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Sample records for ruminal fermentation urinary

  1. Ruminal Fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminal fermentation is an exergonic process that converts feedstuffs into short chain volatile fatty acids (VFA), CO2, CH4, NH3, and heat. Some of the free energy is trapped as ATP and this energy is used to drive the growth of anaerobic ruminal microorganisms. The ruminant animals absorb VFA and...

  2. Ruminal fermentation and degradation patterns, protozoa population, and urinary purine derivatives excretion in goats and wethers fed diets based on two-stage olive cake: effect of PEG supply.

    PubMed

    Yáñez Ruiz, D R; Moumen, A; Martín García, A I; Molina Alcaide, E

    2004-07-01

    Three experiments were conducted in Granadina goats and Segureña wethers fed at maintenance level to evaluate the effect of including a mixture of barley and a new by-product derived from olive oil extraction (two-stage dried olive cake) on ruminal degradation and passage kinetics (Exp. 1), fermentation pattern and protozoa population (Exp. 2), and urinary purine derivatives excretion (Exp. 3). Polyethylene glycol was supplied to the animals to evaluate the effects of tannins contained in the by-product. The experimental diets were as follows: alfalfa hay and alfalfa hay plus a concentrate, formulated with two-stage dried olive cake, barley, and a mineral-vitamin mixture either with or without the addition of polyethylene glycol to the drinking water. The inclusion of two-stage dried olive cake in the diet resulted in an increase of condensed tannins. Ruminal VFA concentration in goats and wethers increased (P < 0.05) and ammonia N (NH3-N) concentration decreased (P < 0.05). The inclusion of two-stage dried olive cake decreased (P < 0.001) urinary allantoin excretion only in wethers. Ruminal degradation profiles and fractional passage rates were similar in goats and wethers. The polyethylene glycol supply increased (P < 0.001) DM and N degradation rates in both animal species but did not modify the fractional passage rate. Ruminal fermentation patterns were also similar in goats and wethers and were affected by polyethylene glycol supply. In general, Entodiniomorphida and Holotricha protozoa counts were higher (P < 0.05) in the rumen of goats than of wethers. Protozoa count in wethers responded more to polyethylene glycol supply than in goats. The present work presents the first data obtained from a comparative study with sheep and goats concerning urinary excretion of purine derivatives. The excretion was similar in both animal species when fed alfalfa hay; however, polyethylene glycol affected only urinary allantoin excretion in wethers. Results suggest a

  3. Effect of molasses supplementation on ruminal fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This fact sheet summarizes the results of two continuous culture fermentor studies that evaluated the effects of molasses supplementation on ruminal fermentation of a pasture diet. The first study compared molasses with corn supplementation. Diets consisted of pasture only, molasses plus pasture, co...

  4. Effect of forage species on ruminal fermentation in continuous culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intake and digestion of pasture herbage can be influenced by canopy structure. A dual-flow continuous culture fermenter system was used to investigate the effect of forage species on digestion and ruminal fermentation. Four grass species [reed canarygrass (RCG), Phalaris arundinacea L; quackgrass (Q...

  5. RUMINAL FERMENTATION OF PROPYLENE GLYCOL AND GLYCEROL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine rumen fluid was fermented anaerobically with 25 mM R-propylene glycol, S-propylene glycol, or glycerol added. After 24 h all of the propylene glycol enantiomers and approximately 80% of the glycerol were metabolized. Acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, and caproate concentrations, in dec...

  6. Ruminal fermentation of propylene glycol and glycerol.

    PubMed

    Trabue, Steven; Scoggin, Kenwood; Tjandrakusuma, Siska; Rasmussen, Mark A; Reilly, Peter J

    2007-08-22

    Bovine rumen fluid was fermented anaerobically with 25 mM R-propylene glycol, S-propylene glycol, or glycerol added. After 24 h, all of the propylene glycol enantiomers and approximately 80% of the glycerol were metabolized. Acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, and caproate concentrations, in decreasing order, all increased with incubation time. Addition of any of the three substrates somewhat decreased acetate formation, while addition of either propylene glycol increased propionate formation but decreased that of butyrate. R- and S-propylene glycol did not differ significantly in either their rates of disappearance or the products formed when they were added to the fermentation medium. Fermentations of rumen fluid containing propylene glycol emitted the sulfur-containing gases 1-propanethiol, 1-(methylthio)propane, methylthiirane, 2,4-dimethylthiophene, 1-(methylthio)-1-propanethiol, dipropyl disulfide, 1-(propylthio)-1-propanethiol, dipropyl trisulfide, 3,5-diethyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2-ethyl-1,3-dithiane, and 2,4,6-triethyl-1,3,5-trithiane. Metabolic pathways that yield each of these gases are proposed. The sulfur-containing gases produced during propylene glycol fermentation in the rumen may contribute to the toxic effects seen in cattle when high doses are administered for therapeutic purposes. PMID:17655323

  7. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Role of fermentation acid absorption in the regulation of ruminal pH.

    PubMed

    Aschenbach, J R; Penner, G B; Stumpff, F; Gäbel, G

    2011-04-01

    Highly fermentable diets are rapidly converted to organic acids [i.e., short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactic acid] within the rumen. The resulting release of protons can constitute a challenge to the ruminal ecosystem and animal health. Health disturbances, resulting from acidogenic diets, are classified as subacute and acute acidosis based on the degree of ruminal pH depression. Although increased acid production is a nutritionally desired effect of increased concentrate feeding, the accumulation of protons in the rumen is not. Consequently, mechanisms of proton removal and their quantitative importance are of major interest. Saliva buffers (i.e., bicarbonate, phosphate) have long been identified as important mechanisms for ruminal proton removal. An even larger proportion of protons appears to be removed from the rumen by SCFA absorption across the ruminal epithelium, making efficiency of SCFA absorption a key determinant for the individual susceptibility to subacute ruminal acidosis. Proceeding initially from a model of exclusively diffusional absorption of fermentation acids, several protein-dependent mechanisms have been discovered over the last 2 decades. Although the molecular identity of these proteins is mostly uncertain, apical acetate absorption is mediated, to a major degree, via acetate-bicarbonate exchange in addition to another nitrate-sensitive, bicarbonate-independent transport mechanism and lipophilic diffusion. Propionate and butyrate also show partially bicarbonate-dependent transport modes. Basolateral efflux of SCFA and their metabolites has to be mediated primarily by proteins and probably involves the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1) and anion channels. Although the ruminal epithelium removes a large fraction of protons from the rumen, it also recycles protons to the rumen via apical sodium-proton exchanger, NHE. The latter is stimulated by ruminal SCFA absorption and salivary Na(+) secretion and protects epithelial integrity. Finally

  8. In vitro ruminal fermentation of treated alfalfa silage using ruminal inocula from high and low feed-efficient lactating cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to assess the effect of two additives on alfalfa silage and on in vitro ruminal fermentation when using ruminal inocula prepared from high feed-efficient (HE) and low feed-efficient (LE) lactating cows. Second and third cut alfalfa was harvested at 40% bloom stage, treated with con...

  9. Modelling digestive constraints in non-ruminant and ruminant foregut-fermenting mammals.

    PubMed

    Munn, Adam J; Streich, W Jürgen; Hummel, Jürgen; Clauss, Marcus

    2008-09-01

    It has been suggested that large foregut-fermenting marsupial herbivores, the kangaroos and their relatives, may be less constrained by food intake limitations as compared with ruminants, due mainly to differences in their digestive morphology and management of ingesta particles through the gut. In particular, as the quality of forage declines with increasing contents of plant fibre (cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin; measured as neutral-detergent fibre, NDF), the tubiform foregut of kangaroos may allow these animals to maintain food intakes more so than ruminants like sheep, which appear to be limited by fibrous bulk filling the foregut and truncating further ingestion. Using available data on dry matter intake (DMI, g kg(-0.75) d(-1)), ingesta mean retention time (MRT, h), and apparent digestibility, we modelled digestible dry matter intake (DDMI) and digestible energy intake (DEI) by ruminant sheep (Ovis aries) and by the largest marsupial herbivore, the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus). Sheep achieved higher MRTs on similar DMIs, and hence sheep achieved higher DDMIs for any given level of DMI as compared with kangaroos. Interestingly, MRT declined in response to increasing DMI in a similar pattern for both species, and the association between DMI and plant NDF contents did not support the hypothesis that kangaroos are less affected by increasing fibre relative to sheep. However, when DEI was modelled according to DDMIs and dietary energy contents, we show that the kangaroos could meet their daily maintenance energy requirements (MER) at lower levels of DMI and on diets with higher fibre contents compared with sheep, due largely to the kangaroos' lower absolute maintenance and basal energy metabolisms compared with eutherians. These results suggest that differences in the metabolic set-point of different species can have profound effects on their nutritional niche, even when their digestive constraints are similar, as was the case for these ruminant and non-ruminant

  10. Redundancy, resilience, and host specificity of the ruminal microbiota: implications for engineering improved ruminal fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Weimer, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    The ruminal microbial community is remarkably diverse, containing 100s of different bacterial and archaeal species, plus many species of fungi and protozoa. Molecular studies have identified a “core microbiome” dominated by phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but also containing many other taxa. The rumen provides an ideal laboratory for studies on microbial ecology and the demonstration of ecological principles. In particular, the microbial community demonstrates both redundancy (overlap of function among multiple species) and resilience (resistance to, and capacity to recover from, perturbation). These twin properties provide remarkable stability that maintains digestive function for the host across a range of feeding and management conditions, but they also provide a challenge to engineering the rumen for improved function (e.g., improved fiber utilization or decreased methane production). Direct ruminal dosing or feeding of probiotic strains often fails to establish the added strains, due to intensive competition and amensalism from the indigenous residents that are well-adapted to the historical conditions within each rumen. Known exceptions include introduced strains that can fill otherwise unoccupied niches, as in the case of specialist bacteria that degrade phytotoxins such as mimosine or fluoroacetate. An additional complicating factor in manipulating the ruminal fermentation is the individuality or host specificity of the microbiota, in which individual animals contain a particular community whose species composition is capable of reconstituting itself, even following a near-total exchange of ruminal contents from another herd mate maintained on the same diet. Elucidation of the interactions between the microbial community and the individual host that establish and maintain this specificity may provide insights into why individual hosts vary in production metrics (e.g., feed efficiency or milk fat synthesis), and how to improve herd performance. PMID

  11. Effects of ruminal doses of sucrose, lactose, and corn starch on ruminal fermentation and expression of genes in ruminal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Oba, M; Mewis, J L; Zhining, Z

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate effects of a ruminal dose of sucrose, lactose, and corn starch on ruminal fermentation and expression of genes in ruminal epithelial cells. Six ruminally cannulated nonlactating nonpregnant Holstein cows (body weight=725±69.6kg) were assigned to treatments in a 3×3 Latin square design with 7-d periods; 1d for data and sample collection followed by a 6-d washout period. Cows were fed a diet containing whole-crop barley silage and dry ground corn, and dietary neutral detergent fiber and crude protein contents were 41.8 and 13.2% [dry matter (DM) basis], respectively. Treatment was a pulse-dose of sucrose, lactose, and corn starch (3.0, 3.0, and 2.85kg of DM, respectively; providing similar amounts of hexose across the treatments) through the ruminal cannulas. All treatments were given with alfalfa silage (1.75kg DM) to prevent acute rumen acidosis. Rumen pH was continuously monitored, and rumen fluid was sampled at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180min after the dose. In addition, ruminal papillae were sampled from the ventral sac at 180min after the dose. Ruminal dosing with sucrose and lactose, compared with corn starch, increased ruminal total volatile fatty acid concentration and molar proportion of butyrate from 60 to 180min after the dose, and expression of genes for sodium hydrogen exchanger isoforms 1 and 2, and ATPase isoform 1 in ruminal epithelial cells. Ruminal dosing with sucrose, compared with lactose and corn starch, decreased rumen pH from 120 to 180min after the dose and molar proportion of acetate in ruminal fluid from 60 to 150min after the dose, and increased molar proportion of propionate in ruminal fluid from 60 to 150min, and expression of genes involved in butyrate metabolism (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase isoform 1) and anion exchange across ruminal apical cell membrane (putative anion transporter isoform 1). These results suggest that replacing dietary starch with sugars may affect ruminal

  12. Potential of tannin-rich plants for modulating ruminal microbes and ruminal fermentation in sheep.

    PubMed

    Rira, M; Morgavi, D P; Archimède, H; Marie-Magdeleine, C; Popova, M; Bousseboua, H; Doreau, M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study nutritional strategies for decreasing methane production by ruminants fed tropical diets, combining in vitro and in vivo methods. The in vitro approach was used to evaluate the dose effect of condensed tannins (CT) contained in leaves of Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, and Manihot esculenta (39, 75, and 92 g CT/kg DM, respectively) on methane production and ruminal fermentation characteristics. Tannin-rich plants (TRP) were incubated for 24 h alone or mixed with a natural grassland hay based on Dichanthium spp. (control plant), so that proportions of TRP were 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0. Methane production, VFA concentration, and fermented OM decreased with increased proportions of TRP. Numerical differences on methane production and VFA concentration among TRP sources may be due to differences in their CT content, with greater effects for L. leucocephala and M. esculenta than for G. sepium. Independently of TRP, the response to increasing doses of CT was linear for methane production but quadratic for VFA concentration. As a result, at moderate tannin dose, methane decreased more than VFA. The in vivo trial was conducted to investigate the effect of TRP on different ruminal microbial populations. To this end, 8 rumen-cannulated sheep from 2 breeds (Texel and Blackbelly) were used in two 4 × 4 Latin square designs. Diets were fed ad libitum and were composed of the same feeds used for the in vitro trial: control plant alone or combined with pellets made from TRP leaves at 44% of the diet DM. Compared to TRP, concentration of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was greater for the control diet and concentration of Ruminococcus albus was least for the control diet. The methanogen population was greater for Texel than for Blackbelly. By contrast, TRP-containing diets did not affect protozoa or Fibrobacter succinogenes numbers. Hence, TRP showed potential for mitigating methane production by ruminants. These findings suggest

  13. Effect of Protein Supplementation on Ruminal Digestion of Herbage during Continuous Culture Fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preliminary data suggests that level of crude protein (CP) supplementation may direct species selection in mixed species pastures by grazing ruminants through post-ingestive feedback of ruminal by-products. A dual-flow continuous culture fermenter system was used to investigate the effect of increas...

  14. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations are unreliable estimators of treatment effects on ruminal fermentation in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile fatty acid concentrations ([VFA], mM) have long been used to assess impact of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation in vivo. However, discrepancies in statistical results between VFA and VFA pool size (VFAmol), possibly related to ruminal digesta liquid amount (LIQ, kg), suggest issues...

  15. Can the Heat of Ruminal Fermentation be Manipulated to Decrease Heat Stress?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most straightforward way of decreasing the heat of fermentation is to bypass ruminal fermentation altogether. This strategy can be achieved by using feed materials not degradable the rumen or treating feeds so there is a greater escape or by-pass to the lower gut. Fatty acids arising from trig...

  16. In vitro degradation of lysine by ruminal fluid-based fermentations and by Fusobacterium necrophorum.

    PubMed

    Elwakeel, E A; Amachawadi, R G; Nour, A M; Nasser, M E A; Nagaraja, T G; Titgemeyer, E C

    2013-01-01

    The objective of these studies was to characterize some factors affecting lysine degradation by mixed ruminal bacteria and by ruminal Fusobacterium necrophorum. Mixed ruminal bacteria degraded lysine, and addition of pure cultures of F. necrophorum did not increase lysine degradation. Addition of acetic or propionic acid strikingly reduced NH(3) production from lysine by mixed ruminal bacteria at pH 6, but not at pH 7. Although typical ruminal environments with acidic pH and normal concentrations of volatile fatty acids might inhibit lysine degradation by F. necrophorum, ruminal fluid contained enough bacteria with a lysine-degrading capacity to ferment 50 mM lysine in vitro. Of 7 strains of ruminal F. necrophorum tested, all grew on both lactate and lysine as the primary energy source. Both subspecies of ruminal F. necrophorum (necrophorum and funduliforme) used lysine as a primary C and energy source. Lysine and glutamic acid were effectively fermented by F. necrophorum, but alanine and tryptophan were not, and histidine and methionine were fermented only to a minor extent. The end products of lactate fermentation by F. necrophorum were propionate and acetate, and those of lysine degradation were butyrate and acetate. Fermentation of glutamic acid by F. necrophorum yielded acetate and butyrate in a ratio near to 2:1. The minimum inhibitory concentration of tylosin for F. necrophorum was not dependent on whether bacteria were grown with lactate or lysine, but F. necrophorum was more susceptible to monensin when grown on lysine than on lactate. Although F. necrophorum is generally resistant to monensin, the ionophore may reduce lysine degradation by F. necrophorum in the rumen. The essential oil components limonene, at 20 or 100 μg/mL, and thymol, at 100 μg/mL, inhibited F. necrophorum growth, whereas eugenol, guaiacol, and vanillin had no effect. Our findings may lead to ways to minimize ruminal lysine degradation and thus increase its availability to the animal

  17. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products on dairy calves: Ruminal fermentation, gastrointestinal morphology, and microbial community.

    PubMed

    Xiao, J X; Alugongo, G M; Chung, R; Dong, S Z; Li, S L; Yoon, I; Wu, Z H; Cao, Z J

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products (SCFP) in the calf starter and milk on ruminal fermentation, gastrointestinal morphology, and microbial community in the first 56 d of life. Thirty Holstein bull calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: a texturized calf starter containing 0 (CON), 0.5, or 1% SCFP (XPC, Diamond V, Cedar Rapids, IA) of dry matter from d 4 to 56. In addition, the XPC-supplemented calves were fed with 1 g/d SCFP (SmartCare, Diamond V, Cedar Rapids, IA) in milk from d 2 to 30. All calves were fed 4 L of colostrum within 1 h of birth and were subsequently fed milk twice daily until weaned on d 56. Rumen fluid was collected by an esophageal tube 4 h after the morning feeding on d 28 and 56 to determine ruminal pH, ammonia-N, and volatile fatty acids concentrations. On d 56, 15 (5 per treatment) calves were harvested and slaughter weight, gastrointestinal morphology parameters, and bacteria community were recorded. Papilla length, width, and surface area were measured from 5 locations within the rumen. Villus height, width, surface area, crypt depth, and villus height-to-crypt depth ratio were measured in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Next-generation sequencing technology was used to test the microbial community of the rumen and duodenum samples on d 28 and 56. Data were analyzed by MIXED procedure in SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) with contrast statements to declare CON versus all SCFP and 0.5 versus 1% SCFP in starter grains. Ruminal pH, ammonia-N, and total volatile fatty acids were not altered by SCFP. However, the supplemented groups exhibited higher ruminal butyrate concentrations coinciding with higher Butyrivibrio and lower Prevotella richness than CON group. Supplementation of SCFP increased papilla length in the rumen. In the small intestine, SCFP reduced crypt depth of jejunum, and increased villus height-to-crypt depth ratio in all segments of the small intestine

  18. Effects of timing of supplementation on ruminal digestion and fermentation pattern during continuous culture fermentation of grass herbage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several researchers have investigated cattle supplementation strategies, yet few studies focused on the benefits of supplementation time on herbage utilization. Using a dual flow continuous culture fermenter system designed to simulate ruminal digestion and nutrient outflow to the intestines, this s...

  19. Effects of Medicinal Herb Extracts on In vitro Ruminal Methanogenesis, Microbe Diversity and Fermentation System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Tae; Hwang, Hee Soon; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Shin Ja; Lee, Il Dong; Lee, Su Kyoung; Oh, Da Som; Lim, Jung Hwa; Yoon, Ho Baek; Jeong, Ha Yeon; Im, Seok Ki; Lee, Sung Sill

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro effects of medicinal herb extracts (MHEs) on ruminal fermentation characteristics and the inhibition of protozoa to reduce methane production in the rumen. A fistulated Hanwoo was used as a donor of rumen fluid. The MHEs (T1, Veratrum patulum; T2, Iris ensata var. spontanea; T3, Arisaema ringens; T4, Carduus crispus; T5, Pueraria thunbergiana) were added to the in vitro fermentation bottles containing the rumen fluid and medium. Total volatile fatty acid (tVFA), total gas production, gas profiles, and the ruminal microbe communities were measured. The tVFA concentration was increased or decreased as compared to the control, and there was a significant (p<0.05) difference after 24 h incubation. pH and ruminal disappearance of dry matter did not show significant difference. As the in vitro ruminal fermentation progressed, total gas production in added MHEs was increased, while the methane production was decreased compared to the control. In particular, Arisaema ringens extract led to decrease methane production by more than 43%. In addition, the result of real-time polymerase chain reaction indicted that the protozoa population in all added MHEs decreased more than that of the control. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that MHEs could have properties that decrease ruminal methanogenesis by inhibiting protozoa species and might be promising feed additives for ruminants. PMID:27004810

  20. Effects of Medicinal Herb Extracts on In vitro Ruminal Methanogenesis, Microbe Diversity and Fermentation System.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Tae; Hwang, Hee Soon; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Shin Ja; Lee, Il Dong; Lee, Su Kyoung; Oh, Da Som; Lim, Jung Hwa; Yoon, Ho Baek; Jeong, Ha Yeon; Im, Seok Ki; Lee, Sung Sill

    2016-09-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro effects of medicinal herb extracts (MHEs) on ruminal fermentation characteristics and the inhibition of protozoa to reduce methane production in the rumen. A fistulated Hanwoo was used as a donor of rumen fluid. The MHEs (T1, Veratrum patulum; T2, Iris ensata var. spontanea; T3, Arisaema ringens; T4, Carduus crispus; T5, Pueraria thunbergiana) were added to the in vitro fermentation bottles containing the rumen fluid and medium. Total volatile fatty acid (tVFA), total gas production, gas profiles, and the ruminal microbe communities were measured. The tVFA concentration was increased or decreased as compared to the control, and there was a significant (p<0.05) difference after 24 h incubation. pH and ruminal disappearance of dry matter did not show significant difference. As the in vitro ruminal fermentation progressed, total gas production in added MHEs was increased, while the methane production was decreased compared to the control. In particular, Arisaema ringens extract led to decrease methane production by more than 43%. In addition, the result of real-time polymerase chain reaction indicted that the protozoa population in all added MHEs decreased more than that of the control. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that MHEs could have properties that decrease ruminal methanogenesis by inhibiting protozoa species and might be promising feed additives for ruminants. PMID:27004810

  1. Short communication: effect of oilseed supplementation of an herbage diet on ruminal fermentation in continuous culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A four-unit continuous culture fermentor system was used to evaluate the effects of oilseed supplementation of an herbage-based diet on ruminal fermentation. Treatments were randomly assigned to fermentors in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 7 d for diet adaptation and 3 d for data and sample collec...

  2. Probiotics cultures in animal feed: Effects on ruminal fermentation, immune responses, and resistance to infectious diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the effects of probiotics included in dairy cattle and mice feed on ruminal fermentation, immune responses, and resistance to Johne’s disease. To unveil the underlying mechanisms, dairy cattle were either fed Bovamine (1.04 x 10**9 cfu of Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 plus 2.04 x 10**...

  3. Effects of nitroethane and monensin on ruminal fluid fermentation characteristics and nitrocompound-metabolizing bacterial populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of nitroethane (NE) and monensin (M) on ruminal fermentation, NE-degradation and nitro-degrading bacterial populations during in vitro consecutive batch culture (CBC). Treatments tested included control (C), 4.5 mM NE (1NE), 9 mM NE (2NE), 5 ...

  4. Redox mediators modify end product distribution in biomass fermentations by mixed ruminal microbes in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fermentation system of mixed ruminal bacteria is capable of generating large amounts of short-chain volatile fatty acids (VFA) via the carboxylate platform in vitro. These VFAs are subject to elongation to larger, more energy-dense products through reverse beta-oxidation. This study examined the...

  5. Supplementation of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) with condensed tannin-containing pellets of sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata): Effects on ruminant urinary urea excretion and digestibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some feedstuffs that contain condensed tannins can reduce urinary urea excretion without compromising nutrition for ruminant livestock. This results in reducing environmental impact, improving productivity and enhancing sustainability of ruminant farming operations. In some situations there are adva...

  6. Effects of Branched-chain Amino Acids on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Wheat Straw

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui Ling; Chen, Yong; Xu, Xiao Li; Yang, Yu Xia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of three branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) on the in vitro ruminal fermentation of wheat straw using batch cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. BCAA were added to the buffered ruminal fluid at a concentration of 0, 2, 4, 7, or 10 mmol/L. After 72 h of anaerobic incubation, pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) in the ruminal fluid were determined. Dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability were calculated after determining the DM and NDF in the original material and in the residue after incubation. The addition of valine, leucine, or isoleucine increased the total VFA yields (p≤0.001). However, the total VFA yields did not increase with the increase of BCAA supplement level. Total branched-chain VFA yields linearly increased as the supplemental amount of BCAA increased (p<0.001). The molar proportions of acetate and propionate decreased, whereas that of butyrate increased with the addition of valine and isoleucine (p<0.05). Moreover, the proportions of propionate and butyrate decreased (p<0.01) with the addition of leucine. Meanwhile, the molar proportions of isobutyrate were increased and linearly decreased (p<0.001) by valine and leucine, respectively. The addition of leucine or isoleucine resulted in a linear (p<0.001) increase in the molar proportions of isovalerate. The degradability of NDF achieved the maximum when valine or isoleucine was added at 2 mmol/L. The results suggest that low concentrations of BCAA (2 mmol/L) allow more efficient regulation of ruminal fermentation in vitro, as indicated by higher VFA yield and NDF degradability. Therefore, the optimum initial dose of BCAA for in vitro ruminal fermentation is 2 mmol/L. PMID:25049818

  7. Effects of lauric acid on ruminal protozoal numbers and fermentation pattern and milk production in lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate lauric acid (LA) as a practical agent to suppress ruminal protozoa (RP), and to assess the effects of RP suppression on fermentation patterns and milk production in dairy cows. In experiment 1, six Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulae were used in ...

  8. Redundancy, resiliency, and host specificity of the ruminal microbiota: Implications for engineering improved ruminal fermentations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ruminal microbial community is remarkably diverse, containing hundreds of different bacterial and archaeal species, plus many species of fungi and protozoa. Molecular studies have identified a “core microbiome” dominated by members of the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but also containing m...

  9. Effects of partial mixed rations and supplement amounts on milk production and composition, ruminal fermentation, bacterial communities, and ruminal acidosis.

    PubMed

    Golder, H M; Denman, S E; McSweeney, C; Wales, W J; Auldist, M J; Wright, M M; Marett, L C; Greenwood, J S; Hannah, M C; Celi, P; Bramley, E; Lean, I J

    2014-09-01

    and quadratically increased with supplement feeding amount. The Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the dominant bacterial phyla identified. The Prevotellaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Lachnospiraceae were the dominant bacterial families, regardless of feeding group, and were influenced by feeding strategy, supplement feeding amount, or both. The Veillonellaceae family decreased in relative abundance in PMR-fed cows compared with controls, and the Streptococcaeae and Lactobacillaceae families were present in only minor relative abundances, regardless of feeding group. Despite large among- and within-group variation in bacterial community composition, distinct bacterial communities occurred among feeding strategies, supplement amounts, and sample times and were associated with ruminal fermentation measures. Control cows fed 16kg of DM of total supplement per day had the most distinct ruminal bacterial community composition. Bacterial community composition was most significantly associated with supplement feeding amount and ammonia, butyrate, valerate, and propionate concentrations. Feeding supplements in a PMR reduced the incidence of ruminal acidosis and altered ruminal bacterial communities, regardless of supplement feeding amount, but did not result in increased milk measures compared with isoenergetic control diets component-fed to late-lactation cows. PMID:24997657

  10. Fermentative characteristics and fibrolytic activities of anaerobic gut fungi isolated from wild and domestic ruminants.

    PubMed

    Paul, Shyam S; Kamra, Devki N; Sastry, Vadali R B

    2010-08-01

    Fermentative characteristics and fibrolytic enzyme activities of anaerobic gut fungi from wild (17 isolates) and domestic ruminants (15 isolates) were examined. In a medium containing 0.5% wheat straw and 0.02% cellobiose as energy source, activities of carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), avicelase, xylanase, acetyl esterase and protease produced by the fungal isolates were investigated. Average activity of CMCase (17.4 vs. 8.25 mIU ml(-1)), acetyl esterase (134 vs. 57 mIU ml(-1)) and protease (4400 vs. 1683 mIU ml(-1)) were significantly higher in isolates from wild ruminants than those from domestic ruminants. Xylanase and avicelase activities were comparable. When compared irrespective of source, fungal isolates having monocentric growth pattern produced more fibrolytic enzymes than isolates having polycentric growth pattern. CMCase, xylanase, avicelase activities were highest in Neocallimastix isolates. Acetyl esterase activity was highest in Piromyces and Neocallimastix isolates. Protease activity was highest in Piromyces isolates followed closely by Neocallimastix isolates. Between isolates from wild and domestic ruminants few differences were observed in pattern of carbohydrate utilisation and end products of fermentation. Inter-strain differences in the end product formation were apparent. All of the isolates produced acetate, lactate and formate; only a few isolates produced succinate. For isolation of superior fibrolytic isolates of anaerobic fungi, greater emphasis should be given to the screening of enzyme activities of isolates of genera Neocallimastix and Piromyces. PMID:20722299

  11. Ruminal Fermentation of Anti-Methanogenic Nitrate- and Nitro-Containing Forages In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Robin C.; Ripley, Laura H.; Bowman, Jan G. P.; Callaway, Todd R.; Genovese, Kenneth J.; Beier, Ross C.; Harvey, Roger B.; Nisbet, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate, 3-nitro-1-propionic acid (NPA) and 3-nitro-1-propanol (NPOH) can accumulate in forages and be poisonous to animals if consumed in high enough amounts. These chemicals are also recognized as potent anti-methanogenic compounds, but plants naturally containing these chemicals have been studied little in this regard. Presently, we found that nitrate-, NPA-, or NPOH-containing forages effectively decreased methane production, by 35–87%, during in vitro fermentation by mixed cultures of ruminal microbes compared to fermentation by cultures incubated similarly with alfalfa. Methane production was further decreased during the incubation of mixed cultures also inoculated with Denitrobacterium detoxificans, a ruminal bacterium known to metabolize nitrate, NPA, and NPOH. Inhibition of methanogens within the mixed cultures was greatest with the NPA- and NPOH-containing forages. Hydrogen accumulated in all the mixed cultures incubated with forages containing nitrate, NPA or NPOH and was dramatically higher, exceeding 40 μmol hydrogen/mL, in mixed cultures incubated with NPA-containing forage but not inoculated with D. detoxificans. This possibly reflects the inhibition of hydrogenase-catalyzed uptake of hydrogen produced via conversion of 50 μmol added formate per milliliter to hydrogen. Accumulations of volatile fatty acids revealed compensatory changes in fermentation in mixed cultures incubated with the nitrate-, NPA-, and NPOH-containing forages as evidenced by lower accumulations of acetate, and in some cases, higher accumulations of butyrate and lower accumulations of ammonia, iso-buytrate, and iso-valerate compared to cultures incubated with alfalfa. Results reveal that nitrate, NPA, and NPOH that accumulate naturally in forages can be made available within ruminal incubations to inhibit methanogenesis. Further research is warranted to determine if diets can be formulated with nitrate-, NPA-, and NPOH-containing forages to achieve efficacious mitigation

  12. Ruminal Fermentation of Anti-Methanogenic Nitrate- and Nitro-Containing Forages In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robin C; Ripley, Laura H; Bowman, Jan G P; Callaway, Todd R; Genovese, Kenneth J; Beier, Ross C; Harvey, Roger B; Nisbet, David J

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate, 3-nitro-1-propionic acid (NPA) and 3-nitro-1-propanol (NPOH) can accumulate in forages and be poisonous to animals if consumed in high enough amounts. These chemicals are also recognized as potent anti-methanogenic compounds, but plants naturally containing these chemicals have been studied little in this regard. Presently, we found that nitrate-, NPA-, or NPOH-containing forages effectively decreased methane production, by 35-87%, during in vitro fermentation by mixed cultures of ruminal microbes compared to fermentation by cultures incubated similarly with alfalfa. Methane production was further decreased during the incubation of mixed cultures also inoculated with Denitrobacterium detoxificans, a ruminal bacterium known to metabolize nitrate, NPA, and NPOH. Inhibition of methanogens within the mixed cultures was greatest with the NPA- and NPOH-containing forages. Hydrogen accumulated in all the mixed cultures incubated with forages containing nitrate, NPA or NPOH and was dramatically higher, exceeding 40 μmol hydrogen/mL, in mixed cultures incubated with NPA-containing forage but not inoculated with D. detoxificans. This possibly reflects the inhibition of hydrogenase-catalyzed uptake of hydrogen produced via conversion of 50 μmol added formate per milliliter to hydrogen. Accumulations of volatile fatty acids revealed compensatory changes in fermentation in mixed cultures incubated with the nitrate-, NPA-, and NPOH-containing forages as evidenced by lower accumulations of acetate, and in some cases, higher accumulations of butyrate and lower accumulations of ammonia, iso-buytrate, and iso-valerate compared to cultures incubated with alfalfa. Results reveal that nitrate, NPA, and NPOH that accumulate naturally in forages can be made available within ruminal incubations to inhibit methanogenesis. Further research is warranted to determine if diets can be formulated with nitrate-, NPA-, and NPOH-containing forages to achieve efficacious mitigation in

  13. Limits to Dihydrogen Incorporation into Electron Sinks Alternative to Methanogenesis in Ruminal Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ungerfeld, Emilio M

    2015-01-01

    Research is being conducted with the objective of decreasing methane (CH4) production in the rumen, as methane emissions from ruminants are environmentally damaging and a loss of digestible energy to ruminants. Inhibiting ruminal methanogenesis generally results in accumulation of dihydrogen (H2), which is energetically inefficient and can inhibit fermentation. It would be nutritionally beneficial to incorporate accumulated H2 into propionate or butyrate production, or reductive acetogenesis. The objective of this analysis was to examine three possible physicochemical limitations to the incorporation of accumulated H2 into propionate and butyrate production, and reductive acetogenesis, in methanogenesis-inhibited ruminal batch and continuous cultures: (i) Thermodynamics; (ii) Enzyme kinetics; (iii) Substrate kinetics. Batch (N = 109) and continuous (N = 43) culture databases of experiments with at least 50% inhibition in CH4 production were used in this meta-analysis. Incorporation of accumulated H2 into propionate production and reductive acetogenesis seemed to be thermodynamically feasible but quite close to equilibrium, whereas this was less clear for butyrate. With regard to enzyme kinetics, it was speculated that hydrogenases of ruminal microorganisms may have evolved toward high-affinity and low maximal velocity to compete for traces of H2, rather than for high pressure accumulated H2. Responses so far obtained to the addition of propionate production intermediates do not allow distinguishing between thermodynamic and substrate kinetics control. PMID:26635743

  14. Limits to Dihydrogen Incorporation into Electron Sinks Alternative to Methanogenesis in Ruminal Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Ungerfeld, Emilio M.

    2015-01-01

    Research is being conducted with the objective of decreasing methane (CH4) production in the rumen, as methane emissions from ruminants are environmentally damaging and a loss of digestible energy to ruminants. Inhibiting ruminal methanogenesis generally results in accumulation of dihydrogen (H2), which is energetically inefficient and can inhibit fermentation. It would be nutritionally beneficial to incorporate accumulated H2 into propionate or butyrate production, or reductive acetogenesis. The objective of this analysis was to examine three possible physicochemical limitations to the incorporation of accumulated H2 into propionate and butyrate production, and reductive acetogenesis, in methanogenesis-inhibited ruminal batch and continuous cultures: (i) Thermodynamics; (ii) Enzyme kinetics; (iii) Substrate kinetics. Batch (N = 109) and continuous (N = 43) culture databases of experiments with at least 50% inhibition in CH4 production were used in this meta-analysis. Incorporation of accumulated H2 into propionate production and reductive acetogenesis seemed to be thermodynamically feasible but quite close to equilibrium, whereas this was less clear for butyrate. With regard to enzyme kinetics, it was speculated that hydrogenases of ruminal microorganisms may have evolved toward high-affinity and low maximal velocity to compete for traces of H2, rather than for high pressure accumulated H2. Responses so far obtained to the addition of propionate production intermediates do not allow distinguishing between thermodynamic and substrate kinetics control. PMID:26635743

  15. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations are unreliable estimators of treatment effects on ruminal fermentation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hall, M B; Nennich, T D; Doane, P H; Brink, G E

    2015-06-01

    Volatile fatty acid concentrations ([VFA], mM) have long been used to assess the effect of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation in vivo. However, discrepancies in statistical results between [VFA] and VFA pool size (VFAmol) possibly related to ruminal digesta liquid amount (LIQ, kg) indicate potential issues with the use of [VFA]. We investigated relationships among [VFA], VFAmol, and LIQ measured 2 h postfeeding using individual lactating cow data (n=175) from 7 separate feeding studies. Regression analyses were performed using mixed models with "study" as a discrete random variable. The mean across studies and average range of values within studies, respectively, were 151 and 75 for [VFA], 11.2 and 9.8 for VFAmol, 73.3 and 41.0 for LIQ, and 289 and 83 mmol/kg for rumen fluid osmolality. Liquid amount changed with VFAmol (3.76 VFAmol+31.2; average within-study R2=0.69), but the relationship was weak between [VFA] and LIQ (0.524 LIQ+112.8; average within-study R2=0.12). The relationship between LIQ and VFAmol was likely a function of the osmotic gradient between rumen liquid and blood. The VFA are a major ruminal solute; VFAmol amounts can affect water flux in the rumen as similar tonicities of rumen fluid and blood are maintained. This also has a damping effect on ruminal solute concentration, creating the weak relationship between [VFA] and LIQ. Within studies, similar [VFA] were found in LIQ differing by 30 kg or more. The difference between minimum and maximum LIQ within cow within study was 12.7 kg (standard deviation=7.1), so inclusion of "cow" in analyses did not correct for the variation in LIQ. To allow valid comparisons of experimental treatments, responses must be on an equivalent basis; concentrations in different LIQ are not on an equivalent basis and so are not valid to use for comparing treatment effects. The [VFA] changed with VFAmol (5.80 VFAmol+86.3; average within-study R2=0.56). However, the ratio of [VFA] to VFAmol ranged from 9.0 to 24

  16. Effect of supplement type on ruminal fermentation of an orchardgrass-based pasture diet during continuous culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A dual-flow continuous culture fermenter system was used to investigate the effect of supplemental crude protein (CP) level on digestion and ruminal fermentation of a vegetative orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) pasture-based diet. Treatments were: 10, 12, 14, and 16% supplemental CP fed at a rat...

  17. In Vitro Stimulation of Forage Fiber Degradation by Ruminal Microorganisms with Aspergillus oryzae Fermentation Extract

    PubMed Central

    Varel, Vincent H.; Kreikemeier, Kelly K.; Jung, Hans-Joachim G.; Hatfield, Ronald D.

