth on THF, strain ENV478 degraded THF (63 mg/h/g total suspended solids [TSS]), 1,4-dioxane (21 mg/h/g TSS), 1,3-dioxolane (19 mg/h/g TSS), bis-2-chloroethylether (BCEE) (12 mg/h/g TSS), and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) (9.1 mg/h/g TSS). Although the highest rates of 1,4-dioxane degradation occurred after growth on THF, strain ENV478 also degraded 1,4-dioxane after growth on sucrose, lactate, yeast extract, 2-propanol, and propane, indicating that there was some level of constitutive degradative activity. The BCEE degradation rates were about threefold higher after growth on propane (32 mg/h/g TSS) than after growth on THF, and MTBE degradation resulted in accumulation of tert-butyl alcohol. Degradation of 1,4-dioxane resulted in accumulation of 2-hydroxyethoxyacetic acid (2HEAA). Despite its inability to grow on 1,4-dioxane, strain ENV478 degraded this compound for > 80 days in aquifer microcosms. Our results suggest that the inability of strain ENV478 and possibly other THF-degrading bacteria to grow on 1,4-dioxane is related to their inability to efficiently metabolize the 1,4-dioxane degradation product 2HEAA but that strain ENV478 may nonetheless be useful as a biocatalyst for remediating 1,4-dioxane-contaminated aquifers. PMID:16885268

Vainberg, Simon; McClay, Kevin; Masuda, Hisako; Root, Duane; Condee, Charles; Zylstra, Gerben J; Steffan, Robert J

2006-08-01

52

Appreciating HIV-1 diversity: subtypic differences in ENV  

SciTech Connect

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group M is responsible for the current AIDS pandemic and exhibits exceedingly high levels of viral genetic diversity around the world, necessitating categorization of viruses into distinct lineages, or subtypes. These subtypes can differ by around 35% in the envelope (Env) glycoproteins of the virus, which are displayed on the surface of the virion and are targets for both neutralizing antibody and cell-mediated immune responses. This diversity reflects the remarkable ability of the virus to adapt to selective pressures, the bulk of which is applied by the host immune response, and represents a serious obstacle for developing an effective vaccine with broad coverage. Thus, it is important to understand the underlying biological consequences of inter-subtype diversity. Recent studies have revealed that the HIV-1 subtypes exhibit phenotypic differences that result from subtle differences in Env structure, particularly within the highly immunogenic V3 domain, which participates directly in viral entry. This review will therefore explore current research that describes subtypic differences in Env at the genetic and phenotypic level, focusing in particular on V3, and highlighting recent discoveries about the unique features of subtype C Env, which is the most prevalent subtype globally.

Gnanakaran, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shen, Tongye [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lynch, Rebecca M [NON LANL; Derdeyn, Cynthia A [NON LANL

2008-01-01

53

RFID-Env: methods and software simulation for RFID environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the results of an analytical and experimental research for the development of an innovative product designated RFID environment (RFID-Env). This software is designed for the use of professionals in computer systems and plant engineering who are engaged in research and development (R&D) of ultra high frequency (UHF) passive radio frequency

Marcelo Cunha de Azambuja; Carlos Fernando Jung; Carla Schwengber ten Caten; Fabiano Passuelo Hessel

2010-01-01

54

Mucosal and systemic HIV1 Env-specific CD8 + T-cells develop after intragastric vaccination with a Salmonella Env DNA vaccine vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

CD8+ T-cell responses provide beneficial antiviral immunity against human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). In this study, we show that intragastric vaccination with a Salmonella HIV-1 Env DNA vaccine vector generates Env-specific CD8+ T-cells, both in mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissue. By contrast, intramuscular vaccination with the Env DNA vaccine alone only induced systemic CD8+ T-cells. To our knowledge, this is

Mohamed T. Shata; Marvin S. Reitz Jr.; Anthony L. DeVico; George K. Lewis; David M. Hone

2001-01-01

55

Feline immunodeficiency virus env gene evolution in experimentally infected cats.  

PubMed

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), an immunosuppressive lentivirus found in cats worldwide, is studied to illuminate mechanisms of lentiviral pathogenesis and to identify key components of protective immunity. During replication, lentiviruses accumulate errors of nucleotide mis-incorporation due to the low-fidelity of reverse transcriptase and recombination between viral variants, resulting in the emergence of a complex viral "quasispecies". In patients infected with HIV-1, env sequences may vary by up to 10% and the detection of quasispecies with greater heterogeneity is associated with higher viral loads and reduced CD4+ T cell numbers [1], indicating that transmission of more complex quasispecies may lead to disease progression. However, little is known about how FIV evolves as disease progresses, or why some cats develop AIDS rapidly while disease progression is slow in others. The aim of this study was to determine whether disease progression may be governed by viral evolution and to examine the diversity of viral variants emerging following infection with an infectious molecular clone. The FIV env gene encoding the envelope glycoprotein (Env) was examined at early (12 weeks) and late (322 weeks) stages of FIV infection in two groups of cats infected experimentally with the FIV-GL8 molecular clone. Viral variants were detected within quasispecies in cats in the late stages of FIV infection that contained differing amino acid compositions in several variable loops of Env, some of which were identified as determinants of receptor usage and resistance to neutralization. Therefore these results indicate that the FIV env gene evolves during the course of infection, giving rise to variants that resist neutralization and likely lead to disease progression. PMID:19897254

Kraase, Martin; Sloan, Richard; Klein, Dieter; Logan, Nicola; McMonagle, Linda; Biek, Roman; Willett, Brian J; Hosie, Margaret J

2010-03-15

56

A single amino acid substitution within the transmembrane domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein renders simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV{sub KU-1bMC33}) susceptible to rimantadine  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that the transmembrane domain (TM) of the Vpu protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) contributes to the pathogenesis of SHIV{sub KU-1bMC33} in macaques and that the TM domain of Vpu could be replaced with the M2 protein viroporin from influenza A virus. Recently, we showed that the replacement of the TM domain of Vpu with that of the M2 protein of influenza A virus resulted in a virus (SHIV{sub M2}) that was sensitive to rimantadine [Hout, D.R., Gomez, M.L., Pacyniak, E., Gomez, L.M., Inbody, S.H., Mulcahy, E.R., Culley, N., Pinson, D.M., Powers, M.F., Wong, S.W., Stephens, E.B., 2006. Substitution of the transmembrane domain of Vpu in simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV{sub KU-1bMC33}) with that of M2 of influenza A results in a virus that is sensitive to inhibitors of the M2 ion channel and is pathogenic for pig-tailed macaques. Virology 344, 541-558]. Based on previous studies of the M2 protein which have shown that the His-X-X-X-Trp motif within the M2 is essential to the function of the M2 proton channel, we have constructed a novel SHIV in which the alanine at position 19 of the TM domain was replaced with a histidine residue resulting in the motif His-Ile-Leu-Val-Trp. The SHIV{sub VpuA19H} replicated with similar kinetics as the parental SHIV{sub KU-1bMC33} and pulse-chase analysis revealed that the processing of viral proteins was similar to SHIV{sub KU-1bMC33}. This SHIV{sub VpuA19H} virus was found to be more sensitive to the M2 ion channel blocker rimantadine than SHIV{sub M2}. Electron microscopic examination of SHIV{sub VpuA19H}-infected cells treated with rimantadine revealed an accumulation of viral particles at the cell surface and within intracellular vesicles, which was similar to that previously observed to SHIV{sub M2}-infected cells treated with rimantadine. These data indicate that the Vpu protein of HIV-1 can be converted into a rimantadine-sensitive ion channel with the alteration of one amino acid and provide additional evidence that drugs targeting the Vpu TM/ion channel can be effective anti-HIV-1 drugs.

Hout, David R. [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Gomez, Lisa M. [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Pacyniak, Erik [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Miller, Jean-Marie [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Hill, M. Sarah [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Stephens, Edward B. [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)]. E-mail: estephen@kumc.edu

2006-05-10

57

Induction of potent local cellular immunity with low dose X4 SHIV{sub SF33A} vaginal exposure  

SciTech Connect

Intravaginal inoculation of rhesus macaques with varying doses of the CXCR4 (X4)-tropic SHIV{sub SF33A} isolate revealed a threshold inoculum for establishment of systemic virus infection and a dose dependency in overall viral burden and CD4+ T cell depletion. While exposure to inoculum size of 1000 or greater 50% tissue infectious dose (TCID{sub 50}) resulted in high viremia and precipitous CD4+ T cell loss, occult infection was observed in seven of eight macaques exposed to 500 TCID{sub 50} of the same virus. The latter was characterized by intermittent detection of low level virus with no evidence of seroconversion or CD4+ T cell decline, but with signs of an ongoing antiviral T cell immune response. Upon vaginal re-challenge with the same limiting dose 11-12 weeks after the first, classic pathogenic X4 SHIV{sub SF33A} infection was established in four of the seven previously exposed seronegative macaques, implying enhanced susceptibility to systemic infection with prior exposure. Pre-existing peripheral SIV gag-specific CD4+ T cells were more readily demonstrable in macaques that became systemically infected following re-exposure than those that were not. In contrast, early presence of circulating polyfunctional cytokine secreting CD8+ T cells or strong virus-specific proliferative responses in draining lymph nodes and in the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) following the first exposure was associated with protection from systemic re-infection. These studies identify the gut and lymphoid tissues proximal to the genital tract as sites of robust CD8 T lymphocyte responses that contribute to containment of virus spread following vaginal transmission.

Tasca, Silvana; Tsai, Lily; Trunova, Nataliya; Gettie, Agegnehu [Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, Rockefeller University, 455 First Ave., 7th Floor, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Saifuddin, Mohammed [CONRAD, Eastern Virginia Medical School, 1611 North Kent Street Suite 806, Arlington, VA 22209 (United States); Bohm, Rudolf [Tulane National Primate Research Center, Tulane University Medical Center, 18702 Three Rivers Road, Covington, LA 70433 (United States); Chakrabarti, Lisa [Institut Pasteur, Unite d'Immunologie Virale, 28 rue du Dr roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15 (France); Cheng-Mayer, Cecilia [Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, Rockefeller University, 455 First Ave., 7th Floor, New York, NY 10016 (United States)], E-mail: cmayer@adarc.org

2007-10-10

58

Pathogenicity of Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus SHIV89.6P and SIVmac Is Attenuated in Cynomolgus Macaques and Associated with Early T-Lymphocyte Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because most studies of AIDS pathogenesis in nonhuman primates have been performed in Indian-origin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), little is known about lentiviral pathogenicity and control of virus repli- cation following infection of alternative macaque species. Here, we report the consequences of simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV-89.6P and SIVmac251 infection in cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) and rhesus macaques of Chinese origin. Compared

Keith A. Reimann; Robert A. Parker; Michael S. Seaman; Kristin Beaudry; Margaret Beddall; Lauren Peterson; Kenneth C. Williams; Ronald S. Veazey; David C. Montefiori; John R. Mascola; Gary J. Nabel; Norman L. Letvin

2005-01-01

59

Repressive Effect of Primary Virus Replication on Superinfection Correlated with Gut-Derived Central Memory CD4+ T Cells in SHIV-Infected Chinese Rhesus Macaques  

PubMed Central

A possible mechanism of susceptibility to superinfection with simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-1157ipd3N4 was explored in twelve SHIVSF162P3-infected Chinese rhesus macaques. Based on the kinetics of viral replication for the second infecting virus following SHIV-1157ipd3N4 inoculation, the monkeys were divided into two groups: those relatively resistant to superinfection (SIR) and those relatively sensitive to superinfection (SIS). We found that superinfection-resistant macaques had high primary viremia, whereas superinfection-sensitive macaques had low primary viremia, suggesting that primary SHIVSF162P3 infection with a high viral-replication level would repress superinfection with a heterologous SHIV-1157ipd3N4. Although no correlation of protection against superinfection with virus-specific CD4+ T cell or CD8+ T cell immune responses from gut was observed prior to superinfection, superinfection susceptibility was strongly correlated with CD4+ Tcm cells from gut both prior to the second infecting virus inoculation and on day 7 after superinfection, but not with CD4+ Tem cells from gut or with CD4+ Tcm cells from peripheral blood and lymph node. These results point to the important roles of gut-derived CD4+ Tcm cells for the study of the mechanisms of protection against superinfection and the evaluation of the safety and efficacy of vaccines and therapies against acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Xiong, Jing; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Hong; Chen, Ting; Wu, Fangxin; Liu, Kejian; Su, Aihua; Ju, Bin; Chen, Zhiwei; Couto, Marcelo A.; Wei, Qiang; Qin, Chuan

2013-01-01

60

Role of His243 in the phosphatase activity of EnvZ in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

EnvZ undergoes autophosphorylation at His243 and subsequently transfers the phosphate group to OmpR. EnvZ also possesses an OmpR-phosphate phosphatase activity. We examined the role of His243 in the phosphatase function by replacing His with either Val, Tyr, Ser, Asp, or Asn. EnvZH243V and EnvZH243Y were both shown to possess phosphatase activity in vitro. In addition, the mutant proteins were able to reduce the high level of OmpR-phosphate present in the envZ473 strain. These results indicate that His243 of EnvZ is not essential for stimulating the dephosphorylation of OmpR-phosphate.

Skarphol, K; Waukau, J; Forst, S A

1997-01-01

61

Sequences of the envMgene and of two mutated alleles in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

~~ ~ The nucleotide sequence of the Escherichia coli envM gene was determined. It codes for a protein of 262 amino acids. The sequences of the E coli and Salmonella typhimurium EnvM proteins are 98 yo identical. Gene envM is preceded in E. coli by a 43-nucleotide-long structural element, termed 'box C', which occurs in several E. coli operons between

HELMUT BERGLER; GREGOR HOGENAUER; FRIEDERIKE TURNOWSKY

1992-01-01

62

Isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies elicited by trimeric HIV1 Env gp140 protein immunogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven anti-HIV Env monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were isolated from mice immunized with soluble Env proteins derived from the clade B Env, SF162, or ?V2 (a derivative of SF162 lacking the V2 loop). All six anti-gp120 MAbs studied, neutralized SF162 and their activities were dependent by the glycosylation patterns of the V1, V2 or V3 loops. Only one anti-gp120 MAb (an

Nina R. Derby; Sean Gray; Elizabeth Wayner; Dwayne Campogan; Giorgos Vlahogiannis; Zane Kraft; Susan W. Barnett; Indresh K. Srivastava; Leonidas Stamatatos

2007-01-01

63

Expression of Human Endogenous Retrovirus env Genes in the Blood of Breast Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) env proteins have been recently reported to be significantly up-regulated in certain cancers. Specifically, mRNA and protein levels of HERV-K (HML-2) are up-regulated in the blood plasma or serum of breast cancer patients. Here, we collected blood samples of 49 breast cancer patients and analyzed mRNA expressions of various HERVs env genes including HERV-R, HERV-H, HERV-K, and HERV-P by real-time PCR. The expression of env genes were significantly increased in the blood of primary breast cancer patients but were decreased in patients undergoing chemotherapy to a similar level with benign patients. When we compared the group currently undergoing chemotherapy and those patients undergoing chemotherapy simultaneously with radiotherapy, HERVs env genes were reduced more in the chemotherapy only group, suggesting that chemotherapy is more effective in reducing HERV env gene expression than is radiotherapy. Among chemotherapy groups, HERV env gene expression was the lowest in the taxotere- or taxol-treated group, suggesting that taxotere and taxol can reduce HERVs env expression. These data suggest the potential to use HERVs env genes as a diagnosis marker for primary breast cancer, and further studies are needed to identify the mechanism and physiological significance of the reduction of HERV env gene expression during chemotherapy.

Rhyu, Dong-Won; Kang, Yun-Jeong; Ock, Mee-Sun; Eo, Jung-Woo; Choi, Yung-Hyun; Kim, Wun-Jae; Leem, Sun-Hee; Yi, Joo-Mi; Kim, Heui-Soo; Cha, Hee-Jae

2014-01-01

64

Expression of human endogenous retrovirus env genes in the blood of breast cancer patients.  

PubMed

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) env proteins have been recently reported to be significantly up-regulated in certain cancers. Specifically, mRNA and protein levels of HERV-K (HML-2) are up-regulated in the blood plasma or serum of breast cancer patients. Here, we collected blood samples of 49 breast cancer patients and analyzed mRNA expressions of various HERVs env genes including HERV-R, HERV-H, HERV-K, and HERV-P by real-time PCR. The expression of env genes were significantly increased in the blood of primary breast cancer patients but were decreased in patients undergoing chemotherapy to a similar level with benign patients. When we compared the group currently undergoing chemotherapy and those patients undergoing chemotherapy simultaneously with radiotherapy, HERVs env genes were reduced more in the chemotherapy only group, suggesting that chemotherapy is more effective in reducing HERV env gene expression than is radiotherapy. Among chemotherapy groups, HERV env gene expression was the lowest in the taxotere- or taxol-treated group, suggesting that taxotere and taxol can reduce HERVs env expression. These data suggest the potential to use HERVs env genes as a diagnosis marker for primary breast cancer, and further studies are needed to identify the mechanism and physiological significance of the reduction of HERV env gene expression during chemotherapy. PMID:24964007

Rhyu, Dong-Won; Kang, Yun-Jeong; Ock, Mee-Sun; Eo, Jung-Woo; Choi, Yung-Hyun; Kim, Wun-Jae; Leem, Sun-Hee; Yi, Joo-Mi; Kim, Heui-Soo; Cha, Hee-Jae

2014-01-01

65

Transcriptional and functional studies of Human Endogenous Retrovirus envelope EnvP(b) and EnvV genes in human trophoblasts  

SciTech Connect

HERV (Human Endogenous Retrovirus)-encoded envelope proteins are implicated in the development of the placenta. Indeed, Syncytin-1 and -2 play a crucial role in the fusion of human trophoblasts, a key step in placentation. Other studies have identified two other HERV env proteins, namely EnvP(b) and EnvV, both expressed in the placenta. In this study, we have fully characterized both env transcripts and their expression pattern and have assessed their implication in trophoblast fusion. Through RACE analyses, standard spliced transcripts were detected, while EnvV transcripts demonstrated alternative splicing at its 3 Prime end. Promoter activity and expression of both genes were induced in forskolin-stimulated BeWo cells and in primary trophoblasts. Although we have confirmed the fusogenic activity of EnvP(b), overexpression or silencing experiments revealed no impact of this protein on trophoblast fusion. Our results demonstrate that both env genes are expressed in human trophoblasts but are not required for syncytialization.

Vargas, Amandine, E-mail: amandine.vargas@voila.fr; Thiery, Maxime, E-mail: thiery.maxime@courrier.uqam.ca; Lafond, Julie, E-mail: lafond.julie@uqam.ca; Barbeau, Benoit, E-mail: barbeau.benoit@uqam.ca

2012-03-30

66

Polymorphisms in the HIV-1 gp41 env gene, natural resistance to enfuvirtide (T-20) and pol resistance among pregnant Brazilian women.  

PubMed

The selective pressure of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) targeting HIV-1 pol can promote drug resistance mutations in other genomic regions, such as env. Drug resistance among women should be monitored to avoid horizontal and mother-to-child transmission. To describe natural resistance to T-20 (enfuvirtide), gp41 env polymorphisms, mutations in pol and HIV-1 subtypes, 124 pregnant women were recruited. For 98 patients, the gp41 env, protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) fragments were sequenced. The patients were ARV naïve (n?=?30), taking mother-to-child transmission prophylaxis (n?=?50), or being treated with highly active ARV therapy/HAART (n?=?18). The Stanford and IAS/USA databases and other sources were used to analyze PR/RT, gp41 env resistance mutations. The HIV-1 genetic diversity was analyzed by REGA/phylogenetic analyses. The patients' median age was 25 years (range, 16-42), 18.4% had AIDS. The frequency of natural resistance to T-20 (N42D, L44M, and R46M-low-impact mutations) was 6.1% (6/98); 20.4% (20/98) had compensatory mutations in HR2. The prevalence of transmitted drug resistance in the pol was 13.3% (4/30), and the prevalence of secondary drug resistance was 33.3% (6/18). Two patients were infected with multidrug resistant/MDR viruses. The analysis of HIV-1 subtypes (PR/RT/gp41) revealed that 61.2% (60/98) were subtype B, 12.2% (12/98) were subtype C, 4.1% (4/98) were subtype F1, and 22.4% (22/98) were possible recombinants (BF1?=?20.4%; BC?=?2%). Natural resistance to T-20 was not associated with pol resistance or previous ARV use. The high rate of secondary resistance, including MDR, indicates that the number of women that may need T-20 salvage therapy may be higher than anticipated. PMID:24037943

Reis, Mônica Nogueira da Guarda; de Alcântara, Keila Correa; Cardoso, Ludimila Paula Vaz; Stefani, Mariane Martins Araújo

2014-01-01

67

Utility of the Sindbis replicon system as an Env-targeted HIV vaccine.  

PubMed

Sindbis replicon-based vaccine vectors are designed to combine the immunostimulatory properties of replicating viruses with the superior safety profile of non-replicating systems. In this study we performed a detailed assessment of Sindbis (SIN) replicon vectors expressing HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) for the induction of cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in a small animal model. SIN-derived virus-like particles (VLP) elicited Env-specific antibody responses that were detectable after boosting with recombinant Env protein. This priming effect could be mediated by replicon activity alone but may be enhanced by Env attached to the surface of VLP, offering a potential advantage for this mode of replicon delivery for Env based vaccination strategies. In contrast, the Env-specific CTL responses that were elicited by SIN-VLP were entirely dependent on replicon activity. SIN-VLP priming induced more durable humoral responses than immunization with protein only. This is important from a vaccine perspective, given the intrinsic tendency of Env to induce short-lived antibody responses in the context of vaccination or infection. These results indicate that further efforts to enhance the magnitude and durability of the HIV-1 Env-specific immune responses generated by Sindbis vectors, either alone or as part of prime-boost regimens, are justified. PMID:23499600

Center, Rob J; Miller, Annett; Wheatley, Adam K; Campbell, Shahan M; Siebentritt, Carly; Purcell, Damian F J

2013-04-26

68

Determinants within gp120 and gp41 contribute to CD4 independence of SIV Envs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entry of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) into cells is mediated by binding of the viral envelope (Env) glycoprotein to cellular CD4 and chemokine receptor molecules. Interaction of the Env gp120 subunit with CD4 induces conformational changes that result in exposure of a conserved coreceptor binding site. The chemokine receptor CCR5 is the major coreceptor used for SIV entry. Many SIV

Bridget A. Puffer; Louis A. Altamura; Theodore C. Pierson; Robert W. Doms

2004-01-01

69

Functional interaction between Env oncogene from Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus and tumor suppressor Sprouty2  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is a type D retrovirus capable of transforming target cells in vitro and in vivo. The Envelope (Env) gene from JSRV and from related retroviruses can induce oncogenic transformation, although the detailed mechanism is yet to be clearly understood. Host cell factors are envisaged to play a critical determining role in the regulation of Env-mediated

Ebenezer Chitra; Yi-Wen Lin; Fabian Davamani; Kuang-Nan Hsiao; Charles Sia; Shih-Yang Hsieh; Olivia L Wei; Jen-Hao Chen; Yen-Hung Chow

2010-01-01

70

The Fusion-Controlling Disulfide Bond Isomerase in Retrovirus Env Is Triggered by Protein Destabilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The membrane fusion function of murine leukemia virus (MLV) is carried by the Env protein. This protein is composed of three SU-TM subunit complexes. The fusion activity is loaded into the transmembrane TM subunit and controlled by the peripheral, receptor-binding SU subunit. It is assumed that TM adopts a metastable conformation in the native Env and that fusion activation involves

Michael Wallin; Maria Ekstrom; Henrik Garoff

2005-01-01

71

Regulation of human immunodeficiency virus env expression by the rev gene product.  

PubMed Central

A single simian virus 40 late replacement vector which expresses both the rev and envelope (env) genes of human immunodeficiency virus was used to examine the mechanism underlying the dependence of env gene expression on the rev protein. When rev was deleted from the vector, no envelope protein expression could be detected in transfected cells, and the levels of cytoplasmic env mRNA were dramatically reduced. In contrast to this, the levels of env RNA in total cellular RNA preparations were similar with or without rev coexpression, and analysis of nuclear RNA showed that the levels of nuclear env RNA were increased in the absence of rev. These results suggest that rev functions to regulate nuclear export of env mRNA. It was possible to restore env expression from the vector lacking rev by supplying rev in trans, provided that a cis-acting sequence was also present. This sequence was mapped to a 854-base-pair region within the env open reading frame, and it was shown that the sequence could be moved but that it worked only in its original orientation. Images

Hammarskjold, M L; Heimer, J; Hammarskjold, B; Sangwan, I; Albert, L; Rekosh, D

1989-01-01

72

Role of the Cytoplasmic Tail of Ecotropic Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Env Protein in Fusion Pore Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusion between cells expressing envelope protein (Env) of Moloney murine leukemia virus and target cells were studied by use of video fluorescence microscopy and electrical capacitance measurements. When the full-length 632-amino-acid residue Env was expressed, fusion did not occur at all for 3T3 cells as target and only somewhat for XC6 cells. Expression of Env 616*—a construct of Env with

GRIGORY B. MELIKYAN; RUBEN M. MARKOSYAN; SOFYA A. BRENER; YANINA ROZENBERG; FREDRIC S. COHEN

2000-01-01

73

CD4 Independence of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Envs Is Associated with Macrophage Tropism, Neutralization Sensitivity, and Attenuated Pathogenicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the basis for envelope (Env) determinants influencing simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) tropism, we studied a number of Envs that are closely related to that of SIVmac239, a pathogenic, T-tropic virus that is neutralization resistant. The Envs from macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) virus strains SIVmac316, 1A11, 17E-Fr, and 1100 facilitated infection of CCR5-positive, CD4-negative cells. In contrast, the SIVmac239 Env was

Bridget A. Puffer; Stefan Pöhlmann; Aimee L. Edinger; Dan Carlin; Melissa D. Sanchez; Julie Reitter; Debbie D. Watry; Howard S. Fox; Ronald C. Desrosiers; Robert W. Doms

2002-01-01

74

Mucosal immunization of sheep with a Maedi-Visna virus (MVV) env DNA vaccine protects against early MVV productive infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene gun mucosal DNA immunization of sheep with a plasmid expressing the env gene of Maedi-Visna virus (MVV) was used to examine the protection against MVV infection in sheep from a naturally infected flock. For immunization, sheep were primed with a pcDNA plasmid (pcDNA-env) encoding the Env glycoproteins of MVV and boosted with combined pcDNA-env and pCR3.1-IFN-? plasmid inoculations. The

Belén González; Ramsés Reina; Iker García; Sara Andrés; Idoia Glaria; María Alzueta; María Isabel Mora; Begoña M. Jugo; Inés Arrieta-Aguirre; José M. Pérez de la Lastra; Dolores Rodríguez; Juan Ramón Rodríguez; Mariano Esteban; María Jesús Grilló; Barbara A. Blacklaws; Gordon D. Harkiss; Yahia Chebloune; Lluís Luján; Damián de Andrés; Beatriz Amorena

2005-01-01

75

Influence of Mismatch of Env Sequences on Vaccine Protection by Live Attenuated Simian Immunodeficiency Virus  

PubMed Central

Vaccine/challenge experiments that utilize live attenuated strains of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in monkeys may be useful for elucidating what is needed from a vaccine in order to achieve protective immunity. Derivatives of SIVmac239 and SIVmac239?nef were constructed in which env sequences were replaced with those of the heterologous strain E543; these were then used in vaccine/challenge experiments. When challenge occurred at 22 weeks, 10 of 12 monkeys exhibited apparent sterilizing immunity despite a mismatch of Env sequences, compared to 12 of 12 monkeys with apparent sterilizing immunity when challenge virus was matched in its Env sequence. However, when challenge occurred at 6 weeks, 6 of 6 SIV239?nef-immunized monkeys became superinfected by challenge virus mismatched in its Env sequence (SIV239/EnvE543). These results contrast markedly not only with the results of the week 22 challenge but also with the sterilizing immunity observed in 5 of 5 SIV239?nef-immunized rhesus monkeys challenged at 5 weeks with SIV239, i.e., with no mismatch of Env sequences. We conclude from these studies that a mismatch of Env sequences in the challenge virus can have a dramatic effect on the extent of apparent sterilizing immunity when challenge occurs relatively early, 5 to 6 weeks after the nef-deleted SIV administration. However, by 22 weeks, mismatch of Env sequences has little or no influence on the degree of protection against challenge virus. Our findings suggest that anti-Env immune responses are a key component of the protective immunity elicited by live attenuated, nef-deleted SIV.

Manrique, Julieta; Piatak, Michael; Lauer, William; Johnson, Welkin; Mansfield, Keith; Lifson, Jeffrey

2013-01-01

76

Complementation of diverse HIV1 Env defects through cooperative subunit interactions: a general property of the functional trimer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The HIV-1 Env glycoprotein mediates virus entry by catalyzing direct fusion between the virion membrane and the target cell plasma membrane. Env is composed of two subunits: gp120, which binds to CD4 and the coreceptor, and gp41, which is triggered upon coreceptor binding to promote the membrane fusion reaction. Env on the surface of infected cells is a trimer

Karl Salzwedel; Edward A Berger

2009-01-01

77

Implementing RtI with Gifted Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Implementing RtI With Gifted Students" shares how RtI can fit within the framework of gifted education programming models. This edited book will serve as a reference guide for those interested in learning more about RtI and how it might be effectively implemented to meet the needs of all gifted students. Chapters contributed by top gifted…

Coleman, Mary Ruth, Ed.; Johnsen, Susan K., Ed.

2012-01-01

78

Phenotypes and distribution of mucosal memory B-cell populations in the SIV/SHIV rhesus macaque model.  

PubMed

As vaccine-elicited antibodies have now been associated with HIV protective efficacy, a thorough understanding of mucosal and systemic B-cell development and maturation is needed. We phenotyped mucosal memory B-cells, investigated isotype expression and homing patterns, and defined plasmablasts and plasma cells at three mucosal sites (duodenum, jejunum and rectum) in rhesus macaques, the commonly used animal model for pre-clinical vaccine studies. Unlike humans, macaque mucosal memory B-cells lacked CD27 expression; only two sub-populations were present: naïve (CD21(+)CD27(-)) and tissue-like (CD21(-)CD27(-)) memory. Similar to humans, IgA was the dominant isotype expressed. The homing markers CXCR4, CCR6, CCR9 and ?4?7 were differentially expressed between naïve and tissue-like memory B-cells. Mucosal plasmablasts were identified as CD19(+)CD20(+/-)HLA-DR(+)Ki-67(+)IRF4(+)CD138(+/-) and mucosal plasma cells as CD19(+)CD20(-)HLA-DR(-)Ki-67(-)IRF4(+)CD138(+). Both populations were CD39(+/-)CD27(-). Plasma cell phenotype was confirmed by spontaneous IgA secretion by ELISpot of positively-selected cells and J-chain expression by real-time PCR. Duodenal, jejunal and rectal samples were similar in B-cell memory phenotype, isotype expression, homing receptors and plasmablast/plasma cell distribution among the three tissues. Thus rectal biopsies adequately monitor B-cell dynamics in the gut mucosa, and provide a critical view of mucosal B-cell events associated with development of vaccine-elicited protective immune responses and SIV/SHIV pathogenesis and disease control. PMID:24814239

Demberg, Thorsten; Mohanram, Venkatramanan; Venzon, David; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

2014-08-01

79

Mutational analysis of the linker region of EnvZ, an osmosensor in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

EnvZ, a transmembrane signal transducer, is composed of a periplasmic sensor domain, transmembrane domains, and a cytoplasmic signaling domain. Between the second transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic signaling domain there is a linker domain consisting of approximately 50 residues. In this study, we investigated the functional role of the EnvZ linker domain with respect to signal transduction. Amino acid sequence alignment of linker regions among various bacterial signal transducer proteins does not show a high sequence identity but suggests a common helix 1-loop-helix 2 structure. Among several mutations introduced in the EnvZ linker region, it was found that hydrophobic-to-charged amino acid substitutions in helix 1 and helix 2 and deletions in helix 1, loop, and helix 2 (delta14, delta8, and delta7) resulted in constitutive OmpC expression. In the linker mutant EnvZ x delta7, both kinase and phosphatase activities were significantly reduced but the ratio of kinase to phosphatase activity increased, consistent with the constitutive OmpC expression. In contrast, the purified cytoplasmic fragment of EnvZ x delta7 possessed both kinase and phosphatase activities at levels similar to those of the cytoplasmic fragment of wild-type EnvZ. In addition, the linker mutations had no direct effect on EnvZ C-terminal dimerization. These results together with previous data suggest that the linker region is not directly involved in EnvZ enzymatic activities and that it may have a crucial role in propagating a conformational change to ensure correct positioning of two EnvZ molecules within a dimer during the transmembrane signaling.

Park, H; Inouye, M

1997-01-01

80

The Cytoplasmic Tail Slows the Folding of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Env from a Late Prebundle Configuration into the Six-Helix Bundle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Env on the process of membrane fusion were investigated. Full-length Env (wild type (WT)) and Env with its CT truncated (CT) were expressed on cell surfaces, these cells were fused to target cells, and the inhibition of fusion by peptides that prevent Env from folding into a six-helix

Levon G. Abrahamyan; Samvel R. Mkrtchyan; James Binley; Min Lu; Grigory B. Melikyan; Fredric S. Cohen

2005-01-01

81

CD4+ T Cells Modified by the Endoribonuclease MazF Are Safe and Can Persist in SHIV-infected Rhesus Macaques  

PubMed Central

MazF, an endoribonuclease encoded by Escherichia coli, specifically cleaves the ACA (adenine–cytosine–adenine) sequence of single-stranded RNAs. Conditional expression of MazF under the control of the HIV-1 LTR promoter rendered CD4+ T cells resistant to HIV-1 replication without affecting cell growth. To investigate the safety, persistence and efficacy of MazF-modified CD4+ T cells in a nonhuman primate model in vivo, rhesus macaques were infected with a pathogenic simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) and transplanted with autologous MazF-modified CD4+ T cells. MazF-modified CD4+ T cells were clearly detected throughout the experimental period of more than 6 months. The CD4+ T cell count values increased in all four rhesus macaques. Moreover, the transplantation of the MazF-modified CD4+ T cells was not immunogenic, and did not elicit cellular or humoral immune responses. These data suggest that the autologous transplantation of MazF-modified CD4+ T cells in the presence of SHIV is effective, safe and not immunogenic, indicating that this is an attractive strategy for HIV-1 gene therapy.

Saito, Naoki; Chono, Hideto; Shibata, Hiroaki; Ageyama, Naohide; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Mineno, Junichi

2014-01-01

82

CD4(+) T Cells Modified by the Endoribonuclease MazF Are Safe and Can Persist in SHIV-infected Rhesus Macaques.  

PubMed

MazF, an endoribonuclease encoded by Escherichia coli, specifically cleaves the ACA (adenine-cytosine-adenine) sequence of single-stranded RNAs. Conditional expression of MazF under the control of the HIV-1 LTR promoter rendered CD4(+) T cells resistant to HIV-1 replication without affecting cell growth. To investigate the safety, persistence and efficacy of MazF-modified CD4(+) T cells in a nonhuman primate model in vivo, rhesus macaques were infected with a pathogenic simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) and transplanted with autologous MazF-modified CD4(+) T cells. MazF-modified CD4(+) T cells were clearly detected throughout the experimental period of more than 6 months. The CD4(+) T cell count values increased in all four rhesus macaques. Moreover, the transplantation of the MazF-modified CD4(+) T cells was not immunogenic, and did not elicit cellular or humoral immune responses. These data suggest that the autologous transplantation of MazF-modified CD4(+) T cells in the presence of SHIV is effective, safe and not immunogenic, indicating that this is an attractive strategy for HIV-1 gene therapy. PMID:24914931

Saito, Naoki; Chono, Hideto; Shibata, Hiroaki; Ageyama, Naohide; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Mineno, Junichi

2014-01-01

83

Evaluation of heterologous vaginal SHIV SF162p4 infection following vaccination with a polyvalent Clade B virus-like particle vaccine.  

PubMed

The vast diversity of HIV-1 infections has greatly impeded the development of a successful HIV-1/AIDS vaccine. Previous vaccine work has demonstrated limited levels of protection against SHIV/SIV infection, but protection was observed only when the challenge virus was directly matched to the vaccine strain. As it is likely impossible to directly match the vaccine strain to all infecting strains in nature, it is necessary to develop an HIV-1 vaccine that can protect against a heterologous viral challenge. In this study we investigated the ability of polyvalent and consensus vaccines to protect against a heterologous clade B challenge. Rhesus macaques were vaccinated with ConB or PolyB virus-like particle vaccines. All vaccines were highly immunogenic with high titers of antibody found in all vaccinated groups against SIV Gag. Antibody responses were also observed against a diverse panel of clade B envelopes. Following vaccination nonhuman primates (NHPs) were challenged via the vaginal route with SHIV(SF162p4). The PolyB vaccine induced a 66.7% reduction in the rate of infection as well as causing a two log reduction in viral burden if infection was not blocked. ConB vaccination had no effect on either the infection rate or viral burden. These results indicate that a polyvalent clade-matched vaccine is better able to protect against a heterologous challenge as compared to a consensus vaccine. PMID:22214267

McBurney, Sean P; Landucci, Gary; Forthal, Donald N; Ross, Ted M

2012-09-01

84

The impact of envelope glycoprotein cleavage on the antigenicity, infectivity, and neutralization sensitivity of Env-pseudotyped human immunodeficiency virus type 1 particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endoproteolytic processing of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) glycoproteins is an obligate part of the biosynthetic pathway that generates functional, fusion-competent Env complexes, which are then incorporated into infectious virions. We have examined the influence of cleavage on Env-specific antibody reactivity, Env incorporation into pseudovirions, and the infectivity and neutralization sensitivity of Env-pseudotyped viruses. To do

Carolina Herrera; Per Johan Klasse; Elizabeth Michael; Shivani Kake; Kelly Barnes; Christopher W. Kibler; Lila Campbell-Gardener; Zhihai Si; Joseph Sodroski; John P. Moore; Simon Beddows

2005-01-01

85

Antitumor Efficacy of 34.5ENVE: A Transcriptionally Retargeted and "Vstat120"-expressing Oncolytic Virus  

PubMed Central

Here, we describe the construction and testing of a novel herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) derived oncolytic virus (OV): 34.5ENVE (viral ICP34.5 Expressed by Nestin promotor and Vstat120 Expressing), for the treatment of cancer. This virus showed significant glioma-specific killing and antiangiogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of subcutaneous and intracranial glioma-bearing mice with 34.5ENVE showed a significant increase in median survival of mice in four different glioma models. Histology and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) revealed reduced microvessel density (MVD) and increased tumoral necrosis in 34.5ENVE-treated tumor tissue compared to control OV-treated tumor tissue. Collectively, these results describe the construction, efficacy, and impact on tumor microenvironment of a transcriptionally driven OV armed with Vstat120 gene expression. These preclinical results will facilitate future clinical testing of 34.5ENVE.

Yoo, Ji Young; Haseley, Amy; Bratasz, Anna; Chiocca, E Antonio; Zhang, Jianying; Powell, Kimerly; Kaur, Balveen

2012-01-01

86

Protease gene structure and env gene variability of the AIDS virus.  

PubMed

The protease gene structure and the env gene variability have been precisely compared between the AIDS virus and members of the HTLV/BLV family. The conserved amino acid sequence (LVDT) which is repeated in the proteases of the HTLV/BLV family is not repeated in AIDS virus. Comparative analysis of the env gene sequences reveals the striking fact that the env gene of AIDS virus is 8-12-times more variable than those of the HTLV/BLV family. Within the AIDS virus env gene, the surface glycoprotein region is more liable to vary than is the transmembrane region; unexpectedly, however, this liability is not a characteristic feature of the AIDS virus because it is more prominent in other retroviruses including members of the HTLV/BLV family. PMID:3009215

Yasunaga, T; Sagata, N; Ikawa, Y

1986-04-21

87

Secretion of a murine retroviral Env associated with resistance to infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fv4 is an endogenous defective murine leukaemia virus (MuLV) which expresses high levels of an envelope protein (Env) closely related to that of the ecotropic class of MuLVs. Mice bearing the natural Fv4 gene or a transgenic version are resistant to infection by ecotropic MuLVs. Fv4 mice secrete the surface peptide (SU) of the Fv4 Env in their serum and

Abdallah Nihrane; Irina Lebedeva; Myung Soo Lyu; Kazunobu Fujita; Jonathan Silver

1997-01-01

88

Friend murine leukemia virus A8 regulates Env protein expression through an intron sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friend murine leukemia virus (Fr-MLV) produces unspliced mRNAs, as well as singly-spliced mRNAs by which the Env protein is generated. We investigated the role of the intron within the Fr-MLV gene in Env expression using vectors with serially truncated introns. The up-regulatory regions, the 361–878 and the 5135–5399 fragments, and the down-regulatory regions, the 1904–2849 and the 3995–4287 fragments, were

Naoki Yamamoto; Sayaka Takase-Yoden

2009-01-01

89

Antigenic properties of a transport-competent influenza HA\\/HIV Env chimeric protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transmembrane subunit (gp41) of the HIV Env glycoprotein contains conserved neutralizing epitopes which are not well-exposed in wild-type HIV Env proteins. To enhance the exposure of these epitopes, a chimeric protein, HA\\/gp41, in which the gp41 of HIV-1 89.6 envelope protein was fused to the C-terminus of the HA1 subunit of the influenza HA protein, was constructed. Characterization of

Ling Ye; Yuliang Sun; Jianguo Lin; Zhigao Bu; Qingyang Wu; Shibo Jiang; David A. Steinhauer; Richard W. Compans; Chinglai Yang

2006-01-01

90

Differential binding of neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies to native-like soluble HIV-1 Env trimers, uncleaved Env proteins, and monomeric subunits  

PubMed Central

Background The trimeric envelope glycoproteins (Env) on the surface of HIV-1 virions are the targets for neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). No candidate HIV-1 immunogen has yet induced potent, broadly active NAbs (bNAbs). Part of the explanation may be that previously tested Env proteins inadequately mimic the functional, native Env complex. Trimerization and the proteolytic processing of Env precursors into gp120 and gp41 profoundly alter antigenicity, but soluble cleaved trimers are too unstable to serve as immunogens. By introducing stabilizing mutations (SOSIP), we constructed soluble, cleaved Env trimers derived from the HIV-1 subtype A isolate BG505 that resemble native Env spikes on virions both structurally and antigenically. Results We used surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to quantify antibody binding to different forms of BG505 Env: the proteolytically cleaved SOSIP.664 trimers, cleaved gp120-gp41ECTO protomers, and gp120 monomers. Non-NAbs to the CD4-binding site bound only marginally to the trimers but equally well to gp120-gp41ECTO protomers and gp120 monomers, whereas the bNAb VRC01, directed to the CD4bs, bound to all three forms. In contrast, bNAbs to V1V2 glycan-dependent epitopes bound preferentially (PG9 and PG16) or exclusively (PGT145) to trimers. We also explored the antigenic consequences of three different features of SOSIP.664 gp140 trimers: the engineered inter-subunit disulfide bond, the trimer-stabilizing I559P change in gp41ECTO, and proteolytic cleavage at the gp120-gp41ECTO junction. Each of these three features incrementally promoted native-like trimer antigenicity. We compared Fab and IgG versions of bNAbs and validated a bivalent model of IgG binding. The NAbs showed widely divergent binding kinetics and degrees of binding to native-like BG505 SOSIP.664. High off-rate constants and low stoichiometric estimates of NAb binding were associated with large amounts of residual infectivity after NAb neutralization of the corresponding BG505.T332N pseudovirus. Conclusions The antigenicity and structural integrity of cleaved BG505 SOSIP.664 trimers render these proteins good mimics of functional Env spikes on virions. In contrast, uncleaved gp140s antigenically resemble individual gp120-gp41ECTO protomers and gp120 monomers, but not native trimers. Although NAb binding to functional trimers may thus be both necessary and sufficient for neutralization, the kinetics and stoichiometry of the interaction influence the neutralizing efficacy of individual NAbs.

2014-01-01

91

Sequences of the envM gene and of two mutated alleles in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The nucleotide sequence of the Escherichia coli envM gene was determined. It codes for a protein of 262 amino acids. The sequences of the E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium EnvM proteins are 98% identical. Gene envM is preceded in E. coli by a 43-nucleotide-long structural element, termed 'box c', which occurs in several E. coli operons between structural genes. This sequence element is totally absent in S. typhimurium. Gene envM was mapped at coordinate position 1366.8 kb of the physical map of Kohara et al. (Cell, 1987, 50, 495-508). As in S. typhimurium, a Gly for Ser exchange at position 93 of the amino acid sequence leads to a diazaborine-resistant E. coli phenotype. A Ser for Phe exchange at position 241 of the EnvM protein results in a temperature-sensitive growth phenotype. Comparison of the EnvM amino acid sequence with sequences available in databases showed significant homology with the family of short-chain alcohol dehydrogenases. PMID:1364817

Bergler, H; Högenauer, G; Turnowsky, F

1992-10-01

92

Flow Cytometry Based Identification of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Env-specific B Lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

SIV infection of macaques is the most widely employed model for preclinical AIDS vaccine and pathogenesis research. In macaques, high-titer virus-specific antibodies are induced by infection, and antibody responses can drive evolution of viral escape variants. However, neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) induced in response to SIVmac239 and SIVmac251 infection or immunization are generally undetectable or of low titer, and the identification and cloning of potent Nabs from SIVmac-infected macaques remains elusive. Based on recent advances in labeling HIV-specific B lymphocytes [1-3], we have generated recombinant, secreted, soluble SIVmac envelope (Env) proteins (gp120 and gp140) for detection and quantification of SIVmac Env-specific B lymphocytes. In contrast to HIV-1, we found that soluble SIVmac239 gp140 retains the ability to form stable oligomers without the necessity for introducing additional, stabilizing modifications. Soluble oligomeric gp140 reacted with rhesus anti-SIV Env-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), and was used to deplete Env-specific antibodies with SIV neutralization capability from plasma taken from a rhesus macaque immunized with live attenuated SIVmac239?nef. Soluble gp120 and gp140 bound to SIV-specific immortalized B cells, and to SIV Env-specific B lymphocytes in peripheral blood of immunized animals. These reagents will be useful for analyzing develiopment of Env-specific B cell responses in preclinical studies using SIV-infected or vaccinated rhesus macaques.

Fofana, Ismael Ben F; Colantonio, Arnaud D; Reeves, R Keith; Connole, Michelle A; Gillis, Jacqueline M; Hall, Laura R; Sato, Shuji; Audin, Craig R; Evans, David T; Shida, Hisatoshi; Johnson, R Paul; Johnson, Welkin E

2011-01-01

93

Flow cytometry based identification of simian immunodeficiency virus Env-specific B lymphocytes.  

PubMed

SIV infection of macaques is the most widely employed model for preclinical AIDS vaccine and pathogenesis research. In macaques, high-titer virus-specific antibodies are induced by infection, and antibody responses can drive evolution of viral escape variants. However, neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) induced in response to SIVmac239 and SIVmac251 infection or immunization are generally undetectable or of low titer, and the identification and cloning of potent Nabs from SIVmac-infected macaques remains elusive. Based on recent advances in labeling HIV-specific B lymphocytes [1-3], we have generated recombinant, secreted, soluble SIVmac envelope (Env) proteins (gp120 and gp140) for detection and quantification of SIVmac Env-specific B lymphocytes. In contrast to HIV-1, we found that soluble SIVmac239 gp140 retains the ability to form stable oligomers without the necessity for introducing additional, stabilizing modifications. Soluble oligomeric gp140 reacted with rhesus anti-SIV Env-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), and was used to deplete Env-specific antibodies with SIV neutralization capability from plasma taken from a rhesus macaque immunized with live attenuated SIVmac239?nef. Soluble gp120 and gp140 bound to SIV-specific immortalized B cells, and to SIV Env-specific B lymphocytes in peripheral blood of immunized animals. These reagents will be useful for analyzing development of Env-specific B cell responses in preclinical studies using SIV-infected or vaccinated rhesus macaques. PMID:21689659

Fofana, Ismael Ben F; Colantonio, Arnaud D; Reeves, R Keith; Connole, Michelle A; Gillis, Jacqueline M; Hall, Laura R; Sato, Shuji; Audin, Craig R; Evans, David T; Shida, Hisatoshi; Johnson, R Paul; Johnson, Welkin E

2011-07-29

94

MicroRT---Small animal conformal irradiator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel small animal conformal radiation therapy system has been designed and prototyped: MicroRT. The microRT system integrates multimodality imaging, radiation treatment planning, and conformal radiation therapy that utilizes a clinical ¹²Ir isotope high dose rate source as the radiation source (teletherapy). A multiparameter dose calculation algorithm based on Monte Carlo dose distribution simulations is used to efficiently and accurately

S. Stojadinovic; D. A. Low; A. J. Hope; M. Vicic; J. O. Deasy; J. Cui; D. Khullar; P. J. Parikh; K. T. Malinowski; E. W. Izaguirre; S. Mutic; P. W. Grigsby

2007-01-01

95

PALATAL DYSMORPHOGENESIS: QUANTITATIVE RT-PCR  

EPA Science Inventory

ABSTRACT Palatal Dysmorphogenesis : Quantitative RT-PCR Gary A. Held and Barbara D. Abbott Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) is a very sensitive method for detecting mRNA in tissue samples. However, as it is usually performed it is does not yield quantitativ...

96

Interinstrument Reliability of the RT3 Accelerometer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to assess the interinstrument reliability of six RT3 accelerometers for measuring physical activities. Each of the six healthy participants, mean age 36.1 years (SD 9.4), carried six RT3 accelerometers (same type and same producer) simultaneously placed ventrally at the waist belt. The participants performed three…

Reneman, Michiel

2010-01-01

97

Fv4: Identification of the Defect in Env and the Mechanism of Resistance to Ecotropic Murine Leukemia Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mice expressing the Fv-4 gene are resistant to infection by ecotropic murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs). The Fv-4 gene encodes an envelope (Env) protein whose putative receptor-binding domain resembles that of ecotropic MuLV Env protein. Resistance to ecotropic MuLVs appears to result from viral interference involv- ing binding of the endogenously expressed Fv-4 env-encoded protein to the ecotropic receptor, although the

GWEN M. TAYLOR; YI GAO; DAVID AVRAM SANDERS

2001-01-01

98

Budding and secretion of HIV Gag–Env virus-like particles from recombinant human adenovirus infected cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have characterized the assembly, budding and extra-cellular release of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Gag–Env virus-like particles (VLPs) from human embryonic kidney cells (293 cells expressing the E1a protein of adenovirus) infected with recombinant replication-defective human adenovirus type 5. Recombinant human adenovirus vectors expressing the chimeric Gag–Env protein were constructed by inserting the gag–env fusion gene into the E1a region

Lizhong Luo; Yan Li; C Yong Kang

2003-01-01

99

Antibody to gp41 MPER Alters Functional Properties of HIV-1 Env without Complete Neutralization  

PubMed Central

Human antibody 10E8 targets the conserved membrane proximal external region (MPER) of envelope glycoprotein (Env) subunit gp41 and neutralizes HIV-1 with exceptional potency. Remarkably, HIV-1 containing mutations that reportedly knockout 10E8 binding to linear MPER peptides are partially neutralized by 10E8, producing a local plateau in the dose response curve. Here, we found that virus partially neutralized by 10E8 becomes significantly less neutralization sensitive to various MPER antibodies and to soluble CD4 while becoming significantly more sensitive to antibodies and fusion inhibitors against the heptad repeats of gp41. Thus, 10E8 modulates sensitivity of Env to ligands both pre- and post-receptor engagement without complete neutralization. Partial neutralization by 10E8 was influenced at least in part by perturbing Env glycosylation. With unliganded Env, 10E8 bound with lower apparent affinity and lower subunit occupancy to MPER mutant compared to wild type trimers. However, 10E8 decreased functional stability of wild type Env while it had an opposite, stabilizing effect on MPER mutant Envs. Clade C isolates with natural MPER polymorphisms also showed partial neutralization by 10E8 with altered sensitivity to various gp41-targeted ligands. Our findings suggest a novel mechanism of virus neutralization by demonstrating how antibody binding to the base of a trimeric spike cross talks with adjacent subunits to modulate Env structure and function. The ability of an antibody to stabilize, destabilize, partially neutralize as well as alter neutralization sensitivity of a virion spike pre- and post-receptor engagement may have implications for immunotherapy and vaccine design.

Kim, Arthur S.; Leaman, Daniel P.; Zwick, Michael B.

2014-01-01

100

Characterization of the antibody response elicited by HIV-1 Env glycomutants in rabbits.  

PubMed

HIV-1 N-glycans are known to shield underlying epitopes towards the protective antibody repertoire. We previously described HIV-1 acute infection Env glycomutants designed from 3D-model in which the removal of clustered N-glycans did not disturb the envelope antigenicity, but increased the neutralization sensitivity. The potential of such immunogens to elicit neutralizing responses was estimated after rabbit immunizations with a DNA/protein protocol. Maturation of the Env-specific antibody response was confirmed by a change in avidity and conformational dependence. For one immunogen, the neutralizing response was increased with a higher breadth compared to the Wild-Type. Our data suggest that Env selective deglycosylation based on 3D data may represent a valuable strategy to improve elicitation of neutralizing antibodies. PMID:16934377

Reynard, F; Willkomm, N; Fatmi, A; Vallon-Eberhard, A; Verrier, B; Bedin, F

2007-01-01

101

"Resistance" to PSC-RANTES revisited: two mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV-1 SF162 or simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV SF162-p3 do not confer resistance.  

PubMed

Resistance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to small-molecule CCR5 inhibitors is well demonstrated, but resistance to macromolecular CCR5 inhibitors (e.g., PSC-RANTES) that act by both CCR5 internalization and receptor blockade had not been reported until recently (3). The report of a single simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV(SF162-p3) variant with one V3 and one gp41 sequence change in gp160 that conferred both altered replicative fitness and resistance to PSC-RANTES was therefore surprising. We introduced the same two mutations into both the parental HIV-1(SF162) and the macaque-adapted SHIV(SF162-p3) and found minor differences in entry fitness but no changes in sensitivity to inhibition by either PSC-RANTES or the small-molecule allosteric inhibitor TAK-779. We attribute the earlier finding to confounding fitness effects with inhibitor sensitivity. PMID:20335248

Nedellec, Rebecca; Coetzer, Mia; Lederman, Michael M; Offord, Robin E; Hartley, Oliver; Mosier, Donald E

2010-06-01

102

Comparative analysis of immune responses and cytokine profiles elicited in rabbits by the combined use of recombinant fowlpox viruses, plasmids and virus-like particles in prime-boost vaccination protocols against SHIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different prime-boost immunization protocols were tested in rabbits and their immune response was evaluated and compared with the final aim of identifying a vaccine strategy that might be able to protect non-human primates from infection with the pathogenic chimera simian\\/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)89.6P. Protocols were based on priming with two fowlpox (FP) recombinant vectors and two expression plasmids, which

Antonia Radaelli; Carlo Zanotto; Gianpaolo Perletti; Veronica Elli; Elisa Vicenzi; Guido Poli; Carlo De Giuli Morghen

2003-01-01

103

Constitutive activation of a variant of the env-mpl oncogene product by disulfide-linked homodimerization.  

PubMed Central

The myeloproliferative leukemia retrovirus (MPLV) has the v-mpl cellular sequences transduced in frame with the deleted and rearranged Friend murine leukemia virus env gene. The resulting env-mpl fusion oncogene is responsible for an acute myeloproliferative disorder induced in mice by MPLV. v-mpl is a truncated form of the c-mpl gene which encodes the receptor for thrombopoietin. We investigated the contribution of the Env-Mpl extracellular domain in the constitutive activation of this truncated cytokine receptor and found that the rearrangement of the env sequences in the env-mpl fusion gene was not required for oncogenicity. A pathogenic variant, DEL3MPLV, was generated, which differs from MPLV by the deletions of 22 amino acids of the Env signal peptide, all of the mature Env sequences, and 18 N-terminal amino acids of the v-Mpl extracellular domain. The resulting del3-mpl oncogene product conserves in its extracellular region the first 12 amino acids of the Env signal sequence including a cysteine residue, and 25 amino acids of the v-Mpl. We show here that a mutation converting this cysteine to a glycine completely abolishes del3-mpl oncogenicity and that the del3-mpl oncogene product is constitutively activated by disulfide-linked homodimerization.

Courtois, G; Benit, L; Mikaeloff, Y; Pauchard, M; Charon, M; Varlet, P; Gisselbrecht, S

1995-01-01

104

Overproduction of outer membrane protein suppresses envA-induced hyperpermeability.  

PubMed Central

A quantitative study on outer membrane components was performed in a number of envelope mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 exhibition different permeability properties for antimicrobial agents. The envA1 allele causing an increased influx for both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs was found to be associated with a deficiency in the amount of lipopolysaccharides. The sefA1 envA1 double mutant was found to have a higher outer membrane buoyant density, apparently due to an increase in protein content. This double mutant was still low in lipopolysaccharide content.

Grundstrom, T; Normark, S; Magnusson, K E

1980-01-01

105

B cells and monocytes from patients with active multiple sclerosis exhibit increased surface expression of both HERV-H Env and HERV-W Env, accompanied by increased seroreactivity  

PubMed Central

Background The etiology of the neurogenerative disease multiple sclerosis (MS) is unknown. The leading hypotheses suggest that MS is the result of exposure of genetically susceptible individuals to certain environmental factor(s). Herpesviruses and human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) represent potentially important factors in MS development. Herpesviruses can activate HERVs, and HERVs are activated in MS patients. Results Using flow cytometry, we have analyzed HERV-H Env and HERV-W Env epitope expression on the surface of PBMCs from MS patients with active and stable disease, and from control individuals. We have also analyzed serum antibody levels to the expressed HERV-H and HERV-W Env epitopes. We found a significantly higher expression of HERV-H and HERV-W Env epitopes on B cells and monocytes from patients with active MS compared with patients with stable MS or control individuals. Furthermore, patients with active disease had relatively higher numbers of B cells in the PBMC population, and higher antibody reactivities towards HERV-H Env and HERV-W Env epitopes. The higher antibody reactivities in sera from patients with active MS correlate with the higher levels of HERV-H Env and HERV-W Env expression on B cells and monocytes. We did not find such correlations for stable MS patients or for controls. Conclusion These findings indicate that both HERV-H Env and HERV-W Env are expressed in higher quantities on the surface of B cells and monocytes in patients with active MS, and that the expression of these proteins may be associated with exacerbation of the disease.

2009-01-01

106

Both Linear and Discontinuous Ribosome Scanning Are Used for Translation Initiation from Bicistronic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 env mRNAs? †  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) generates 16 alternatively spliced isoforms of env mRNA that contain the same overlapping open reading frames for Vpu and Env proteins but differ in their 5? untranslated regions (UTR). A subset of env mRNAs carry the extra upstream Rev initiation codon in the 5? UTR. We explored the effect of the alternative UTR on the translation of Vpu and Env proteins from authentic env mRNAs expressed from cDNA constructs. Vpu expression from the subset of env mRNA isoforms with exons containing an upstream Rev AUG codon was minimal. However, every env mRNA isoform expressed similar levels of Env protein. Mutations that removed, altered the strength of, or introduced upstream AUG codons dramatically altered Vpu expression but had little impact on the consistent expression of Env. These data show that the different isoforms of env mRNA are not redundant but instead regulate Vpu production in HIV-1-infected cells. Furthermore, while the initiation of Vpu translation conforms to the leaky ribosome-scanning model, the consistent Env synthesis infers a novel, discontinuous ribosome-scanning mechanism to translate Env.

Anderson, Jenny L.; Johnson, Adam T.; Howard, Jane L.; Purcell, Damian F. J.

2007-01-01

107

Structure of epitaxially grown rare-earth intermetallics using x-ray diffraction: RT2 , RT3 , RT5 , and R2T17  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray diffraction measurements have been made on a series of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)-grown RT2 , RT3 , RT5 , and R2T17 thin layer samples, where R=Er,Nd , and T=Co,Fe , and RT2 superlattice samples, where R=Er,Nd,Y , and T=Fe . These measurements show that it is possible to grow RT2 materials by MBE techniques, using a Mo[110] buffer, with

S. R. Jones; A. Dunhill; R. A. Cowley; R. C. C. Ward

2008-01-01

108

EC energy and environment model EFOM-ENV specified in GAMS. The case of the Netherlands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

EFOM-ENV (Energy Flow and Optimization Model - ENVironment) is a linear-programming (LP) model which covers the complete energy system of a country. It is originally programmed in FORTRAN. At the moment the model is operational for all the European Commun...

M. Van den Broek F. Van Oostvoorn T. Van Harmelen W. Van Arkel

1992-01-01

109

Evidence for Cooperation between Murine Leukemia Virus Env Molecules in Mixed Oligomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retroviral Env molecule consists of a surface glycoprotein (SU) complexed with a transmembrane protein (TM). In turn, these complexes are grouped into oligomers on the surfaces of the cell and of the virion. In the case of murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs), the SU moieties are polymorphic, with SU proteins of different viral isolates directed towards different cell surface receptors.

ALAN REIN; CHINGLAI YANG; JACQUELINE A. HAYNES; JANE MIRRO; RICHARD W. COMPANS

1998-01-01

110

Ensemble/Variational Estimation (EnVE) and its application to canonical turbulent flow realizations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recently-developed hybrid EnVE method for data assimilation incorporates successive adjoint optimizations to update the initial conditions of a flow model, over various horizons of interest, in order to reconcile this model with recent measurements. Such adjoint optimizations typically require the trajectory to be saved over the entire interval over which the optimization is performed; in high-dimensional systems, this can lead to significant storage problems, which can be partially alleviated via checkpointing. In the EnVE framework, this requirement is eliminated, and supplanted by a requirement to march the state of the system backward in time simultaneously with the adjoint. If the system is derived from a PDE with a diffusive component, this backward-in-time state march is ill conditioned, and requires regularization/smoothing to prevent errors from accumulating rapidly at the small scales. The present talk focuses on this peculiar requirement of the EnVE algorithm. As the forecasting problem may itself be considered as a smoothing problem, it is, in fact, expected to find a ``smoothing'' ingredient at the heart of an algorithm of this sort. Various strategies are proposed and tested for accomplishing the required smoothing in the EnVE setting, and are tested on both a chaotic 1D PDE (the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation) as well as our in-house spectral 3D DNS/LES code, diablo.

Colburn, Christopher; Cessna, Joseph; Bewley, Thomas

2008-11-01

111

Regulation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Env-Mediated Membrane Fusion by Viral Protease Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We and others have presented evidence for a direct interaction between the matrix (MA) domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag protein and the cytoplasmic tail of the transmembrane envelope (Env) glycoprotein gp41. In addition, it has been postulated that the MA domain of Gag undergoes a conformational change following Gag processing, and the cytoplasmic tail of

Tsutomu Murakami; Sherimay Ablan; Eric O. Freed; Yuetsu Tanaka

2004-01-01

112

CD4-Induced Activation in a Soluble HIV-1 Env Trimer.  

PubMed

The HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer undergoes receptor-induced conformational changes that drive fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. Env conformational changes have been observed using low-resolution electron microscopy, but only large-scale rearrangements have been visible. Here, we use hydrogen-deuterium exchange and oxidative labeling to gain a more precise understanding of the unliganded and CD4-bound forms of soluble Env trimers (SOSIP.664), including their glycan composition. CD4 activation induces the reorganization of bridging sheet elements, V1/V2 and V3, much of the gp120 inner domain, and the gp41 fusion subunit. Two CD4 binding site-targeted inhibitors have substantially different effects: NBD-556 partially mimics CD4-induced destabilization of the V1/V2 and V3 crown, whereas BMS-806 only affects regions around the gp120/gp41 interface. The structural information presented here increases our knowledge of CD4- and small molecule-induced conformational changes in Env and the allosteric pathways that lead to membrane fusion. PMID:24931470

Guttman, Miklos; Garcia, Natalie K; Cupo, Albert; Matsui, Tsutomu; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Sanders, Rogier W; Wilson, Ian A; Moore, John P; Lee, Kelly K

2014-07-01

113

Substitution of the transmembrane domain of Vpu in simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV{sub KU1bMC33}) with that of M2 of influenza A results in a virus that is sensitive to inhibitors of the M2 ion channel and is pathogenic for pig-tailed macaques  

SciTech Connect

The Vpu protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 has been shown to shunt the CD4 receptor molecule to the proteasome for degradation and to enhance virus release from infected cells. The exact mechanism by which the Vpu protein enhances virus release is currently unknown but some investigators have shown that this function is associated with the transmembrane domain and potential ion channel properties. In this study, we determined if the transmembrane domain of Vpu could be functionally substituted with that of the prototypical viroporin, the M2 protein of influenza A virus. We constructed chimeric vpu gene in which the transmembrane domain of Vpu was replaced with that of the M2 protein of influenza. This chimeric vpu gene was substituted for the vpu gene in the genome of a pathogenic simian human immunodeficiency virus, SHIV{sub KU-1bMC33}. The resulting virus, SHIV{sub M2}, synthesized a Vpu protein that had a slightly different M{sub r} compared to the parental SHIV{sub KU-1bMC33}, reflecting the different sizes of the two Vpu proteins. The SHIV{sub M2} was shown to replicate with slightly reduced kinetics when compared to the parental SHIV{sub KU-1bMC33} but electron microscopy revealed that the site of maturation was similar to the parental virus SHIV{sub KU1bMC33}. We show that the replication and spread of SHIV{sub M2} could be blocked with the antiviral drug rimantadine, which is known to target the M2 ion channel. Our results indicate a dose dependent inhibition of SHIV{sub M2} with 100 {mu}M rimantadine resulting in a >95% decrease in p27 released into the culture medium. Rimantadine did not affect the replication of the parental SHIV{sub KU-1bMC33}. Examination of SHIV{sub M2}-infected cells treated with 50 {mu}M rimantadine revealed numerous viral particles associated with the cell plasma membrane and within intracytoplasmic vesicles, which is similar to HIV-1 mutants lacking a functional vpu. To determine if SHIV{sub M2} was as pathogenic as the parental SHIV{sub KU-1bMC33} virus, two pig-tailed macaques were inoculated and followed for up to 8 months. Both pig-tailed macaques developed severe CD4{sup +} T cell loss within 1 month of inoculation, high viral loads, and histological lesions consistent with lymphoid depletion similar to the parental SHIV{sub KU-1bMC33}. Taken together, these results indicate for the first time that the TM domain of the Vpu protein can be functionally substituted with the TM of M2 of influenza A virus, and shows that compounds that target the TM domain of Vpu protein of HIV-1 could serve as novel anti-HIV-1 drugs.

Hout, David R. [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Gomez, Melissa L. [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Pacyniak, Erik [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Gomez, Lisa M. [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Fegley, Barbara [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Mulcahy, Ellyn R. [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Hill, M. Sarah [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Culley, Nathan [Laboratory Animal Resources, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Pinson, David M. [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Nothnick, Warren [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Powers, Michael F.; Wong, Scott W. [Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon University for the Health Sciences, Beaverton, OR 97003 (United States); Stephens, Edward B. [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)]. E-mail: estephen@kumc.edu

2006-01-20

114

Decreased plasticity of coreceptor use by CD4-independent SIV Envs that emerge in vivo  

PubMed Central

Background HIV and SIV generally require CD4 binding prior to coreceptor engagement, but Env can acquire the ability to use CCR5 independently of CD4 under various circumstances. The ability to use CCR5 coupled with low-to-absent CD4 levels is associated with enhanced macrophage infection and increased neutralization sensitivity, but the additional features of these Envs that may affect cell targeting is not known. Results Here we report that CD4-independent SIV variants that emerged in vivo in a CD4+ T cell-depleted rhesus macaque model display markedly decreased plasticity of co-receptor use. While CD4-dependent Envs can use low levels of macaque CCR5 for efficient entry, CD4-independent variants required high levels of CCR5 even in the presence of CD4. CD4-independent Envs were also more sensitive to the CCR5 antagonist Maraviroc. CD4-dependent variants mediated efficient entry using human CCR5, whereas CD4-independent variants had impaired use of human CCR5. Similarly, CD4-independent Envs used the alternative coreceptors GPR15 and CXCR6 less efficiently than CD4-dependent variants. Env amino acids D470N and E84K that confer the CD4-independent phenotype also regulated entry through low CCR5 levels and GPR15, indicating a common structural basis. Treatment of CD4-dependent Envs with soluble CD4 enhanced entry through CCR5 but reduced entry through GPR15, suggesting that induction of CD4-induced conformational changes by non-cell surface-associated CD4 impairs use of this alternative co-receptor. Conclusions CD4 independence is associated with more restricted coreceptor interactions. While the ability to enter target cells through CCR5 independently of CD4 may enable infection of CD4 low-to-negative cells such as macrophages, this phenotype may conversely reduce the potential range of targets such as cells expressing low levels of CCR5, conformational variants of CCR5, or possibly even alternative coreceptors.

2013-01-01

115

Furin cleavage of the Moloney murine leukemia virus Env precursor reorganizes the spike structure.  

PubMed

The trimeric Moloney murine leukemia virus Env protein matures by two proteolytic cleavages. First, furin cleaves the Env precursor into the surface (SU) and transmembrane (TM) subunits in the cell and then the viral protease cleaves the R-peptide from TM in new virus. Here we analyzed the structure of the furin precursor, by cryoelectron microscopy. We transfected 293T cells with a furin cleavage site provirus mutant, R466G/K468G, and produced the virus in the presence of amprenavir to also inhibit the R-peptide cleavage. Although Env incorporation into particles was inhibited, enough precursor could be isolated and analyzed by cryoelectron microscopy to yield a 3D structure at 22 Å resolution. This showed an open cage-like structure like that of the R-peptide precursor and the mature Env described before. However, the middle protrusion of the protomeric unit, so prominently pointing out from the side of the more mature forms of the Env, was absent. Instead, there was extra density in the top protrusion. This suggested that the C-terminal SU domain was associated alongside the receptor binding N-terminal SU domain in the furin precursor. This was supported by mapping with a SU C-terminal domain-specific antigen binding fragment. We concluded that furin cleavage not only separates the subunits and liberates the fusion peptide at the end of TM but also allows the C-terminal domain to relocate into a peripheral position. This conformational change might explain how the C-terminal domain of SU gains the potential to undergo disulfide isomerization, an event that facilitates membrane fusion. PMID:24711391

Sjöberg, Mathilda; Wu, Shang-Rung; Löving, Robin; Rantalainen, Kimmo; Lindqvist, Birgitta; Garoff, Henrik

2014-04-22

116

Antigenic properties of a transport-competent influenza HA/HIV Env chimeric protein  

SciTech Connect

The transmembrane subunit (gp41) of the HIV Env glycoprotein contains conserved neutralizing epitopes which are not well-exposed in wild-type HIV Env proteins. To enhance the exposure of these epitopes, a chimeric protein, HA/gp41, in which the gp41 of HIV-1 89.6 envelope protein was fused to the C-terminus of the HA1 subunit of the influenza HA protein, was constructed. Characterization of protein expression showed that the HA/gp41 chimeric proteins were expressed on cell surfaces and formed trimeric oligomers, as found in the HIV Env as well as influenza HA proteins. In addition, the HA/gp41 chimeric protein expressed on the cell surface can also be cleaved into 2 subunits by trypsin treatment, similar to the influenza HA. Moreover, the HA/gp41 chimeric protein was found to maintain a pre-fusion conformation. Interestingly, the HA/gp41 chimeric proteins on cell surfaces exhibited increased reactivity to monoclonal antibodies against the HIV Env gp41 subunit compared with the HIV-1 envelope protein, including the two broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies 2F5 and 4E10. Immunization of mice with a DNA vaccine expressing the HA/gp41 chimeric protein induced antibodies against the HIV gp41 protein and these antibodies exhibit neutralizing activity against infection by an HIV SF162 pseudovirus. These results demonstrate that the construction of such chimeric proteins can provide enhanced exposure of conserved epitopes in the HIV Env gp41 and may represent a novel vaccine design strategy for inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV.

Ye Ling [Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University School of Medicine, 1510 Clifton Road, Room 3086 Rollins Research Center, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Sun Yuliang [Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University School of Medicine, 1510 Clifton Road, Room 3086 Rollins Research Center, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Lin Jianguo [Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University School of Medicine, 1510 Clifton Road, Room 3086 Rollins Research Center, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Bu Zhigao [Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, CAAS, 427 Maduan Street, Nangang District, Harbin 150001 (China); Wu Qingyang [Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University School of Medicine, 1510 Clifton Road, Room 3086 Rollins Research Center, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Jiang, Shibo [New York Blood Center, 310 E. 67 Street, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Steinhauer, David A. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University School of Medicine, 1510 Clifton Road, Room 3086 Rollins Research Center, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Compans, Richard W. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University School of Medicine, 1510 Clifton Road, Room 3086 Rollins Research Center, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Yang Chinglai [Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University School of Medicine, 1510 Clifton Road, Room 3086 Rollins Research Center, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)]. E-mail: chyang@emory.edu

2006-08-15

117

MicroRT - Small animal conformal irradiator  

SciTech Connect

A novel small animal conformal radiation therapy system has been designed and prototyped: MicroRT. The microRT system integrates multimodality imaging, radiation treatment planning, and conformal radiation therapy that utilizes a clinical {sup 192}Ir isotope high dose rate source as the radiation source (teletherapy). A multiparameter dose calculation algorithm based on Monte Carlo dose distribution simulations is used to efficiently and accurately calculate doses for treatment planning purposes. A series of precisely machined tungsten collimators mounted onto a cylindrical collimator assembly is used to provide the radiation beam portals. The current design allows a source-to-target distance range of 1-8 cm at four beam angles: 0 deg. (beam oriented down), 90 deg., 180 deg., and 270 deg. The animal is anesthetized and placed in an immobilization device with built-in fiducial markers and scanned using a computed tomography, magnetic resonance, or positron emission tomography scanner prior to irradiation. Treatment plans using up to four beam orientations are created utilizing a custom treatment planning system--microRTP. A three-axis computer-controlled stage that supports and accurately positions the animals is programmed to place the animal relative to the radiation beams according to the microRTP plan. The microRT system positioning accuracy was found to be submillimeter. The radiation source is guided through one of four catheter channels and placed in line with the tungsten collimators to deliver the conformal radiation treatment. The microRT hardware specifications, the accuracy of the treatment planning and positioning systems, and some typical procedures for radiobiological experiments that can be performed with the microRT device are presented.

Stojadinovic, S.; Low, D. A.; Hope, A. J.; Vicic, M.; Deasy, J. O.; Cui, J.; Khullar, D.; Parikh, P. J.; Malinowski, K. T.; Izaguirre, E. W.; Mutic, S.; Grigsby, P. W. [Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

2007-12-15

118

MzrA: a novel modulator of the EnvZ/OmpR two-component regulon  

PubMed Central

Analysis of suppressors that alleviate the acute envelope stress phenotype of a ?bamB?degP strain of Escherichia coli identified a novel protein MzrA and pleiotropic envZ mutations. Genetic evidence shows that overexpression of MzrA – formerly known as YqjB and EcfM – modulates the activity of EnvZ/OmpR similarly to pleiotropic EnvZ mutants and alter porin expression. However, porin expression in strains devoid of MzrA or overexpressing it is still sensitive to medium osmolarity, pH and procaine, all of which modulate EnvZ/OmpR activities. Thus, MzrA appears to alter the output of the EnvZ/OmpR system but not its ability to receive and respond to various environmental signals. Localization and topology experiments indicate that MzrA is a type II membrane protein, with its N-terminus exposed in the cytoplasm and C-terminus in the periplasm. Bacterial two-hybrid experiments determined that MzrA specifically interacts with EnvZ but not with OmpR or the related membrane sensor kinase, CpxA. This and additional genetic and biochemical evidence suggest that the interaction of MzrA with EnvZ would either enhance EnvZ's kinase activity or reduce its phosphatase activity, thus elevating the steady state levels of OmpR?P. Furthermore, our data show that MzrA links the two-component envelope stress response regulators, CpxA/CpxR and EnvZ/OmpR.

Gerken, Henri; Charlson, Emily S; Cicirelli, Elisha M; Kenney, Linda J; Misra, Rajeev

2009-01-01

119

Evaluation of Heterologous Vaginal SHIV SF162p4 Infection Following Vaccination with a Polyvalent Clade B Virus-Like Particle Vaccine  

PubMed Central

Abstract The vast diversity of HIV-1 infections has greatly impeded the development of a successful HIV-1/AIDS vaccine. Previous vaccine work has demonstrated limited levels of protection against SHIV/SIV infection, but protection was observed only when the challenge virus was directly matched to the vaccine strain. As it is likely impossible to directly match the vaccine strain to all infecting strains in nature, it is necessary to develop an HIV-1 vaccine that can protect against a heterologous viral challenge. In this study we investigated the ability of polyvalent and consensus vaccines to protect against a heterologous clade B challenge. Rhesus macaques were vaccinated with ConB or PolyB virus-like particle vaccines. All vaccines were highly immunogenic with high titers of antibody found in all vaccinated groups against SIV Gag. Antibody responses were also observed against a diverse panel of clade B envelopes. Following vaccination nonhuman primates (NHPs) were challenged via the vaginal route with SHIVSF162p4. The PolyB vaccine induced a 66.7% reduction in the rate of infection as well as causing a two log reduction in viral burden if infection was not blocked. ConB vaccination had no effect on either the infection rate or viral burden. These results indicate that a polyvalent clade-matched vaccine is better able to protect against a heterologous challenge as compared to a consensus vaccine.

McBurney, Sean P.; Landucci, Gary; Forthal, Donald N.

2012-01-01

120

The School Psychologist's Role in Response to Intervention (RtI): Factors That Influence RtI Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if the actual implementation of Response to Intervention (RtI) was related to school psychologists' knowledge, district opportunities for RtI training within the school district, and school psychologists' attitudes toward RtI. The implementation and use of RtI was predicted to be dependent upon those…

Yenni, Amanda; Hartman, Amie

2009-01-01

121

Selected HIV-1 Env Trimeric Formulations Act as Potent Immunogens in a Rabbit Vaccination Model  

PubMed Central

Background Ten to 30% of HIV-1 infected subjects develop broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) during chronic infection. We hypothesized that immunizing rabbits with viral envelope glycoproteins (Envs) from these patients may induce bNAbs, when formulated as a trimeric protein and in the presence of an adjuvant. Methods Based on in vitro neutralizing activity in serum, patients with bNAbs were selected for cloning of their HIV-1 Env. Seven stable soluble trimeric gp140 proteins were generated from sequences derived from four adults and two children infected with either clade A or B HIV-1. From one of the clade A Envs both the monomeric and trimeric Env were produced for comparison. Rabbits were immunized with soluble gp120 or trimeric gp140 proteins in combination with the adjuvant dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium/trehalose dibehenate (CAF01). Env binding in rabbit immune serum was determined using ELISAs based on gp120-IIIB protein. Neutralizing activity of IgG purified from rabbit immune sera was measured with the pseudovirus-TZMbl assay and a PBMC-based neutralization assay for selected experiments. Results It was initially established that gp140 trimers induce better antibody responses over gp120 monomers and that the adjuvant CAF01 was necessary for such strong responses. Gp140 trimers, based on HIV-1 variants from patients with bNAbs, were able to elicit both gp120IIIB specific IgG and NAbs to Tier 1 viruses of different subtypes. Potency of NAbs closely correlated with titers, and an gp120-binding IgG titer above a threshold of 100,000 was predictive of neutralization capability. Finally, peptide inhibition experiments showed that a large fraction of the neutralizing IgG was directed against the gp120 V3 region. Conclusions Our results indicate that the strategy of reverse immunology based on selected Env sequences is promising when immunogens are delivered as stabilized trimers in CAF01 adjuvant and that the rabbit is a valuable model for HIV vaccine studies.

Heyndrickx, Leo; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume; Jansson, Marianne; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Bowles, Emma; Buonaguro, Luigi; Grevstad, Berit; Vinner, Lasse; Vereecken, Katleen; Parker, Joe; Ramaswamy, Meghna; Biswas, Priscilla; Vanham, Guido; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Fomsgaard, Anders

2013-01-01

122

ENV7 and YCK3, which encode vacuolar membrane protein kinases, genetically interact to impact cell fitness and vacuole morphology.  

PubMed

Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuoles serve as a model for membrane fusion and fission. Yck3, a vacuolar membrane kinase, has been implicated in regulation of vacuole fusion. Recently, we established Env7 as another vacuolar membrane protein kinase with similar but nonredundant function to Yck3. Here, we report that native Env7 localizes to the vacuole independent of Yck3, where as its phosphorylation is YCK3 dependent. We also show that env7?yck3? double mutant exhibits severely compromised fitness, altered cell size and bud vacuoles, and F-class vacuolar morphology. Our results establish negative genetic interactions between ENV7 and YCK3 and suggest cooperative roles for the two conserved genes in regulation of membrane dynamics. Such genetic buffering supports a critical role for membrane flux in global cell fitness. PMID:24345185

Manandhar, Surya P; Gharakhanian, Editte

2014-05-01

123

R5 HIV env and vesicular stomatitis virus G protein cooperate to mediate fusion to naive CD4+ T Cells.  

PubMed

Naïve CD4(4) T cells are resistant to both HIV R5 env and vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G)-mediated fusion. However, viral particles carrying both HIV R5 env and VSV-G infect naïve cells by an unexplained mechanism. We show that VSV-G-pseudotyped virus cannot fuse to unstimulated cells because the viral particles cannot be endocytosed. However, virions carrying both HIV R5 env and VSV-G can fuse because CD4 binding allows viral uptake. Our findings reveal a unique mechanism by which R5 HIV env and VSV-G cooperate to allow entry to naïve CD4(+) T cells, providing a tool to target naïve CD4(+) T cells with R5 HIV to study HIV coreceptor signaling and latency. PMID:20980513

Pace, Matthew J; Agosto, Luis; O'Doherty, Una

2011-01-01

124

HIV-1 Tat Promotes Integrin-Mediated HIV Transmission to Dendritic Cells by Binding Env Spikes and Competes Neutralization by Anti-HIV Antibodies  

PubMed Central

Use of Env in HIV vaccine development has been disappointing. Here we show that, in the presence of a biologically active Tat subunit vaccine, a trimeric Env protein prevents in monkeys virus spread from the portal of entry to regional lymph nodes. This appears to be due to specific interactions between Tat and Env spikes that form a novel virus entry complex favoring R5 or X4 virus entry and productive infection of dendritic cells (DCs) via an integrin-mediated pathway. These Tat effects do not require Tat-transactivation activity and are blocked by anti-integrin antibodies (Abs). Productive DC infection promoted by Tat is associated with a highly efficient virus transmission to T cells. In the Tat/Env complex the cysteine-rich region of Tat engages the Env V3 loop, whereas the Tat RGD sequence remains free and directs the virus to integrins present on DCs. V2 loop deletion, which unshields the CCR5 binding region of Env, increases Tat/Env complex stability. Of note, binding of Tat to Env abolishes neutralization of Env entry or infection of DCs by anti-HIV sera lacking anti-Tat Abs, which are seldom present in natural infection. This is reversed, and neutralization further enhanced, by HIV sera containing anti-Tat Abs such as those from asymptomatic or Tat-vaccinated patients, or by sera from the Tat/Env vaccinated monkeys. Thus, both anti-Tat and anti-Env Abs are required for efficient HIV neutralization. These data suggest that the Tat/Env interaction increases HIV acquisition and spreading, as a mechanism evolved by the virus to escape anti-Env neutralizing Abs. This may explain the low effectiveness of Env-based vaccines, which are also unlikely to elicit Abs against new Env epitopes exposed by the Tat/Env interaction. As Tat also binds Envs from different clades, new vaccine strategies should exploit the Tat/Env interaction for both preventative and therapeutic interventions.

Monini, Paolo; Cafaro, Aurelio; Srivastava, Indresh K.; Moretti, Sonia; Sharma, Victoria A.; Andreini, Claudia; Chiozzini, Chiara; Ferrantelli, Flavia; Cossut, Maria R. Pavone.; Tripiciano, Antonella; Nappi, Filomena; Longo, Olimpia; Bellino, Stefania; Picconi, Orietta; Fanales-Belasio, Emanuele; Borsetti, Alessandra; Toschi, Elena; Schiavoni, Ilaria; Bacigalupo, Ilaria; Kan, Elaine; Sernicola, Leonardo; Maggiorella, Maria T.; Montin, Katy; Porcu, Marco; Leone, Patrizia; Leone, Pasqualina; Collacchi, Barbara; Palladino, Clelia; Ridolfi, Barbara; Falchi, Mario; Macchia, Iole; Ulmer, Jeffrey B.; Butto, Stefano; Sgadari, Cecilia; Magnani, Mauro; Federico, Maurizio P. M.; Titti, Fausto; Banci, Lucia; Dallocchio, Franco; Rappuoli, Rino; Ensoli, Fabrizio; Barnett, Susan W.; Garaci, Enrico; Ensoli, Barbara

2012-01-01

125

Gag and env-specific serum antibodies in cats after natural and experimental infection with feline immunodeficiency virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to monitor the antibody response to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in cats, following experimental and natural infection, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were developed using recombinant env and gag proteins and p24-specific monoclonal antibodies. It was shown that in experimentally infected cats an env protein-specific antibody response was directly followed by a gag protein-specific response. Furthermore, an ELISA for

G. F. Rimmelzwaan; C. H. J. Siebelink; H. Broos; G. A. Drost; K. Weijer; Herwijnen van R; A. D. M. E. Osterhaus

1994-01-01

126

Development of an env gp41Based Heteroduplex Mobility Assay for Rapid Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtyping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gp120 region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (env) gene exhibits a high level of genetic heterogeneity across the group M subtypes. The heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA) has successfully been used to assign subtype classifications, but C2V5 primers often fail to amplify African strains. We developed an env gp41-based HMA for which the target sequence is

S. M. Agwale; K. E. Robbins; L. Odama; A. Saekhou; C. Zeh; A. Edubio; O. M. Njoku; N. Sani-Gwarzo; M. F. Gboun; F. Gao; M. Reitz; D. Hone; T. M. Folks; D. Pieniazek; C. Wambebe; M. L. Kalish

2001-01-01

127

A minimal uORF within the HIV1 vpu leader allows efficient translation initiation at the downstream env AUG  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HIV-1 Vpu and Env proteins are translated from 16 alternatively spliced bicistronic mRNA isoforms. Translation of HIV-1 mRNAs generally follows the ribosome scanning mechanism. However, by using subgenomic env expression vectors, we found that translation of glycoprotein from polycistronic mRNAs was inconsistent with leaky scanning. Instead a conserved minimal upstream open reading frame (uORF) consisting only of a start

Jörg Krummheuer; Adam T. Johnson; Ilona Hauber; Susanne Kammler; Jenny L. Anderson; Joachim Hauber; Damian F. J. Purcell; Heiner Schaal

2007-01-01

128

Highly complex neutralization determinants on a monophyletic lineage of newly transmitted subtype C HIV1 Env clones from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the neutralization properties of HIV-1 in India to optimally design and test vaccines. For this reason, a functional Env clone was obtained from each of ten newly acquired, heterosexually transmitted HIV-1 infections in Pune, Maharashtra. These clones formed a phylogenetically distinct genetic lineage within subtype C. As Env-pseudotyped viruses the clones were mostly resistant to IgG1b12,

Smita S. Kulkarni; Alan Lapedes; Haili Tang; S. Gnanakaran; Marcus G. Daniels; Ming Zhang; Tanmoy Bhattacharya; Ming Li; Victoria R. Polonis; Francine E. McCutchan; Lynn Morris; Dennis Ellenberger; Salvatore T. Butera; Robert C. Bollinger; Bette T. Korber; Ramesh S. Paranjape; David C. Montefiori

2009-01-01

129

Cross-sectional characterization of HIV-1 env compartmentalization in cerebrospinal fluid over the full disease course  

PubMed Central

Objectives To characterize HIV-1 env compartmentalization between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood plasma over all stages of the HIV-1 disease course, and to determine the relationship between the extent of CSF HIV-1 env compartmentalization and clinical neurologic disease status. Design Paired blood plasma and CSF specimens were collected from 66 HIV-infected patients cross-sectionally representing all major clinical stages relating to HIV-associated neurologic disease, including primary infection, asymptomatic chronic infection, chronic infection with minor global impairment, and immune deficiency with HIV-associated dementia. Methods Heteroduplex tracking assays and bulk sequence analysis targeting the V1/V2, C2-V3, and V4/V5 regions of env were performed to characterize the genetic makeup of complex HIV-1 populations in the cross-sectional blood plasma and CSF specimens. The levels of blood plasma/CSF env compartmentalization were quantified and compared across the different clinical stages of HIV-1 neurologic disease. Results Blood plasma/CSF env compartmentalization levels varied considerably by disease stage and were generally consistent across all three regions of env characterized. Little or no compartmentalization was observed in non-impaired individuals with primary HIV-1 infection. Compartmentalization levels were elevated in chronically infected patients, but were not significantly different between mildly impaired and non-impaired patients. Patients with HIV-associated dementia showed significantly greater blood plasma/CSF env compartmentalization relative to other groups. Conclusion Increased CSF compartmentalization of the HIV-1 env gene, which may reflect independent HIV-1 replication and evolution within the central nervous system, is specifically associated with HIV-associated dementia and not the less severe forms of HIV-1 neurologic disease.

Harrington, Patrick R.; Schnell, Gretja; Letendre, Scott L.; Ritola, Kimberly; Robertson, Kevin; Hall, Colin; Burch, Christina L.; Jabara, Cassandra B.; Moore, Dominic T.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Price, Richard W.; Swanstrom, Ronald

2011-01-01

130

HIV1 acute infection env glycomutants designed from 3D model: effects on processing, antigenicity, and neutralization sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope protein (Env) has evolved to limit its overall immunogenicity by extensive glycosylation. Only a few studies dealing with glycosylation sites have taken into account available 3D data in a global approach. We compared primary env sequences from patients with acute HIV-1 infection. Conserved N-glycosylation sites were placed on the gp120-3D model. Based

Frédéric Reynard; Ahmed Fatmi; Bernard Verrier; Frédéric Bedin

2004-01-01

131

Construction and characterization of the recombinant Moloney murine leukemia viruses bearing the mouse Fv-4 env gene.  

PubMed Central

A nucleotide sequence of the mouse Fv-4 env gene was completed. Structural comparison revealed a close relationship of Fv-4 to the ecotropic Cas-Br-E murine leukemia virus isolated from a wild mouse in southern California. Various portions of the env gene of Moloney murine leukemia virus were replaced by the corresponding Fv-4 env sequence to construct recombinant murine leukemia virus clones. Infectivity of these recombinants was checked by the S+L- cell focus induction assay and the XC cell syncytium formation assay. Recombinants bearing the following Fv-4 env sequence retained ecotropic infectivity; the AccI-BamHI and BamHI-BalI regions coding for the N- and C-terminal halves of Fv-4 gp70SU, respectively; and the BalI-NcoI region encoding the cleavage site between gp70SU and p15(E)TM of the Fv-4 env. However, when the Fv-4 sequence was substituted for the p15(E)TM-coding NcoI-EcoRV region or the AccI-EcoRV region covering almost the entire env gene, infectivity was undetectable in our assays. The recombinant clone containing the Fv-4 AccI-EcoRV region, i.e., almost the entire Fv-4 env sequence, was introduced with pSV2neo into NIH 3T3 cells, and a G418r cell line named NIH(Fv4)-2 was isolated. The NIH(Fv4)-2 cell released viral particles that contained reverse transcriptase, Fv-4 env molecules as well as the other viral proteins, and viral genomic RNA. However, proviral DNA synthesis was not detected upon inoculation of this virus in NIH 3T3 cells. The loss of infectivity of the recombinant virus bearing the Fv-4 AccI-EcoRV region appeared to be caused by failure in an early step of replication. Images

Masuda, M; Yoshikura, H

1990-01-01

132

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Env7 Is a Novel Serine/Threonine Kinase 16-Related Protein Kinase and Negatively Regulates Organelle Fusion at the Lysosomal Vacuole  

PubMed Central

Membrane fusion depends on conserved components and is responsible for organelle biogenesis and vesicular trafficking. Yeast vacuoles are dynamic structures analogous to mammalian lysosomes. We report here that yeast Env7 is a novel palmitoylated protein kinase ortholog that negatively regulates vacuolar membrane fusion. Microscopic and biochemical studies confirmed the localization of tagged Env7 at the vacuolar membrane and implicated membrane association via the palmitoylation of its N-terminal Cys13 to -15. In vitro kinase assays established Env7 as a protein kinase. Site-directed mutagenesis of the Env7 alanine-proline-glutamic acid (APE) motif Glu269 to alanine results in an unstable kinase-dead allele that is stabilized and redistributed to the detergent-resistant fraction by interruption of the proteasome system in vivo. Palmitoylation-deficient Env7C13-15S is also kinase dead and mislocalizes to the cytoplasm. Microscopy studies established that env7? is defective in maintaining fragmented vacuoles during hyperosmotic response and in buds. ENV7 function is not redundant with a similar role of vacuolar membrane kinase Yck3, as the two do not share a substrate, and ENV7 is not a suppressor of yck3?. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses strongly support ENV7 as an ortholog of the gene encoding human STK16, a Golgi apparatus protein kinase with undefined function. We propose that Env7 function in fusion/fission dynamics may be conserved within the endomembrane system.

Manandhar, Surya P.; Ricarte, Florante; Cocca, Stephanie M.

2013-01-01

133

HIV-1 Nef Responsiveness is Determined by Env Variable Regions Involved in Trimer Association and Correlates with Neutralization Sensitivity  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY HIV-1 Nef and the unrelated MLV glycoGag similarly enhance the infectivity of HIV-1 virions. We now show that the effects of Nef and glycoGag are similarly determined by variable regions of HIV-1 gp120 that control Env trimer association and neutralization sensitivity. Whereas neutralization-sensitive X4-tropic Env proteins conferred high responsiveness to Nef and glycoGag, particles bearing neutralization-resistant R5-tropic Envs were considerably less affected. The profoundly different Nef/glycoGag-responsiveness of a neutralization-resistant and a neutralization-sensitive R5-tropic Env could be switched by exchanging their gp120 V1/V2 regions, which also switches their neutralization sensitivity. Within V1/V2, the same determinants governed Nef/glycoGag-responsiveness and neutralization sensitivity, indicating that these phenotypes are mechanistically linked. The V1/V2 and V3 regions, which form an apical trimer-association domain, together determined the Nef- and glycoGag-responsiveness of an X4-tropic Env. Our results suggest that Nef and glycoGag counteract the inactivation of Env spikes with relatively unstable apical trimer-association domains.