    1993-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract (Amaferm) was evaluated for its ability to influence degradation of brome grass and switchgrass fiber fractions by mixed ruminal microorganisms in vitro. Addition of Amaferm at a concentration of 0.067 mg/ml, which is approximately the concentration found in the rumen ecosystem (0.06 mg/ml), increased the degradation of brome grass neutral detergent fiber (NDF) by 28% after fermentation for 12 h (P < 0.01), but had no effect after fermentation for 24 or 48 h. The levels of degradation of both the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions were increased after fermentation for 12 h (P < 0.01). Additions of 0.08 and 8% (vol/vol) Amaferm filtrate (12.5 g/100 ml) stimulated degradation of switchgrass NDF by 12 and 24% (P < 0.01), respectively, after fermentation for 12 h; when 80% filtrate was added, degradation was decreased by 38%. The concentrations of total anaerobes in culture tubes containing 80% filtrate were 5 times greater than the concentrations in the controls; however, the concentrations of cellulolytic organisms were 3.5 times lower than the concentrations in the controls (P < 0.05). These results suggested that the filtrate contained high concentrations of soluble substrate which did not allow the cellulolytic organisms to compete well with other populations. The remaining concentrations of esterified p-coumaric and ferulic acids were lower at 12 h in NDF residues obtained from fermentation mixtures supplemented with Amaferm. Because the total anaerobes were not inhibited in fermentation mixtures containing Amaferm, antibiotics are unlikely to be involved as a mode of action for increasing NDF degradation. The possibility that Amaferm contains enzymes (possibly esterases) that may play a role in stimulating the rate of fiber degradation by mixed ruminal microorganisms by removal of plant cell wall phenolic acid esters is discussed. PMID:16349057

  18. Effects of Coconut Materials on In vitro Ruminal Methanogenesis and Fermentation Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Kim, E. T.; Park, C. G.; Lim, D. H.; Kwon, E. G.; Ki, K. S.; Kim, S. B.; Moon, Y. H.; Shin, N. H.; Lee, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of coconut materials on ruminal methanogenesis and fermentation characteristics, in particular their effectiveness for mitigating ruminal methanogenesis. Fistulated Holstein cows were used as the donor of rumen fluid. Coconut materials were added to an in vitro fermentation incubated with rumen fluid-buffer mixture and timothy substrate for 24 h incubation. Total gas production, gas profiles, total volatile fatty acids (tVFAs) and the ruminal methanogens diversity were measured. Although gas profiles in added coconut oil and coconut powder were not significantly different, in vitro ruminal methane production was decreased with the level of reduction between 15% and 19% as compared to control, respectively. Coconut oil and coconut powder also inhibited gas production. The tVFAs concentration was increased by coconut materials, but was not affected significantly as compared to control. Acetate concentration was significantly lower (p<0.05), while propionate was significantly higher (p<0.05) by addition of the coconut materials than that of the control. The acetate:propionate ratio was significantly lowered with addition of coconut oil and coconut powder (p<0.05). The methanogens and ciliate-associated methanogens in all added coconut materials were shown to decrease as compared with control. This study showed that ciliate-associated methanogens diversity was reduced by more than 50% in both coconut oil and coconut powder treatments. In conclusion, these results indicate that coconut powder is a potential agent for decreasing in vitro ruminal methane production and as effective as coconut oil. PMID:25358365

  19. Comparisons of ruminal fermentation characteristics and microbial populations in bison and cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Towne, G; Nagaraja, T G; Cochran, R C; Harmon, D L; Owensby, C E; Kaufman, D W

    1988-01-01

    Ruminal microbial populations, fermentation characteristics, digestibility, and liquid flow rates in two ruminally cannulated bison and two ruminally cannulated Hereford steers fed a prairie hay diet were compared. No significant differences in anaerobic bacterial counts, volatile fatty acid concentrations, or ruminal pHs were evident between bison and cattle. Also, no significant differences in neutral detergent fiber digestibility, indigestible fiber retention time, or intake were detected between bison and cattle, although cattle had higher levels (P less than 0.08) of ruminal dry matter and indigestible fiber than bison. Bison had a smaller (P = .02) ruminoreticular volume, faster liquid dilution rates, and faster liquid turnover times than cattle. The average ruminal ammonia nitrogen concentration was higher (P = 0.02) in bison (1.17 mg/dl) than in cattle (0.79 mg/dl). Total ciliate protozoal counts and cell volume were greater (P = 0.07) in bison (32.8 x 10(4)/g and 407.1 x 10(-4) ml/g, respectively) than in cattle (15.7 x 10(4)/g and 162.2 x 10(-4) ml/g, respectively). Bison harbored higher (P less than 0.02) numbers of Dasytricha spp., Eudiplodinium maggii, Eudiplodinium bursa, and Epidinium spp. than cattle and possessed a type B protozoan population. The cattle possessed a mixed type A-type B population that was characterized by Ophryoscolex spp. and Polyplastron spp. in association with low concentrations of Epidinium spp. and Eudiplodinium maggii. PMID:3272131

  20. Effects of Acarbose Addition on Ruminal Bacterial Microbiota, Lipopolysaccharide Levels and Fermentation Characteristics In vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yu-yang; Liu, Yu-jie; Zhu, Wei-yun; Mao, Sheng-yong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of acarbose addition on changes in ruminal fermentation characteristics and the composition of the ruminal bacterial community in vitro using batch cultures. Rumen fluid was collected from the rumens of three cannulated Holstein cattle fed forage ad libitum that was supplemented with 6 kg of concentrate. The batch cultures consisted of 8 mL of strained rumen fluid in 40 mL of an anaerobic buffer containing 0.49 g of corn grain, 0.21 g of soybean meal, 0.15 g of alfalfa and 0.15g of Leymus chinensis. Acarbose was added to incubation bottles to achieve final concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/mL. After incubation for 24 h, the addition of acarbose linearly decreased (p<0.05) the total gas production and the concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, total volatile fatty acids, lactate and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It also linearly increased (p<0.05) the ratio of acetate to propionate, the concentrations of isovalerate, valerate and ammonia-nitrogen and the pH value compared with the control. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene showed that the addition of acarbose decreased (p<0.05) the proportion of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria and increased (p<0.05) the percentage of Bacteroidetes, Fibrobacteres, and Synergistetes compared with the control. A principal coordinates analysis plot based on unweighted UniFrac values and molecular variance analysis revealed that the structure of the ruminal bacterial communities in the control was different to that of the ruminal microbiota in the acarbose group. In conclusion, acarbose addition can affect the composition of the ruminal microbial community and may be potentially useful for preventing the occurrence of ruminal acidosis and the accumulation of LPS in the rumen. PMID:25358366

  1. Effect of 2-hydroxy-4-methylthio-butanoic acid on ruminal fermentation, bacterial distribution, digestibility, and performance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Oh, J; Hristov, A N; Harvatine, K; Vazquez-Anon, M; Zanton, G I

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this experiment was to test the effect of a Met analog, 2-hydroxy-4-methylthio-butanoic acid (HMTBa), on ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis, nutrient digestibility, urinary N losses, and performance of dairy cows. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein dairy cows were assigned to 4 levels of HMTBa [0 (control), 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15% (dry matter basis)] in a replicated 4×4 Latin square trial. Experimental periods were 28 d, including 21 d for adaptation. Ruminal ammonia and microbial N were labeled through a 6-d intraruminal infusion of (15)NH4Cl, and microbial protein synthesis in the rumen was estimated using the reticular sampling technique. Treatment had no effect on dry matter intake (28.4 to 29.8kg/d), milk yield (44.1 to 45.3kg/d), feed efficiency, and milk composition. Total-tract apparent digestibility of nutrients was generally not affected by treatment, except digestibility of crude protein and starch decreased quadratically with HMTBa supplementation. Fecal, but not urinary, and total excreta N losses were increased quadratically by HMTBa. Ruminal pH, ammonia concentration, protozoal counts, and the major volatile fatty acids were not affected by treatment. Microbial N outflow from the rumen was linearly increased by HMTBa. 2-Hydroxy-4-methylthio-butanoic acid linearly increased the proportion of Fecalibacterium and quadratically decreased the proportion of Eubacterium in ruminal contents. Of the individual bacterial species, HMTBa increased or tended to increase Prevotella loescheii and Prevotella oralis. 2-Hydroxy-4-methylthio-butanoic acid linearly increased the concentration (and yield) of 15:0 in milk fat. In the conditions of this crossover experiment, HMTBa had no effect on feed intake and performance of dairy cows, decreased dietary crude protein digestibility, and increased microbial N outflow from the rumen. PMID:25434334

  2. Addition of high concentration of inorganic selenium in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) hay diet does not interfere with microbial fermentation in mixed ruminal microorganisms in continuous cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current literature lacks information on ruminal microbial metabolism in response to high selenium (Se) concentration in the diet. We investigated changes in ruminal fermentation when high concentration of Se was administered in mixed ruminal cultures in fermentors. Two mature beef cows, 'tted wi...

  3. The effect of monensin concentration on dry matter intake, ruminal fermentation, short-chain fatty acid absorption, total tract digestibility, and total gastrointestinal barrier function in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Wood, K M; Pinto, A C J; Millen, D D; Kanafany Guzman, R; Penner, G B

    2016-06-01

    In a 4 × 4 Latin square design (24-d periods), 4 ruminally cannulated Hereford × Angus/Simmental heifers were used to evaluate the effect of increasing levels of monensin concentration on DMI, ruminal fermentation, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption across the reticulorumen, and total tract barrier function. Heifers were fed a barley-based finishing diet (76% rolled barley grain, 12% barley silage, 8% mineral and vitamin supplement, and 4% canola meal) containing 0, 22, 33 or 48 mg/kg monensin. Urinary recovery of Cr-EDTA was used as an indicator of total tract barrier function (d 18 to 20). Days 20 to 23 were used to evaluate ruminal fermentation and total tract digestibility measurements, and SCFA absorption was measured using the temporarily isolated and washed reticulorumen technique on d 24. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS with linear and quadratic contrasts to evaluate the effect of increasing monensin dose. Increasing monensin linearly decreased DMI (10.0, 9.9, 9.3, and 9.1 kg/d for diets containing 0, 22, 33 or 48 mg/kg monensin, respectively; = 0.01) but did not affect the variation in DMI among days. Urinary Cr-EDTA recovery was not ( ≥ 0. 61) affected by increasing dose of monensin, nor was ruminal pH (mean, minimum, maximum, duration less than 5.5, and area under curve; ≥ 0.21). The acetate-to-propionate ratio linearly decreased (1.9, 1.8, 1.4, and 1.3 for diets containing 0, 22, 33 or 48 mg/kg monensin, respectively; = 0.03) with increasing monensin. There was no response ( ≥ 0. 17) for the rate of SCFA absorption with monensin concentration. Total tract ethanol soluble carbohydrate digestibility linearly increased (77.2, 84.7, 88.0, and 94.0% for diets containing 0, 22, 33 or 48 mg/kg monensin, respectively; = 0.003) whereas starch digestibility quadratically responded (93.8, 93.9, 88.0, and 94.0% for diets containing 0, 22, 33 or 48 mg/kg monensin, respectively; < 0.001), where 33 mg/kg inclusion of monensin had a minimal

  4. Methane Production of Different Forages in In vitro Ruminal Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Meale, S. J.; Chaves, A. V.; Baah, J.; McAllister, T. A.

    2012-01-01

    An in vitro rumen batch culture study was completed to compare effects of common grasses, leguminous shrubs and non-leguminous shrubs used for livestock grazing in Australia and Ghana on CH4 production and fermentation characteristics. Grass species included Andropodon gayanus, Brachiaria ruziziensis and Pennisetum purpureum. Leguminous shrub species included Cajanus cajan, Cratylia argentea, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Stylosanthes guianensis and non-leguminous shrub species included Annona senegalensis, Moringa oleifera, Securinega virosa and Vitellaria paradoxa. Leaves were harvested, dried at 55°C and ground through a 1 mm screen. Serum bottles containing 500 mg of forage, modified McDougall’s buffer and rumen fluid were incubated under anaerobic conditions at 39°C for 24 h. Samples of each forage type were removed after 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h of incubation for determination of cumulative gas production. Methane production, ammonia concentration and proportions of VFA were measured at 24 h. Concentration of aNDF (g/kg DM) ranged from 671 to 713 (grasses), 377 to 590 (leguminous shrubs) and 288 to 517 (non-leguminous shrubs). After 24 h of in vitro incubation, cumulative gas, CH4 production, ammonia concentration, proportion of propionate in VFA and IVDMD differed (p<0.05) within each forage type. B. ruziziensis and G. sepium produced the highest cumulative gas, IVDMD, total VFA, proportion of propionate in VFA and the lowest A:P ratios within their forage types. Consequently, these two species produced moderate CH4 emissions without compromising digestion. Grazing of these two species may be a strategy to reduce CH4 emissions however further assessment in in vivo trials and at different stages of maturity is recommended. PMID:25049482

  5. The influence of glyphosate on the microbiota and production of botulinum neurotoxin during ruminal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Wagis; Coenen, Manfred; Schrödl, Wieland; Shehata, Awad A; Krüger, Monika

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the impact of glyphosate on the microbiota and on the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) expression during in vitro ruminal fermentation. This study was conducted using two DAISY(II)-incubators with four ventilated incubation vessels filled with rumen fluid of a 4-year-old non-lactating Holstein-Friesian cow. Two hundred milliliter rumen fluid and 800 ml buffer solution were used with six filter bags containing 500 mg concentrated feed or crude fiber-enriched diet. Final concentrations of 0, 1, 10, and 100 µg/ml of glyphosate in the diluted rumen fluids were added and incubated under CO2-aerated conditions for 48 h. The protozoal population was analyzed microscopically and the ruminal flora was characterized using the fluorescence in situ hybridization technique. Clostridium botulinum and BoNT were quantified using most probable number and ELISA, respectively. Results showed that glyphosate had an inhibitory effect on select groups of the ruminal microbiota, but increased the population of pathogenic species. The BoNT was produced during incubation when inoculum was treated with high doses of glyphosate. In conclusion, glyphosate causes dysbiosis which favors the production of BoNT in the rumen. The global regulations restrictions for the use of glyphosate should be re-evaluated. PMID:25407376

  6. Digesta retention patterns of solute and different-sized particles in camelids compared with ruminants and other foregut fermenters.

    PubMed

    Dittmann, Marie T; Runge, Ullrich; Ortmann, Sylvia; Lang, Richard A; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Schwarm, Angela; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2015-07-01

    The mean retention times (MRT) of solute or particles in the gastrointestinal tract and the forestomach (FS) are crucial determinants of digestive physiology in herbivores. Besides ruminants, camelids are the only herbivores that have evolved rumination as an obligatory physiological process consisting of repeated mastication of large food particles, which requires a particle sorting mechanism in the FS. Differences between camelids and ruminants have hardly been investigated so far. In this study we measured MRTs of solute and differently sized particles (2, 10, and 20 mm) and the ratio of large-to-small particle MRT, i.e. the selectivity factors (SF(10/2mm), SF(20/2mm), SF(20/10mm)), in three camelid species: alpacas (Vicugna pacos), llamas (Llama glama), and Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus). The camelid data were compared with literature data from ruminants and non-ruminant foregut fermenters (NRFF). Camelids and ruminants both had higher SF(10/2mm)FS than NRFF, suggesting convergence in the function of the FS sorting mechanism in contrast to NRFF, in which such a sorting mechanism is absent. The SF(20/10mm)FS did not differ between ruminants and camelids, indicating that there is a particle size threshold of about 1 cm in both suborders above which particle retention is not increased. Camelids did not differ from ruminants in MRT(2mm)FS, MRTsoluteFS, and the ratio MRT(2mm)FS/MRTsoluteFS, but they were more similar to 'cattle-' than to 'moose-type' ruminants. Camelids had higher SF(10/2mm)FS and higher SF(20/2mm)FS than ruminants, indicating a potentially slower particle sorting in camelids than in ruminants, with larger particles being retained longer in relation to small particles. PMID:25921796

  7. Effect of molasses, corn meal or a combination of molasses plus corn meal on ruminal fermentation of orchardgrass pasture in continuous culture fermenters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although molasses is being used by organic dairy farmers as a lower-cost energy alternative to corn, little research currently exists evaluating the effects of molasses as the sole supplement on ruminal fermentation of grazing dairy cows. This study evaluated the effects of pasture supplementation w...

  8. Effects on feeding corn, hull-less or hulled barley on fermentation by mixed cultures of ruminal microorganisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) type or corn (Zea mays L.) as a grain source on fermentation in cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. Three continuous fermentors were fed 14 g of dry feed per day (divided equally between two feedings) consisting o...

  9. Growth performance, ruminal fermentation profiles, and carcass characteristics of beef steers grazing tall fescue without or with nitrogen fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 2-year grazing study was conducted to evaluate the effects of finishing beef cattle grazed on tall fescue (TF) pasture without or with N fertilization on growth performance, ruminal fermentation, and carcass characteristics. In each grazing season, 18 Angus crossbred steers were arranged based on...

  10. Effect of different levels of concentrate on ruminal microorganisms and rumen fermentation in Nellore steers.

    PubMed

    Granja-Salcedo, Yury T; Ribeiro Júnior, Carlos S; de Jesus, Raphael B; Gomez-Insuasti, Arturo S; Rivera, Astrid R; Messana, Juliana D; Canesin, Roberta C; Berchielli, Telma T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different dietary levels of concentrate on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation and microbial population in steers. Eight Nellore steers fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a double 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment. The dietary treatments consist of four different proportions of concentrate to roughage: 30:70, 40:60, 60:40 and 80:20% in the dry matter, resulting in Diets 30, 40, 60 and 80, respectively. The roughage was corn silage, and the concentrate was composed of corn, soybean meal and urea. Apparent digestibility of organic matter and crude protein showed a linear association with concentrate proportion (p = 0.01), but the increased concentrate levels did not affect the digestibility of fibre. The lowest ruminal pH-values were observed in animals fed with Diet 80, remaining below pH 6.0 from 6 h after feeding, while in the other diets, the ruminal pH was below 6.0 not before 12 h after feeding. After feeding Diet 80, the ammonia concentration in the rumen was significantly the highest. Higher dietary concentrate levels resulted in a linear increase of propionic acid concentrations, a linear reduction of the ratio acetic acid to propionic acid (p < 0.01) and a linear increased synthesis of microbial nitrogen (p < 0.001). The predicted production of methane was lower in diets with greater amounts of concentrate (p = 0.032). The population of methanogens, R. flavefaciens and R. albus decreased with higher concentrate levels, while the population of S. ruminantium increased (p < 0.05). The results indicate that greater amounts of concentrate do not decrease ruminal pH-values as much as expected and inhibit some cellulolytic bacteria without impairing the dry matter intake and fibre digestibility in Nellore steers. PMID:26654381

  11. Shifts in metabolic hydrogen sinks in the methanogenesis-inhibited ruminal fermentation: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ungerfeld, Emilio M.

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing the flow of metabolic hydrogen ([H]) in the rumen away from CH4 and toward volatile fatty acids (VFA) would increase the efficiency of ruminant production and decrease its environmental impact. The objectives of this meta-analysis were: (i) To quantify shifts in metabolic hydrogen sinks when inhibiting ruminal methanogenesis in vitro; and (ii) To understand the variation in shifts of metabolic hydrogen sinks among experiments and between batch and continuous cultures systems when methanogenesis is inhibited. Batch (28 experiments, N = 193) and continuous (16 experiments, N = 79) culture databases of experiments with at least 50% inhibition in CH4 production were compiled. Inhibiting methanogenesis generally resulted in less fermentation and digestion in most batch culture, but not in most continuous culture, experiments. Inhibiting CH4 production in batch cultures resulted in redirection of metabolic hydrogen toward propionate and H2 but not butyrate. In continuous cultures, there was no overall metabolic hydrogen redirection toward propionate or butyrate, and H2 as a proportion of metabolic hydrogen spared from CH4 production was numerically smaller compared to batch cultures. Dihydrogen accumulation was affected by type of substrate and methanogenesis inhibitor, with highly fermentable substrates resulting in greater redirection of metabolic hydrogen toward H2 when inhibiting methanogenesis, and some oils causing small or no H2 accumulation. In both batch and continuous culture, there was a decrease in metabolic hydrogen recovered as the sum of propionate, butyrate, CH4 and H2 when inhibiting methanogenesis, and it is speculated that as CH4 production decreases metabolic hydrogen could be increasingly incorporated into formate, microbial biomass, and perhaps, reductive acetogenesis in continuous cultures. Energetic benefits of inhibiting methanogenesis depended on the inhibitor and its concentration and on the in vitro system. PMID:25699029

  12. Evaluation of nutritional and economic feed values of spent coffee grounds and Artemisia princeps residues as a ruminant feed using in vitro ruminal fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jakyeom; Jung, Jae Keun

    2015-01-01

    Much research on animal feed has focused on finding alternative feed ingredients that can replace conventional ones (e.g., grains and beans) to reduce feed costs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic, as well as nutritional value of spent coffee grounds (SCG) and Japanese mugwort (Artemisia princeps) residues (APR) as alternative feed ingredients for ruminants. We also investigated whether pre-fermentation using Lactobacillus spp. was a feasible way to increase the feed value of these by-products. Chemical analyses and an in vitro study were conducted for SCG, APR, and their pre-fermented forms. All the experimental diets for in vitro ruminal fermentation were formulated to contain a similar composition of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and total digestible nutrients at 1x maintenance feed intake based on the dairy National Research Council (NRC). The control diet was composed of ryegrass, corn, soybean meal, whereas the treatments consisted of SCG, SCG fermented with Lactobacillus spp. (FSCG), APR, and its fermented form (FAPR). The treatment diets replaced 100 g/kg dry matter (DM) of the feed ingredients in the control. Costs were lower for the all treatments, except FAPR, than that of the control. After 24-h incubation, the NDF digestibility of the diets containing SCG and its fermented form were significantly lower than those of the other diets (P < 0.01); pre-fermentation tended to increase NDF digestibility (P = 0.07), especially for APR. Supplementation of SCG significantly decreased total gas production (ml/g DM) after 24-h fermentation in comparison with the control (P < 0.05); however, there were no significant differences between the control and the SCG or the APR diets in total gas production, as expressed per Korean Won (KRW). Diets supplemented with SCG or FSCG tended to have a higher total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, expressed as per KRW, compared with the control (P = 0.06). Conversely, the fermentation

  13. Evaluation of nutritional and economic feed values of spent coffee grounds and Artemisia princeps residues as a ruminant feed using in vitro ruminal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jakyeom; Jung, Jae Keun; Seo, Seongwon

    2015-01-01

    Much research on animal feed has focused on finding alternative feed ingredients that can replace conventional ones (e.g., grains and beans) to reduce feed costs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic, as well as nutritional value of spent coffee grounds (SCG) and Japanese mugwort (Artemisia princeps) residues (APR) as alternative feed ingredients for ruminants. We also investigated whether pre-fermentation using Lactobacillus spp. was a feasible way to increase the feed value of these by-products. Chemical analyses and an in vitro study were conducted for SCG, APR, and their pre-fermented forms. All the experimental diets for in vitro ruminal fermentation were formulated to contain a similar composition of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and total digestible nutrients at 1x maintenance feed intake based on the dairy National Research Council (NRC). The control diet was composed of ryegrass, corn, soybean meal, whereas the treatments consisted of SCG, SCG fermented with Lactobacillus spp. (FSCG), APR, and its fermented form (FAPR). The treatment diets replaced 100 g/kg dry matter (DM) of the feed ingredients in the control. Costs were lower for the all treatments, except FAPR, than that of the control. After 24-h incubation, the NDF digestibility of the diets containing SCG and its fermented form were significantly lower than those of the other diets (P < 0.01); pre-fermentation tended to increase NDF digestibility (P = 0.07), especially for APR. Supplementation of SCG significantly decreased total gas production (ml/g DM) after 24-h fermentation in comparison with the control (P < 0.05); however, there were no significant differences between the control and the SCG or the APR diets in total gas production, as expressed per Korean Won (KRW). Diets supplemented with SCG or FSCG tended to have a higher total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, expressed as per KRW, compared with the control (P = 0.06). Conversely, the fermentation

  14. Preparation of Glycerol-Enriched Yeast Culture and Its Effect on Blood Metabolites and Ruminal Fermentation in Goats

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Gengping; Zhu, Yongxing; Liu, Jin; Chen, Xingxiang; Huang, Kehe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate a glycerol-producing yeast strain from nature to prepare glycerol-enriched yeast culture (GY), and preliminarily evaluate the effects of GY on blood metabolites and ruminal fermentation in goats. During the trial, six isolates were isolated from unprocessed honey, and only two isolates with higher glycerol yield were identified by analysis of 26S ribosomal DNA sequences. One of the two isolates was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a direct-fed microbe permitted by the FDA. This isolate was used to prepare GY. The fermentation parameters were optimized through single-factor and orthogonal design methods to maximize the glycerol yield and biomass. The final GY contained 38.7±0.6 g/L glycerol and 12.6±0.5 g/L biomass. In vivo, eight castrated male goats with ruminal fistula were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square experiment with four consecutive periods of 15 d. Treatments were as follows: control, LGY, MGY, and HGY with 0, 100, 200, and 300 mL GY per goat per day, respectively. The GY was added in two equal portions at 08∶00 and 17∶00 through ruminal fistula. Samples of blood and ruminal fluid were collected on the last one and two days of each period, respectively. Results showed that the plasma concentrations of triglyceride and total cholesterol were not affected by the supplemented GY. Compared with the control, goats supplemented with MGY and HGY had significantly higher (P<0.05) concentrations of plasma glucose and total protein, ruminal volatile fatty acid and molar proportion of propionate, and significantly lower (P<0.05) ruminal pH and ammonia nitrogen. These parameters changed linearly with increasing GY supplementation level (P<0.05). In conclusion, GY has great potential to be developed as a feed additive with dual effects of glycerol and yeast for ruminants. PMID:24709881

  15. Effects of a spoilage yeast from silage on in vitro ruminal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Santos, M C; Lock, A L; Mechor, G D; Kung, L

    2015-04-01

    Feeding silages with high concentrations of yeasts from aerobic spoilage is often implicated as a cause of poor animal performance on dairies. Our objective was to determine if a commonly found spoilage yeast, isolated from silage, had the potential to alter in vitro ruminal fermentations. A single colony of Issatchenkia orientalis, isolated from high-moisture corn, was grown in selective medium. The yeast culture was purified and added to in vitro culture tubes containing a total mixed ration (43% concentrate, 43% corn silage, 11% alfalfa haylage, and 3% alfalfa hay on a dry matter basis), buffer, and ruminal fluid to achieve added theoretical final concentrations of 0 (CTR), 4.40 (low yeast; LY), 6.40 (medium yeast; MY), and 8.40 (high yeast; HY) log10 cfu of yeast/mL of in vitro fluid. Seven separate tubes were prepared for each treatment and each time point and incubated for 12 and 24h at 39 °C. At the end of the incubation period, samples were analyzed for pH, yeast number, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and fatty acids (FA). We found that total viable yeast counts decreased for all treatments in in vitro incubations but were still relatively high (5.3 log10 cfu of yeasts/mL) for HY after 24h of incubation. Addition of HY resulted in a lower pH and higher concentration of total VFA in culture fluid compared with other treatments. Moreover, additions of MY and HY decreased in vitro NDF digestibility compared with CTR, and the effect was greatest for HY. Overall, the biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated FA was not altered by addition of I. orientalis and decreased over time with an increase in the accumulation of saturated FA, especially palmitic and stearic acids. We conclude that addition of I. orientalis, especially at high levels, has the potential to reduce in vitro NDF digestion and alter other aspects of ruminal fermentations. PMID:25622865

  16. The effect of the feed-to-buffer ratio on bacterial diversity and ruminal fermentation in single-flow continuous-culture fermenters.

    PubMed

    Cantalapiedra-Hijar, G; Yáñez-Ruiz, D R; Newbold, C J; Molina-Alcaide, E

    2011-03-01

    Eight single-flow continuous-culture fermenters were used in a completely randomized block design with a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments to investigate the effects of the feed-to-buffer ratio (F/B) on ruminal fermentation, the diversity and community structure of bacteria, nutrient digestibility, and N metabolism. Four diets with forage-to-concentrate ratios of 70:30 or 30:70 with alfalfa or grass hay as forage were supplied to fermenters twice per day at 2 different F/B (23.5 and 35 g of DM/L). The dilution rate was kept constant (5.3%) among all fermenters by infusing the same volume of buffer. An increase in the total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration and a decrease in the average pH were observed with an increased F/B. In addition, the molar proportions of all individual VFA found in fermenters differed, depending on the F/B. A terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that the community structure and diversity of bacteria were highly influenced by the F/B. Both diversity and the number of peaks in the electropherograms were lower in most fermenters receiving diets at a high F/B, whereas the similarity percentage of the bacterial communities across diets was higher as the F/B increased. Moreover, the high reduction of neutral detergent fiber digestibility (15.3% ± 3.65) in fermenters with high F/B suggested a pH-related decrease in the cellulolytic bacterial community as the F/B increased. The crude protein degradation found in fermenters receiving diets with a high F/B was lower compared with that from fermenters with a low F/B. The VFA concentration and purine bases flow response patterns to diets were similar to in vivo conditions only in the case of fermenters with a low F/B. The results suggested that the community structure and diversity of bacteria, as well as the in vitro fermentation parameters, may be affected by the F/B that is used, most likely through a pH effect. In addition, several fermentation

  17. Effects of the dicarboxylic acids malate and fumarate on E. coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella enterica Typhimurium populations in pure culture and in mixed ruminal microorganism fermentations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dicarboxylic organic acids malate and fumarate increase ruminal pH, reduce methane production, increase propionate and total VFA production, and reduce lactic acid accumulation in a manner similar to ionophores. These acids stimulate the ruminal bacterium Selenomonas ruminantium to ferment lact...

  18. Optimized batch fermentation of cheese whey. Supplemented feedlot waste filtrate to produce a nitrogen-rich feed supplement for ruminants

    SciTech Connect

    Erdman, M.D.; Reddy, C.A.

    1986-03-01

    An optimized batch fermentation process for the conversion of cattle feedlot waste filtrate, supplemented with cheese whey, into a nitrogenous feed supplement for ruminants is described. Feedlot waste filtrate supplemented with cheese whey (5 g of whey per 100 ml) was fermented by the indigenous microbial flora in the feedlot waste filtrate. Ammonium hydroxide was added to the fermentation not only to maintain a constant pH but also to produce ammonium salts of organic acids, which have been shown to be valuable as nitrogenous feed supplements for ruminants. The utilization of substrate carbohydrate at pH 7.0 and 43 degrees C was greater than 94% within 8 h, and the crude protein (total N X 6.25) content of the product was 70 to 78% (dry weight basis). About 66 to 69% of the crude protein was in the form of ammonia nitrogen. Lactate and acetate were the predominant acids during the first 6 to 8 hours of fermentation, but after 24 hours, appreciable levels of propionate and butyrate were also present. The rate of fermentation and the crude protein content of the product were optimal at pH 7.0 and decreased at a lower pH. For example, fermentation did not go to completion even after 24 hours at pH 4.5. Fermentation proceeded optimally at 43 degrees C, less so at 37 degrees C, and considerably more slowly at 23 and 50 degrees C. Concentrations of up to 15 g of cheese whey per 100 ml of feedlot waste filtrate were fermented efficiently. Fermentation of feedlot waste filtrate obtained from animals fed low silage-high grain, high silage-low grain, or dairy rations resulted in similar products in terms of total nitrogen and organic acid composition.

  19. Effects of grain, fructose, and histidine on ruminal pH and fermentation products during an induced subacute acidosis protocol.

    PubMed

    Golder, H M; Celi, P; Rabiee, A R; Heuer, C; Bramley, E; Miller, D W; King, R; Lean, I J

    2012-04-01

    The effects of grain, fructose, and histidine on ruminal pH and fermentation products were studied in dairy cattle during an induced subacute acidosis protocol. Thirty Holstein heifers were randomly allocated to 5 treatment groups: (1) control (no grain); (2) grain [fed at a crushed triticale dry matter intake (DMI) of 1.2% of body weight (BW)]; (3) grain (0.8% of BW DMI)+fructose (0.4% of BW DMI); (4) grain (1.2% of BW DMI)+histidine (6 g/head); and (5) grain (0.8% of BW DMI)+fructose (0.4% of BW DMI)+histidine (6 g/head) in a partial factorial arrangement. Heifers were fed 1 kg of grain daily with ad libitum access to ryegrass silage and alfalfa hay for 10 d. Feed was withheld for 14 h before challenge day, on which heifers were fed 200 g of alfalfa hay and then the treatment diets immediately thereafter. Rumen samples were collected 5 min after diet ingestion, 60 min later, and at 3 subsequent 50-min intervals. Grain decreased ruminal pH and increased ammonia, total volatile fatty acid (VFA), acetate, butyrate, propionate, and valerate concentrations compared with controls. The addition of grain had no effect on ruminal D- and L-lactate concentrations. Fructose markedly decreased ruminal pH and markedly increased D- and L-lactate concentrations. Fructose increased total VFA and butyrate and decreased valerate concentrations. Although histidine did not have a marked effect on ruminal fermentation, increased concentrations of histamine were observed following feeding. This study demonstrates that the substitution of some grain for fructose can lower ruminal pH and increase VFA and lactate concentrations, warranting further investigation into the role of sugars on the risk of acidosis in dairy cattle. PMID:22459843

  20. Radiation pasteurised oil palm empty fruit bunch fermented with Pleurotus sajor-caju as feed supplement to ruminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awang, Mat Rasol; Mutaat, Hassan Hamdani; Mahmud, Mohd. Shukri; Wan Husain, Wan Badrin; Osman, Tajuddin; Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Kassim, Asmahwati; Wan Mahmud, Zal U'yun; Manaf, Ishak; Kume, Tamikazu; Hashimoto, Shoji

    1993-10-01

    In solid state fermentation, Pleurotus sajor-caju has been found to be able to degrade at least 30% oil palm empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) fibre leaving 70 % useful materials. Conditions under which fermentation carried out were investigated. It was found that, in the temperature range between 25- 28 °C, relative ph between 6-8, moisture between 60-70 % and medium composition of CaCO 3: rice bran 2 %: 5 % were the optimum conditions. The results showed in fermented products that, there were substantial reduction in cellulosic component such as Crude Fiber (CF, 18 %); Acid Detergent Fibre (ADF, 45 %), Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF, 61 %) and Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL, 14 %). However, Crude Protein (CP, 10%) increased resulted from single cell protein enrichment of mycelial microbial mass. The mass reductions of substrate in fermentation process corresponds to the CO 2 released during fermentation. Hence, attributable to the decreased in content of CF, ADF, NDF, and ADL. The digestibility study has also been carried out to determine the useful level of this product to ruminant. Aflatoxin content was detected low in both the initial substrates and products. Based on nutritional value and low content of aflatoxin, the product is useful as a source of roughage to ruminant.

  1. Effects of Bacillus subtilis natto on milk production, rumen fermentation and ruminal microbiome of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sun, P; Wang, J Q; Deng, L F

    2013-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of Bacillus subtilis natto, which was initially isolated from fermented soybeans on milk production, rumen fermentation and ruminal microbiome in dairy cows. In Experiment 1, 36 early lactation Chinese Holstein dairy cows (56 ± 23 days in milk) were randomly assigned to three groups: Control, cows were fed total mixed ration (TMR); BSNLOW, TMR plus 0.5 × 1011 colony-forming units (cfu) of B. subtilis natto/cow per day; and BSNHIGH, TMR plus 1.0 × 1011 cfu of B. subtilis natto/cow per day. During the 70-day treatment period, daily milk production and daily milk composition were determined in individual cows. The results showed that supplementing dairy cows with 0.5 × 1011 and 1.0 × 1011 cfu of B. subtilis natto linearly increased (P < 0.01) milk production (25.2 and 26.4 kg/day v. 23.0 kg/day), 4% fat-corrected milk (27.3 and 28.1 kg/day v. 24.2 kg/day), energy-corrected milk (27.3 and 28.2 kg/day v. 24.2 kg/day), as well as milk fat (1.01 and 1.03 kg/day v. 0.88 kg/day), protein (0.77 and 0.82 kg/day v. 0.69 kg/day) and lactose yield (1.16 and 1.22 kg/day v. 1.06 kg/day) but decreased milk somatic cell counts (SCC) by 3.4% to 5.5% (P < 0.01) in BSNLOW and BSNHIGH treatments compared with Control. In Experiment 2, four rumen-cannulated dairy cows were fed the basal diet from 1 to 7 days (pre-trial period) and rumen samples were collected on days 6 and 7; the same cows then were fed 1.0 × 1011 cfu/day B. subtilis natto from days 8 to 21 (trial period) and rumen samples were collected on days 20 and 21. B. subtilis natto was discontinued from days 22 to 28 (post-trial period) and rumen samples were collected on days 27 and 28. Compared with the pre- and post-periods, ruminal pH decreased by 2.7% to 3.0% during the trial period (P < 0.01), whereas ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), total volatile fatty acids and molar proportion of propionate (P < 0.01) and valerate (P < 0.05) increased. Molar proportion of acetate

  2. Effects of Momordica charantia Saponins on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation and Microbial Population.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jinhe; Zeng, Bo; Tang, Shaoxun; Wang, Min; Han, Xuefeng; Zhou, Chuanshe; Yan, Qiongxian; He, Zhixiong; Liu, Jinfu; Tan, Zhiliang

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Momordica charantia saponin (MCS) on ruminal fermentation of maize stover and abundance of selected microbial populations in vitro. Five levels of MCS supplements (0, 0.01, 0.06, 0.30, 0.60 mg/mL) were tested. The pH, NH3-N, and volatile fatty acid were measured at 6, 24, 48 h of in vitro mixed incubation fluids, whilst the selected microbial populations were determined at 6 and 24 h. The high dose of MCS increased the initial fractional rate of degradation at t-value = 0 (FRD0) and the fractional rate of gas production (k), but decreased the theoretical maximum of gas production (V F) and the half-life (t0.5) compared with the control. The NH3-N concentration reached the lowest concentration with 0.01 mg MCS/mL at 6 h. The MSC inclusion increased (p<0.001) the molar proportion of butyrate, isovalerate at 24 h and 48 h, and the molar proportion of acetate at 24 h, but then decreased (p<0.05) them at 48 h. The molar proportion of valerate was increased (p<0.05) at 24 h. The acetate to propionate ratio (A/P; linear, p<0.01) was increased at 24 h, but reached the least value at the level of 0.30 mg/mL MCS. The MCS inclusion decreased (p<0.05) the molar proportion of propionate at 24 h and then increased it at 48 h. The concentration of total volatile fatty acid was decreased (p<0.001) at 24 h, but reached the greatest concentration at the level of 0.01 mg/mL and the least concentration at the level of 0.60 mg/mL. The relative abundance of Ruminococcus albus was increased at 6 h and 24 h, and the relative abundance of Fibrobacter succinogenes was the lowest (p<0.05) at 0.60 mg/mL at 6 h and 24 h. The relative abundance of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and fungus reached the greatest value (p<0.05) at low doses of MCS inclusion and the least value (p<0.05) at 0.60 mg/mL at 24 h. The present results demonstrates that a high level of MCS quickly inhibits in vitro fermentation of maize stover, while MCS at low doses has

  3. Effects of Momordica charantia Saponins on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation and Microbial Population

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jinhe; Zeng, Bo; Tang, Shaoxun; Wang, Min; Han, Xuefeng; Zhou, Chuanshe; Yan, Qiongxian; He, Zhixiong; Liu, Jinfu; Tan, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Momordica charantia saponin (MCS) on ruminal fermentation of maize stover and abundance of selected microbial populations in vitro. Five levels of MCS supplements (0, 0.01, 0.06, 0.30, 0.60 mg/mL) were tested. The pH, NH3-N, and volatile fatty acid were measured at 6, 24, 48 h of in vitro mixed incubation fluids, whilst the selected microbial populations were determined at 6 and 24 h. The high dose of MCS increased the initial fractional rate of degradation at t-value = 0 (FRD0) and the fractional rate of gas production (k), but decreased the theoretical maximum of gas production (VF) and the half-life (t0.5) compared with the control. The NH3-N concentration reached the lowest concentration with 0.01 mg MCS/mL at 6 h. The MSC inclusion increased (p<0.001) the molar proportion of butyrate, isovalerate at 24 h and 48 h, and the molar proportion of acetate at 24 h, but then decreased (p<0.05) them at 48 h. The molar proportion of valerate was increased (p<0.05) at 24 h. The acetate to propionate ratio (A/P; linear, p<0.01) was increased at 24 h, but reached the least value at the level of 0.30 mg/mL MCS. The MCS inclusion decreased (p<0.05) the molar proportion of propionate at 24 h and then increased it at 48 h. The concentration of total volatile fatty acid was decreased (p<0.001) at 24 h, but reached the greatest concentration at the level of 0.01 mg/mL and the least concentration at the level of 0.60 mg/mL. The relative abundance of Ruminococcus albus was increased at 6 h and 24 h, and the relative abundance of Fibrobacter succinogenes was the lowest (p<0.05) at 0.60 mg/mL at 6 h and 24 h. The relative abundance of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and fungus reached the greatest value (p<0.05) at low doses of MCS inclusion and the least value (p<0.05) at 0.60 mg/mL at 24 h. The present results demonstrates that a high level of MCS quickly inhibits in vitro fermentation of maize stover, while MCS at low doses has the

  4. Effect of Total Mixed Ration with Fermented Feed on Ruminal In vitro Fermentation, Growth Performance and Blood Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S. H.; Alam, M. J.; Gu, M. J.; Park, K. W.; Jeon, C. O.; Ha, Jong K.; Cho, K. K.; Lee, S. S.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, two experiments were conducted to evaluate the total mixed ration with fermented feed (TMRF) and total mixed ration (TMR) by rumen in vitro fermentation and their effects on the growth performance and blood characteristics of Hanwoo steers. In experiment 1, three Hanwoo steers (600±47 kg), each permanently fitted with a ruminal cannula were used. In this experiment, three diets designated as T1, TMRF (18.4% fermented feed, tall fescue, mammoth wild rye forage and whole crop barley); T2, TMRF (17.7% fermented feed, rice straw and whole crop barley); and T3, TMR (rice straw, whole crop barley and probiotics, but no fermented feed), which were subjected to rumen in vitro fermentation for 48 h. The results demonstrated that DM disappearance rate gradually increased with advancing fermentation time, but T1 and T2 were higher than the T3 (p<0.05) from 3 h to 12 h, but insignificant (p>0.05) at 24 and 48 h. None of the specific VFAs were affected except for acetic and non volatile lactic acids, which were produced more in T2 than in T1 and T3 at 24 h and 48 h of incubation. A/P was lower in T1 and T2 than inT3 at 24 h (p<0.05) and 48 h (p>0.05) of incubation. These results confirmed that TMRF-related treatment shows a superior performance to that of TMR during the ruminal fermentation period. In experiment 2, the three diets in experiment 1 plus 1 more control diet (concentrates, probiotics and 2% rice straw of body weight) were fed to the 48 Hanwoo steers (160±10 kg) for a period of 168 d. The results demonstrated that the daily and total live weight gain and feed efficiency were higher (p<0.05) in the TMRF and TMR groups than in the control group. SGOT, SGPT and BUN (p<0.05) were reduced in TMRF relative to the control and TMR groups by 168 d which confirmed that TMRF shows better blood profiles than the TMR and control groups. Overall, these results appear to show that TMRF has better in vitro ruminal characteristics than those of TMR; growth

  5. Nitroethane, 2-nitro-methyl-propionate and dimethyl-2-nitroglutarate markedly reduce ruminal methane production without adversely affecting ruminal fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminal methanogenesis is considered a digestive inefficiency that results in the loss of 2-12% of the host’s gross energy intake and accounts for nearly 20% of the United States’ annual CH4 emissions. The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effects of the known CH4 inhibitor, n...