Usami, Yoshiko; Gottlinger, Heinrich

2013-01-01

134

T-Lymphocyte Priming and Protection against Friend Leukemia by Vaccinia-Retrovirus env Gene Recombinant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current prevalence of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome in humans has provoked renewed interest in methods of protective immunization against retrovirus-induced diseases. In this study, a vaccinia-retrovirus recombinant vector was constructed to study mechanisms of immune protection against Friend virus leukemia in mice. The envelope (env) gene from Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV) was inserted into the genome of

Patricia L. Earl; Bernard Moss; Richard P. Morrison; Kathy Wehrly; Jane Nishio; Bruce Chesebro

1986-01-01

135

env Gene Typing of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Strains on Electronic Microarrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NanoChip system was used for subtyping human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains using probes complementary to the V1 region of the env gene. Probes for six subtypes (A to D, F, and G) and two circulating recombinant forms (AG and AE) of HIV-1 group M were included. The specificity of these oligonucleotides had been evaluated previously in a

N. A. Saunders; S. Alexander; I. Tatt

2005-01-01

136

HIV1 Cell to Cell Transfer across an Env-induced, Actin-dependent Synapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct cell-cell transfer is an efficient mechanism of viral dissemination within an infected host, and human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) can exploit this mode of spread. Receptor rec- ognition by HIV-1 occurs via interactions between the viral surface envelope glycoprotein (Env), gp120, and CD4 and a chemokine receptor, CCR5 or CXCR4. Here, we demonstrate that the binding of CXCR4-using HIV-1-infected

Clare Jolly; Kirk Kashefi; Michael Hollinshead; Quentin J. Sattentau

2004-01-01

137

Characterization of the antibody response elicited by HIV1 Env glycomutants in rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV-1 N-glycans are known to shield underlying epitopes towards the protective antibody repertoire. We previously described HIV-1 acute infection Env glycomutants designed from 3D-model in which the removal of clustered N-glycans did not disturb the envelope antigenicity, but increased the neutralization sensitivity. The potential of such immunogens to elicit neutralizing responses was estimated after rabbit immunizations with a DNA\\/protein protocol.

F. Reynard; N. Willkomm; A. Fatmi; A. Vallon-Eberhard; B. Verrier; F. Bedin

2007-01-01

138

Aerobic Biodegradation of N-Nitrosodimethylamine by the Propanotroph Rhodococcus ruber ENV425?  

PubMed Central

The propanotroph Rhodococcus ruber ENV425 was observed to rapidly biodegrade N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) after growth on propane, tryptic soy broth, or glucose. The key degradation intermediates were methylamine, nitric oxide, nitrite, nitrate, and formate. Small quantities of formaldehyde and dimethylamine were also detected. A denitrosation reaction, initiated by hydrogen atom abstraction from one of the two methyl groups, is hypothesized to result in the formation of n-methylformaldimine and nitric oxide, the former of which decomposes in water to methylamine and formaldehyde and the latter of which is then oxidized further to nitrite and then nitrate. Although the strain mineralized more than 60% of the carbon in [14C]NDMA to 14CO2, growth of strain ENV425 on NDMA as a sole carbon and energy source could not be confirmed. The bacterium was capable of utilizing NDMA, as well as the degradation intermediates methylamine and nitrate, as sources of nitrogen during growth on propane. In addition, ENV425 reduced environmentally relevant microgram/liter concentrations of NDMA to <2 ng/liter in batch cultures, suggesting that the bacterium may have applications for groundwater remediation.

Fournier, Diane; Hawari, Jalal; Halasz, Annamaria; Streger, Sheryl H.; McClay, Kevin R.; Masuda, Hisako; Hatzinger, Paul B.

2009-01-01

139

Aerobic biodegradation of N-nitrosodimethylamine by the propanotroph Rhodococcus ruber ENV425.  

PubMed

The propanotroph Rhodococcus ruber ENV425 was observed to rapidly biodegrade N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) after growth on propane, tryptic soy broth, or glucose. The key degradation intermediates were methylamine, nitric oxide, nitrite, nitrate, and formate. Small quantities of formaldehyde and dimethylamine were also detected. A denitrosation reaction, initiated by hydrogen atom abstraction from one of the two methyl groups, is hypothesized to result in the formation of n-methylformaldimine and nitric oxide, the former of which decomposes in water to methylamine and formaldehyde and the latter of which is then oxidized further to nitrite and then nitrate. Although the strain mineralized more than 60% of the carbon in [(14)C]NDMA to (14)CO(2), growth of strain ENV425 on NDMA as a sole carbon and energy source could not be confirmed. The bacterium was capable of utilizing NDMA, as well as the degradation intermediates methylamine and nitrate, as sources of nitrogen during growth on propane. In addition, ENV425 reduced environmentally relevant microgram/liter concentrations of NDMA to <2 ng/liter in batch cultures, suggesting that the bacterium may have applications for groundwater remediation. PMID:19542346

Fournier, Diane; Hawari, Jalal; Halasz, Annamaria; Streger, Sheryl H; McClay, Kevin R; Masuda, Hisako; Hatzinger, Paul B

2009-08-01

140

Phospholipid composition and phenotypic correction of an envC division mutant of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

The cytoplasmic and outer membranes of a nonconditional chain-forming mutant, Escherichia coli PM61 envC, were separated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The phosphatidylglycerol/cardiolipin ratio in both membrane fractions was about one-third as high as in the parental strain P678. The increased level of cardiolipin in PM61 membranes is the result of an alteration of the polyglycerophosphatide cycle. It was found that the turnover rate of phosphatidylglycerol is more rapid in PM61 than in the parental strain but that its cardiolipin turnover is not significantly different. The envC mutation can be corrected phenotypically by increasing the osmolarity of the medium. In the presence of 0.6 M sucrose, the population of PM61 is composed of short rods, and the phosphatidylglycerol/cardiolipin ratio is shifted to that of the parent. The phosphatidylglycerol turns over more slowly, whereas the cardiolipin turns over more rapidly in both strains. Thus, the increase of external osmolarity acts on phospholipid metabolism as well as on an unknown step involved in the mechanism of cell division of the envC mutant.

Michel, G; Di Savino, D; Starka, J

1977-01-01

141

Genetic structure of the pol-env region of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus genome.  

PubMed

The nucleotide sequence of the pol-env intergenic region of two isolates of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) was determined. Two open reading frames (orfs) were identified, designated Q and S by homology with visna virus. CAEV orf S is a single exon encoding a deduced 87-amino acid gene product sharing 36 amino acid identities with the visna trans-acting transcriptional activator (Tat). Ten of these identities comprise a conserved CGCRLCNPGW sequence similar to a cysteine-rich domain essential for trans-activation by human immunodeficiency virus Tat. To determine if transcription promoted by the CAEV long terminal repeat (LTR) could be stimulated in CAEV-infected goat synovial membrane cells, a plasmid (pCAE-CAT) expressing bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) under control of the CAEV LTR was transfected into uninfected and infected cells. Sixfold enhancement of CAT activity was observed in infected cells using 100 ng of transfected plasmid. To determine if the pol-env region encodes a gene product which trans-activates the CAEV LTR, goat synovial membrane cells were cotransfected with pCAE-CAT and pRSV-1.9, a plasmid expressing the pol-env region under control of the Rous sarcoma virus LTR. Results indicated that the CAEV genome encodes a tat gene product attributable to orf S. PMID:1845832

Jackson, M K; Knowles, D P; Stem, T A; Harwood, W G; Robinson, M M; Cheevers, W P

1991-01-01

142

Lentivirus-like particles without reverse transcriptase elicit efficient immune responses.  

PubMed

Following infection by HIV or SIV, reverse transcriptase (RT) directs the conversion of the single-stranded RNA genome into a double-stranded DNA molecule that integrates into the host cell genome. RT encodes for several immunogenic epitopes that are desirable for inclusion in a human vaccine for HIV infection, however, issues of safety have dampened enthusiasm for inclusion of an enzymatically-active RT molecule into an AIDS vaccine. In this study, virally-regulated, replication-incompetent lentiviral particles were expressed from DNA plasmids. The sequences for integrase, Vpr, Vif, Nef, and the long terminal repeats (LTRs) were deleted and mutations were engineered into capsid to decreases RNA packaging. Virus-like particles incorporated no RT (HIV-VLP DeltaRT or SHIV-VLP DeltaRT) or contained a full-length enzymatically-inactivated RT molecule (HIV-VLP or SHIV-VLP). Each secreted VLP was enveloped with a lipid bilayer derived from primate cells with embedded, native viral envelopes in similar concentrations as infectious virions. BALB/c mice were vaccinated (weeks 0, 3, and 6) with purified VLPs via intranasal inoculation in the presence of cytosine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs). All VLPs, with or without RT, elicited both robust humoral and cellular immune responses to Gag, Pol, and Env antigens. Therefore, the lack of RT enhances the safety of these VLPs for use in future human clinical trials without a significant reduction in the overall immunogenicity of these VLP immunogens. PMID:17073623

McBurney, Sean P; Young, Kelly R; Nwaigwe, Casmiar I; Soloff, Adam C; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Ross, Ted M

2006-10-01

143

Rapid degradation of CD4 in cells expressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Env and Vpu is blocked by proteasome inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 en- codes three genes, Vpu, Env and Nef, that decrease cellular CD4. Vpu and Env act cooperatively to accelerate degradation of CD4 in the endoplasmic reticulum. Here we report that Vpu\\/Env-induced CD4 degradation is inhibited by lactacystin, a specific inhibitor of the proteasome, and by other proteasome inhibitors, but not by non-proteasome protease inhibitors.

Kazunobu Fujita; Satoshi Omura; Jonathan Silver

144

Macrophage entry mediated by HIV Envs from brain and lymphoid tissues is determined by the capacity to use low CD4 levels and overall efficiency of fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV infects macrophages and microglia in the central nervous system (CNS), which express lower levels of CD4 than CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood. To investigate mechanisms of HIV neurotropism, full-length env genes were cloned from autopsy brain and lymphoid tissues from 4 AIDS patients with HIV-associated dementia (HAD). Characterization of 55 functional Env clones demonstrated that Envs with reduced

Elaine R. Thomas; Rebecca L. Dunfee; Jennifer Stanton; Derek Bogdan; Joann Taylor; Kevin Kunstman; Jeanne E. Bell; Steven M. Wolinsky; Dana. Gabuzda

2007-01-01

145

GPG-NH2 acts via the metabolite ?HGA to target HIV1 Env to the ER-associated protein degradation pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The synthetic peptide glycyl-prolyl-glycine amide (GPG-NH2) was previously shown to abolish the ability of HIV-1 particles to fuse with the target cells, by reducing the content of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) in progeny HIV-1 particles. The loss of Env was found to result from GPG-NH2 targeting the Env precursor protein gp160 to the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD)

Alenka Jejcic; Stefan Höglund; Anders Vahlne

2010-01-01

146

Both Linear and Discontinuous Ribosome Scanning Are Used for Translation Initiation from Bicistronic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 env mRNAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) generates 16 alternatively spliced isoforms of env mRNA that contain the same overlapping open reading frames for Vpu and Env proteins but differ in their 5 untranslated regions (UTR). A subset of env mRNAs carry the extra upstream Rev initiation codon in the 5 UTR. We explored the effect of the alternative UTR on

Jenny L. Anderson; Adam T. Johnson; Jane L. Howard; Damian F. J. Purcell

2007-01-01

147

Quantitative RT-PCR Detection of Hepatitis A Virus, Rotaviruses and Enteroviruses in the Buffalo River and Source Water Dams in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa  

PubMed Central

Human enteric viruses (HEntVs) are a major cause of water-related diseases. The prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV), rotaviruses (RoV) and enteroviruses (EnV) in Buffalo River waters was assessed quantitatively over a period of 12 months (August 2010 to July 2011). Seventy-two samples were collected from six sites, including three dams, and concentrated using the adsorption-elution method. Viral RNA was extracted using a commercial kit, and the viruses were quantified by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR). Two or more viruses were detected in 12.5% of the samples. HAV was detected in 43.1% of the samples and in significantly (p < 0.05) varying concentrations of 1.5 × 101–1.9 × 105 genome copies/L compared to RoV and EnV, while RoVs were detected in 13.9% of samples, with concentrations ranging from 2.5 × 101–2.1 × 103 genome copies/L, and EnV were detected in 9.7% of the samples, with concentrations ranging from 1.3 × 101–8.6 × 101 genome copies/L. Only HAV was detected at all the sites, with the Bridle Drift Dam recording significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations. The presence of enteric viruses in Buffalo River may constitute public health risks and the incidence of HAV at all the sites could reflect both the epidemiological status of hepatitis A and HAV persistence in the water environments.

Chigor, Vincent Nnamdigadi; Okoh, Anthony Ifeanyi

2012-01-01

148

Intelligence and RT: A Modified Hick Paradigm and a New RT Paradigm.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between speed of information processing (SIP) and psychometric intelligence was investigated by giving 60 college students (22 males and 38 females) 2 choice reaction time (RT) tests (modified Hick paradigm) and Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices. Results support an association between intelligence and SIP. (SLD)

Neubauer, Aljoscha C.

1991-01-01

149

RtI for Nurturing Giftedness: Implications for the RtI School-Based Team  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because implementation of Response to Intervention (RtI) in the framework of special education's identification process still is relatively new, many districts are only now determining the implications at the school or system level. The concept of also identifying students who show promise in a nurturing framework, as opposed to a preventative…

Hughes, Claire E.; Rollins, Karen

2009-01-01

150

Misfolding of CasBrE SU is reversed by interactions with 4070A Env: implications for gammaretroviral neuropathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background CasBrE is a neurovirulent murine leukemia virus (MLV) capable of inducing paralytic disease with associated spongiform neurodegeneration. The neurovirulence of this virus has been genetically mapped to the surface expressed subunit (SU) of the env gene. However, CasBrE SU synthesized in the absence of the transmembrane subunit (TM) does not retain ecotropic receptor binding activity, indicating that folding of the receptor binding domain (RBD) requires this domain. Using a neural stem cell (NSC) based viral trans complementation approach to examine whether misfolded CasBrE SU retained neurovirulence, we observed CasBrE SU interaction with the "non-neurovirulent" amphotropic helper virus, 4070A which restored functional activity of CasBrE SU. Results Herein, we show that infection of NSCs expressing CasBrE SU with 4070A (CasES+4070A-NSCs) resulted in the redistribution of CasBrE SU from a strictly secreted product to include retention on the plasma membrane. Cell surface cross-linking analysis suggested that CasBrE SU membrane localization was due to interactions with 4070A Env. Viral particles produced from CasES+4070A-NSCS contained both CasBrE and 4070A gp70 Env proteins. These particles displayed ecotropic receptor-mediated infection, but were still 100-fold less efficient than CasE+4070A-NSC virus. Infectious center analysis showed CasBrE SU ecotropic transduction efficiencies approaching those of NSCs expressing full length CasBrE Env (CasE; SU+TM). In addition, CasBrE SU-4070A Env interactions resulted in robust ecotropic superinfection interference indicating near native intracellular SU interaction with its receptor, mCAT-1. Conclusions In this report we provided evidence that 4070A Env and CasBrE SU physically interact within NSCs leading to CasBrE SU retention on the plasma membrane, incorporation into viral particles, restoration of mCAT-1 binding, and capacity for initiation of TM-mediated fusion events. Thus, heterotropic Env-SU interactions facilitates CasBrE SU folding events that restore Env activity. These findings are consistent with the idea that one protein conformation acts as a folding scaffold or nucleus for a second protein of similar primary structure, a process reminiscent of prion formation. The implication is that template-based protein folding may represent an inherent feature of neuropathogenic proteins that extends to retroviral Envs.

2010-01-01

151

Function of conserved histidine-243 in phosphatase activity of EnvZ, the sensor for porin osmoregulation in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

EnvZ and OmpR are the sensor and response regulator proteins of a two-component system that controls the porin regulon of Escherichia coli in response to osmolarity. Three enzymatic activities are associated with EnvZ: autokinase, OmpR kinase, and OmpR-phosphate (OmpR-P) phosphatase. Conserved histidine-243 is critical for both autokinase and OmpR kinase activities. To investigate its involvement in OmpR-P phosphatase activity, histidine-243 was mutated to several other amino acids and the phosphatase activity of mutated EnvZ was measured both in vivo and in vitro. In agreement with previous reports, we found that certain substitutions abolished the phosphatase activity of EnvZ. However, a significant level of phosphatase activity remained when histidine-243 was replaced with certain amino acids, such as tyrosine. In addition, the phosphatase activity of a previously identified kinase- phosphatase+ mutant was not abolished by the replacement of histidine-243 with asparagine. These data indicated that although conserved histidine-243 is important for the phosphatase activity, a histidine-243-P intermediate is not required. Our data are consistent with a previous model that proposes a common transition state with histidine-243 (EnvZ) in close contact with aspartate-55 (OmpR) for both OmpR phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Phosphotransfer occurs from histidine-243-P to aspartate-55 during phosphorylation, but water replaces the phosphorylated histidine side chain leading to hydrolysis during dephosphorylation.

Hsing, W; Silhavy, T J

1997-01-01

152

An unusual HIV type 1 env sequence embedded in a mosaic virus from Cameroon: identification of a new env clade. European Network on the study of in utero transmission of HIV-1.  

PubMed

An atypical HIV-1 strain (CAM001) was identified in a pregnant Cameroonian woman in 1995. HMA subtyping of the env region was unsuccessful, and sequence analyses were performed. Unique sequence motifs were found at the V3 tip (GAGRALHA and GAGRAWIHA), and phylogenetic studies showed that the env C2-V5 sequence branched within group M but remained distinct from all known HIV-1 subtypes, while p17 gag branched with the subtype F sequences. Four other HIV group M viruses, undetermined by HMA, of African origin were found to cluster with CAM001 in the C2-V5 sequences. With the BLAST method, we found in databases three strains whose V3 sequences also clustered with CAM001. These unusual env sequences from eight HIV-1 strains derived from Cameroon formed a separate cluster in HIV-1 group M, which we designated k. PMID:10580410

Roques, P; Menu, E; Narwa, R; Scarlatti, G; Tresoldi, E; Damond, F; Mauclère, P; Dormont, D; Chaouat, G; Simon, F; Barré-Sinoussi, F

1999-11-20

153

Involvement of EnvZ-OmpR two-component system in virulence control of Escherichia coli in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Bacteria adapt to environmental changes by altering gene expression patterns with the aid of signal transduction machinery called the two-component regulatory system (TCS), which consists of two protein components, a sensor kinase and response regulator. We examined the role of the TCS in bacterial adaptation to host environments using genetically tractable organisms, Escherichia coli as a pathogen and Drosophila melanogaster as a host. To determine the strength of the transcription promoters of TCS-encoding genes in Drosophila, adult flies were infected with a series of E. coli strains that expressed GFP driven by the promoters of genes coding for 27 sensor kinases and 32 response regulators of E. coli TCS followed by the measurement of fluorescence intensities. We further analyzed EnvZ-OmpR among the TCS encoded by genes having stronger promoters. A mutant E. coli strain lacking EnvZ-OmpR had a higher pathogenic effect on fly survival than that of the parental strain, and the forced expression of envZ and ompR in the mutant strain lowered its pathogenicity. The lack of EnvZ-OmpR did not affect the growth of E. coli in a culture medium as well as the level of colony-formable E. coli in flies. An increase in E. coli virulence with the loss of EnvZ-OmpR was observed in flies defective in an Imd-mediated humoral response, and both the mutant and parental strains were equally engulfed by hemocytes in vitro. These results suggest that EnvZ-OmpR mitigated the virulence of E. coli in Drosophila by a mechanism not accompanied by a change of bacterial burden. This behavior of E. coli is most likely a bacterial strategy to achieve persistent infection. PMID:23886953

Pukklay, Pattraporn; Nakanishi, Yoshinobu; Nitta, Mao; Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Ishihama, Akira; Shiratsuchi, Akiko

2013-08-23

154

Enhanced cell surface expression, immunogenicity and genetic stability resulting from a spontaneous truncation of HIV Env expressed by a recombinant MVA  

Microsoft Academic Search

During propagation of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) encoding HIV 89.6 Env, a few viral foci stained very prominently. Virus cloned from such foci replicated to higher titers than the parent and displayed enhanced genetic stability on passage. Sequence analysis showed a single nucleotide deletion in the 89.6 env gene of the mutant that caused a frame shift and truncation

Linda S. Wyatt; Igor M. Belyakov; Patricia L. Earl; Jay A. Berzofsky; Bernard Moss

2008-01-01

155

Inhibition of infectious murine leukemia virus production by Fv4 env gene products exerting dominant negative effect on viral envelope glycoprotein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fv-4 is a mouse gene that confers resistance against ecotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) infection on mice. While receptor interference by the Fv-4 env gene product, Fv-4 Env, that can bind to the ecotropic MLV receptor has been shown to play an important role in the resistance, other mechanisms have also been suggested because it confers extremely efficient, complete resistance

Akiko Takeda; Tetsuro Matano

2007-01-01

156

Differentiation of subtypes B and E of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by polymerase chain reaction using novel env gene primers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel sets of env gene PCR primers for distinguishing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes B and E were designed. These primers anneal to different regions of the env gene and amplify DNA fragments of distinct sizes in a subtype-specific manner. Blood samples from 11 HIV-1 carriers in Thailand and 46 carriers in Japan were examined by PCR. The

Fumihiro Yagyu; Yusei Ikeda; Koya Ariyoshi; Wataru Sugiura; Som-Arch Wongkhomthong; Michiaki Masuda; Hiroshi Ushijima

2002-01-01

157

Regulation of Virus Release by the Macrophage-Tropic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 AD8 Isolate Is Redundant and Can Be Controlled by either Vpu or Env  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpu and Env proteins are expressed from a bicistronic mRNA. To address the biological significance of the coordinated expression of vpu and env, we compared the relative effects on particle release of HIV-1 isolates containing an intact vpu gene or carrying point mutations in its initiation codon or internal deletions, respectively. We found

ULRICH SCHUBERT; STEPHAN BOUR; RONALD L. WILLEY; KLAUS STREBEL

1999-01-01

158

Dense display of HIV-1 envelope spikes on the lambda phage scaffold does not result in the generation of improved antibody responses to HIV-1 Env  

PubMed Central

The generation of strong, virus-neutralizing antibody responses to the HIV-1 envelope spike (Env) is a major goal in HIV-1 vaccine research. To try to enhance the Env-specific response, we displayed oligomeric gp140 on a virus-like scaffold provided by the lambda phage capsid. To do this, an in vitro complementation system was used to “decorate” phage particles with glycosylated, mammalian cell-derived envelope oligomers. We compared the immune response to lambda phage particles displaying HIV-1 Env to that elicited by soluble oligomeric gp140 in rabbits. Env-binding antibody titers were higher in animals that received oligomeric gp140 as compared to Env decorated phage particles, as were virus neutralizing antibody responses. The Env decorated phage particles were, however, able to efficiently boost a protein-primed humoral response to levels equivalent to those elicited by high-dose adjuvanted Env oligomers. These results show that display of HIV-1 envelope spikes on the bacteriophage lambda capsid does not result in an improved, Env-specific humoral immune response.

Mattiacio, Jonelle; Walter, Scott; Brewer, Matt; Domm, William; Friedman, Alan E.; Dewhurst, Stephen

2011-01-01

159

Protein EnvM is the NADH-dependent enoyl-ACP reductase (FabI) of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The EnvM protein was purified from an overproducing Escherichia coli strain. It showed NADH-dependent enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase activity using both crotonyl-ACP and crotonyl-CoA as substrates. The protein bound a radioactive diazaborine derivative in the presence of NAD+ and radioactive NAD+ in the presence of the drug. Based on these data, it is concluded that EnvM is the NADH-dependent enoyl-ACP reductase (EC 1.3.1.9) of E. coli and we propose to rename the corresponding gene fabI. PMID:8119879

Bergler, H; Wallner, P; Ebeling, A; Leitinger, B; Fuchsbichler, S; Aschauer, H; Kollenz, G; Högenauer, G; Turnowsky, F

1994-02-25

160

Neurological disease induced in transgenic mice expressing the env gene of the Cas-Br-E murine retrovirus.  

PubMed Central

The Cas-Br-E murine leukemia virus induces a spongiform myeloencephalopathy in susceptible mice. We constructed transgenic mice harboring either the viral genome (in a replication-defective form) or only its env gene. Low levels of expression of either transgene resulted in mild neuropathology and/or signs of neurological disease in more than half of these mice. These results indicate that the disease can occur in the absence of virus replication and strongly suggest that the env gp70/p15E complex is sufficient to induce disease. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6

Kay, D G; Gravel, C; Pothier, F; Laperriere, A; Robitaille, Y; Jolicoeur, P

1993-01-01

161

Antigenic and 3D structural characterization of soluble X4 and hybrid X4-R5 HIV-1 Env trimers  

PubMed Central

Background HIV-1 is decorated with trimeric glycoprotein spikes that enable infection by engaging CD4 and a chemokine coreceptor, either CCR5 or CXCR4. The variable loop 3 (V3) of the HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) is the main determinant for coreceptor usage. The predominant CCR5 using (R5) HIV-1 Env has been intensively studied in function and structure, whereas the trimeric architecture of the less frequent, but more cytopathic CXCR4 using (X4) HIV-1 Env is largely unknown, as are the consequences of sequence changes in and near V3 on antigenicity and trimeric Env structure. Results Soluble trimeric gp140 Env constructs were used as immunogenic mimics of the native spikes to analyze their antigenic properties in the context of their overall 3D structure. We generated soluble, uncleaved, gp140 trimers from a prototypic T-cell line-adapted (TCLA) X4 HIV-1 strain (NL4-3) and a hybrid (NL4-3/ADA), in which the V3 spanning region was substituted with that from the primary R5 isolate ADA. Compared to an ADA (R5) gp140, the NL4-3 (X4) construct revealed an overall higher antibody accessibility, which was most pronounced for the CD4 binding site (CD4bs), but also observed for mAbs against CD4 induced (CD4i) epitopes and gp41 mAbs. V3 mAbs showed significant binding differences to the three constructs, which were refined by SPR analysis. Of interest, the NL4-3/ADA construct with the hybrid NL4-3/ADA CD4bs showed impaired CD4 and CD4bs mAb reactivity despite the presence of the essential elements of the CD4bs epitope. We obtained 3D reconstructions of the NL4-3 and the NL4-3/ADA gp140 trimers via electron microscopy and single particle analysis, which indicates that both constructs inherit a propeller-like architecture. The first 3D reconstruction of an Env construct from an X4 TCLA HIV-1 strain reveals an open conformation, in contrast to recently published more closed structures from R5 Env. Exchanging the X4 V3 spanning region for that of R5 ADA did not alter the open Env architecture as deduced from its very similar 3D reconstruction. Conclusions 3D EM analysis showed an apparent open trimer configuration of X4 NL4-3 gp140 that is not modified by exchanging the V3 spanning region for R5 ADA.

2014-01-01

162

Structural insights into key sites of vulnerability on HIV-1 Env and Influenza HA  

PubMed Central

Summary Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) envelope protein (Env) and influenza hemagglutinin (HA) are the surface glycoproteins responsible for viral entry into host cells, the first step in the virus life cycle necessary to initiate infection. These glycoproteins exhibit a high degree of sequence variability and glycosylation, which are used as strategies to escape host immune responses. Nonetheless, antibodies with broadly neutralizing activity against these viruses have been isolated that have managed to overcome these barriers. Here, we review recent advances in the structural characterization of these antibodies with their viral antigens that defines a few sites of vulnerability on these viral spikes. These broadly neutralizing antibodies tend to focus their recognition on the sites of similar function between the two viruses: the receptor binding site and membrane fusion machinery. However, some sites of recognition are unique to the virus neutralized, such as the dense shield of oligomannose carbohydrates on HIV-1 Env. These observations are discussed in the context of structure-based design strategies to aid in vaccine design or development of antivirals.

Julien, Jean-Philippe; Lee, Peter S.; Wilson, Ian A.

2012-01-01

163

A rev1–vpu polymorphism unique to HIV1 subtype A and C strains impairs envelope glycoprotein expression from rev–vpu–env cassettes and reduces virion infectivity in pseudotyping assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional studies of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Envs) commonly include the generation of pseudoviruses, which are produced by co-transfection of rev–vpu–env cassettes with an env-deficient provirus. Here, we describe six Env constructs from transmitted\\/founder HIV-1 that were defective in the pseudotyping assay, although two produced infectious virions when expressed from their cognate proviruses. All of these constructs exhibited an unusual gene

Matthias H. Kraus; Nicholas F. Parrish; Katharina S. Shaw; Julie M. Decker; Brandon F. Keele; Jesus F. Salazar-Gonzalez; Truman Grayson; David T. McPherson; Li-Hua Ping; Jeffrey A. Anderson; Ronald Swanstrom; Carolyn Williamson; George M. Shaw; Beatrice H. Hahn

2010-01-01

164

HIV1 reverse transcriptase mutations that confer decreased in vitro susceptibility to anti-RT DNA aptamer RT1t49 confer cross resistance to other anti-RT aptamers but not to standard RT inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA and DNA aptamers specific for HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) can inhibit reverse transcription in vitro. RNA aptamers have been shown to potently block HIV-1 replication in culture. We previously reported mutants of HIV-1 RT with substitutions N255D or N265D that display resistance to the DNA aptamer RT1t49. Variant viruses bearing these mutations singly or in combination were compromised for

Timothy S Fisher; Pheroze Joshi; Vinayaka R Prasad

2005-01-01

165

Silencing of endogenous envelope genes in human choriocarcinoma cells shows that envPb1 is involved in heterotypic cell fusions  

PubMed Central

Syncytin-1 and envPb1 are two conserved envelope genes in the human genome encoded by single loci from the HERV-W and -Pb families, respectively. To characterize the role of these envelope proteins in cell–cell fusion, we have developed lentiviral vectors that express short hairpin RNAs for stable knockdown of syncytin-1 and envPb1. Analysis of heterotypic fusion activity between trophoblast-derived choriocarcinoma BeWo cells, in which syncytin-1 and envPb1 are specifically silenced, and endothelial cells demonstrated that both syncytin-1 and envPb1 are important to fusion. The ability to fuse cells makes syncytin-1 and envPb1 attractive candidate molecules in therapy against cancer. Our available vectors may help eventually to decipher roles for these genes in human health and/or disease.

Bjerregaard, Bolette; Kjeldbjerg, Anders L.; Pedersen, Finn Skou; Larsson, Lars-Inge; Rossi, John J.

2012-01-01

166

Effect of point mutations in the N terminus of the lentivirus lytic peptide-1 sequence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmembrane protein gp41 on Env stability.  

PubMed

To understand the role of the lentivirus lytic peptide-1 region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein (gp) 41 in viral infection, we examined the effects on virus replication of single amino acid deletions spanning this region in an infectious provirus of the HXB2 strain. Among the mutants analyzed, only the deletion of one of the two adjacent valine residues located at positions 832 and 833 (termed the Delta 833 mutant for simplicity) greatly reduced the steady-state, cell-associated levels of the Env precursor and gp120, as opposed to the wild-type virus. The altered Env phenotype resulted in severely impaired virus infectivity and gp120 incorporation into this mutant virion. Analyses of additional mutants with deletions at Ile-830, Ala-836, and Ile-840 demonstrated that the Delta 830 mutant exhibited the most significant inhibitory effect on Env steady-state expression. These results indicate that the N terminus of the lentivirus lytic peptide-1 region is critical for Env steady-state expression. Among the mutant viruses encoding Env proteins in which residues Val-832 and Val-833 were individually substituted by nonconserved amino acids Ala, Ser, or Pro, which were expected to disrupt the alpha-helical structure in the increasingly severe manner of Pro > Ser > Ala, only the 833P mutant exhibited significantly reduced steady-state Env expression. Pulse labeling and pulse-chase studies demonstrated that the Delta 830, Delta 833, and 833P mutants of Env proteins degraded more rapidly in a time-dependent manner after biosynthesis than did the wild-type Env. The results indicate that residue 830 and 833 mutations are likely to induce a conformational change in Env that targets the mutant protein for cellular degradation. Our study has implications about the structural determinants located at the N terminus of the lentivirus lytic peptide-1 sequence of gp41 that affect the fate of Env in virus-infected cells. PMID:11859090

Lee, Sheau-Fen; Ko, Chiung-Yuan; Wang, Chin-Tien; Chen, Steve S-L

2002-05-01

167

Protection against SHIV-KB9 Infection by Combining rDNA and rFPV Vaccines Based on HIV Multiepitope and p24 Protein in Chinese Rhesus Macaques  

PubMed Central

Developing an effective vaccine against HIV infection remains an urgent goal. We used a DNA prime/fowlpox virus boost regimen to immunize Chinese rhesus macaques. The animals were challenged intramuscularly with pathogenic molecularly cloned SHIV-KB9. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of vaccines were investigated by measuring IFN-? levels, monitoring HIV-specific binding antibodies, examining viral load, and analyzing CD4/CD8 ratio. Results show that, upon challenge, the vaccine group can induce a strong immune response in the body, represented by increased expression of IFN-?, slow and steady elevated antibody production, reduced peak value of acute viral load, and increase in the average CD4/CD8 ratio. The current research suggests that rapid reaction speed, appropriate response strength, and long-lasting immune response time may be key protection factors for AIDS vaccine. The present study contributes significantly to AIDS vaccine and preclinical research.

Li, Chang; Shen, Zhenwei; Li, Xiao; Bai, Jieying; Zeng, Lin; Tian, Mingyao; Song, Ying Jin; Ye, Ming; Du, Shouwen; Ren, Dayong; Liu, Cunxia; Zhu, Na; Sun, Dandan; Li, Yi; Jin, Ningyi

2012-01-01

168

Comparative study of Tat vaccine regimens in Mauritian cynomolgus and Indian rhesus macaques: influence of Mauritian MHC haplotypes on susceptibility/resistance to SHIV89.6P infection  

PubMed Central

Protection afforded by HIV Tat-based vaccines has differed in Indian rhesus and Mauritian cynomolgus macaques. We evaluated native Tat and Ad-HIVtat priming/Tat-boosting regimens in both species. Both vaccines were immunogenic. Only the Ad-tat regimen modestly reduced acute viremia in rhesus macaques after SHIV89.6P challenge. Confounding variables uncovered in Mauritian macaques included significant associations of susceptibility to infection with MHC class IB and class II H2 and H5 haplotypes, and resistance to infection with class IB haplotypes H3 and H6. Although protection here was limited, Tat-based vaccines incorporating other HIV components have shown greater efficacy. Combination strategies should be further explored.

Florese, Ruth H.; Wiseman, Roger W.; Venzon, David; Karl, Julie A.; Demberg, Thorsten; Larsen, Kay; Flanary, Leon; Kalyanaraman, V.S.; Pal, Ranajit; Titti, Fausto; Patterson, L. Jean; Heath, Megan J.; O'Connor, David H.; Cafaro, Aurelio; Ensoli, Barbara

2008-01-01

169

Receptor-Triggered but Alkylation-Arrested Env of Murine Leukemia Virus Reveals the Transmembrane Subunit in a Prehairpin Conformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central feature of the prevailing model for retrovirus fusion is conversion of the transmembrane (TM) subunit from a prehairpin to a hairpin-like structure. The fusion inhibition of many retroviruses, except murine leukemia virus (MLV), with peptides corresponding to interacting regions in the hairpin supports the model. MLV fusion is controlled by isomerization of the intersubunit disulfide in Env. We

Michael Wallin; Maria Ekstrom; Henrik Garoff

2006-01-01

170

An Anti-HIV-1 V3 Loop Antibody Fully Protects Cross-Clade and Elicits T-Cell Immunity in Macaques Mucosally Challenged with an R5 Clade C SHIV  

PubMed Central

Neutralizing antibodies have been shown to protect macaques against SHIV challenge. However, genetically diverse HIV-1 clades have evolved, and a key question left unanswered is whether neutralizing antibodies can confer cross-clade protection in vivo. The novel human monoclonal antibody HGN194 was isolated from an individual infected with an HIV-1 clade AG recombinant circulating recombinant form (CRF). HGN194 targets an epitope in the third hypervariable loop (V3) of HIV-1 gp120 and neutralizes a range of relatively neutralization-sensitive and resistant viruses. We evaluated the potential of HGN194 to protect infant rhesus monkeys against a SHIV encoding a primary CCR5-tropic HIV-1 clade C envelope. After high-dose mucosal challenge, all untreated controls became highly viremic while all HGN194-treated animals (50 mg/kg) were completely protected. When HGN194 was given at 1 mg/kg, one out of two monkeys remained aviremic, whereas the other had delayed, lower peak viremia. Interestingly, all protected monkeys given high-dose HGN194 developed Gag-specific proliferative responses of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. To test whether generation of the latter involved cryptic infection, we ablated CD8+ cells after HGN194 clearance. No viremia was detected in any protected monkeys, thus ruling out virus reservoirs. Thus, induction of CD8 T-cell immunity may have resulted from transient “Hit and Run” infection or cross priming via Ag-Ab-mediated cross-presentation. Together, our data identified the HGN194 epitope as protective and provide proof-of-concept that this anti-V3 loop mAb can prevent infection with sterilizing immunity after challenge with virus of a different clade, implying that V3 is a potential vaccine target.

Lakhashe, Samir K.; Humbert, Michael; Sholukh, Anton; Hemashettar, Girish; Wong, Yin Ling; Yoon, John K.; Wang, Wendy; Novembre, Francis J.; Villinger, Francois; Ibegbu, Chris; Patel, Kalpana; Corti, Davide; Agatic, Gloria; Vanzetta, Fabrizia; Bianchi, Siro; Heeney, Jonathan L.; Sallusto, Federica; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Ruprecht, Ruth M.

2011-01-01

171

Unique N-Linked Glycosylation of CasBrE Env Influences Its Stability, Processing, and Viral Infectivity but Not Its Neurotoxicity  

PubMed Central

The envelope protein (Env) from the CasBrE murine leukemia virus (MLV) can cause acute spongiform neurodegeneration analogous to that induced by prions. Upon central nervous system (CNS) infection, Env is expressed as multiple isoforms owing to differential asparagine (N)-linked glycosylation. Because N-glycosylation can affect protein folding, stability, and quality control, we explored whether unique CasBrE Env glycosylation features could influence neurovirulence. CasBrE Env possesses 6/8 consensus MLV glycosylation sites (gs) but is missing gs3 and gs5 and contains a putative site (gs*). Twenty-nine mutants were generated by modifying these three sites, individually or in combination, to mimic the amino acid sequence in the nonneurovirulent Friend 57 MLV. Three basic viral phenotypes were observed: replication defective (dead; titer < 1 focus-forming unit [FFU]/ml), replication compromised (RC) (titer = 102 to 105 FFU/ml); and wild-type-like (WTL) (titer > 105 FFU/ml). Env protein was undetectable in dead mutants, while RC and WTL mutants showed variations in Env expression, processing, virus incorporation, virus entry, and virus spread. The newly introduced gs3 and gs5 sites were glycosylated, whereas gs* was not. Six WTL mutants tested in mice showed no clear attenuation in disease onset or severity versus controls. Furthermore, three RC viruses tested by neural stem cell (NSC)-mediated brainstem dissemination also induced acute spongiosis. Thus, while unique N-glycosylation affected structural features of Env involved in protein stability, proteolytic processing, and virus assembly and entry, these changes had minimal impact on CasBrE Env neurotoxicity. These findings suggest that the Env protein domains responsible for spongiogenesis represent highly stable elements upon which the more variable viral functional domains have evolved.

Renszel, Krystal M.; Traister, Russell S.

2013-01-01

172

Cytopathic Killing of Peripheral Blood CD4+ T Lymphocytes by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Appears Necrotic rather than Apoptotic and Does Not Require env  

PubMed Central

An important unresolved issue of AIDS pathogenesis is the mechanism of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-induced CD4+ T-lymphocyte destruction. We show here that HIV type 1 (HIV-1) exerts a profound cytopathic effect upon peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes that resembles necrosis rather than apoptosis. Necrotic cytopathology was found with both laboratory-adapted strains and primary isolates of HIV-1. We carefully investigated the role of env, which has been previously implicated in HIV cytopathicity. HIV-1 stocks with equivalent infectivity were prepared from constructs with either an intact or mutated env coding region and pseudotyped with the glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-G) so that the HIV envelope was not rate-limiting for infection. Infected Jurkat T cells died whether or not env was intact; however, the expression of env accelerated death significantly. The accelerated death was blocked by protease inhibitors, indicating that it was due to reinfection by newly produced virus in env+ cultures. Accordingly, we found no disparity in kinetics in CD4lo Jurkat cells. In highly infected peripheral blood T cells, profound necrosis occurred equivalently with both env+ and env? stocks of HIV-1. We also found that HIV-1 cytopathicity was undiminished by the absence of nef. However, viral stocks made by complementation or packaging of HIV-1 genomes with the natural protein-coding sequences replaced by the green fluorescent protein were highly infectious but not cytopathic. Thus, env can accelerate cell death chiefly as an entry function, but one or more viral functions other than env or nef is essential for necrosis of CD4+ T cells induced by HIV-1.

Lenardo, Michael J.; Angleman, Sara B.; Bounkeua, Viengngeun; Dimas, Joseph; Duvall, Melody G.; Graubard, Moses B.; Hornung, Felicita; Selkirk, Marianne C.; Speirs, Christina K.; Trageser, Carol; Orenstein, Jan O.; Bolton, Diane L.

2002-01-01

173

Distinct palmitoylation events at the amino-terminal conserved cysteines of Env7 direct its stability, localization, and vacuolar fusion regulation in S. cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Palmitoylation at cysteine residues is the only known reversible form of lipidation and has been implicated in protein membrane association as well as function. Many palmitoylated proteins have regulatory roles in dynamic cellular processes, including membrane fusion. Recently, we identified Env7 as a conserved and palmitoylated protein kinase involved in negative regulation of membrane fusion at the lysosomal vacuole. Env7 contains a palmitoylation consensus sequence, and substitution of its three consecutive cysteines (Cys(13)-Cys(15)) results in a non-palmitoylated and cytoplasmic Env7. In this study, we further dissect and define the role(s) of individual cysteines of the consensus sequence in various properties of Env7 in vivo. Our results indicate that more than one of the cysteines serve as palmitoylation substrates, and any pairwise combination is essential and sufficient for near wild type levels of Env7 palmitoylation, membrane localization, and phosphorylation. Furthermore, individually, each cysteine can serve as a minimum requirement for distinct aspects of Env7 behavior and function in cells. Cys(13) is sufficient for membrane association, Cys(15) is essential for the fusion regulatory function of membrane-bound Env7, and Cys(14) and Cys(15) are redundantly essential for protection of membrane-bound Env7 from proteasomal degradation. A role for Cys(14) and Cys(15) in correct sorting at the membrane is also discussed. Thus, palmitoylation at the N-terminal cysteines of Env7 directs not only its membrane association but also its stability, phosphorylation, and cellular function. PMID:24610781

Manandhar, Surya P; Calle, Erika N; Gharakhanian, Editte

2014-04-18

174

A rev1-vpu polymorphism unique to HIV-1 subtype A and C strains impairs envelope glycoprotein expression from rev-vpu-env cassettes and reduces virion infectivity in pseudotyping assays  

SciTech Connect

Functional studies of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Envs) commonly include the generation of pseudoviruses, which are produced by co-transfection of rev-vpu-env cassettes with an env-deficient provirus. Here, we describe six Env constructs from transmitted/founder HIV-1 that were defective in the pseudotyping assay, although two produced infectious virions when expressed from their cognate proviruses. All of these constructs exhibited an unusual gene arrangement in which the first exon of rev (rev1) and vpu were in the same reading frame without an intervening stop codon. Disruption of the rev1-vpu fusion gene by frameshift mutation, stop codon, or abrogation of the rev initiation codon restored pseudovirion infectivity. Introduction of the fusion gene into wildtype Env cassettes severely compromised their function. The defect was not due to altered env and rev transcription or a dominant negative effect of the expressed fusion protein, but seemed to be caused by inefficient translation at the env initiation codon. Although the rev1-vpu polymorphism affects Env expression only in vitro, it can cause problems in studies requiring Env complementation, such as analyses of co-receptor usage and neutralization properties, since 3% of subtype A, 20% of subtype C and 5% of CRF01{sub A}/E viruses encode the fusion gene. A solution is to eliminate the rev initiation codon when amplifying rev-vpu-env cassettes since this increases Env expression irrespective of the presence of the polymorphism.

Kraus, Matthias H.; Parrish, Nicholas F.; Shaw, Katharina S.; Decker, Julie M.; Keele, Brandon F.; Salazar-Gonzalez, Jesus F.; Grayson, Truman; McPherson, David T. [Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Ping, Li-Hua; Anderson, Jeffrey A.; Swanstrom, Ronald [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Williamson, Carolyn [Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town (South Africa); Shaw, George M. [Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Hahn, Beatrice H., E-mail: bhahn@uab.ed [Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

2010-02-20

175

Characterization of Circulating HIV Type 1 env Genes in Plasma of Two Antiretroviral-Naive Slow Progressing Patients with Broad Neutralizing Antibody Response with Evidence of Recombination  

PubMed Central

Abstract In the present study, we investigated genetic divergence between complete autologous HIV-1 env genes amplified directly from plasma of two antiretroviral-naive, slow progressing Indian patients with broad neutralizing antibody response. All the envelope (Env) clones obtained from one patient (LT1) belonged to subtype C; the second patient (LT5) harbored quasispecies comprised of pure B, C, and B/C recombinants with distinct breakpoints indicative of dual infection with genetically distinct strains. Further characterization of these Envs would provide insight into the biological properties under strong humoral immune response.

Mukhopadhyay, Sampurna; Ringe, Rajesh; Patil, Ajit; Paranjape, Ramesh

2012-01-01

176

Global panel of HIV-1 Env reference strains for standardized assessments of vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibodies.  

PubMed

Standardized assessments of HIV-1 vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibody responses are complicated by the genetic and antigenic variability of the viral envelope glycoproteins (Envs). To address these issues, suitable reference strains are needed that are representative of the global epidemic. Several panels have been recommended previously, but no clear answers have been available on how many and which strains are best suited for this purpose. We used a statistical model selection method to identify a global panel of reference Env clones from among 219 Env-pseudotyped viruses assayed in TZM-bl cells with sera from 205 HIV-1-infected individuals. The Envs and sera were sampled globally from diverse geographic locations and represented all major genetic subtypes and circulating recombinant forms of the virus. Assays with a panel size of only nine viruses adequately represented the spectrum of HIV-1 serum neutralizing activity seen with the larger panel of 219 viruses. An optimal panel of nine viruses was selected and augmented with three additional viruses for greater genetic and antigenic coverage. The spectrum of HIV-1 serum neutralizing activity seen with the final 12-virus panel closely approximated the activity seen with subtype-matched viruses. Moreover, the final panel was highly sensitive for detection of many of the known broadly neutralizing antibodies. For broader assay applications, all 12 Env clones were converted to infectious molecular clones using a proviral backbone carrying a Renilla luciferase reporter gene (Env.IMC.LucR viruses). This global panel should facilitate highly standardized assessments of vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibodies across multiple HIV-1 vaccine platforms in different parts of the world. Importance: An effective HIV-1 vaccine will need to overcome the extraordinary genetic variability of the virus, where most variation occurs in the viral envelope glycoproteins that are the sole targets for neutralizing antibodies. Efforts to elicit broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies that will protect against infection by most circulating strains of the virus are guided in part by in vitro assays that determine the ability of vaccine-elicited antibodies to neutralize genetically diverse HIV-1 variants. Until now, little information was available on how many and which strains of the virus are best suited for this purpose. We applied robust statistical methods to evaluate a large neutralization data set and identified a small panel of viruses that are a good representation of the global epidemic. The neutralization properties of this new panel of reference strains should facilitate the development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine. PMID:24352443

deCamp, Allan; Hraber, Peter; Bailer, Robert T; Seaman, Michael S; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Kappes, John; Gottardo, Raphael; Edlefsen, Paul; Self, Steve; Tang, Haili; Greene, Kelli; Gao, Hongmei; Daniell, Xiaoju; Sarzotti-Kelsoe, Marcella; Gorny, Miroslaw K; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; LaBranche, Celia C; Mascola, John R; Korber, Bette T; Montefiori, David C

2014-03-01

177

Value of Research - Telling the R&T Story.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) plays a leadership role in shaping and executing a National Research and Technology (R&T) program. The agency also acts as a convener; collaborations with State, industry, and academic partners provide the foundat...