  6. Effects of Flavonoid-rich Plant Extracts on In vitro Ruminal Methanogenesis, Microbial Populations and Fermentation Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun T.; Guan, Le Luo; Lee, Shin J.; Lee, Sang M.; Lee, Sang S.; Lee, Il D.; Lee, Su K.; Lee, Sung S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of flavonoid-rich plant extracts (PE) on ruminal fermentation characteristics and methane emission by studying their effectiveness for methanogenesis in the rumen. A fistulated Holstein cow was used as a donor of rumen fluid. The PE (Punica granatum, Betula schmidtii, Ginkgo biloba, Camellia japonica, and Cudrania tricuspidata) known to have high concentrations of flavonoid were added to an in vitro fermentation incubated with rumen fluid. Total gas production and microbial growth with all PE was higher than that of the control at 24 h incubation, while the methane emission was significantly lower (p<0.05) than that of the control. The decrease in methane accumulation relative to the control was 47.6%, 39.6%, 46.7%, 47.9%, and 48.8% for Punica, Betula, Ginkgo, Camellia, and Cudrania treatments, respectively. Ciliate populations were reduced by more than 60% in flavonoid-rich PE treatments. The Fibrobacter succinogenes diversity in all added flavonoid-rich PE was shown to increase, while the Ruminoccocus albus and R. flavefaciens populations in all PE decreased as compared with the control. In particular, the F. succinogenes community with the addition of Birch extract increased to a greater extent than that of others. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that flavonoid-rich PE decreased ruminal methane emission without adversely affecting ruminal fermentation characteristics in vitro in 24 h incubation time, suggesting that the flavonoid-rich PE have potential possibility as bio-active regulator for ruminants. PMID:25656200

  7. Effects of Flavonoid-rich Plant Extracts on In vitro Ruminal Methanogenesis, Microbial Populations and Fermentation Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun T; Guan, Le Luo; Lee, Shin J; Lee, Sang M; Lee, Sang S; Lee, Il D; Lee, Su K; Lee, Sung S

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of flavonoid-rich plant extracts (PE) on ruminal fermentation characteristics and methane emission by studying their effectiveness for methanogenesis in the rumen. A fistulated Holstein cow was used as a donor of rumen fluid. The PE (Punica granatum, Betula schmidtii, Ginkgo biloba, Camellia japonica, and Cudrania tricuspidata) known to have high concentrations of flavonoid were added to an in vitro fermentation incubated with rumen fluid. Total gas production and microbial growth with all PE was higher than that of the control at 24 h incubation, while the methane emission was significantly lower (p<0.05) than that of the control. The decrease in methane accumulation relative to the control was 47.6%, 39.6%, 46.7%, 47.9%, and 48.8% for Punica, Betula, Ginkgo, Camellia, and Cudrania treatments, respectively. Ciliate populations were reduced by more than 60% in flavonoid-rich PE treatments. The Fibrobacter succinogenes diversity in all added flavonoid-rich PE was shown to increase, while the Ruminoccocus albus and R. flavefaciens populations in all PE decreased as compared with the control. In particular, the F. succinogenes community with the addition of Birch extract increased to a greater extent than that of others. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that flavonoid-rich PE decreased ruminal methane emission without adversely affecting ruminal fermentation characteristics in vitro in 24 h incubation time, suggesting that the flavonoid-rich PE have potential possibility as bio-active regulator for ruminants. PMID:25656200

  8. Effects of apple pomace proportion levels on the fermentation quality of total mixed ration silage and its digestibility, preference and ruminal fermentation in beef cows.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jiachen; Cao, Yang; Matsuzaki, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    Four Japanese black beef cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square to evaluate the fermentation quality, digestibility, ruminal fermentation and preference of total mixed ration (TMR) silages prepared with differing proportions of apple pomace (AP). Experimental treatments were the control (no AP added, CAP), 5% (low, LAP), 10% (medium, MAP) and 20% (high, HAP) of TMR dry matter (DM) as AP. All TMR silages were well preserved. Ethanol was produced in silages containing AP and the amount increased with the proportion of AP (P < 0.05). Nutrient digestibility with LAP, MAP and HAP treatment was lower than that with CAP treatment (P < 0.05). The ruminal molar proportion of acetic acid increased (P < 0.05), but the ruminal ammonia-N concentration decreased (P < 0.05) as the proportion of AP increased. The preference of the animals was highest for HAP, followed by MAP, CAP and LAP. This study demonstrates that decrease in nutrient digestibility might be related to the ethanol produced naturally from AP. Therefore, the proportion of AP in TMR silages should be less than 5% of dietary DM. PMID:26278555

  9. Effects of acarbose on ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites and microbial profile involved in ruminal acidosis in lactating cows fed a high-carbohydrate ration.

    PubMed

    Blanch, Marta; Calsamiglia, Sergio; Devant, Maria; Bach, Alex

    2010-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of an inhibitor of alpha-amylase and glucosidase (acarbose, Pfizer Limited, Corby, UK) on ruminal fermentation, blood metabolism and microbial profile in dairy cows in a 2x2 cross-over experiment. Eight Holstein cows fitted with rumen cannulas (milk yield, 24.3+/-2.35 kg/d, body weight, 622+/-54 kg, days in milk, 183+/-67, 5 multiparous and 3 primiparous) were used. Treatments were: control (no additive, CTR) and alpha-amylase and glucosidase inhibitor (0.75 g acarbose-premix/cow per d, AMI). Animals were given ad-libitum access to a high non-fibre carbohydrate (NFC) partial mixed ration (PMR) containing 17.6% crude protein, 28.3% neutral detergent fibre, and 46.5% NFC in the dry matter and supplementary concentrate during milking. Blood samples were taken to determine blood glucose, insulin and urea within the first hour after the morning feeding on two separate days in each period. Samples of ruminal contents were collected during 3 d in each period at 0, 4 and 8 h after feeding to determine volatile fatty acid and ammonia-N concentrations and to quantify protozoa, Streptococcus bovis and Megasphaera elsdenii. Rumen pH was recorded electronically at 22-min intervals during 6 d in each period. Results were analysed using a mixed-effects model. Cows on AMI treatment spent less time with ruminal pH <5.6 compared with cows in the CTR group (3.74 and 6.52+/-0.704 h/d, respectively). Cows in the AMI group had greater daily average pH compared with those in the CTR group (6.05 and 5.92+/-0.042, respectively). AMI animals tended (P=0.09) to have lower Str. bovis to Meg. elsdenii ratio than CTR (4.09 and 26.8+/-12.0, respectively). These results indicate that dietary supplementation with acarbose in dairy cattle fed high-production rations may be effective in reducing the time for which rumen pH is suboptimal, with no negative effects on ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites. PMID:20053317

  10. Heat Stress Alters Ruminal Fermentation and Digesta Characteristics, and Behavior in Lactating Dairy Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a study designed to assess the impact and interaction of nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC) and ruminally degradable protein (RDP) on ruminal characteristics and animal behavior, animals experienced heat stress in the first period (HS), and no/greatly reduced heat stress (NHS) in the second period, all...

  11. Protein and Carbohydrate Interactions Alter Ruminal Fermentation, Digesta Characteristics, and Behavior in Lactating Dairy Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of altering dietary nonfiber carbohydrate complement and ruminally degradable protein was evaluated in an incomplete partially balanced Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (trt) and two 21-d periods. Eight ruminally cannulated Holstein dairy cows were rand...

  12. Effects of plants and essential oils on ruminal in vitro batch culture methane production and fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, plants (14) and essential oils (EO; 88) from plants that are naturalized to, or can be successfully grown in North America were evaluated in a batch culture in vitro screening experiments with ruminal fluid as potential anti-methanogenic additives for ruminant diets. Essential oils we...

  13. Effects of particle size of alfalfa-based dairy cow diets on chewing activity, ruminal fermentation, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, K A; Yang, W Z; Rode, L M

    2003-02-01

    Effects offorage particle size measured as physically effective NDF and ratio of alfalfa silage to alfalfa hay of diets on feed intake, chewing activity, particle size reduction, salivary secretion, ruminal fermentation, and milk production of dairy cows were evaluated using a 4 x 4 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The diets consisted of 60% barley-based concentrate and 40% forage, comprised either of 50:50 or 25:75 of alfalfa silage:alfalfa hay, and alfalfa hay was either chopped or ground. Various methods were used to determine physically effective NDF content of the diets. Cows surgically fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were offered ad libitum access to these total mixed diets. The physically effective NDF content of the diets was significantly lower when measured using the Penn State Particle Separator than when measured based on particles retained on 1.18-mm screen. Intake of DM was increased by increasing the ratio of silage to hay but was not affected by physically effective NDF content of diets. Eating time (hours per day) was not affected by the physically effective NDF content of diets, although cows spent more time eating per unit of DM or NDF when consuming high versus low alfalfa hay diets. Ruminating time (hours per day) was increased with increased physically effective NDF content of the diets. Rumen pH was affected more by changing dietary particle size than altering the ratio of silage to hay. Feeding chopped hay instead of ground hay improved ruminal pH status: time during which ruminal pH was above 6.2 increased and time during which ruminal pH was below 5.8 decreased. Milk production was increased by feeding higher concentrations of alfalfa silage due to increased DM intake, but was not affected by dietary particle size. Feed particle size, expressed as mean particle length or physically effective NDF was moderately correlated with ruminating time but not with eating time. Although physically

  14. Effects of forage particle size and grain fermentability in midlactation cows. II. Ruminal pH and chewing activity.

    PubMed

    Krause, K M; Combs, D K; Beauchemin, K A

    2002-08-01

    Our study investigated the effects of, and interactions between, level of dietary ruminally fermentable carbohydrate (RFC) and forage particle size on rumen pH and chewing activity for dairy cows fed one level of dietary NDF. Also, correlations between intake, production, chewing, and ruminal pH parameters were investigated. Eight cows (61 days in milk) were assigned to four treatments in a double 4 x 4 Latin square. Treatments were arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial design; finely chopped alfalfa silage (FS) and coarse alfalfa silage (CS) were combined with concentrates based on either dry, cracked-shelled corn (DC; low RFC) or ground, high-moisture corn (HMC; high RFC). Diets were fed ad libitum as a total mixed rations with a concentrate:forage ratio of 60:40. Diets averaged 18.7% crude protein, 24.0% neutral detergent fiber, 18.3% , acid detergent fiber and 27.4% starch on a DM basis. Mean particle size of the four diets were 6.3, 2.8, 6.0, and 3.0 mm for DCCS, DCFS, HMCCS, and HMCFS, respectively. Decreasing forage particle size decreased ruminal pH from 6.02 to 5.81, and increasing level of RFC decreased pH from 5.99 to 5.85. Minimum daily ruminal pH decreased from 5.66 to 5.47 when level of RFC was increased, and decreased from 5.65 to 5.48 when forage particle size decreased. Time below pH 5.8 per day increased from 7.4 h to 10.8 h when level of RFC increased, and increased from 6.4 h to 11.8 h when forage particle size was decreased. Area below 5.8 showed the same relationship with RFC and forage particle size. Also, forage particle size affected the postprandial pH pattern. Cows spent more time eating when fed CS compared with FS (274 vs. 237 min/d), and time spent eating decreased when level of RFC was increased (271 vs. 241 min/d). Decreasing forage particle size decreased time spent ruminating (485 vs. 320 min/d), rumination periods (15.3 vs. 11.7), and duration of rumination periods (29 vs. 26 min). Increasing level of RFC increased time spent ruminating

  15. Short communication: in vitro ruminal fermentability of a modified corn cultivar expressing a thermotolerant α-amylase.

    PubMed

    Hu, W; Persia, M E; Kung, L

    2010-10-01

    The fermentability of a corn cultivar that expresses a thermostable α-amylase (CA3272) was evaluated under various in vitro conditions. The CA3272 corn was developed as a replacement to microbial enzyme additions during the high-temperature processing of corn to produce ethanol. The α-amylase activity in the corn might have the potential for positive effects on ruminant performance if incorporated into the ration. Four corn cultivars were evaluated in an in vitro ruminal fermentation where the digestion of starch was measured after 6 h. The cultivars included a flint corn, an opaque corn, CA3272, and its near-isogenic counterpart (IC). The flint corn produced less total volatile fatty acids (18.4 mM) than the other 3 corns (average of 25.3 mM), supporting the fact that it had the highest concentration of prolamins, which are negatively associated with starch availability. A second 6-h in vitro ruminal fermentation evaluated mixtures of the CA3272 and IC corns (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% concentrations of CA3272). Total volatile fatty acid production was not different among treatments for any proportions of CA3272. In a third in vitro experiment, there was a small but significant difference in starch degradation of CA3272 compared with IC (90.6 vs. 89.7%) but this difference is most likely not biologically relevant. In a fourth in vitro experiment, CA3272 and IC were incubated in water at 40 and 65°C for 24 h. Degradation of starch from native amylase activity at 40°C was 1.99 and 1.60% for CA3272 and IC, respectively, but when they were incubated at 65°C, starch degradation was 10.56 and 0.85% for CA3272 and IC, respectively. These data demonstrate that amylase activity in CA3272 is expressed at a high temperature (65°C) but at the physiological temperature expected in a rumen of a cow (39-40°C), expression of amylase activity does not appear to be sufficient to have any positive (or negative) effects on ruminal metabolism. PMID:20855018

  16. Development of feeding systems and strategies of supplementation to enhance rumen fermentation and ruminant production in the tropics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The availability of local feed resources in various seasons can contribute as essential sources of carbohydrate and protein which significantly impact rumen fermentation and the subsequent productivity of the ruminant. Recent developments, based on enriching protein in cassava chips, have yielded yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP) providing up to 47.5% crude protein (CP), which can be used to replace soybean meal. The use of fodder trees has been developed through the process of pelleting; Leucaena leucocephala leaf pellets (LLP), mulberry leaf pellets (MUP) and mangosteen peel and/or garlic pellets, can be used as good sources of protein to supplement ruminant feeding. Apart from producing volatile fatty acids and microbial proteins, greenhouse gases such as methane are also produced in the rumen. Several methods have been used to reduce rumen methane. However, among many approaches, nutritional manipulation using feed formulation and feeding management, especially the use of plant extracts or plants containing secondary compounds (condensed tannins and saponins) and plant oils, has been reported. This approach could help todecrease rumen protozoa and methanogens and thus mitigate the production of methane. At present, more research concerning this burning issue - the role of livestock in global warming - warrants undertaking further research with regard to economic viability and practical feasibility. PMID:23981662

  17. Influence of lasalocid level on forage intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, liquid flow and performance of beef cattle grazing winter range.

    PubMed

    Jacques, K A; Cochran, R C; Corah, L R; Avery, T B; Zoellner, K O; Higginbotham, J F

    1987-09-01

    Three experiments were conducted to study the effects of lasalocid level on performance, intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation and fluid flow of beef cattle grazing dormant, tallgrass prairie. In Exp. 1, 120 pregnant, mature beef cows of primarily Hereford breeding (avg wt = 471 kg) were randomly assigned to received 0, 100, 200 or 300 mg lasalocid X head-1 X d-1 in 1.82 kg supplement. Weight changes at 30, 60 or 90 d, condition score change and calf birth weight were not affected (P greater than .10) by lasalocid level. In Exp. 2, estimates of intake and digestibility were obtained with 40 pregnant, mature Hereford cows (avg wt = 474 kg) and 12 esophageal-cannulated, Hereford X Angus steers (avg wt = 225 kg), using Yb and indigestible acid detergent fiber as markers for fecal output and digestibility, respectively. Levels of lasalocid provided to cows and steers were similar, on a body weight (BW) basis, to those in Exp. 1 and corresponded to approximately 0, .22, .44 or .66 mg lasalocid/kg BW. Total diet and forage organic matter digestibility for beef cows decreased (P less than .01) at the .22 mg/kg BW level, but increased at the .44 and .66 mg/kg BW levels. Organic matter intake was not influenced (P greater than .10) by lasalocid addition. In Exp. 3, 16 ruminal-cannulated, Hereford X Angus steers (avg wt = 227 kg) were given the same lasalocid dosages per kg BW as in Exp. 2, and were used to study the effects of lasalocid on ruminal fermentation and fluid flow characteristics.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3667441

  18. Substitution of Wheat for Corn in Beef Cattle Diets: Digestibility, Digestive Enzyme Activities, Serum Metabolite Contents and Ruminal Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y F; Zhao, H B; Liu, X M; You, W; Cheng, H J; Wan, F C; Liu, G F; Tan, X W; Song, E L; Zhang, X L

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diets containing different amounts of wheat, as a partial or whole substitute for corn, on digestibility, digestive enzyme activities, serum metabolite contents and ruminal fermentation in beef cattle. Four Limousin×LuXi crossbred cattle with a body weight (400±10 kg), fitted with permanent ruminal, proximal duodenal and terminal ileal cannulas, were used in a 4×4 Latin square design with four treatments: Control (100% corn), 33% wheat (33% substitution for corn), 67% wheat (67% substitution for corn), and 100% wheat (100% substitution for corn) on a dry matter basis. The results showed that replacing corn with increasing amounts of wheat increased the apparent digestibility values of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein (p<0.05). While the apparent digestibility of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber were lower with increasing amounts of wheat. Digestive enzyme activities of lipase, protease and amylase in the duodenum were higher with increasing wheat amounts (p<0.05), and showed similar results to those for the enzymes in the ileum except for amylase. Increased substitution of wheat for corn increased the serum alanine aminotransferase concentration (p<0.05). Ruminal pH was not different between those given only corn and those given 33% wheat. Increasing the substitution of wheat for corn increased the molar proportion of acetate and tended to increase the acetate-to-propionate ratio. Cattle fed 100% wheat tended to have the lowest ruminal NH3-N concentration compared with control (p<0.05), whereas no differences were observed among the cattle fed 33% and 67% wheat. These findings indicate that wheat can be effectively used to replace corn in moderate amounts to meet the energy and fiber requirements of beef cattle. PMID:26954111

  19. Methane production, nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, N balance, and milk production of cows fed timothy silage- or alfalfa silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Massé, D I; Petit, H V; Benchaar, C

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of changing forage source in dairy cow diets from timothy silage (TS) to alfalfa silage (AS) on enteric CH₄ emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, digestion, milk production, and N balance. Nine ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design (32-d period) and fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (TMR; forage:concentrate ratio of 60:40, dry matter basis), with the forage portion consisting of either TS (0% AS; 0% AS and 54.4% TS in the TMR), a 50:50 mixture of both silages (50% AS; 27.2% AS and 27.2% TS in the TMR), or AS (100% AS; 54.4% AS and 0% TS in the TMR). Compared with TS, AS contained less (36.9 vs. 52.1%) neutral detergent fiber but more (20.5 vs. 13.6%) crude protein (CP). In sacco 24-h ruminal degradability of organic matter (OM) was higher for AS than for TS (73.5 vs. 66.9%). Replacement of TS with AS in the diet entailed increasing proportions of corn grain and bypass protein supplement at the expense of soybean meal. As the dietary proportion of AS increased, CP and starch concentrations increased, whereas fiber content declined in the TMR. Dry matter intake increased linearly with increasing AS proportions in the diet. Apparent total-tract digestibility of OM and gross energy remained unaffected, whereas CP digestibility increased linearly and that of fiber decreased linearly with increasing inclusion of AS in the diet. The acetate-to-propionate ratio was not affected, whereas ruminal concentration of ammonia (NH₃) and molar proportion of branched-chain VFA increased as the proportion of AS in the diet increased. Daily CH₄ emissions tended to increase (476, 483, and 491 g/d for cows fed 0% AS, 50% AS, and 100% AS, respectively) linearly as cows were fed increasing proportions of AS. Methane production adjusted for dry matter intake (average=19.8 g/kg) or gross energy intake (average=5.83%) was not affected by increasing AS inclusion

  20. Chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, and in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters of potato-wheat straw silage treated with molasses and lactic acid bacteria and corn silage.

    PubMed

    Babaeinasab, Y; Rouzbehan, Y; Fazaeli, H; Rezaei, J

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of molasses and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, and in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters of an ensiled potato-wheat straw mixture in a completely randomized design with 4 replicates. Wheat straw was harvested at full maturity and potato tuber when the leaves turned yellowish. The potato-wheat straw (57:43 ratio, DM basis) mixture was treated with molasses, LAB, or a combination. Lalsil Fresh LB (Lallemand, France; containing NCIMB 40788) or Lalsil MS01 (Lallemand, France; containing MA18/5U and MA126/4U) were each applied at a rate of 3 × 10 cfu/g of fresh material. Treatments were mixed potato-wheat straw silage (PWSS) without additive, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil Fresh LB, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil MS01, PWSS + 5% molasses, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil Fresh LB + 5% molasses, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil MS01 + 5% molasses, and corn silage (CS). The compaction densities of PWSS treatments and CS were approximately 850 and 980 kg wet matter/m, respectively. After anaerobic storage for 90 d, chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, in vitro gas production (GP), estimated OM disappearance (OMD), ammonia-N, VFA, microbial CP (MCP) production, and cellulolytic bacteria count were determined. Compared to CS, PWSS had greater ( < 0.001) values of DM, ADL, water-soluble carbohydrates, pH, and ammonia-N but lower ( < 0.05) values of CP, ash free-NDF (NDFom), ash, nitrate, and lactic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acids concentrations. When PWSS was treated with molasses, LAB, or both, the contents of CP and lactic and acetic acids increased, whereas NDFom, ammonia-N, and butyric acid decreased ( < 0.05). Based on in vitro ruminal experiments, PWSS had greater ( < 0.05) values of GP, OMD, and MCP but lower ( < 0.05) VFA and acetic acid compared to CS. With adding molasses alone or in combination with LAB inoculants to PWSS, the values of GP

  1. Screening of bacterial direct-fed microbials for their antimethanogenic potential in vitro and assessment of their effect on ruminal fermentation and microbial profiles in sheep.

    PubMed

    Jeyanathan, J; Martin, C; Morgavi, D P

    2016-02-01

    Direct-fed microbials (DFM) are used to modulate ruminal function and induce beneficial effects on ruminants. The objectives of this work were to 1) screen bacterial strains for their antimethanogenic potential in vitro and 2) assess the effect of 3 selected DFM on ruminal methane (CH) emissions, fermentation parameters, and microbial profiles in sheep. Forty-five bacterial strains were preselected based on their metabolism and fermentation characteristics. These bacteria were screened for their ability to reduce ruminal methanogenesis using 24-h batch incubations and an inoculum of 10 cfu/mL of medium. The addition of bacterial strains stimulated ruminal fermentation with increases in total gas production for 41 strains ( < 0.05) without a concomitant increase in CH production (only 9 strains had higher CH than the controls without DFM; < 0.05). 53-W, D31, and D1 had the greatest difference between total gas and CH production and were selected for further in vivo testing. Twelve rumen-cannulated Texel wethers were divided into 3 groups and were treated daily for 4 wk with 6 × 10 cfu/animal for and and 3 × 10 cfu/animal for . Measures of enteric CH, ruminal fermentation, and ruminal microbial traits were performed before, at 2 and 4 wk during the treatment period, and at 2 wk after the DFM treatment stopped. Methane production was reduced by 13% ( < 0.05) with after 2 wk of DFM administration, and this effect was maintained throughout the treatment and posttreatment periods. In contrast, had no effect on CH production, and increased it by 16% ( < 0.05) after 4 wk of DFM administration. There was no effect on other fermentation parameters or on the bacterial, archaeal, and protozoal numbers monitored by quantitative PCR. However, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles indicated changes in bacterial and archaeal diversity in the and groups. Although added bacteria were unable to permanently colonize the rumen, had a greater 24-h survival rate than the

  2. Effects of flaxseed and chia seed on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, and long-chain fatty acid flow in a dual-flow continuous culture system.

    PubMed

    Silva, L G; Bunkers, J; Paula, E M; Shenkoru, T; Yeh, Y; Amorati, B; Holcombe, D; Faciola, A P

    2016-04-01

    Flaxseed (FS) and chia seed (CS) are oilseeds rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which may change meat and milk composition when added to ruminants' diets and may have health benefits for humans. Literature on the effects of CS supplementation on ruminal metabolism is nonexistent. A dual-flow continuous culture fermenter system consisting of 6 fermenters was used to assess the effect of FS and CS supplementation in an alfalfa hay-based diet on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and long-chain fatty acid flow. Diets were randomly assigned to fermenters in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design, with 3 consecutive periods of 10 d each, consisting of 7 d for diet adaptation and 3 d for sample collection. Each fermenter was fed a total of 72 g of DM/d divided in 6 equal portions. Treatments were 1) alfalfa hay + calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acid (MEG; 69.3 g DM/d of alfalfa hay plus 2.7 g DM/d of calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acid), 2) alfalfa hay + FS (FLAX; 68.4 g DM/d of alfalfa hay plus 3.6 g DM/d of ground FS), and 3) alfalfa hay + CS (CHIA; 68.04 g DM/d of alfalfa hay plus 3.96 g DM/d of ground CS). Dietary treatments had similar amounts of total fat, and fat supplements were ground to 2-mm diameter. Effluents from the last 3 d of incubation were composited for analyses. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Ruminal apparent and true nutrient digestibility of all nutrients did not differ ( > 0.05) among treatments. Compared with MEG, FLAX and CHIA increased the flows of C18:3 -3, C20:4 -6, and total PUFA ( < 0.01). Both CHIA and FLAX treatments had greater ruminal concentrations of C18:0, indicating that both CS and FS fatty acids were extensively biohydrogenated in the rumen. The NH-N concentration, microbial N flow, and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis were not affected ( > 0.05) by treatments. Lastly, there were no differences ( > 0.05) among diets for total VFA concentration and molar proportions

  3. Wet distillers grains plus solubles concentration in steam-flaked-corn-based diets: Effects on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, nutrient digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of wet distiller's grains plus solubles (WDG; < 15% sorghum grain) concentration in steam-flaked corn- (SFC) based diets on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, and diet digestibility of feeedlt ocattle. In Experi...

  4. Effects of the methane-inhibitors nitrate, nitroethane, lauric acid, Lauricidin**R and the Hawaiian marine algae, Chaetoceros, on ruminal fermentation in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of several methane-inhibitors on rumen fermentation were compared during three 24 h consecutive batch cultures of ruminal microbes in the presence of nonlimiting amounts of hydrogen. After the initial incubation series, methane production was reduced greater than 92% from that of nontre...

  5. Fiber digestion, VFA production, and microbial population changes during in vitro ruminal fermentations of mixed rations by monensin-adapted and unadapted microbes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mixed ruminal microbes were incubated for 24 h in vitro with mixed forage and concentrate rations containing 20% or 30% non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC) to assess in vitro fiber digestibility, fermentation end products, and relative population sizes (RPS, expressed as a percentage of 16S rRNA gene cop...

  6. Effects of supplementing condensed tannin extract on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and milk production of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dschaak, C M; Williams, C M; Holt, M S; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Min, B R

    2011-05-01

    A lactation experiment was conducted to determine the influence of quebracho condensed tannin extract (CTE) on ruminal fermentation and lactational performance of dairy cows. The cows were fed a high forage (HF) or a low forage (LF) diet with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 59:41 or 41:59 on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows (62 ± 8.8 d in milk) were used. The design of the experiment was a double 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, and each period lasted 21 d (14 d of treatment adaptation and 7 d of data collection and sampling). Four dietary treatments were tested: HF without CTE, HF with CTE (HF+CTE), LF without CTE, and LF with CTE (LF+CTE). Commercial quebracho CTE was added to the HF+CTE and the LF+CTE at a rate of 3% of dietary DM. Intake of DM averaged 26.7 kg/d across treatments, and supplementing CTE decreased intakes of DM and nutrients regardless of forage level. Digestibilities of DM and nutrients were not affected by CTE supplementation. Milk yield averaged 35.3 kg/d across treatments, and yields of milk and milk component were not influenced by CTE supplementation. Negative effects of CTE supplementation on feed intake resulted in increased feed efficiency (milk yield/DM intake). Although concentration of milk urea N (MUN) decreased by supplementing CTE in the diets, efficiency of N use for milk N was not affected by CTE supplementation. Feeding the LF diet decreased ruminal pH (mean of 6.47 and 6.33 in HF and LF, respectively). However, supplementation of CTE in the diets did not influence ruminal pH. Supplementing CTE decreased total volatile fatty acid concentration regardless of level of forage. With CTE supplementation, molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and butyrate increased in the HF diet, but not in the LF diet, resulting in interactions between forage level and CTE supplementation. Concentration of ammonia-N tended to decrease with supplementation of

  7. Using organic acids to control subacute ruminal acidosis and fermentation in feedlot cattle fed a high-grain diet.

    PubMed

    Vyas, D; Beauchemin, K A; Koenig, K M

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether supplementing organic acids can prevent incidences of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in beef heifers fed a diet consisting of 8% barley silage and 92% barley grain-based concentrate (DM basis). Ten ruminally cannulated Hereford crossbred heifers (484 ± 25 kg BW) were used in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design with 14-d periods including 10 d for dietary adaptation and 4 d for measurements. Dietary treatments included no supplementation (Control), low fumaric acid (61 g/d), high fumaric acid (125 g/d), low malic acid (59 g/d), and high malic acid (134 g/d). Organic acid supplementation had no effect on DMI ( = 0.77). Similarly, no effects were observed on mean ( = 0.74), minimum ( = 0.64), and maximum ( = 0.27) ruminal pH measured continuously for 48 h. Moreover, area under the curve for pH thresholds 6.2 ( = 0.97), 5.8 ( = 0.66), 5.5 ( = 0.55), and 5.2 ( = 0.93) was similar for all treatments. However, malic acid supplementation lowered the amount of time that ruminal pH was <6.2 compared with the Control ( = 0.02) and fumaric acid treatments ( < 0.01). No effects were observed on total VFA concentrations with organic acid supplementation ( = 0.98) compared with the Control, but greater total VFA concentrations were observed with fumaric acid compared with the malic acid treatments ( = 0.02). The population of total culturable bacteria 3 h after feeding was reduced with supplemental malic acid compared with the Control ( = 0.03) and fumaric acid treatments ( = 0.03). However, no effects were observed with organic acid supplementation on lactic acid-utilizing bacteria ( = 0.59). In conclusion, under the conditions of the present study, organic acid supplementation did not have any significant effects on ruminal fermentation parameters compared with the Control and were not effective in preventing SARA in beef cattle fed high-grain diets. PMID:26440175

  8. A protease additive increases fermentation of alfalfa diets by mixed ruminal microorganisms in vitro.

    PubMed

    Colombatto, D; Beauchemin, K A

    2009-03-01

    In vitro experiments were conducted to examine the characteristics and mode of action of a protease that increased the ruminal fiber digestibility of alfalfa hay. A commercial source of protease (Protex 6L, Genencor Int., Rochester, NY), already characterized for its main activities, was further analyzed to determine protease activity in response to pH, molecular size by SDS-PAGE, specificity to degrade model or feed substrates, response to autoclaving, and action of specific protease inhibitors in the absence or presence of ruminal fluid. In addition, batch culture in vitro incubations in buffered ruminal fluid were conducted to compare the enzyme product with purified protease sources, and dose-response studies (0 to 10 microL/g of forage DM) were carried out using alfalfa hay as a substrate. The enzyme product was shown to be an alkaline protease (optimum pH >8.5) of approximately 30 kDa. Specificity in the absence of ruminal fluid showed that the enzyme was active against gelatin and casein to the same extent, whereas it had limited (21% of the total) activity on BSA. In the presence of ruminal fluid and with the use of feed substrates, the protease increased (P < 0.05) 22-h IVDMD (%) of alfalfa hay, fresh corn silage, dry-rolled corn, and a total mixed ration composed of the 3 ingredients (39.5 vs. 44.7; 50.3 vs. 54.5; 63.8 vs. 68.4; and 55.4 vs. 56.4 for control vs. protease for each feed, respectively). Inhibitor studies in the absence of ruminal fluid indicated that the enzyme was inhibited most by a serine protease inhibitor but not by cysteine- or metalloprotease inhibitors (10 vs. 1.9 and 0.1%, respectively). In the presence of ruminal fluid, the serine protease inhibitor reversed (P < 0.05) the increase in alfalfa IVDMD achieved by the enzyme product, such that IVDMD was similar to that of the control treatment. Comparisons among different proteases revealed that only pure subtilisin achieved increases in IVDMD that were similar to those with protease

  9. Substitution of common concentrates with by-products modulated ruminal fermentation, nutrient degradation, and microbial community composition in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ertl, P; Knaus, W; Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Klevenhusen, F; Khiaosa-Ard, R; Zebeli, Q

    2015-07-01

    A rumen simulation technique was used to evaluate the effects of the complete substitution of a common concentrate mixture (CON) with a mixture consisting solely of by-products from the food industry (BP) at 2 different forage-to-concentrate ratios on ruminal fermentation profile, nutrient degradation, and abundance of rumen microbiota. The experiment was a 2×2 factorial arrangement with 2 concentrate types (CON and BP) and 2 concentrate levels (25 and 50% of diet dry matter). The experiment consisted of 2 experimental runs with 12 fermentation vessels each (n=6 per treatment). Each run lasted for 10d, with data collection on the last 5d. The BP diets had lower starch, but higher neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and fat contents compared with CON. Degradation of crude protein was decreased, but NDF and nonfiber carbohydrate degradation were higher for the BP diets. At the 50% concentrate level, organic matter degradation tended to be lower for BP and CH4 formation per unit of NDF degraded was also lower for BP. The BP mixture led to a higher concentration of propionate and a lower acetate-to-propionate ratio, whereas concentrations of butyrate and caproate decreased. Concentrate type did not affect microbial community composition, except that the abundance of bacteria of the genus Prevotella was higher for BP. Increasing the concentrate level resulted in higher degradation of organic matter and crude protein. At the higher concentrate level, total short-chain fatty acid formation increased and concentrations of isobutyrate and valerate decreased. In addition, at the 50% concentrate level, numbers of protozoa increased, whereas numbers of methanogens, anaerobic fungi, and fibrolytic bacteria decreased. No interaction was noted between the 2 dietary factors on most variables, except that at the higher concentrate level the effects of BP on CH4 and CO2 formation per unit of NDF degraded, crude protein degradation, and the abundance of Prevotella were more prominent. In

  10. Effects of Dietary Crude Glycerin Supplementation on Nutrient Digestibility, Ruminal Fermentation, Blood Metabolites, and Nitrogen Balance of Goats

    PubMed Central

    Chanjula, P.; Pakdeechanuan, P.; Wattanasit, S.