2009-01-01

178

Measurement of RT amplitudes and wavelengths of laser driven plates  

SciTech Connect

A laser drive plate, that is a dense solid plate drive by a laser heated, lower density plasma, is inherently Raleigh-Taylor (R-T) unstable, We have previously indicated that observed surface perturbation on the plate are probably R-T instabilities, initiated by the mode structure of the driving laser beam. Using a semi- transparent impact target viewed with a polarized Epi-Illuminated Confocal Streak Microscope, has allowed us to measure the amplitude and growth of the instability.

Frank, A.M.; Gillespie, C.H.

1997-10-16

179

An uRT51 real-time processor evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time systems are used in control applications. However, real-time systems may introduce undesirable effects on the control application. Stability, overshoot and settling time are affected when an inadequate real-time system is used. The uRT51 is an embedded processor designed for real-time applications. In this paper we analyse the perturbations that the uRT51 produces on a control application using two of

Ricardo Cayssials; Edgardo Ferro

2009-01-01

180

Hyperthermic Fibrinolysis with rt-PA: In Vitro Results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the influence of hyperthermia up to 45 deg. C on fibrinolysis with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA). Methods: Standardized fibrin clots were incubated in a water bath for 5 hr with either rt-PA (test group) or 0.9% sodium chloride (control group) and blood plasma at temperatures of 30-45 deg. C. Concentrations of D-dimer and time to complete clot lysis were measured.Results: The activity of fibrinolysis with rt-PA rose with increasing temperature: time to lysis approximately halved from 30 deg. C to 40 deg. C and the concentration of D-dimer tripled. In the control group clot size did not change.Conclusions: Activity of rt-PA-induced fibrinolysis rises distinctly with higher temperatures. Since even healthy subjects show a physiologic decline in body temperature in the extremities, in patients with occlusive arterial disease decreased activity of fibrinolysis with rt-PA can be expected. Controlled hyperthermia may improve fibrinolysis with rt-PA and should be investigated in vivo.

Schwarzenberg, Helmut; Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan; Brossman, Joachim; Christian Glueer, Claus [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Strasse 9, D-24105 Kiel (Germany); Bruhn, Hans Dieter [Klinik fuer Allgemeine Innere Medizin, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Schittenhelmstrasse 12, D-24105 Kiel (Germany); Heller, Martin [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Strasse 9, D-24105 Kiel (Germany)

1998-03-15

181

Life+ EnvEurope DEIMS - improving access to long-term ecosystem monitoring data in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term ecological (LTER) studies aim at detecting environmental changes and analysing its related drivers. In this respect LTER Europe provides a network of about 450 sites and platforms. However, data on various types of ecosystems and at a broad geographical scale is still not easily available. Managing data resulting from long-term observations is therefore one of the important tasks not only for an LTER site itself but also on the network level. Exchanging and sharing the information within a wider community is a crucial objective in the upcoming years. Due to the fragmented nature of long-term ecological research and monitoring (LTER) in Europe - and also on the global scale - information management has to face several challenges: distributed data sources, heterogeneous data models, heterogeneous data management solutions and the complex domain of ecosystem monitoring with regard to the resulting data. The Life+ EnvEurope project (2010-2013) provides a case study for a workflow using data from the distributed network of LTER-Europe sites. In order to enhance discovery, evaluation and access to data, the EnvEurope Drupal Ecological Information Management System (DEIMS) has been developed. This is based on the first official release of the Drupal metadata editor developed by US LTER. EnvEurope DEIMS consists of three main components: 1) Metadata editor: a web-based client interface to manage metadata of three information resource types - datasets, persons and research sites. A metadata model describing datasets based on Ecological Metadata Language (EML) was developed within the initial phase of the project. A crosswalk to the INSPIRE metadata model was implemented to convey to the currently on-going European activities. Person and research site metadata models defined within the LTER Europe were adapted for the project needs. The three metadata models are interconnected within the system in order to provide easy way to navigate the user among the related resources. 2) Discovery client: provides several search profiles for datasets, persons, research sites and external resources commonly used in the domain, e.g. Catalogue of Life , based on several search patterns ranging from simple full text search, glossary browsing to categorized faceted search. 3) Geo-Viewer: a map client that portrays boundaries and centroids of the research sites as Web Map Service (WMS) layers. Each layer provides a link to both Metadata editor and Discovery client in order to create or discover metadata describing the data collected within the individual research site. Sharing of the dataset metadata with DEIMS is ensured in two ways: XML export of individual metadata records according to the EML schema for inclusion in the international DataOne network, and periodic harvesting of metadata into GeoNetwork catalogue, thus providing catalogue service for web (CSW), which can be invoked by remote clients. The final version of DEIMS will be a pilot implementation for the information system of LTER-Europe, which should establish a common information management framework within the European ecosystem research domain and provide valuable environmental information to other European information infrastructures as SEIS, Copernicus and INSPIRE.

Kliment, Tomas; Peterseil, Johannes; Oggioni, Alessandro; Pugnetti, Alessandra; Blankman, David

2013-04-01

182

HIV cell-to-cell transmission requires the production of infectious virus particles and does not proceed through env-mediated fusion pores.  

PubMed

Direct cell-to-cell transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a more potent and efficient means of virus propagation than infection by cell-free virus particles. The aim of this study was to determine whether cell-to-cell transmission requires the assembly of enveloped virus particles or whether nucleic acids with replication potential could translocate directly from donor to target cells through envelope glycoprotein (Env)-induced fusion pores. To this end, we characterized the transmission properties of viruses carrying mutations in the matrix protein (MA) that affect the incorporation of Env into virus particles but do not interfere with Env-mediated cell-cell fusion. By use of cell-free virus, the infectivity of MA mutant viruses was below the detection threshold both in single-cycle and in multiple-cycle assays. Truncation of the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of Env restored the incorporation of Env into MA mutant viruses and rescued their cell-free infectivity to different extents. In cell-to-cell transmission assays, MA mutations prevented HIV transmission from donor to target cells, despite efficient Env-dependent membrane fusion. HIV transmission was blocked at the level of virus core translocation into the cytosol of target cells. As in cell-free assays, rescue of Env incorporation by truncation of the Env CT restored the virus core translocation and cell-to-cell infectivity of MA mutant viruses. These data show that HIV cell-to-cell transmission requires the assembly of enveloped virus particles. The increased efficiency of this infection route may thus be attributed to the high local concentrations of virus particles at sites of cellular contacts rather than to a qualitatively different transmission process. PMID:22258237

Monel, Blandine; Beaumont, Elodie; Vendrame, Daniela; Schwartz, Olivier; Brand, Denys; Mammano, Fabrizio

2012-04-01

183

HIV Cell-to-Cell Transmission Requires the Production of Infectious Virus Particles and Does Not Proceed through Env-Mediated Fusion Pores  

PubMed Central

Direct cell-to-cell transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a more potent and efficient means of virus propagation than infection by cell-free virus particles. The aim of this study was to determine whether cell-to-cell transmission requires the assembly of enveloped virus particles or whether nucleic acids with replication potential could translocate directly from donor to target cells through envelope glycoprotein (Env)-induced fusion pores. To this end, we characterized the transmission properties of viruses carrying mutations in the matrix protein (MA) that affect the incorporation of Env into virus particles but do not interfere with Env-mediated cell-cell fusion. By use of cell-free virus, the infectivity of MA mutant viruses was below the detection threshold both in single-cycle and in multiple-cycle assays. Truncation of the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of Env restored the incorporation of Env into MA mutant viruses and rescued their cell-free infectivity to different extents. In cell-to-cell transmission assays, MA mutations prevented HIV transmission from donor to target cells, despite efficient Env-dependent membrane fusion. HIV transmission was blocked at the level of virus core translocation into the cytosol of target cells. As in cell-free assays, rescue of Env incorporation by truncation of the Env CT restored the virus core translocation and cell-to-cell infectivity of MA mutant viruses. These data show that HIV cell-to-cell transmission requires the assembly of enveloped virus particles. The increased efficiency of this infection route may thus be attributed to the high local concentrations of virus particles at sites of cellular contacts rather than to a qualitatively different transmission process.

Monel, Blandine; Beaumont, Elodie; Vendrame, Daniela; Schwartz, Olivier; Brand, Denys

2012-01-01

184

HIV2 amino acid substitutions in Gag and Env proteins occurring simultaneously with viral load upsurge in a drug-naïve patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been reported that the peptides of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) most frequently recognized by cytotoxic\\u000a T lymphocytes are firstly in Gag and secondly in Env proteins. In the present case study, we attempted to observe amino acid\\u000a substitutions in Gag and Env proteins and related parameters possibly associated with an increase in HIV-2 load. A sudden,

Seiji Kageyama; Janak K. Maniar; Dattatray G. Saple; Kei Numazaki; Takashi Kurimura; Hiroshi Ichimura

2008-01-01

185

Cleavage of the Murine Leukemia Virus Transmembrane Env Protein by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease: Transdominant Inhibition by Matrix Mutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified mutations in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) matrix protein (MA) which block infectivity of virions pseudotyped with murine leukemia virus (MuLV) envelope (Env) glycopro- teins without affecting infectivity conferred by HIV-1 Env or vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoproteins. This inhibition is very potent and displays a strong transdominant effect; infectivity is reduced more than 100-fold

ROSEMARY E. KIERNAN; ERIC O. FREED

1998-01-01

186

Dense display of HIV1 envelope spikes on the lambda phage scaffold does not result in the generation of improved antibody responses to HIV1 Env  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of strong, virus-neutralizing antibody responses to the HIV-1 envelope spike (Env) is a major goal in HIV-1 vaccine research. To try to enhance the Env-specific response, we displayed oligomeric gp140 on a virus-like scaffold provided by the lambda phage capsid. To do this, an in vitro complementation system was used to “decorate” phage particles with glycosylated, mammalian cell-derived

Jonelle Mattiacio; Scott Walter; Matt Brewer; William Domm; Alan E. Friedman; Stephen Dewhurst

2011-01-01

187

Effects of the ligand sequence modifications on the retargeted transduction by the retroviral vector having a ligand-chimeric Env protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

1a ligand of the S3-D84K Env protein was modified in different ways. In one, C-terminal truncations (by 3-51 aa) with or without a Cys-to-Gly change were performed, and in the other, Cys-to-Ala changes of the disulfide-forming cysteines without truncation were made. Seven truncation and three alanine mutant chimeric Env proteins were examined for virion incorporation, and the retroviral vectors displaying

Kei Miyakawa; Rika Fujita; Masumi Katane; Yoshinao Kubo; Hiroshi Amanuma

2008-01-01

188

Phenotypic studies on recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV1) containing CRF01_AE env gene derived from HIV1-infected patient, residing in central Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) env genes were cloned from blood samples of HIV-1-infected Thai patients, and 35 infectious CRF01_AE envelope glycoprotein (Env)-recombinant viruses were established. In this report, we examined the neutralization susceptibility of these viruses to human monoclonal antibodies, 2G12, IgG1 b12, 2F5 and 4E10, pooled patient plasma, coreceptor antagonists and fusion inhibitor, T-20. The neutralization susceptibility

Piraporn Utachee; Piyamat Jinnopat; Panasda Isarangkura-na-ayuthaya; U. Chandimal de Silva; Shota Nakamura; Uamporn Siripanyaphinyo; Nuanjun Wichukchinda; Kenzo Tokunaga; Teruo Yasunaga; Pathom Sawanpanyalert; Kazuyoshi Ikuta; Wattana Auwanit; Masanori Kameoka

2009-01-01

189

Genetic and Functional Analysis of Full-Length Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 env Genes Derived from Brain and Blood of Patients with AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic evolution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the brain is distinct from that in lymphoid tissues, indicating tissue-specific compartmentalization of the virus. Few primary HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Envs) from uncultured brain tissues have been biologically well characterized. In this study, we analyzed 37 full-length env genes from uncultured brain biopsy and blood samples from four patients

Asa Ohagen; Amy Devitt; Kevin J. Kunstman; Paul R. Gorry; Patrick P. Rose; Bette Korber; Joann Taylor; Robert Levy; Robert L. Murphy; Steven M. Wolinsky; Dana Gabuzda

2003-01-01

190

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Env with an Intersubunit Disulfide Bond Engages Coreceptors but Requires Bond Reduction after Engagement To Induce Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mutant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope protein (Env) with an engineered disulfide bond between the gp120 and gp41 subunits (SOS-Env) was expressed on cell surfaces. With the disulfide bond intact, these cells did not fuse to target cells expressing CD4 and CCR5, but the fusion process did advance to an intermediate state: cleaving the disulfide bond with a reducing

L. G. Abrahamyan; R. M. Markosyan; J. P. Moore; F. S. Cohen; G. B. Melikyan

2003-01-01

191

Cross-Subtype T-Cell Immune Responses Induced by a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Group M Consensus Env Immunogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic diversity among globally circulating human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains is a serious challenge for HIV-1 vaccine design. We have generated a synthetic group M consensus env gene (CON6) for induction of cross-subtype immune responses and report here a comparative study of T-cell responses to this and natural strain env immunogens in a murine model. Three different

Eric A. Weaver; Zhongjing Lu; Zenaido T. Camacho; Fatiha Moukdar; Hua-Xin Liao; Ben-Jiang Ma; Mark Muldoon; James Theiler; Gary J. Nabel; Norman L. Letvin; Bette T. Korber; Beatrice H. Hahn; Barton F. Haynes; Feng Gao

2006-01-01

192

Vaccines based on the native HIV Tat protein and on the combination of Tat and the structural HIV protein variant ?V2 Env  

Microsoft Academic Search

The promising results obtained with the HIV-1 Tat-based vaccines in mice, monkeys and humans, a better understanding of Tat immunomodulatory functions, as well as evidence that vaccination with trimeric V2 loop-deleted HIV-1 Env induces cross-clade neutralizing antibodies led to the rational design of a novel vaccine based on the combination of Tat and V2-deleted Env.

Barbara Ensoli; Aurelio Cafaro; Antonella Caputo; Valeria Fiorelli; Fabrizio Ensoli; Riccardo Gavioli; Flavia Ferrantelli; Andrea Cara; Fausto Titti; Mauro Magnani

2005-01-01

193

CoExpression of miRNA Targeting the Expression of PERK, but Not PKR, Enhances Cellular Immunity from an HIV1 Env DNA Vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small non-coding micro-RNAs (miRNA) are important post-transcriptional regulators of mammalian gene expression that can be used to direct the knockdown of expression from targeted genes. We examined whether DNA vaccine vectors co-expressing miRNA with HIV-1 envelope (Env) antigens could influence the magnitude or quality of the immune responses to Env in mice. Human miR-155 and flanking regions from the non-protein

Adam K. Wheatley; Marit Kramski; Marina R. Alexander; Jesse G. Toe; Damian F. J. Purcell; Dipshikha Chakravortty

2011-01-01

194

Forum in immunology Vaccines based on the native HIV Tat protein and on the combination of Tat and the structural HIV protein variant DV2 Env  

Microsoft Academic Search

The promising results obtained with the HIV-1 Tat-based vaccines in mice, monkeys and humans, a better understanding of Tat immuno- modulatory functions, as well as evidence that vaccination with trimeric V2 loop-deleted HIV-1 Env induces cross-clade neutralizing anti- bodies led to the rational design of a novel vaccine based on the combination of Tat and V2-deleted Env. © 2005 Elsevier

Barbara Ensoli; Aurelio Cafaro; Antonella Caputo; Valeria Fiorelli; Fabrizio Ensoli; Riccardo Gavioli; Flavia Ferrantelli; Andrea Cara; Fausto Titti; Mauro Magnani

195

NASA SPoRT GOES-R Proving Ground Activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program is a partner with the GOES-R Proving Ground (PG) helping prepare forecasters understand the unique products to come from the GOES-R instrument suite. SPoRT is working collaboratively with other members of the GOES-R PG team and Algorithm Working Group (AWG) scientists to develop and disseminate a suite of proxy products that address specific forecast problems for the WFOs, Regional and National Support Centers, and other NOAA users. These products draw on SPoRT s expertise with the transition and evaluation of products into operations from the MODIS instrument and the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA). The MODIS instrument serves as an excellent proxy for the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) that will be aboard GOES-R. SPoRT has transitioned and evaluated several multi-channel MODIS products. The true and false color products are being used in natural hazard detection by several SPoRT partners to provide better observation of land features, such as fires, smoke plumes, and snow cover. Additionally, many of SPoRT s partners are coastal offices and already benefit from the MODIS sea surface temperature composite. This, along with other surface feature observations will be developed into ABI proxy products for diagnostic use in the forecast process as well as assimilation into forecast models. In addition to the MODIS instrument, the NALMA has proven very valuable to WFOs with access to these total lightning data. These data provide situational awareness and enhanced warning decision making to improve lead times for severe thunderstorm and tornado warnings. One effort by SPoRT scientists includes a lightning threat product to create short-term model forecasts of lightning activity. Additionally, SPoRT is working with the AWG to create GLM proxy data from several of the ground based total lightning networks, such as the NALMA. The evaluation will focus on the vastly improved spatial coverage of the GLM, but with the trade-off of lower resolution compared to the NALMA. In addition to the above tasks, SPoRT will make these data available in the NWS next generation display software, AWIPS II. This has already been successfully completed for the two basic GLM proxies. SPoRT will use these products to train forecasters on the capabilities of GOES-R and foster feedback to develop additional products, visualizations, and requirements beneficial to end users needs. These developments and feedback will be made available to the GOES-R Proving Ground for the upcoming 2010 Spring Program in Norman, Oklahoma.

Stano, Geoffrey T.; Fuell, Kevin K.; Jedloec, Gary J.

2010-01-01

196

Human Ubc9 is involved in intracellular HIV-1 Env stability after trafficking out of the trans-Golgi network in a Gag dependent manner.  

PubMed

The cellular E2 Sumo conjugase, Ubc9 interacts with HIV-1 Gag, and is important for the assembly of infectious HIV-1 virions. In the previous study we demonstrated that in the absence of Ubc9, a defect in virion assembly was associated with decreased levels of mature intracellular Envelope (Env) that affected Env incorporation into virions and virion infectivity. We have further characterized the effect of Ubc9 knockdown on HIV Env processing and assembly. We found that gp160 stability in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and its trafficking to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) were unaffected, indicating that the decreased intracellular mature Env levels in Ubc9-depleted cells were due to a selective degradation of mature Env gp120 after cleavage from gp160 and trafficked out of the TGN. Decreased levels of Gag and mature Env were found to be associated with the plasma membrane and lipid rafts, which suggest that these viral proteins were not trafficked correctly to the assembly site. Intracellular gp120 were partially rescued when treated with a combination of lysosome inhibitors. Taken together our results suggest that in the absence of Ubc9, gp120 is preferentially degraded in the lysosomes likely before trafficking to assembly sites leading to the production of defective virions. This study provides further insight in the processing and packaging of the HIV-1 gp120 into mature HIV-1 virions. PMID:23861967

Bohl, Christopher R; Abrahamyan, Levon G; Wood, Charles

2013-01-01

197

The HIV Env variant N283 enhances macrophage tropism and is associated with brain infection and dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV infects tissue macrophages and brain microglia, which express lower levels of CD4 and CCR5 than CD4? T cells in peripheral blood. Mechanisms that enhance HIV tropism for macrophages in the CNS and other tissues are not well understood. Here, we identify an HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) variant in the CD4-binding site of gp120, Asn 283 (N283), that is present

R. L. Dunfee; E. R. Thomas; P. R. Gorry; Jianbin Wang; Joann Taylor; Kevin Kunstman; S. M. Wolinsky; Dana Gabuzda

2006-01-01

198

Inhibition of HIV1 replication by novel lentiviral vectors expressing transdominant Rev and HIV1 env antisense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retroviral vectors expressing transdominant negative mutants of Rev (TdRev) inhibit HIV-1 replication by preventing the nuclear export of unspliced viral transcripts, thus inhibiting the synthesis of Gag-Pol, Env and reducing the levels of genomic RNA available for packaging. Due to these effective mechanisms of inhibition, production of HIV-1-based lentiviral vectors expressing TdRev has been difficult. Here we describe HIV-based vectors

Mautino; RA Morgan

2002-01-01

199

Gp120 stability on HIV1 virions and Gag-Env pseudovirions is enhanced by an uncleaved Gag core  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) particles incorporate a trimeric envelope complex (Env) made of gp120 (SU) and gp41 (TM) heterodimers. It has been previously established that soluble CD4 (sCD4) interaction leads to shedding of gp120 from viral particles, and that gp120 may also be easily lost from virions during incubation or particle purification procedures. In the design of HIV particle

Jason Hammonds; Xuemin Chen; Lingmei Ding; Timothy Fouts; Anthony De Vico; Jan zur Megede; Susan Barnett; Paul Spearman

2003-01-01

200

Broad neutralizing antibody response and genetic variation in HIV1 env genes in Koreans with primary HIV1 infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the neutralization profiles induced by HIV-1 Korean clade B, which has a monophyletic lineage and relative limited\\u000a genetic diversity, we investigated the ability of HIV variants to elicit neutralizing antibodies in the immune response to\\u000a primary infection. We selected seven Korean drug-naïve subjects with an HIV-1 primary infection and did pseudovirion-based\\u000a neutralization assays using env genes of Korean

Bo Gyeong Shin; Sung Soon Kim; Gab Jung Kim

2011-01-01

201

Host-Specific Modulation of the Selective Constraints Driving Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 env Gene Evolution  

PubMed Central

To address the evolution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) within a single host, we analyzed the HIV-1 C2-V5 env regions of both cell-free genomic-RNA- and proviral-DNA-derived clones. Sequential samples were collected over a period of 3 years from six untreated subjects (three typical progressors [TPs] and three slow progressors [SPs], all with a comparable length of infection except one. The evolutionary analysis of the C2-V5 env sequences performed on 506 molecular clones (253 RNA- and 253 DNA-derived sequences) highlighted a series of differences between TPs and SPs. In particular, (i) clonal sequences from SPs (DNA and RNA) showed lower nucleotide similarity than those from TPs (P = 0.0001), (ii) DNA clones from SPs showed higher intra- and intersample nucleotide divergence than those from TPs (P < 0.05), (iii) higher host-selective pressure was generally detectable in SPs (DNA and RNA sequences), and (iv) the increase in the genetic distance of DNA and RNA sequences over time was paralleled by an increase in both synonymous (Ks) and nonsynonymous (Ka) substitutions in TPs but only in nonsynonymous substitutions in SPs. Several individual peculiarities of the HIV-1 evolutionary dynamics emerged when the V3, V4, and V5 env regions of both TPs and SPs were evaluated separately. These peculiarities, probably reflecting host-specific features of selective constraints and their continuous modulation, are documented by the dynamics of Ka/Ks ratios of hypervariable env domains.

Bagnarelli, Patrizia; Mazzola, Francesca; Menzo, Stefano; Montroni, Maria; Butini, Luca; Clementi, Massimo

1999-01-01

202

Proviral amplification of the Gypsy endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster involves env-independent invasion of the female germline.  

PubMed Central

Gypsy is an infectious endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster. The gypsy proviruses replicate very efficiently in the genome of the progeny of females homozygous for permissive alleles of the flamenco gene. This replicative transposition is correlated with derepression of gypsy expression, specifically in the somatic cells of the ovaries of the permissive mothers. The determinism of this amplification was studied further by making chimeric mothers containing different permissive/restrictive and somatic/germinal lineages. We show here that the derepression of active proviruses in the permissive soma is necessary and sufficient to induce proviral insertions in the progeny, even if the F1 flies derive from restrictive germ cells devoid of active proviruses. Therefore, gypsy endogenous multiplication results from the transfer of some gypsy-encoded genetic material from the soma towards the germen of the mother and its subsequent insertion into the chromosomes of the progeny. This transfer, however, is not likely to result from retroviral infection of the germline. Indeed, we also show here that the insertion of a tagged gypsy element, mutant for the env gene, occurs at high frequency, independently of the production of gypsy Env proteins by any transcomplementing helper. The possible role of the env gene for horizontal transfer to new hosts is discussed.

Chalvet, F; Teysset, L; Terzian, C; Prud'homme, N; Santamaria, P; Bucheton, A; Pelisson, A

1999-01-01

203

Effects of different promoters on the virulence and immunogenicity of a HIV-1 Env-expressing recombinant vaccinia vaccine.  

PubMed

Previously, we developed a vaccination regimen that involves priming with recombinant vaccinia virus LC16m8? (rm8?) strain followed by boosting with a Sendai virus-containing vector. This protocol induced both humoral and cellular immune responses against the HIV-1 envelope protein. The current study aims to optimize this regimen by comparing the immunogenicity and safety of two rm8? strains that express HIV-1 Env under the control of a moderate promoter, p7.5, or a strong promoter, pSFJ1-10. m8?-p7.5-JRCSFenv synthesized less gp160 but showed significantly higher growth potential than m8?-pSFJ-JRCSFenv. The two different rm8? strains induced antigen-specific immunity; however, m8?-pSFJ-JRCSFenv elicited a stronger anti-Env antibody response whereas m8?-p7.5-JRCSFenv induced a stronger Env-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response. Both strains were less virulent than the parental m8? strain, suggesting that they would be safe for use in humans. These findings indicate the vaccine can be optimized to induce favorable immune responses (either cellular or humoral), and forms the basis for the rational design of an AIDS vaccine using recombinant vaccinia as the delivery vector. PMID:24370703

Isshiki, Mao; Zhang, Xianfeng; Sato, Hirotaka; Ohashi, Takashi; Inoue, Makoto; Shida, Hisatoshi

2014-02-01

204

A Novel Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody Platform To Dissect the Diverse Repertoire of Antibody Epitopes for HIV-1 Env Immunogen Design  

PubMed Central

The majority of available monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) in the current HIV vaccine field are generated from HIV-1-infected people. In contrast, preclinical immunogenicity studies have mainly focused on polyclonal antibody responses in experimental animals. Although rabbits have been widely used for antibody studies, there has been no report of using rabbit MAbs to dissect the specificity of antibody responses for AIDS vaccine development. Here we report on the production of a panel of 12 MAbs from a New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit that was immunized with an HIV-1 JR-FL gp120 DNA prime and protein boost vaccination regimen. These rabbit MAbs recognized a diverse repertoire of envelope (Env) epitopes ranging from the highly immunogenic V3 region to several previously underappreciated epitopes in the C1, C4, and C5 regions. Nine MAbs showed cross-reactivity to gp120s of clades other than clade B. Increased somatic mutation and extended CDR3 were observed with Ig genes of several molecularly cloned rabbit MAbs. Phylogenic tree analysis showed that the heavy chains of MAbs recognizing the same region on gp120 tend to segregate into an independent subtree. At least three rabbit MAbs showed neutralizing activities with various degrees of breadth and potency. The establishment of this rabbit MAb platform will significantly enhance our ability to test optimal designs of Env immunogens to gain a better understanding of the structural specificity and evolution process of Env-specific antibody responses elicited by candidate AIDS vaccines.

Chen, Yuxin; Vaine, Michael; Wallace, Aaron; Han, Dong; Wan, Shengqin; Seaman, Michael S.; Montefiori, David; Wang, Shixia

2013-01-01

205

Characteristics of the env genes of HIV type 1 quasispecies in long-term nonprogressors with broadly neutralizing antibodies.  

PubMed

Primary isolates of different subtypes of HIV-1 can be neutralized in vitro by the broadly neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) found in the sera of a small number of HIV-1-infected patients. This broad response is most frequent in long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs). We investigated whether the presence of NAbs in the sera of some LTNPs was associated with particular properties of the envelope glycoproteins of the variants found in these patients. Toward that aim, 147 env gene fragments (encoding almost the entire gp120) amplified from the proviral DNA of 5 LTNPs who developed broadly NAbs (NAb+) and of 4 LTNPs who did not develop such broadly NAbs (NAb-) were cloned, sequenced, and compared. We found that the development of broadly NAbs was associated with high viral loads, greater diversity in the gp120 of the viruses infecting these patients, and longer V1 sequences and additional N-gly sites in V1. In addition, a higher proportion of defective clones was found among the env genes of NAb- patients (25% to 93%)-particularly those with lower viral loads and low levels of env diversity-than among those of NAb+ patients (7% to 19%). PMID:18197126

Braibant, Martine; Agut, Henri; Rouzioux, Christine; Costagliola, Dominique; Autran, Brigitte; Barin, Francis

2008-03-01

206

HIV-1 acute infection env glycomutants designed from 3D model: effects on processing, antigenicity, and neutralization sensitivity.  

PubMed

The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope protein (Env) has evolved to limit its overall immunogenicity by extensive glycosylation. Only a few studies dealing with glycosylation sites have taken into account available 3D data in a global approach. We compared primary env sequences from patients with acute HIV-1 infection. Conserved N-glycosylation sites were placed on the gp120-3D model. Based on vicinity, we defined glycosylation clusters. According to these clusters, we engineered plasmids encoding deglycosylated gp160 mutants. We also constructed mutants corresponding to nonclustered glycans or to the full deglycosylation of the V1 or V2 loop. After in vitro expression, mutants were tested for functionality. We also compared the inhibition of pseudotyped particles infection by human-neutralizing sera. Generally, clustered and nonclustered mutants were affected similarly. Silencing of more than one glycan had deleterious effects, independently of the type of sugar removed. However, some mutants were moderately affected by glycans removal suggesting a distinct role for these N-glycans. Additionally, compared to the wild-type pseudovirus, two of these mutants were neutralized at higher sera dilutions strengthening the importance of the location of specific N-glycans in limiting the neutralizing response. These results could guide the selection of env mutants with the fewest antigenic and functional alterations but with enhanced neutralization sensitivity. PMID:15183057

Reynard, Frédéric; Fatmi, Ahmed; Verrier, Bernard; Bedin, Frédéric

2004-06-20

207

A novel human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protein, tev, shares sequences with tat, env, and rev proteins.  

PubMed Central

We have characterized a novel 28-kilodalton protein, p28tev, detected in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected cells. tev is recognized by both tat and rev monospecific antibodies. tev is initiated at the tat AUG and contains the first exon of tat at its amino terminus, a small portion of env in the middle, and the second exon of rev at its carboxy terminus. A cDNA clone producing tev was cloned and expressed in human cells. Sequence analysis revealed that the tev mRNA is generated by splicing to a novel exon located in the env region. This identifies a fourth class of multiply spliced human immunodeficiency virus mRNAs, produced in infected and transfected cells. tev is regulated during the virus life cycle similarly to the other regulatory proteins, tat, rev, and nef, and displays both tat and rev activities in functional assays. Since tev contains important functional domains of tat and rev and is produced very early after transfection, it may be an important regulator in the initial phase of virus expression. Another rev-related protein, p18(6)Drev, containing env and rev sequences, was characterized and was found not to have detectable rev activity. Images

Benko, D M; Schwartz, S; Pavlakis, G N; Felber, B K

1990-01-01

208

Effects of murine leukemia virus env gene proteins on macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

F5b Tumor cells were incubated with concentrated culture supernatants taken from cells resistant (F5m) or sensitive (F5b) to contact-dependent macrophage cytotoxicity. Macrophage cell line B6MP102 and murine peritoneal macrophages killed targets incubated with supernatants taken from sensitive cells but poorly killed cells incubated in supernatants isolated from resistant cells. Membranes from cells resistant to macrophage killing, F5m, were fused into F5b cells. The fused F5b cells were killed significantly less than F5b cells fused with F5b cell membranes or untreated F5b cells. The decreased killing of F5b cells corresponded to increased concentrations of gp70(a) molecules on F5b cells. Affinity purified gp70(a) was added to cytotoxicity assays but failed to inhibit macrophage cytotoxicity. P15E molecules were detectable on both F5b and F5m cells. In addition, a synthetic peptide found to exhibit the inhibitory properties of p15E was added to cytotoxicity assays. P15E synthetic peptide also did not inhibit macrophage cytotoxicity. Therefore, env gene proteins of murine leukemia virus do not appear responsible for inducing tumor cell resistance to activated macrophage contact-dependent cytotoxicity.

Chapes, S. K.; Takemoto, L. J.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

1991-01-01

209

Receptor-Induced Thiolate Couples Env Activation to Retrovirus Fusion and Infection  

PubMed Central

According to current models of retrovirus infection, receptor binding to the surface subunit (SU) of the envelope glycoprotein (Env) triggers a conformational change in the transmembrane subunit (TM) that mediates virus fusion to cell membranes. To understand how this occurs, we investigated the role of the receptor Tva in avian leukosis virus-A (ALV-A) infection. We find that Tva binding induced the formation of a reactive thiolate on Cys38 (Cys38-S?) in SU. Both chemical and genetic inactivation of Cys38-S? completely abrogated ALV fusion and infection. Remarkably, Cys38-S? does not mediate isomerization of the SU-TM disulfide bond and is not required for Tva-induced activation of TM, including pre-hairpin association with membranes and low pH assembly of helical bundles. These findings indicate that, contrary to current models, receptor activation of TM is not sufficient for ALV fusion and infection and that formation of a reactive thiolate is an additional receptor-dependent step.

Smith, Jason G; Cunningham, James M

2007-01-01

210

Comparing the flammability of fabrics in accordance with EN 531 and ENV 50354.  

PubMed

The purpose of protective clothing and other personal protective equipment (PPE) is to provide escape time, to reduce the burn injury level, and to prevent aggravation of the consequences to workers during exposure to an electric arc. In this study the flammability properties of 12 different types of flame-retardant fabrics were compared with the normally used flame spread test method (EN 532:1994) and electric arc test method (ENV 50354:2001). In the arc test at the lower testing current level of 4 kA, the requirement was passed by materials which did not pass the flame spread test. These materials contained a large amount of melting fibres, and therefore tended to shrink or melt. In order to meet the current level of 7 kA, a rather thick and heavy flame-retardant fabric is needed to pass the requirement. Lighter fabrics tended to break open in the tests. The flame retardancy of the under layer fabric is therefore important to ensure the needed protection. PMID:15377405

Mäkinen, Helena; Mustonen, Suvi Sanna

2004-01-01

211

CD4+ T cells support production of simian immunodeficiency virus Env antibodies that enforce CD4-dependent entry and shape tropism in vivo.  

PubMed

CD4(+) T cells rather than macrophages are the principal cells infected by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in vivo. Macrophage tropism has been linked to the ability to enter cells through CCR5 in conjunction with limiting CD4 levels, which are much lower on macrophages than on T cells. We recently reported that rhesus macaques (RM) experimentally depleted of CD4(+) T cells before SIV infection exhibit extensive macrophage infection as well as high chronic viral loads and rapid progression to AIDS. Here we show that early-time-point and control Envs were strictly CD4 dependent but that, by day 42 postinfection, plasma virus of CD4(+) T cell-depleted RM was dominated by Envs that mediate efficient infection using RM CCR5 independently of CD4. Early-time-point and control RM Envs were resistant to neutralization by SIV-positive (SIV(+)) plasma but became sensitive if preincubated with sCD4. In contrast, CD4-independent Envs were highly sensitive to SIV(+) plasma neutralization. However, plasma from SIV-infected CD4(+) T cell-depleted animals lacked this CD4-inducible neutralizing activity and failed to neutralize any Envs regardless of sCD4 pre-exposure status. Enhanced sensitivity of CD4-independent Envs from day 42 CD4(+) T cell-depleted RM was also seen with monoclonal antibodies that target both known CD4-inducible and other Env epitopes. CD4 independence and neutralization sensitivity were both conferred by Env amino acid changes E84K and D470N that arose independently in multiple animals, with the latter introducing a potential N-linked glycosylation site within a predicted CD4-binding pocket of gp120. Thus, the absence of CD4 T cells results in failure to produce antibodies that neutralize CD4-independent Envs and CD4-pretriggered control Envs. In the absence of this constraint and with a relative paucity of CD4(+) target cells, widespread macrophage infection occurs in vivo accompanied by emergence of variants carrying structural changes that enable entry independently of CD4. PMID:23824793

Francella, Nicholas; Gwyn, Sarah E; Yi, Yanjie; Li, Bing; Xiao, Peng; Elliott, Sarah T C; Ortiz, Alexandra M; Hoxie, James A; Paiardini, Mirko; Silvestri, Guido; Derdeyn, Cynthia A; Collman, Ronald G

2013-09-01

212

CD4+ T Cells Support Production of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Env Antibodies That Enforce CD4-Dependent Entry and Shape Tropism In Vivo  

PubMed Central

CD4+ T cells rather than macrophages are the principal cells infected by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in vivo. Macrophage tropism has been linked to the ability to enter cells through CCR5 in conjunction with limiting CD4 levels, which are much lower on macrophages than on T cells. We recently reported that rhesus macaques (RM) experimentally depleted of CD4+ T cells before SIV infection exhibit extensive macrophage infection as well as high chronic viral loads and rapid progression to AIDS. Here we show that early-time-point and control Envs were strictly CD4 dependent but that, by day 42 postinfection, plasma virus of CD4+ T cell-depleted RM was dominated by Envs that mediate efficient infection using RM CCR5 independently of CD4. Early-time-point and control RM Envs were resistant to neutralization by SIV-positive (SIV+) plasma but became sensitive if preincubated with sCD4. In contrast, CD4-independent Envs were highly sensitive to SIV+ plasma neutralization. However, plasma from SIV-infected CD4+ T cell-depleted animals lacked this CD4-inducible neutralizing activity and failed to neutralize any Envs regardless of sCD4 pre-exposure status. Enhanced sensitivity of CD4-independent Envs from day 42 CD4+ T cell-depleted RM was also seen with monoclonal antibodies that target both known CD4-inducible and other Env epitopes. CD4 independence and neutralization sensitivity were both conferred by Env amino acid changes E84K and D470N that arose independently in multiple animals, with the latter introducing a potential N-linked glycosylation site within a predicted CD4-binding pocket of gp120. Thus, the absence of CD4 T cells results in failure to produce antibodies that neutralize CD4-independent Envs and CD4-pretriggered control Envs. In the absence of this constraint and with a relative paucity of CD4+ target cells, widespread macrophage infection occurs in vivo accompanied by emergence of variants carrying structural changes that enable entry independently of CD4.

Francella, Nicholas; Gwyn, Sarah E.; Yi, Yanjie; Li, Bing; Xiao, Peng; Elliott, Sarah T. C.; Ortiz, Alexandra M.; Hoxie, James A.; Paiardini, Mirko; Silvestri, Guido; Derdeyn, Cynthia A.

2013-01-01

213

Screening inhibitory potential of anti-HIV RT RNA aptamers.  

PubMed

Aptamers targeted to HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) have been demonstrated to inhibit RT in biochemical assays and as in cell culture. However, methods employed to date to evaluate viral suppression utilize time-consuming serial passage of infectious HIV in aptamer-expressing stable cell lines. We have established a rapid, transfection-based assay system to effectively examine the inhibitory potential of anti-HIV RT aptamers expressed between two catalytically inactive hammerhead ribozymes. Our system can be altered and optimized for a variety of cloning schemes, and addition of sequences of interest to the cassette is simple and straightforward. When paired with methods to analyze aptamer RNA accumulation and localization in cells and as packaging into pseudotyped virions, the method has a very high level of success in predicting good inhibitors. PMID:24318883

Lange, Margaret J; Burke, Donald H

2014-01-01

214

AWIPS II Application Development, a SPoRT Perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Weather Service (NWS) is deploying its next-generation decision support system, called AWIPS II (Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System II). NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed several software 'plug-ins' to extend the capabilities of AWIPS II. SPoRT aims to continue its mission of improving short-term forecasts by providing NASA and NOAA products on the decision support system used at NWS weather forecast offices (WFOs). These products are not included in the standard Satellite Broadcast Network feed provided to WFOs. SPoRT has had success in providing support to WFOs as they have transitioned to AWIPS II. Specific examples of transitioning SPoRT plug-ins to WFOs with newly deployed AWIPS II systems will be presented. Proving Ground activities (GOES-R and JPSS) will dominate SPoRT's future AWIPS II activities, including tool development as well as enhancements to existing products. In early 2012 SPoRT initiated the Experimental Product Development Team, a group of AWIPS II developers from several institutions supporting NWS forecasters with innovative products. The results of the team's spring and fall 2013 meeting will be presented. Since AWIPS II developers now include employees at WFOs, as well as many other institutions related to weather forecasting, the NWS has dealt with a multitude of software governance issues related to the difficulties of multiple remotely collaborating software developers. This presentation will provide additional examples of Research-to-Operations plugins, as well as an update on how governance issues are being handled in the AWIPS II developer community.

Burks, Jason E.; Smith, Matthew; McGrath, Kevin M.

2014-01-01

215

Enhanced cell surface expression, immunogenicity and genetic stability resulting from a spontaneous truncation of HIV Env expressed by a recombinant MVA  

SciTech Connect

During propagation of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) encoding HIV 89.6 Env, a few viral foci stained very prominently. Virus cloned from such foci replicated to higher titers than the parent and displayed enhanced genetic stability on passage. Sequence analysis showed a single nucleotide deletion in the 89.6 env gene of the mutant that caused a frame shift and truncation of 115 amino acids from the cytoplasmic domain. The truncated Env was more highly expressed on the cell surface, induced higher antibody responses than the full-length Env, reacted with HIV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and mediated CD4/co-receptor-dependent fusion. Intramuscular (IM), intradermal (ID) needleless, and intrarectal (IR) catheter inoculations gave comparable serum IgG responses. However, intraoral (IO) needleless injector route gave the highest IgA in lung washings and IR gave the highest IgA and IgG responses in fecal extracts. Induction of CTL responses in the spleens of individual mice as assayed by intracellular cytokine staining was similar with both the full-length and truncated Env constructs. Induction of acute and memory CTL in the spleens of mice immunized with the truncated Env construct by ID, IO, and IR routes was comparable and higher than by the IM route, but only the IR route induced CTL in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Thus, truncation of Env enhanced genetic stability as well as serum and mucosal antibody responses, suggesting the desirability of a similar modification in MVA-based candidate HIV vaccines.

Wyatt, Linda S. [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)], E-mail: lwyatt@niaid.nih.gov; Belyakov, Igor M. [Vaccine Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Earl, Patricia L. [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Berzofsky, Jay A. [Vaccine Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Moss, Bernard [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

2008-03-15

216

RtI and Comprehensive Assessment: Are They Opposed?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Response to Intervention (RtI) promotes a well-integrated system connecting general, compensatory, gifted, and special education in providing high quality, standards-based instruction and intervention that are matched to students' academic, social-emotional, and behavioral needs. There are three levels to this framework. Tier 1 (or Universal) is…

Franklin-Rohr, Cheryl

2011-01-01

217

Testability Analysis and ATPG on Behavioral RT-Level VHDL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an environment to address Test- ability Analysis and Test Pattern Generation on VHDL descriptions at t he RT-level. The proposed approach, based on a suitable fault model and an ATPG algo- rithm, is experimentally shown to p rovide a good esti- mate of the final gate-level f ault coverage, and to g ive test patterns with excellent

Fulvio Corno; Paolo Prinetto; Matteo Sonza Reorda

1997-01-01

218

Quantitative real-time RT-PCR - a perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) uses fluorescent reporter molecules to monitor the production of amplification products during each cycle of the PCR reaction. This combines the nucleic acid amplification and detection steps into one homogeneous assay and obviates the need for gel electrophoresis to detect amplification products. Use of appropriate chemistries and data analysis eliminates the need

S A Bustin; V Benes; T Nolan; M W Pfaffl

2005-01-01

219

An Automated HIV-1 Env-Pseudotyped Virus Production for Global HIV Vaccine Trials  

PubMed Central

Background Infections with HIV still represent a major human health problem worldwide and a vaccine is the only long-term option to fight efficiently against this virus. Standardized assessments of HIV-specific immune responses in vaccine trials are essential for prioritizing vaccine candidates in preclinical and clinical stages of development. With respect to neutralizing antibodies, assays with HIV-1 Env-pseudotyped viruses are a high priority. To cover the increasing demands of HIV pseudoviruses, a complete cell culture and transfection automation system has been developed. Methodology/Principal Findings The automation system for HIV pseudovirus production comprises a modified Tecan-based Cellerity system. It covers an area of 5×3 meters and includes a robot platform, a cell counting machine, a CO2 incubator for cell cultivation and a media refrigerator. The processes for cell handling, transfection and pseudovirus production have been implemented according to manual standard operating procedures and are controlled and scheduled autonomously by the system. The system is housed in a biosafety level II cabinet that guarantees protection of personnel, environment and the product. HIV pseudovirus stocks in a scale from 140 ml to 1000 ml have been produced on the automated system. Parallel manual production of HIV pseudoviruses and comparisons (bridging assays) confirmed that the automated produced pseudoviruses were of equivalent quality as those produced manually. In addition, the automated method was fully validated according to Good Clinical Laboratory Practice (GCLP) guidelines, including the validation parameters accuracy, precision, robustness and specificity. Conclusions An automated HIV pseudovirus production system has been successfully established. It allows the high quality production of HIV pseudoviruses under GCLP conditions. In its present form, the installed module enables the production of 1000 ml of virus-containing cell culture supernatant per week. Thus, this novel automation facilitates standardized large-scale productions of HIV pseudoviruses for ongoing and upcoming HIV vaccine trials.

Fuss, Martina; Mazzotta, Angela S.; Sarzotti-Kelsoe, Marcella; Ozaki, Daniel A.; Montefiori, David C.; von Briesen, Hagen; Zimmermann, Heiko; Meyerhans, Andreas

2012-01-01

220

Increasing hydrophobicity of residues in an anti-HIV-1 Env peptide synergistically improves potency.  

PubMed

T-20/Fuzeon/Enfuvirtide (ENF), a peptide inhibitor of HIV-1 infection, targets the grooves created by heptad repeat 2 (HR2) of Env's coiled-coil, but mutants resistant to ENF emerge. In this study, ENF-resistant mutants--V38A, N43D, N43D/S138A, Q40H/L45M--were combined with modified inhibitory peptides to identify what we believe to be novel ways to improve peptide efficacy. V38A did not substantially reduce infectivity, but was relatively resistant to inhibitory peptides. N43D was more resistant to inhibitory peptides than wild-type, but infectivity was reduced. The additional mutation S138A (N43D/S138A) increased infectivity and further reduced peptide inhibitory potency. It is concluded that S138A increased binding of HR2/ENF into grooves and that S138A compensated for electrostatic repulsion between N43D and HR2. The six-helix bundle structure indicated that E148A should increase hydrophobic interactions between the coiled-coil and peptide. Importantly, the modifications S138A and E148A in the same peptide retained potency against ENF-escape mutants. The double mutant's increase in potency was greater than the increases from the sum of S138A and E148A individually, showing that these two altered residues synergistically contributed to peptide binding. Isothermal titration calorimetry established that hydrophobic substitutions at positions S138 and E148 improved potency of inhibitory peptides against escape mutants by increasing enthalpic release of energy upon peptide binding. PMID:21504732

Leung, Michael Y K; Cohen, Fredric S

2011-04-20

221

The conserved His8 of the Moloney murine leukemia virus Env SU subunit directs the activity of the SU-TM disulphide bond isomerase  

SciTech Connect

Murine leukemia virus (MLV) fusion is controlled by isomerization of the disulphide bond between the receptor-binding surface (SU) and fusion-active transmembrane subunits of the Env-complex. The bond is in SU linked to a CXXC motif. This carries a free thiol that upon receptor binding can be activated (ionized) to attack the disulphide and rearrange it into a disulphide isomer within the motif. To find out whether His8 in the conserved SPHQ sequence of Env directs thiol activation, we analyzed its ionization in MLV vectors with wtEnv and Env with His8 deleted or substituted for Tyr or Arg, which partially or completely arrests fusion. The ionization was monitored by following the pH effect on isomerization in vitro by Ca{sup 2+} depletion or in vivo by receptor binding. We found that wtEnv isomerized optimally at slightly basic pH whereas the partially active mutant required higher and the inactive mutants still higher pH. This suggests that His8 directs the ionization of the CXXC thiol.

Li Kejun [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, S-141 57 HUDDINGE (Sweden); Zhang, Shujing [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, S-141 57 HUDDINGE (Sweden); Kronqvist, Malin [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, S-141 57 HUDDINGE (Sweden); Ekstroem, Maria [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, S-141 57 HUDDINGE (Sweden); Wallin, Michael [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, S-141 57 HUDDINGE (Sweden); Garoff, Henrik [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, S-141 57 HUDDINGE (Sweden)]. E-mail: henrik.garoff@cbt.ki.se

2007-04-25

222

Enhancing Transport of Hydrogenophaga flava ENV735 for Bioaugmentation of Aquifers Contaminated with Methyl tert-Butyl Ether  

PubMed Central

The gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has become a widespread contaminant in groundwater throughout the United States. Bioaugmentation of aquifers with MTBE-degrading cultures may be necessary to enhance degradation of the oxygenate in some locations. However, poor cell transport has sometimes limited bioaugmentation efforts in the past. The objective of this study was to evaluate the transport characteristics of Hydrogenophaga flava ENV735, a pure culture capable of growth on MTBE, and to improve movement of the strain through aquifer solids. The wild-type culture moved only a few centimeters in columns of aquifer sediment. An adhesion-deficient variant (H. flava ENV735:24) of the wild-type strain that moved more readily through sediments was obtained by sequential passage of cells through columns of sterile sediment. Hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction chromatography revealed that the wild-type strain is much more hydrophobic than the adhesion-deficient variant. Electrophoretic mobility assays and transmission electron microscopy showed that the wild-type bacterium contains two distinct subpopulations, whereas the adhesion-deficient strain has only a single, homogeneous population. Both the wild-type strain and adhesion-deficient variant degraded MTBE, and both were identified by 16S rRNA analysis as pure cultures of H. flava. The effectiveness of surfactants for enhancing transport of the wild-type strain was also evaluated. Many of the surfactants tested were toxic to ENV735; however, one nonionic surfactant, Tween 20, enhanced cell transport in sand columns. Improving microbial transport may lead to a more effective bioaugmentation strategy for MTBE-contaminated sites where indigenous oxygenate degraders are absent.

Streger, Sheryl H.; Vainberg, Simon; Dong, Hailiang; Hatzinger, Paul B.

2002-01-01

223

Detection of the human endogenous retrovirus ERV3-encoded Env-protein in human tissues using antibody-based proteomics  

PubMed Central

Objectives There is growing evidence to suggest that human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) have contributed to human evolution, being expressed in development, normal physiology and disease. A key difficulty in the scientific evaluation of this potential viral contribution is the accurate demonstration of virally expressed protein in specific human cells and tissues. In this study, we have adopted the endogenous retrovirus, ERV3, as our test model in developing a reliable high-capacity methodology for the expression of such endogenous retrovirus-coded protein. Design Two affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies to ERV3 Env-encoded protein were generated to detect the corresponding protein expression pattern in specific human cells, tissues and organs. Participants Sampling included normal tissues from 144 individuals ranging from childhood to old age. This included more than forty different tissues and organs and some 216 different cancer tissues representing the twenty commonest forms of human cancer. Setting The Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University and Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden. Main Outcome Measures The potential expression at likely physiological level of the ERV3Env encoded protein in a wide range of human cells, tissues and organs. Results We found that ERV3 encoded Env protein is expressed at substantive levels in placenta, testis, adrenal gland, corpus luteum, Fallopian tubes, sebaceous glands, astrocytes, bronchial epithelium and the ducts of the salivary glands. Substantive expression was also seen in a variety of epithelial cells as well as cells known to undergo fusion in inflammation and in normal physiology, including fused macrophages, myocardium and striated muscle. This contrasted strongly with the low levels expressed in other tissues types. These findings suggest that this virus plays a significant role in human physiology and may also play a possible role in disease. Conclusion This technique can now be extended to the study of other HERV genomes within the human chromosomes that may have contributed to human evolution, physiology and disease.

Fei, Chen; Atterby, Christina; Edqvist, Per-Henrik; Ponten, Fredrik; Zhang, Wei Wei; Larsson, Erik; Ryan, Frank P

2014-01-01

224

Diverse recombinant HIV-1 Envs fail to activate B cells expressing the germline B cell receptors of the broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies PG9 and 447-52D.  

PubMed

Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against HIV-1 are generated during HIV-1-infection but have not yet been elicited by immunization with recombinant forms of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env; the target of anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies). A particular type of bNAb targets the CD4-binding site (CD4-BS) region of Env. These antibodies are derived from a limited number of VH/VL genes and can bind to and neutralize diverse HIV-1 strains. Recent reports have demonstrated the limited potential of Env to activate B cells expressing the germline B cell receptor (BCR) forms of anti-CD4-BS bNAbs. A potential reason for the lack of elicitation of anti-CD4-BS bNAbs by Env immunogens is the absence of stimulation of naive B cells expressing the germline BCRs of such antibodies. Several bNAbs have been isolated from HIV-1-infected subjects that target other structurally conserved regions of Env. How frequently Env immunogens stimulate the germline BCRs that give rise to bNAbs that target Env regions other than the CD4-BS is not well understood. Here, we investigated the interactions between diverse Envs and the BCRs of known bNAbs targeting not only the CD4-BS but also conserved elements of the second and third variable Env regions. Our results indicate that Env is generally ineffective in engaging germline BCRs of bNAbs irrespective of their epitope target. Potentially, this is the result of viral evolutionary mechanisms adopted to escape broadly neutralizing antibody responses. Our results also suggest that a single Env capable of activating germline BCRs that target distinct Env epitopes will be very difficult to identify or to design. Importance: Broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 are thought to be an important component of the immune responses that a successful vaccine should elicit. Broadly neutralizing antibodies are generated by a subset of those infected by HIV-1, but so far, they have not been generated by immunization with recombinant Envelope (Env, the target of anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies). Here, we provide evidence that the inability of Env to elicit the production of broadly neutralizing antibodies is due to the inability of diverse Envs to engage the germline B cell receptor forms of known broadly neutralizing antibodies. PMID:24352455

McGuire, Andrew T; Glenn, Jolene A; Lippy, Adriana; Stamatatos, Leonidas

2014-03-01

225

RT-PCR and chemiluminescent ELISA for detection of enteroviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction amplification (RT-PCR) is now used commonly to detect the presence of enteric RNA viruses in environmental samples. A sensitive, non-isotopic microtitre plate hybridisation assay was developed and applied for detection of enteroviruses in environmental samples. Following reverse transcription, viral cDNA was labelled with digoxigenin (DIG)-dUTP during the PCR amplification step. The labelled PCR

G. E Greening; L Woodfield; G. D Lewis

1999-01-01

226

Real-time RT-PCR normalisation; strategies and considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time RT-PCR has become a common technique, no longer limited to specialist core facilities. It is in many cases the only method for measuring mRNA levels of vivo low copy number targets of interest for which alternative assays either do not exist or lack the required sensitivity. Benefits of this procedure over conventional methods for measuring RNA include its sensitivity,

J Huggett; K Dheda; S Bustin; A Zumla

2005-01-01

227

RT-Level ITC'99 Benchmarks and First ATPG Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective high-level ATPG tools are increasingly needed, as an essential element in the quest for reducing as much as possible the designer work on gate-level descriptions. We propose a new set of benchmark circuits targeted to researchers working in the area of RT-level automatic test sequence generation. The developed benchmarks share the characteristics of typical synthesizable blocks, are available as

Fulvio Corno; Matteo Sonza Reorda; Giovanni Squillero

2000-01-01

228

?-Actin—an unsuitable internal control for RT-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite reports confirming cell-cycle dependent gene expression and a number of studies describing specific circumstances in which ?-actin is also regulated, the mRNA for ?-actin remains a widely used housekeeping gene internal control. Utilizing differential reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we report here the dose-dependent inhibition of ?-actin by matrigel. This was detected by comparison to the very moderate inhibition

S. Selvey; E. W. Thompson; K. Matthaei; R. A. Lea; M. G. Irving; L. R. Griffiths

2001-01-01

229

A MERLIN movie of mass-loss from RT Vir  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used MERLIN to observe RT Vir at 22 GHz at six epochs during 10 weeks. The water maser emission comes from a thick expanding shell with an elliptical velocity field. MERLIN has a velocity resolution of 0.1 km s-1 and milli-arcsecond angular resolution, revealing details within the individual maser clouds, typically 12 mas in diameter spanning 15 velocity channels.

A. M. S. Richards; R. J. Cohen; I. Bains; J. A. Yates

1999-01-01

230

AdaBoost.RT: a boosting algorithm for regression problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A boosting algorithm, AdaBoost.RT, is proposed for regression problems. The idea is to filter out examples with a relative estimation error that is higher than the pre-set threshold value, and then follow the AdaBoost procedure. Thus it requires to select the sub-optimal value of relative error threshold to demarcate predictions from the predictor as correct or incorrect. Some experimental results

D. P. Solomatine; D. L. Shrestha

2004-01-01

231

Robust antigen-specific humoral immune responses to sublingually delivered adenoviral vectors encoding HIV-1 Env: association with mucoadhesion and efficient penetration of the sublingual barrier.  

PubMed

The efficient induction of virus-specific mucosal antibodies is an important unmet objective in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV-1) vaccine research. One promising approach is sublingual (SL) immunization. We examined the effectiveness of SL delivery of two different viral vectors: (i) a recombinant adenovirus (rAd5), and (ii) a Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 amplicon vector (HSV-1). Initial in vitro videomicroscopy experiments showed that rAd5 particles were trapped in saliva (i.e., that Ad5 was mucoadhesive) - unlike HSV-1 virions, which migrated freely in both saliva and water. In vivo imaging studies in mice revealed that only the rAd5 vector efficiently transduced the SL epithelium. Consistent with this, SL delivery of an rAd5 encoding HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) resulted in robust antigen-specific antibody responses in plasma and in vaginal washes, whereas SL delivery of a HSV-1 amplicon vector encoding HIV-1 Env failed to elicit Env-specific antibodies. In contrast, both vectors elicited equivalent humoral responses following intramuscular (IM) delivery. Finally, SL delivery of the rAd5:Env vector resulted in elevated levels of Env-specific serum IgA, and vaginal IgA and IgG, when compared to IM delivery of the same vector. These results findings shed light on vector properties (mucoadhesion, penetration of the sublingual barrier) which may be important for the induction of potent humoral immune responses following sublingual vector administration. Our data also show that SL delivery of an Env-encoding rAd5 vector can elicit a potent antigen-specific mucosal antibody response in the absence of adjuvant. Overall, these findings support the further exploration of the SL delivery route for HIV-1 vaccine delivery. PMID:21801777

Domm, William; Brooks, Lauren; Chung, Hung Li; Feng, Changyong; Bowers, William J; Watson, Gene; McGrath, James L; Dewhurst, Stephen

2011-09-16

232

First-in-Human Evaluation of the Safety and Immunogenicity of a Recombinant Adenovirus Serotype 26 HIV-1 Env Vaccine (IPCAVD 001)  

PubMed Central

Background.?We report the first-in-human safety and immunogenicity assessment of a prototype Ad26 vector-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine in humans. Methods.?Sixty Ad26-seronegative, healthy, HIV-uninfected subjects were enrolled in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation phase 1 study. Five groups of 12 subjects received 109–1011 vp of the Ad26-EnvA vaccine (N = 10/group) or placebo (N = 2/group) at weeks 0 and 24 or weeks 0, 4, and 24. Safety and immunogenicity were assessed. Results.?Self-limited reactogenicity was observed after the initial immunization at the highest (1011 vp) dose. No product-related SAEs were observed. All subjects who received the Ad26-EnvA vaccine developed Ad26 NAb titers, EnvA-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) titers, and EnvA-specific enzyme-linked immunospot assays (ELISPOT) responses. These responses persisted at week 52. At week 28 in the 109, 1010, 1011 vp 3-dose and the 1010 and 5 × 1010 vp 2-dose groups, geometric mean EnvA ELISA titers were 6113, 12 470, 8545, 3470, and 9655 and mean EnvA ELISPOT responses were 397, 178, 736, 196, and 1311 SFC/106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells, respectively. Conclusion.?This Ad26 vectored vaccine was generally safe and immunogenic at all doses tested. Reactogenicity was minimal with doses of 5 × 1010 vp or less. Ad26 is a promising new vaccine vector for HIV-1. Clinical Trials Registration.?NCT00618605.

Baden, Lindsey R.; Walsh, Stephen R.; Seaman, Michael S.; Tucker, Robert P.; Krause, Kathleen H.; Patel, Alka; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Kleinjan, Jane; Yanosick, Katherine E.; Perry, James; Zablowsky, Elise; Abbink, Peter; Peter, Lauren; Iampietro, M. Justin; Cheung, Ann; Pau, Maria G.; Weijtens, Mo; Goudsmit, Jaap; Swann, Edith; Wolff, Mark; Loblein, Hayley; Dolin, Raphael; Barouch, Dan H.

2013-01-01

233

Mucosal Immunization of Lactating Female Rhesus Monkeys with a Transmitted/Founder HIV-1 Envelope Induces Strong Env-Specific IgA Antibody Responses in Breast Milk  

PubMed Central

We previously demonstrated that vaccination of lactating rhesus monkeys with a DNA prime/vector boost strategy induces strong T-cell responses but limited envelope (Env)-specific humoral responses in breast milk. To improve vaccine-elicited antibody responses in milk, hormone-induced lactating rhesus monkeys were vaccinated with a transmitted/founder (T/F) HIV Env immunogen in a prime-boost strategy modeled after the moderately protective RV144 HIV vaccine. Lactating rhesus monkeys were intramuscularly primed with either recombinant DNA (n = 4) or modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) poxvirus vector (n = 4) expressing the T/F HIV Env C.1086 and then boosted twice intramuscularly with C.1086 gp120 and the adjuvant MF59. The vaccines induced Env-binding IgG and IgA as well as neutralizing and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) responses in plasma and milk of most vaccinated animals. Importantly, plasma neutralization titers against clade C HIV variants MW965 (P = 0.03) and CAP45 (P = 0.04) were significantly higher in MVA-primed than in DNA-primed animals. The superior systemic prime-boost regimen was then compared to a mucosal-boost regimen, in which animals were boosted twice intranasally with C.1086 gp120 and the TLR 7/8 agonist R848 following the same systemic prime. While the systemic and mucosal vaccine regimens elicited comparable levels of Env-binding IgG antibodies, mucosal immunization induced significantly stronger Env-binding IgA responses in milk (P = 0.03). However, the mucosal regimen was not as potent at inducing functional IgG responses. This study shows that systemic MVA prime followed by either intranasal or systemic protein boosts can elicit strong humoral responses in breast milk and may be a useful strategy to interrupt postnatal HIV-1 transmission.

Fouda, Genevieve G. A.; Amos, Joshua D.; Wilks, Andrew B.; Pollara, Justin; Ray, Caroline A.; Chand, Anjali; Kunz, Erika L.; Liebl, Brooke E.; Whitaker, Kaylan; Carville, Angela; Smith, Shannon; Colvin, Lisa; Pickup, David J.; Staats, Herman F.; Overman, Glenn; Eutsey-Lloyd, Krissey; Parks, Robert; Chen, Haiyan; LaBranche, Celia; Barnett, Susan; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Ferrari, Guido; Montefiori, David C.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Letvin, Norman L.; Haynes, Barton F.

2013-01-01

234

A 585-bp deletion found in the spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV) env gene is responsible for the defective intracellular transport of SFFV gp52.  

PubMed

The Friend spleen focus-forming virus (F-SFFV) codes for a transport defective, leukemogenic envelope glycoprotein designated as gp52. Gp52 closely resembles the envelope glycoproteins (gp70-p15E) encoded by the mink cell focus-forming viruses (MCFV). The major differences between SFFV and MCFV include a 585-bp deletion and a frame-shift mutation near the 3' end of the SFFV env gene. We have constructed a mutant MCFV env gene, which contains a 585-bp deletion like that found in the SFFV env gene, and expressed this gene using recombinant vaccinia vectors or retroviral vectors. The mutant MCFV env gene expressed a truncated, transport defective glycoprotein (gp57). Only a small proportion of gp57 underwent further oligosaccharide processing. Intracellular gp57 remained predominantly monomeric and only a small proportion of gp57 (and its processed forms) formed disulfide-linked dimers and trimers which resembled those formed by SFFV gp52. Processed forms of gp57 were found on the cell surfaces and in culture fluids. The extracellular forms had a faster electrophoretic mobility than the intracellular-processed forms of gp57. These results indicate that the 585-bp deletion found in SFFV env gene is responsible for the folding, transport, and secretion of gp52. Retroviral vectors carrying the mutant MCFV env gene were nonpathogenic (or weakly pathogenic) in adult mice. The results indicate that the 585-bp deletion, although essential, is not the sole determinant of SFFV-induced disease in adult mice. PMID:1566572

Srinivas, R V; Tucker, S P; Kilpatrick, D R; Compans, R W

1992-05-01

235

Robust Antigen-Specific Humoral Immune Responses to Sublingually Delivered Adenoviral Vectors Encoding HIV-1 Env: Association with Mucoadhesion and Efficient Penetration of the Sublingual Barrier  

PubMed Central

The efficient induction of virus-specific mucosal antibodies is an important unmet objective in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV-1) vaccine research. One promising approach is sublingual (SL) immunization. We examined the effectiveness of SL delivery of two different viral vectors: (i) a recombinant adenovirus (rAd5), and (ii) a Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 amplicon vector (HSV-1). Initial in vitro videomicroscopy experiments showed that rAd5 particles were trapped in saliva (i.e., that Ad5 was mucoadhesive) - unlike HSV-1 virions, which migrated freely in both saliva and water. In vivo imaging studies in mice revealed that only the rAd5 vector efficiently transduced the SL epithelium. Consistent with this, SL delivery of an rAd5 encoding HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) resulted in robust antigen-specific antibody responses in plasma and in vaginal washes, whereas SL delivery of a HSV-1 amplicon vector encoding HIV-1 Env failed to elicit Env-specific antibodies. In contrast, both vectors elicited equivalent humoral responses following intramuscular (IM) delivery. Finally, SL delivery of the rAd5:Env vector resulted in elevated levels of Env-specific serum IgA, and vaginal IgA and IgG, when compared to IM delivery of the same vector. These results findings shed light on vector properties (mucoadhesion, penetration of the sublingual barrier) which may be important for the induction of potent humoral immune responses following sublingual vector administration. Our data also show that SL delivery of an Env-encoding rAd5 vector can elicit a potent antigen-specific mucosal antibody response in the absence of adjuvant. Overall, these findings support the further exploration of the SL delivery route for HIV-1 vaccine delivery.

Domm, William; Brooks, Lauren; Chung, Hung Li; Feng, Changyong; Bowers, William J.; Watson, Gene; McGrath, James L.; Dewhurst, Stephen

2011-01-01

236

The level of reverse transcriptase (RT) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 particles affects susceptibility to nonnucleoside RT inhibitors but not to lamivudine.  

PubMed

We investigated the relationship between the level of reverse transcriptase (RT) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particles and susceptibility to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). HIV-1 virions containing different active levels of RT were generated. Susceptibility to the NNRTIs efavirenz and nevirapine was inversely proportional to the level of enzymatically active RT. However, the sensitivity of HIV-1 to the nucleoside analog 3TC was not affected by the level of RT per particle. These data indicate that the susceptibility of HIV-1 to NNRTIs is influenced by RT activity. PMID:16474164

Ambrose, Zandrea; Julias, John G; Boyer, Paul L; Kewalramani, Vineet N; Hughes, Stephen H

2006-03-01

237

Polyvalent HIV1 Env vaccine formulations delivered by the DNA priming plus protein boosting approach are effective in generating neutralizing antibodies against primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates from subtypes A, B, C, D and E  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major challenge in developing an HIV-1 vaccine is to identify immunogens and their delivery methods that can elicit broad neutralizing antibodies against primary isolates of different genetic subtypes. Recently, we demonstrated that priming with DNA vaccines expressing primary HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) followed by recombinant Env protein boosting was successful in generating positive neutralizing antibody responses against a clade

Shixia Wang; Ranajit Pal; John R. Mascola; Te-Hui W. Chou; Innocent Mboudjeka; Siyuan Shen; Qin Liu; Stephen Whitney; Timothy Keen; B. C. Nair; V. S. Kalyanaraman; Philip Markham; Shan Lu

2006-01-01

238

Molecular cloning and characterization of gag-, pol-, and env-related gene sequences in the ev- chicken.  

PubMed Central

Using less stringent hybridization conditions and cloned viral DNA probes representing the avian sarcoma virus gag, pol, env, and long terminal repeat (LTR) gene sequences, we detected related sequences in two avian species purportedly lacking all endogenous avian leukosis viruses, the ev- chicken and the Japanese quail. The blot hybridization patterns obtained with the various probes suggest the presence of between 40 and 100 copies of retrovirus-related sequences in the genomes of these two species. An ev- chicken genomic DNA library was prepared and screened with gag-specific and pol-specific DNA probes. Several different clones were obtained from this library and characterized. Analysis of these clones revealed that the retrovirus-related gene sequences are linked in the order LTR-gag-pol-env-LTR, a structure indicative of a complete provirus. These data indicate the presence of previously unidentified endogenous retrovirus species in avian cells, suggesting that under the appropriate conditions of hybridization additional, more distantly evolved families of endogenous retrovirus genes may be identified in vertebrate species. Images

Dunwiddie, C T; Resnick, R; Boyce-Jacino, M; Alegre, J N; Faras, A J

1986-01-01

239

Instruments of RT2 experiment onboard CORONAS-PHOTON and their test and evaluation II: RT2\\/CZT payload  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors are high sensitivity and high resolution devices for hard X-ray imaging and spectroscopic\\u000a studies. The new series of CZT detector modules (OMS40G256) manufactured by Orbotech Medical Solutions (OMS), Israel, are\\u000a used in the RT-2\\/CZT payload onboard the CORONAS-PHOTON satellite. The CZT detectors, sensitive in the energy range of 20\\u000a to 150 keV, are used to image

Tilak B. Kotoch; Anuj Nandi; D. Debnath; J. P. Malkar; A. R. Rao; M. K. Hingar; Vaibhav. P. Madhav; S. Sreekumar; Sandip K. Chakrabarti

2011-01-01

240

In vitro characterization of a simian immunodeficiency virus-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) chimera expressing HIV type 1 reverse transcriptase to study antiviral resistance in pigtail macaques.  

PubMed

Antiviral resistance is a significant obstacle in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals. Because nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) specifically target HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) and do not effectively inhibit simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) RT, the development of animal models to study the evolution of antiviral resistance has been problematic. To facilitate in vivo studies of NNRTI resistance, we examined whether a SIV that causes immunopathogenesis in pigtail macaques could be made sensitive to NNRTIs. Two simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs) were derived from the genetic background of SIV(mne): SIV-RT-YY contains RT substitutions intended to confer NNRTI susceptibility (V181Y and L188Y), and RT-SHIV(mne) contains the entire HIV-1 RT coding region. Both mutant viruses grew to high titers in vitro but had reduced fitness relative to wild-type SIV(mne). Although the HIV-1 RT was properly processed into p66 and p51 subunits in RT-SHIV(mne) particles, the RT-SHIV(mne) virions had lower levels of RT per viral genomic RNA than HIV-1. Correspondingly, there was decreased RT activity in RT-SHIV(mne) and SIV-RT-YY particles. HIV-1 and RT-SHIV(mne) were similarly susceptible to the NNRTIs efavirenz, nevirapine, and UC781. However, SIV-RT-YY was less sensitive to NNRTIs than HIV-1 or RT-SHIV(mne). Classical NNRTI resistance mutations were selected in RT-SHIV(mne) after in vitro drug treatment and were monitored in a sensitive allele-specific real-time RT-PCR assay. Collectively, these results indicate that RT-SHIV(mne) may be a useful model in macaques for the preclinical evaluation of NNRTIs and for studies of the development of drug resistance in vivo. PMID:15564466

Ambrose, Zandrea; Boltz, Valerie; Palmer, Sarah; Coffin, John M; Hughes, Stephen H; Kewalramani, Vineet N

2004-12-01

241

Putative Phosphatidylinositol 3Kinase (PI3K) Binding Motifs in Ovine Betaretrovirus Env Proteins Are Not Essential for Rodent Fibroblast Transformation and PI3K\\/Akt Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) and enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV) are simple betaretroviruses that cause epithelial cell tumors in the lower and upper airways of sheep and goats. The envelope (Env) glycop- roteins of both viruses can transform rodent and chicken fibroblasts, indicating that they play an essential role in oncogenesis. Previous studies found that a YXXM motif in the

Shan-Lu Liu; Michael I. Lerman; A. Dusty Miller

2003-01-01

242

Characterization of Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses Elicited by a Recombinant Adenovirus Serotype 26 HIV-1 Env Vaccine in Healthy Adults (IPCAVD 001)  

PubMed Central

Background.?Adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26) has been developed as a novel candidate vaccine vector for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other pathogens. The primary safety and immunogenicity data from the Integrated Preclinical/Clinical AIDS Vaccine Development Program (IPCAVD) 001 trial, the first-in-human evaluation of a prototype Ad26 vector-based vaccine expressing clade A HIV-1 Env (Ad26.ENVA.01), are reported concurrently with this article. Here, we characterize in greater detail the humoral and cellular immune responses elicited by Ad26.ENVA.01 in humans. Methods.?Samples from the IPCAVD 001 trial were used for humoral and cellular immunogenicity assays. Results.?We observed a dose-dependent expansion of the magnitude, breadth, and epitopic diversity of Env-specific binding antibody responses elicited by this vaccine. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis, virus inhibition, and degranulation functional activity were also observed. Env-specific cellular immune responses induced by the vaccine included multiple CD8+ and CD4+ T-lymphocyte memory subpopulations and cytokine secretion phenotypes, although cellular immune breadth was limited. Baseline vector-specific T-lymphocyte responses were common but did not impair Env-specific immune responses in this study. Conclusion.?Ad26.ENVA.01 elicited a broad diversity of humoral and cellular immune responses in humans. These data support the further clinical development of Ad26 as a candidate vaccine vector. Clinical Trials Registration.?NCT00618605.

Barouch, Dan H.; Liu, Jinyan; Peter, Lauren; Abbink, Peter; Iampietro, M. Justin; Cheung, Ann; Alter, Galit; Chung, Amy; Dugast, Anne-Sophie; Frahm, Nicole; McElrath, M. Juliana; Wenschuh, Holger; Reimer, Ulf; Seaman, Michael S.; Pau, Maria G.; Weijtens, Mo; Goudsmit, Jaap; Walsh, Stephen R.; Dolin, Raphael; Baden, Lindsey R.

2013-01-01

243

RAMSES-RT: radiation hydrodynamics in the cosmological context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new implementation of radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) in the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code RAMSES. The multigroup radiative transfer (RT) is performed on the AMR grid with a first-order Godunov method using the M1 closure for the Eddington tensor, and is coupled to the hydrodynamics via non-equilibrium thermochemistry of hydrogen and helium. This moment-based approach has the great advantage that the computational cost is independent of the number of radiative sources - it can even deal with continuous regions of emission such as bound-free emission from gas. As it is built directly into RAMSES, the RT takes natural advantage of the refinement and parallelization strategies already in place. Since we use an explicit advection solver for the radiative transport, the time-step is restricted by the speed of light - a severe limitation that can be alleviated using the so-called reduced speed of light approximation. We propose a rigorous framework to assess the validity of this approximation in various conditions encountered in cosmology and galaxy formation. We finally perform with our newly developed code a complete suite of RHD tests, comparing our results to other RHD codes. The tests demonstrate that our code performs very well and is ideally suited for exploring the effect of radiation on current scenarios of structure and galaxy formation.

Rosdahl, J.; Blaizot, J.; Aubert, D.; Stranex, T.; Teyssier, R.

2013-12-01

244

Recombinant Proapoptotic M. tuberculosis Generates CD8+ T-cell Responses Against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Env and M. tuberculosis in Neonatal Mice  

PubMed Central

M. bovis BCG is an attractive vaccine vector against breast milk HIV transmission because it elicits Th1-type responses in newborns. However, BCG causes disease in HIV-infected infants. Genetically attenuated M. tuberculosis (Mtb) mutants represent a safer alternative for immunocompromised populations. In the current study, we compared the immunogenicity in mice of three different recombinant attenuated Mtb strains expressing an HIV envelope (Env) antigen construct. Two of these strains (?lysA ?panCD Mtb and ?RD1 ?panCD Mtb) failed to induce significant levels of HIV Env-specific CD8+ T cell responses. In striking contrast, an HIV-1-Env-expressing attenuated ?lysA Mtb containing a deletion in secA2, which encodes a virulence-related secretion system involved in evading adaptive immunity, generated consistently measurable Env-specific CD8+ T cell responses that were significantly greater than those observed after immunization with BCG expressing HIV Env. Similarly, another strain of ?lysA ?secA2 Mtb expressing SIV Gag induced Gag- and Mtb-specific CD8+ T cells producing perforin or IFN?, and Gag-specific CD4+ T cells producing IFN? within 3 weeks after immunization in adult mice; in addition, IFN? producing Gag-specific CD8+ T cells and Mtb-specific CD4+ T cells were observed in neonatal mice within 1 week of immunization. We conclude that ?lysA ?secA2 Mtb is a promising vaccine platform to construct a safe combination HIV-TB vaccine for use in neonates.

Ranganathan, Uma Devi K; Larsen, Michelle H.; Kim, John; Porcelli, Steven A.; Jacobs, William R.; Fennelly, Glenn J.

2009-01-01

245

A Functional Interaction between gp41 and gp120 Is Observed for Monomeric but Not Oligomeric, Uncleaved HIV-1 Env gp140  

PubMed Central

The envelope glycoprotein (Env) is the sole antigenic feature on the surface of HIV and the target for the humoral immune system. Soluble, uncleaved gp140 Env constructs truncated at the transmembrane domain are being investigated intensively as potential vaccine immunogens by many groups, and understanding their structural properties is essential. We used hydrogen/deuterium-exchange mass spectrometry and small-angle X-ray scattering to probe structural order in a panel of commonly used gp140 constructs and matched gp120 monomers. We observed that oligomeric forms of uncleaved gp140, generally presumed to be trimeric, contain a protease-resistant form of gp41 akin to the postfusion, helical bundle conformation and appear to lack specific interactions between gp120 and gp41. In contrast, the monomeric form of gp140 shows significant stabilization of the gp120 inner domain imparted by the gp41 region, demonstrating excellent agreement with past mutagenesis studies. Moreover, the gp140 monomers respond to CD4 binding in manner that is consistent with the initial stages of Env activation: CD4 binding induces structural ordering throughout gp120 while loosening its association with gp41. The results indicate that uncleaved gp140 oligomers do not represent an authentic prefusion form of Env, whereas gp140 monomers isolated from the same glycoprotein preparations in many ways exhibit function and internal structural order that are consistent with expectations for certain aspects of native Env. gp140 monomers may thus be a useful reagent for advancing structural and functional studies.

Guttman, Miklos

2013-01-01

246

Hardware-In-the-Loop Simulation of Power Drives with RT-LAB  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the RT-LAB Electrical Drive Simulator technology along with practical applications. The RT-LAB simulation software enables the parallel simulation of power drives and electric circuits on clusters of PC running QNX or RT-Linux operating systems at sample time below 10 ?s. Using standard Simulink models including SimPowerSystems models, RT-LAB build computation and communication tasks necessary to make parallel

Christian Dufour; S. Abourida; J. Belanger

2005-01-01

247

A DNA vaccine expressing ENV and GAG offers partial protection against reticuloendotheliosis virus in the prairie chicken (Tympanicus cupido).  

PubMed

Recurring infection of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), an avian oncogenic gammaretrovirus, has been a major obstacle in attempts to breed and release the endangered Attwater's prairie chicken (Tympanicus cupido attwateri). The aim of this study was to develop a DNA vaccine that protects the birds against REV infection. A plasmid was constructed expressing fusion proteins of REV envelope (env) and VP22 of Gallid herpesvirus 2 or REV gag and VP22. Birds vaccinated with these recombinant plasmids developed neutralizing antibodies; showed delayed replication of virus; and had significantly less infection of lymphocytes, specifically CD4+ lymphocytes. Although the vaccine did not prevent infection, it offered partial protection. Birds in field conditions and breeding facilities could potentially benefit from increased immunity when vaccinated. PMID:23805542

Drechsler, Yvonne; Tkalcic, Suzana; Saggese, Miguel D; Shivaprasad, H L; Ajithdoss, Dharani K; Collisson, Ellen W

2013-06-01

248

Analysis of HIV-1 env gene sequences reveals evidence for a low effective number in the viral population  

PubMed Central

Selection is usually considered to be the dominant force controlling viral variation; the large population sizes suggest that deterministic population genetic models are appropriate. To investigate their validity for HIV, samples of env gene sequences were tested for departure from neutrality because of mutation–selection balance. None of the samples departed significantly when tested as nucleotide sequences. At the amino acid level, significantly elevated diversity was detected in two samples within, but not outside, the V3 loop. The effective population number has been estimated (using a phylogenetic method) to be close to 103. Estimates from nucleotide diversity are about 2-fold lower. The low value of the effective population number might arise from high variability in progeny number between infected cells, from the expansion in population number from a small inoculum as the virus is transmitted between hosts, or from variable selection at linked sites. These results suggest that the population genetics of HIV are best described by stochastic models.

Brown, Andrew J. Leigh

1997-01-01

249

Meeting the Needs of Gifted Students within an RtI Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Response to Intervention (RtI) is sweeping the country, changing the way children's educational needs are recognized and met. RtI was introduced through special education legislation as part of IDEA 2004 and offered an alternative approach for identifying students with learning disabilities (Bender & Shores, 2007). RtI is designed to bring…

Coleman, Mary Ruth; Hughes, Claire E.

2009-01-01

250

Safety and efficacy of 0.6 mg/kg rt-PA: optimum rt-PA dose revisited.  

PubMed

Although the internationally recommended dosage of alteplase, a single-chain rt-PA, is 0.9 mg/kg, 0.6 mg/kg is the only approved dosage in Japan, and it is widely used there. Duteplase is a two-chain rt-PA, and based on findings of the duteplase trials in the early 1990s, the smaller dosage of 0.6 mg/kg of alteplase was tested in the Japan Alteplase Clinical Trial (J-ACT), which indicated that the efficacy/safety profile of this dose was comparable to the 0.9 mg/kg dosage used in other countries. The Japan Alteplase Clinical Trial II (J-ACT II) further demonstrated efficacy of 0.6 mg/kg alteplase with regard to vascular outcomes in patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. Finally, the Japan post-Marketing Alteplase Registration Study (J-MARS) confirmed the efficacy/safety profile of 0.6 mg/kg alteplase in a clinical setting that was comparable to the dose of 0.9 mg/kg in the European counterpart, the Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-Monitoring Study (SITS-MOST). The dose of 0.6 mg/kg seems to be optimal, at least in far-east Asians, and might be extrapolated to other ethnic groups as well. PMID:22994228

Mori, Etsuro

2012-09-01

251

Development of a multiplex one step RT-PCR that detects eighteen respiratory viruses in clinical specimens and comparison with real time RT-PCR.  

PubMed

Rapid and accurate diagnosis of viral respiratory infections is crucial for patient management. Multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) is used increasingly to diagnose respiratory infections and has shown to be more sensitive than viral culture and antigen detection. Objective of the present study was to develop a one-step mRT-PCR that could detect 18 respiratory viruses in three sets. The method was compared with real time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) for its sensitivity and specificity. Clinical specimens from 843 pediatric patients with respiratory symptoms were used in the study. 503 (59.7%) samples were detected positive by mRT-PCR. Of these 462 (54.8%) exhibited presence of a single pathogen and 41 (4.9%) had multiple pathogens. rRT-PCR detected 439 (52.1%) positive samples, where 419 (49.7%) exhibited one virus and 20 (2.4%) showed co-infections. Concordance between mRT-PCR and rRT-PCR was 91.9% and kappa correlation 0.837. Sensitivity and specificity of mRT-PCR were 99.5% and 83.7% while that of rRT-PCR was 86.9% and 99.4% respectively. Rhinovirus (17.2%) was the most frequently detected virus followed by respiratory syncytial virus B (15.4%), H1N1pdm09 (8.54%), parainfluenza virus-3 (5.8%) and metapneumovirus (5.2%). In conclusion, mRT-PCR is a rapid, cost effective, specific and highly sensitive method for detection of respiratory viruses. PMID:23313883

Choudhary, Manohar L; Anand, Siddharth P; Heydari, Mostafa; Rane, Grishma; Potdar, Varsha A; Chadha, Mandeep S; Mishra, Akhilesh C

2013-04-01

252

HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase (RT) Polymorphism 172K Suppresses the Effect of Clinically Relevant Drug Resistance Mutations to Both Nucleoside and Non-nucleoside RT Inhibitors*  

PubMed Central

Polymorphisms have poorly understood effects on drug susceptibility and may affect the outcome of HIV treatment. We have discovered that an HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) polymorphism (RT172K) is present in clinical samples and in widely used laboratory strains (BH10), and it profoundly affects HIV-1 susceptibility to both nucleoside (NRTIs) and non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs) when combined with certain mutations. Polymorphism 172K significantly suppressed zidovudine resistance caused by excision (e.g. thymidine-associated mutations) and not by discrimination mechanism mutations (e.g. Q151M complex). Moreover, it attenuated resistance to nevirapine or efavirenz imparted by NNRTI mutations. Although 172K favored RT-DNA binding at an excisable pre-translocation conformation, it decreased excision by thymidine-associated mutation-containing RT. 172K affected DNA handling and decreased RT processivity without significantly affecting the kcat/Km values for dNTP. Surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed that RT172K decreased DNA binding by increasing the dissociation rate. Hence, the increased zidovudine susceptibility of RT172K results from its increased dissociation from the chain-terminated DNA and reduced primer unblocking. We solved a high resolution (2.15 ?) crystal structure of RT mutated at 172 and compared crystal structures of RT172R and RT172K bound to NNRTIs or DNA/dNTP. Our structural analyses highlight differences in the interactions between ?-helix E (where 172 resides) and the active site ?9-strand that involve the YMDD loop and the NNRTI binding pocket. Such changes may increase dissociation of DNA, thus suppressing excision-based NRTI resistance and also offset the effect of NNRTI resistance mutations thereby restoring NNRTI binding.

Hachiya, Atsuko; Marchand, Bruno; Kirby, Karen A.; Michailidis, Eleftherios; Tu, Xiongying; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Ong, Yee Tsuey; Li, Zhe; Griffin, Daniel T.; Schuckmann, Matthew M.; Tanuma, Junko; Oka, Shinichi; Singh, Kamalendra; Kodama, Eiichi N.; Sarafianos, Stefan G.

2012-01-01

253

Design and development of the RT-2/CZT payload  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The RT-2/CZT spectrometer is one of the satellite payloads to be flown onboard the Coronas-Photon satellite in 2008. It is a collaborative experiment between TIFR, CSP, ISRO (India) and MEPhI (Russia). It is designed to study the solar hard X-ray flare phenomena in the energy range 20 keV - 120 keV using pixilated (2.5 mm times 2.5 mm) cadmium zinc telluride detector array. These detectors along with an image coding device like coded aperture mask (CAM) or fresnel zone plate (FZP) helps in to snap images (in medium X-ray energy ranges) of the solar flares. The design characteristics of this payload are discussed.

Malkar, J. P.; Tawde, Amit; Sreekumar, S.; Hingar, M. K.; Chakrabarti, S. K.; Nandi, Anuj

254

A MERLIN movie of mass-loss from RT Vir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used MERLIN to observe RT Vir at 22 GHz at six epochs during 10 weeks. The water maser emission comes from a thick expanding shell with an elliptical velocity field. MERLIN has a velocity resolution of 0.1 km s-1 and milli-arcsecond angular resolution, revealing details within the individual maser clouds, typically 12 mas in diameter spanning 15 velocity channels. The brightest peak doubles in intensity to 800 Jy/beam. Features at velocities close to the stellar velocity show the largest proper motions of ~3 mas away from the centre of emission. Some features are seen near the outer limits to the maser shell at early epochs only, but new masers appear close to the inner rim. The variability of individual maser features is not a simple function of the stellar luminosity.

Richards, A. M. S.; Cohen, R. J.; Bains, I.; Yates, J. A.

255

Studies on GM-CSF DNA as an adjuvant for neutralizing Ab elicited by a DNA/MVA immunodeficiency virus vaccine.  

PubMed

Here, we use a vaccine consisting of DNA priming followed by MVA boosting in rhesus macaques to investigate the ability of GM-CSF DNA to serve as an adjuvant for the elicitation of neutralizing Ab against an HIV-1 Env. The trial used Gag, Pol, and Env sequences from SHIV-89.6 in the immunogens and a neutralization escape variant of SHIV-89.6, SHIV-89.6P, for challenge. Co-delivery of GM-CSF and vaccine DNAs enhanced the temporal appearance of neutralizing Ab and broadened the specificity of the neutralizing activity to include SHIV-89.6P. Two long-term SHIV-89.6 infections elicited neutralizing activity for SHIV-89.6 but not SHIV-89.6P. Studies on the avidity of the anti-Env antisera revealed that the GM-CSF-adjuvanted vaccine had elicited higher avidity Ab than the non-adjuvanted vaccine or the infection. The GM-CSF-adjuvanted group showed a trend towards better control of the challenge infection and had better control of re-emergent virus (P < 0.01) than the non-adjuvanted group. PMID:16740288

Robinson, Harriet L; Montefiori, David C; Villinger, Francois; Robinson, James E; Sharma, Sunita; Wyatt, Linda S; Earl, Patricia L; McClure, Harold M; Moss, Bernard; Amara, Rama Rao

2006-09-01

256

Gold nanoparticle-based RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus.  

PubMed

Virus isolation and antibody detection are routinely used for diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection, but the low level of transient viremia in some JE patients makes JEV isolation from clinical and surveillance samples very difficult. We describe the use of gold nanoparticle-based RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays for detection of JEV from its RNA genome. We tested the effect of gold nanoparticles on four different PCR systems, including conventional PCR, reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and SYBR green real-time PCR and RT-PCR assays for diagnosis in the acute phase of JEV infection. Gold nanoparticles increased the amplification yield of the PCR product and shortened the PCR time compared to the conventional reaction. In addition, nanogold-based real-time RT-PCR showed a linear relationship between Ct and template amount using ten-fold dilutions of JEV. The nanogold-based RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays were able to detect low levels (1-10?000 copies) of the JEV RNA genomes extracted from culture medium or whole blood, providing early diagnostic tools for the detection of low-level viremia in the acute-phase infection. The assays described here were simple, sensitive, and rapid approaches for detection and quantitation of JEV in tissue cultured samples as well as clinical samples. PMID:21832608

Huang, Su-Hua; Yang, Tsuey-Ching; Tsai, Ming-Hong; Tsai, I-Shou; Lu, Huang-Chih; Chuang, Pei-Hsin; Wan, Lei; Lin, Ying-Ju; Lai, Chih-Ho; Lin, Cheng-Wen

2008-10-01

257

Mutations of Conserved Glycine Residues within the Membrane-Spanning Domain of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gp41 Can Inhibit Membrane Fusion and Incorporation of Env onto Virions  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: The membrane-spanning domain (MSD) of HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) has an additional gly- cine residue within a well-conserved putative transmembrane helix-helix interaction motif, GXXXG, and forms a G690G691XXG694 sequence (G, glycine; X, any residues; the numbering indicates the position within the Env of an infectious molecular clone, HXB2). Different from vesicular stomatitis virus G (VSV-G), the glycine residues of

Kosuke Miyauchi; Rachael Curran; Erin Matthews; Jun Komano; Tyuji Hoshino; Don M. Engelman; Zene Matsuda

258

Neutralization sensitivity of HIV1 Env-pseudotyped virus clones is determined by co-operativity between mutations which modulate the CD4-binding site and those that affect gp120–gp41 stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation of antibody neutralization-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) to growth in vitro generally results in the acquisition of a neutralization-sensitive phenotype, an alteration of viral growth kinetics, and an array of amino acid substitutions associated with these changes. Here we examine a panel of Env chimeras and mutants derived from these neutralization-resistant and -sensitive parental Envs. A range

Simon Beddows; Natalie N. Zheng; Carolina Herrera; Elizabeth Michael; Kelly Barnes; John P. Moore; Rod S. Daniels; Jonathan N. Weber

2005-01-01

259

Targeting of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope to the trans-Golgi Network through Binding to TIP47 Is Required for Env Incorporation into Virions and Infectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we report that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Env glycoprotein is located mainly in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) due to determinants present in the cytoplasmic domain of the transmembrane gp41 glycoprotein (TMgp41). Internalization assays demonstrated that Env present at the cell surface returns to the TGN. We found that the cytoplasmic domain of TMgp41 binds to TIP47, a

Guillaume Blot; Katy Janvier; Sophie Le Panse; Richard Benarous; Clarisse Berlioz-Torrent

2003-01-01

260

Characterization of novel non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor resistance mutations at residues 132 and 135 in the 51 kDa subunit of HIV-1 RT  

PubMed Central

Several rare and novel NNRTI [non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor] resistance mutations were recently detected at codons 132 and 135 in RTs from clinical isolates using the yeast-based chimaeric TyHRT (Ty1/HIV-1 RT) phenotypic assay. Ile132 and Ile135 form part of the ?7–?8 loop of HIV-1 RT (residues 132–140). To elucidate the contribution of these residues in RT structure–function and drug resistance, we constructed twelve recombinant enzymes harbouring mutations at codons 132 and 135–140. Several of the mutant enzymes exhibited reduced DNA polymerase activities. Using the yeast two-hybrid assay for HIV-1 RT dimerization we show that in some instances this decrease in enzyme activity could be attributed to the mutations, in the context of the 51 kDa subunit of HIV-1 RT, disrupting the subunit–subunit interactions of the enzyme. Drug resistance analyses using purified RT, the TyHRT assay and antiviral assays demonstrated that the I132M mutation conferred high-level resistance (>10-fold) to nevirapine and delavirdine and low-level resistance (?2–3-fold) to efavirenz. The I135A and I135M mutations also conferred low level NNRTI resistance (?2-fold). Subunit selective mutagenesis studies again demonstrated that resistance was conferred via the p51 subunit of HIV-1 RT. Taken together, our results highlight a specific role of residues 132 and 135 in NNRTI resistance and a general role for residues in the ?7–?8 loop in the stability of HIV-1 RT.