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of increasing concentrations of crude glycerin (CGLY) in diets on nutrient utilization, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen utilization of goats. Four male crossbred (Thai Native×Anglo Nubian) goats, with an average initial weight of 26±3.0 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design with four 21 days consecutive periods. Treatments diets contained 0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% of dietary DM of CGLY. Based on this experiment, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) among treatment groups regarding DM intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF). Likewise, mean serum glucose, BHBA, and PCV concentrations were not affected (p>0.05) by dietary treatments, whereas serum insulin concentration linearly increased (L, p = 0.002) with increasing the amount of CGLY supplementation. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, and BUN concentration were unchanged by dietary treatments, except for 20% of CGLY, NH3-N, and BUN were lower (p<0.05) than for the diets 10% of CGLY, while the difference between the diets 0%, 5%, and 20% of CGLY were not significant. The amount of N absorption and retention were similar among treatments. Based on this study, CGLY levels up to 20% in total mixed ration could be efficiently utilized for goats and this study elucidates a good approach to exploiting the use of biodiesel production for goat production. PMID:25049963

  11. Effects of Forage:Concentrate Ratio on Growth Performance, Ruminal Fermentation and Blood Metabolites in Housing-feeding Yaks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, G. J.; Song, S. D.; Wang, B. X.; Zhang, Z. F.; Peng, Z. L.; Guo, C. H.; Zhong, J. C.; Wang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of forage: concentrate ratio (F:C) on growth performance, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites of housing-feeding yaks. Thirty-two Maiwa male yaks (initial body weight = 207.99±3.31 kg) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (8 yaks per treatment). Experimental diets were: A, B, C, D which contained 70:30, 60:40, 50:50 and 40:60 F:C ratios, respectively. Dry matter intake and average daily gain in yaks fed the C and D diets were greater (p<0.05) than yaks fed the A and B diets. No differences were found in ruminal NH3-N, total volatile fatty acids, acetate, butyrate, valerate, and isovalerate concentrations. The propionate concentration was increased (p<0.05) in the C and D groups compared with the A and B diets. In contrast, the acetate to propionate ratio was decreased and was lowest (p<0.05) in the C group relative to the A and B diets, but was similar with the D group. For blood metabolites, no differences were found in serum concentrations of urea-N, albumin, triglyceride, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase (p>0.05) among treatments. Treatment C had a higher concentration of total protein and high density lipoprotein (p<0.05) than A and B groups. In addition, there was a trend that the globulin concentration of A group was lower than other treatments (p = 0.079). Results from this study suggest that increasing the level of concentrate from 30% to 50% exerted a positive effect on growth performance, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in yaks. PMID:26580441

  12. Effects of herbs and essential oils on in vitro batch culture ruminal fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Medicinal herbs and essential oils were evaluated in a batch culture in vitro screening experiment as potential anti-methanogenic additives for ruminant diets. A total of 88 essential oils and 14 herbs were tested. Rumen inoculum enriched with particle-associated microorganisms was collected from ...

  13. Effects of oral nitroethane administration on enteric methane emissions and ruminal fermentation in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas and its release to the atmosphere is considered to contribute to global warming. Ruminal enteric methane production represents a loss of 2% to 15% of the animal’s energy intake and contributes nearly 20% of the United States total methane emissions. Studies have ...

  14. Effects of partial replacement of barley grain with beet pulp on performance, ruminal fermentation and plasma concentration of metabolites in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Shahmoradi, A; Alikhani, M; Riasi, A; Ghorbani, G R; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of partial replacement of barley grain with beet pulp (BP) on dry matter intake (DMI), ruminal fermentation, plasma concentration of metabolites and milk yield of transition dairy cows. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows [735 ± 26 kg of body weights and 3.5 ± 0.05 of body condition score (BCS)] were used in a randomized complete block design. Cows were assigned randomly on day 28 relative to expected parturition date to one of three treatments containing (i) 0% BP, (ii) 25% BP or (iii) 50% BP substituted for barley grain on a DM basis. During the pre-partum period, DMI and energy intake were greater (P < 0.01) in cows fed the BP diet compared with cows fed the barley grain diet. During the post-partum period, substituting BP for barley grain caused a response in DMI and energy intake, with the highest amount for the 25% BP diet and lowest for the 50% BP diet (P < 0.01). Milk yield was lowest (P < 0.01) for 50% BP diet than the other treatments. During the post-partum period, cows fed the 50% BP diets had greater rumen pH, molar proportion of butyrate and acetate: propionate ratio (P < 0.01) in the rumen compared with cows fed the 0% BP diets. In addition, cows fed the BP diets had greater (P < 0.01) plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and lower plasma glucose (P < 0.05) and blood urinary nitrogen (BUN) (P < 0.01) concentrations than cows fed the barley grain diets. Results showed that substituting BP for barley grain was effective in increasing DMI, but it did not have a significant effect on net energy balance during the post-partum period. However, replacing BP for barley grain at 50% had adverse effects on DMI, milk yield and metabolic status, as indicated by key blood metabolite concentrations. PMID:25816899

  15. Rumen microbial abundance and fermentation profile during severe subacute ruminal acidosis and its modulation by plant derived alkaloids in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mickdam, Elsayed; Khiaosa-Ard, Ratchaneewan; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Klevenhusen, Fenja; Chizzola, Remigius; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2016-06-01

    Rumen microbiota have important metabolic functions for the host animal. This study aimed at characterizing changes in rumen microbial abundances and fermentation profiles using a severe subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in vitro model, and to evaluate a potential modulatory role of plant derived alkaloids (PDA), containing quaternary benzophenanthridine and protopine alkaloids, of which sanguinarine and chelerythrine were the major bioactive compounds. Induction of severe SARA strongly affected the rumen microbial composition and fermentation variables without suppressing the abundance of total bacteria. Protozoa and fungi were more sensitive to the low ruminal pH condition than bacteria. Induction of severe SARA clearly depressed degradation of fiber (P < 0.001), which came along with a decreased relative abundance of fibrolytic Ruminococcus albus and Fibrobacter succinogenes (P < 0.001). Under severe SARA conditions, the genus Prevotella, Lactobacillus group, Megasphaera elsdenii, and Entodinium spp. (P < 0.001) were more abundant, whereas Ruminobacter amylophilus was less abundant. SARA largely suppressed methane formation (-70%, P < 0.001), although total methanogenic 16S rRNA gene abundance was not affected. According to principal component analysis, Methanobrevibacter spp. correlated to methane concentration. Addition of PDA modulated ruminal fermentation under normal conditions such as enhanced (P < 0.05) concentration of total SCFA, propionate and valerate, and increased (P < 0.05) degradation of crude protein compared with the unsupplemented control diet. Our results indicate strong shifts in the microbial community during severe SARA compared to normal conditions. Supplementation of PDA positively modulates ruminal fermentation under normal ruminal pH conditions. PMID:26868619

  16. Digestion, ruminal fermentation, ciliate protozoal populations, and milk production from dairy cows fed cinnamaldehyde, quebracho condensed tannin, or Yucca schidigera saponin extracts.

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C; McAllister, T A; Chouinard, P Y

    2008-12-01

    Four ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design (28-d periods) to determine the effects of cinnamaldehyde (CIN; 1 g/cow per day), condensed tannins from quebracho trees (QCT, containing 70% tannins, 150 g/cow per day), and saponins from Yucca schidigera extract (YSE, containing 10% saponins; 60 g/cow per day) on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, and milk production. Intake of dry matter was not affected by the addition of CIN or QCT, but cows fed YSE had lesser intake than cows fed the control diet (21.8 vs. 23.2 kg/d). Apparent total-tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were unaffected by dietary treatments. Supplementation with CIN, QTE, or YSE did not affect in situ ruminal degradation of soybean meal, grass silage, or corn grain. Ruminal pH (6.67), total volatile fatty acid concentration (135 mM), and molar proportions (mol/100 mol of total volatile fatty acid) of acetate (65.0), propionate (19.6), and butyrate (11.2) were similar among treatments. Ruminal NH(3)-N concentration was not changed by the addition of CIN and YSE, but tended to decrease in cows fed QCT compared with cows fed the control diet (132 vs. 160 mg/L). Total numbers of ruminal protozoa were not changed by adding CIN, QCT, or YSE in the diet (5.85 log(10)/mL). However, the number of Isotricha was greater in ruminal fluid of cows fed CIN than in ruminal fluid of cows fed the control diet (4.46 vs. 4.23 log(10)/mL). Milk production (33.1 kg/d), milk fat (4.3%), and milk protein (3.5%) remained unchanged between dietary treatments. Results of this study show that under our experimental conditions, supplementing dairy cow diets with CIN, QCT, or YSE had limited effects on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and protozoal populations. The lack of effects observed in this study suggests that these antimicrobials require administration

  17. Ruminal fermentation, milk fatty acid profiles, and productive performance of Holstein dairy cows fed 2 different safflower seeds.

    PubMed

    Dschaak, C M; Noviandi, C T; Eun, J-S; Fellner, V; Young, A J; Zobell, D R; Israelsen, C E

    2011-10-01

    A lactation trial was conducted to determine the effects of supplementing whole safflower seeds (SS) on ruminal fermentation, lactational performance, and milk fatty acid (FA) profiles. Nine multiparous Holstein cows (days in milk = 110 ± 20) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21 d, with 14 d of adaptation and 7 d of data collection. Within square, cows were randomly assigned to a sequence of 3 dietary treatments as follows: cottonseed total mixed ration (TMR; CST), conventional SS (variety S-208) TMR (CSST), and NutraSaff SS (Safflower Technologies International, Sidney, MT) TMR (NSST). Diets contained approximately 63% forage (36% alfalfa hay, 4% grass hay, and 23% corn silage) and 37% concentrate supplemented with 2% cottonseed to the CST and 3% conventional or NutraSaff SS to the CSST or the NSST, respectively. Intake of dry matter (DM) averaged 21.8 kg/d and did not differ across diets, but feeding the NSST decreased intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) due to lower dietary concentration of NDF in the NSST. Digestibilities of DM and nutrients were similar among treatments. No differences in yields of milk or milk components were observed in response to supplementing SS. Dietary treatments did not affect ruminal pH, total or molar proportions of ruminal volatile FA, and ammonia-N. However, cows fed SS had a higher molar proportion of isobutyrate than those fed the CST diet. Ruminal C16:0 FA concentration increased with the CST, whereas C18:1 cis-9 and C18:2 n-6 tended to increase with SS supplementation, indicating that conventional and NutraSaff SS were partially protected from microbial biohydrogenation. Supplementing SS decreased milk C16:0 concentration, whereas it increased C18:1 cis-9 and C18:1 trans-9. Milk FA C18:1 trans-11 and cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid increased and tended to increase with feeding the NSST, respectively, but not the CSST diet. In conclusion, supplementing diets with whole SS at 3

  18. Effects of feeding increasing levels of wet corn gluten feed on production and ruminal fermentation in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mullins, C R; Grigsby, K N; Anderson, D E; Titgemeyer, E C; Bradford, B J

    2010-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary inclusion rates of wet corn gluten feed (WCGF; Sweet Bran; Cargill Inc., Blair, NE) on milk production and rumen parameters. Four primiparous and 4 multiparous ruminally cannulated Holstein cows averaging 90±13 d in milk (mean ± SD) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 sequences in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with 28-d periods. Treatments were diets containing 0, 11, 23, and 34% WCGF on a dry matter basis; alfalfa hay, corn silage, corn grain, soybean meal, expeller soybean meal, and mineral supplements were varied to maintain similar nutrient concentrations across diets. Performance and measures of ruminal fermentation were monitored. Linear and quadratic effects of increasing WCGF inclusion rate were assessed using mixed-model analysis. Increasing dietary WCGF linearly increased dry matter intake (26.7, 25.9, 29.3, and 29.7 kg/d for 0, 11, 23, and 34% WCGF, respectively) and milk production (36.8, 37.0, 40.1, and 38.9 kg/d). Concentrations of milk components did not differ among treatments; however, protein and lactose yields increased linearly and fat yield tended to increase linearly when more WCGF was fed. This led to greater production of energy-corrected milk (38.2, 38.8, 41.7, and 40.4 kg/d) and solids-corrected milk (35.2, 35.7, 38.5, and 37.2 kg/d), but efficiency of production linearly decreased. Increased WCGF in the diet tended to linearly decrease ruminal pH (6.18, 6.12, 6.14, and 5.91), possibly because mean particle size was below typical recommendations for all diets, and diets with greater proportions of WCGF had a smaller mean particle size. Ruminal acetate concentration decreased linearly and propionate increased linearly as WCGF inclusion rate increased. Treatments had a quadratic effect on ammonia concentration, with greater concentrations for the 0 and 34% WCGF diets. In situ digestibility of soybean hulls showed a significant diet-by-time interaction, and

  19. Effect of exchanging Onobrychis viciifolia and Lotus corniculatus for Medicago sativa on ruminal fermentation and nitrogen turnover in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Grosse Brinkhaus, A; Bee, G; Silacci, P; Kreuzer, M; Dohme-Meier, F

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of feeding sainfoin (SF; Onobrychis viciifolia) and birdsfoot trefoil (BT; Lotus corniculatus), 2 temperate climate forage legumes that contain condensed tannins (CT), on ruminal fermentation and N turnover in dairy cows. Six ruminally cannulated multiparous dairy cows (milk yield=40kg/d; 36 d in milk) were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design. All animals were fed basal diets containing 20% pelleted SF (223g of CT/kg of dry matter), BT (30.3g of CT/kg of dry matter), or alfalfa (AL) and concentrate to meet their predicted nutrient requirements. Each experimental period consisted of a 21-d adaptation period in a tiestall, followed by a 7-d collection period in metabolic crates, where feces and urine were collected quantitatively. During the 7-d period, milk yield was recorded daily and milk samples were taken at each milking. Blood, ruminal fluid, and papillae were sampled on d 2 and 5. The relative abundance of selected bacterial strains in ruminal fluid and the gene expression of transporter genes in the papillae were determined with quantitative PCR. Total volatile fatty acids and the abundance of the cellulolytic bacteria Prevotella spp. and Ruminococcus flavefaciens decreased with SF compared with AL. The relative gene expression of the monocarboxylate transporter 1 was increased with BT compared with AL and SF. Total yields of milk, milk fat, and milk protein were similar among treatments. The proportion of 18:3n-3 in milk fat was greater and those of 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 were lower with SF than with BT. The contents of urea N in blood (2.71, 3.45, and 3.90mmol/L for SF, AL, and BT, respectively), milk (79.8, 100.1, and 110.9mg/kg for SF, AL, and BT, respectively), and urine were lower with SF than with AL and BT, and a trend toward a lower ruminal ammonia content occurred with SF compared with BT. Intake and excretion of N with milk were similar among treatments, but urine N was lower with SF

  20. Feeding behavior, ruminal fermentation, and performance of pregnant beef cows differing in phenotypic residual feed intake offered grass silage.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimons, C; Kenny, D A; Fahey, A G; McGee, M

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the relationship of residual feed intake (RFI) and performance with feeding behavior and ruminal fermentation variables in pregnant beef cows offered a grass silage diet. Individual grass silage DMI (dry matter digestibility = 666 g/kg) was recorded on 47 gestating (mean gestation d 166, SD = 26 d) Simmental and Simmental × Holstein-Friesian beef cows for a period of 80 d. Cow BW, BCS, skeletal measurements, ultrasonically scanned muscle and fat depth, visual muscular score, ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites, and feeding behavior were measured. Phenotypic RFI was calculated as actual DMI minus expected DMI. Expected DMI was computed for each animal by regressing DMI on conceptus-adjusted mean BW(0.75) and ADG over an 80-d period. Within breed, cows were ranked by RFI into low (efficient), medium, or high groups. Overall mean (SD) values for DMI (kg/d), RFI, initial conceptus-adjusted BW, and conceptus-adjusted ADG were 8.41 (1.09) kg/d, 0.01 (0.13) kg/d, 646 (70) kg, and -0.07 (0.32) kg, respectively. High-RFI cows ate 25% and 8% more than low- and medium-RFI cows, respectively. Live weight and ADG were not correlated (P > 0.05), and DMI was positively correlated (r = 0.80; P < 0.001) with RFI. The low- and high-RFI groups had similar (P > 0.05) BW, ADG, BCS, visual muscular scores, skeletal measurements, blood metabolites, calf birth weight, and calving difficulty scores. All ultrasonic fat and muscle depth measurements were similar (P > 0.05) for low- and high-RFI cows except for back fat thickness change, where low-RFI cows gained less fat (P < 0.05) than high-RFI cows. Low-RFI cows had greater pH and lower ammonia concentrations in ruminal fluid compared to their high-RFI contemporaries. Low-RFI cows had fewer (P < 0.001) daily feeding events, but these were of longer (P < 0.001) duration (min·feed event(-1)·d(-1)). Despite this, total daily duration of feeding was shorter (P < 0.001; min/d) for low- compared to high-RFI cows. High

  1. Effect of camelina oil or live yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on ruminal methane production, rumen fermentation, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage diets.

    PubMed

    Bayat, A R; Kairenius, P; Stefański, T; Leskinen, H; Comtet-Marre, S; Forano, E; Chaucheyras-Durand, F; Shingfield, K J

    2015-05-01

    The potential of dietary supplements of 2 live yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or camelina oil to lower ruminal methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) production and the associated effects on animal performance, rumen fermentation, rumen microbial populations, nutrient metabolism, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition of cows fed grass silage-based diets were examined. Four Finnish Ayrshire cows (53±7 d in milk) fitted with rumen cannula were used in a 4×4 Latin square with four 42-d periods. Cows received a basal total mixed ration (control treatment) with a 50:50 forage-to-concentrate ratio [on a dry matter (DM) basis] containing grass silage, the same basal total mixed ration supplemented with 1 of 2 live yeasts, A or B, administered directly in the rumen at 10(10) cfu/d (treatments A and B), or supplements of 60g of camelina oil/kg of diet DM that replaced concentrate ingredients in the basal total mixed ration (treatment CO). Relative to the control, treatments A and B had no effects on DM intake, rumen fermentation, ruminal gas production, or apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility. In contrast, treatment CO lowered DM intake and ruminal CH4 and CO2 production, responses associated with numerical nonsignificant decreases in total-tract organic matter digestibility, but no alterations in rumen fermentation characteristics or changes in the total numbers of rumen bacteria, methanogens, protozoa, and fungi. Compared with the control, treatment CO decreased the yields of milk, milk fat, lactose, and protein. Relative to treatment B, treatment CO improved nitrogen utilization due to a lower crude protein intake. Treatment A had no influence on milk FA composition, whereas treatment B increased cis-9 10:1 and decreased 11-cyclohexyl 11:0 and 24:0 concentrations. Treatment CO decreased milk fat 8:0 to 16:0 and total saturated FA, and increased 18:0, 18:1, 18:2, conjugated linoleic acid, 18:3n-3, and trans FA concentrations. Decreases in ruminal CH4

  2. Effects of Ruminal Infusion of Garlic Oil on Fermentation Dynamics, Fatty Acid Profile and Abundance of Bacteria Involved in Biohydrogenation in Rumen of Goats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhi; Mao, Shengyong; Zhu, Weiyun

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of ruminal infusion of garlic oil (GO) on fermentation dynamics, fatty acid (FA) profile, and abundance of bacteria involved in biohydrogenation in the rumen. Six wethers fitted with ruminal fistula were assigned to two groups for cross-over design with a 14-d interval. Each 30-d experimental period consisted of a 27-d adaptation and a 3-d sample collection. Goats were fed a basal diet without (control) or with GO ruminal infusion (0.8 g/d). Ruminal contents collected before (0 h) and at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 h after morning feeding were used for fermentation analysis, and 0 h samples were further used for FA determination and DNA extraction. Garlic oil had no influence on dry matter intakes of concentrate and hay. During ruminal fermentation, GO had no effects on total VFA concentration and individual VFA molar proportions, whereas GO increased the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and microbial crude protein (p<0.05). Compared with control, GO group took a longer time for total VFA concentration and propionate molar proportion to reach their respective maxima after morning feeding. The ratio of acetate to propionate in control reduced sharply after morning feeding, whereas it remained relatively stable in GO group. Fatty acid analysis showed that GO reduced saturated FA proportion (p<0.05), while increasing the proportions of C18, t11–18:1 (TVA), c9,t11-conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA), t10,c12-CLA, and polyunsaturated FA (p<0.05). The values of TVA/(c9,t11-CLA+TVA) and C18:0/(TVA+ C18:0) were reduced by GO (p<0.05). Real-time PCR showed that GO tended to reduce Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus abundance (p = 0.058), whereas GO had no effect on total abundance of the Butyrivibrio group bacteria. A low correlation was found between B. proteoclasticus abundance and C18:0/(TVA+C18:0) (p = 0.910). The changes of fermentation over time suggested a role of GO in delaying the fermentation process and maintaining a relatively

  3. Evaluation of isoquinoline alkaloid supplementation levels on ruminal fermentation, characteristics of digestion, and microbial protein synthesis in steers fed a high-energy diet.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Hernández, J A; Urías-Estrada, J D; López-Soto, M A; Barreras, A; Plascencia, A; Montaño, M; González-Vizcarra, V M; Estrada-Angulo, A; Castro-Pérez, B I; Barajas, R; Rogge, H I; Zinn, R A

    2016-01-01

    Four Holstein steers with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to examine the effect of daily intake of 0, 2, 4 or 6 g/steer of standardized plant extract containing a mixture of quaternary benzophenanthridine alkaloids and protopine alkaloids (QBA+PA) on the characteristics of ruminal fermentation and characteristics of digestion. The basal diet consisted of a steam-flaked corn-based finishing diet that contained 62% corn and 12% sudangrass hay and the rest of diet was composed of mainly dried distillers grains, molasses, fat, and minerals. The source of QBA+PA used was Sangrovit-RS (Phytobiotics Futterzusatzstoffe GmbH, Eltville, Germany) and supplementation levels of 2, 4, and 6 g Sangrovit-RS∙steer∙d, which represented a net daily ingestion of approximately 6, 12, and 18 mg of QBA+PA compounds, respectively. Inclusion of QBA+PA linearly increased ( = 0.04) flow to the duodenum of nonammonia N and linearly decreased ( < 0.01) duodenal flows of ammonia N. Ruminal microbial efficiency (duodenal microbial N; g/kg OM fermented in the rumen) and protein efficiency (duodenal nonammonia N; g/g N intake) were increased ( < 0.05) as the level of QBA+PA increased. There were no effects of QBA+PA supplementation on ruminal, postruminal, and total tract digestion of OM, starch, and NDF, but postruminal and total tract digestion of N increased ( < 0.01) as the level of QBA+PA increased. Digestible energy of the diet tended to increase (linear affect, = 0.09) with QBA+PA supplementation. Ruminal pH and total VFA molar concentrations were not different between treatments. Ruminal NH-N concentration linearly decreased ( = 0.02) with QBA+PA supplementation. Ruminal molar proportion of acetate increased ( = 0.04) as the supplementation level of QBA+PA increased. It is concluded that QBA+PA supplementation enhances efficiency of N utilization in feedlot steers fed a steam-flaked corn-based finishing diet. This effect was due, in part, to

  4. Effects of feeding lauric acid or coconut oil on ruminal protozoa numbers, fermentation pattern, digestion, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Faciola, A P; Broderick, G A

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feeding of coconut oil (CO), in which lauric acid (La) comprises about 50% of the fatty acid composition, as a practical rumen protozoa (RP) suppressing agent, to assess whether the source of La affects ruminal fermentation and animal performance and to test whether suppressing RP improves N utilization, nutrient digestion, nutrient flow at the omasal canal, and milk production. Fifteen multiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) and 15 primiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square experiment with 14d of adaptation and 14d of sample collection. Diets were fed as total mixed ration and contained (dry matter basis) 10% corn silage, 50% alfalfa silage, and 40% concentrate. The control diet contained 3% (dry matter basis) calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (Megalac, Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) as a ruminally inert fat source and had no added La or CO. Diets with La and CO were formulated to contain equal amounts of La (1.3%, dry matter basis). Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. Both CO and La reduced RP numbers by about 40%. Lauric acid reduced yield of milk and milk components; however, CO did not affect yield of milk and yields of milk components. Both La and CO caused small reductions in total VFA concentration; CO increased molar proportion of ruminal propionate, reduced ruminal ammonia and branched-chain volatile fatty acids, suggesting reduced protein degradation, and reduced milk urea N and blood urea N concentrations, suggesting improved protein efficiency. Lauric acid reduced total-tract apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as well as ruminal apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as measured at the omasal canal; however, CO did not alter fiber digestion. Microbial protein flow at the omasal canal, as well as the flow of N fractions at

  5. Effects of Partial Replacement of Corn with Glycerin on Ruminal Fermentation in a Dual-Flow Continuous Culture System.

    PubMed

    Del Bianco Benedeti, Pedro; Galoro da Silva, Lorrayny; Marostegan de Paula, Eduardo; Shenkoru, Teshome; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio; Monteiro, Hugo Fernando; Amorati, Brad; Yeh, Yenling; Poulson, Simon Roger; Faciola, Antonio Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of partially replacing dry ground corn with glycerin on ruminal fermentation using a dual-flow continuous culture system. Six fermenters (1,223 ± 21 ml) were used in a replicated 3x3 Latin square arrangement with three periods of 10 d each, with 7 d for diet adaptation and 3 d for sample collections. All diets contained 75% concentrate and three dietary glycerin levels (0, 15, and 30% on dry matter basis), totaling six replicates per treatment. Fermenters were fed 72 g of dry matter/d equally divided in two meals/d, at 0800 and 2000 h. Solid and liquid dilution rates were adjusted daily to 5.5 and 11%/h, respectively. On d 8, 9, and 10, samples of 500 ml of solid and liquid digesta effluent were mixed, homogenized, and stored at -20°C. Subsamples of 10 ml were collected and preserved with 0.2 mL of a 50% H2SO4 solution for later determination of NH3-N and volatile fatty acids. Microbial biomass was isolated from fermenters for chemical analysis at the end of each experimental period. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure in SAS with α = 0.05. Glycerin levels did not affect apparent digestibility of DM (PLin. = 0.13; PQuad. = 0.40), OM (PLin. = 0.72; PQuad. = 0.15), NDF (PLin. = 0.38; PQuad. = 0.50) and ADF (PLin. = 0.91; PQuad. = 0.18). Also, glycerin inclusion did not affect true digestibility of DM (PLin. = 0.35; PQuad. = 0.48), and OM (PLin. = 0.08; PQuad. = 0.19). Concentrations of propionate (P < 0.01) and total volatile fatty acids (P < 0.01) increased linearly and concentrations of acetate (P < 0.01), butyrate (P = 0.01), iso-valerate (P < 0.01), and total branched-chain volatile fatty acids, as well as the acetate: propionate ratio (P < 0.01) decreased with glycerin inclusion. Linear increases on NH3-N concentration in digesta effluent (P < 0.01) and on NH3-N flow (P < 0.01) were observed due to glycerin inclusion in the diets. Crude protein digestibility (P = 0.04) and microbial N flow (P

  6. Effects of Partial Replacement of Corn with Glycerin on Ruminal Fermentation in a Dual-Flow Continuous Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Del Bianco Benedeti, Pedro; Galoro da Silva, Lorrayny; Marostegan de Paula, Eduardo; Shenkoru, Teshome; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio; Monteiro, Hugo Fernando; Amorati, Brad; Yeh, Yenling; Poulson, Simon Roger; Faciola, Antonio Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of partially replacing dry ground corn with glycerin on ruminal fermentation using a dual-flow continuous culture system. Six fermenters (1,223 ± 21 ml) were used in a replicated 3x3 Latin square arrangement with three periods of 10 d each, with 7 d for diet adaptation and 3 d for sample collections. All diets contained 75% concentrate and three dietary glycerin levels (0, 15, and 30% on dry matter basis), totaling six replicates per treatment. Fermenters were fed 72 g of dry matter/d equally divided in two meals/d, at 0800 and 2000 h. Solid and liquid dilution rates were adjusted daily to 5.5 and 11%/h, respectively. On d 8, 9, and 10, samples of 500 ml of solid and liquid digesta effluent were mixed, homogenized, and stored at -20°C. Subsamples of 10 ml were collected and preserved with 0.2 mL of a 50% H2SO4 solution for later determination of NH3-N and volatile fatty acids. Microbial biomass was isolated from fermenters for chemical analysis at the end of each experimental period. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure in SAS with α = 0.05. Glycerin levels did not affect apparent digestibility of DM (PLin. = 0.13; PQuad. = 0.40), OM (PLin. = 0.72; PQuad. = 0.15), NDF (PLin. = 0.38; PQuad. = 0.50) and ADF (PLin. = 0.91; PQuad. = 0.18). Also, glycerin inclusion did not affect true digestibility of DM (PLin. = 0.35; PQuad. = 0.48), and OM (PLin. = 0.08; PQuad. = 0.19). Concentrations of propionate (P < 0.01) and total volatile fatty acids (P < 0.01) increased linearly and concentrations of acetate (P < 0.01), butyrate (P = 0.01), iso-valerate (P < 0.01), and total branched-chain volatile fatty acids, as well as the acetate: propionate ratio (P < 0.01) decreased with glycerin inclusion. Linear increases on NH3-N concentration in digesta effluent (P < 0.01) and on NH3-N flow (P < 0.01) were observed due to glycerin inclusion in the diets. Crude protein digestibility (P = 0.04) and microbial N flow (P

  7. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; Kholif, S M; Kholif, A E; Matloup, O H; Salem, A Z M; Elella, A Abu

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5) fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control) in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS) or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO) in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA), and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017) ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001) and acetate (p = 0.034) concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013) in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007) and milk fat content (p = 0.002). Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048) and feed efficiency (p = 0.046) compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05) milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021) C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3), without detrimental effects on animal performance. PMID:26104519

  8. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil supplementation on feed intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen utilization of goats.

    PubMed

    Chanjula, Pin; Pongprayoon, Sahutaya; Kongpan, Sirichai; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2016-06-01

    This experiment was evaluation of the effects of increasing concentrations of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) in diets on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen balance of goats. Four crossbred male (Thai Native × Anglo Nubian) goats, with an average initial body weight (BW) of 31.5 ± 1.90 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments contained 0, 2, 4, and 6 % of dietary dry matter (DM) of CGWVO. Based on this experiment, there were significantly different (P > 0.05) among treatment groups regarding DM intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF), which goats receiving 6 % of CGWVO had lower daily DMI and nutrient intake than those fed on 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration were unchanged by dietary treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO supplementation, NH3-N, and BUN were lower (P < 0.05) than for the diets 0 % of CGWVO, while the differences between the diets 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO were not significant. The amounts of N absorption and retention were similar among treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO which N absorption was lower (P < 0.05) than among treatments while the difference between the diets 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO were not significant. Based on this study, CGWVO levels up to 4 % in total mixed ration could be efficiently utilized for goats. This study was a good approach in exploiting the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production. PMID:27026232

  9. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats

    PubMed Central

    Morsy, T. A.; Kholif, S. M.; Kholif, A. E.; Matloup, O. H.; Salem, A. Z. M.; Elella, A. Abu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5) fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control) in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS) or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO) in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA), and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017) ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001) and acetate (p = 0.034) concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013) in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007) and milk fat content (p = 0.002). Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048) and feed efficiency (p = 0.046) compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05) milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021) C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3), without detrimental effects on animal performance. PMID:26104519

  10. Effect of 3-nitrooxypropanol on methane and hydrogen emissions, methane isotopic signature, and ruminal fermentation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lopes, J C; de Matos, L F; Harper, M T; Giallongo, F; Oh, J; Gruen, D; Ono, S; Kindermann, M; Duval, S; Hristov, A N

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this crossover experiment was to investigate the effect of a methane inhibitor, 3-nitrooxypropanol (3NOP), on enteric methane emission, methane isotopic composition, and rumen fermentation and microbial profile in lactating dairy cows. The experiment involved 6 ruminally cannulated late-lactation Holstein cows assigned to 2 treatments: control and 3NOP (60 mg/kg of feed dry matter). Compared with the control, 3NOP decreased methane emission by 31% and increased hydrogen emission from undetectable to 1.33 g/d. Methane emissions per kilogram of dry matter intake and milk yield were also decreased 34% by 3NOP. Milk production and composition were not affected by 3NOP, except milk fat concentration was increased compared with the control. Concentrations of total VFA and propionate in ruminal fluid were not affected by treatment, but acetate concentration tended to be lower and acetate-to-propionate ratio was lower for 3NOP compared with the control. The 3NOP decreased the molar proportion of acetate and increase those of propionate, butyrate, valerate, and isovalerate. Deuterium-to-hydrogen ratios of methane and the abundance of (13)CH3D were similar between treatments. Compared with the control, minor (4‰) depletion in the (13)C/(12)C ratio was observed for 3NOP. Genus composition of methanogenic archaea (Methanobrevibacter, Methanosphaera, and Methanomicrobium) was not affected by 3NOP, but the proportion of methanogens in the total cell counts tended to be decreased by 3NOP. Prevotella spp., the predominant bacterial genus in ruminal contents in this experiment, was also not affected by 3NOP. Compared with the control, Ruminococcus and Clostridium spp. were decreased and Butyrivibrio spp. was increased by 3NOP. This experiment demonstrated that a substantial inhibition of enteric methane emission by 3NOP in dairy cows was accompanied with increased hydrogen emission and decreased acetate-to-propionate ratio; however, neither an effect on rumen

  11. Comparison of methods for glycogen analysis of in vitro fermentation pellets produced with strained ruminal inoculum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial glycogen measurement is used to account for fates of carbohydrate substrates. It is commonly applied to washed cells or pure cultures which can be accurately subsampled, and it uses smaller sample sizes. However, the nonhomogenous fermentation pellets produced with strained rumen inoculum ...

  12. Effect of Lipid Sources with Different Fatty Acid Profiles on Intake, Nutrient Digestion and Ruminal Fermentation of Feedlot Nellore Steers

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentini, Giovani; Carvalho, Isabela P. C.; Messana, Juliana D.; Canesin, Roberta C.; Castagnino, Pablo S.; Lage, Josiane F.; Arcuri, Pedro B.; Berchielli, Telma T.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of lipid sources with different fatty acid profiles on nutrient digestion and ruminal fermentation. Ten rumen and duodenal fistulated Nellore steers (268 body weight±27 kg) were distributed in a duplicated 5×5 Latin square. Dietary treatments were as follows: without fat (WF), palm oil (PO), linseed oil (LO), protected fat (PF; Lactoplus), and whole soybeans (WS). The roughage feed was corn silage (600 g/kg on a dry matter [DM] basis) plus concentrate (400 g/kg on a DM basis). The higher intake of DM and organic matter (OM) (p<0.001) was found in animals on the diet with PF and WF (around 4.38 and 4.20 kg/d, respectively). Treatments with PO and LO decreased by around 10% the total digestibility of DM and OM (p<0.05). The addition of LO decreased by around 22.3% the neutral detergent fiber digestibility (p = 0.047) compared with other diets. The higher microbial protein synthesis was found in animals on the diet with LO and WS (33 g N/kg OM apparently digested in the rumen; p = 0.040). The highest C18:0 and linolenic acid intakes occurred in animals fed LO (p<0.001), and the highest intake of oleic (p = 0.002) and C16 acids (p = 0.022) occurred with the diets with LO and PF. Diet with PF decreased biohydrogenation extent (p = 0.05) of C18:1 n9,c, C18:2 n6,c, and total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; around 20%, 7%, and 13%, respectively). The diet with PF and WF increased the concentration of NH3-N (p<0.001); however, the diet did not change volatile fatty acids (p>0.05), such as the molar percentage of acetate, propionate, butyrate and the acetate:propionate ratio. Treatments PO, LO and with WS decreased by around 50% the concentration of protozoa (p<0.001). Diets with some type of protection (PF and WS) decreased the effects of lipid on ruminal fermentation and presented similar outflow of benefit UFA as LO. PMID:26580282

  13. Effect of sward dry matter digestibility on methane production, ruminal fermentation, and microbial populations of zero-grazed beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Hart, K J; Martin, P G; Foley, P A; Kenny, D A; Boland, T M

    2009-10-01

    Increasing the digestibility of pasture for grazing ruminants has been proposed as a low-cost practical means of reducing ruminant CH(4) emissions. At high feed intake levels, the proportion of energy lost as CH(4) decreases as the digestibility of the diet increases. Therefore, improving forage digestibility may improve productivity as DM and energy intake are increased. A zero-grazing experiment was conducted to determine the effect of sward DM digestibility (DMD) on DMI, CH(4) emissions, and indices of rumen fermentation of beef animals. Twelve Charolais-cross heifers were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments, with 6 heifers per dietary treatment. Additionally, 4 cannulated Aberdeen Angus-cross steers were randomly allocated to each of these 2 treatments in a crossover design. Dietary treatments consisted of swards managed to produce (i) high digestibility pasture (high DMD) or (ii) pasture with less digestibility (low DMD), both offered for ad libitum intake. All animals were zero-grazed and offered freshly cut herbage twice daily. In vitro DMD values for the high and low DMD swards were 816 and 706 g/kg of DM. Heifers offered the high DMD grass had greater (P < 0.001) daily DMI of 7.66 kg compared with 5.38 kg for those offered the low DMD grass. Heifers offered the high DMD grass had greater (P = 0.003) daily CH(4) production (193 g of CH(4)/d) than those offered the low DMD grass (138 g of CH(4)/d). However, when corrected for DMI, digestible DMI, or ingested gross energy, there was no difference (P > 0.05) in CH(4) production between dietary treatments. For cannulated steers, intake tended (P = 0.06) to be greater for the high DMD grass (5.56 vs. 4.27 kg of DM/d), but rumen protozoa (4.95 x 10(4)/mL; P = 0.62); rumen ammonia (34 mg of N/L; P = 0.24); rumen total VFA (103 mM; P = 0.58), and rumen pH (6.8; P = 0.43) did not differ between treatments. There was no difference in total bacteria numbers, relative expression of the mcrA gene, and numbers of cycles to

  14. Fermentable dietary fibers elevate urinary methylmalonate and decrease propionate oxidation in rats deprived of vitamin B-12.

    PubMed

    Cullen, R W; Oace, S M

    1989-08-01

    This study examines the effect of dietary fiber supplements of different degrees of bacterial fermentability on biochemical indicators of vitamin B-12 deficiency in rats. Groups of rats were fed a fiber-free diet deficient in vitamin B-12 or the fiber-free diet diluted with 5% of a poorly fermentable dietary fiber (cellulose, lignin or alginic acid) or a highly fermentable fiber (pectin, guar gum or xylan). Poorly fermentable fibers had no significant effect on apparent B-12 status, whereas the highly fermentable fibers significantly increased urinary methylmalonic acid and depressed oxidation of [14C]propionate to 14CO2. Pectin consistently induced significantly greater effects than did xylan or guar gum. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that fermentable fibers stimulate bacterial propionate production and exaggerate certain biochemical indicators of B-12 deficiency. Since pectin had a more pronounced effect than did other fermentable fibers, the possibility that pectin may also interfere with B-12 absorption requires further study. PMID:2550598

  15. Influence of Yeast Fermented Cassava Chip Protein (YEFECAP) and Roughage to Concentrate Ratio on Ruminal Fermentation and Microorganisms Using In vitro Gas Production Technique

    PubMed Central

    Polyorach, S.; Wanapat, M.; Cherdthong, A.

    2014-01-01

    . succinogenes, R. flavefaciens, R. albus, methanogens and protozoal population were decreased (p<0.01) with decreasing R:C ratio. In conclusion, YEFECAP has a potential for use as a protein source for improving rumen fermentation efficiency in ruminants. PMID:25049924

  16. Influence of Yeast Fermented Cassava Chip Protein (YEFECAP) and Roughage to Concentrate Ratio on Ruminal Fermentation and Microorganisms Using In vitro Gas Production Technique.

    PubMed

    Polyorach, S; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A

    2014-01-01

    . succinogenes, R. flavefaciens, R. albus, methanogens and protozoal population were decreased (p<0.01) with decreasing R:C ratio. In conclusion, YEFECAP has a potential for use as a protein source for improving rumen fermentation efficiency in ruminants. PMID:25049924

  17. Evaluation of feeding glycerol on free-fatty acid production and fermentation kinetics of mixed ruminal microbes in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strategies to enrich ruminant-derived foods with unsaturated fatty acids are desired as these are considered beneficial for good human health. Ruminant-derived foods contain high proportions of saturated fats, a result of ruminal biohydrogenation, which rapidly saturates and thus limits the availab...

  18. Ardacin for steers grazing endophyte-free fescue pasture: effects on live weight gain, forage intake, nitrogen and fiber digestion, ruminal fluid kinetics, ruminal fermentation, and serum hormones and metabolites.

    PubMed

    Judkins, M B; Holcombe, D W; Hess, B W; Krysl, L J; Branine, M A; Hess, J D

    1997-04-01

    Growth and digestion studies were conducted to evaluate the use of ardacin as a feedgrade antibiotic for enhancing digestive function and growth in grazing steers. In Exp. 1, 90 yearling steers (average initial BW of 248 kg) used in a randomized complete block design (block = weight group) grazed fescue pasture without supplementation (CON) or with daily supplements (DM basis) of .4% of BW supplemental ground corn (CRN) or .4% of BW supplemental corn supplying 120 mg of ardacin (ARD). In Exp. 2, 12 ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers and three ruminally cannulated steers (Hereford x Angus; average BW of 347 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of the same supplements used in Exp. 1 on ruminal fermentation and digestion. In Exp. 1, ARD-supplemented steers weighed more (P < .01) at the conclusion of the study than CRN steers, which together weighed more (P < .01) than CON steers. Average daily gain was greater (P < .10) in supplemented than in CON steers; ARD steers had greater (P < .01) ADG than CRN steers. In Exp. 2, forage intake and harvesting efficiency did not vary (P > .10) with supplementation or type of supplement, but total intake reflected (P = .03) the addition of corn to the forage diet. Addition of ardacin increased (P = .02) ruminal pH compared with CRN steers. Ardacin decreased ruminal molar proportions of acetate and increased (P = .01) propionate proportions when compared with CRN steers. Total tract N digestibility was affected (P < .10) by supplementation and by addition of ardacin to the diet. Addition of ardacin to the ground corn supplement increased ADG, in part by enhancing acetate:propionate ratios and increasing N digestion. PMID:9110226

  19. Effect of slow-release urea inclusion in diets containing modified corn distillers grains on total tract digestibility and ruminal fermentation in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Ceconi, I; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; DiLorenzo, N; DiCostanzo, A; Crawford, G I

    2015-08-01

    Ruminal degradable intake protein (DIP) deficit may result when cattle are fed diets containing a greater inclusion of processed corn grain and small to moderate inclusion of corn distillers grains (DG). This deficit may arise from greater proportions of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and RUP in corn grain. Urea-derived N is 100% DIP; however, rates of degradation of carbohydrates and conventional urea (CU) may not match. Therefore, beneficial effects may result from the use of slow-release urea (SRU) sources over CU when added to DIP-deficient diets. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing DIP concentration through inclusion of 1 of 2 SRU sources or CU in DG-containing feedlot diets on ruminal fermentation and total tract digestibility. In addition, an in situ experiment was conducted to characterize N disappearance of urea sources from polyester bags. Four ruminally cannulated steers (initial BW = 588 ± 8 kg) were arranged in a 4 × 4 Latin square design and assigned randomly to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 0% (CON) or 0.6% urea in the form of CU (UREA) or SRU as Optigen II (polymer-encapsulated urea; OPTI) or NitroShure (lipid-encapsulated urea; NITRO), and 30% corn earlage, 20% modified corn DG with solubles, 7.8% corn silage, 4.3% dry supplement, and dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Dietary DIP was estimated at 6.6% and 8.3% for CON and urea-containing dietary treatments, respectively. Steers were fed ad libitum once daily. Differences in purine derivatives-to-creatinine (PDC) index between treatments were used as indicators of differences in microbial CP synthesis. Intake of OM, digestibility of OM, NDF, CP, and starch, ruminal pH, total VFA ruminal concentration, and PDC index were not affected by treatment ( ≥ 0.21). Concentration of ammonia-N noticeably peaked at 4 h after feed delivery for cattle fed UREA (treatment × time, = 0.06) and measured at least 5.5 mg/dL for any treatment and at any hour after feed delivery

  20. Effects of feeding corn silage inoculated with microbial additives on the ruminal fermentation, microbial protein yield, and growth performance of lambs.

    PubMed

    Basso, F C; Adesogan, A T; Lara, E C; Rabelo, C H S; Berchielli, T T; Teixeira, I A M A; Siqueira, G R; Reis, R A

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of feeding corn silage inoculated without or with either Lactobacillus buchneri (LB) alone or a combination of LB and Lactobacillus plantarum (LBLP) on the apparent digestibility, ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, and growth performance of lambs. Thirty Santa Inês×Dorper crossbred intact males lambs weighing 20.4±3.8 kg were blocked by weight into 10 groups. Lambs in each group were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 3 dietary treatments: untreated (Control), LB, and LBLP silage. Lambs were fed experimental diets for 61 d. The apparent digestibility was indirectly estimated from indigestible NDF measured on d 57 to 59. Spot urine samples were collected from all animals on d 59 to estimate microbial protein synthesis. Lambs were slaughtered for carcass evaluation on d 61 when they weighed 32.4±5.2 kg. Six additional ruminally cannulated Santa Inês×Dorper crossbred wethers weighing 40.5±1.8 kg were used to examine dietary effects on ruminal fermentation. Average daily gain was increased when lambs were fed LBLP silage (P<0.05) but not LB silage. The LBLP silage had the highest (P<0.05) lactic acid concentration and both inoculated silages had greater acetic acid concentrations than the Control silage (P<0.05). Inoculation of corn silage increased intakes of DM, OM, CP, NDF, total carbohydrate (CHO), and GE by the lambs but decreased digestibility of DM, OM, CP, total and nonstructural carbohydrates, and concentration of GE and ME. (P<0.05). Nevertheless, lambs fed inoculated silages had greater microbial N supply than those on the Control treatment (P<0.05). The acetate to propionate ratio was lower in ruminal fluid of wethers in LBLP treatment than LB and Control treatment (P<0.05) and ruminal pH tended to be greater in LB lambs than in LBLP and Control wethers (P<0.10). Finally, the inoculation with both bacteria combined enhanced the silage fermentation. The intakes of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and GE

  1. Effects of a combination of hinokitiol (β-thujaplicin) and an organic acid mixture on ruminal fermentation in heifers fed a high-grain diet.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Junichiro; Omura, Hiroshi; Mitsui, Tadao; Eguchi, Norichika; Ueno, Takashi; Goto, Hisaya; Ito, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of hinokitiol (a natural antibacterial compound extracted from Thujopsis dolabrata var. hondai) and an organic acid mixture (citrate content 50%) on ruminal fermentation. Antibacterial properties were examined by measuring minimal inhibitory concentration. Hinokitiol at 1.56µg/mL or an organic acid mixture at 1600µg/mL inhibited Streptococcus bovis growth. The combination of 0.78µg/mL hinokitiol and 200µg/mL of an organic acid mixture also inhibited S. bovis growth. Both hinokitiol and the hinokitiol and an organic acid mixture combination showed strong antibacterial properties on Gram-positive bacteria such as S. bovis, but relatively weak antibacterial activities on Gram-negative bacteria such as Megasphaera elsdenii. Three ruminally cannulated heifers were fed a bloat-producing diet containing barley, pelleted alfalfa meal, soybean meal and salt without long-cut roughage to investigate the ruminal characteristics in vivo. Feeding to heifers a bloat-producing diet containing 7.8mg/kg hinokitiol and 0.2% of an organic acid mixture significantly decreased the increase in stable ingesta volume. Hinokitiol or an organic acid mixture did not affect ruminal volatile fatty acids, protozoa and bacteria. These results suggest that a combination of hinokitiol and an organic acid mixture might reduce frothy bloat in cattle fed high-grain diets. PMID:22250737

  2. Influence of CO sub 2 and low concentrations of O sub 2 on fermentative metabolism of the ruminal ciliate Polyplastron multivesiculatum

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, J.E.; Lloyd, D. ); McIntyre, P.S.; Saleh, M. ); Williams, A. )

    1991-05-01

    The effects of ruminal concentrations of CO{sub 2} and oxygen on the end products of endogenous metabolism and fermentation of D-glucose by the ruminal entodiniomorphid ciliate Polyplastron multivesiculatum were investigated. The principal metabolic products were butyric, acetic, and lactic acids, H{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2}. {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy identified glycerol as a previously unknown major product of D-(1-{sup 13}C) glucose fermentation by this protozoan. Metabolite formation rates were clearly influenced by the headspace gas composition. In the presence of 1 to 3 {mu}M O{sub 2}, acetate, H{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} formation was partially depressed. A gas headspace with a high CO{sub 2} content (66 kPa) was found to suppress hydrogenosomal pathways and to favor butyrate accumulation. Cytochromes were not detected ({lt}2 pmol/mg of protein) in P. multivesiculatum; protozoal suspensions, however, consumed O{sub 2} for up to 3 h at 1 kPa of O{sub 2}. Under gas phases of {gt}2.6 kPa of O{sub 2}, the organisms rapidly became vacuolate and the cilia became inactive. The results suggest that fermentative pathways in P. multivesiculatum are influenced by the O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} concentrations that prevail in situ in the rumen.

  3. Effects of forage particle size, forage source, and grain fermentability on performance and ruminal pH in midlactation cows.

    PubMed

    Krause, K M; Combs, D K

    2003-04-01

    Our study investigated the effects of, and interactions between, forage particle size, level of dietary ruminally fermentable carbohydrate (RFC), and level of dietary starch on performance, chewing activity, and ruminal pH for dairy cows fed one level of dietary NDF. Twelve cows (48 DIM) were assigned to six treatments in a replicated 6 x 6 Latin square. Treatments were arranged in an incomplete 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design. Factors were: dry cracked shelled corn (DC, low RFC) or ground high-moisture corn (HMC; high RFC), finely chopped or coarse silage, and alfalfa silage as the only forage or a 50:50 ratio (DM basis) of alfalfa and corn silage. Diets combining HMC with only alfalfa silage were not included in the experiment. Diets were fed for ad libitum intake as a TMR with a concentrate:forage ratio of 61:39. Diets based on only alfalfa silage and diets based on a mix of alfalfa and corn silage averaged 18.6 and 15.8% CP, 25.8 and 24.7% NDF, 17.7 and 14.8% ADF, and 29.1 and 37.3% starch, respectively. Mean particle sizes were 5.3, 2.7, 5.6, and 2.8 mm for coarse alfalfa, fine alfalfa, coarse corn silage, and fine corn silage, respectively. Decreasing forage particle size decreased DMI (23.3 vs. 21.6 kg) and organic matter intake (22.0 vs. 20.2 kg). Increasing RFC decreased DMI (22.8 vs. 21.0 kg) and organic matter intake (21.5 vs. 20.0 kg). Decreasing forage particle size increased energy-corrected milk for alfalfa based diets (34.9 vs. 37.4 kg). Percentage of milk fat decreased with decreasing forage particle size (3.07 vs. 2.90%) and increased level of RFC (3.04 vs. 2.57%). Percentage of protein increased when corn silage partially replaced alfalfa silage (2.84 vs. 2.90%) but decreased when HMC replaced DC (2.90 vs. 2.84%). Apparent total tract digestibility of DM (66.7 vs. 68.5%), OM (65.9 vs. 70.7%), and starch (88.9 vs. 93.4%) increased when level of RFC was increased. Increasing level of RFC decreased mean ruminal pH from 5.82 to 5.67 and decreased minimum

  4. The effects of active dried and killed dried yeast on subacute ruminal acidosis, ruminal fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Vyas, D; Uwizeye, A; Mohammed, R; Yang, W Z; Walker, N D; Beauchemin, K A

    2014-02-01

    The study addressed the importance of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) viability for reducing the incidence of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and improving total tract nutrient digestibility in beef heifers. Six ruminally cannulated beef heifers (680 ± 50 kg BW) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design and were fed a diet consisting of 40% barley silage, 10% chopped grass hay, and 50% barley grain-based concentrate (DM basis). Treatments were 1) no yeast (Control), 2) active dried yeast (ADY; 4 g providing 10(10) cfu/g; AB Vista, Marlborough, UK), and 3) killed dried yeast (KDY; 4 g autoclaved ADY). The treatments were directly dosed via the ruminal cannula daily at the time of feeding. The periods consisted of 2 wk of adaptation (d 1 to 14) and 7 d of measurements (d 15 to 21). Ruminal pH was continuously measured (d 15 to 21) using an indwelling system. Ruminal contents were sampled on d 15 and 17 at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h after feeding. Total tract nutrient digestibility was measured using an external marker (YbCl3) from d 15 to 19. No treatment difference was observed for DMI (P = 0.86). Yeast supplementation (ADY and KDY) tended to increase total tract digestibility of starch (P = 0.07) whereas no effects were observed on digestibility of other nutrients. Both ADY and KDY elevated minimum (P < 0.01) and mean ruminal pH (P = 0.02) whereas no effects were observed on maximum pH (P = 0.12). Irrespective of its viability, yeast supplementation was effective in reducing time that ruminal pH was below 5.8 (P < 0.01) and 5.6 (P < 0.01). No treatment differences were observed for the ruminal VFA profile and lactate concentration. No treatment differences were observed on the relative population size of Streptococcus bovis, Fibrobacter succinogenes, and Megasphaera elsdenii (P > 0.10); however, the proportion of Ruminococcus flavefaciens in solid fraction of digesta was greater with KDY (P = 0.05). The study demonstrates the positive effects of yeast

  5. Effects of chestnut tannins and coconut oil on growth performance, methane emission, ruminal fermentation, and microbial populations in sheep.

    PubMed

    Liu, H; Vaddella, V; Zhou, D

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of chestnut tannins (CT) and coconut oil (CO) on growth performance, methane (CH₄) emission, ruminal fermentation, and microbial populations in sheep. A total of 48 Rideau Arcott sheep (average body weight 31.5±1.97 kg, 16 wk old) were randomly assigned into 6 treatment groups in a 3 × 2 factorial design, with CT and CO as the main effects (8 sheep per group). The treatments were control diet (CTR), 10 or 30 g of CT/kg of diet (CT10 and CT30), 25 g of CO/kg of concentrate (CO25), and 10 or 30 g of CT/kg of diet+25 g of CO/kg of concentrate (CT10CO25 and CT30CO25). After the feeding trial (60 d), all sheep were moved to respiratory chambers to measure CH₄ emission. After CH₄ emission measurements, all sheep were slaughtered to obtain rumen fluid samples. Results showed that the addition of CT, CO, and CT+CO had no significant effects on growth performance of sheep but reduced CH₄ emission. Addition of CT reduced the NH₃-N concentration in rumen fluid in CT30. Addition of CO decreased the concentration of total volatile fatty acids in rumen fluid. No significant differences were observed in pH and molar proportion of volatile fatty acids among treatments. Addition of CT, CO, and CT+CO significantly decreased methanogen and protozoa populations. Moreover, CO decreased counts of Fibrobacter succinogenes. No significant differences were observed in populations of fungi, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, or Ruminococcus albus among treatments. In conclusion, supplementation of CT and CO seemed to be a feasible means of decreasing emissions of CH₄ from sheep by reduction of methanogen and protozoa populations with no negative effect on growth performance. PMID:22118094

  6. Effects of feeding lauric acid on ruminal protozoa numbers, fermentation, and digestion and on milk production in dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the level of lauric acid (LA) addition to the diet necessary to effectively suppress ruminal protozoa (RP) to the extent observed when a single dose was given directly into the rumen; (2) to assess its effects on production and ruminal metabolism; ...

  7. Influence of cobalt concentration on vitamin B12 production and fermentation of mixed ruminal microorganisms grown in continuous culture flow-through fermentors.

    PubMed

    Tiffany, M E; Fellner, V; Spears, J W

    2006-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary concentrations of Co on vitamin B12 production and fermentation of mixed ruminal microbes grown in continuous culture fermentors. Four fermentors were fed 14 g of DM/d. The DM consisted of a corn and cottonseed hull-based diet with Co supplemented as CoCO3. Dietary treatments were 1) control (containing 0.05 mg of Co/kg of DM), 2) 0.05 mg of supplemental Co/kg of DM, 3) 0.10 mg of supplemental Co/kg of DM, and 4) 1.0 mg of supplemental Co/kg of DM. After a 3-d adjustment period, fermentors were sampled over a 3-d sampling period. This process was repeated 2 additional times for a total of 3 runs. Ruminal fluid vitamin B12 concentrations were affected by Co supplementation (P < 0.01), and there was a treatment x day interaction (P < 0.01). By sampling d 3, cultures fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.10 mg of Co/kg had greater (P < 0.05) vitamin B12 concentrations than those supplemented with 0.05 mg of Co/kg of DM, and increasing supplemental Co from 0.10 to 1.0 mg/kg of DM increased (P < 0.01) ruminal fluid vitamin B12 concentration. Ruminal fluid succinate also was affected (P < 0.10) by a treatment x day interaction. Cobalt supplementation to the control diet greatly decreased (P < 0.05) succinate in ruminal cultures on sampling d 3 but not on d 1 or 2. Molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and isobutyrate, and acetate:propionate were not affected by the addition of supplemental Co to the basal diet. However, molar proportions of butyrate, valerate, and isovalerate increased (P < 0.05) in response to supplemental Co. The majority of long-chain fatty acids observed in this study were not affected by Co supplementation. However, percentages of C18:0 fatty acids in ruminal cultures tended (P < 0.10) to be greater for Co-supplemented diets relative to the control. Methane, ammonia, and pH were not greatly affected by Co supplementation. The results indicate that a total (diet plus supplemental

  8. Effects of feeding polyphenol-rich winery wastes on digestibility, nitrogen utilization, ruminal fermentation, antioxidant status and oxidative stress in wethers.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Kyohei; Kishi, Yosuke; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hajime

    2015-03-01

    Four wethers were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate the availability of two types of winery wastes, winery sediment and grape pomace, as ruminant feeds possessing antioxidant activities. Each wether was assigned to one of the following four treatments: (i) 75 g/kg winery sediment (WS) on a dry matter (DM) basis; (ii) 166 g/kg DM winery grape pomace (WP); (iii) control diet (CD; 17 g/kg DM soybean meal);and (iv) only tall fescue hay (TFH; no additive). Winery sediment and grape pomace had high levels of polyphenols and of radical scavenging activities. Feeding with winery sediment and grape pomace did not negatively affect the intake, but it depressed crude protein (CP) digestibility compared with CD (P = 0.052 and P < 0.01 for WS and WP, respectively). Polyphenols in winery wastes decreased ruminal ammonia production (P = 0.089 and P < 0.05), likely due to their inhibitive effect on microbial activities in the rumen. The addition of winery sediment and grape pomace decreased urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG; an index of oxidative damages) excretion per day (P < 0.05 and P = 0.059). The results indicated that winery sediment and grape pomace could alter nitrogen metabolism and/or act as new antioxidants for ruminants. PMID:25377644

  9. Replacing corn silage with different forage millet silage cultivars: effects on milk yield, nutrient digestion, and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brunette, T; Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A F

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary replacement of corn silage (CS) with 2 cultivars of forage millet silages [i.e., regular millet (RM) and sweet millet (SM)] on milk production, apparent total-tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics of dairy cows. Fifteen lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment and fed (ad libitum) a high-forage total mixed ration (68:32 forage:concentrate ratio). Dietary treatments included CS (control), RM, and SM diets. Experimental silages constituted 37% of each diet DM. Three ruminally fistulated cows were used to determine the effect of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation and total-tract nutrient utilization. Relative to CS, RM and SM silages contained 36% more crude protein, 66% more neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 88% more acid detergent fiber. Cows fed CS consumed more dry matter (DM; 24.4 vs. 22.7 kg/d) and starch (5.7 vs. 3.7 kg/d), but less NDF (7.9 vs. 8.7 kg/d) than cows fed RM or SM. However, DM, starch and NDF intakes were not different between forage millet silage types. Feeding RM relative to CS reduced milk yield (32.7 vs. 35.2 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (35.8 vs. 38.0 kg/d) and SCM (32.7 vs. 35.3 kg/d). However, cows fed SM had similar milk, energy-corrected milk, and solids-corrected milk yields than cows fed CS or RM. Milk efficiency was not affected by dietary treatments. Milk protein concentration was greatest for cows fed CS, intermediate for cows fed SM, and lowest for cows fed RM. Milk concentration of solids-not-fat was lesser, whereas milk urea nitrogen was greater for cows fed RM than for those fed CS. However, millet silage type had no effect on milk solids-not-fat and milk urea nitrogen levels. Concentrations of milk fat, lactose and total solids were not affected by silage type. Ruminal pH and ruminal NH3-N were greater for cows fed RM and SM than for cows fed CS. Total-tract digestibility of DM (average=67.9%), NDF (average=53

  10. Effects of Propionibacterium strains on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility and methane emissions in beef cattle fed a corn grain finishing diet.

    PubMed

    Vyas, D; McGeough, E J; Mohammed, R; McGinn, S M; McAllister, T A; Beauchemin, K A

    2014-11-01

    Twenty ruminally cannulated beef heifers were fed a high corn grain diet in a randomized block design to determine the effect of three direct fed microbial (DFM) strains of Propionibacterium on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility and methane (CH4) emissions. The heifers were blocked in five groups on the basis of BW and used in five 28-day periods. Dietary treatments included (1) Control and three strains of Propionibacterium (2) P169, (3) P5, and (4) P54. Strains were administered directly into the rumen at 5×109 CFU with 10 g of a maltodextrin carrier in a gel capsule; Control heifers received carrier only. All heifers were fed the basal diet (10 : 90 forage to concentrate, dry matter basis). Rumen contents were collected on days 15 and 18, ruminal pH was measured continuously between days 15 and 22, enteric CH4 emissions were measured between days 19 and 22 and diet digestibility was measured from days 25 to 28. Mean ruminal pH was 5.91 and was not affected by treatments. Similarly, duration of time that pH<5.8 and 5.6 was not affected by treatment. Likewise, total and major volatile fatty acid profiles were similar among all treatments. No effects were observed on dry matter intake and total tract digestibility of nutrients. Total enteric CH4 production (g/day) was not affected by Propionibacterium strains and averaged 139 g/day. Similarly, mean CH4 yield (g CH4/kg of dry matter intake) was similar for all the treatments. The relative abundance of total Propionibacteria in the rumen increased with administration of DFM and were greater 3 h post-dosing relative to Control, but returned to baseline levels before feeding. Populations of Propionibacterium P169 were higher at 3 and 9 h as compared with the levels at 0 h. In conclusion, moderate persistency of the inoculated strains within the ruminal microbiome and pre-existing high propionate production due to elevated levels of starch fermentation might have reduced the efficacy of Propionibacterium

  11. Chemical Composition, In vitro Gas Production, Ruminal Fermentation and Degradation Patterns of Diets by Grazing Steers in Native Range of North Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Murillo, M.; Herrera, E.; Carrete, F. O.; Ruiz, O.; Serrato, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to quantify annual and seasonal differences in the chemical composition, in vitro gas production, in situ degradability and ruminal fermentation of grazing steers’ diets. Diet samples were collected with four esophageal cannulated steers (350±3 kg BW); and four ruminally cannulated heifers (342±1.5 kg BW) were used to study the dry matter degradation and fermentation in rumen. Data were analyzed with repeated measurements split plot design. The crude protein, in vitro dry matter digestibility and metabolizable energy were higher during the first year of trial and in the summer (p<0.01). The values of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc and copper were higher in summer (p<0.05). The gas produced by the soluble and insoluble fractions, as well as the constant rate of gas production were greater in summer and fall (p<0.01). The ammonia nitrogen (NH3N) and total volatile fatty acids concentrations in rumen, the soluble and degradable fractions, the constant rate of degradation and the effective degradability of DM and NDF were affected by year (p<0.05) and season (p<0.01). Our study provides new and useful knowledge for the formulation of protein, energetic and mineral supplements that grazing cattle need to improve their productive and reproductive performance. PMID:25049495

  12. Fermentation Characteristics, Tannin Contents and In vitro Ruminal Degradation of Green Tea and Black Tea By-products Ensiled at Different Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Makoto; Hirano, Yoshiaki; Kita, Kazumi; Jayanegara, Anuraga; Yokota, Hiro-omi

    2014-01-01

    Green and black tea by-products, obtained from ready-made tea industry, were ensiled at 10°C, 20°C, and 30°C. Green tea by-product silage (GTS) and black tea by-product silage (BTS) were opened at 5, 10, 45 days after ensiling. Fermentation characteristics and nutrient composition, including tannins, were monitored and the silages on day 45 were subjected to in vitro ruminal fermentation to assess anti-nutritive effects of tannins using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a tannin-binding agent. Results showed that the GTS and BTS silages were stable and fermented slightly when ensiled at 10°C. The GTS stored at 20°C and 30°C showed rapid pH decline and high acetic acid concentration. The BTS was fermented gradually with moderate change of pH and acid concentration. Acetic acid was the main acid product of fermentation in both GTS and BTS. The contents of total extractable phenolics and total extractable tannins in both silages were unaffected by storage temperatures, but condensed tannins in GTS were less when stored at high temperature. The GTS showed no PEG response on in vitro gas production, and revealed only a small increase by PEG on NH3-N concentration. Storage temperature of GTS did not affect the extent of PEG response to both gas production and NH3-N concentration. On the other hand, addition of PEG on BTS markedly increased both the gas production and NH3-N concentration at any ensiled temperature. It can be concluded that tannins in both GTS and BTS suppressed rumen fermentation, and tannins in GTS did more weakly than that in BTS. Ensiling temperature for both tea by-products did not affect the tannin’s activity in the rumen. PMID:25050034

  13. Effect of dietary physically effective fiber on ruminal fermentation and the fatty acid profile of milk in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Li, Zongjun; Li, Shengxiang; Ferguson, James D; Cao, Yangchun; Yao, Junhu; Sun, Feifei; Wang, Xiao; Yang, Ting

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to characterize the relationship among rumen fermentation variables, milk fatty acid profile, and dietary physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) content in a study that controlled for the potential confounding effects of dissimilar dry matter intake among treatments. Ten multiparous Xinong Saanen dairy goats were divided into 2 groups with 2 ruminally cannulated goats per group. Goats in each group were assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments (high and low peNDF) according to a 2×2 crossover design with 2 periods. The peNDF content of alfalfa hay (proportion of neutral detergent fiber retained on an 8.0-mm screen) was 42.1% for the high-peNDF and 14.5% for the low-peNDF group. To ensure similar dry matter intake, each morning the amount of alfalfa hay consumed on the prior day by the high-peNDF group was determined (amount offered minus morning refusals), and this was the amount of hay offered to the low-peNDF group that day. Each adaptation period consisted of 21d, followed by a 9-d sampling period. Dry matter intake and milk production and composition were similar between treatments. Milk energy efficiency increased with low dietary peNDF. Duration of pH below 5.60 was longer for goats fed the low-peNDF ration compared with the high-peNDF ration (4.08 vs. 0.41h/d); however, mean rumen pH (6.05 vs. 6.13) was not different between treatments. Reducing dietary peNDF increased rumen total volatile fatty acids (114.6 vs. 95.1mM) and decreased chewing time (404 vs. 673min/d), but did not affect the ratios of acetate, propionate, and butyrate. The relative abundance of Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens increased with reduced dietary peNDF, but Ruminococcus albus proportions were not influenced by treatment. Reducing dietary peNDF decreased the proportion of iso C14:0, iso C15:0, and trans-11 C18:1 in milk fat, whereas the iso C17:0 and trans-10 C18:1 increased. This study demonstrated that low

  14. Direct-fed microbials containing lactate-producing bacteria influence ruminal fermentation but not lactate utilization in steers fed a high-concentrate diet.

    PubMed

    Kenney, N M; Vanzant, E S; Harmon, D L; McLeod, K R

    2015-05-01

    Direct-fed microbials (DFM) have been shown to improve gain and growth efficiency and also modulate ruminal fermentation. In Exp. 1,72 beef steers were used to compare a lactate-producing bacterial (LAB) DFM consisting primarily of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Enterococcus faecium,and a lactate-producing and lactate-utilizing (LAB/LU) DFM consisting primarily of L. acidophilus and Propionibacterium both fed at 10(9) cfu/d. Steers were fed a corn-based finishing diet for 153 d and then slaughtered for collection of carcass characteristics. In Exp. 2, 12 ruminally cannulated steers were fed acorn-based finishing diet and treated with 10(9) cfu/d of LAB DFM. Rumen fluid was sampled on d 14 and 28 over a 12-h period. Steers were ruminally dosed with a 2-L solution of neutralized DL-lactate (0.56 M)and Cr-EDTA (13.22 M) 3 h postfeeding on d 15 and 29. Ruminal samples were collected at 10- and 20-minintervals for the first and second hour postdosing. No differences (P ≥ 0.14) between control (CON) and LAB for DMI, ADG, growth efficiency, or carcass characteristics were observed. Dry matter intake was greater (P = 0.04) for LAB/LU than LAB from d 0 to 28 but did not differ (P ≥ 0.29) thereafter. Average daily gain was greater (P = 0.04) and efficiency tended(P = 0.06) to be greater for LAB than LAB/LU over the entire 153 d. In Exp. 2, total VFA concentration and molar proportions of butyrate were unaffected(P ≥ 0.24). Molar proportions of acetate exhibited a DFM by hour interaction (P = 0.04); however, on average, molar proportion of acetate was 4.4% greater for DFM. Conversely, DFM did not affect the molar proportion of propionate (P = 0.39). On average,molar proportions of propionate tended to increase(P = 0.07), and acetate tended to decrease (P = 0.07)across days. Mean daily ruminal pH was similar for CON on d 14 and 28, whereas mean pH increased from d 14 to 28 for DFM (DFM × day; P = 0.08).Minimum pH remained unchanged for CON over time but increased from d

  15. Effects of extruding wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas or canola meal on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, nutrient digestion, and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Claassen, R M; Christensen, D A; Mutsvangwa, T

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to examine the effects of feeding coextruded and nonextruded supplements consisting of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas (WDDGS-peas) or canola meal (WDDGS-CM) on ruminal fermentation, omasal flow, and production performance in Holstein cows. Eight cows (4 ruminally cannulated) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 28-d periods and a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Dietary treatments were coextruded or nonextruded mixtures of WDDGS-peas and WDDGS-CM that were included in total mixed rations at 15.1% [dry matter (DM) basis]. Diet had no effect on DM intake. Milk yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk fat content was greater in cows fed nonextruded diets compared with those fed coextruded diets, but milk fat yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk yield tended to be greater and milk protein yield was greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Cows fed nonextruded diets had a greater milk urea-N concentration compared with those fed coextruded diets. Cows fed coextruded diets had greater ruminal digestion of DM and tended to have greater ruminal digestion of organic matter compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibilities of organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, and starch were greater, whereas that of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber tended to be greater in cows fed coextruded compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibility of ether extract was lower whereas that of starch was greater and that of crude protein tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Total N excretion and milk N efficiency were unaffected by diet. Ruminal NH3-N concentration tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-CM compared with those fed WDDGS-peas. Ruminal propionate concentration was greater whereas

  16. Effects of increasing levels of corn dried distillers grains with solubles and monensin on intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation in beef heifers fed high-barley grain diets.

    PubMed

    Xu, L; Jin, Y; He, M L; Li, C; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether increasing corn-based dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in high-barley grain diets reduces the merit of using higher levels of monensin by assessing intake, digestibility, and ruminal pH and fermentation in feedlot heifers. Five ruminally and duodenally cannulated Angus heifers (average BW of 599±36 kg) were used in a 5×5 Latin square with a 2×2+1 factorial arrangement. Treatments were control (CON, 10% barley silage, 90% barley-based concentrate, and 28 mg monensin/kg DM) and diets substituting 20% (LDG) or 40% (HDG) DDGS for barley grain with 28 mg (ML) or 48 mg (MH) monensin/kg diet DM: 1) CONML, 2) LDGML, 3) HDGML, 4) LDGMH, and 5) HDGMH. Contrasts compared LDG vs. HDG, ML vs. MH, interactions between DDGS and monensin, and the effect of increasing DDGS in the diet. Increasing DDGS quadratically (P<0.01) increased DMI. There was no interaction for DMI between the dietary inclusion rate of DDGS and the dose of monensin; however, DMI was reduced (P<0.05) for heifers fed MH vs. ML. Ruminal digestibility of OM, NDF, and starch linearly decreased (P<0.01), but intestinal digestibility linearly increased (P<0.01) with increasing DDGS, resulting in no differences in total tract digestibility. Ruminal digestibility of OM was greater (P<0.04) in heifers fed MH than ML; however, the total tract digestibility of OM was not affected. Intake of N, flows of total N, nonammonia N, and dietary N were linearly (P<0.02) increased, and the efficiency of ruminal microbial synthesis linearly (P<0.04) improved with increasing DDGS. Increasing DDGS inclusion linearly decreased (P<0.04) the acetate to propionate ratio. Inclusion of MH decreased (P<0.04) acetate and increased (P<0.05) NH3-N compared to ML, but high monensin did not affect mean ruminal pH, the duration of pH<5.8, 5.5, 5.2, or the area below the curve at pH 5.8, 5.5, and 5.2, indicating that there was no evidence that it modulated ruminal pH. These

  17. The effects of a garlic oil chemical compound, propyl-propane thiosulfonate, on ruminal fermentation and fatty acid outflow in a dual-flow continuous culture system.