Nissley, Dwight V.; Radzio, Jessica; Ambrose, Zandrea; Sheen, Chih-Wei; Hamamouch, Noureddine; Moore, Katie L.; Tachedjian, Gilda; Sluis-Cremer, Nicolas

2007-01-01

261

HIV1 Neutralization Profile and Plant-Based Recombinant Expression of Actinohivin, an Env Glycan-Specific Lectin Devoid of T-Cell Mitogenic Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a topical microbicide blocking the sexual transmission of HIV-1 is urgently needed to control the global HIV\\/AIDS pandemic. The actinomycete-derived lectin actinohivin (AH) is highly specific to a cluster of high-mannose-type glycans uniquely found on the viral envelope (Env). Here, we evaluated AH's candidacy toward a microbicide in terms of in vitro anti-HIV-1 activity, potential side effects,

Nobuyuki Matoba; Adam S. Husk; Brian W. Barnett; Michelle M. Pickel; Charles J. Arntzen; David C. Montefiori; Atsushi Takahashi; Kazunobu Tanno; Satoshi Omura; Huyen Cao; Jason P. Mooney; Carl V. Hanson; Haruo Tanaka; Cheryl A. Stoddart

2010-01-01

262

An Adenovirus-Simian Immunodeficiency Virus env Vaccine Elicits Humoral, Cellular, and Mucosal Immune Responses in Rhesus Macaques and Decreases Viral Burden following Vaginal Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six female rhesus macaques were immunized orally and intranasally at 0 weeks and intratracheally at 12 weeks with an adenovirus type 5 host range mutant (Ad5hr)-simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsm env recombinant and at 24 and 36 weeks with native SIVmac251 gp120 in Syntex adjuvant. Four macaques received the Ad5hr vector and adjuvant alone; two additional controls were naive. In vivo

S. L. BUGE; E. RICHARDSON; S. ALIPANAH; P. MARKHAM; S. CHENG; N. KALYAN; C. J. MILLER; M. LUBECK; S. UDEM; J. ELDRIDGE; M. ROBERT-GUROFF

263

Development of an Ad7 cosmid system and generation of an Ad7?E1?E3HIVMN env\\/rev recombinant virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strategy to circumvent immune responses to adenovirus (Ad) resulting from natural infection or repeated vector administrations involves sequential use of vectors from different Ad serotypes. To further develop an Ad-HIV recombinant AIDS vaccine approach, a replication-defective recombinant Ad from a non-subgroup C virus was required. Using a cosmid system, we generated an Ad7?E1?E3HIVMN env\\/rev recombinant virus and compared expression

X Nan; B Peng; T-W Hahn; E Richardson; A Lizonova; I Kovesdi; M Robert-Guroff

2003-01-01

264

A Study of Low pH-Induced Refolding of Env of Avian Sarcoma and Leukosis Virus into a Six-Helix Bundle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fusion protein of avian sarcoma and leukosis virus is likely to fold into a six-helix bundle as part of its final configuration. A peptide, R99, inhibits fusion, probably by binding into the grooves of the triple-stranded coiled coil that becomes the central core of the six-helix bundle. The stages at which the envelope protein (Env) of avian sarcoma and

R. M. Markosyan; P. Bates; F. S. Cohen; G. B. Melikyan

2004-01-01

265

HIV-specific humoral and cellular immunity in rabbits vaccinated with recombinant human immunodeficiency virus-like gag-env particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)-like gag-env particles produced in mammalian cells were inoculated into two New Zealand white rabbits. In parallel, two control rabbits were inoculated with the homologous HIV-1 virions inactivated by ultraviolet light (uv) and psoralen treatments. The humoral and cellular immune responses to HIV-1 were evaluated for both groups of animals. Recombinant particles elicited humoral immunity

O. K. Haffar; M. D. Smithgall; P. A. Moran; B. M. Travis; J. M. Zarling; S. L. Hu

1991-01-01

266

Independent variation and positive selection in env V1 and V2 domains within maternal-infant strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in vivo.  

PubMed Central

Multiple targets for immune recognition and cellular tropism are localized to the V1 and V2 hypervariable regions in the amino portion of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120env. We have assessed genetic diversity in env V1 and V2 hypervariable domains in vivo within epidemiologically related strains of HIV-1. Our strategy was to analyze longitudinal samples from two seropositive mothers and multiple children infected by perinatal transmission. Although the V1 and V2 domains are closely linked in the HIV-1 genome, nucleotide sequences in V1 and in V2 evolved independently in maternal-infant viruses in vivo. A high proportion of the nucleotide substitutions would introduce amino acid diversity in V1 and in V2. A significant excess of nonsynonymous over synonymous substitutions was identified in HIV-1 env V1 and V2 peptides in the mothers and in two older children but was not generally apparent in HIV-1 sequences in infants. An excess of nonsynonymous over synonymous substitutions indicated that there is positive selection for independent genetic variation in the V1 and V2 domains in vivo. It is likely that there are host responses to complex determinants in the V1 or V2 hypervariable domain of HIV-1 gp120.

Lamers, S L; Sleasman, J W; She, J X; Barrie, K A; Pomeroy, S M; Barrett, D J; Goodenow, M M

1993-01-01

267

Real-time RT-PCR for norovirus screening in shellfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time RT-PCR, combining amplification and detection of virus-specific amplicons, is a promising tool for norovirus detection in environmental or food samples such as shellfish. We developed a real-time RT-PCR assay based on one-step detection using single primer sets and probes for norovirus genogroups I and II. Seventy and seven RT-PCR units of genogroup I and II reference norovirus strains, respectively,

F. Loisy; R. L. Atmar; P. Guillon; P. Le Cann; M. Pommepuy; F. S. Le Guyader

2005-01-01

268

MPI\\/RT --- An Emerging Standard for High-Performance Real-Time Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last several years saw an emergence of standardizationactivities for real-time systems includingstandardization of operating systems (series ofPOSIX standards [1]), of communication for distributed(POSIX.21 [15]) and parallel systems (MPI\\/RT [6] andreal-time object management (real-time CORBA [14]).This article describes the ongoing work of real-timemessage passing interface (MPI\\/RT) standardization.MPI\\/RT advances the Message Passing Interface Standard (MPI), emphasizing changes...

Anna Rounbehler; Anthony Skjellum; Arkady Kanevsky

1988-01-01

269

MPI\\/RT - An Emerging Standard for High-Performance Real-Time Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past few years saw an emergence of standardization activities for real-time systems including standardization of operating systems (series of POSIX standards), of communication for distributed (POSIX.21) and parallel systems (MPI\\/RT) and real-time object management (real-time CORBA). The article describes the ongoing work of real-time message passing interface (MPI\\/RT) standardization. MPI\\/RT advances the Message Passing Interface Standard (MPI), emphasizing changes

Arkady Kanevsky; Anthony Skjellum; Anna Rounbehler

1998-01-01

270

Gain estimation of RT-APD devices by means of TCAD numerical simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of Reach-Through Avalanche Photodiodes (RT-APD) for medium energy X-ray detection requires a previous optimization to guarantee elevated gain at the required operation conditions. A simple methodology to estimate the gain in RT-APD devices by using TCAD numerical simulations is proposed in this work. This technique offers the possibility to predict the gain in RT-APDs as a function of

I. Cortes; P. Fernandez-Martinez; D. Flores; S. Hidalgo; J. Rebollo

2011-01-01

271

Development of three multiplex RT-PCR assays for the detection of 12 respiratory RNA viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three multiplex hemi-nested RT-PCR assays were developed to detect simultaneously 12 RNA respiratory viruses: influenza viruses A, B and C, human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), parainfluenza virus types 1–4 (PIV-1, -2, -3 and -4), human coronavirus OC43 and 229E (HCoV) and rhinovirus (hRV). An internal amplification control was included in one of the RT-PCR assays. The RT-PCR

S. Bellau-Pujol; A. Vabret; L. Legrand; J. Dina; S. Gouarin; J. Petitjean-Lecherbonnier; B. Pozzetto; C. Ginevra; F. Freymuth

2005-01-01

272

A mini review of qRT-rtPCR technology application in uncovering the mechanism of food allergy and in the search for novel interventions.  

PubMed

This mini review targets the inclusion of recent selected citations, between the year 2006 and 2012, that implement the qRT-rtPCR technology in their experimental designs, targeting the uncovering of the mechanism of food allergy. In addition, this same technology was implemented in specific experimental designs, aiming at finding novel nutritional, herbal medicine, and tolerance interventions against food allergy. The approach of using qRT-rtPCR technology helped in studying the dynamics of transcription of cytokines and chemokines in intestinal dendritic cells of the experimental animals during the allergic reaction to food. The suppression of transcription of specific cytokines or chemokines by nutritional, herbal medicine, and tolerance interventions was instrumental in the search for finding novel remedies for this health condition, that was traditionally managed by avoidance of offending foods in the diet. PMID:23286237

Barbour, Elie K; Shaib, Houssam A; Ahmadieh, Diana M; Kumosani, Taha; Hamadeh, Shady K; Azhar, Esam; Harakeh, Steve

2013-03-01

273

A mouse mammary tumor virus env-like exogenous sequence is strictly related to progression of human sporadic breast carcinoma.  

PubMed

A viral etiology of human breast cancer (HBC) has been postulated for decades since the identification of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV). The detection of MMTV env-like exogenous sequences (MMTVels) in 30% to 40% of invasive HBCs increased attention to this hypothesis. Looking for MMTVels during cancer progression may contribute to a better understanding of their role in HBC. Herein, we analyzed HBC preinvasive lesions for the presence of MMTVels. Samples were obtained by laser microdissection of FFPE tissues: 20 usual-type ductal hyperplasias, 22 atypical ductal hyperplasias (ADHs), 49 ductal carcinomas in situ (DCISs), 20 infiltrating ductal carcinomas (IDCs), and 26 normal epithelial cells collateral to a DCIS or an IDC. Controls included reductive mammoplastic tissue, thyroid and colon carcinoma, and blood samples from healthy donors. MMTVels were detected by fluorescence-nested PCR. DNA samples from the tissues of nine patients were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR, revealing a different viral load correlated with stage of progression. Furthermore, as never previously described, the presence of MMTVels was investigated by chromogenic in situ hybridization. MMTVels were found in 19% of normal epithelial cells collateral to a DCIS or an IDC, 27% of ADHs, 82% of DCISs, and 35% of IDCs. No MMTVels were found in the control samples. Quantitative PCR and chromogenic in situ hybridization confirmed these results. These data could contribute to our understanding of the role of MMTVels in HBC. PMID:21854742

Mazzanti, Chiara Maria; Al Hamad, Mohammad; Fanelli, Giovanni; Scatena, Cristian; Zammarchi, Francesca; Zavaglia, Katia; Lessi, Francesca; Pistello, Mauro; Naccarato, Antonio Giuseppe; Bevilacqua, Generoso

2011-10-01

274

Phorbol diester-inducible, cyclosporine-suppressible transcription from a novel promoter within the mouse mammary tumor virus env gene  

SciTech Connect

The mouse T-cell lymphoma cell line EL4.E1 constitutively synthesizes mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) transcripts encoding either the entire proviral genome or segments of it. In addition to these conventional mRNAs, however, an mRNA of about 1 kilobase accumulates after induction of these cells with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The accumulation of this transcript is strongly inhibited by the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporin A. Its pattern of induction by PMA and suppression by cyclosporin A is thus the same as seen for several lymphokine mRNAs in these cells, including interleukin-2 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. The short MMTV transcript is the most abundant PMA-induced transcript in EL4.E1 cells, but was not found in a series of other leukocyte tumor cell lines. It is initiated from a novel promoter within the env gene, and a segment of 1,161 nucleotides is then spliced out. The major part of the transcript is a copy of the long terminal repeat (LTR) of MMTV. The MMTV proviral genomes in these cells, and the short transcript, contain a 491-nucleotide deletion in the LTR compared with the normal MMTV provirus. The resulting open reading frame could encode a protein of molecular weight 22,800, which is a likely candidate for an LTR-related protein with a similar molecular weight recently described in this system.

Elliott, J.F.; Pohajdak, B.; Talbot, D.J.; Shaw, J.; Paetkau, V. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

1988-04-01

275

Identification of the hASCT2-binding domain of the Env ERVWE1/syncytin-1 fusogenic glycoprotein  

PubMed Central

The cellular HERV-W envelope/syncytin-1 protein, encoded by the envelope gene of the ERVWE1 proviral locus is a fusogenic glycoprotein probably involved in the formation of the placental syncytiotrophoblast layer. Syncytin-1-induced in vitro cell-cell fusion is dependent on the interaction with hASCT2. As no receptor binding domain has been clearly defined in the SU of neither the HERV-W Env nor the retroviruses of the same interference group, we designed an in vitro binding assay to evaluate the interaction of the HERV-W envelope with the hASCT2 receptor. Using truncated HERV-W SU subunits, a region consisting of the N-terminal 124 amino acids of the mature SU glycoprotein was determined as the minimal receptor-binding domain. This domain contains several sub-domains which are poorly conserved among retroviruses of this interference group but a region of 18 residus containing the SDGGGX2DX2R conserved motif was proved to be essential for syncytin-1-hASCT2 interaction.

Cheynet, Valerie; Oriol, Guy; Mallet, Francois

2006-01-01

276

A Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus env-Like Exogenous Sequence Is Strictly Related to Progression of Human Sporadic Breast Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

A viral etiology of human breast cancer (HBC) has been postulated for decades since the identification of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV). The detection of MMTV env-like exogenous sequences (MMTVels) in 30% to 40% of invasive HBCs increased attention to this hypothesis. Looking for MMTVels during cancer progression may contribute to a better understanding of their role in HBC. Herein, we analyzed HBC preinvasive lesions for the presence of MMTVels. Samples were obtained by laser microdissection of FFPE tissues: 20 usual-type ductal hyperplasias, 22 atypical ductal hyperplasias (ADHs), 49 ductal carcinomas in situ (DCISs), 20 infiltrating ductal carcinomas (IDCs), and 26 normal epithelial cells collateral to a DCIS or an IDC. Controls included reductive mammoplastic tissue, thyroid and colon carcinoma, and blood samples from healthy donors. MMTVels were detected by fluorescence-nested PCR. DNA samples from the tissues of nine patients were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR, revealing a different viral load correlated with stage of progression. Furthermore, as never previously described, the presence of MMTVels was investigated by chromogenic in situ hybridization. MMTVels were found in 19% of normal epithelial cells collateral to a DCIS or an IDC, 27% of ADHs, 82% of DCISs, and 35% of IDCs. No MMTVels were found in the control samples. Quantitative PCR and chromogenic in situ hybridization confirmed these results. These data could contribute to our understanding of the role of MMTVels in HBC.

Mazzanti, Chiara Maria; Al Hamad, Mohammad; Fanelli, Giovanni; Scatena, Cristian; Zammarchi, Francesca; Zavaglia, Katia; Lessi, Francesca; Pistello, Mauro; Naccarato, Antonio Giuseppe; Bevilacqua, Generoso

2011-01-01

277

The Environmental-Data Automated Track Annotation (Env-DATA) System: Linking Animal Tracks with Environmental Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The movement of animals is strongly influenced by external factors in their surrounding environment such as weather, habitat types, and human land use. With the advances in positioning and sensor technologies, it is now possible to capture data of animal locations at high spatial and temporal granularities. Likewise, modern technology provides us with an increasing access to large volumes of environmental data, some of which changes on an hourly basis. Although there have been strong developments in computational methods for the analysis of movement in its environmental context, there remain challenges in efficiently linking the spatiotemporal locations of animals with the appropriate environmental conditions along their trajectories. To this end, our new Environmental-Data Automated Track Annotation (Env-DATA) system enhances Movebank, an open portal of animal tracking data, by automating access to environmental variables from global remote sensing, weather, and ecosystem products. The system automates the download and decryption of the data from open web resources of remote sensing and weather data, and provides several interpolation methods from the native grid resolution and structure to a global regular grid linked with the movement tracks in space and time. The system is open and free to any user with movement data. The aim is to facilitate new understanding and predictive capabilities of spatiotemporal patterns of animal movement in response to dynamic and changing environments from local to global scales. The system is illustrated with a series of case studies of pan-American migrations of turkey vultures, and foraging flights of Galapagos Albatross.

Bohrer, G.; Dodge, S.; Weinzierl, R.; Davidson, S. C.; Kays, R.; Douglas, D. C.; Brandes, D.; Bildstein, K.; Wikelski, M.

2013-12-01

278

TRAUMATIC SUBMACULAR HEMORRHAGE TREATED WITH rt-PA AND SF6 HEMORRAGIA SUBMACULAR TRAUMÁTICA TRATADA CON rt-PA y SF6  

Microsoft Academic Search

Case report: This patient was afflicted by a trau- matic submacular hemorrhage. A posterior vitrec- tomy was performed and intravitreal rt-PA and SF6 were administered. Four weeks later, the visual acuity had increased from 0.1 to 0.8. No complica- tions due to the treatment with rt-PA were reported. Discussion: It is known that waiting for the sponta- neous blood removal

HERAS-MULERO H; GARCÍA-GÓMEZ PJ; SÁDABA-ECHARRI LM; SALINAS-ALAMÁN A; GARCÍA-LAYANA A

279

Gold nanoparticle-based RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virus isolation and antibody detection are routinely used for diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection, but the low level of transient viremia in some JE patients makes JEV isolation from clinical and surveillance samples very difficult. We describe the use of gold nanoparticle-based RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays for detection of JEV from its RNA genome. We tested

Su-Hua Huang; Tsuey-Ching Yang; Ming-Hong Tsai; I.-Shou Tsai; Huang-Chih Lu; Pei-Hsin Chuang; Lei Wan; Ying-Ju Lin; Chih-Ho Lai; Cheng-Wen Lin

2008-01-01

280

DaRT: A CALL System to Help Students Practice and Develop Reasoning Skills in Choosing English Articles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes DaRT, a computer assisted language-learning system for helping English-as-a-Second-Language students master English articles. DaRT uses a diagrammatic reasoning tool to present communicative contexts for exercises in choosing appropriate articles. This paper describes the development of DaRT and DaRT's system components and concludes…

Yoshii, Rika; Milne, Alastair

1998-01-01

281

G-CSF, rt-PA and combination therapy after experimental thromboembolic stroke  

PubMed Central

Background Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) has remarkable neuroprotective properties. Due to its proven safety profile, G-CSF is currently used in clinical stroke trials. As neuroprotectants are considered to be more effective in the early phase of cerebral ischemia and during reperfusion, G-CSF should to be tested in combination with thrombolysis. Therefore, combination therapy was investigated in an experimental model of thromboembolic stroke. Methods Male Wistar rats (n = 72) were subjected to a model of thromboembolic occlusion (TE) of the middle cerebral artery. Different groups (n = 12 each) treated by recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator (rt-PA) or/and G-CSF: group control (control), group early G-CSF (G-CSF 60 min after TE), group rt-PA (rt-PA 60 min after TE), group com (combination rt-PA/G-CSF), group delayed rt-PA (rt-PA after 180 min), group deco (G-CSF after 60 min, rt-PA after 180 min). Animals were investigated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and silver infarct staining (SIS) 24 hours after TE. Results Early G-CSF or rt-PA reduced the infarct size compared to all groups (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01) with the exception of group com, (p = n.s.) as measured by T2, DWI, and SIS. Late administration of rt-PA lead to high mortality and larger infarcts compared to all other groups (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01). Pre-treatment by G-CSF (deco) reduced infarct site compared to delayed rt-PA treatment (p < 0.05). G-CSF did not significantly influence PWI when combined with rt-PA. All animals treated by rt-PA showed improved parameters in PWI indicating reperfusion. Conclusions G-CSF was neuroprotective when given early after TE. Early combination with rt-PA showed no additional benefit compared to rt-PA or G-CSF alone, but did not lead to side effects. Pretreatment by G-CSF was able to reduce deleterious effects of late rt-PA treatment.

2010-01-01

282

Primary characterization of the protein products of the Escherichia coli ompB locus: structure and regulation of synthesis of the OmpR and EnvZ proteins.  

PubMed Central

The ompB operon of Escherichia coli contains the structural genes for two proteins, OmpR and EnvZ, which control the osmoregulated biosynthesis of the porin proteins OmpF and OmpC. By inserting XbaI octamer linkers into the cloned ompB locus, four distinct frameshift mutants were isolated and subsequently characterized for their OmpR and EnvZ protein products and their outer membrane porin phenotype. In a minicell expression system, the wild-type products of the ompR and envZ genes were found to be approximately 28 and 50 kilodaltons in size, respectively, whereas the mutant proteins were either truncated or extended due to the frame shift. The identity of the envZ gene product was confirmed by immunoprecipitation. M13 dideoxy sequencing of the DNA around the wild-type ompR-envZ junction revealed an error in the sequence published for this operon; the complete corrected sequence is presented. A sequence, ATGA, was found that forms the termination codon for the OmpR reading frame and a possible initiation codon for the EnvZ protein; these sequences are consistent with the sizes of the proteins observed after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The translational activity of this ATG codon was confirmed by fusing the lacZ gene in frame with the putative EnvZ coding sequence. The implications of these results are discussed with respect to the regulation of synthesis of the ompB gene products. Images

Comeau, D E; Ikenaka, K; Tsung, K L; Inouye, M

1985-01-01

283

Highly Effective Control of an AIDS Virus Challenge in Macaques by Using Vesicular Stomatitis Virus and Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Vaccine Vectors in a Single-Boost Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that vaccination and boosting of rhesus macaques with attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vectors encoding Env and Gag proteins of simian immunodeficiency virus-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) hybrid viruses protect rhesus macaques from AIDS after challenge with the highly pathogenic SHIV 89.6P (23). In the present study, we compared the effectiveness of a single prime-boost protocol consisting

Elizabeth Ramsburg; Nina F. Rose; Preston A. Marx; Megan Mefford; Douglas F. Nixon; Walter J. Moretto; David Montefiori; Patricia Earl; Bernard Moss; John K. Rose

2004-01-01

284

Effects of Contextual Similarity and Target-Repetition Proportion on Negative Priming in RT Distributional Analyses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants' reaction time (RT) data in a prime-probe flanker task (e.g., ABA-CAC) were analyzed in terms of the characteristics of RT distribution to examine possible mechanisms that produce negative priming. When the prime and probe were presented in the same context and the proportion of repetition-target trials (TRP) was 0.33, negative…

Tse, Chi-Shing; Hutchison, Keith A.; Li, Yongna

2011-01-01

285

District-Level Considerations in Supporting and Sustaining RtI Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although Response to Intervention (RtI) implementation efforts have been occurring in schools across the country for more than a decade, questions and concerns are emerging, as some schools are not observing significantly improved student achievement or behavior outcomes as expected. In the literature on RtI implementation, most authors indicate…

O'Connor, Edward P.; Freeman, Elizabeth Witter

2012-01-01

286

SPoRT-WRF: Evaluating the Impact of NASA Datasets on Convective Forecasts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) seeks to improve short-term, regional weather forecasts using unique NASA products and capabilities SPoRT has developed a unique, real-time configuration of the NASA Unified Weather Research and Foreca...

A. Molthan B. Zavodsky D. Kozlowski J. Case

2012-01-01

287

The Practical Teaching of Thinking Using the CoRT Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widely used CoRT program is founded on the beliefs that if thinking skills are to be learned well, they must be taught directly, not incidentally, and that regular teachers in regular classes are, with brief training, equipped to teach those skills. Because CoRT focuses on process (through the use of thinking tools) rather than on content, learners can readily

Edward de Bono

1985-01-01

288

Development of a multiplex RT-PCR-ELISA to identify four distinct species of tospovirus.  

PubMed

In this study, a multiplex RT-PCR-ELISA was developed to detect and differentiate four tospovirus species found in Thailand, namely Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV), Melon yellow spot virus (MYSV), Tomato necrotic ringspot virus (TNRV), and Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV). In this system, nucleocapsid (N) gene fragments of four tospoviruses were simultaneously amplified and labeled with digoxigenin (DIG) in a single RT-PCR reaction using a pair of degenerate primers binding to the same conserved regions in all four tospovirus N genes. The DIG-labeled amplicons were distinguished into species by four parallel hybridizations to species-specific biotinylated probes in streptavidin-coated microtiter wells followed by ELISA detection using a peroxidase-conjugated anti-DIG antibody. Results indicated that the multiplex RT-PCR-ELISA assay could specifically identify each of these four tospoviruses without cross-reactivity between species or reactivity to healthy plant negative controls. Assay sensitivity was 10- to 1000-fold higher than conventional RT-PCR. When applied to naturally infected plants, all samples yielded concordant results between RT-PCR-ELISA and the reference RT-PCR. In conclusion, the multiplex RT-PCR-ELISA developed in this study has superior specificity, sensitivity, and high-throughput capacity compared to conventional RT-PCR and is an attractive alternative for the identification of different tospovirus species. PMID:24642237

Charoenvilaisiri, Saengsoon; Seepiban, Channarong; Bhunchoth, Anjana; Warin, Nuchnard; Luxananil, Plearnpis; Gajanandana, Oraprapai

2014-06-01

289

Using iRT, a normalized retention time for more targeted measurement of peptides.  

PubMed

Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) has recently become the method of choice for targeted quantitative measurement of proteins using mass spectrometry. The method, however, is limited in the number of peptides that can be measured in one run. This number can be markedly increased by scheduling the acquisition if the accurate retention time (RT) of each peptide is known. Here we present iRT, an empirically derived dimensionless peptide-specific value that allows for highly accurate RT prediction. The iRT of a peptide is a fixed number relative to a standard set of reference iRT-peptides that can be transferred across laboratories and chromatographic systems. We show that iRT facilitates the setup of multiplexed experiments with acquisition windows more than four times smaller compared to in silico RT predictions resulting in improved quantification accuracy. iRTs can be determined by any laboratory and shared transparently. The iRT concept has been implemented in Skyline, the most widely used software for MRM experiments. PMID:22577012

Escher, Claudia; Reiter, Lukas; MacLean, Brendan; Ossola, Reto; Herzog, Franz; Chilton, John; MacCoss, Michael J; Rinner, Oliver

2012-04-01

290

The SPoRT Center - Infusing NASA Technology Into NWS WFO  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Webcast introduces the SPoRT Center, a joint NASA and National Weather Service project to provide unique NASA datasets to several forecast offices and evaluate their usefulness and impact on forecast operations. The presentation provides a description of the SPoRT Center, examples of its collaborations with weather forecast offices, and demonstrates use of MODIS data, AMSR-E derived products and lightning flash density product applications. It also includes mention of the projects the SPoRT Center will likely undertake in the future. The information contained in this Webcast reflects the status of the SPoRT program as of the summer of 2006. Since the SPoRT program evolves to meet NASA program objectives, some of the capabilities or activities portrayed in this presentation may have changed since its original production.

Spangler, Tim

2007-02-28

291

DaRT: A Java Tool for Retrieving Archived Telescope Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DaRT is a client-side Java graphical user interface used for simultaneous retrieval of multiple documents and/or archived scientific instrument data sets which can be accessed via the World Wide Web. DaRT is currently used worldwide by astronomers to retrieve data sets from the BIMA Data Archive. DaRT can be configured to support data set retrieval from multiple data archives; an archivist can configure DaRT to support her archive simply by creating a short text file. Optionally, DaRT can support more features of an archive if more properties are added to this configuration file and/or by supplying an archive-specific Java class.

Mehringer, D. M.; Plante, R. L.

292

Potential Utility of the Real-Time TMPA-RT Precipitation Estimates in Streamflow Prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigate the potential utility of the real-time Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA-RT) data for streamflow prediction, both through direct comparisons of TMPA-RT estimates with a gridded gauge product, and through evaluation of streamflow simulations over four tributaries of La Plata Basin (LPB) in South America using the two precipitation products. Our assessments indicate that the relative accuracy and the hydrologic performance of TMPA-RT-based streamflow simulations generally improved after February 2005. The improvements in TMPA-RT since 2005 are closely related to upgrades in the TMPA-RT algorithm in early February, 2005 which include use of additional microwave sensors (AMSR-E and AMSU-B) and implementation of different calibration schemes. Our work suggests considerable potential for hydrologic prediction using purely satellite-derived precipitation estimates (no adjustments by in situ gauges) in parts of the globe where in situ observations are sparse.

Su, Fengge; Gao, Huilin; Huffman, George J.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

2010-01-01

293

Molecular and biological characterization of simian-human immunodeficiency virus-like particles produced by recombinant fowlpox viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virus-like particles (VLPs) mimicking the simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV89.6P (VLPSHIV) were produced by co-infection of Vero cells with fowlpox SIVgag\\/pol (FPgag\\/polSIV) and fowlpox HIV-1env89.6P (FPenv89.6P) recombinant viruses. As a necessary prerequisite for a more efficient vaccine approach, ultrastructural, functional and molecular characterizations of VLPSHIV were performed in the SHIV-macaque model to verify the similarity of these particles to SHIV89.6P. Here

Carlo Zanotto; Manuela Paganini; Veronica Elli; Valeria Basavecchia; Margherita Neri; Carlo De Giuli Morghen; Antonia Radaelli

2005-01-01

294

Convergent Evolution of Reverse Transcriptase (RT) Genes of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtypes E and B following Nucleoside Analogue RT Inhibitor Therapies  

PubMed Central

Changes in the drug susceptibility, gene lineage, and deduced amino acid sequences of the reverse transcriptase (RT) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype E following 3?-azido-3?-deoxythymidine (AZT) monotherapy or AZT–2?,3?-dideoxyinosine combination therapy were examined with sequential virus isolates from a single family. The changes were compared to those reported for HIV-1 subtype B, revealing striking similarities in selected phenotype and amino acids independent of differences in the RT backbone sequences that constantly distinguish the two subtypes. Particularly, identical amino acid substitutions were present simultaneously at four different positions (D67N, K70R, T215F, and K219Q) for high-level AZT resistance. These data suggest that HIV-1 subtypes E and B evolve convergently at the phenotypic and amino acid levels when the nucleoside analogue RT inhibitors act as selective forces.

Sato, Hironori; Tomita, Yasuhiro; Shibamura, Kayo; Shiino, Teiichiro; Miyakuni, Tuyoshi; Takebe, Yutaka

2000-01-01

295

A Next-Generation Cleaved, Soluble HIV-1 Env Trimer, BG505 SOSIP.664 gp140, Expresses Multiple Epitopes for Broadly Neutralizing but Not Non-Neutralizing Antibodies  

PubMed Central

A desirable but as yet unachieved property of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidate is the ability to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). One approach to the problem is to create trimeric mimics of the native envelope glycoprotein (Env) spike that expose as many bNAb epitopes as possible, while occluding those for non-neutralizing antibodies (non-NAbs). Here, we describe the design and properties of soluble, cleaved SOSIP.664 gp140 trimers based on the subtype A transmitted/founder strain, BG505. These trimers are highly stable, more so even than the corresponding gp120 monomer, as judged by differential scanning calorimetry. They are also homogenous and closely resemble native virus spikes when visualized by negative stain electron microscopy (EM). We used several techniques, including ELISA and surface plasmon resonance (SPR), to determine the relationship between the ability of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to bind the soluble trimers and neutralize the corresponding virus. In general, the concordance was excellent, in that virtually all bNAbs against multiple neutralizing epitopes on HIV-1 Env were highly reactive with the BG505 SOSIP.664 gp140 trimers, including quaternary epitopes (CH01, PG9, PG16 and PGT145). Conversely, non-NAbs to the CD4-binding site, CD4-induced epitopes or gp41ECTO did not react with the trimers, even when their epitopes were present on simpler forms of Env (e.g. gp120 monomers or dissociated gp41 subunits). Three non-neutralizing MAbs to V3 epitopes did, however, react strongly with the trimers but only by ELISA, and not at all by SPR and to only a limited extent by EM. These new soluble trimers are useful for structural studies and are being assessed for their performance as immunogens.

Sanders, Rogier W.; Derking, Ronald; Cupo, Albert; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Yasmeen, Anila; de Val, Natalia; Kim, Helen J.; Blattner, Claudia; de la Pena, Alba Torrents; Korzun, Jacob; Golabek, Michael; de los Reyes, Kevin; Ketas, Thomas J.; van Gils, Marit J.; King, C. Richter; Wilson, Ian A.; Ward, Andrew B.; Klasse, P. J.; Moore, John P.

2013-01-01

296

A next-generation cleaved, soluble HIV-1 Env Trimer, BG505 SOSIP.664 gp140, expresses multiple epitopes for broadly neutralizing but not non-neutralizing antibodies.  

PubMed

A desirable but as yet unachieved property of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidate is the ability to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). One approach to the problem is to create trimeric mimics of the native envelope glycoprotein (Env) spike that expose as many bNAb epitopes as possible, while occluding those for non-neutralizing antibodies (non-NAbs). Here, we describe the design and properties of soluble, cleaved SOSIP.664 gp140 trimers based on the subtype A transmitted/founder strain, BG505. These trimers are highly stable, more so even than the corresponding gp120 monomer, as judged by differential scanning calorimetry. They are also homogenous and closely resemble native virus spikes when visualized by negative stain electron microscopy (EM). We used several techniques, including ELISA and surface plasmon resonance (SPR), to determine the relationship between the ability of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to bind the soluble trimers and neutralize the corresponding virus. In general, the concordance was excellent, in that virtually all bNAbs against multiple neutralizing epitopes on HIV-1 Env were highly reactive with the BG505 SOSIP.664 gp140 trimers, including quaternary epitopes (CH01, PG9, PG16 and PGT145). Conversely, non-NAbs to the CD4-binding site, CD4-induced epitopes or gp41ECTO did not react with the trimers, even when their epitopes were present on simpler forms of Env (e.g. gp120 monomers or dissociated gp41 subunits). Three non-neutralizing MAbs to V3 epitopes did, however, react strongly with the trimers but only by ELISA, and not at all by SPR and to only a limited extent by EM. These new soluble trimers are useful for structural studies and are being assessed for their performance as immunogens. PMID:24068931

Sanders, Rogier W; Derking, Ronald; Cupo, Albert; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Yasmeen, Anila; de Val, Natalia; Kim, Helen J; Blattner, Claudia; de la Peña, Alba Torrents; Korzun, Jacob; Golabek, Michael; de Los Reyes, Kevin; Ketas, Thomas J; van Gils, Marit J; King, C Richter; Wilson, Ian A; Ward, Andrew B; Klasse, P J; Moore, John P

2013-09-01

297

CD4 down-modulation during infection of human T cells with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 involves independent activities of vpu, env, and nef.  

PubMed Central

The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genes vpu, env, and nef have all been implicated in modulating the levels of cell surface CD4 on infected cells. To quantitatively assess the relative contribution of each gene product to the regulation of CD4 during HIV infection of Jurkat T cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we have developed an infectious HIV reporter system which expresses different combinations of these genes. To distinguish infected cells in the early or late stages of infection from uninfected cells, these viruses were designed to express human placental alkaline phosphatase with the kinetics of either early or late viral genes. Flow cytometry to detect placental alkaline phosphatase and CD4 in infected cells showed that vpu, env, and nef are independently capable of down-modulation of CD4. As predicted by their respective expression patterns, nef down-modulated CD4 rapidly during the early phase of virus infection whereas vpu and env functioned late in the infection. In both Jurkat cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, a combination of the three genes was more efficient than any one or two genes, demonstrating that all three genes are required to achieve maximal CD4 down-modulation. In primary cells, down-modulation of CD4 was less efficient than in Jurkat cells and there was a stronger dependence on nef function for reducing cell surface CD4. HIV therefore has three genes that are able to independently down-modulate CD4; together, they can eliminate the bulk of cell surface CD4.

Chen, B K; Gandhi, R T; Baltimore, D

1996-01-01

298

An adenovirus-simian immunodeficiency virus env vaccine elicits humoral, cellular, and mucosal immune responses in rhesus macaques and decreases viral burden following vaginal challenge.  

PubMed Central

Six female rhesus macaques were immunized orally and intranasally at 0 weeks and intratracheally at 12 weeks with an adenovirus type 5 host range mutant (Ad5hr)-simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsm env recombinant and at 24 and 36 weeks with native SIVmac251 gp120 in Syntex adjuvant. Four macaques received the Ad5hr vector and adjuvant alone; two additional controls were naive. In vivo replication of the Ad5hr wild-type and recombinant vectors occurred with detection of Ad5 DNA in stool samples and/or nasal secretions in all macaques and increases in Ad5 neutralizing antibody in 9 of 10 macaques following Ad administrations. SIV-specific neutralizing antibodies appeared after the second recombinant immunization and rose to titers > 10,000 following the second subunit boost. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibodies able to bind gp120 developed in nasal and rectal secretions, and SIV-specific IgGs were also observed in vaginal secretions and saliva. T-cell proliferative responses to SIV gp140 and T-helper epitopes were sporadically detected in all immunized macaques. Following vaginal challenge with SIVmac251, transient or persistent infection resulted in both immunized and control monkeys. The mean viral burden in persistently infected immunized macaques was significantly decreased in the primary infection period compared to that of control macaques. These results establish in vivo use of the Ad5hr vector, which overcomes the host range restriction of human Ads for rhesus macaques, thereby providing a new model for evaluation of Ad-based vaccines. In addition, they show that a vaccine regimen using the Ad5hr-SIV env recombinant and gp120 subunit induces strong humoral, cellular, and mucosal immunity in rhesus macaques. The reduced viral burden achieved solely with an env-based vaccine supports further development of Ad-based vaccines comprising additional viral components for immune therapy and AIDS vaccine development.

Buge, S L; Richardson, E; Alipanah, S; Markham, P; Cheng, S; Kalyan, N; Miller, C J; Lubeck, M; Udem, S; Eldridge, J; Robert-Guroff, M

1997-01-01

299

Detection of noroviruses in fecal specimens by direct RT-PCR without RNA purification.  

PubMed

Noroviruses are important human pathogens which cause epidemic acute viral gastroenteritis. Current techniques used for detection of noroviruses in fecal specimens involve multi-step viral RNA extraction and purification followed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). This study demonstrates a method for easy detection of norovirus in fecal specimens, involving one-step RNA release and direct use of the released RNA for RT-PCR (direct RT-PCR). For one-step RNA release, a simple method was adopted based on addition of the sample treatment reagent from a commercialized Norovirus GI and GII RNA Detection Kit to suspended fecal specimens, followed by a brief heat treatment. The released RNA was then added directly to the RT mixture from the same kit. After reverse transcription and PCR, the product was detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. Direct RT-PCR was evaluated with 275 fecal specimens comprising 230 norovirus-positive and 45 norovirus-negative samples as assessed by real-time RT-PCR, considered to be the "gold standard" for norovirus detection. Direct RT-PCR was sufficiently specific and sensitive for norovirus detection, and eliminated the RNA extraction and purification step. Use of this method should facilitate detection of norovirus in fecal specimens and provide valuable information regarding the incidence of the virus. In addition, this method should be applicable for other RNA viruses. PMID:19878699

Nishimura, Naoyuki; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Yoshizumi, Shima; Miyoshi, Masahiro; Tonoike, Hiroshi; Shirasaki, Yoshinari; Kojima, Kouichi; Ishida, Setsuko

2010-02-01

300

ScriptingRT: A Software Library for Collecting Response Latencies in Online Studies of Cognition  

PubMed Central

ScriptingRT is a new open source tool to collect response latencies in online studies of human cognition. ScriptingRT studies run as Flash applets in enabled browsers. ScriptingRT provides the building blocks of response latency studies, which are then combined with generic Apache Flex programming. Six studies evaluate the performance of ScriptingRT empirically. Studies 1–3 use specialized hardware to measure variance of response time measurement and stimulus presentation timing. Studies 4–6 implement a Stroop paradigm and run it both online and in the laboratory, comparing ScriptingRT to other response latency software. Altogether, the studies show that Flash programs developed in ScriptingRT show a small lag and an increased variance in response latencies. However, this did not significantly influence measured effects: The Stroop effect was reliably replicated in all studies, and the found effects did not depend on the software used. We conclude that ScriptingRT can be used to test response latency effects online.

Schubert, Thomas W.; Murteira, Carla; Collins, Elizabeth C.; Lopes, Diniz

2013-01-01

301

A novel detection system for the genetically modified canola (Brassica rapa) line RT73.  

PubMed

The herbicide-tolerant genetically modified Roundup Ready canola (Brassica napus) line RT73 has been approved worldwide for use in animal feed and human food. However, RT73 Brassica rapa lines derived from interspecific crosses with RT73 B. napus have not been approved in Japan. Here, we report on a novel system using individual kernel analyses for the qualitative detection of RT73 B. rapa in canola grain samples. We developed a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to discriminate B. napus and B. rapa DNA using scatter plots of the end-point analyses; this method was able to discriminate a group comprising B. rapa and Brassica juncea from a group comprising B. napus, Brassica carinata, and Brassica oleracea. We also developed a duplex real-time PCR method for the simultaneous detection of an RT73-specific sequence and an endogenous FatA gene. Additionally, a DNA-extraction method using 96-well silica-membrane plates was developed and optimized for use with individual canola kernels. Our detection system could identify RT73 B. rapa kernels in canola grain samples enabling the accurate and reliable monitoring of RT73 B. rapa contamination in canola, thus playing a role in its governmental regulation in Japan. PMID:21049930

Akiyama, Hiroshi; Makiyama, Daiki; Nakamura, Kosuke; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Teshima, Reiko

2010-12-01

302

Temperature Affects Thrombolytic Efficacy Using rt-PA and Eptifibatide, an In Vitro Study  

PubMed Central

The potential for hypothermia as a neuroprotectant during stroke has led to its increase in clinical use. At the same time, combination pharmaceutical therapies for ischemic stroke using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), and GP IIb-IIIa inhibitors, such as Eptifibatide (Epf?), are under study. However, there is little data on how the reactions triggered by these agents are impacted by temperature. Here, clot lysis during exposure to the combination of rt-PA and Epf is measured in an in vitro human clot model at hypothermic temperatures. The hypothesis is that lytic efficacy of rt-PA and Epf decreases with decreasing temperature. Whole blood clots from 31 volunteers were exposed to rt-PA (0.5??g/mL) and Epf (0.63??g/mL) in human fresh-frozen plasma (rt-PA+Epf?), rt-PA alone in plasma (rt-PA Alone), or to plasma alone (Control), at temperatures from 30°C to 37°C, for 30 minutes. Clot lysis was measured using a microscopic imaging technique; the mean fractional clot loss (FCL) at 30 minutes was used to determine lytic efficacy. Temperature had a significant impact on FCL in clots exposed to rt-PA+Epf, with the FCL being lower at 30°C to 36°C than at 37°C. The FCL remained significantly higher for rt-PA+Epf–treated clots than Controls regardless of temperature, with the exception of measurements made at 30°C when no significant differences in the FCL were observed between groups. The use of hypothermia as a neuroprotectant may negatively impact the therapeutic benefit of thrombolytic agents.

Chang, Wan-Tsu W.; Bluett, Brent; Wenker, Evan; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Shaw, George J.

2012-01-01

303

Comparative evaluation of ‘TaqMan’ RT-PCR and RT-PCR ELISA for immunological monitoring of renal transplant recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

By sequentially monitoring cytokine gene expression (using RT-PCR ELISA technology) in peripheral blood cells of renal transplant recipients in the early post-operatively period we have shown that expression patterns correlate with clinical events, namely acute allograft rejection. This strategy may have the potential of predicting acute rejection prior to clinical detection. Unfortunately, the technique used was time consuming and only

Paul J Gibbs; Lam Chin Tan; Sami A Sadek; W. Martin Howell

2003-01-01

304

Co-regulation of polysaccharide production, motility, and expression of type III secretion genes by EnvZ/OmpR and GrrS/GrrA systems in Erwinia amylovora.  

PubMed

The EnvZ/OmpR and GrrS/GrrA systems, two widely distributed two-component systems in gamma-Proteobacteria, negatively control amylovoran biosynthesis in Erwinia amylovora, and the two systems regulate motility in an opposing manner. In this study, we examined the interplay of EnvZ/OmpR and GrrS/GrrA systems in controlling various virulence traits in E. amylovora. Results showed that amylovoran production was significantly higher when both systems were inactivated, indicating that the two systems act as negative regulators and their combined effect on amylovoran production appears to be enhanced. In contrast, reduced motility was observed when both systems were deleted as compared to that of grrA/grrS mutants and WT strain, indicating that the two systems antagonistically regulate motility in E. amylovora. In addition, glycogen accumulation was much higher in envZ/ompR and two triple mutants than that of grrS/grrA mutants and WT strain, suggesting that EnvZ/OmpR plays a dominant role in regulating glycogen accumulation, whereas levan production was significantly lower in the grrS/grrA and two triple mutants as compared with that of WT and envZ/ompR mutants, indicating that GrrS/GrrA system dominantly controls levan production. Furthermore, both systems negatively regulated expression of three type III secretion (T3SS) genes and their combined negative effect on hrp-T3SS gene expression increased when both systems were deleted. These results demonstrated that EnvZ/OmpR and GrrS/GrrA systems co-regulate various virulence factors in E. amylovora by still unknown mechanisms or through different target genes, sRNAs, or proteins, indicating that a complex regulatory network may be involved, which needs to be further explored. PMID:24218204

Li, Wenting; Ancona, Veronica; Zhao, Youfu

2014-02-01

305

Association between maternal antibodies to the external envelope glycoprotein and vertical transmission of human T-lymphotropic virus type I. Maternal anti-env antibodies correlate with protection in non-breast-fed children.  

PubMed Central

Vertical transmission of human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) depends primarily on breast-feeding; substitution of bottle-feeding has reduced the transmission rate from 20% in breast-fed children to 3% among bottle-fed. To determine the correlates of transmission for long breast-feeding (> or = 6 mo), short breast-feeding (< 6 mo), and bottle-feeding mothers, the antibody titers of transmitter (T) mothers and non-transmitter (nT) mothers were analyzed by using synthetic and recombinant epitopes representing the immunodominant epitopes of gag (Gag1a, r24), env (Env1/5, MTA1, RE3), and tax (Tax8/22-24) proteins. Seroreactivity to gag and tax epitopes was not significantly different except for anti-r24 antibody titer, which was significantly higher among T-mothers (geometric mean 134) when compared with nT-mothers (62) in the long-feeding group (P < 0.001). Profiles of antibody titers against env epitopes were different. Within the long-feeding group, Env1/5, MTA1, and RE3 titers were significantly higher among T-mothers (258, 1,476, and 738, respectively) when compared with nT-mothers (106, 279, and 320, respectively) (P < 0.01 for all three epitopes). In contrast, within the bottle-feeding group, antibody titers to Env1/5 (269) and RE3 (418) among nT-mothers were significantly higher than those among T-mothers (80 and 113, respectively) (P < 0.01). These data confirm that high-titered anti-HTLV-I antibodies in the long-feeding group correlate with milk-borne transmission of HTLV-I and, more importantly, imply that maternal anti-env antibodies may reduce the risk of non-milkborne infection. Images

Hino, S; Katamine, S; Miyamoto, T; Doi, H; Tsuji, Y; Yamabe, T; Kaplan, J E; Rudolph, D L; Lal, R B

1995-01-01

306

The mutation T477A in HIV1 reverse transcriptase (RT) restores normal proteolytic processing of RT in virus with Gag-Pol mutated in the p51-RNH cleavage site  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The p51 subunit of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) p66\\/p51 heterodimer arises from proteolytic cleavage of the RT p66 subunit C-terminal ribonuclease H (RNH) domain during virus maturation. Our previous work showed that mutations in the RT p51?RNH cleavage site resulted in virus with defects in proteolytic processing of RT and significantly attenuated infectivity. In some cases, virus fitness

Michael E Abram; Stefan G Sarafianos; Michael A Parniak

2010-01-01

307

NASA/SPoRt: GOES-R Activities in Support of Product Development, Management, and Training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SPoRT is using current capabilities of MODIS and VIIRS, combined with current GOES (i.e. Hybrid Imagery) to demonstrate mesoscale capabilities of future ABI instrument. SPoRT is transitioning RGBs from EUMETSAT standard "recipes" to demonstrate a method to more efficiently handle the increase channels/frequency of ABI. Challenges for RGB production exist. Internal vs. external production, Bit depth needed, Adding quantitative information, etc. SPoRT forming group to address these issues. SPoRT is leading efforts on the application of total lightning in operations and to educate users of this new capability. Training in many forms is used to support testbed activities and is a key part to the transition process.

Fuell, Kevin; Jedlovec, Gary; Molthan, Andrew; Stano, Geoffrey

2012-01-01

308

Transition and Evaluation of RGB Imagery to WFOs and National Centers by NASA SPoRT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MODIS Snow/Cloud and True Color RGB imagery has been used by SPoRT partners since 2004 to examine changes in surface features such as snow cover, vegetation, ocean color, fires, smoke plumes, and oil spills.

Fuell, Kevin K.; Molthan, Andrew L.

2012-01-01

309

[Thyroid function and trisomy 21. TSH increase and rT3 deficiency].  

PubMed

An excess of thyrotropin (TSH) with normal levels of tetraiodothyronine (T4) and of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) was confirmed in the serum of 78 trisomy 21 children. A severe deficiency of 3,3',5'-triiodo-thyronine (rT3 or reverse T3) was observed and the decrease of the rT3/TSH ratio was highly significant. These new facts suggest that the rT3 deficiency plays a peculiar role in trisomy 21 (maybe through the regulation of one or few steps of monocarbons' metabolism). A systematic control of thyroid function (including the patient's rT3 level) is mandatory for the follow-up of every trisomy 21 patient. PMID:2975939

Lejeune, J; Peeters, M; de Blois, M C; Bergère, M; Grillot, A; Rethoré, M O; Vallée, G; Izembart, M; Devaux, J P

1988-01-01

310

CYCLIC VARIATIONS OF ORBITAL PERIOD AND LONG-TERM LUMINOSITY IN CLOSE BINARY RT ANDROMEDAE  

SciTech Connect

Solutions of standard VR light curves for the eclipsing binary RT And were obtained using the PHOEBE program (ver. 0.3a). Absolute parameters of the stellar components were then determined, enabling them to be positioned on the mass-luminosity diagram. Times of minima data ({sup O} - C curve) were analyzed using the method of Kalimeris et al. A cyclic variation in the orbital period and brightness, with timescales of about 11.89 and 12.50 yr were found, respectively. This is associated with a magnetic activity cycle modulating the orbital period of RT And via the Applegate mechanism. To check the consistency of the Applegate model, we have estimated some related parameters of the RT And system. The calculated parameters were in accordance with those estimated by Applegate for other similar systems, except B, the subsurface magnetic field of which shows a rather high value for RT And.

Manzoori, Davood [Department of Physics, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, P.O. Box 179, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: d.manzoori@uma.ac.ir

2009-12-15

311

Selection of a simian-human immunodeficiency virus strain resistant to a vaginal microbicide in macaques.  

PubMed

PSC-RANTES binds to CCR5, inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry, and has been shown as a vaginal microbicide to protect rhesus macaques from a simian-human immunodeficiency virus chimera (SHIV(SF162-p3)) infection in a dose-dependent manner. In this study, env gene sequences from SHIV(SF162-p3)-infected rhesus macaques treated with PSC-RANTES were analyzed for possible drug escape variants. Two specific mutations located in the V3 region of gp120 (K315R) and C-helical domain of gp41 (N640D) were identified in a macaque (m584) pretreated with a 100 microM dose of PSC-RANTES. These two env mutations were found throughout infection (through week 77) but were found at only low frequencies in the inoculating SHIV(SF162-p3) stock and in the other SHIV(SF162-p3)-infected macaques. HIV-1 env genes from macaque m584 (env(m584)) and from inoculating SHIV(SF162-p3) (env(p3)) were cloned into an HIV-1 backbone. Increases in 50% inhibitory concentrations to PSC-RANTES with env(m584) were modest (sevenfold) and most pronounced in cells expressing rhesus macaque CCR5 as compared to human CCR5. Nonetheless, virus harboring env(m584), unlike inoculating virus env(p3), could replicate even at the highest tissue culture PSC-RANTES concentrations (100 nM). Dual-virus competitions revealed a dramatic increase in fitness of chimeric virus containing env(m584) (K315R/N640D) over that containing env(p3), but again, only in rhesus CCR5-expressing cells. This study is the first to describe the immediate selection and infection of a drug-resistant SHIV variant in the face of a protective vaginal microbicide, PSC-RANTES. This rhesus CCR5-specific/PSC- RANTES resistance selection is particularly alarming given the relative homogeneity of the SHIV(SF162-p3) stock compared to the potential exposure to a heterogeneous HIV-1 population in human transmission. PMID:19279098

Dudley, Dawn M; Wentzel, Jennifer L; Lalonde, Matthew S; Veazey, Ronald S; Arts, Eric J

2009-05-01

312

Comparison of low-density arrays, RT-PCR and real-time TaqMan RT-PCR in detection of grapevine viruses.  

PubMed

Low-density arrays (LDA) have been designed based on the real-time RT-PCR (TaqMan) assays for the specific detection of 13 viruses that infect Grapevines in addition to the housekeeping gene 18S rRNA. The viruses included in the study are Grapevine leafroll associated viruses 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 9, Grapevine leafroll associated virus-2 Redglobe (GLRaV-2RG) strain, Ruspestris stem pitting associated virus, Grapevine vitivirus A, Grapevine vitivirus B, Grapevine fanleaf virus, Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV), and Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV). This study includes three new TaqMan RT-PCR assays that have been developed for GLRaV-2RG, GFkV and ToRSV and have been included in the TaqMan RT-PCR and LDA detection. The LDAs were evaluated against a wide range of isolates distributed geographically. Geographical locations included Africa, Europe, Australia, Asia, Latin America and the United States. High-throughput detection of these viruses using LDAs was compared to RT-PCR and real-time TaqMan RT-PCR. The efficiency of different RNA extraction methodologies and buffers were compared for use in low-density array detection. In addition improving the RNA extraction technique and testing the quality of the RNA using the 18S ribosomal RNA TaqMan assay as an RNA specific internal control proved to generate better diagnostic assays. This is the first report on the use of LDA for the detection of plant viruses. PMID:18329731

Osman, Fatima; Leutenegger, Christian; Golino, Deborah; Rowhani, Adib

2008-05-01

313

Improvement of a real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of enterovirus RNA.  

PubMed

We describe an improvement of an earlier reported real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of enterovirus RNA, based on the 5' exonuclease digestion of a dual-labeled fluorogenic probe by Taq DNA polymerase. A different extraction method, real-time RT-PCR instrument and primer set were evaluated. Our data show that the optimized assay yields a higher sensitivity and reproducibility and resulted in a significant reduced hands-on time per sample. PMID:19583870

Piqueur, Marian A C; Verstrepen, Walter A; Bruynseels, Peggy; Mertens, An H

2009-01-01

314

Improvement of a real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of enterovirus RNA  

PubMed Central

We describe an improvement of an earlier reported real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of enterovirus RNA, based on the 5' exonuclease digestion of a dual-labeled fluorogenic probe by Taq DNA polymerase. A different extraction method, real-time RT-PCR instrument and primer set were evaluated. Our data show that the optimized assay yields a higher sensitivity and reproducibility and resulted in a significant reduced hands-on time per sample.

Piqueur, Marian AC; Verstrepen, Walter A; Bruynseels, Peggy; Mertens, An H

2009-01-01

315

Short-Term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center: Transitioning Satellite Data to Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center located at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has been conducting testbed activities aimed at transitioning satellite products to National Weather Service operational end users for the last 10 years. SPoRT is a NASA/NOAA funded project that has set the bar for transition of products to operational end users through a paradigm of understanding forecast challenges and forecaster needs, displaying products in end users decision support systems, actively assessing the operational impact of these products, and improving products based on forecaster feedback. Aiming for quality partnerships rather than a large quantity of data users, SPoRT has become a community leader in training operational forecasters on the use of up-and-coming satellite data through the use of legacy instruments and proxy data. Traditionally, SPoRT has supplied satellite imagery and products from NASA instruments such as the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). However, recently, SPoRT has been funded by the GOES-R and Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Proving Grounds to accelerate the transition of selected imagery and products to help improve forecaster awareness of upcoming operational data from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), and Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). This presentation provides background on the SPoRT Center, the SPoRT paradigm, and some example products that SPoRT is excited to work with forecasters to evaluate.

Zavodsky, Bradley

2012-01-01

316

Miniature RT-PCR system for diagnosis of RNA-based viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an innovative portable chip- based RT-PCR system for amplification of specific nucleic acid and detection of RNA-based viruses. The miniature RT-PCR chip is fabricated using MEMS (Micro-electro-mechanical-system) techniq- ues, and comprises a micro temperature control module and a PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane)-based microfluidic control module. The heating and sensing elements of temperature control module are both made of platinum

Chia-Sheng Liao; Gwo-Bin Lee; Hsiao-Sheng Liu; Tsung-Min Hsieh; Ching-Hsing Luo

2005-01-01

317

Pathotyping of Newcastle Disease Viruses by RT-PCR and Restriction Enzyme Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technique of RT-PCR and restriction enzyme analysis was standardized to detect and differentiate Newcastle disease viruses. Digestion of RT-PCR-amplified, F gene sequences encoding for the cleavage activation sites of fusion protein with restriction enzymes AluI, BglI, HaeIII, HinfI, HhaI, RsaI, StyI and TaqI was carried out in order to characterize Newcastle disease viruses of varying pathogenicity. Restriction enzyme digestion

T. Nanthakumar; R. S. Kataria; A. K. Tiwari; G. Butchaiah; J. M. Kataria

2000-01-01

318

Effect of prostate biopsy on the results of the PSA RT-PCR test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To evaluate the effect of prostate biopsy on the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test.Methods. Ninety men who were scheduled to undergo prostate biopsy because of an elevated PSA or abnormal digital rectal examination, or both, were recruited to have PSA RT-PCR performed on peripheral blood samples drawn before and at 30 minutes, 1 week, and

Howard B Goldman; Ron S Israeli; Jody L Lerner; Robert S Hollabaugh; Mitchell S Steiner

1998-01-01

319

MaTX\\/RtMaTX: a freeware for integrated CACSD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives an overview of the cost-efficient integrated CACSD environment MaTX\\/RtMaTX. The software supports not only the analysis of control systems and the design of controllers, but also the real-time implementation of controllers. MaTX\\/RtMaTX is distributed as a free software and is used in many universities and several companies, mainly in Japan. The author focuses on the applications in

Masanobu Koga

1999-01-01

320

Evaluation of potential reference genes in real-time RT-PCR studies of Atlantic salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Salmonid fishes are among the most widely studied model fish species but reports on systematic evaluation of reference genes in qRT-PCR studies is lacking. RESULTS: The stability of six potential reference genes was examined in eight tissues of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), to determine the most suitable genes to be used in quantitative real-time RT-PCR analyses. The relative transcription

Pål A Olsvik; Kai K Lie; Ann-Elise O Jordal; Tom O Nilsen; Ivar Hordvik

2005-01-01

321

Cerebral Autoregulation Dynamics in Acute Ischemic Stroke after rtPA Thrombolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To investigate whether there is: (1) a specific temporal course of cerebral dysautoregulation in acute ischemic stroke, and (2) a separate detrimental effect of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) on autoregulation dynamics in this situation. Methods: We studied 16 patients with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion and rtPA thrombolysis (intra-arterial or intravenous application, or both). Controls were 71

Matthias Reinhard; Christoph Wihler; Markus Roth; Andreas Harloff; Wolf-Dirk Niesen; Jens Timmer; Cornelius Weiller; Andreas Hetzel

2008-01-01

322

RT-Xen: Towards real-time hypervisor scheduling in Xen  

Microsoft Academic Search

As system integration becomes an increasingly important challenge for complex real-time systems, there has been a signicant demand for supporting real-time systems in virtualized environments. This paper presents RT-Xen, the rst real-time hypervisor scheduling framework for Xen, the most widely used open-source virtual machine monitor (VMM). RT-Xen bridges the gap between real-time scheduling theory and Xen, whose wide-spread adoption makes

Sisu Xi; Justin Wilson; Chenyang Lu; Christopher Gill

2011-01-01

323

SMaRT technology enables gene expression repair in skin gene therapy.  

PubMed

In this issue, Wally et al. (2008) report successful gene expression repair by spliceosome-mediated RNA trans-splicing (SMaRT), a novel achievement in molecular medicine. In their model, SMaRT was able to replace a mutation of the plectin gene in epidermolysis bullosa simplex with muscular dystrophy. This approach is particularly attractive for skin gene therapy of dominant-negative mutations present in a number of blistering genodermatoses. PMID:18268535

Hengge, Ulrich R

2008-03-01

324

Human endogenous retrovirus K(HML-2) Gag- and Env-specific T-cell responses are infrequently detected in HIV-1-infected subjects using standard peptide matrix-based screening.  

PubMed

T-cell responses to human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) K(HML-2) Gag and Env were mapped in HIV-1-infected subjects using 15 mer peptides. Small peptide pools and high concentrations were used to maximize sensitivity. In the 23 subjects studied, only three bona fide HERV-K(HML-2)-specific responses were detected. At these high peptide concentrations, we detected false-positive responses, three of which were mapped to an HIV-1 Gag peptide contaminant. Thus, HERV-K(HML-2) Gag- and Env-specific T-cell responses are infrequently detected by 15 mer peptide mapping. PMID:22205657

Jones, R Brad; John, Vivek M; Hunter, Diana V; Martin, Eric; Mujib, Shariq; Mihajlovic, Vesna; Burgers, Peter C; Luider, Theo M; Gyenes, Gabor; Sheppard, Neil C; Sengupta, Devi; Tandon, Ravi; Yue, Feng-Yun; Benko, Erika; Kovacs, Colin; Nixon, Douglas F; Ostrowski, Mario A

2012-02-01

325

DEVELOPMENT OF HOMOLOGOUS VIRAL INTERNAL CONTROLS FOR USE IN RT-PCR ASSAYS OF WATERBORNE ENTERIC VIRUSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Enteric viruses often contaminate water sources causing frequent outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays are commonly used for detection of human enteric viruses in environmental and drinking water samples. RT-PCR provides ...

326

T3/rT3-ratio is associated with insulin resistance independent of TSH.  

PubMed

Thyroid dysfunction has been shown to be associated with insulin resistance (IR). This may involve peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism, which is assumed to be reflected by the ratio triiodothyronine/reverse triiodothyronine (T3/rT3-ratio). To explore a potential association between the T3/rT3-ratio and IR we investigated pairs which differed in IR, but were matched by sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). For this purpose, matched pair analyses were embedded into a cross sectional study group. 22 pairs were matched from either the first or the third tertile of HOMA%S of a cohort of 353 euthyroid subjects with normal glucose metabolism who did not take any medication. The T3/rT3-ratio was compared in the matched pairs. The T3/rT3-ratio was significantly increased in the insulin resistant subjects compared to their insulin sensitive partners (8.78 ± 0.47 vs. 7.33 ± 0.33, p=0.019). Furthermore the T3/rT3-ratio was lower in men compared to women (p for the within-subject effect=0.046) both in the insulin sensitive and the insulin resistant subjects. Here we show that the T3/rT3-ratio, which is supposed to reflect the tissue thyroid hormone metabolism, is significantly increased in insulin resistant subjects. This further supports a link between thyroid function and IR. PMID:21104580

Ruhla, S; Arafat, A M; Weickert, M O; Osterhoff, M; Isken, F; Spranger, J; Schöfl, C; Pfeiffer, A F H; Möhlig, M

2011-02-01

327

Simultaneous detection and differentiation of three viruses in pear plants by a multiplex RT-PCR.  

PubMed

A multiplex RT-PCR (mRT-PCR) assay was developed for detection and differentiation of the Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), which are viruses frequently occurring in pear trees. Different combinations of mixed primer pairs were tested for their specificity and sensitivity for the simultaneous detection of the three viruses. Three primer pairs were used to amplify their fragments of 247bp, 358bp and 500bp, respectively. The primer pair for ASPV was designed in this work, while the primer pairs for ACLSV and ASGV were from previous reports. The sensitivity and specificity of the mRT-PCR assay for the three viruses were comparable to that of each uniplex RT-PCR. The mRT-PCR was applied successfully for the detection of three viruses in leaves of pear and apple plants, but was unreliable in the detection of ASGV in dormant barks. In conclusion, this mRT-PCR provides a useful tool for the routine and rapid detection and the differentiation of three pear viruses. PMID:24269332

Yao, Bingyu; Wang, Guoping; Ma, Xiaofang; Liu, Wenbin; Tang, Huihui; Zhu, Hui; Hong, Ni

2014-02-01

328

Detection of enterovirus 71 using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP).  

PubMed

Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), which is a visual assay for nucleic acids, is performed in a single step using one tube at 65 °C for 1.5 h. In this study, RT-LAMP was established as a method for the detection of enterovirus 71 (EV71). The detection limit of the assay was approximately 10 copies, and no cross-reactivity was noted with Coxsackievirus A16, echovirus, human rotavirus (HRV) or norovirus. This assay, which offers greater sensitivity at a lower cost compared with the conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), was validated using 252 clinical specimens that had been confirmed by laboratory diagnosis using RT-PCR. Both methods produced the same results with 52 positive samples. The RT-LAMP-based assay does not require specialised equipment, and therefore, it can be performed conveniently during an outbreak or under field conditions. In brief, the RT-LAMP-based assay provided a simple, rapid and efficient method for the detection of EV71 nucleic acid under field conditions. PMID:22155579

Wang, Xiang; Zhu, Jun-ping; Zhang, Qian; Xu, Zi-gang; Zhang, Fang; Zhao, Zhi-hui; Zheng, Wen-zhi; Zheng, Li-shu

2012-02-01

329

cis-Acting inhibitory elements within the pol-env region of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 possibly involved in viral persistence.  

PubMed Central

Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) remains latent throughout the life of the carrier, with cells containing the provirus and viral gene expression efficiently down-regulated. On a molecular level, exactly how viruses are down-regulated in vivo remains unresolved. We described here the possibility that down-regulation results from the presence of inhibitory elements within the gag-env region of the provirus in fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells from carriers. In vitro experiments then revealed that potent cis-acting inhibitory elements (CIEs) are indeed contained in two discrete fragments from the pol region and weaker ones in the env region. The effect of CIEs is relieved by the HTLV-1 posttranscriptional regulator Rex through binding to the Rex-responsive element (RxRE), suggesting that Rex might interfere with pre-mRNA degradation and/or activate the export of mRNA molecules harboring both of the inhibitory elements and RxRE on the same RNA molecule. Thus, we propose the hypothesis that such functions of CIEs may be involved in HTLV-1 persistence.

Saiga, A; Orita, S; Minoura-Tada, N; Maeda, M; Aono, Y; Asakawa, M; Nakahara, K; Kubota, R; Osame, M; Igarashi, H

1997-01-01

330

Identification of a new epitope for HIV-neutralizing antibodies in the gp41 membrane proximal external region by an Env-tailored phage display library.  

PubMed

HIV controllers are a valuable source for the identification of HIV-neutralizing antibodies, as chronic infection over decades allows extensive affinity maturation of antibodies for improved Ag recognition. We analyzed a small cohort of elite controllers (ECs) for HIV-neutralizing antibodies using a panel of standardized HIV-1 pseudovirions on TZM-bl cells. An HIV-1 Env-tailored phage display library was generated to select epitopes targeted by neutralizing antibodies in the EC26 plasma sample showing the broadest neutralizing activity. Selected Env fragments were mostly allocated to the membrane proximal external region of gp41. After preabsorbing the EC26 plasma with the selected phage EC26-2A4, we achieved 50% depletion of its neutralizing activity. Furthermore, antibodies affinity-purified with the EC26-2A4 epitope from EC26 plasma showed neutralizing activity, proving that the selected phage indeed contains an epitope targeted by neutralizing plasma antibodies. Epitope fine mapping of the purified plasma antibodies on peptide arrays identified a new epitope overlapping, but clearly distinct, from the prominent 2F5 epitope. Of note, the purified antibodies did not show autoreactivity with cardiolipin, whereas low reactivity with phosphatidylserine comparable to mAb 2F5 was observed. Thus, this new epitope represents a promising candidate for further analysis in view of HIV vaccine development. PMID:23180650

Zhou, Mingkui; Meyer, Torsten; Koch, Stefanie; Koch, Joachim; von Briesen, Hagen; Benito, José M; Soriano, Vincent; Haberl, Annette; Bickel, Markus; Dübel, Stefan; Hust, Michael; Dietrich, Ursula

2013-02-01

331

A novel method for the normalization of microRNA RT-PCR data  

PubMed Central

Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNA molecules that regulate mRNA transcript levels and translation. Deregulation of microRNAs is indicated in a number of diseases and microRNAs are seen as a promising target for biomarker identification and drug development. miRNA expression is commonly measured by microarray or real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The findings of RT-PCR data are highly dependent on the normalization techniques used during preprocessing of the Cycle Threshold readings from RT-PCR. Some of the commonly used endogenous controls themselves have been discovered to be differentially expressed in various conditions such as cancer, making them inappropriate internal controls. Methods We demonstrate that RT-PCR data contains a systematic bias resulting in large variations in the Cycle Threshold (CT) values of the low-abundant miRNA samples. We propose a new data normalization method that considers all available microRNAs as endogenous controls. A weighted normalization approach is utilized to allow contribution from all microRNAs, weighted by their empirical stability. Results The systematic bias in RT-PCR data is illustrated on a microRNA dataset obtained from primary cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms. We show that through a single control parameter, this method is able to emulate other commonly used normalization methods and thus provides a more general approach. We explore the consistency of RT-PCR expression data with microarray expression by utilizing a dataset where both RT-PCR and microarray profiling data is available for the same miRNA samples. Conclusions A weighted normalization method allows the contribution of all of the miRNAs, whether they are highly abundant or have low expression levels. Our findings further suggest that the normalization of a particular miRNA should rely on only miRNAs that have comparable expression levels.

2013-01-01

332

Serum stimulates sodium uptake by rat papillary collecting duct cells (RtPC) in culture  

SciTech Connect

RtPC play an important role in the regulation of sodium excretion by the kidney. RtPC were obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats and cultured on filter-bottom cups in a serum-free medium for 5 days. For the next 24 hr the cells were grown either in S- or in Dulbecco's/F12 supplemented with 10% serum (S+). In 12 primary cultures, the transepithelial resistance (Rt) was significantly higher in S+ (118 +/- 12 ohm cm/sup 2/, n = 45) than in S- (74 +/- 13, n = 41). Short-circuit current was not different between the groups. Na uptake was measured from the apical solution after 60 sec exposure to isotope in a low Na (27 mM) Ringer (same cells as Rt). Despite the similar current, uptake was significantly higher in S+ than S-; 0.61 +/- 0.05 vs 0.23 +/- 0.04 nmol/cm/sup 2/. /sup 5/H-thymidine uptake was similar in S+ and S- indicating that differences in cell number did not account for the increased Na uptake. Supplementation of S- during the final 24 hr with indomethacin, aldosterone, vasopressin, adenosine, or hexamethylene bisacetamide did not significantly increase Na uptake. Thus, an unidentified serum factor increases Rt and Na uptake. The lack of correlation between current and Na uptake suggests that uptake occurs via an electroneutral mechanism.

Husted, R.F.; Stokes, J.B.

1986-03-01

333

Molecular detection of Papaya meleira virus in the latex of Carica papaya by RT-PCR.  

PubMed

A RT-PCR assay was developed for early and accurate detection of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) in the latex from infected papayas. The meleira disease is characterized by an excessive exudation of more fluidic latex from fruits, leaves and stems. This latex oxidises and gives the fruit a "sticky" texture. In the field, disease symptoms are seen almost exclusively on fruit. However, infected plants can be a source of virus for dissemination by insects. Primers specific for PMeV were designed based on nucleotide sequences of the viral dsRNA obtained using a RT-RAPD approach. When tested for RT-PCR amplification, one of these primers (C05-3') amplified a 669-nucleotide fragment using dsRNA obtained from purified virus particles as a template. The translated sequence of this DNA fragment showed a certain degree of similarity to the amino acid sequence of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases from other dsRNA viruses. When used as the single primer in two RT-PCR kits available commercially, primer C05-3' also amplified the DNA fragment from papaya latex of infected, but not from healthy plants. The RT-PCR-based method developed in this study could simplify early plant disease diagnosis, assist in monitoring the dissemination of the pathogen within and between fields, and assist in guiding plant disease management. PMID:17826848

Araújo, Marília Mendes Melo de; Tavares, Eder Torres; Silva, Felipe Rodrigues da; Marinho, Vera Lúcia de Almeida; Júnior, Manoel Teixeira Souza

2007-12-01

334

Variations in autologous neutralization and CD4 dependence of b12 resistant HIV1 clade C env clones obtained at different time points from antiretroviral naïve Indian patients with recent infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Limited information is available on HIV-1 Indian clade C sensitivities to autologous antibodies during the course of natural infection. In the present study, a total of 37 complete envelope clones (Env) were amplified at different time points predominantly from the plasma of five Indian patients with recent HIV-1 infection and envelope-pseudotyped viruses were examined for their magnitude of sensitivity

Rajesh Ringe; Madhuri Thakar; Jayanta Bhattacharya

2010-01-01

335

Comparison of RT-PCR assay and virus isolation in cell culture for the detection of alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus.  

PubMed

Alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV) is an emerging flavivirus that was isolated originally from Saudi Arabia in 1994-1995. The main tests used for the detection of AHFV are the real time (rt) RT-PCR and virus isolation in cell culture. In the present study the detection of AHFV by rtRT-PCR was compared with virus isolation in BHK-21, HEp-2, and LLC-MK2 cell lines. AHFV suspensions grown in BHK-21, HEp-2, and LLC-MK2 cell lines were serially diluted 10-fold from 10(-1) to 10(-11) . Samples from each dilution were used to inoculate four cell culture tubes and were also examined by the rtRT-PCR for AHFV RNA. Fifteen non-inoculated cell culture samples (five from each cell line) were included blindly in both tests. Thus, a total of 132 AHFV-positive and 15 negative control samples were tested. The rtRT-PCR could detect the viral RNA in all diluted specimens up to and including the 10(-10) dilution (40 specimens for each cell line), whereas, cell cultures were positive in 70% of specimens for BHK-21, 65% for LLC-MK2, and 45% for HEp-2 at this dilution. None of the three cell cultures nor the rtRT-PCR was positive at 10(-11) dilution. The specificity and positive predictive values of virus isolation compared to rtRT-PCR were each 100%, whereas the negative predictive values were 29.4% for BHK-21, 26.3% for LLC-MK2, and 18.5% for HEp-2. In conclusion, the rtRT-PCR is more sensitive than virus isolation for detecting AHFV. J. Med. Virol. 86:1176-1180, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24249525

Madani, Tariq A; Abuelzein, El-Tayb M E; Azhar, Esam I; Al-Bar, Hussein M S; Abu-Araki, Huda; Ksiazek, Thomas G

2014-07-01

336

In-flight demonstration of a Real-Time Flush Airdata Sensing (RT-FADS) system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype real-time flush airdata sensing (RT-FADS) system has been developed and flight tested at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. This system uses a matrix of pressure orifices on the vehicle nose to estimate airdata parameters in real time using nonlinear regression. The algorithm is robust to sensor failures and noise in the measured pressures. The RT-FADS system has been calibrated using inertial trajectory measurements that were bootstrapped for atmospheric conditions using meteorological data. Mach numbers as high as 1.6 and angles of attack greater than 45 deg have been tested. The system performance has been evaluated by comparing the RT-FADS to the ship system airdata computer measurements to give a quantitative evaluation relative to an accepted measurement standard. Nominal agreements of approximately 0.003 in Mach number and 0.20 deg in angle of attack and angle of sideslip have been achieved.

Whitmore, Stephen A.; Davis, Roy J.; Fife, John Michael

1995-01-01

337

Hyperglycemia Worsens Outcome After rt-PA Primarily in the Large-Vessel Occlusive Stroke Subtype.  

PubMed

Hyperglycemia at the time of ischemic stroke has been associated with poorer outcomes. Preclinical literature suggests that hyperglycemia is an independent prognostic factor and the vasculature is more vulnerable to reperfusion injury. We applied a method to match subjects on important baseline factors to test whether, independent of stroke severity, stroke subtype influences the effect of hyperglycemia on outcome after recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). We reanalyzed the NINDS rt-PA dataset with respect to matching variables baseline NIHSS, age, and investigator-determined stroke subtypes small-vessel occlusive stroke (SVS), large-vessel occlusive stroke (LVS), and cardioembolic stroke (CES), above and below a glucose threshold of 150 mg/dl. Ninety-day outcomes were compared. Post hoc baseline matching was excellent in most cases. Hyperglycemia was associated with worsened functional outcome mostly in the LVS subtype with increased mortality in the placebo arm (15.3 % mortality normoglycemia vs. 30.6 % hyperglycemia; p?=?.046), worse functional outcome in the rt-PA arm (modified Rankin Score (mRS) 0-1; 46.3 vs. 22.0 %; p?=?.034), and no improvement in functional outcome with rt-PA compared to placebo (mRS 0-1; 25 % in both groups). Among hyperglycemic subjects, CES subjects showed significant improvement following rt-PA (p?=?.027). After matching for baseline severity, the influence of hyperglycemia on outcome was primarily in the LVS subtype, especially after rt-PA. This finding is consistent with a deleterious effect of hyperglycemia on ischemia/reperfusion of symptomatic large arteries. If confirmed, the particular vulnerability of the LVS subtype is important in understanding the role of stroke subtype in the mechanism of worsening and potential treatment of hyperglycemic stroke patients. PMID:24699843

Mandava, Pitchaiah; Martini, Sharyl R; Munoz, Melody; Dalmeida, William; Sarma, Anand K; Anderson, Jane A; Fabian, Roderic H; Kent, Thomas A

2014-08-01

338

ULTRASOUND-ENHANCED rt-PA THROMBOLYSIS IN AN EX VIVO PORCINE CAROTID ARTERY MODEL  

PubMed Central

Ultrasound is known to enhance recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) thrombolysis. In this study, occlusive porcine whole blood clots were placed in flowing plasma within living porcine carotid arteries. Ultrasonically induced stable cavitation was investigated as an adjuvant to rt-PA thrombolysis. Aged, retracted clots were exposed to plasma alone, plasma containing rt-PA (7.1 ± 3.8 ?g/mL) or plasma with rt-PA and Definity® ultrasound contrast agent (0.79 ± 0.47 ?L/mL) with and without 120-kHz continuous wave ultrasound at a peak-to-peak pressure amplitude of 0.44 MPa. An insonation scheme was formulated to promote and maximize stable cavitation activity by incorporating ultrasound quiescent periods that allowed for the inflow of Definity®-rich plasma. Cavitation was measured with a passive acoustic detector throughout thrombolytic treatment. Thrombolytic efficacy was measured by comparing clot mass before and after treatment. Average mass loss for clots exposed to rt-PA and Definity® without ultrasound (n = 7) was 34%, and with ultrasound (n = 6) was 83%, which constituted a significant difference (p < 0.0001). Without Definity® there was no thrombolytic enhancement by ultrasound exposure alone at this pressure amplitude (n = 5, p < 0.0001). In the low-oxygen environment of the ischemic artery, significant loss of endothelium occurred but no correlation was observed between arterial tissue damage and treatment type. Acoustic stable cavitation nucleated by an infusion of Definity® enhances rt-PA thrombolysis without apparent treatment-related damage in this ex vivo porcine carotid artery model.

Hitchcock, Kathryn E.; Ivancevich, Nikolas M.; Haworth, Kevin J.; Caudell Stamper, Danielle N.; Vela, Deborah C.; Sutton, Jonathan T.; Pyne-Geithman, Gail J.; Holland, Christy K.

2014-01-01

339

HIV-specific humoral and cellular immunity in rabbits vaccinated with recombinant human immunodeficiency virus-like gag-env particles  

SciTech Connect

Recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)-like gag-env particles produced in mammalian cells were inoculated into two New Zealand white rabbits. In parallel, two control rabbits were inoculated with the homologous HIV-1 virions inactivated by ultraviolet light (uv) and psoralen treatments. The humoral and cellular immune responses to HIV-1 were evaluated for both groups of animals. Recombinant particles elicited humoral immunity that was specific for all the viral structural proteins. The antibodies recognized both denatured and nondenatured proteins. Moreover, the sera neutralized the in vitro infectivity of the homologous virus in CEM cells. Importantly, the recombinant particles also generated a T helper response by priming with the HIV proteins. Similar results were observed with inactivated virus immunization. Therefore, the authors results suggest that the recombinant HIV-like particles elicit functional humoral immunity as well as cellular immunity and represent a novel vaccine candidate for AIDS.

Haffar, O.K.; Smithgall, M.D.; Moran, P.A.; Travis, B.M.; Zarling, J.M.; Hu, S.L. (Department of Virology, Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute-Seattle, WA (USA))

1991-08-01

340

Making the Right Choice: Optimizing rt-PA and eptifibatide lysis, an in vitro study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is the only FDA approved lytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke. However, there can be complications such as intra-cerebral hemorrhage. This has led to interest in adjuncts such as GP IIb-IIIa inhibitors. However, there is little data on combined therapies. Here, we measure clot lysis for rt-PA and eptifibatide in an in vitro human clot model, and determine the drug concentrations maximizing lysis. A pharmacokinetic model is used to compare drug concentrations expected in clinical trials with those used here. The hypothesis is that there is a range of rt-PA and eptifibatide concentrations that maximize in vitro clot lysis. Materials and Methods Whole blood clots were made from blood obtained from 28 volunteers, after appropriate institutional approval. Sample clots were exposed to rt-PA and eptifibatide in human fresh-frozen plasma; rt-PA concentrations were 0, 0.5, 1, and 3.15 ?g/ml, and eptifibatide concentrations were 0, 0.63, 1.05, 1.26 and 2.31 ?g/ml. All exposures were for 30 minutes at 37 C. Clot width was measured using a microscopic imaging technique and mean fractional clot loss (FCL) at 30 minutes was used to determine lytic efficacy. On average, 28 clots (range: 6-148) from 6 subjects (3-24) were used in each group. Results and Conclusions FCL for control clots was 14% (95% Confidence Interval: 13-15%). FCL was 58% (55-61%) for clots exposed to both drugs at all concentrations, except those at an rt-PA concentration of 3.15 ?g/ml, and eptifibatide concentrations of 1.26 ?g/ml (Epf) or 2.31 ?g/ml. Here, FCL was 43% (36-51) and 35% (32-38) respectively. FCL is maximized at moderate rt-PA and eptifibatide concentration; these values may approximate the average concentrations used in some rt-PA and eptifibatide treatments.

Shaw, George J.; Meunier, Jason M.; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Pancioli, Arthur M.; Holland, Christy K.

2010-01-01

341

A reanalysis of the light curve of RT Persei with the W-D code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The UBV photometric observations of RT Per, from Sanwal and Chaubey (1981), were analyzed by the Wilson and Devinney code (1971). The light curves include reflection effects that for the first time has been suggested by Dugan (1911). RT Per has a semi-detached configuration where the lower-mass component is in contact with its respective Roche surface. The higher-mass component very nearly fills its Roche lobe. It has the characteristic of an Algol type system. The absolute dimensions for the primary and secondary of this system were calculated from its spectral types and by combining the photometric solution with inferred component radial velocities (Lu, 1990).

Edalati, M. T.; Zeinali, F.

1996-09-01

342

Generation and characterization of a TetOn (rtTA-M2) transgenic rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The tetracycline-inducible gene regulation system is a powerful tool that allows temporal and dose-dependent regulation of target transgene expression in vitro and in vivo. Several tetracycline-inducible transgenic mouse models have been described with ubiquitous or tissue-specific expression of tetracycline-transactivator (tTA), reverse tetracycline-transactivator (rtTA) or Tet repressor (TetR). Here we describe a Tet-On transgenic rat that ubiquitously expresses rtTA-M2 driven

Yi Sheng; Chih-Cheng Lin; Junming Yue; Meena Sukhwani; Jennifer J Shuttleworth; Tianjiao Chu; Kyle E Orwig

2010-01-01

343

Profiling structured product labeling with NDF-RT and RxNorm  

PubMed Central

Background Structured Product Labeling (SPL) is a document markup standard approved by Health Level Seven (HL7) and adopted by United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a mechanism for exchanging drug product information. The SPL drug labels contain rich information about FDA approved clinical drugs. However, the lack of linkage to standard drug ontologies hinders their meaningful use. NDF-RT (National Drug File Reference Terminology) and NLM RxNorm as standard drug ontology were used to standardize and profile the product labels. Methods In this paper, we present a framework that intends to map SPL drug labels with existing drug ontologies: NDF-RT and RxNorm. We also applied existing categorical annotations from the drug ontologies to classify SPL drug labels into corresponding classes. We established the classification and relevant linkage for SPL drug labels using the following three approaches. First, we retrieved NDF-RT categorical information from the External Pharmacologic Class (EPC) indexing SPLs. Second, we used the RxNorm and NDF-RT mappings to classify and link SPLs with NDF-RT categories. Third, we profiled SPLs using RxNorm term type information. In the implementation process, we employed a Semantic Web technology framework, in which we stored the data sets from NDF-RT and SPLs into a RDF triple store, and executed SPARQL queries to retrieve data from customized SPARQL endpoints. Meanwhile, we imported RxNorm data into MySQL relational database. Results In total, 96.0% SPL drug labels were mapped with NDF-RT categories whereas 97.0% SPL drug labels are linked to RxNorm codes. We found that the majority of SPL drug labels are mapped to chemical ingredient concepts in both drug ontologies whereas a relatively small portion of SPL drug labels are mapped to clinical drug concepts. Conclusions The profiling outcomes produced by this study would provide useful insights on meaningful use of FDA SPL drug labels in clinical applications through standard drug ontologies such as NDF-RT and RxNorm.

2012-01-01

344

Simulating Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability using PPM hydrodynamics @scale on Roadrunner (u)  

SciTech Connect

The effect of initial conditions on the self-similar growth of the RT instability is investigated using a hydrodynamics code based on the piecewise-parabolic-method (PPM). The PPM code was converted to the hybrid architecture of Roadrunner in order to perform the simulations at extremely high speed and spatial resolution. This paper describes the code conversion to the Cell processor, the scaling studies to 12 CU's on Roadrunner and results on the dependence of the RT growth rate on initial conditions. The relevance of the Roadrunner implementation of this PPM code to other existing and anticipated computer architectures is also discussed.

Woodward, Paul R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dimonte, Guy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rockefeller, Gabriel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fryer, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dimonte, Guy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dai, W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kares, R. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-05

345

Differential Evolutionary Fate of an Ancestral Primate Endogenous Retrovirus Envelope Gene, the EnvV Syncytin, Captured for a Function in Placentation  

PubMed Central

Syncytins are envelope genes of retroviral origin that have been co-opted for a role in placentation. They promote cell–cell fusion and are involved in the formation of a syncytium layer—the syncytiotrophoblast—at the materno-fetal interface. They were captured independently in eutherian mammals, and knockout mice demonstrated that they are absolutely required for placenta formation and embryo survival. Here we provide evidence that these “necessary” genes acquired “by chance” have a definite lifetime with diverse fates depending on the animal lineage, being both gained and lost in the course of evolution. Analysis of a retroviral envelope gene, the envV gene, present in primate genomes and belonging to the endogenous retrovirus type V (ERV-V) provirus, shows that this captured gene, which entered the primate lineage >45 million years ago, behaves as a syncytin in Old World monkeys, but lost its canonical fusogenic activity in other primate lineages, including humans. In the Old World monkeys, we show—by in situ analyses and ex vivo assays—that envV is both specifically expressed at the level of the placental syncytiotrophoblast and fusogenic, and that it further displays signs of purifying selection based on analysis of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates. We further show that purifying selection still operates in the primate lineages where the gene is no longer fusogenic, indicating that degeneracy of this ancestral syncytin is a slow, lineage-dependent, and multi-step process, in which the fusogenic activity would be the first canonical property of this retroviral envelope gene to be lost.

Esnault, Cecile; Cornelis, Guillaume; Heidmann, Odile; Heidmann, Thierry

2013-01-01

346

Defective herpes simplex virus type 1 vectors harboring gag, pol, and env genes can be used to rescue defective retrovirus vectors.  

PubMed Central

A retroviral packaging transcription unit was constructed in which the Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) gag-pol and env genes are expressed under the control of herpesvirus regulatory sequences. This transcription unit, lacking long terminal repeats, primer binding sites, and most of the retrovirus packaging signal but retaining both retroviral donor and acceptor splice sites, was cloned into a herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) amplicon plasmid, and amplicon vectors (the gag-pol-env [GPE] vectors) were generated by using a defective HSV-1 vector as helper virus. The GPE vector population was used to infect human TE671 cells (ATCC CRL 8805), harboring a lacZ provirus (TE-lac2 cells), and supernatants of infected cells were collected and filtered at different times after infection. These supernatants were found to contain infectious ecotropic lacZ retroviral particles, as shown both by reverse transcription-PCR and by their ability to transduce a beta-galactosidase activity to murine NIH 3T3 cells but not to human TE671 cells. The titer of retroviral vectors released by GPE vector-infected TE-lac2 cells increased with the dose of infectious amplicon particles. Retrovirus vector production was inhibited by superinfection with helper virus, indicating that helper virus coinfection negatively interfered with retrovirus production. Induction of retrovirus vectors by GPE vectors was neutralized by anti-HSV-1 but not by anti-MoMLV antiserum, while transduction of beta-galactosidase activity to NIH 3T3 cells by supernatants of GPE vector-infected TE-lac2 cells was neutralized by anti-MoMLV antiserum. These results demonstrate that HSV-1 GPE amplicon vectors can rescue defective lacZ retrovirus vectors and suggest that they could be used as a sort of launching ramp to fire defective retrovirus vectors from within virtually any in vitro or in vivo cell type containing defective retroviral vectors.

Savard, N; Cosset, F L; Epstein, A L

1997-01-01

347

The Streptomycin-Treated Mouse Intestine Selects Escherichia coli envZ Missense Mutants That Interact with Dense and Diverse Intestinal Microbiota  

PubMed Central

Previously, we reported that the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine selected nonmotile Escherichia coli MG1655 flhDC deletion mutants of E. coli MG1655 with improved colonizing ability that grow 15% faster in vitro in mouse cecal mucus and 15 to 30% faster on sugars present in mucus (M. P. Leatham et al., Infect. Immun. 73:8039–8049, 2005). Here, we report that the 10 to 20% remaining motile E. coli MG1655 are envZ missense mutants that are also better colonizers of the mouse intestine than E. coli MG1655. One of the flhDC mutants, E. coli MG1655 ?flhD, and one of the envZ missense mutants, E. coli MG1655 mot-1, were studied further. E. coli MG1655 mot-1 is more resistant to bile salts and colicin V than E. coli MG1655 ?flhD and grows ca. 15% slower in vitro in mouse cecal mucus and on several sugars present in mucus compared to E. coli MG1655 ?flhD but grows 30% faster on galactose. Moreover, E. coli MG1655 mot-1 and E. coli MG1655 ?flhD appear to colonize equally well in one intestinal niche, but E. coli MG1655 mot-1 appears to use galactose to colonize a second, smaller intestinal niche either not colonized or colonized poorly by E. coli MG1655 ?flhD. Evidence is also presented that E. coli MG1655 is a minority member of mixed bacterial biofilms in the mucus layer of the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine. We offer a hypothesis, which we call the “Restaurant” hypothesis, that explains how nutrient acquisition in different biofilms comprised of different anaerobes can account for our results.

Leatham-Jensen, Mary P.; Frimodt-M?ller, Jakob; Adediran, Jimmy; Mokszycki, Matthew E.; Banner, Megan E.; Caughron, Joyce E.; Krogfelt, Karen A.; Conway, Tyrrell

2012-01-01

348

Development of a tier 1 R5 clade C simian-human immunodeficiency virus as a tool to test neutralizing antibody-based immunoprophylaxis  

PubMed Central

Background While some recently transmitted HIV clade C (HIV-C) strains exhibited tier 1 neutralization phenotypes, most were tier 2 strains (J Virol 2010; 84:1439). Because induction of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) through vaccination against tier 2 viruses has proven difficult, we have generated a tier 1, clade C simian–human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-C) to permit efficacy testing of candidate AIDS vaccines against tier 1 viruses. Methods SHIV-1157ipEL was created by swapping env of a late-stage virus with that of a tier 1, early form. Results After adaptation to rhesus macaques (RM), passaged SHIV-1157ipEL-p replicated vigorously in vitro and in vivo while maintaining R5 tropism. The virus was reproducibly transmissible intrarectally. Phylogenetically, SHIV-1157ipEL-p Env clustered with HIV-C sequences. All RM chronically infected with SHIV-1157ipEL-p developed high nAb titers against autologous as well as heterologous tier 1 strains. Conclusions SHIV-1157ipEL-p was reproducibly transmitted in RM, induced cross-clade nAbs, and represents a tool to evaluate anti-HIV-C nAb responses in primates.

Siddappa, Nagadenahalli B.; Hemashettar, Girish; Wong, Yin Ling; Lakhashe, Samir; Rasmussen, Robert A.; Watkins, Jennifer D.; Novembre, Francis J.; Villinger, Francois; Else, James G.; Montefiori, David C.; Ruprecht, Ruth M.

2012-01-01

349

Ontogeny and immunohistochemical localization of thymus-dependent and thymus-independent RT6+ cells in the rat.  

PubMed Central

RT6 is a cell surface alloantigen that identifies a regulatory subset of peripheral T cells in the rat. Diabetes-prone BB rats are deficient in peripheral RT6+ T cells and develop spontaneous autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes-resistant BB rats have normal numbers of RT6+ T cells, and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus can be induced in these animals by in vivo depletion of peripheral RT6+ cells. Athymic rats are also severely deficient in peripheral RT6+ T cells. Although very different with respect to the peripheral RT6+ cell compartment, normal, athymic, and diabetes-prone BB rats all generate RT6+ intestinal epithelial lymphocytes (IELs). The goal of these studies was to analyze the ontogeny of RT6+ IELs and peripheral lymphoid cells by in situ immunohistochemistry. We observed the following. 1) RT6+ IELs appear before alpha(beta) T-cell-receptor- expressing IELs in diabetes-prone BB, diabetes-resistant BB, and athymic WAG rats. 2) In vivo depletion of peripheral RT6+ T cells in diabetes-resistant BB rats using a cytotoxic monoclonal antibody is not accompanied by depletion of RT6+ IELs. 3) A population of RT6+ T-cell-receptor-negative IELs is present in normal, euthymic diabetes-resistant BB rats, constitutes a larger percentage of the euthymic but lymphopenic diabetes-prone BB rat IEL population, and is the predominant IEL phenotype in athymic WAG rats. These results suggest that RT6+ cells are composed of both thymus-dependent and thymus-independent cell subsets that have different developmental characteristics and may differ in function. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6

Waite, D. J.; Appel, M. C.; Handler, E. S.; Mordes, J. P.; Rossini, A. A.; Greiner, D. L.

1996-01-01

350

Cognition and Quality of Life After Chemotherapy Plus Radiotherapy (RT) vs. RT for Pure and Mixed Anaplastic Oligodendrogliomas: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trial 9402  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9402 compared procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy plus radiation therapy (PCV + RT) vs. RT alone for anaplastic oligodendroglioma. Here we report longitudinal changes in cognition and quality of life, effects of patient factors and treatments on cognition, quality of life and survival, and prognostic implications of cognition and quality of life. Methods and Materials: Cognition was assessed by Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and quality of life by Brain-Quality of Life (B-QOL). Scores were analyzed for survivors and within 5 years of death. Shared parameter models evaluated MMSE/B-QOL with survival. Results: For survivors, MMSE and B-QOL scores were similar longitudinally and between treatments. For those who died, MMSE scores remained stable initially, whereas B-QOL slowly declined; both declined rapidly in the last year of life and similarly between arms. In the aggregate, scores decreased over time (p = 0.0413 for MMSE; p = 0.0016 for B-QOL) and were superior with age <50 years (p < 0.001 for MMSE; p = 0.0554 for B-QOL) and Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS) 80-100 (p < 0.001). Younger age and higher KPS were associated with longer survival. After adjusting for patient factors and drop-out, survival was longer after PCV + RT (HR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49-0.9, p = 0.0084; HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.54-1.01, p = 0.0592) in models with MMSE and B-QOL. In addition, there were no differences in MMSE and B-QOL scores between arms (p = 0.4752 and p = 0.2767, respectively); higher scores predicted longer survival. Conclusion: MMSE and B-QOL scores held steady in the upper range in both arms for survivors. Younger, fitter patients had better MMSE and B-QOL and longer survival.

Wang Meihua, E-mail: mwang@phila.acr.or [American College of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Cairncross, Gregory [University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Shaw, Edward [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

2010-07-01

351

Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-specific reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors may suppress the replication of specific drug-resistant (E138K)RT HIV-1 mutants or select for highly resistant (Y181C-->C181I)RT HIV-1 mutants.  