    PubMed

    Foskolos, A; Siurana, A; Rodriquez-Prado, M; Ferret, A; Bravo, D; Calsamiglia, S

    2015-08-01

    The ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feeds in the European Union has stimulated research on potential alternatives. Recently, propyl-propane thiosulfonate (PTSO), a stable organosulfurate compound of garlic, was purified. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the potential effects of PTSO on rumen microbial fermentation and to define effective doses. Two experiments were conducted using dual-flow continuous culture fermenters in 2 replicated periods. Each experimental period consisted of 5 d for adaptation of the ruminal fluid and 3 d for sampling. Temperature (39°C), pH (6.4), and liquid (0.10 h(-1)) and solid (0.05 h(-1)) dilution rates were maintained constant. Samples were taken 2 h after feeding and from the 24-h effluent. Samples were analyzed for volatile fatty acids (VFA) and nitrogen fractions, and degradation of nutrients was calculated. In addition, 24-h effluents from experiment 2 were analyzed for their fatty acid (FA) profile. Treatments in experiment 1 included a negative control without additive, a positive control with monensin (12mg/L), and PTSO at 30 and 300mg/L. The addition of 30mg/L did not affect any of the measurements tested. The addition of 300mg/L reduced microbial fermentation, as suggested by the decreased total VFA concentration, true degradation of organic matter and acid detergent fiber, and a tendency to decrease neutral detergent fiber degradation. Experiment 2 was conducted to test increasing doses of PTSO (0, 50, 100, and 150mg/L) on rumen microbial fermentation. At 2 h postfeeding, total VFA and molar proportion of propionate responded quadratically, with higher values in the intermediate doses. Molar proportions of butyrate increased and branched-chain VFA decreased linearly as the dose of PTSO increased. In the 24-h effluents, total VFA, acetate, and branched-chain VFA concentrations decreased linearly and those of propionate responded cubically with the highest value at 100mg

  18. Effects of Supplementing Brown Seaweed By-products in the Diet of Holstein Cows during Transition on Ruminal Fermentation, Growth Performance and Endocrine Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Z. S.; Kim, E. J.; Jin, Y. C.; Lee, J. S.; Choi, Y. J.; Lee, H. G.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of supplementing brown seaweed by-products (BSB) in the diet of ruminants on ruminal fermentation characteristics, growth performance, endocrine response, and milk production in Holstein cows. In Experiment 1, the effects of different levels (0%, 2%, and 4% of basal diet as Control, 2% BSB, 4% BSB, respectively) of BSB were evaluated at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h in vitro batch culture rumen fermentation. The pH tended to be higher for the higher level of BSB supplementation, with the pH at 12 h being significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the control. The concentration of ammonia nitrogen was lower at 3, 9, 12, and 24 h incubation (p<0.05) compared with the control, and tended to be low at other incubation times. Volatile fatty acid concentration appeared to be minimally changed while lower values were observed with 4% BSB treatment at 24 h (p<0.05). In Experiment 2, effects of levels (0%, 2%, and 4%) of BSB on growth performance, endocrine responses and milk production were studied with Holstein dairy cows during transition. Dry matter intake, daily gain and feed efficiency were not affected by BSB supplementation. The concentration of plasma estrogen for the control, 2% BSB and 4% BSB after three months of pregnancy were 55.7, 94.1, and 72.3 pg/mL, respectively (p = 0.08). Although the differences of progesterone levels between BSB treatments and the control were minimal, the concentration in 4% BSB treatment increased to 157.7% compared with the initial level of the study. Triiodothyronine and thyroxine levels were also higher after both three months and eight months of pregnancy than the initial level at the beginning of the study. In addition, BSB treatments during one month after delivery did not affect daily milk yield and composition. In conclusion, the present results indicate that supplementation of BSB did not compromise ruminal fermentation, and animal performance at lower levels and hence may have

  19. Effect of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles and fibrolytic enzymes on ruminal fermentation, digestibility, growth performance, and feeding behavior of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    He, Z X; Walker, N D; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and fibrolytic enzymes (FE) on ruminal fermentation, in situ ruminal and in vivo total tract digestibility, growth performance, and feeding behavior of growing beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 6 ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (average BW of 794 ± 44.2 kg) were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design with 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were a control diet consisting of 50% barley silage, 10% grass hay, and 40% barley grain-based concentrate (CON) and the CON with 15% DDGS substituted for barley grain (WDG) combined with either 0, 1, or 2 mL FE/kg diet DM, respectively. Inclusion of DDGS increased total tract digestibility of CP ( < 0.01), NDF ( = 0.04), and ADF ( = 0.03). Increasing FE linearly ( = 0.03) increased CP digestibility without affecting the digestibility of other nutrients. There were no effects of DDGS inclusion or FE on ruminal pH or VFA concentration except that propionate was greater ( = 0.04) with the WDG. In situ ruminal DM and NDF disappearance of barley silage was greater ( < 0.04) in heifers fed the WDG than in heifers fed the CON after 24 h of incubation. Increasing FE linearly ( = 0.03) increased in situ NDF disappearance of barley silage after 24 h of incubation. In Exp. 2, 120 weaned steers (initial BW of 289 ± 11.0 kg) were fed diets similar to those in Exp. 1. The steers fed the WDG had greater ( < 0.01) final BW, ADG, DMI, and G:F compared with steers fed the CON. Increasing FE did not alter ADG or G:F but tended ( < 0.07) to linearly decrease DMI. There were interactions ( < 0.02) between DDGS and FE on eating rate and the time spent at the feed bunk. Supplementing FE decreased ( < 0.01) time at the bunk and increased ( < 0.01) eating rate for steers fed the WDG but not for steers fed the CON. Eating rate ( < 0.01) and meal frequency ( = 0.02) were greater but eating duration was shorter ( < 0.01) for steers fed

  20. Effect of divergence in phenotypic residual feed intake on methane emissions, ruminal fermentation, and apparent whole-tract digestibility of beef heifers across three contrasting diets.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, R P; Hart, K J; Boland, T M; Kelly, A K; McGee, M; Kenny, D A

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of divergent phenotypic ranking for residual feed intake (RFI) on ruminal CH emissions, diet digestibility, and indices of ruminal fermentation in heifers across 3 commercially relevant diets. Twenty-eight Limousin × Friesian heifers were used and were ranked on the basis of phenotypic RFI: 14 low-RFI and 14 high-RFI animals. Ruminal CH emissions were estimated over 5 d using the SF tracer gas technique on 3 successive occasions: 1) at the end of a 6-wk period (Period 1) on grass silage (GS), 2) at the end of an 8-wk period (Period 2) at pasture, and 3) at the end of a 5-wk period (Period 3) on a 30:70 corn silage:concentrate total mixed ration (TMR). Animals were allowed ad libitum access to feed and water at all times. Individual DMI was estimated during CH measurement and rumen samples were taken at the end of each CH measurement period. Diet type affected all feed intake and CH traits measured ( < 0.01) but was unavoidably confounded with animal age/size and experimental period. Correlation coefficients between RFI and DMI were significant ( < 0.05) only when animals were fed the TMR. Daily CH correlated with DMI ( = 0.42, < 0.05) only when animals grazed pasture. Daily DMI was lower in low-RFI animals ( = 0.047) but only when expressed as grams per kilogram metabolic BW. Absolute CH emissions did not differ between RFI groups ( > 0.05), but CH yield was greatest in low-RFI heifers ( = 0.03) as a proportion of both DMI and GE intake. Interactions between the main effects were observed ( < 0.05) for CP digestibility (CPD), DM digestibility (DMD), ruminal propionate, and the acetate:propionate ratio. Low-RFI animals had greater ( < 0.05) CPD and DMD than their high-RFI contemporaries when offered GS but not the other 2 diets. Low-RFI heifers also had greater OM digestibility ( = 0.027). Additionally, low-RFI heifers had a lower concentration of propionate ( < 0.05) compared with high-RFI heifers when fed GS, resulting in a

  1. The effect of pasture pregrazing herbage mass on methane emissions, ruminal fermentation, and average daily gain of grazing beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Boland, T M; Quinlan, C; Pierce, K M; Lynch, M B; Kenny, D A; Kelly, A K; Purcell, P J

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of pregrazing pasture herbage mass (HM) on CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation, and ADG of grazing beef heifers at 2 stages of the grazing season. Thirty Limousin cross heifers were allocated to 1 of 2 target pregrazing HM treatments [a low HM (LHM) or high HM (HHM) treatment] for 126 d in a randomized block design experiment. Pasture herbage and heifer rumen fluid samples were collected, and enteric CH4 emissions were determined using an SF6 tracer technique during two 5-d measurement periods [MP; MP 1 (25 to 29 May) and MP 2 (6 to 10 September)]. Both DMI and GE intake (GEI) were measured during MP 2, and ADG of the heifers was measured every 14 d throughout the 126-d grazing period. Mean HM for the LHM and HHM treatments were 1,300 and 2,000 kg DM/ha, respectively, during MP 1 and 2,800 and 3,200 kg DM/ha, respectively, during MP 2. The CP concentration of the offered herbage was greater (P < 0.01) for the LHM treatment during MP 1 and tended (P < 0.1) to be greater for the LHM herbage during MP 2. No difference (P > 0.10) in the NDF concentration of the herbage was found between the HM treatments during MP 1 or 2. There was no effect (P > 0.10) of HM treatment on total CH4 emissions (g/d) for either MP [mean value across HM treatments of 121 (SED 5.4) g/d during MP 1 and 132 (8.8) g/d during MP 2], but CH4 emissions (g) per kilogram of ADG were reduced (P < 0.05) from heifers fed the LHM treatment during MP 1 and 2 [mean values for LHM and HHM of 135 and 163 (SED 9.5) g/kg, respectively, during MP 1 and corresponding values of 150 and 194 (9.9) g/kg during MP 2]. Heifers fed the LHM treatment had greater (P < 0.001) ADG throughout the grazing period [mean value across the 126-d grazing period of 0.88 (SEM 0.032) kg/d] than those fed the HHM treatment [corresponding value of 0.73 (0.034)]. For MP 2, CH4 emissions per kilogram of DMI (g CH4/kg DMI) and per megajoule of GEI (MJ CH4/MJ GEI) tended (P ≤ 0

  2. Correlation of Particular Bacterial PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Patterns with Bovine Ruminal Fermentation Parameters and Feed Efficiency Traits ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Guan, Le Luo; Goonewardene, Laksiri A.; Li, Meiju; Mujibi, Denis F.; Stothard, Paul; Moore, Stephen S.; Leon-Quintero, Monica C.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of rumen microbial structure and functions on host physiology remains poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the interaction between the ruminal microflora and the host by correlating bacterial diversity with fermentation measurements and feed efficiency traits, including dry matter intake, feed conversion ratio, average daily gain, and residual feed intake, using culture-independent methods. Universal bacterial partial 16S rRNA gene products were amplified from ruminal fluid collected from 58 steers raised under a low-energy diet and were subjected to PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to relate specific PCR-DGGE bands to various feed efficiency traits and metabolites. Analysis of volatile fatty acid profiles showed that butyrate was positively correlated with daily dry matter intake (P < 0.05) and tended to have higher concentration in inefficient animals (P = 0.10), while isovalerate was associated with residual feed intake (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that particular bacteria and their metabolism in the rumen may contribute to differences in host feed efficiency under a low-energy diet. This is the first study correlating PCR-DGGE bands representing specific bacteria to metabolites in the bovine rumen and to host feed efficiency traits. PMID:20709849

  3. Evaluating in vitro dose-response effects of Lavandula officinalis essential oil on rumen fermentation characteristics, methane production and ruminal acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Yadeghari, Shahin; Malecky, Mostafa; Dehghan Banadaky, Mehdi; Navidshad, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    Four in vitro experiments (Exp.) were conducted to evaluate lavender essential oil (LEO) effects at 0 (control), 250 (low dose), 500 (medium dose), 750 and 1000 µL per L (high doses) of incubation medium on rumen gas production kinetics (Exp.1), ruminal digestibility and fermentation (Exp.2), methane production (Exp.3) and rumen acidosis (Exp.4). The asymptote of gas production (A) increased quadratically (p < 0.001), but the lag phase (L) increased (p = 0.003), and gas production rate (µ) decreased linearly (p = 0.031) with increasing dose of LEO. A linear and quadratic effect (p < 0.01) was observed for the gas produced after 24 hr of incubation (GP24). In vitro true dry matter degradability (IVTDMD) and in vitro true organic matter degradability (IVTOMD) both decreased linearly (p < 0.01), but microbial biomass (MB) and partitioning factor (PF) changed quadratically with increasing doses of LEO (p < 0.05). A cubic effect was observed for total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and ammonia (NH3) concentrations (p < 0.05). Acetate molar percentage decreased (p = 0.004), whereas those of butyrate and valerate increased linearly (p < 0.05) with LEO dosage. The molar percentage of propionate increased by 10.60 and 12.00% at low and medium doses of LEO, respectively. Methane production decreased by 11.00 and 44.00 to 60.00% at medium and high doses of LEO (p < 0.05), respectively. Lavender essential oil decreased also ruminal pH at all included doses (p < 0.05), intensifying rumen acidosis. These results revealed a dose-dependent selective effect (stimulatory at low and medium, and inhibitory at high doses) of LEO on rumen fermentation. PMID:26973763

  4. Evaluating in vitro dose-response effects of Lavandula officinalis essential oil on rumen fermentation characteristics, methane production and ruminal acidosis.

    PubMed

    Yadeghari, Shahin; Malecky, Mostafa; Dehghan Banadaky, Mehdi; Navidshad, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    Four in vitro experiments (Exp.) were conducted to evaluate lavender essential oil (LEO) effects at 0 (control), 250 (low dose), 500 (medium dose), 750 and 1000 µL per L (high doses) of incubation medium on rumen gas production kinetics (Exp.1), ruminal digestibility and fermentation (Exp.2), methane production (Exp.3) and rumen acidosis (Exp.4). The asymptote of gas production (A) increased quadratically (p < 0.001), but the lag phase (L) increased (p = 0.003), and gas production rate (µ) decreased linearly (p = 0.031) with increasing dose of LEO. A linear and quadratic effect (p < 0.01) was observed for the gas produced after 24 hr of incubation (GP24). In vitro true dry matter degradability (IVTDMD) and in vitro true organic matter degradability (IVTOMD) both decreased linearly (p < 0.01), but microbial biomass (MB) and partitioning factor (PF) changed quadratically with increasing doses of LEO (p < 0.05). A cubic effect was observed for total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and ammonia (NH3) concentrations (p < 0.05). Acetate molar percentage decreased (p = 0.004), whereas those of butyrate and valerate increased linearly (p < 0.05) with LEO dosage. The molar percentage of propionate increased by 10.60 and 12.00% at low and medium doses of LEO, respectively. Methane production decreased by 11.00 and 44.00 to 60.00% at medium and high doses of LEO (p < 0.05), respectively. Lavender essential oil decreased also ruminal pH at all included doses (p < 0.05), intensifying rumen acidosis. These results revealed a dose-dependent selective effect (stimulatory at low and medium, and inhibitory at high doses) of LEO on rumen fermentation. PMID:26973763

  5. Effect of Mediterranean saltbush (Atriplex halimus) ensilaging with two developed enzyme cocktails on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation in sheep.

    PubMed

    Alsersy, Haidy; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Borhami, Borhami E; Olivares, Jaime; Gado, Hany M; Mariezcurrena, Maria D; Yacuot, Mohamed H; Kholif, Ahmed E; El-Adawy, Mounir; Hernandez, Saul R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of feeding Atriplex halimus (AH) silage treated with two developed enzyme cocktails to sheep on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation. The AH silage was treated without or with 2 L of ZAD1(®) or ZAD2(®) /1000 kg with 5% molasses and ensiled for 30 days. Barley grain (300 g/head/day) was fed as an energy supplement once daily at 10.00 hours and AH silage with or without enzyme treatment was offered ad libitum to animals twice daily at 09.00 and 16.00 hours. Sheep were fed on four experimental forage diets comprised of AH silage and barley (D1), AH silage treated with ZAD1(®) and barley (D2), AH silage treated with ZAD2(®) and barley (D3) and AH silage treated with a combination of ZAD1(®) and ZAD2(®) (1:1) and barley (D4). Ensiling AH with enzymes reduced its contents of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber. The dry matter intake of AH of D2, D3 and D4 decreased (P < 0.001) as compared to D1. However, enzyme-treated diets had greater total digestible nutrients intake (P < 0.001) as compared to D1. The nutrients digestibility for D2, D3 and D4 were higher than those for D1 (P < 0.001), and were higher for D3 as compared to both D2 and D4. Sheep fed on D3 had highest (P < 0.001) ruminal total volatile fatty acids concentration, ammonia nitrogen concentration and microbial protein yield. It could be concluded that AH silage treated with ZAD1(®) or ZAD2(®) improved digestibility and rumen fermentation in sheep. PMID:25228428

  6. Effect of increasing flaxseed supplementation of a pasture-based diet on methane output and ruminal fermentation in continuous culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flaxseed has been shown to decrease methane output when fed to ruminants in confinement. Organic dairy producers are interested in flaxseed as an alternative to other organic grains due to price, ability to grow on the farm, and availability. However, little is known regarding the effects of flaxsee...

  7. Effects of select nitrocompounds on in vitro ruminal fermentation during conditions of limiting or excess added reductant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminal methane (CH4) production results in losses of up to 12% of gross energy intake and contributes nearly 20% of the United States’ annual emission of this greenhouse gas. We report the effects of 2-nitro-1-propanol (NPOH), 3-nitro-1-propionic acid (NPA), nitroethane (NE) and 2-nitroethanol (NE...

  8. Using a fibrolytic enzyme in barley-based diets containing wheat dried distillers grains with solubles: ruminal fermentation, digestibility, and growth performance of feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    He, Z X; He, M L; Walker, N D; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

    2014-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of adding an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (FE) on ruminal pH and fermentation, digestibility, and growth performance of feedlot beef cattle fed a finishing diet containing wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). In Exp. 1, 4 ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (average BW of 807 ± 93.9 kg) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were 1) control (CON; 10% barley silage and 90% barley grain-based concentrate), 2) CON diet substituting 30% wheat DDGS for barley grain (WDG), 3) WDG diet supplemented with low FE (WDGL), and 4) WDG diet supplemented with high FE (WDGH). Heifers fed WDG had less (P = 0.01) total tract DM digestibility than heifers fed CON. Increasing FE linearly (P < 0.05) increased starch digestibility without affecting digestibility of other nutrients. Addition of FE also reduced (P = 0.03) ruminal ammonia-N (NH3-N) concentration but did not affect VFA concentration. Moreover, application of FE to wheat DDGS linearly increased in situ ruminal DM (P < 0.01) and NDF (P = 0.02) disappearance after 48 h of incubation. In Exp. 2, 160 yearling steers (initial BW = 495 ± 37.9 kg) were fed the same diets as in Exp. 1. No differences in DMI, final BW, ADG, dietary NEg, or carcass characteristics were observed among diets. However, the steers fed WDG had less (P < 0.05) G:F and greater number of (P < 0.01) abscessed livers than steers fed CON. Increasing FE application in wheat DDGS diets did not affect DMI, final BW, or ADG but tended (P < 0.09) to linearly improve feed efficiency and decreased (P = 0.03) the incidence of abscessed livers. These results demonstrated adverse effects of including wheat DDGS in finishing diets on feed digestion, feed efficiency, and animal health. Application of FE in wheat DDGS-based diets potentially improved starch digestion, protein metabolism in the rumen, feed efficiency, and animal health. PMID:24987082

  9. Influence of nitrogen source on the fermentation of fibre from barley straw and sugarbeet pulp by ruminal micro-organisms in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ranilla, M J; Carro, M D; López, S; Newbold, C J; Wallace, R J

    2001-12-01

    Incubations were carried out with a batch culture system to study the effects of different N sources on the fermentation by ruminal micro-organisms from Merino sheep of two fibre substrates derived from feedstuffs that differed in their fermentation rate. The substrates were neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) from barley straw and sugarbeet pulp. N sources were ammonia (NH4Cl) and peptides (Trypticase). Three treatments were made by replacing ammonia-N with peptide-N at levels of 0 (AMMO), 33 (PEPLOW) and 66 % (PEPHIGH) of total N. There were no differences (P>0.05) between treatments in NDF degradation for both the barley straw and the sugarbeet pulp. Peptides increased (P<0.05) total volatile fatty acids daily production for both substrates, with greater values (P<0.001) for PEPHIGH than for PEPLOW for the sugarbeet pulp. The presence of peptides also increased (P<0.05) microbial N synthesis compared with AMMO, with PEPHIGH supporting more growth (P<0.001) than PEPLOW when the sugarbeet pulp NDF was fermented. The presence of peptides increased (P<0.01) the amount of solids-associated micro-organisms (SAM)-N for both the barley straw and the sugarbeet pulp fibres, values in the PEPHIGH treatment being higher (P<0.001) than those in PEPLOW. The proportion of SAM-N in the total microbial N was not affected (P>0.05) by the presence of peptides compared with the AMMO treatment, but values were greater for the PEPHIGH compared with the PEPLOW N source, reaching statistical significance (P<0.05) only for the sugarbeet pulp. For liquid-associated micro-organisms, the AMMO treatment resulted in the greatest (P<0.05) proportion of N derived from ammonia for both substrates, with a further decrease (P<0.01) for the PEPHIGH treatment compared with the PEPLOW for the sugarbeet pulp, indicating preferential uptake of peptides when they were available. Microbial growth efficiency (g microbial N/kg NDF degraded) was not affected (P>0.05) by N source. These results indicate that N

  10. Effect of calcium oxide inclusion in beef feedlot diets containing 60% dried distillers grains with solubles on ruminal fermentation, diet digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, A J C; Felix, T L; Lemenager, R P; Schoonmaker, J P

    2014-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of increasing dietary CaO on ruminal fermentation, diet digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers fed 60% dried distillers grains with solubles ( DDGS: ). In Exp. 1, 120 steers were allotted by weight (355 ± 7.9 kg) to 1 of 4 treatments containing 60% DDGS, 20% corn silage, 13.5 to 14.4% ground corn, 4% supplement, and 0 to 2.5% limestone on DM basis to determine the effects of CaO on performance and carcass characteristics. Treatments consisted of 0, 0.8, 1.6, or 2.4% CaO inclusion in the diet (DM basis), with CaO replacing limestone. Steers were slaughtered at a target BW of approximately 641 kg. In Exp. 2, 4 steers (initial BW = 288 ± 3 kg) were randomly allotted to the same diets in a 4 × 4 Latin square design (14-d periods) to determine the effects of CaO on ruminal pH, VFA, and nutrient digestibility. Statistical analyses were conducted using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Inclusion of CaO at 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4% increased ADG by 5.0, 3.9, and 0%, respectively, compared to 0% CaO (quadratic; P = 0.03). Intake was linearly decreased (P = 0.04) and G:F was linearly increased (P = 0.02) by CaO inclusion. Dressing percentage increased as CaO increased from 0 to 1.6% and then decreased for 2.4% CaO (quadratic; P < 0.01). In Exp. 2, steers fed 0% CaO had the greatest prefeeding ruminal pH, steers fed 0 and 0.8% CaO exhibited the most rapid postfeeding decline in ruminal pH, and steers fed 2.4% CaO exhibited a relatively stable ruminal pH throughout the 24-h period (treatment × time; P ≤ 0.01). Acetate, butyrate, and total VFA concentrations increased linearly (P ≤ 0.05) at 0, 3, 6, and 12 h postfeeding with increasing CaO. Propionate at 3 h postfeeding increased from 0 to 1.6% CaO and decreased from 1.6 to 2.4% CaO (quadratic; P = 0.10). Urine pH increased linearly (P ≤ 0.01) while urine output and urine ammonia decreased linearly (P ≤ 0.05) as CaO inclusion increased

  11. Effects of replacing grass silage with forage pearl millet silage on milk yield, nutrient digestion, and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brunette, T; Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A F

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary replacement of grass silage (GS) with forage millet silages that were harvested at 2 stages of maturity [i.e., vegetative stage and dough to ripe seed (mature) stage] on milk production, apparent total-tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics of dairy cows. Fifteen lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment and fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (60:40 forage:concentrate ratio). Dietary treatments included control (GS), vegetative millet silage (EM), and mature millet silage (MM) diets. Experimental silages comprised 24% of dietary dry matter (DM). Soybean meal and slow-release urea were added in millet diets to balance for crude protein (CP). Three additional ruminally fistulated cows were used to determine the effect of treatments on ruminal fermentation and total-tract nutrient utilization. Cows fed the GS diet consumed more DM (22.9 vs. 21.7 ± 1.02 kg/d) and CP (3.3 vs. 3.1 ± 0.19 kg/d), and similar starch (4.9 ± 0.39 kg/d) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 8.0 ± 0.27 kg/d) compared with cows fed the MM diet. Replacing the EM diet with the MM diet did not affect DM, NDF, or CP intakes. Cows fed the MM diet produced less milk (26.1 vs. 29.1 ± 0.79 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (28.0 vs.30.5 ± 0.92 kg/d), and 4% fat-corrected milk (26.5 vs. 28.3 ± 0.92 kg/d) yields than cows fed the GS diet. However, cows fed diets with EM and GS produced similar yields of milk, energy-corrected milk, and 4% fat-corrected milk. Feed efficiency (milk yield:DM intake) was greater only for cows fed the GS diet than those fed the MM diet. Milk protein yield and concentration were greater among cows fed the GS diet compared with those fed the EM or MM diets. Milk fat and lactose concentrations were not influenced by diet. However, milk urea N was lower for cows fed the GS diet than for those fed the MM diet. Ruminal NH3-N was greater for cows fed the EM diet than for

  12. Potential contribution of optional urease-positive bacteria to idiopathic urinary calcium stone formation. II. Microlith formation kinetics in a fermenter model of the urinary tract infected by optional urease-positive microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Leusmann, D B; Sabinski, F

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the effects of weak to moderate urease hydrolysis by optional urease-positive microorganisms in an artificial urine model enriched with calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate in respect of calcium stone formation. The incubation experiments were performed using a discontinuously running fermenter device to simulate the urinary system. The kinetics of cell division rates, pH and ammonium ion production were measured and correlated to crystallite appearance in the incubation medium. Qualitative analyses of the sediments revealed apatite. Investigations using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the matrix effect of bacterial glycoproteins. It was shown that initiation of calcium oxalate stone formation is in all probability equally determined by matrix effects and by heteronuclear crystallization if the urinary tract is infected by optional urease-positive bacteria. When urinary inorganic phosphate is present, calcium phosphate nidi are always initially formed, and may subsequently be coated by calcium oxalate. PMID:8740975

  13. Effect of genotype on chemical composition, ruminal degradability and in vitro fermentation characteristics of maize residual plants.

    PubMed

    Zeller, F M E; Edmunds, B L; Schwarz, F J

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the changes to residual plant feeding value of early- and late-maturing maize varieties. The influence of the cell wall carbohydrate composition, in terms of neutral and acid detergent fibre (NDF and ADF) content, NDF and dry matter (DM) degradability, and in vitro organic matter digestibility and gas production on the feeding value of a range of maize genotypes, was measured. The different genotypes were allotted into two maturity groups (MG I--early to mid-early: S210-S240; MG II--mid-late to late: S 250-S280) and harvested at four different harvest dates (depending on the DM content of the kernels). The maize varieties of MG I had lower NDF and ADF contents and higher ruminal DM degradability, in vitro digestibility and gas production and thus a higher feeding value than MG II at the same stage of physiological maturity. A strong negative relationship between NDF content and the ruminal DM degradability (r = -0.81) was observed. The data indicate that the early-maturing varieties permit a larger flexibility in harvesting due to a longer period of starch inclusion into the kernel whilst simultaneously maintaining a good supply of rumen-available fibre. Conclusively, the higher feeding value of the early-maturing varieties, based on lower NDF and high DM digestibility, permits more flexibility in the harvesting period over the later-maturing varieties. PMID:24423073

  14. Effect of dietary sugar concentration and sunflower seed supplementation on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, milk fatty acid profile, and blood metabolites of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Razzaghi, A; Valizadeh, R; Naserian, A A; Mesgaran, M Danesh; Carpenter, A J; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-05-01

    Previous research has shown that both sunflower seed (SF) and sucrose (SC) supplementation can result in variation in milk fat concentration and composition, possibly due to altered fermentation patterns and biohydrogenation of fatty acids in the rumen. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different sugar concentrations with or without SF supplementation on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and milk fatty acid profile in lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein dairy cows (body weight=620±15kg, 60±10 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Each 21-d period consisted of a 14-d diet adaptation period and 7-d collection period. Dairy cows were fed 1 of the following 4 diets: (1) no additional SC without SF supplementation (NSC-SF), (2) no additional SC with SF supplementation (NSC+SF), (3) SC without SF supplementation (SC-SF), and (4) SC with SF supplementation (SC+SF). The diets contained the same amount of forages (corn silage and alfalfa hay). Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated by replacing corn grain with SC and SF and balanced using change in proportions of canola meal and sugar beet pulp. No interaction was detected between SC and SF supplementation with respect to dry matter intake, milk yield, and composition. A tendency was found for an interaction between inclusion of SC and SF on energy-corrected milk with the highest amount in the SC-SF diet. Ruminal pH and the molar proportion of acetate were affected by SC inclusion, with an increase related to the SC-SF diet. Diets containing SF decreased the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (4:0 to 10:0) and medium-chain fatty acids (12:0 to 16:0) in milk fat. The addition of SC tended to decrease the concentration of total trans-18:1. These data provide evidence that exchanging SC for corn at 4% of dietary dry matter

  15. The effect of Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus plantarum on the fermentation, aerobic stability, and ruminal degradability of low dry matter corn and sorghum silages.

    PubMed

    Filya, I

    2003-11-01

    The effect of Lactobacillus buchneri, alone or in combination with Lactobacillus plantarum, on the fermentation, aerobic stability, and ruminal degradability of low dry matter corn and sorghum silages was studied under laboratory conditions. The inoculants were applied at 1 x 10(6) cfu/g. Silages with no additives served as control. After treatment, the chopped forages were ensiled in 1.5-L anaerobic jars. Three jars per treatment were sampled on d 2, 4, 8, 15, and 90. After 90 d of storage, the silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test lasting 5 d, in which CO2 production, as well as chemical and microbiological parameters, was measured to determine the extent of aerobic deterioration. At the end of the ensiling period (d 90), the L. buchneri- and L. buchneri + L. plantarum-inoculated silages had significantly higher levels of acetic acid than the control and L. plantarum-inoculated silages. Therefore, yeast activity was impaired in the L. buchneri- and L. buchneri + L. plantarum-inoculated silages. As a result, L. buchneri, alone or in combination with L. plantarum, improved aerobic stability of the low dry matter corn and sorghum silages. The combination of L. buchneri and L. plantarum reduced ammonia N concentrations and fermentation losses in the silages compared with L. buchneri alone. However, L. buchneri, L. plantarum, and a combination of L. buchneri + L. plantarum did not effect in situ rumen dry matter, organic matters, or neutral detergent fiber degradability of the silages. The L. buchneri was very effective in protecting the low dry matter corn and sorghum silages exposed to air under laboratory conditions. The use of L. buchneri, alone or in combination with L. plantarum, as a silage inoculant can improve the aerobic stability of low dry matter corn and sorghum silages by inhibition of yeast activity. PMID:14672188

  16. Effect of Ground Corn Cob Replacement for Cassava Chip on Feed Intake, Rumen Fermentation and Urinary Derivatives in Swamp Buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Wanapat, M.; Pilajun, R.; Kang, S.; Setyaningsih, K.; Setyawan, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Four Thai - rumen fistulated male swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), about four years old with 400±20 kg liveweight, were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive dietary treatments. The treatments were: ground corn cob (GCC) replacement for cassava chip (CC) in concentrate at 0% (T1); GCC replacement at 33% (T2); GCC replacement at 67% (T3); and GCC replacement at 100% (T4), respectively. During the experiment, concentrate was offered at 0.5% BW while 5% urea-treated rice straw was given at ad libitum. The result revealed that there was no effect of GCC replacement on DMI among treatments. In addition, digestibilities of DM, OM and CP were not different while aNDF linearly increased with an increasing level of GCC replacement. However, GCC replacement did not affect rumen fermentation such as ruminal pH, NH3-N and VFA concentration; except C3 proportion which was the highest at 33% replacement while the lowest was at 100% replacement. All replacements of GCC resulted in similar protozoal and bacterial populations and microbial protein synthesis (MPS). Purine derivatives (PD) concentration in urine and PD to creatinine (PDC) index were varied with time of urination and among treatments at 0 to 8 and 8 to 16 h post feeding and higher values were shown among the GCC replacement groups. However at 16 to 24 h-post feeding, it was untraceable. In addition, creatinine concentration was similar among all treatments at every sampling time. Based on the above results, GCC can be used as an energy source for swamp buffalo fed with rice straw. Spot sampling of urine can be used for purine derivatives determination. PMID:25049671

  17. Effects of corn silage hybrids and dietary nonforage fiber sources on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and productive performance of lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Holt, M S; Williams, C M; Dschaak, C M; Eun, J-S; Young, A J

    2010-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn silage hybrids and nonforage fiber sources (NFFS) in high forage diets formulated with high dietary proportions of alfalfa hay (AH) and corn silage (CS) on ruminal fermentation and productive performance by early lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (4 ruminally fistulated) averaging 36±6.2 d in milk were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were fed 1 of 4 dietary treatments during each of the four 21-d replicates. Treatments were (1) conventional CS (CCS)-based diet without NFFS, (2) CCS-based diet with NFFS, (3) brown midrib CS (BMRCS)-based diet without NFFS, and (4) BMRCS-based diet with NFFS. Diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Sources of NFFS consisted of ground soyhulls and pelleted beet pulp to replace a portion of AH and CS in the diets. In vitro 30-h neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability was greater for BMRCS than for CCS (42.3 vs. 31.2%). Neither CS hybrids nor NFFS affected intake of dry matter (DM) and nutrients. Digestibility of N, NDF, and acid detergent fiber tended to be greater for cows consuming CCS-based diets. Milk yield was not influenced by CS hybrids and NFFS. However, a tendency for an interaction between CS hybrids and NFFS occurred, with increased milk yield due to feeding NFFS with the BMRCS-based diet. Yields of milk fat and 3.5% fat-corrected milk decreased when feeding the BMRCS-based diet, and a tendency existed for an interaction between CS hybrids and NFFS because milk fat concentration further decreased by feeding NFFS with BMRCS-based diet. Although feed efficiency (milk/DM intake) was not affected by CS hybrids and NFFS, an interaction was found between CS hybrids and NFFS because feed efficiency increased when NFFS was fed only with BMRCS-based diet. Total volatile fatty acid production and individual molar proportions were not affected by diets. Dietary

  18. Influence of ensiling, exogenous protease addition, and bacterial inoculation on fermentation profile, nitrogen fractions, and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility in rehydrated and high-moisture corn.

    PubMed

    Ferraretto, L F; Fredin, S M; Shaver, R D

    2015-10-01

    Exogenous protease addition may be an option to increase proteolysis of zein proteins and thus starch digestibility in rehydrated and high-moisture corn (HMC) ensiled for short periods. In addition, microbial inoculation may accelerate fermentation and increase acid production and thus increase solubilization of zein proteins. Four experiments were performed to evaluate the effect on fermentation profile, N fractions, and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility (ivSD) of the following: (1) rehydration and ensiling of dry ground corn; (2) exogenous protease addition to rehydrated un-ensiled and ensiled corn; (3) exogenous protease addition or inoculation in rehydrated ensiled corn; and (4) exogenous protease addition or inoculation in HMC. Experiments 1, 2, and 3 were performed with 7 treatments: dry ground corn (DGC); DGC rehydrated to a targeted dry matter content of 70% (REH); REH treated with exogenous protease (REH+); REH ensiled for 30 d (ENS); ENS treated with exogenous protease (ENS+); ENS treated with a microbial inoculant containing Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, Enterococcus faecium, and Pediococcus sp. (ENSI); and ENS treated with exogenous protease and microbial inoculant (ENSI+). Experiment 1 compared DGC, REH, and ENS with ivSD being greater for ENS (64.9%) than DGC and REH (51.7% on average). Experiment 2 compared REH and ENS without or with exogenous protease addition (REH+ and ENS+, respectively). Ensiling and exogenous protease addition increased ivSD, but exogenous protease addition was more effective in ENS than REH (6.4 vs. 2.6 percentage unit increase). Experiment 3 compared the effects of exogenous protease addition and inoculation in ENS corn (ENS, ENS+, ENSI, and ENSI+). The addition of protease, but not inoculant, increased ivSD. Inoculation reduced pH and acetate, propionate, and ethanol concentrations, and increased lactate and total acid concentrations. In experiment 4, 8 treatments were a combination of HMC noninoculated

  19. Feed intake, ruminal fermentation, and animal behavior of beef heifers fed forage free diets containing nonforage fiber sources.

    PubMed

    Iraira, S P; Ruíz de la Torre, J L; Rodríguez-Prado, M; Calsamiglia, S; Manteca, X; Ferret, A

    2013-08-01

    Eight Simmental heifers (initial BW 313.4 ± 13.2 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental treatments in a 4 × 4 double Latin square design. The experiment was performed in four 28-d periods. Treatments tested were a control diet in which barley straw (BS) was used as a fiber source and 3 diets where the main difference was the nonforage fiber source used: soybean hulls (SH), beet pulp (BP) in pellets, and whole cottonseed (WCS). All ingredients, except the fiber sources, were ground through a 3-mm screen. Fiber ingredients were incorporated at 10, 17, 17, and 16% (on DM basis) in BS, SH, BP, and WCS, respectively. All diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed ration and designed to be isoenergetic (2.95 Mcal ME/kg DM), isonitrogenous (15% CP, DM basis), and with a NDF content of 20% (on DM basis) although there was a discrepancy between the theoretical and the actual chemical composition of the diets. Particle size separation was performed using the 3-screen Penn State Particle Separator. Animals were allotted in 8 individual roofed concrete pens equipped with a feedbunk and water trough. Intake was recorded over 7 d in the last week of each experimental period. Behavior was recorded for 24-h on d 2 and d 6 of each experimental week using a digital video recording device. A digital color camera was set up in front of each pen. Data recorded, except behavioral activities, were statistically analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. To test treatment effect for each behavioral activity, analysis was performed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Diets ranked from greater to lesser proportion of particles of less than 1.18 mm as follows: SH, BS, WCS, and BP. Dry matter intake of heifers fed WCS was greater than the remaining treatments (P = 0.049). The greatest average ruminal pH was registered in heifers fed BS (6.4) and BP (6.3) whereas the smallest was recorded in SH diet (5.9), with WCS (6.2) occupying an intermediate position (P = 0.006). Total

  20. Nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation characteristic in swamp buffaloes fed on chemically treated rice straw and urea.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vinh Thi; Wanapat, Metha; Khejornsart, Pichad; Kongmun, Phongthorn

    2012-03-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine effects of urea-lime-treated rice straw and urea levels in concentrate on rumen fermentation, apparent nutrient digestibility, and cellulolytic bacteria population of 4-year-old, rumen-fistulated swamp buffaloes. All animals were randomly assigned according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments: factor A, two sources of roughage (rice straw and 2%urea + 2%lime-treated rice straw); factor B, two levels of urea in concentrate mixture (0% and 4%). Roughages were given ad libitum together with 0.3% BW of concentrate. It was found that voluntary feed intake, the digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF, acetate, and propionate concentration were significantly increased (P < 0.05) by treated rice straw, while NH(3)-N, BUN, and propionic acid concentration were increased by both factors of treated rice straw and 4% urea in concentrate. The real-time PCR quantification of Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus albus population, and anaerobic fungi were greater (P < 0.05), but the population of Ruminococcus flavefaciens, protozoa, and methanogenic bacteria were reduced (P > 0.05) as influenced by treated rice straw and urea level. In conclusion, the combined use of urea-lime-treated rice straw and fed with concentrate (4% urea) could improve rumen ecology, rumen fermentation efficiency, and nutrient digestibility in swamp buffaloes. PMID:21805305

  1. Effects of altering alfalfa hay quality when feeding steam-flaked versus high-moisture corn grain on ruminal fermentation and lactational performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Eun, J-S; Kelley, A W; Neal, K; Young, A J; Hall, J O

    2014-12-01

    This experiment was performed to test a hypothesis that nutritive benefits of feeding high-moisture corn (HMC) would be different when fed with different qualities of alfalfa hay (AH) due to associative effects on ruminal fermentation and nutrient utilization efficiency. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows were used; 4 were surgically fitted with ruminal cannulas. Days in milk averaged 184 ± 10.7 at the start of the experiment. The experiment was performed in a duplicate 4 × 4 Latin square design. Within each square, cows were randomly assigned to a sequence of 4 diets during each of the four 21-d periods (14 d of treatment adaptation and 7 d of data collection and sampling). A 2 × 2 factorial arrangement was used; fair-quality AH [FAH; 39.6% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 17.9% crude protein (CP)] or high-quality AH (HAH; 33.6% NDF and 21.9% CP) was combined with steam-flaked corn (SFC) or HMC to form 4 treatments: FAH with SFC, FAH with HMC, HAH with SFC, and HAH with HMC. The AH was fed at 32% dry matter (DM) content, whereas SFC or HMC was included at 17% DM content. Quality of AH did not affect DM intake, whereas feeding HMC decreased DM intake, regardless of quality of AH. Digestibility of DM was greater for cows fed HAH compared with those fed FAH (70.1 vs. 67.6%). Digestibility of NDF increased by feeding HMC (67.6 vs. 58.4%), but not by quality of AH. Under FAH, starch digestibility decreased by feeding HMC compared with SFC (85.7 vs. 95.0%), but it was similar under HAH, resulting in an interaction between quality of AH and type of corn grain (CG). Feeding different qualities of AH did not affect milk yield; however, feeding HMC decreased milk yield in FAH diet, causing an AH × CG interaction. Efficiency of milk yield/DM intake was improved due to feeding HMC, regardless of the quality of the AH. In addition, dietary N utilization for milk N tended to increase by feeding HMC, but it was not influenced by quality of AH. Yield of microbial

  2. Improvement of Nutritive Value and In vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Leucaena Silage by Molasses and Urea Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Phesatcha, K; Wanapat, M

    2016-08-01

    Leucaena silage was supplemented with different levels of molasses and urea to study its nutritive value and in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. The ensiling study was randomly assigned according to a 3×3 factorial arrangement in which the first factor was molasses (M) supplement at 0%, 1%, and 2% of crop dry matter (DM) and the second was urea (U) supplement as 0%, 0.5%, and 1% of the crop DM, respectively. After 28 days of ensiling, the silage samples were collected and analyzed for chemical composition. All the nine Leucaena silages were kept for study of rumen fermentation efficiency using in vitro gas production techniques. The present result shows that supplementation of U or M did not affect DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber content in the silage. However, increasing level of U supplementation increased crude protein content while M level did not show any effect. Moreover, the combination of U and M supplement decreased the content of mimosine concentration especially with M2U1 (molasses 2% and urea 1%) silage. The result of the in vitro study shows that gas production kinetics, cumulation gas at 96 h and in vitro true digestibility increased with the increasing level of U and M supplementation especially in the combination treatments. Supplementation of M and U resulted in increasing propionic acid and total volatile fatty acid whereas, acetic acid, butyric acid concentrations and methane production were not changed. In addition, increasing U level supplementation increased NH3-N concentration. Result from real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed a significant effect on total bacteria, whereas F. succinogenes and R. flavefaciens population while R. albus was not affected by the M and U supplementation. Based on this study, it could be concluded that M and urea U supplementation could improve the nutritive value of Leucaena silage and enhance in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. This study also suggested that

  3. Improvement of Nutritive Value and In vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Leucaena Silage by Molasses and Urea Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Phesatcha, K.; Wanapat, M.

    2016-01-01

    Leucaena silage was supplemented with different levels of molasses and urea to study its nutritive value and in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. The ensiling study was randomly assigned according to a 3×3 factorial arrangement in which the first factor was molasses (M) supplement at 0%, 1%, and 2% of crop dry matter (DM) and the second was urea (U) supplement as 0%, 0.5%, and 1% of the crop DM, respectively. After 28 days of ensiling, the silage samples were collected and analyzed for chemical composition. All the nine Leucaena silages were kept for study of rumen fermentation efficiency using in vitro gas production techniques. The present result shows that supplementation of U or M did not affect DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber content in the silage. However, increasing level of U supplementation increased crude protein content while M level did not show any effect. Moreover, the combination of U and M supplement decreased the content of mimosine concentration especially with M2U1 (molasses 2% and urea 1%) silage. The result of the in vitro study shows that gas production kinetics, cumulation gas at 96 h and in vitro true digestibility increased with the increasing level of U and M supplementation especially in the combination treatments. Supplementation of M and U resulted in increasing propionic acid and total volatile fatty acid whereas, acetic acid, butyric acid concentrations and methane production were not changed. In addition, increasing U level supplementation increased NH3-N concentration. Result from real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed a significant effect on total bacteria, whereas F. succinogenes and R. flavefaciens population while R. albus was not affected by the M and U supplementation. Based on this study, it could be concluded that M and urea U supplementation could improve the nutritive value of Leucaena silage and enhance in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. This study also suggested that

  4. Estimating fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds for ruminants using in vitro gas production technique

    PubMed Central

    Taher-Maddah, M.; Maheri-Sis, N.; Salamatdoustnobar, R.; Ahmadzadeh, A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition and estimation of fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds using in vitro gas production technique. Samples were collected, mixed, processed (ensiled and dried) and incubated in vitro with rumen liquor taken from three fistulated Iranian native (Taleshi) steers at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h. The results showed that ensiling lead to significant increase in gas production of pomegranate seeds at all incubation times. The gas volume at 24 h incubation, were 25.76 and 17.91 ml/200mg DM for ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds, respectively. The gas production rate (c) also was significantly higher for ensiled groups than dried (0.0930 vs. 0.0643 ml/h). The organic matter digestibility (OMD), metabolizable energy (ME), net energy for lactation (NEL) and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) of ensiled pomegranate seeds were significantly higher than that of dried samples (43.15%, 6.37 MJ/kg DM, 4.43 MJ/kg DM, 0.5553 mmol for ensiled samples vs. 34.62%, 5.10 MJ/kg DM, 3.56 MJ/kg DM, 0.3680 mmol for dried samples, respectively). It can be concluded that ensiling increases the nutritive value of pomegranate seeds. PMID:26623290

  5. Reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles reduces the risk for milk fat depression and supports milk production and ruminal fermentation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Ramirez, H A; Castillo Lopez, E; Jenkins, C J R; Aluthge, N D; Anderson, C; Fernando, S C; Harvatine, K J; Kononoff, P J

    2016-03-01

    fatty acids was observed; the overall mean was 121 ± 4.11 mM; molar proportion of acetate was affected by treatment resulting in 67.3, 63.2, 61.4, and 60.9 ± 0.93 mol/100 mol for CON, RFDG+RIF, RFDG, and DG, respectively. Results from DNA sequencing showed that rumen bacterial community structure was relatively stable with minor changes at the family and genus levels; these changes may be associated with low starch diets, and hence reduced amylolytic bacteria populations. Feeding high proportions of RFDDGS resulted in greater dry matter intake with low risk for milk fat depression while supporting ruminal fermentation. PMID:26805970

  6. Characteristics of Wet Distillers Grains on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation and Its Effects on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Finishing Hanwoo Steers

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Gyu Chul; Kwak, Hyung Jun; Oh, Young Kyoon; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Jang, Sun Sik; Lee, Sang Suk; Park, Keun Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the nutrient composition, in vitro ruminal ammonia concentrations and pH of wet distillers grains (WDG, produced from tapioca 70% and rice 30%) and to evaluate dietary effects of fermented total mixed ration (TMR) using WDG on the performance, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers from mid fattening to slaughter. In Exp. I, average dry matter (DM), crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and nitrogen free extract of seven WDG samples from an ethanol plant with different sampling dates were 19.9%, 24.8%, 3.8%, 21.8%, 8.87%, 60.3%, 34.5%, and 40.7% (DM basis), respectively. For in vitro ammonia concentrations and pH, each sample was assigned to 7 incubation times (0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h). Linear increase was observed between 12 and 48 h for ammonia concentrations, but final ammonia concentrations (72 h) were not significantly different among WDG samples and fermentation patterns of WDG samples showed similar tendency. In vitro pH varied among treatments from 0 to 24 h, but were not different statistically after 48 h. In Exp. II, 45 Hanwoo steers of 23 months (641±123 kg) from mid fattening period to slaughter (248 days) were randomly divided into three groups of 15 pens each (five repetitions/each treatment) and assigned to one of three dietary treatments; i) Control (TMR), ii) WDG 15 (TMR containing 15% of WDG, as fed basis) and iii) WDG 28 (TMR containing 28% of WDG, as fed basis). The body weight (BW), ADG, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of control and WDG 15 and 28 during 248 days were 760.8, 740.1, and 765.5 kg, and 0.50, 0.50, and 0.52 kg/d, and 18.6, 17.6, and 17.1, respectively. The dry matter intake (DMI) (kg/d) of control (9.11) was higher (p<0.05) than WDG treatments (WDG 15%, 8.57; 28%, 8.70). Nevertheless, DMI did not affect BW, ADG, and FCR of Hanwoo finishing steers. Blood metabolites were in normal ranges and were not

  7. Characteristics of Wet Distillers Grains on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation and Its Effects on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Finishing Hanwoo Steers.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Gyu Chul; Kwak, Hyung Jun; Oh, Young Kyoon; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Jang, Sun Sik; Lee, Sang Suk; Park, Keun Kyu

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the nutrient composition, in vitro ruminal ammonia concentrations and pH of wet distillers grains (WDG, produced from tapioca 70% and rice 30%) and to evaluate dietary effects of fermented total mixed ration (TMR) using WDG on the performance, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers from mid fattening to slaughter. In Exp. I, average dry matter (DM), crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and nitrogen free extract of seven WDG samples from an ethanol plant with different sampling dates were 19.9%, 24.8%, 3.8%, 21.8%, 8.87%, 60.3%, 34.5%, and 40.7% (DM basis), respectively. For in vitro ammonia concentrations and pH, each sample was assigned to 7 incubation times (0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h). Linear increase was observed between 12 and 48 h for ammonia concentrations, but final ammonia concentrations (72 h) were not significantly different among WDG samples and fermentation patterns of WDG samples showed similar tendency. In vitro pH varied among treatments from 0 to 24 h, but were not different statistically after 48 h. In Exp. II, 45 Hanwoo steers of 23 months (641±123 kg) from mid fattening period to slaughter (248 days) were randomly divided into three groups of 15 pens each (five repetitions/each treatment) and assigned to one of three dietary treatments; i) Control (TMR), ii) WDG 15 (TMR containing 15% of WDG, as fed basis) and iii) WDG 28 (TMR containing 28% of WDG, as fed basis). The body weight (BW), ADG, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of control and WDG 15 and 28 during 248 days were 760.8, 740.1, and 765.5 kg, and 0.50, 0.50, and 0.52 kg/d, and 18.6, 17.6, and 17.1, respectively. The dry matter intake (DMI) (kg/d) of control (9.11) was higher (p<0.05) than WDG treatments (WDG 15%, 8.57; 28%, 8.70). Nevertheless, DMI did not affect BW, ADG, and FCR of Hanwoo finishing steers. Blood metabolites were in normal ranges and were not

  8. Effect of urea inclusion in diets containing corn dried distillers grains on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine index.

    PubMed

    Ceconi, I; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; DiLorenzo, N; DiCostanzo, A; Crawford, G I

    2015-01-01

    Increased availability of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and a great proportion of corn-derived CP in the diet may result in a degradable intake protein (DIP) deficit. Therefore, ruminal DIP deficit may result from high dietary inclusion of processed corn grain and small to moderate inclusion of corn distillers grains (DG). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary DIP concentration through the inclusion of urea on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine (PDC) index. In Exp. 1, 42 steers (428 ± 5 kg initial BW) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 diets containing (DM basis) 0 (control [CON]), 0.4 (low urea [LU]), or 0.6% urea (high urea [HU]) to provide 6.4, 7.5, or 8.0% dietary DIP, respectively, and 12% high-moisture corn (HMC), 20% corn dried DG with solubles (DDGS), 10% ryegrass haylage, 2.9% dry supplement, and dry-rolled corn (DRC). Steers were fed ad libitum once daily using a Calan gate system. Carcass-adjusted final BW and DMI were similar among treatments (P ≥ 0.58). Carcass-adjusted ADG was greater (P ≤ 0.04) for the HU diet compared with the LU and CON diets and was similar (P = 0.73) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass-adjusted G:F was greater (P = 0.03) for the HU diet compared with the LU diet, tended (P = 0.09) to be greater compared with the CON diet, and was similar (P = 0.61) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass characteristics were similar (P ≥ 0.34) among treatments. In Exp. 2, 4 ruminally cannulated steers (347 ± 18 kg initial BW) were randomly assigned to a replicated 2 × 2 Latin square design. Steers were fed the same CON or HU diet used in Exp. 1 ad libitum once daily. Differences in the PDC index were used as indicators of differences in microbial CP synthesis. Ruminal pH, OM intake, and starch and CP digestibility were not affected by treatment (P ≥ 0.13). Digestibility of OM and NDF and

  9. Rumination disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... with rumination and good consequences with more appropriate behavior (mild aversive training). Other techniques include improving the environment (if there is abuse or neglect) and counseling the parents.

  10. The effect of buffering dairy cow diets with limestone, calcareous marine algae, or sodium bicarbonate on ruminal pH profiles, production responses, and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cruywagen, C W; Taylor, S; Beya, M M; Calitz, T

    2015-08-01

    Six ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to evaluate the effect of 2 dietary buffers on rumen pH, milk production, milk composition, and rumen fermentation parameters. A high concentrate total mixed ration [35.2% forage dry matter (DM)], formulated to be potentially acidotic, was used to construct 3 dietary treatments in which calcareous marine algae (calcified remains of the seaweed Lithothamnium calcareum) was compared with limestone (control) and sodium bicarbonate plus limestone. One basal diet was formulated and the treatment diets contained either 0.4% of dietary DM as Acid Buf, a calcified marine algae product (AB treatment), or 0.8% of dietary DM as sodium bicarbonate and 0.37% as limestone (BC treatment), or 0.35% of dietary DM as limestone [control (CON) treatment]. Cows were randomly allocated to treatments according to a double 3×3 Latin square design, with 3 treatments and 3 periods. The total experimental period was 66 d during which each cow received each treatment for a period of 15 d before the data collection period of 7 d. Rumen fluid was collected to determine volatile fatty acids, lactic acid, and ammonia concentrations. Rumen pH was monitored every 10min for 2 consecutive days using a portable data logging system fitted with in-dwelling electrodes. Milk samples were analyzed for solid and mineral contents. The effect of treatment on acidity was clearly visible, especially from the period from midday to midnight when rumen pH dropped below 5.5 for a longer period of time (13 h) in the CON treatment than in the BC (8.7 h) and AB (4 h) treatments. Daily milk, 4% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk yields differed among treatments, with AB being the highest, followed by BC and CON. Both buffers increased milk fat content. Treatment had no effect on milk protein content, but protein yield was increased in the AB treatment. Total rumen volatile fatty acids and acetate concentrations were higher and propionate was lower in the AB

  11. Effects of dried distillers grain on E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in pure culture and in mixed ruminal and fecal microorganism fermentation in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past 5 years, the amount of corn processed to ethanol has more than doubled in the United States, with an additional doubling in ethanol production via corn fermentation expected by 2010. Distillers grain (DG) is a by-product from ethanol fermentation that is fed to cattle because of its...

  12. Excretion patterns of solute and different-sized particle passage markers in foregut-fermenting proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) do not indicate an adaptation for rumination.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Ikki; Sha, John C M; Ortmann, Sylvia; Schwarm, Angela; Grandl, Florian; Caton, Judith; Jens, Warner; Kreuzer, Michael; Marlena, Diana; Hagen, Katharina B; Clauss, Marcus

    2015-10-01

    Behavioral observations and small fecal particles compared to other primates indicate that free-ranging proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) have a strategy of facultative merycism(rumination). In functional ruminants (ruminant and camelids), rumination is facilitated by a particle sorting mechanism in the forestomach that selectively retains larger particles and subjects them to repeated mastication. Using a set of a solute and three particle markers of different sizes (b2, 5 and 8mm),we displayed digesta passage kinetics and measured mean retention times (MRTs) in four captive proboscis monkeys (6–18 kg) and compared the marker excretion patterns to those in domestic cattle. In addition, we evaluated various methods of calculating and displaying passage characteristics. The mean ± SD dry matter intake was 98 ± 22 g kg−0.75 d−1, 68 ± 7% of which was browse. Accounting for sampling intervals in MRT calculation yielded results that were not affected by the sampling frequency. Displaying marker excretion patterns using fecal marker concentrations (rather than amounts) facilitated comparisons with reactor theory outputs and indicated that both proboscis and cattle digestive tracts represent a series of very few tank reactors. However, the separation of the solute and particle marker and the different-sized particle markers, evident in cattle, did not occur in proboscis monkeys, in which all markers moved together, at MRTs of approximately 40 h. The results indicate that the digestive physiology of proboscis monkeys does not show typical characteristics of ruminants, which may explain why merycism is only a facultative strategy in this species. PMID:26004169

  13. Effects of bulk density of steam-flaked corn in diets containing wet corn gluten feed on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, apparent total tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ponce, C H; Domby, E M; Anele, U Y; Schutz, J S; Gautam, K K; Galyean, M L

    2013-07-01

    The effects of varying bulk density of steam-flaked corn (SFC) in diets containing wet corn gluten feed (WCGF; Sweet Bran; Cargill Corn Milling, Blair, NE) have not been defined. In Exp. 1, yearling steers (n = 108; initial BW = 367 ± 1.18 kg) were housed in 27 pens (4 steers/pen) and received 1 of 3 different SFC bulk density treatments in a randomized complete block design. Bulk density treatments were 283, 335, or 386 g/L SFC in diets containing 25% WCGF (% of DM). Steers were fed once daily to provide ad libitum access to feed for an average of 163 d. For a 5-d period before d 70 of the experiment, DMI was measured, and fecal samples were collected from each pen for measurement of nutrient digestibility using dietary acid insoluble ash as a marker. Varying bulk densities of SFC did not affect (P ≥ 0.233) overall DMI, ADG, or G:F on a live- or carcass-adjusted basis. Dressing percent and LM area increased linearly (P ≤ 0.05) as bulk density increased, but other carcass traits were not affected by treatments. Intake of DM, OM, and CP during the 5-d digestion phase did not differ among bulk densities; however, starch intake increased linearly (P = 0.004) as bulk density of SFC increased. Digestibility of DM, OM, and CP tended (P ≤ 0.065) to decrease and starch digestibility decreased (P = 0.002) linearly as bulk density of SFC increased. In Exp. 2, a 3 × 3 Latin square design was used for collection of ruminal fluid from 3 ruminally cannulated Jersey steers adapted to the same diets used in Exp. 1. Bulk density did not affect NH3 concentrations, VFA molar proportions, ruminal fluid osmolality, and IVDMD of the diets. Total gas production increased linearly (P = 0.003) as bulk density of SFC increased from 283 to 335 g/L, but it decreased (P = 0.002) at 386 g/L. Present data suggest that bulk density can be increased up to 386 g/L in finishing diets containing 25% (DM basis) WCGF without affecting cattle performance and with limited effects on ruminal

  14. Using ATR-FT/IR to detect carbohydrate-related molecular structure features of carinata meal and their in situ residues of ruminal fermentation in comparison with canola meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Hangshu; Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-10-01

    There is no information on the co-products from carinata bio-fuel and bio-oil processing (carinata meal) in molecular structural profiles mainly related to carbohydrate biopolymers in relation to ruminant nutrition. Molecular analyses with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT/IR) technique with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and chemometrics enable to detect structural features on a molecular basis. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine carbohydrate conformation spectral features in original carinata meal, co-products from bio-fuel/bio-oil processing; and (2) investigate differences in carbohydrate molecular composition and functional group spectral intensities after in situ ruminal fermentation at 0, 12, 24 and 48 h compared to canola meal as a reference. The molecular spectroscopic parameters of carbohydrate profiles detected were structural carbohydrates (STCHO, mainly associated with hemi-cellulosic and cellulosic compounds; region and baseline ca. 1483-1184 cm-1), cellulosic compounds (CELC, region and baseline ca. 1304-1184 cm-1), total carbohydrates (CHO, region and baseline ca. 1193-889 cm-1) as well as the spectral ratios calculated based on respective spectral intensity data. The results showed that the spectral profiles of carinata meal were significantly different from that of canola meal in CHO 2nd peak area (center at ca. 1091 cm-1, region: 1102-1083 cm-1) and functional group peak intensity ratios such as STCHO 1st peak (ca. 1415 cm-1) to 2nd peak (ca. 1374 cm-1) height ratio, CHO 1st peak (ca. 1149 cm-1) to 3rd peak (ca. 1032 cm-1) height ratio, CELC to total CHO area ratio and STCHO to CELC area ratio, indicating that carinata meal may not in full accord with canola meal in carbohydrate utilization and availability in ruminants. Carbohydrate conformation and spectral features were changed by significant interaction of meal type and incubation time and almost all the spectral parameters were significantly decreased (P < 0

  15. Effects of supplementation frequency on ruminal fermentation and digestion by steers fed medium-quality hay and supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend.

    PubMed

    Drewnoski, M E; Poore, M H

    2012-03-01

    Reducing the frequency of supplementation to beef cattle would reduce labor and vehicle maintenance costs and could have the potential to increase profits if performance is not negatively affected. Six ruminally cannulated beef steers (362 ± 18 kg of BW) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design to determine the effect of supplementation frequency (daily or on alternate days) on digestion and ruminal parameters when feeding medium-quality hay and supplementing with a mixture of soybean hulls and corn gluten feed. Dietary treatments consisted of ad libitum fescue hay (8.8% CP and 34.8% ADF) that was supplemented at 1% of BW daily (SD), supplemented at 2% of BW on alternate days (SA), or not supplemented (NS). The supplement (14.6% CP and 29.8% ADF) contained 47% soybean hull pellets, 47% corn gluten feed pellets, 2% feed grade limestone, and 4% molasses (as fed). Each period consisted of a 12-d adaptation phase followed by 6 d of total fecal, urine, and ort collection. All supplement offered was consumed within 2 h. Ruminal fluid was collected every 4 h for 2 d. Hay intake was reduced (P < 0.01) for SD and further reduced (P < 0.01) for SA. Hay intake was 1.54, 1.19, and 1.02% of BW (SEM ± 0.036) for NS, SD, and SA, respectively. There was a treatment (P < 0.01) × day interaction for mean ruminal pH. On the day of supplementation, ruminal pH for SA (6.13) was lower (P < 0.01) than those for both SD (6.29) and NS (6.52). However, on the day the SA treatment did not receive supplement, ruminal pH of SA (6.53) did not differ (P = 0.87) from ruminal pH of NS and was greater (P < 0.01) than that of SD. Ruminal pH of SD was lower (P < 0.01) than that of NS. Diet DM digestibility was increased (P < 0.01) by supplementation but did not differ (P = 0.58) because of frequency. Dry matter digestibility was 57.9, 64.1, and 64.6% (SEM ± 0.65) for NS, SD, and SA, respectively. The amount of N retained did not differ (P = 0.47) because of frequency (24.9 ± 5.61 and

  16. Effect of Propionibacterium spp. on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, and methane emissions in beef heifers fed a high-forage diet.

    PubMed

    Vyas, D; McGeough, E J; McGinn, S M; McAllister, T A; Beauchemin, K A

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of different Propionibacterium strains in mitigating methane (CH4) emissions in beef heifers fed a high-forage diet. Twenty ruminally cannulated beef heifers were used in a randomized block design with 28-d periods. Treatments included 1) Control, 2) Propionibacterium acidipropionici strain P169, 3) Propionibacterium acidipropionici strain P5, and 4) Propionibacterium jensenii strain P54. Strains (5 × 10(9) CFU) were administered daily directly into the rumen in 10 g of a maltodextrin carrier in a gel capsule. Control heifers received the carrier only. All heifers were fed a basal diet (70:30 forage to concentrate, DM basis) based on barley silage and corn grain. No treatment effects were observed for overall DMI (P = 0.78) or DMI in chambers (P = 0.29). Dry matter intake was 12 to 29% less in the chambers, with intake depression numerically lower in heifers receiving Propionibacterium than Control. Mean ruminal pH averaged 6.47 and was not affected by treatments (P = 0.34). Likewise, no treatment differences were observed for ruminal concentrations of total VFA (P = 0.24) and ammonia-N (P = 0.49) or for molar proportion of individual VFA. Total daily enteric CH4 production was not affected by Propionibacterium strains as compared to Control and averaged 178 g/d (P = 0.69). However, enteric CH4 emission intensity (g CH4/kg of DMI) was reduced by 12, 8, and 13% with P169, P5, and P54 as compared to Control, respectively (P = 0.03). No treatment effects were observed for total tract digestibility of nutrients. Likewise, total universal bacterial (P = 0.22) and methanogen (P = 0.64) counts were similar among treatments. However, the relative abundance of total Propionibacteria tended to increase with inoculation as compared to Control (P = 0.06). The relative abundance of Propionibacterium P169 tended to be greater at 3 h postdosing, but returned to pretreatment (0 h) levels within 9 h, suggesting it failed to

  17. Influence of grain and monensin supplementation on ruminal fermentation, intake, digesta kinetics and incidence and severity of frothy bloat in steers grazing winter wheat pastures.

    PubMed

    Branine, M E; Galyean, M L

    1990-04-01

    Three 10-d collection periods (April 4 to 14, early April, EApr; April 23 to May 3, late April, LApr; May 10 to 20, 1984, mid-May, MMay) were conducted to evaluate effects of no supplement (C), .5 kg-head-1.d-1 (as-fed basis) supplemental grain (steam-flaked milo, G) or G plus 170 mg monensin.head-1.d-1 (M) on forage intake and digestion by 12 ruminally cannulated beef steers (four/treatment; avg initially BW = 393 kg) grazing irrigated winter wheat pasture. Ruminal pH was greater (P less than .01) for M than for C or G during EApr but was not altered by treatments in LApr or MMay. Compared with C, ruminal NH3 was decreased (P less than .10) by G and M (5 h after supplementation) in EApr, decreased (P less than .05) by G (2h) and increased (P less than .05) by M (8 h) in LApr and decreased (P less than .10) by G (-1h) in MMay. Treatments had little influence on total VFA concentrations or on molar proportions of acetate and propionate. Butyrate molar proportion was decreased (P less than .10) by M during EApr and LApr, but not during MMay. Monensin increased (P less than .05) fluid passage rate compared with C and G in EApr but not in other periods, Particulate passage measurements did not differ (P greater than .10) among treatments within periods. Forage DM intake was not influenced (P greater than .10) by supplementation during any period. Extent of in situ forage DM disappearance was greater (P less than .10) for M than for C or G during EApr (12 and 30 h of incubation) but was not different (P greater than .10) in LApr or MMay. Incidence of frothy bloat was decreased (P less than .05) by M during EApr; this reduction may have been related to effects of M on ruminal pH, forage digestion and fluid passage. PMID:2332388

  18. Using glycerin as a supplement for forage-fed ruminants.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The utility of crude glycerin as a feed additive for forage–fed ruminants depends largely on how well the animals are able to utilize the glycerol and other dietary components when crude glycerin is added to the diet. Several studies have demonstrated that ruminal fermentation of pure glycerol resul...

  19. Effects of dietary tannin source on performance, feed efficiency, ruminal fermentation, and carcass and non-carcass traits in steers fed a high-grain diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tannins are polyphenolic secondary plant compounds that have been shown to affect microbial activity to impact fermentation, protein degradation, methane production, and potential to mitigate foodborne pathogens. This study was conducted to examine the effects of source of tannin (condensed, CT, vs....

  20. Organic acid blend with pure botanical product treatment reduces Escherichia coli and Salmonella populations in pure culture and in in vitro mixed ruminal microorganism fermentations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne pathogenic bacteria can live in the intestinal tract of food animals and can be transmitted to humans via food or indirectly through animal or fecal contact. Organic acid blend products have been used as non-antibiotic modifiers of the gastrointestinal fermentation of food animals to impr...

  1. Microbial inoculant effects on silage and in vitro ruminal fermentation, and microbial biomass estimation for alfalfa, bmr corn, and corn silages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Third cut alfalfa, brown mid-rib (bmr) corn, and corn were chopped and inoculated with one of four different strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Uninoculated silage was the control treatment. For each crop, four mini-silos 1-L glass jars were ensiled per treatment. All silos were fermented for 60...

  2. Investigations on the effect of forage source, grinding, and urea supplementation on ruminal fermentation and microbial protein flow in a semi-continuous rumen simulation system.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Bastian; Boguhn, Jeannette; Rodehutscord, Markus

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of maize silage and grass silage on microbial fermentation and protein flow in a semi-continuous rumen simulation system (Rusitec) when milling screen size (MSS) during grinding was varied. Oven-dried silages were milled through screens of 1, 4 or 9 mm pore size and incubated for 48 h in a Rusitec system. Furthermore, the effect of N supplementation to maize silage (MSS: 4 mm) was investigated and single dose vs. continuous infusion of urea-N were compared. Degradation of organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), fibre fractions and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) as well as short-chain fatty acid production differed significantly between forage sources. Urea-N supplementation improved the degradation of NSC, but not that of fibre fractions in maize silage. The way of urea supply had only marginal effects on fermentation characteristics. An increase in MSS, and consequently in mean feed particle size, led to an improvement in the degradation of OM, CP and NSC, but efficiency of microbial net protein synthesis (EMPS; mg microbial N flow/g degraded OM) and the microbial amino acid profile were less affected. EMPS was higher in grass silage than in maize silage and was improved by urea-N supplementation in maize silage. This study indicates that fermentation of NSC as well as EMPS during incubation of maize silage was limited by availability of NH3-N. Furthermore, an increase in MSS above 1 mm seems to improve fermentation of silages in the Rusitec system. PMID:22164961

  3. Effects of feeding canola meal or wheat dried distillers grains with solubles as a major protein source in low- or high-crude protein diets on ruminal fermentation, omasal flow, and production in cows.

    PubMed

    Mutsvangwa, T; Kiran, D; Abeysekara, S

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding canola meal (CM) or wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (W-DDGS) as the major source of protein in diets varying in crude protein (CP) content on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein production, omasal nutrient flow, and production performance in lactating dairy cows. Eight lactating dairy cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 29-d periods (21 d of dietary adaptation and 8 d of measurements) and a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Four cows in 1 Latin square were ruminally cannulated to allow ruminal and omasal sampling. The treatment factors were (1) source of supplemental protein (CM vs. W-DDGS) and (2) dietary CP content (15 vs. 17%; DM basis). Diets contained 50% forage and 50% concentrate, and were fed twice daily at 0900 and 1600 h as total mixed rations for ad libitum intake. Dry matter intake and milk yield were unaffected by dietary treatments; however, milk yield in cows that were fed CM was numerically greater (+1.1 kg/d) when compared with cows fed W-DDGS. Feeding CM increased milk lactose content compared with feeding W-DDGS. Milk urea nitrogen and ruminal NH3-N concentrations were greater in cows fed the high-CP compared with those fed the low-CP diet. The rumen-degradable protein supply was greater in cows fed the high-CP when compared with those fed the low-CP diet when diets contained CM, whereas rumen-degradable protein supply was lower in cows fed the high-CP when compared with those fed the low-CP diet when diets contained W-DDGS. Total N flow at the omasal canal was not affected by diet; however, omasal flow of NH3-N was greater in cows fed CM when compared with those fed W-DDGS. The rumen-undegradable protein supply was greater in cows fed the low-CP when compared with those fed the high-CP diet when diets contained CM, whereas rumen-undegradable protein supply was lower in cows fed the low-CP when compared with those fed the

  4. The effect of the inclusion of recycled poultry bedding and the physical form of diet on the performance, ruminal fermentation, and plasma metabolites of fattening lambs.

    PubMed

    Mirmohammadi, D; Rouzbehan, Y; Fazaeli, H

    2015-08-01

    During a 125-d experimental period, 24 Afshari × Kurdish male lambs initially weighing 25.2 ± 1.2 kg were grouped by BW and randomly assigned to treatments under a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate the effects of feeding recycled poultry bedding (RPB; 0 and 200 g/kg DM) and the physical form of the diet (mash and block) on nutrient intake and digestibility, ruminal and plasma parameters, microbial N supply, N balance, feeding behavior, and growth performance of the lambs. Two diets with and without RPB in both mash and block form were prepared. Neither the inclusion of RPB nor the physical form of the diet affected the concentration of VFA or the total tract apparent digestibility of nutrients. Dietary RPB inclusion increased DMI ( < 0.01), tended ( = 0.10) to reduce ADG, and decreased G:F ( = 0.05). The physical form of the diet had no effect on DMI but decreased ADG ( = 0.01) and G:F ( = 0.02) in lambs fed on the block diet compared with those fed on the mash diet. Neither the inclusion of RPB nor the physical form of the diets had any effect on microbial N supply (g/d) and N retention. Rate of eating ( = 0.07), time spent eating ( = 0.87) and ruminating ( = 0.28), and total chewing activity ( = 0.65) were not affected by dietary RPB inclusion. Rate of eating decreased ( < 0.01) and time spent eating and total chewing activity increased ( = 0.01 and = 0.02, respectively) in lambs fed on the block diet compared with those fed on the mash diet. Results of the current study showed that inclusion of RPB up to 200 g/kg DM in diets for fattening was possible without any effect on performance and animal health. Processing of feed into the mash form gave higher livestock productivity in comparison to the block form. PMID:26440164

  5. Productivity, digestion, and health responses to hindgut acidosis in ruminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of large intestinal or hindgut fermentation in ruminant nutrition has received little research attention in recent decades. Though the contribution of the hindgut to total tract nutrient digestion is substantially less than the contribution from the rumen, hindgut fermentation impacts anima...

  6. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Urinary Incontinence What Is Urinary Incontinence? Urinary incontinence means a person leaks urine by ... about what you can do. Types of Urinary Incontinence There are different types of urinary incontinence. Stress ...

  7. Manipulation of ruminal fermentation and methane production by supplementation of rain tree pod meal containing tannins and saponins in growing dairy steers.

    PubMed

    Anantasook, N; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A

    2014-02-01

    Four rumen-fistulated dairy steers were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The main factors were two roughage-to-concentrate ratios (R:C, 60:40 and 40:60) and two supplementation levels of rain tree pod meal (RPM) [0 or unsupplemented and 60 g/kg of total dry matter (DM) intake]. Chopped 30 g/kg of urea-treated rice straw was used as a roughage source. All animals received dietary according to respective R:C ratios at 25 g/kg body weight. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 84 and 143 g/kg of DM respectively. It was found that total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and propionate concentrations were increased (p < 0.01), while acetate concentration, acetate-to-propionate ratio, CH4 production and protozoal numbers were decreased (p < 0.01) when steers were supplemented with RPM and 600 g/kg of concentrate. Allantoin excretion was found different by both R:C ratio and supplementation of RPM, with the highest value at R:C of 40:60 with 60 g/kg RPM (123.6 mmol/day) (p < 0.05). Allantoin absorption and microbial crude protein were increased (p < 0.05) with an increasing concentrate ratio. Moreover, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis was increased (p < 0.05) by feeding a higher ratio of concentrate (R:C 40:60) and supplementation of RPM. Based on this study, it is suggested that supplementation of RPM was beneficial for dairy cows fed on high roughage ratio, which could improved rumen fermentation by reducing fermentation gas loss, thus improving VFA profiles and thus enhancing efficiency of microbial protein synthesis. PMID:23294319

  8. Effect of Amino Nitrogen and Other Factors on the Growth and Non-Growth Energy Dissipation of Ruminal Bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of most ruminal bacteria to use ammonia as a nitrogen source for growth is a highly advantageous characteristic of ruminal fermentation, but bacteria typically grow faster and more efficiently if amino nitrogen (N) sources (ruminally degraded protein, peptide or amino acids) are also ava...

  9. Characteristics of Wet and Dried Distillers Grains on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation and Effects of Dietary Wet Distillers Grains on Performance of Hanwoo Steers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ill Young; Ahn, Gyu Chul; Kwak, Hyung Jun; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Oh, Young Kyoon; Lee, Sang Suk; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Park, Keun Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutrient composition, in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) and organic matter disappearance (IVOMD) of three kinds of distillers grains (DG); i) wet distillers grains (WDG, KRW 25/kg), ii) dried distillers grains (DDG, KRW 280/kg), iii) dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS, KRW 270/kg) produced from tapioca 70% and rice 30%, and to evaluate dietary effects of WDG on the performance of Hanwoo steers. In Exp. 1, twelve-WDG, four-DDG and one-DDGS were collected from seven ethanol plants. Average crude protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber of WDG, DDG, and DDGS were: 32.6%, 17.8%, 57.5%, and 30.2% for WDG, 36.7%, 13.9%, 51.4%, and 30.5% for DDG, and 31.0%, 11.9%, 40.3%, and 21.2% for DDGS (DM basis), respectively. The DDGS had a higher quantity of water-soluble fraction than WDG and DDG and showed the highest IVDMD (p<0.05) in comparison to others during the whole experimental time. The IVDMD at 0 to 12 h incubation were higher (p<0.05) in DDG than WDG, but did not show significant differences from 24 to 72 h. The same tendency was observed in IVOMD, showing that DG made from tapioca and rice (7:3) can be used as a feed ingredient for ruminants. Considering the price, WDG is a more useful feed ingredient than DDG and DDGS. In Exp. 2, 36 Hanwoo steers of 21 months (495.1±91 kg) were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 85 days; i) Control (total mixed ration, TMR), ii) WDG 10% (TMR containing 10% of WDG, as fed basis), and iii) WDG 20% (TMR containing 20% of WDG, as fed basis). With respect to body weight and average daily gain, there were no differences between control and WDG treatments during the whole experimental period. Dry matter intake of control (9.34 kg), WDG 10% (9.21 kg) and 20% (8.86 kg) and feed conversion ratio of control (13.0), WDG 10% (13.2) and 20% (12.1) did not show differences between control and WDG treatments. Thus, the use of WDG up

  10. Nutrient Digestibility, Ruminal Fermentation Activities, Serum Parameters and Milk Production and Composition of Lactating Goats Fed Diets Containing Rice Straw Treated with Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Kholif, A. E.; Khattab, H. M.; El-Shewy, A. A.; Salem, A. Z. M.; Kholif, A. M.; El-Sayed, M. M.; Gado, H. M.; Mariezcurrena, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated replacement of Egyptian berseem clover (BC, Trifolium alexandrinum) with spent rice straw (SRS) of Pleurotus ostreatus basidiomycete in diets of lactating Baladi goats. Nine lactating homo-parity Baladi goats (average BW 23.8±0.4 kg) at 7 d postpartum were used in a triplicate 3×3 Latin square design with 30 d experimental periods. Goats were fed a basal diet containing 0 (Control), 0.25 (SRS25) and 0.45 (SRS45) (w/w, DM basis) of SRS. The Control diet was berseem clover and concentrate mixture (1:1 DM basis). The SRS45 had lowered total feed intake and forages intake compared to Control. The SRS25 and SRS45 rations had the highest digestibilities of DM (p = 0.0241) and hemicellulose (p = 0.0021) compared to Control which had higher (p<0.01) digestibilities of OM (p = 0.0002) and CP (p = 0.0005) than SRS25 and SRS45. Ruminal pH and microbial protein synthesis were higher (p<0.0001) for SRS25 and SRS45 than Control, which also had the highest (p<0.0001) concentration of TVFA, total proteins, non-protein N, and ammonia-N. All values of serum constituents were within normal ranges. The Control ration had higher serum globulin (p = 0.0148), creatinine (p = 0.0150), glucose (p = 0.0002) and cholesterol (p = 0.0016). Both Control and SRS25 groups had the highest (p<0.05) milk (p = 0.0330) and energy corrected milk (p = 0.0290) yields. Fat content was higher (p = 0.0373) with SRS45 and SRS25 groups compared with Control. Replacement of BC with SRS in goat rations increased milk levels of conjugated linoleic acid and unsaturated fatty acids compared with Control. It was concluded that replacing 50% of Egyptian berseem clover with SRS in goat rations improved their productive performance without marked effects on metabolic indicators health. PMID:25049962

  11. Effect of dietary replacement of alfalfa with urea-treated almond hulls on intake, growth, digestibility, microbial nitrogen, nitrogen retention, ruminal fermentation, and blood parameters in fattening lambs.

    PubMed

    Rad, M Imani; Rouzbehan, Y; Rezaei, J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of dietary replacement of alfalfa with urea-treated almond hulls (UAH) on DM and nutrients intakes, growth performance, diet digestibility, microbial N supply (MNS), N retention, rumen fermentation parameters, and blood metabolites in fattening male Shall lambs (29.9 ± 1.9 kg initial BW). Three diets, with equal ME and CP concentrations and a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 40 to 60, were formulated in which alfalfa was replaced by different levels (0, 200, or 400 g/kg of diet DM) of UAH. Experimental diets were randomly assigned to the 3 groups ( = 8/group) in a completely randomized design for a 74-d period (14 d for adaptation and 60 d for data collection). Diets were offered as a total mixed ration to ensure 10% orts. Dry matter and nutrients intakes, animal growth, diet digestibility, MNS, N retention, rumen fermentation parameters, and plasma metabolites were determined. The dietary substitution of UAH for alfalfa had no effects on DMI (linear, = 0.96; quadratic, = 0.86), ADG (linear, = 0.35; quadratic, = 0.19), and G:F (linear, = 0.66; quadratic, = 0.13). In vivo digestibility coefficients of DM (linear, = 0.82; quadratic, = 0.42), OM (linear, = 0.73; quadratic, = 0.95), CP (linear, = 0.24; quadratic, = 0.66), and ash-free NDF (linear, = 0.69; quadratic, = 0.74) were not affected by the dietary treatment. Feeding lambs on diets containing UAH instead of alfalfa had no effects on MNS (linear, = 0.63; quadratic, = 0.68) and N retention (linear, = 0.44; quadratic, = 0.17). Rumen pH (linear, = 0.26; quadratic, = 0.071), ammonia N (linear, = 0.39; quadratic, = 0.13), and VFA (linear, = 0.091; quadratic, = 0.86) concentrations, acetic acid-to-propionic acid ratio (linear, = 0.93; quadratic, = 0.62), and protozoa population (linear, = 0.62; quadratic, = 0.22) were not influenced by the experimental diets. Substituting alfalfa with UAH had no effects on the plasma concentrations of glucose (linear, = 0

  12. Effects of the dicarboxylic acids malate and fumarate on E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium populations in pure culture and mixed ruminal culture in in vitro fermentations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dicarboxylic acids malate and fumarate increase ruminal pH, reduce methane production, increase propionate and total VFA production, and reduce lactic acid accumulation in a manner similar to ionophores. The mechanism by which these acids effect the ruminal environment is reported to be through...