PubMed Central

Mutant HIV-1 that expresses a Glu138-->Lys substitution in its RT [(E138K)RT] is resistant to the HIV-1-specific RT inhibitor 2',5'-bis-O-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-3'-spiro-5"-(4"-amino-1",2"- oxathiole-2",2"-dioxide)pyrimidine (TSAO). However, cell cultures infected with this mutant were completely protected against virus-mediated destruction by micromolar concentrations of the HIV-1-specific RT inhibitors tetrahydroimidazo[4,5,1-jk][1,4]benzodiazepin-2(1H)-one and -thione (TIBO), nevirapine, and bis(heteroaryl)piperazine (BHAP). In contrast, cells infected with a virus mutant that expresses a Tyr181-->Cys substitution in its RT [(Y181C)RT] were not protected by nevirapine and TIBO and were only temporarily protected by BHAP. HIV-1 mutant that emerged under the latter conditions contained a Cys181-->Ile substitution in their RT [(LC181I)RT]. This mutant proved highly resistant to all HIV-1-specific RT inhibitors tested, except for several 1-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl)-6-(phenylthio)thymine (HEPT) derivatives. When recombinant (C181I)RT was evaluated for susceptibility to the HIV-1-specific RT inhibitors, it was resistant to all inhibitors except the HEPT compounds. Since a (Y181F)RT HIV mutant strain was isolated from cells infected with (Y181C)RT HIV-1 and treated with BHAP, we postulate that the Ile codon was derived from a Cys-->Phe transversion mutation (TGT-->TTT), followed by a Phe-->Ile transversion mutation (TTT-->ATT).

Balzarini, J; Karlsson, A; Sardana, V V; Emini, E A; Camarasa, M J; De Clercq, E

1994-01-01

352

Training for Generalization and Maintenance in RtI Implementation: Front-Loading for Sustainability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Response to Intervention (RtI) is being implemented as a new initiative in PK-12 schools with increasing frequency. However, the model must be sustained at the school level, which is potentially difficult due to a number of challenges brought about by systems change. This article applied the Stokes and Baer (1977) framework for programming for…

Burns, Matthew K.; Egan, Andrea M.; Kunkel, Amy K.; McComas, Jennifer; Peterson, Meredith M.; Rahn, Naomi L.; Wilson, Jennifer

2013-01-01

353

Detection of Rift Valley fever virus in mosquitoes by RT-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay to detect Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus RNA in experimentally infected mosquitoes was developed. The specificity of the assay was evaluated with three other phleboviruses; sandfly fever Sicilian (Sabin), sandfly fever Naples (Sabin) and Punta Toro (MSP 3) viruses. The relative sensitivity of the assay, determined by using RVF virus RNA extracted from

M. S. Ibrahim; M. J. Turell; F. K. Knauert; R. S. Lofts

1997-01-01

354

CONVERSION FROM RT-11 TO MICRO-RSX FOR REAL-TIME DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Many scientists with DEC microcomputers use the RT-11 operating system for the acquisition of real-time data in the laboratory. For these researchers, the work required to learn a new operating system and the time needed to reprogram software prevents them from upgrading their la...

355

RtI and the Gifted Child: What Every Parent Should Know  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education has seen its share of trends and movements that either help or hinder the optimal development of the gifted child. In 2001, Congress passed No Child Left Behind (NCLB) in a concerted effort to reach children who were not meeting minimal standardized goals of achievement. Response to Intervention (RtI) is yet another approach to ensure…

Postma, Michael; Peters, Daniel; Gilman, Barbara; Kearney, Kathi

2011-01-01

356

Serogrouping of United States and some African serotypes of bluetongue virus using RT-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnostic potential of RT-PCR for detection of bluetongue virus (BTV) ribonucleic acid (RNA) sequence in cell culture and tissue samples from infected ruminants from United States, Sudan, South Africa and Senegal, was evaluated. The non structural protein 1 (NS1) gene of North American BTV serotype 11 was targeted for PCR amplification. The United States BTV serotypes 2, 10, 11,

Imadeldin E. Aradaib; Mohamed E. H. Mohamed; Tamadour M. Abdalla; Joesph Sarr; Mohamed A. Abdalla; Mohamed A. M. Yousof; Yahia A. Hassan; Abdel Rahim E. Karrar

2005-01-01

357

Synthesis of conformationally locked carbocyclic nucleoside phosphonates to probe the active site of HIV-1 RT  

PubMed Central

The conformationally locked carbocyclic nucleoside phosphonates 2 and 2? and key intermediates for the synthesis of 3 and 3? were prepared from a chiral cyclopentene derivative and epicholorohydrine, respectively. The structure of the nucleoside precursor 6 was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. These carbocyclic nucleoside phosphonates were designed to probe their binding interactions at the active site of HIV-1-RT.

Saneyoshi, Hisao; Vu, B. Christie; Hughes, Stephen H.; Boyer, Paul L.; Sarafianos, Stefan G.; Marquez, Victor E.

2009-01-01

358

The Practical Teaching of Thinking Using the CoRT Method.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The CoRT (Cognitive Research Trust) is a five-step program in direct instruction of thinking skills which increase the number and diversity of ideas as well as help the individual establish goals, set priorities, improve interactions with others, and incorporate feeling into thinking. (DB)

De Bono, Edward

1986-01-01

359

Policy Implications at the State and District Level with RtI for Gifted students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a field, gifted education does not endorse any one approach to serving students because of the range of student abilities and resulting concomitant diverse needs. Therefore, service delivery in gifted education is still heavily teacher dependent. Yet, many of the components of Response to Intervention (RtI) are employed in gifted education,…

Brown, Elissa F.; Abernethy, Sherry H.

2009-01-01

360

Performance of an RT-nested PCR ELISA for detection of Newcastle disease virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive and specific RT-nested PCR coupled with an ELISA detection system for detecting Newcastle disease virus is described. Two nested pairs of primer which were highly specific to all the three different pathotypes of NDV were designed from the consensus fusion gene sequence. No cross-reactions with other avian infectious agents such as infectious bronchitis virus, infectious bursal disease virus,

C. L Kho; M. L Mohd-Azmi; S. S Arshad; K Yusoff

2000-01-01

361

Identification and evaluation of reference genes for qRT-PCR normalization in ganoderma lucidum.  

PubMed

Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a rapid, sensitive, and reliable technique for gene expression studies. The accuracy and reliability of qRT-PCR results depend on the stability of the reference genes used for gene normalization. Therefore, a systematic process of reference gene evaluation is needed. Ganoderma lucidum is a famous medicinal mushroom in East Asia. In the current study, 10 potential reference genes were selected from the G. lucidum genomic data. The sequences of these genes were manually curated, and primers were designed following strict criteria. The experiment was conducted using qRT-PCR, and the stability of each candidate gene was assessed using four commonly used statistical programs-geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder. According to our results, PP2A was expressed at the most stable levels under different fermentation conditions, and RPL4 was the most stably expressed gene in different tissues. RPL4, PP2A, and ?-tubulin are the most commonly recommended reference genes for normalizing gene expression in the entire sample set. The current study provides a foundation for the further use of qRT-PCR in G. lucidum gene analysis. PMID:24013612

Xu, Jiang; Xu, ZhiChao; Zhu, YingJie; Luo, HongMei; Qian, Jun; Ji, AiJia; Hu, YuanLei; Sun, Wei; Wang, Bo; Song, JingYuan; Sun, Chao; Chen, ShiLin

2014-01-01

362

Characterization of SRSVs using RT-PCR and a new antigen ELISA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Stool samples from 451 patients involved in volunteer studies, 26 outbreaks and ~175 sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis from different geographical locations in the world were tested for Norwalk virus (NV) using a newly developed antigen ELISA and RT-PCR. NV was detected in most outbreaks previously characterized as being of NV origin. Overall, a low number of positives for

X. Jiang; J. Wang; M. K. Estes

1995-01-01

363

Regional Data Assimilation of AIRS Profiles and Radiances at the SPoRT Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the Short Term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center's mission to improve short-term weather prediction at the regional and local scale. It includes information on the cold bias in Weather Research and Forcasting (WRF), troposphere recordings from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), and vertical resolution of analysis grid.

Zavodsky, Brad; Chou, Shih-hung; Jedlovec, Gary

2009-01-01

364

Identification of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Analysis in Yesso Scallop Patinopecten yessoensis  

PubMed Central

Background Bivalves comprise around 30,000 extant species and have received much attention for their importance in ecosystems, aquaculture and evolutionary studies. Despite the increasing application of real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) in gene expression studies on bivalve species, little research has been conducted on reference gene selection which is critical for reliable and accurate qRT-PCR analysis. For scallops, systematic evaluation of reference genes that can be used among tissues or embryo/larva stages is lacking, and ?-actin (ACT) is most frequently used as qRT-PCR reference gene without validation. Results In this study, 12 commonly used candidate reference genes were selected from the transcriptome data of Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) for suitable qRT-PCR reference genes identification. The expression of these genes in 36 tissue samples and 15 embryo/larva samples under normal physiological conditions was examined by qRT-PCR, and their expression stabilities were evaluated using three statistic algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder, and comparative ?Ct method. Similar results were obtained by the three approaches for the most and the least stably expressed genes. Final comprehensive ranking for the 12 genes combing the results from the three programs showed that, for different tissues, DEAD-box RNA helicase (HELI), ubiquitin (UBQ), and 60S ribosomal protein L16 (RPL16) were the optimal reference genes combination, while for different embryo/larva stages, gene set containing Cytochrome B (CB), Cytochrome C (CC), Histone H3.3 (His3.3), and Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were recommended for qRT-PCR normalization. ACT was among the least stable genes for both adult tissues and embryos/larvae. Conclusions This work constitutes the first systematic analysis on reference genes selection for qRT-PCR normalization in scallop under normal conditions. The suitable reference genes we recommended will be useful for the identification of genes related to biological processes in Yesso scallop, and also in the reference gene selection for other scallop or bivalve species.

Feng, Liying; Yu, Qian; Li, Xue; Ning, Xianhui; Wang, Jing; Zou, Jiajun; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Shi; Hu, Jingjie; Hu, Xiaoli; Bao, Zhenmin

2013-01-01

365

Selection and Validation of Endogenous Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Analysis in Leafy Spurge (Euphorbia esula)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is the most important tool in measuring levels of gene expression due to its accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. However, the accuracy of qRT-PCR analysis strongly depends on transcript normalization using stably expressed reference genes. The aim of this study was to find internal reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis in various experimental conditions for seed,

Wun S. Chao; Münevver Do?ramaci; Michael E. Foley; David P. Horvath; James V. Anderson

2012-01-01

366

Class I and class II restriction pattern polymorphisms associated with independently derived RT1 haplotypes in inbred rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This communication reports the DNA level identification of class I and class II sequences associated with 20 RT1 haplotypes which have been assigned previously to eight RT1 groups. Sixteen to 22 bands in genomic blots hybridized with the mouse pH-2III class I cDNA probe. Only the three RT1khaplotypes associated with identical class I restriction fragment patterns. Differences in restriction bands

Peter J. Wettstein; Susan Faas; David A. Buck

1985-01-01

367

Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) for the treatment of hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventeen patients who developed hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) with or without heparin. rtPA was started a median of 13 days post transplant (range 4–35). All patients received rtPA at a dose of 10 mg\\/day as a starting dose, and 12 patients also received heparin (1500 U bolus;

S Kulkarni; M Rodriguez; A Lafuente; P Mateos; J Mehta; S Singhal; R Saso; D Tait; JG Treleaven; RL Powles

1999-01-01

368

miRT: a database of validated transcription start sites of human microRNAs.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous non-coding RNAs of about 22 nt in length that take crucial roles in many biological processes. These short RNAs regulate the expression of mRNAs by binding to their 3'-UTRs or by translational repression. Many of the current studies focus on how mature miRNAs regulate mRNAs, however, very limited knowledge is available regarding their transcriptional loci. It is known that primary miRNAs (pri-miRs) are first transcribed from the DNA, followed by the formation of precursor miRNAs (pre-miRs) by endonuclease activity, which finally produces the mature miRNAs. Till date, many of the pre-miRs and mature miRNAs have been experimentally verified. But unfortunately, identification of the loci of pri-miRs, promoters and associated transcription start sites (TSSs) are still in progress. TSSs of only about 40% of the known mature miRNAs in human have been reported. This information, albeit limited, may be useful for further study of the regulation of miRNAs. In this paper, we provide a novel database of validated miRNA TSSs, miRT, by collecting data from several experimental studies that validate miRNA TSSs and are available for full download. We present miRT as a web server and it is also possible to convert the TSS loci between different genome built. miRT might be a valuable resource for advanced research on miRNA regulation, which is freely accessible at: http://www.isical.ac.in/~bioinfo_miu/miRT/miRT.php. PMID:23200141

Bhattacharyya, Malay; Das, Manali; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra

2012-10-01

369

SPoRT - An End-to-End R2O Activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Established in 2002 to demonstrate the weather and forecasting application of real-time EOS measurements, the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program has grown to be an end-to-end research to operations activity focused on the use of advanced NASA modeling and data assimilation approaches, nowcasting techniques, and unique high-resolution multispectral observational data applications from EOS satellites to improve short-term weather forecasts on a regional and local scale. SPoRT currently partners with several universities and other government agencies for access to real-time data and products, and works collaboratively with them and operational end users at 13 WFOs to develop and test the new products and capabilities in a "test-bed" mode. The test-bed simulates key aspects of the operational environment without putting constraints on the forecaster workload. Products and capabilities which show utility in the test-bed environment are then transitioned experimentally into the operational environment for further evaluation and assessment. SPoRT focuses on a suite of data and products from MODIS, AMSR-E, and AIRS on the NASA Terra and Aqua satellites, and total lightning measurements from ground-based networks. Some of the observations are assimilated into or used with various versions of the WRF model to provide supplemental forecast guidance to operational end users. SPoRT is enhancing partnerships with NOAA / NESDIS for new product development and data access to exploit the remote sensing capabilities of instruments on the NPOESS satellites to address short term weather forecasting problems. The VIIRS and CrIS instruments on the NPP and follow-on NPOESS satellites provide similar observing capabilities to the MODIS and AIRS instruments on Terra and Aqua. SPoRT will be transitioning existing and new capabilities into the AWIIPS II environment to continue the continuity of its activities.

Jedlovec, Gary J.

2009-01-01

370

Molecular restoration of archived transcriptional profiles by complementary-template reverse-transcription (CT-RT)  

PubMed Central

Gene expression profiling of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens, banked from completed clinical trials and routine clinical care, has the potential to yield valuable information implicating and linking genes with clinical parameters. In order to prepare high-quality cDNA from highly fragmented FFPE-RNA, previously precluded from high-throughput analyses, we have designed a novel strategy based on the nucleic acid restoration of incomplete cDNA sequences prior to T7 in vitro transcription (IVT) amplification. We describe this strategy as complementary-template reverse-transcription (CT-RT) because short single-stranded T7-oligo-dT24-VN-DNA sequences, obtained from FFPE-RNA, are used as primers for the RT of complementary RNA templates contained in a sense-RNA library. We validated our assay by determining the correlation between expression profiles of a matched 10-year-old frozen and FFPE breast cancer sample. We show that T7 IVT-amplification of cDNA transcripts restored by CT-RT is a specific and reliable process that allows recovery of transcriptional features undetectable by direct T7 IVT-amplification of FFPE-RNA. Furthermore, CT-RT restored 35–41% of the transcripts from archived breast and cervical specimens when compared to matched frozen tissue; and profiles included tissue-specific transcripts. Our results indicate that CT-RT allows microarray profiling of severely degraded RNA that could not be analyzed by previous methods.

Loudig, Olivier; Milova, Ekaterina; Brandwein-Gensler, Margaret; Massimi, Aldo; Belbin, Thomas J.; Childs, Geoffrey; Singer, Robert H.; Rohan, Thomas; Prystowsky, Michael B.

2007-01-01

371

Molecular restoration of archived transcriptional profiles by complementary-template reverse-transcription (CT-RT).  

PubMed

Gene expression profiling of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens, banked from completed clinical trials and routine clinical care, has the potential to yield valuable information implicating and linking genes with clinical parameters. In order to prepare high-quality cDNA from highly fragmented FFPE-RNA, previously precluded from high-throughput analyses, we have designed a novel strategy based on the nucleic acid restoration of incomplete cDNA sequences prior to T7 in vitro transcription (IVT) amplification. We describe this strategy as complementary-template reverse-transcription (CT-RT) because short single-stranded T7-oligo-dT24-VN-DNA sequences, obtained from FFPE-RNA, are used as primers for the RT of complementary RNA templates contained in a sense-RNA library. We validated our assay by determining the correlation between expression profiles of a matched 10-year-old frozen and FFPE breast cancer sample. We show that T7 IVT-amplification of cDNA transcripts restored by CT-RT is a specific and reliable process that allows recovery of transcriptional features undetectable by direct T7 IVT-amplification of FFPE-RNA. Furthermore, CT-RT restored 35-41% of the transcripts from archived breast and cervical specimens when compared to matched frozen tissue; and profiles included tissue-specific transcripts. Our results indicate that CT-RT allows microarray profiling of severely degraded RNA that could not be analyzed by previous methods. PMID:17636051

Loudig, Olivier; Milova, Ekaterina; Brandwein-Gensler, Margaret; Massimi, Aldo; Belbin, Thomas J; Childs, Geoffrey; Singer, Robert H; Rohan, Thomas; Prystowsky, Michael B

2007-01-01

372

Does the sex of acute stroke patients influence the effectiveness of rt-PA?  

PubMed Central

Background Women have been reported to show more frequent recanalization and better recovery after intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) treatment for acute stroke compared with men. To investigate this we studied a series of stroke patients receiving IV rt-PA and undergoing acute transcranial doppler (TCD) examination. Methods Acute stroke patients received IV rt-PA and had acute TCD examination within 4 hours of symptom onset at 4 major stroke centers. TCD findings were interpreted using the Thrombolysis in Brain Ischemia (TIBI) flow grading system. The recanalization rates, and poor 3-month outcomes (modified Rankin scale >2) of men and women were compared using the chi-square test. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess sex as a predictor of recanalization and poor 3-month outcome after controlling for age, baseline NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS), time to treatment, hypertension, and blood glucose. Results 369 patients had TCD examinations before or during IV rt-PA treatment. The 199 (53.9%) men and 170 (46.1%) women had mean ages of 67?±?13 and 70?±?14 years, respectively. The sexes did not differ significantly in baseline stroke severity, time to TCD examination, or time to thrombolysis. Of the men, 68 (34.2%) had complete recanalization, 58 (29.1%) had partial recanalization, and 73 (36.6%) had no recanalization. Of the women, 53 (31.2%) had complete recanalization, 46 (27%) had partial recanalization, and 71 (41.8%) had no recanalization (p?=?0.6). Multiple regression analyses showed no difference between the sexes in recanalization rate, time to recanalization, or clinical outcome at 3 months. Conclusions In our study; sex is not a significant predictor of recanalization rate, time to recanalization or 3-month outcome in stroke patients following IV rt-PA. Trial registration Data from CLOTBUST trial Clinicaltrails.gov Identifier: NCT01240356.

2014-01-01

373

Detection and quantitation of two cucurbit criniviruses in mixed infection by real-time RT-PCR.  

PubMed

Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV) and Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) are whitefly-transmitted criniviruses infecting cucurbit crops inducing similar symptoms. Single and multiplex RT-PCR protocols were developed and evaluated on cucurbit samples collected from commercial greenhouses. Primers and probes were designed from the highly conserved heat shock protein 70 homolog (Hsp70h) gene. Conventional RT-PCR and multiplex RT-PCR assays showed high specificity and suitability for routine screening. TaqMan-based quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) protocols were also developed for the detection and quantitation of both viruses occurring in single or mixed infection. The assays proved to be highly specific with no cross amplification. RT-qPCR assays showed a 100-1000 times improved sensitivity over conventional RT-PCR. Virus titers in mixed infections were compared to singly infected plants by RT-qPCR. CYSDV and CCYV titers decreased in double infected plants. This paper reports highly specific conventional RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR assays for detection, quantitation and differentiation between two closely related cucurbit-infecting criniviruses. PMID:23810855

Abrahamian, Peter E; Seblani, Rewa; Sobh, Hana; Abou-Jawdah, Yusuf

2013-11-01

374

Development and evaluation of a DNA enzyme immunoassay method for env genotyping of subtypes A through G of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M, with discrimination of the circulating recombinant forms CRF01_AE and CRF02_AG.  

PubMed

The tools currently available for genetic subtyping of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 are laborious or can be used only for the analysis of a limited number of samples and/or subtypes. We developed and evaluated a molecular biology-based method using subtype-specific oligonucleotide probes for env genotyping of subtypes A through G, CRF01_AE, and CRF02_AG. DNA enzyme immunoassay (DEIA) genotyping is based on nested PCR amplification of the 5' end of the env gene (proviral DNA), followed by subtype-specific hybridization and immunoenzymatic detection on microplates. DEIA genotyping was validated with a large number of samples (n = 128) collected in Europe (France; n = 47), West-Central Africa (Cameroon; n = 36), and West Africa (Senegal; n = 45). Three different formats, depending on the distribution of subtypes in the three countries, were developed. The results were compared with those obtained by sequencing of the V3-V5 region and phylogenetic analysis or an env heteroduplex mobility assay. Additional sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of the DEIA region (the first codon of the env coding sequence to the middle of conserved region C1 of gp120) were performed to investigate the reasons for discrepancies. Intense and highly specific reactions between the oligonucleotide probes and the corresponding samples were observed. Overall, correct identification was achieved for 107 of 128 samples (83.6%). One sample was not amplified, 10 (8%) were nontypeable (NT), and 10 (8%) were misidentified. Six of the 10 discordant samples were further investigated by phylogenetic analysis, which indicated that these samples corresponded to recombinants involving the env 5' end and the V3 and V5 regions of the two parental clades. Sequencing of NT samples showed numerous differences between sample and probe sequences, resulting in a lack of hybridization, and revealed the limitations of the selected probes in terms of specificity and sensitivity. We demonstrated the feasibility of DEIA genotyping: six subtypes plus the two most prevalent circulating recombinant forms were discriminated by using the 5' end of the env gene. This method can be adapted to the local situation by including only probes that correspond to the prevalent strains. PMID:11880431

Plantier, Jean-Christophe; Vergne, Laurence; Damond, Florence; MBoup, Souleymane; MPoudi-NGole, Eitel; Buzelay, Laurence; Farfara, Isabelle; Brand, Denys; Peeters, Martine; Brun-Vézinet, Françoise; Delaporte, Eric; Barin, Francis

2002-03-01

375

Development and Evaluation of a DNA Enzyme Immunoassay Method for env Genotyping of Subtypes A through G of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Group M, with Discrimination of the Circulating Recombinant Forms CRF01_AE and CRF02_AG  

PubMed Central

The tools currently available for genetic subtyping of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 are laborious or can be used only for the analysis of a limited number of samples and/or subtypes. We developed and evaluated a molecular biology-based method using subtype-specific oligonucleotide probes for env genotyping of subtypes A through G, CRF01_AE, and CRF02_AG. DNA enzyme immunoassay (DEIA) genotyping is based on nested PCR amplification of the 5? end of the env gene (proviral DNA), followed by subtype-specific hybridization and immunoenzymatic detection on microplates. DEIA genotyping was validated with a large number of samples (n = 128) collected in Europe (France; n = 47), West-Central Africa (Cameroon; n = 36), and West Africa (Senegal; n = 45). Three different formats, depending on the distribution of subtypes in the three countries, were developed. The results were compared with those obtained by sequencing of the V3-V5 region and phylogenetic analysis or an env heteroduplex mobility assay. Additional sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of the DEIA region (the first codon of the env coding sequence to the middle of conserved region C1 of gp120) were performed to investigate the reasons for discrepancies. Intense and highly specific reactions between the oligonucleotide probes and the corresponding samples were observed. Overall, correct identification was achieved for 107 of 128 samples (83.6%). One sample was not amplified, 10 (8%) were nontypeable (NT), and 10 (8%) were misidentified. Six of the 10 discordant samples were further investigated by phylogenetic analysis, which indicated that these samples corresponded to recombinants involving the env 5? end and the V3 and V5 regions of the two parental clades. Sequencing of NT samples showed numerous differences between sample and probe sequences, resulting in a lack of hybridization, and revealed the limitations of the selected probes in terms of specificity and sensitivity. We demonstrated the feasibility of DEIA genotyping: six subtypes plus the two most prevalent circulating recombinant forms were discriminated by using the 5? end of the env gene. This method can be adapted to the local situation by including only probes that correspond to the prevalent strains.

Plantier, Jean-Christophe; Vergne, Laurence; Damond, Florence; MBoup, Souleymane; MPoudi-NGole, Eitel; Buzelay, Laurence; Farfara, Isabelle; Brand, Denys; Peeters, Martine; Brun-Vezinet, Francoise; Delaporte, Eric; Barin, Francis

2002-01-01

376

A combination microbicide gel protects macaques against vaginal simian human immunodeficiency virus-reverse transcriptase infection, but only partially reduces herpes simplex virus-2 infection after a single high-dose cochallenge.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection increases HIV susceptibility. We previously established a rhesus macaque model of vaginal HSV-2 preexposure followed by cochallenge with HSV-2 and simian/human immunodeficiency virus-reverse transcriptase (SHIV-RT). Using this model, we showed that a gel containing the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) MIV-150 in carrageenan (CG) reduced SHIV-RT infection. To evaluate the efficacy of new generation microbicides against both viruses, we first established dual infection after single vaginal cochallenge with SHIV-RT and HSV-2 in HSV-2-naive macaques. All animals (6/6) became HSV-2 infected, with 4/6 coinfected with SHIV-RT. In a control group cochallenged with SHIV-RT and UV-inactivated HSV-2, 2/4 became SHIV-RT infected, and none had detectable HSV-2. Low-level HSV-2-specific antibody and T cell responses were detected in some HSV-2-infected animals. To test a CG gel containing MIV-150 and zinc acetate (MZC), which provided naive animals full protection from SHIV-RT for at least 8?h, MZC (vs. CG) was applied daily for 14 days followed by cochallenge 8?h later. MZC prevented SHIV-RT infection (0/9 infected, p=0.04?vs. 3/6 in CG controls), but only reduced HSV-2 infection by 20% (6/9 infected vs. 5/6 in CG, p=0.6). In HSV-2-infected animals, none of the gel-treated animals seroconverted, and only the CG controls had measurable HSV-2-specific T cell responses. This study shows the promise of MZC to prevent immunodeficiency virus infection (even in the presence of HSV-2) and reduce HSV-2 infection after exposure to a high-dose inoculum. Additionally, it demonstrates the potential of a macaque coinfection model to evaluate broad-spectrum microbicides. PMID:24117013

Hsu, Mayla; Aravantinou, Meropi; Menon, Radhika; Seidor, Samantha; Goldman, Daniel; Kenney, Jessica; Derby, Nina; Gettie, Agegnehu; Blanchard, James; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Fernández-Romero, Jose A; Zydowsky, Thomas M; Robbiani, Melissa

2014-02-01

377

A Combination Microbicide Gel Protects Macaques Against Vaginal Simian Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Reverse Transcriptase Infection, But Only Partially Reduces Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Infection After a Single High-Dose Cochallenge  

PubMed Central

Abstract Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection increases HIV susceptibility. We previously established a rhesus macaque model of vaginal HSV-2 preexposure followed by cochallenge with HSV-2 and simian/human immunodeficiency virus-reverse transcriptase (SHIV-RT). Using this model, we showed that a gel containing the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) MIV-150 in carrageenan (CG) reduced SHIV-RT infection. To evaluate the efficacy of new generation microbicides against both viruses, we first established dual infection after single vaginal cochallenge with SHIV-RT and HSV-2 in HSV-2-naive macaques. All animals (6/6) became HSV-2 infected, with 4/6 coinfected with SHIV-RT. In a control group cochallenged with SHIV-RT and UV-inactivated HSV-2, 2/4 became SHIV-RT infected, and none had detectable HSV-2. Low-level HSV-2-specific antibody and T cell responses were detected in some HSV-2-infected animals. To test a CG gel containing MIV-150 and zinc acetate (MZC), which provided naive animals full protection from SHIV-RT for at least 8?h, MZC (vs. CG) was applied daily for 14 days followed by cochallenge 8?h later. MZC prevented SHIV-RT infection (0/9 infected, p=0.04?vs. 3/6 in CG controls), but only reduced HSV-2 infection by 20% (6/9 infected vs. 5/6 in CG, p=0.6). In HSV-2-infected animals, none of the gel-treated animals seroconverted, and only the CG controls had measurable HSV-2-specific T cell responses. This study shows the promise of MZC to prevent immunodeficiency virus infection (even in the presence of HSV-2) and reduce HSV-2 infection after exposure to a high-dose inoculum. Additionally, it demonstrates the potential of a macaque coinfection model to evaluate broad-spectrum microbicides.

Hsu, Mayla; Aravantinou, Meropi; Menon, Radhika; Seidor, Samantha; Goldman, Daniel; Kenney, Jessica; Derby, Nina; Gettie, Agegnehu; Blanchard, James; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Fernandez-Romero, Jose A.; Zydowsky, Thomas M.

2014-01-01

378

Suppression of Virus Load by Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Rhesus Macaques Infected with a Recombinant Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Containing Reverse Transcriptase from Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have modeled highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for AIDS in rhesus macaques infected with a chimera (RT-SHIV) of simian immunodeficiency virus containing reverse transcriptase from human immu- nodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Seven RT-SHIV-infected macaques were treated with a combination of efavirenz (200 mg orally once daily), lamivudine (8 mg\\/kg subcutaneously once daily), and tenofovir (30 mg\\/kg subcutaneously once daily).

Thomas W. North; Koen K. A. Van Rompay; Joanne Higgins; Timothy B. Matthews; Debra A. Wadford; Niels C. Pedersen; Raymond F. Schinazi

2005-01-01

379

Analysis of gene expression in small numbers of purified hemopoietic progenitor cells by RT-PCR.  

PubMed

Primitive hemopoietic stem cells represent the most probable targets for genetic alterations due to exposure to ionizing irradiation or chemical carcinogens. We have applied a two-step protocol for the purification of CD34+HLA-DR-/low hemopoietic progenitor cells from cord blood (CB). CD34+ cells were isolated by monoclonal antibody (mAb) against CD34 (My10) and immunomagnetic beads. Beads were cleaved off the CD34+ cells by enzymatic treatment with chymopapain. Due to chymopapain-resistance of epitopes recognized by the used mAbs purity control of CD34+ cells and separation into CD34+HLA-DR-/low and CD34+HLA-DR+ subsets could be performed by using flow cytometry. Two miniaturized procedures were applied to isolate poly(A)+ mRNA for the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from small numbers of CD34+HLA-DR-/low cells. In five experiments, the mean purity of immunomagnetically isolated CD34+ cells was 93.8% +/- 3.9. Flow cytometry sorting of CD34+ cells resulted in pure CD34+HLA-DR-/low populations (purity > 98.8%; range 98.8% to 99.9%; viability > 96%) with an average yield of 2600 +/- 800 cells/5 x 10(7) low density CB cells. By RT-PCR using both poly(A)+ mRNA isolation procedures, sequences corresponding to CD34 and beta 2-microglobulin were amplified from as few as 20 cells. Furthermore, a sequence-independent RT-PCR (SIP-RT-PCR) was applied to amplify the cDNA derived from five erythroblasts isolated from a burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E). Upon hybridization, full-length c-fos message was detected in the SIP-RT-PCR amplified material. Our data demonstrate that gene expression can be detected at the transcriptional level in small numbers of hemopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the SIP-RT-PCR may allow the amplification of unique mRNA species when subtractive hybridization procedures are performed. The presented data should be useful to analyze gene expression in rare subsets of radiation-exposed immature hemopoietic stem/progenitor cells. PMID:7488936

Ziegler, B L; Lamping, C P; Thoma, S J; Fliedner, T M

1995-05-01

380

SPoRT's Participation in the GOES-R Proving Ground Activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The next generation geostationary satellite, GOES-R, will carry two new instruments with unique atmospheric and surface observing capabilities, the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), to study short-term weather processes. The ABI will bring enhanced multispectral observing capabilities with frequent refresh rates for regional and full disk coverage to geostationary orbit to address many existing and new forecast challenges. The GLM will, for the first time, provide the continuous monitoring of total lightning flashes over a hemispherical region from space. NOAA established the GOES-R Proving Ground activity several years ago to demonstrate the new capabilities of these instruments and to prepare forecasters for their day one use. Proving Ground partners work closely with algorithm developers and the end user community to develop and transition proxy data sets representing GOES-R observing capabilities. This close collaboration helps to maximize refine algorithms leading to the delivery of a product that effectively address a forecast challenge. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program has been a participant in the NOAA GOES-R Proving Ground activity by developing and disseminating selected GOES-R proxy products to collaborating WFOs and National Centers. Established in 2002 to demonstrate the weather and forecasting application of real-time EOS measurements, the SPoRT program has grown to be an end-to-end research to operations activity focused on the use of advanced NASA modeling and data assimilation approaches, nowcasting techniques, and unique high-resolution multispectral data from EOS satellites to improve short-term weather forecasts on a regional and local scale. Participation in the Proving Ground activities extends SPoRT's activities and taps its experience and expertise in diagnostic weather analysis, short-term weather forecasting, and the transition of research and experimental data to operational decision support systems like NAWIPS, AWIPS, AWIPS2, and Google Earth. Recent SPoRT Proving Ground activities supporting the development and use of a pseudo GLM total lightning product and the transition of the AWG's Convective Initiation (CI) product, both of which were available in AWIPS and AWIPS II environments, by forecasters during the Hazardous Weather Testbed (HWT) Spring Experiment. SPoRT is also providing a suite of SEVIRI and MODIS RGB image products, and a high resolution composite SST product to several National Centers for use in there ongoing demonstration activities. Additionally, SPoRT has involved numerous WFOs in the evaluation of a GOES-MODIS hybrid product which brings ABI-like data sets in front of the forecaster for everyday use. An overview of this activity will be presented at the conference.

Jedlovec, G.; Fuell, K.; Smith, M. R.; Stano, G. T.; Molthan, A.

2011-12-01

381

Interleukin12 (IL12) Enhancement of the Cellular Immune Response against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Env Antigen in a DNA Prime\\/Vaccinia Virus Boost Vaccine Regimen Is Time and Dose Dependent: Suppressive Effects of IL12 Boost Are Mediated by Nitric Oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously demonstrated that codelivery of interleukin-12 (IL-12) with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Env antigen from a recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV) can enhance the specific anti-Env cell-mediated immune (CMI) response. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of IL-12 in mice when it is expressed in a DNA prime\\/VV boost vaccine regimen. The delivery of

M. MAGDALENA GHERARDI; JUAN C. RAMIREZ; MARIANO ESTEBAN

2000-01-01

382

Evaluating the Impact of AIRS Observations on Regional Forecasts at the SPoRT Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center collaborates with operational partners of different sizes and operational goals to improve forecasts using targeted projects and data sets. Modeling and DA activities focus on demonstrating utility of NASA data sets and capabilities within operational systems. SPoRT has successfully assimilated the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) radiance and profile data. A collaborative project is underway with the Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation (JCSDA) to use AIRS profiles to better understand the impact of AIRS radiances assimilated within Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) in hopes of engaging the operational DA community in a reassessment of assimilation methodologies to more effectively assimilate hyperspectral radiances.

Zavodsky, Bradley

2011-01-01

383

Improved RT-PCR for diagnosis and epidemiological surveillance of rubella.  

PubMed

A reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed and evaluated for detection of rubella virus (RV) RNA directly from clinical specimens using primers that amplified 592 nucleotides, of a variable region within the E1 gene. RV RNA was detected in pre- and post-natal congenital rubella samples and samples from patients with acute rubella, which suggests that it is a reliable technique for rubella diagnosis and surveillance. The sensitivity of the PCR was found to be equivalent to that of previously published assays, which amplify smaller regions of the E1 gene. This improved RT-PCR is much more specific for detection of the rubella genome compared to our previous PCR, where some primers were complementary to the human genome. The larger size of the PCR amplicon was also useful for molecular genotyping of virus strains. PMID:16019259

Cooray, S; Warrener, L; Jin, L

2006-01-01

384

Recent Upgrades to NASA SPoRT Initialization Datasets for the Environmental Modeling System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed several products for its NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) partners that can initialize specific fields for local model runs within the NOAA/NWS Science and Training Resource Center Environmental Modeling System (EMS). The suite of SPoRT products for use in the EMS consists of a Sea Surface Temperature (SST) composite that includes a Lake Surface Temperature (LST) analysis over the Great Lakes, a Great Lakes sea-ice extent within the SST composite, a real-time Green Vegetation Fraction (GVF) composite, and NASA Land Information System (LIS) gridded output. This paper and companion poster describe each dataset and provide recent upgrades made to the SST, Great Lakes LST, GVF composites, and the real-time LIS runs.

Case, Jonathan L.; Lafontaine, Frank J.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Rozumalski, Robert A.

2012-01-01

385

Rapid subtyping of tick-borne encephalitis virus isolates using multiplex RT-PCR.  

PubMed

Tick-borne encephalitis virus, an emerging pathogen in several countries in Europe and Asia, has been divided into three subtypes (European, Siberian and Far Eastern). These subtypes are associated with different severities of the disease. For that reason, early determination of the subtype in a clinical sample or in ticks removed from a patient in areas of co-circulation of two or three subtypes is of high importance. The development of a simple method of multiplex RT-PCR for rapid and easy subtyping of tick-borne encephalitis virus isolates is reported to fill this requirement. The method is based on the unique combination of oligonucleotide primers hybridizing with subtype-specific "signature" positions of the sequence encoding the viral envelope protein. The developed multiplex RT-PCR also appears to be a useful method in studies focused on the molecular-epidemiology of tick-borne encephalitis virus. PMID:17548116

R?zek, Daniel; Stastná, Hana; Kopecký, Jan; Golovljova, Irina; Grubhoffer, Libor

2007-09-01

386

Identification of duchenne muscular dystrophy female carriers by fluorescence in situ hybridization and RT-PCR.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin DMD gene located at Xp21.1 region. Up to 65% of the patients present dystrophin gene deletions. Mothers of DMD patients have a two-thirds chance of carrying a dystrophin mutation. The female carrier will transmit the disease gene to half of her sons and half of her daughters. As the recurrence risk for the disease is extremely high, it is very important to detect carrier status among female relatives of the patients to bring an adequate genetic counseling. In this work, results from two methods to identify female carriers are presented. One method is a multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay, and the other is reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We showed that FISH is an efficient, sensitive method that brings confident results to detect DMD female carriers as compared to RT-PCR. PMID:18471087

Velázquez-Wong, Ana Claudia; Hernández-Huerta, César; Márquez-Calixto, Areli; Hernández-Aguilar, Fidel Omar; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Salamanca-Gómez, Fabio; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón

2008-06-01

387

Clinicopathologic Comparison of Familial Versus Sporadic Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumors (AT/RT) of the Central Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Background Central nervous system (CNS) atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are aggressive tumors usually diagnosed in young children and characterized by SMARCB1 (INI1, hSNF5) gene abnormalities. Despite initial chemo-radiation responsiveness, most children die of progressive disease (PD). Little data regarding familial AT/RT clinical course exist. This study described and compared familial (F) versus sporadic (S) AT/RT and elucidated SMARCB1 mutations and inheritance patterns. Methods A retrospective chart review, pedigree, and SMARCB1 analysis were done. Results Between January 1989 and June 2009, 20 children with CNS AT/RT were diagnosed, 8-S and 12-F. Median age at diagnosis (months) of S and F patient were: 13 and 4.8, respectively. Median survival (months) was S-21, F4.5, and 8-all. Pedigree analyses showed unaffected parent carriers with multiple affected offspring. Conclusions Children with F-AT/RT are younger, have more extensive disease, and are more likely to die from PD than children with S-AT/RT. Surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy were important in achieving long-term survival. Pedigree analysis supports autosomal dominant inheritance pattern with incomplete penetrance. Germline SMARCB1 mutation analysis is important in all patients diagnosed with AT/RT to (1) determine actual incidence of F-AT/RT, (2) determine penetrance of predisposing mutations, (3) provide appropriate genetic counseling, and (4) establish surveillance screening guidelines.

Bruggers, Carol S.; Bleyl, Steven B.; Pysher, Theodore; Barnette, Philip; Afify, Zeinab; Walker, Marion; Biegel, Jaclyn A.

2011-01-01

388

A DICOM-RT Based ePR radiation therapy information system for decision-support of brain tumor patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for comprehensive clinical image data and relevant information in image-guided Radiation Therapy (RT) is becoming steadily apparent. Multiple standalone systems utilizing the most technological advancements in imaging, therapeutic radiation, and computerized treatment planning systems acquire key data during the RT treatment course of a patient. One example are patients treated for brain tumors of greater sizes and irregular

B. J. Liu; M. Law; H. K. Huang; C. S. Zee; L. Chan

2006-01-01

389

Combination of conventional immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR to detect ALK rearrangement  

PubMed Central

Background Compared with FISH and qRT-PCR analyses, immunohistochemistry (IHC) is the preferred screening test in most pathology practices for ALK-rearrangement detection. With 100% sensitivity and 98% specificity, the VENTANA ALK (D5F3) IHC assay has been approved in the EU and some Asian countries for ALK-rearrangement detection. However, an automated Ventana IHC platform is not available in most pathology labs. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of conventional IHC with D5F3 antibody in routine pathological practice and proposed detection methods and procedures that ensure that patients with ALK+?are not missed. Methods FISH and IHC analyses were performed on 297 lung adenocarcinoma cases. VENTANA IHC and qRT-PCR assay were applied to evaluate ALK-fusion status in the discordant cases of FISH and IHC. The association of ALK+?with clinicopathological characteristics was statistically analyzed. Results IHC had 100% sensitivity and 81.8% specificity for detecting ALK+. Eight ALK-expressed cases were ALK-, five of which had ALK fusion detected by qRT-PCR analysis. Three of these five cases showed ALK expression using VENTANA IHC assay. ALK+ was associated with younger age and lymph node metastasis in this Chinese lung adenocarcinoma patient cohort. Conclusions The advantages of low cost and 100% sensitivity allow conventional IHC to serve as a robust diagnostic tool for screening patients with ALK+, especially in pathology labs without a VENTANA IHC platform. For cases in which ALK is weakly expressed, qRT-PCR is necessary as a diagnostic test for ALK-fusion detection. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2269448351088278.

2014-01-01

390

Summary of Proton Test on the Actel RT54SX16 Prototype at Indiana University  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of tests performed at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, on the Actel RT54SX16 prototype circuit device is presented. The devices' performances in the test is shown in both a table and a graph and was typical for devices of this class. Another summary of tests performed at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, on the Chip Express QYH530 device is presented.The device's performance in the test is shown in a graph and tables.

Katz, Richard

1998-01-01

391

Fine Needle Aspiration May Shed Breast Cells into Peripheral Blood as Determined by RT-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A diagnostic test applying reverse-transcriptase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay targeted against cytokeratin 19 (CK19), cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and the ?-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG) mRNAs was used to evaluate the impact of fine needle aspiration (FNA) on breast cell shedding into peripheral blood. Methods: The sensitivity of this assay was based on the different degree of admix of

X. C. Hu; Louis W. C. Chow

2000-01-01

392

Detection of Citrus tatter leaf virus with reverse transcription—polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus tatter leaf virus (CTLV) has the potential to cause major losses to the Australian citrus industry if an infected clone is propagated, because\\u000a the predominant rootstocks are intolerant of CTLV infection. We have developed a robust and specific semi-nested reverse transcription—polymerase\\u000a chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay which detects CTLV in a range of citrus tissues. The sensitivity of the assay

D. L. Hailstones; K. L. Bryant; P. Broadbent; C. Zhou

2000-01-01

393

Approaches to strategic research and technology (R&T) analysis and road mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly, the timely and successful incorporation of innovative technologies into new systems is a critical factor in their success or failure. This is true for both commercial and government space missions. In addition, continuing progress in methodologies that may enable the effective identification of long-term technology needs and opportunities—and the guidance of ongoing research and technology (R&T) programs to address

John C. Mankins

2002-01-01

394

Multiplex RT-PCR assay for the differential diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma.  

PubMed Central

Cytogenetic analysis has defined specific translocations associated with two of the most common small round cell tumors of childhood, t(11;22) in Ewing's sarcoma and t(2;13) in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. We and others have previously demonstrated the diagnostic utility of a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for the detection of the t(11;22) encoded EWS/FLI-1 chimeric message in Ewing's sarcoma. More recently, we have cloned the t(2;13)(q35;q14) translocation and have shown that it results in the fusion of the PAX3 gene on chromosome 2 to FKHR, a novel member of the fork-head family of transcription factors on chromosome 13. To define the morphological spectrum of childhood sarcomas that express the t(2;13) encoded PAX3/FKHR chimeric message, we have performed RT-PCR analysis on samples from 44 primary pediatric sarcomas and 8 sarcoma cell lines. PAX3/FKHR chimeric messages were detected in 24 of 27 alveolar, 2 of 12 embryonal, and 0 of 1 pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma and in 1 of 2 ectomesenchymomas. In contrast, none of 8 Ewing's sarcomas or 2 undifferentiated sarcomas expressed this message. Chimeric transcripts were detected in all cases with cytogenetic evidence of the (2;13) translocation, and in each case the chimeric PAX3/FKHR message had the identical junction sequence, suggesting that genomic chromosome breaks were clustered in a single intron in both genes. By combining the PAX3/FKHR RT-PCR assay with primers for detection of the Ewing's sarcoma t(11;22) encoded EWS/FLI-1 chimeric transcript, we have developed a multiplex RT-PCR reaction that allows the rapid and accurate identification of either translocation in a biopsy sample. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

Downing, J. R.; Khandekar, A.; Shurtleff, S. A.; Head, D. R.; Parham, D. M.; Webber, B. L.; Pappo, A. S.; Hulshof, M. G.; Conn, W. P.; Shapiro, D. N.

1995-01-01

395

Diagnosis of Norovirus outbreaks by commercial ELISA or RT-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IDEIA Norwalk-like virus (Dakocytomation Ltd., Ely, United Kingdom) and the Ridascreen Norwalk-like virus enzyme immunoassay (R-Biopharm AG, Darmstadt, Germany), were evaluated for the diagnosis of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis.A panel of 158 fecal samples from 23 outbreaks, including confirmed rotavirus and astrovirus outbreaks, was used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of both ELISA kits relative to an RT-PCR

Erwin de Bruin; Erwin Duizer; Harry Vennema; Marion P. G. Koopmans

2006-01-01

396

Real-time RT-PCR methodology for quantification of thiopurine methyltransferase gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe aim of the present study was to develop a real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methodology for the quantification of thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) gene expression in whole blood and compare it with the TPMT enzyme activity measured in red blood cells.MethodsTPMT gene expression was quantified relative to the housekeeping gene cyclophilin (huCYC) and expressed as a TPMT\\/huCYC ratio. TPMT

Malin Lindqvist; Sven Almer; Curt Peterson; Peter Söderkvist

2003-01-01

397

Using metallic resin and aluminum alloy molds to manufacture propellers with RP\\/RT technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This purpose of this study is to investigate an effective method to manufacture propellers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The investment casting process and injection molding process have been applied separately to the rapid prototyping\\/rapid tooling (RP\\/RT) to obtain metal (Al-Si alloy) propellers and plastic (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene – ABS) propellers. The two different manufacturing processes were compared following the same

C. Y. Hsu; C. K. Huang; G. J. Tzou

2008-01-01

398

Simultaneous detection of enteric viruses by multiplex real-time RT-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiplex real-time RT-PCR protocol for the simultaneous detection of noroviruses (“Norwalk-like viruses”) of genogroups I and II, human astroviruses and enteroviruses is described. The protocol was developed and evaluated using the LightCycler™ and corresponding SYBR Green reagents. New primers were designed within conserved genome regions to optimize the detection range of virus subtypes of each genus. To enable the

Christian Beuret

2004-01-01

399

Simultaneous detection and identification of eight stone fruit viruses by one-step RT-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive and reliable one step RT-PCR reaction with an internal control has been developed to detect and differentiate eight important viruses that affect stone fruit tress: Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), Prune dwarf virus (PDV), American plum line pattern virus (APLPV), Plum pox virus (PPV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apricot latent virus (ApLV)

J. A. Sánchez-Navarro; F. Aparicio; M. C. Herranz; A. Minafra; A. Myrta; V. Pallás

2005-01-01