  13. Effects of whole-plant corn silage hybrid type on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and lactation performance by dairy cows through a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the effect of whole-plant corn silage (WPCS) hybrids in dairy cattle diets may allow for better decisions on hybrid selection by dairy producers, as well as indicate potential strategies for the seed corn industry with regard to WPCS hybrids. Therefore, the objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis using literature data on the effects of WPCS hybrid type on intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and lactation performance by dairy cows. The meta-analysis was performed using a data set of 162 treatment means from 48 peer-reviewed articles published between 1995 and 2014. Hybrids were divided into 3 categories before analysis. Comparative analysis of WPCS hybrid types differing in stalk characteristics were in 4 categories: conventional, dual-purpose, isogenic, or low-normal fiber digestibility (CONS), brown midrib (BMR), hybrids with greater NDF but lower lignin (%NDF) contents or high in vitro NDF digestibility (HFD), and leafy (LFY). Hybrid types differing in kernel characteristics were in 4 categories: conventional or yellow dent (CONG), NutriDense (ND), high oil (HO), and waxy. Genetically modified (GM) hybrids were compared with their genetically similar non-biotech counterpart (ISO). Except for lower lignin content for BMR and lower starch content for HFD than CONS and LFY, silage nutrient composition was similar among hybrids of different stalk types. A 1.1 kg/d greater intake of DM and 1.5 and 0.05 kg/d greater milk and protein yields, respectively, were observed for BMR compared with CONS and LFY. Likewise, DMI and milk yield were greater for HFD than CONS, but the magnitude of the difference was smaller. Total-tract NDF digestibility was greater, but starch digestibility was reduced, for BMR and HFD compared with CONS or LFY. Silage nutrient composition was similar for hybrids of varied kernel characteristics, except for lower CP and EE content for CONG than ND and HO. Feeding HO WPCS to dairy cows decreased milk fat content

  14. Impact of variation in structure of condensed tannins from sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) on in vitro ruminal methane production and fermentation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hatew, B; Stringano, E; Mueller-Harvey, I; Hendriks, W H; Carbonero, C Hayot; Smith, L M J; Pellikaan, W F

    2016-04-01

    Our study investigated the effects of condensed tannins (CT) on rumen in vitro methane (CH4 ) production and fermentation characteristics by incubating lucerne in buffered rumen fluid in combination with different CT extracts at 0 (control), 40, 80 and 120 g CT/kg of substrate DM. Condensed tannins were extracted from four sainfoin accessions: Rees 'A', CPI63763, Cotswold Common and CPI63767. Gas production (GP) was measured using a fully automated GP apparatus with CH4 measured at distinct time points. Condensed tannins differed substantially in terms of polymer size and varied from 13 (Rees 'A') to 73 (CPI63767) mean degree of polymerization, but had relatively similar characteristics in terms of CT content, procyanidin: prodelphinidin (PC: PD) and cis:trans ratios. Compared to control, addition of CT from CPI63767 and CPI63763 at 80 and 120 g CT/kg of substrate DM reduced CH4 by 43% and 65%, and by 23% and 57%, respectively, after 24-h incubation. Similarly, CT from Rees 'A' and Cotswold Common reduced CH4 by 26% and 46%, and by 28% and 46% respectively. Addition of increasing level of CT linearly reduced the maximum rates of GP and CH4 production, and the estimated in vitro organic matter digestibility. There was a negative linear and quadratic (p < 0.01) relation between CT concentration and total volatile fatty acid (VFA) production. Inclusion of 80 and 120 g CT/kg of substrate DM reduced (p < 0.001) branched-chain VFA production and acetate: propionate ratio and was lowest for CPI63767. A decrease in proteolytic activity as indirectly shown by a change in VFA composition favouring a shift towards propionate and reduction in branched-chain VFA production varied with type of CT and was highest for CPI63767. In conclusion, these results suggest that tannin polymer size is an important factor affecting in vitro CH4 production which may be linked to the CT interaction with dietary substrate or microbial cells. PMID:25960083

  15. Opportunities to enhance performance and efficiency through nutrient synchrony in concentrate-fed ruminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synchronization of the ruminal degradation of carbohydrates and crude protein (CP) is projected to increase ruminal microbial protein synthesis, and improve nitrogen (N) use efficiency. Attempts to synchronize the fermentation of dietary carbohydrates and CP have been met with mixed results, sugges...

  16. Divergent utilization patterns of grass fructan, inulin, and other nonfiber carbohydrates by ruminal microbes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fructans are an important nonfiber carbohydrate in cool-season grasses. Their fermentation by ruminal microbes is not well described, though such information is needed to understand their nutritional value to ruminants. Our objective was to compare kinetics and product formation of orchardgrass fruc...

  17. RUMINANT NUTRITION SYMPOSIUM: Use of genomics and transcriptomics to identify strategies to lower ruminal methanogenesis.

    PubMed

    McAllister, T A; Meale, S J; Valle, E; Guan, L L; Zhou, M; Kelly, W J; Henderson, G; Attwood, G T; Janssen, P H

    2015-04-01

    Globally, methane (CH4) emissions account for 40% to 45% of greenhouse gas emissions from ruminant livestock, with over 90% of these emissions arising from enteric fermentation. Reduction of carbon dioxide to CH4 is critical for efficient ruminal fermentation because it prevents the accumulation of reducing equivalents in the rumen. Methanogens exist in a symbiotic relationship with rumen protozoa and fungi and within biofilms associated with feed and the rumen wall. Genomics and transcriptomics are playing an increasingly important role in defining the ecology of ruminal methanogenesis and identifying avenues for its mitigation. Metagenomic approaches have provided information on changes in abundances as well as the species composition of the methanogen community among ruminants that vary naturally in their CH4 emissions, their feed efficiency, and their response to CH4 mitigators. Sequencing the genomes of rumen methanogens has provided insight into surface proteins that may prove useful in the development of vaccines and has allowed assembly of biochemical pathways for use in chemogenomic approaches to lowering ruminal CH4 emissions. Metagenomics and metatranscriptomic analysis of entire rumen microbial communities are providing new perspectives on how methanogens interact with other members of this ecosystem and how these relationships may be altered to reduce methanogenesis. Identification of community members that produce antimethanogen agents that either inhibit or kill methanogens could lead to the identification of new mitigation approaches. Discovery of a lytic archaeophage that specifically lyses methanogens is 1 such example. Efforts in using genomic data to alter methanogenesis have been hampered by a lack of sequence information that is specific to the microbial community of the rumen. Programs such as Hungate1000 and the Global Rumen Census are increasing the breadth and depth of our understanding of global ruminal microbial communities, steps that

  18. Urinary incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    Loss of bladder control; Uncontrollable urination; Urination - uncontrollable; Incontinence - urinary ... Causes of urinary incontinence include: Blockage in the urinary system Brain or nerve problems Dementia or other mental health problems that make ...

  19. Complete Genome of the Cellulolytic Ruminal Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7

    SciTech Connect

    Suen, Garret; Stevenson, David M; Bruce, David; Chertkov, Olga; Copeland, A; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Detter, J. Chris; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Han, Cliff; Hauser, Loren John; Ivanova, N; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Land, Miriam L; Lapidus, Alla L.; Lucas, Susan; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pitluck, Sam; Tapia, Roxanne; Woyke, Tanja; Boyum, Julie; Mead, David; Weimer, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic ruminal bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome of this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology and cellulosome biology and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation products is ethanol.

  20. Fermentation process

    SciTech Connect

    Lutzen, N.W.

    1982-02-23

    Fermentation process consists essentially of fermenting a 10-45% w/w aqueous slurry of granular starch for the production of ethanol with an ethanol-producing microorganism in the presence of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, the conduct of said fermentation being characterized by low levels of dextrin and fermentable sugars in solution in the fermentation broth throughout the fermentation, and thereafter recovering enzymes from the fermentation broth for use anew in fermentation of granular starch.

  1. Ruminant nitrogen usage

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book brings together the latest research on protein absorption by ruminants and takes a look at the calculation of optimum nutrient requirements, including bacterial digestion, in the calculations. It also describes the parameters of nitrogen conversion in the ruminant and examines the different kinds of protein found in animal feedstuffs.

  2. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... you risk getting rashes, sores, skin infections and urinary tract infections. Also, you may find yourself avoiding friends and ... elderly and may be a sign of a urinary tract infection or an overactive bladder. Overflow incontinence This type ...

  3. Urinary Dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Living with Prostate Cancer Urinary Dysfunction Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction ... dysfunction is normal following initial therapy for localized prostate cancer. But it’s important to realize that not all ...

  4. Urinary catheters

    MedlinePlus

    ... that you use a catheter if you have: Urinary incontinence (leaking urine or being unable to control when ... Surgery Bladder Diseases Spinal Cord Injuries Urethral Disorders Urinary Incontinence Urine and Urination Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  5. Performance of feedlot steers fed diets containing laidlomycin propionate or monensin plus tylosin, and effects of laidlomycin propionate concentration on intake patterns and ruminal fermentation in beef steers during adaptation to a high-concentrate diet.

    PubMed

    Galyean, M L; Malcolm, K J; Duff, G C

    1992-10-01

    Two hundred eighty-eight beef steers (British x Continental x Brahman) were fed a 90% concentrate diet containing either no ionophore (control), laidlomycin propionate at either 6 or 12 mg/kg of dietary DM, or monensin plus tylosin (31 and 12 mg/kg of DM, respectively). Neither of the two levels of laidlomycin propionate nor monensin plus tylosin affected (P greater than .10) ADG or feed:gain ratio. Monensin plus tylosin reduced (P less than .01) daily DMI for the 161-d trial period compared with the other three treatments. Laidlomycin propionate at 6 mg/kg increased (P less than .05) DMI relative to the control, laidlomycin propionate at 12 mg/kg, and monensin plus tylosin diets during the 2nd wk of the trial and from d 57 to 84. Treatments did not affect carcass measurements. In a second experiment, 12 ruminally cannulated steers were fed diets containing no ionophore or laidlomycin propionate at either 6 or 12 mg/kg of DM. Samples were obtained for two consecutive days while the dietary concentrate level was 75%, after which the diet was switched abruptly to 90% concentrate, and samples were collected on several days during a 21-d period. The rate at which steers consumed their daily allotment of feed was not altered markedly by laidlomycin propionate. Likewise, laidlomycin propionate did not affect total ruminal VFA concentrations or proportions. Ruminal concentrations of D-lactate were reduced (P less than .10) by 6 but not by 12 mg/kg of laidlomycin propionate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1429270

  6. Effects of Synchronization of Carbohydrate and Protein Supply in Total Mixed Ration with Korean Rice Wine Residue on Ruminal Fermentation, Nitrogen Metabolism and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Holstein Steers

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Min Yu; Kim, Hyun J.; Seo, J. K.; Park, T. S.; Yoon, J. S.; Kim, K. H.; Ha, Jong K.

    2012-01-01

    Three Holstein steers in the growing phase, each with a ruminal cannula, were used to test the hypothesis that the synchronization of the hourly rate of carbohydrate and nitrogen (N) released in the rumen would increase the amount of retained nitrogen for growth and thus improve the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS). In Experiment 1, in situ degradability coefficients of carbohydrate and N in feeds including Korean rice wine residue (RWR) were determined. In Experiment 2, three total mixed ration (TMR) diets having different rates of carbohydrate and N release in the rumen were formulated using the in situ degradability of the feeds. All diets were made to contain similar contents of crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) but varied in their hourly pattern of nutrient release. The synchrony index of the three TMRs was 0.51 (LS), 0.77 (MS) and 0.95 (HS), respectively. The diets were fed at a restricted level (2% of the animal’s body weight) in a 3×3 Latin-square design. Synchronizing the hourly supply of energy and N in the rumen did not significantly alter the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, NDF or acid detergent fiber (ADF) (p>0.05). The ruminal NH3-N content of the LS group at three hours after feeding was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the other groups; however, the mean values of ruminal NH3-N, pH and VFA concentration among the three groups were not significantly different (p>0.05). In addition, the purine derivative (PD) excretion in urine and microbial-N production (MN) among the three groups were not significantly different (p>0.05). In conclusion, synchronizing dietary energy and N supply to the rumen did not have a major effect on nutrient digestion or microbial protein synthesis (MPS) in Holstein steers. PMID:25049518

  7. Supplemental cracked corn or wheat bran for steers grazing endophyte-free fescue pasture: effects on live weight gain, nutrient quality, forage intake, particulate and fluid kinetics, ruminal fermentation, and digestion.

    PubMed

    Hess, B W; Krysl, L J; Judkins, M B; Holcombe, D W; Hess, J D; Hanks, D R; Huber, S A

    1996-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted with beef steers (Exp. 1, average BW of 580 kg; Exp. 2, average BW of 247 kg) to evaluate the use of no supplements (CON) or daily supplementation with (OM basis) .34% of BW of cracked corn (CORN), .34% of BW of wheat bran (WBBW), or .48% of BW of wheat bran (WBISO; calculated to be isocaloric to CORN) on digestive responses (Exp. 1) and live weight gain (Exp. 2). In Exp. 1, type of supplement did not affect (P > .10) the dietary fiber or N constituents, but in vitro OM disappearance of the forage differed (P < .10) with supplementation and type of supplement fed. Supplemented steers consumed less (P < .05) forage and total OM. Particulate passage, fluid passage, and ruminal pH were not affected (P > .10) by supplementation. Ruminal NH3 N concentration showed (P < .05) a treatment x sampling time interaction and, in general, WBBW and WBISO steers had greater ruminal NH3 N than CORN and CON steers. Total VFA concentrations and molar proportions of propionate were lower (P < .10) in CON steers than in supplemented steers; no differences were noted (P > .10) among supplemented steers. Molar proportions of acetate were lower (P = .01) in supplemented steers than in CON steers and were greater (P = .03) in WBBW steers than in WBISO steers. Butyrate molar proportions were lower (P < .05) in CON steers than in supplemented steers and differed (P < .10) with type and quantity of supplement supplied. In situ forage NDF disappearance at 6, 9, and 24 h after feeding and rate of disappearance were greater (P < .05) in CON steers than in supplemented steers. In Exp. 2, CON steers weighed less (P = .01) than supplemented steers, CORN steers weighed more (P = .08) than wheat bran-supplemented steers, and WBISO steers weighed more (P = .02) than WBBW steers; ADG for 90 d followed a similar response. Results suggest that supplementation of wheat bran rather than corn did not seem to stop the reduction in forage intake or OM digestion associated with

  8. Ruminal biohydrogenation as affected by tannins in vitro.

    PubMed

    Vasta, Valentina; Makkar, Harinder P S; Mele, Marcello; Priolo, Alessandro

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the effects of tannins from carob (CT; Ceratonia siliqua), acacia leaves (AT; Acacia cyanophylla) and quebracho (QT; Schinopsis lorentzii) on ruminal biohydrogenation in vitro. The tannins extracted from CT, AT and QT were incubated for 12 h in glass syringes in cow buffered ruminal fluid (BRF) with hay or hay plus concentrate as a substrate. Within each feed, three concentrations of tannins were used (0.0, 0.6 and 1.0 mg/ml BRF). The branched-chain volatile fatty acids, the branched-chain fatty acids and the microbial protein concentration were reduced (P < 0.05) by tannins. In the tannin-containing fermenters, vaccenic acid was accumulated (+23 %, P < 0.01) while stearic acid was reduced ( - 16 %, P < 0.0005). The concentration of total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in the BRF was not affected by tannins. The assay on linoleic acid isomerase (LA-I) showed that the enzyme activity (nmol CLA produced/min per mg protein) was unaffected by the inclusion of tannins in the fermenters. However, the CLA produced by LA-I (nmol/ml per min) was lower in the presence of tannins. These results suggest that tannins reduce ruminal biohydrogenation through the inhibition of the activity of ruminal micro-organisms. PMID:19063768

  9. [PESTIVIRUSES IN RUMINANTS].

    PubMed

    Glotov, A G; Glotova, T I; Shulyak, A F

    2016-01-01

    The genus Pestivirus includes four species: bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, classical swine fever disease virus, and ovine border disease virus. Pestiviruses infect many species of domestic and wild animals. Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a prototypical representative of the pestiviruses of ruminant animals. Recently, new candidates appeared for including in this genus: two viruses of the wild ruminant animals that have not been officially classified and one HoBi-like virus discovered for the first time in the bovine fetal serum. The circulation of the ruminant animal pestiviruses within population of domestic and wild animals, the presence of these viruses in bioproducts stimulates studies of the infection reservoirs and their influence on the effect of the bovine viral diarrhea control programs. PMID:27451496

  10. Ruminal Acidosis in Feedlot: From Aetiology to Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Joaquín; Benedito, José Luis; Abuelo, Angel; Castillo, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Acute ruminal acidosis is a metabolic status defined by decreased blood pH and bicarbonate, caused by overproduction of ruminal D-lactate. It will appear when animals ingest excessive amount of nonstructural carbohydrates with low neutral detergent fiber. Animals will show ruminal hypotony/atony with hydrorumen and a typical parakeratosis-rumenitis liver abscess complex, associated with a plethora of systemic manifestations such as diarrhea and dehydration, liver abscesses, infections of the lung, the heart, and/or the kidney, and laminitis, as well as neurologic symptoms due to both cerebrocortical necrosis and the direct effect of D-lactate on neurons. In feedlots, warning signs include decrease in chewing activity, weight, and dry matter intake and increase in laminitis and diarrhea prevalence. The prognosis is quite variable. Treatment will be based on the control of systemic acidosis and dehydration. Prevention is the most important tool and will require normalization of ruminal pH and microbiota. Appropriate feeding strategies are essential and involve changing the dietary composition to increase neutral detergent fiber content and greater particle size and length. Appropriate grain processing can control the fermentation rate while additives such as prebiotics or probiotics can help to stabilize the ruminal environment. Immunization against producers of D-lactate is being explored. PMID:25489604

  11. Effect of dietary cation-anion difference on ruminal metabolism, total apparent digestibility, blood and renal acid-base regulation in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Martins, C M M R; Arcari, M A; Welter, K C; Gonçalves, J L; Santos, M V

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on ruminal fermentation, total apparent digestibility, blood and renal metabolism of lactating dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein cows were distributed in four contemporary 4×4 Latin Square designs, which consisted of four periods of 21 days and four treatments according to DCAD: +290; +192; +98 and -71 milliequivalent (mEq)/kg dry matter (DM). Ruminal pH and concentrations of acetic and butyric acid increased linearly according to the increase of DCAD. Similarly, NDF total apparent digestibility linearly increased by 6.38% when DCAD increased from -71 to 290 mEq/kg DM [Y=65.90 (SE=2.37)+0.0167 (SE=0.0068)×DCAD (mEq/kg DM)]. Blood pH was also increased according to DCAD, which resulted in reduction of serum concentrations of Na, K and ionic calcium (iCa). To maintain the blood acid-base homeostasis, renal metabolism played an important role in controlling serum concentrations of Na and K, since the Na and K urinary excretion increased linearly by 89.69% and 46.06%, respectively, from -71 to 290 mEq/kg DM. Changes in acid-base balance of biological fluids may directly affect the mineral composition of milk, as milk concentrations of Na, K, iCa and chlorides were reduced according to blood pH increased. Thus, it can be concluded that the increase of DCAD raises the pH of ruminal fluid, NDF total apparent digestibility, and blood pH, and decreases the milk concentration of cationic minerals, as well as the efficiency of Na utilization to milk production. PMID:26289745

  12. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is loss of bladder control. Symptoms can range from mild leaking to uncontrollable wetting. It can happen to anyone, but it becomes more common with age. Women experience ...

  13. Fermented Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wide variety of fermented foods of the world can be classified by the materials obtained from the fermentation, such as alcohol (beer, wine), organic acid such as lactic acid and acetic acid (vegetables, dairy), carbon dioxide (bread), and amino acids or peptides from protein (fish fermentations...

  14. Influence of Yucca shidigera extract on ruminal ammonia concentrations and ruminal microorganisms.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, R J; Arthaud, L; Newbold, C J

    1994-01-01

    An extract of the desert plant Yucca shidigera was assessed for its possible benefit in ruminal fermentation. The extract bound ammonia in aqueous solution when concentrations of ammonia were low (up to 0.4 mM) and when the extract was added at a high concentration to the sample (20%, vol/vol). The apparent ammonia-binding capability was retained after autoclaving and was decreased slightly following dialysis. Acid-precipitated extract was inactive. No evidence of substantial ammonia binding was found at higher ammonia concentrations (up to 30 mM). When Y. shidigera extract (1%, vol/vol) was added to strained rumen fluid in vitro, a small (6%) but significant (P < 0.05) decrease in ammonia concentration occurred, apparently because of decreased proteolysis. Inclusion of Y. shidigera extract (1%, vol/vol) in the growth medium of the rumen bacterium Streptococcus bovis ES1 extended its lag phase, while growth of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens SH13 was abolished. The growth of Prevotella (Bacteroides) ruminicola B(1)4 was stimulated, and that of Selenomonas ruminantium Z108 was unaffected. Protozoal activity, as measured by the breakdown of 14C-leucine-labelled S. ruminantium in rumen fluid incubated in vitro, was abolished by the addition of 1% extract. The antimicrobial activities were unaffected by precipitating tannins with polyvinylpyrrolidone, but a butanol extract, containing the saponin fraction, retained its antibacterial and antiprotozoal effects. Saponins from other sources were less effective against protozoa than Y. shidigera saponins. Y. shidigera extract, therefore, appears unlikely to influence ammonia concentration in the rumen directly, but its saponins have antimicrobial properties, particularly in suppressing ciliate protozoa, which may prove beneficial to ruminal fermentation and may lead indirectly to lower ruminal ammonia concentrations. PMID:8031077

  15. Multicarbohydrase Enzymes for Non-ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Masey O’Neill, H. V.; Smith, J. A.; Bedford, M. R.

    2014-01-01

    The first purpose of this review is to outline some of the background information necessary to understand the mechanisms of action of fibre-degrading enzymes in non-ruminants. Secondly, the well-known and understood mechanisms are described, i) eliminating the nutrient encapsulating effect of the cell wall and ii) ameliorating viscosity problems associated with certain Non Starch Polysaccharides, particularly arabinoxylans and β-glucans. A third, indirect mechanism is then discussed: the activity of such enzymes in producing prebiotic oligosaccharides and promoting beneficial cecal fermentation. The literature contains a wealth of information on various non starch polysaccharide degrading enzyme (NSPase) preparations and this review aims to conclude by discussing this body of work, with reference to the above mechanisms. It is suggested that the way in which multi- versus single-component products are compared is often flawed and that some continuity should be employed in methods and terminology. PMID:25049954

  16. Peste des petits ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Parida, S.; Muniraju, M.; Mahapatra, M.; Muthuchelvan, D.; Buczkowski, H.; Banyard, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants. PMID:26443889

  17. Whole corn and wet distiller's grains substitution in steam-flaked corn diet alters rumen fermentation and bacterial dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study evaluated effects of whole shelled corn (WSC) in steam-flaked corn (SFC) finishing diets containing differing amounts of wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDGS) on ruminal fermentation and shifts in ruminal bacterial populations. A total of 642 heifers (initial body weight (BW) = 412 +/-...

  18. Effects of Dietary Linseed Oil and Propionate Precursors on Ruminal Microbial Community, Composition, and Diversity in Yanbian Yellow Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jong S.; Choi, Seong H.; Smith, Stephen B.; Yan, Chang G.

    2015-01-01

    The rumen microbial ecosystem is a complex system where rumen fermentation processes involve interactions among microorganisms. There are important relationships between diet and the ruminal bacterial composition. Thus, we investigated the ruminal fermentation characteristics and compared ruminal bacterial communities using tag amplicon pyrosequencing analysis in Yanbian yellow steers, which were fed linseed oil (LO) and propionate precursors. We used eight ruminally cannulated Yanbian yellow steers (510 ± 5.8 kg) in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with four dietary treatments. Steers were fed a basal diet that comprised 80% concentrate and 20% rice straw (DM basis, CON). The CON diet was supplemented with LO at 4%. The LO diet was also supplemented with 2% dl-malate or 2% fumarate as ruminal precursors of propionate. Dietary supplementation with LO and propionate precursors increased ruminal pH, total volatile fatty acid concentrations, and the molar proportion of propionate. The most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units in the rumen were related to dietary treatments. Bacteroidetes dominated the ruminal bacterial community and the genus Prevotella was highly represented when steers were fed LO plus propionate precursors. However, with the CON and LO diet plus malate or fumarate, Firmicutes was the most abundant phylum and the genus Ruminococcus was predominant. In summary, supplementing the diets of ruminants with a moderate level of LO plus propionate precursors modified the ruminal fermentation pattern. The most positive responses to LO and propionate precursors supplementation were in the phyla Bacteriodetes and Firmicutes, and in the genus Ruminococcus and Prevotella. Thus, diets containing LO plus malate or fumarate have significant effects on the composition of the rumen microbial community. PMID:26024491

  19. Potential environmental benefits of ionophores in ruminant diets.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Luis Orlindo; Fox, Danny Gene; Tylutki, Thomas Paul

    2003-01-01

    A concern of the USEPA is the volatilization of NH3 from animal manure and CH4 produced from ruminal fermentation. Excess N in the environment has been associated with adverse effects on human health, and CH4 and N2O emissions are sources of greenhouse gases. The objectives of this paper are to summarize and quantify the benefits of ionophores, principally monensin, in decreasing NH3 and CH4 emissions to the environment and reducing resource utilization in cattle (Bos spp.) production. The data indicate that monensin in the diets of ruminants may decrease protein degradation in the rumen and may increase feed protein utilization by an average of 3.5 percentage units. These changes would have an effect in reducing N losses and decreasing fecal N and the amount of protein that must be fed to meet animal requirements. Additionally, CH4 is produced by enteric fermentation in ruminants, which is responsible for about 33 to 39% of CH4 emissions from agriculture. Ionophores can reduce CH4 production by 25% and decrease feed intake by 4% without affecting animal performance. The inclusion of monensin in beef and dairy cattle diets may benefit air quality by reducing CH4 and N emissions and water quality by reducing N in manure, which can potentially leave the farm through leaching into ground water and through runoff into surface water. PMID:14535299

  20. Cacao Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Martelli, H. L.; Dittmar, H. F. K.

    1961-01-01

    Cacao beans must be subjected to fermentation before they are used in making chocolate, and their commercial value is related to a proper procedure. Saccharomyces rosei, Hansenula anomala, Pichia fermentans, Pichia membranaefaciens, and Trichosporon cutaneum were found in fermenting cacao beans. All species isolated during the investigation grew on cacao pulp, but only S. rosei, H. anomala, and P. fermentans exhibited fermenting capacity on the sugars of cacao pulp. Species of the genus Saccharomyces were identified as the agents responsible for the alcoholic phase of the cacao fermentation. PMID:13767275

  1. Urinary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, P. R.

    1971-01-01

    The present incidence, clinical features and classification of urinary tuberculosis are discussed. Chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment. The indications for surgical intervention are reviewed and procedures briefly described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:5169185

  2. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adults Making Your Wishes Known Home & Community Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Urinary Incontinence Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic Facts & Information Causes & Symptoms Diagnosis & Tests Care & Treatment Lifestyle & Management Other Resources Caregiving How ...

  3. Urinary Retention

    MedlinePlus

    ... the bladder does not empty completely. A health care provider performs this test during an office visit. The patient often receives ... urodynamic tests to diagnose urinary retention. The health care provider will perform these tests during an office visit. For tests that use ...

  4. Measuring State-Specific Rumination: Development of the Rumination about an Interpersonal Offense Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Nathaniel G.; Vogel, David L.; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Goldman, Daniel B.

    2008-01-01

    The tendency to ruminate has been consistently linked to psychological disturbances, such as increased stress, anger, and fear in response to provocations. However, existing measures of rumination focus on the disposition to ruminate rather than on rumination about a specific situation. This limits the ability to explore rumination about a…

  5. Brief Report: Adolescents' Co-Rumination with Mothers, Co-Rumination with Friends, and Internalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Erika M.; Rose, Amanda J.

    2013-01-01

    The current research examined co-rumination (extensively discussing, rehashing, and speculating about problems) with mothers and friends. Of interest was exploring whether adolescents who co-ruminate with mothers were especially likely to co-ruminate with friends as well as the interplay among co-rumination with mothers, co-rumination with…

  6. Cucumber fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humans have consumed fermented cucumber products since before the dawn of civilization. Although cucumber fermentation remains largely a traditional process, it has proven to be a consistently safe process by which raw cucumbers are transformed into high quality pickles that have a long shelf-life ...

  7. Fermented Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is organized into several sections. The first has information on the history of vegetable fermentation research in the US, dating back to the late 1880s. A overview of commercial cucumber and sauerkraut fermentation practices follows, focusing on the US market, although there is some me...

  8. Ruminal changes in monensin- and lasalocid-fed cattle grazing bloat-provocative alfalfa pasture.

    PubMed

    Katz, M P; Nagaraja, T G; Fina, L R

    1986-10-01

    Microbial and fermentation changes in the rumen in monensin- and lasalocid-fed cattle grazing bloat-provocative alfalfa pasture were studied using genetically bloat-susceptible, ruminally-cannulated adult cattle. Monensin at .66 and .99 mg/kg body weight daily reduced the severity of legume bloat by 41 and 73%, respectively. The same doses of lasalocid reduced bloat by 25 and 12%. Comparison of ruminal contents from animals before treatment with ruminal contents from antibiotic-treated animals showed no differences in pH, ammonia, soluble N, soluble carbohydrate, ethanol-precipitable slime and anaerobic bacterial counts. Monensin treatment decreased protozoal numbers and microbial activity, as evidenced by lower gas production from in vitro fermentation of ground alfalfa hay when compared to pretreatment. Lasalocid had no effect on protozoal counts and in vitro gas production. Addition of monensin or lasalocid (12 micrograms/ml) to in vitro fermentation of chopped, fresh alfalfa reduced microbial activity as evidenced by higher soluble N, lower ammonia concentration and decreased gas production. Monensin reduced the amount of ethanol-precipitable slime and protozoal numbers. Reduction in the severity of bloat when monensin was fed appears to be due to decreased protozoal numbers, which resulted in decreased gas production. Lasalocid did not reduce legume bloat because of its minimal effect on the ruminal protozoa. PMID:3771403

  9. An assessment of GHG emissions from small ruminants in comparison with GHG emissions from large ruminants and monogastric livestock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zervas, G.; Tsiplakou, E.

    2012-03-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are expected to cause global warming which results in extreme weather changes that could affect crop yields and productivity, food supplies and food prices. It is also expected that climate change will have an impact on animal metabolism and health, reproduction and productivity. On the other hand, the expected increased demand of animal origin products in the coming years will increase the reared animal numbers and consequently GHG emissions. This paper outlines the main GHGs emitted from livestock which are CO2, CH4 and N2O, coming from respiration, enteric fermentation and manure management respectively, with CH4 and N2O having the highest global warming potential. Ruminant livestock has the highest contribution to these GHG emissions with small ruminants share being 12.25% of the total GHG emissions from livestock's enteric and manure CH4, and manure N2O in CO2 equivalent, producing 9.45 kg CO2 equivalent per kg body weight with the respective values for cattle, pigs and poultry being 5.45, 3.97 and 3.25. Since the production systems significantly affect the GHG emissions, the grazing, livestock crop complex, and intensive ones account for 30.5%, 67.29% and 5.51% for total CH4 emission (from enteric fermentation and manure management) and 24.32%, 68.11% and 7.57% for N2O respectively. Taking into account the positive and negative impacts of small ruminant livestock production systems to the environmental aspects in general, it is recommended that a number of potentially effective measures should be taken and the appropriate mitigation technologies should be applied in order to reduce effectively and essentially the GHG emissions to the atmosphere, with no adverse effects on intensification and increased productivity of small ruminants production systems.

  10. Susceptibility and resistance of ruminal bacteria to antimicrobial feed additives.

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraja, T G; Taylor, M B

    1987-01-01

    Susceptibility and resistance of ruminal bacterial species to avoparcin, narasin, salinomycin, thiopeptin, tylosin, virginiamycin, and two new ionophore antibiotics, RO22-6924/004 and RO21-6447/009, were determined. Generally, antimicrobial compounds were inhibitory to gram-positive bacteria and those bacteria that have gram-positive-like cell wall structure. MICs ranged from 0.09 to 24.0 micrograms/ml. Gram-negative bacteria were resistant at the highest concentration tested (48.0 micrograms/ml). On the basis of their fermentation products, ruminal bacteria that produce lactic acid, butyric acid, formic acid, or hydrogen were susceptible and bacteria that produce succinic acid or ferment lactic acid were resistant to the antimicrobial compounds. Selenomonas ruminantium was the only major lactic acid-producing bacteria resistant to all the antimicrobial compounds tested. Avoparcin and tylosin appeared to be less inhibitory (MIC greater than 6.0 micrograms/ml) than the other compounds to the two major lactic acid-producing bacteria, Streptococcus bovis and Lactobacillus sp. Ionophore compounds seemed to be more inhibitory (MIC, 0.09 to 1.50 micrograms/ml) than nonionophore compounds (MIC, 0.75 to 12.0 micrograms/ml) to the major butyric acid-producing bacteria. Treponema bryantii, an anaerobic rumen spirochete, was less sensitive to virginiamycin than to the other antimicrobial compounds. Ionophore compounds were generally bacteriostatic, and nonionophore compounds were bactericidal. The specific growth rate of Bacteroides ruminicola was reduced by all the antimicrobial compounds except avoparcin. The antibacterial spectra of the feed additives were remarkably similar, and it appears that MICs may not be good indicators of the potency of the compounds in altering ruminal fermentation characteristics. PMID:3116929

  11. Rumination fosters indecision in dysphoria.

    PubMed

    van Randenborgh, Annette; de Jong-Meyer, Renate; Hüffmeier, Joachim

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of rumination on indecision, assessed as high levels of perceived decision difficulty, low confidence in a decision, and decision latency. Dysphoric and nondysphoric participants were assigned to either a rumination or a distraction induction. Subsequently, they made four decisions with alleged real-life consequences. As predicted, rumination exhibited a negative effect on dysphoric participants' decision-making process. They experienced the decisions as more difficult and had less confidence in their choices. No effects emerged on the measure of decision time. Mediation analyses revealed that increased difficulty of the decisions was due to self-focused thinking as a cognitive consequence of rumination, while reduced confidence in the decisions was partly mediated by negative affect that resulted from rumination. The finding that rumination affects the important life domain of decision making by fostering indecision in dysphoric individuals is a central extension of previous studies on rumination's consequences. In addition, these results provide insight into the depressive symptom of indecisiveness by revealing its underlying mechanisms. PMID:19904809

  12. [Ruminal drinkers and clay defecators].

    PubMed

    de Visser, N A; Breukink, H J

    1984-10-15

    In this clinical lecture, attention is drawn to the phenomenon of young milk-fed calves showing irregular appetites and recurrent bloat. These patients often produce faeces which are too dry and too light in colour. These symptoms are preceded by inadequate closing of the oesophageal groove during milk intake, which causes an inflow of milk into the rumen rather than into the abomasum. The present authors introduced the term 'Ruminal Drinkers' to describe this type of patient. The identification of ruminal drinkers as well as the clinical findings are reviewed. The effects of ruminal drinking, the therapy indicated and a number of preventive measures are discussed. PMID:6506050

  13. End product yields from the extraruminal fermentation of various polysaccharide, protein and nucleic acid components of biofuels feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Extraruminal” fermentations, employing mixed ruminal bacterial consortia incubated in vitro, are capable of fermenting a complex array of biomass materials to mixtures of volatile fatty acids (VFA), methane, and carbon dioxide. Most of the potential energy in the biomass feedstock is retained in th...

  14. Comparison of fermentation of diets of variable composition and microbial populations in the rumen of sheep and Rusitec fermenters. I. Digestibility, fermentation parameters, and microbial growth.

    PubMed

    Martínez, M E; Ranilla, M J; Tejido, M L; Ramos, S; Carro, M D

    2010-08-01

    Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated sheep and 8 Rusitec fermenters were used to determine the effects of forage to concentrate (F:C) ratio and type of forage in the diet on ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis. The purpose of the study was to assess how closely fermenters can mimic the dietary differences found in vivo. The 4 experimental diets contained F:C ratios of 70:30 or 30:70 with either alfalfa hay or grass hay as the forage. Microbial growth was determined in both systems using (15)N as a microbial marker. Rusitec fermenters detected differences between diets similar to those observed in sheep by changing F:C ratio on pH; neutral detergent fiber digestibility; total volatile fatty acid concentrations; molar proportions of acetate, propionate, butyrate, isovalerate, and caproate; and amylase activity. In contrast, Rusitec fermenters did not reproduce the dietary differences found in sheep for NH(3)-N and lactate concentrations, dry matter (DM) digestibility, proportions of isobutyrate and valerate, carboxymethylcellulase and xylanase activities, and microbial growth and its efficiency. Regarding the effect of the type of forage in the diet, Rusitec fermenters detected differences between diets similar to those found in sheep for most determined parameters, with the exception of pH, DM digestibility, butyrate proportion, and carboxymethylcellulase activity. Minimum pH and maximal volatile fatty acid concentrations were reached at 2h and at 6 to 8h postfeeding in sheep and fermenters, respectively, indicating that feed fermentation was slower in fermenters compared with that in sheep. There were differences between systems in the magnitude of most determined parameters. In general, fermenters showed lower lactate concentrations, neutral detergent fiber digestibility, acetate:propionate ratios, and enzymatic activities. On the contrary, fermenters showed greater NH(3)-N concentrations, DM digestibility, and proportions of propionate

  15. Stress urinary incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... you urinate. Urinalysis to check for urinary tract infection. Urinary stress test: You stand with a full bladder ... out of the bed or chair Unpleasant odors Urinary tract infections Vaginal discharge The condition may get in the ...

  16. Fermentation industry

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.L.

    1980-06-01

    This article reviews current literature on the fermentation industry. The reuse, recycling and recovery of by-products previously discarded as waste are mentioned, including a Swedish brewery that hopes to reduce discharge of pollutants and the production of single cell protein from a variety of fermentation wastes. The treatment of wastes to produce food substitutes and fertilizers is mentioned together with treatment methods used in distilleries, wineries and in the pharmaceutical industry. (87 References)

  17. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    MedlinePlus

    ... repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al. Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ...

  18. Comparison of growth characteristics of anaerobic fungi isolated from ruminant and non-ruminant herbivores during cultivation in a defined medium.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, M J; Op den Camp, H J; Orpin, C G; Huis in 't Veld, J H; Vogels, G D

    1991-06-01

    Anaerobic fungi were isolated from rumen fluid of a domestic sheep (Ovis aries; a ruminant) and from faeces of five non-ruminants: African elephant (Loxodonta africana), black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), Indian elephant (Elephas maximus) and mara (Dolichotis patagonum). The anaerobic fungus isolated from the sheep was a Neocallimastix species and the isolates from non-ruminants were all species similar to Piromyces spp. A defined medium is described which supported growth of all the isolates, and was used to examine growth characteristics of the different strains. For each fungus the lipid phosphate content was determined after growth on cellobiose and the resulting values were used to estimate fungal biomass after growth on solid substrates. The ability of isolates from ruminants and non-ruminants to digest both wheat straw and cellulose was comparable. More than 90% and 60%, respectively, of filter paper cellulose and wheat straw were digested by most strains within 60-78 h. Growth of two fungi, isolated from rumen fluid of a sheep (Neocallimastix strain N1) and from faeces of an Indian rhinoceros (Piromyces strain R1), on cellobiose was studied in detail. Fungal growth yields on cellobiose were 64.1 g (mol substrate)-1 for N1 and 34.2 g mol-1 for R1. The major fermentation products of both strains were formate, lactate, acetate, ethanol and hydrogen. PMID:1919514

  19. Modulation of sheep ruminal urea transport by ammonia and pH.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhongyan; Stumpff, Friederike; Deiner, Carolin; Rosendahl, Julia; Braun, Hannah; Abdoun, Khalid; Aschenbach, Jörg R; Martens, Holger

    2014-09-01

    Ruminal fermentation products such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and CO2 acutely stimulate urea transport across the ruminal epithelium in vivo, whereas ammonia has inhibitory effects. Uptake and signaling pathways remain obscure. The ruminal expression of SLC14a1 (UT-B) was studied using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The functional short-term effects of ammonia on cytosolic pH (pHi) and ruminal urea transport across native epithelia were investigated using pH-sensitive microelectrodes and via flux measurements in Ussing chambers. Two variants (UT-B1 and UT-B2) could be fully sequenced from ovine ruminal cDNA. Functionally, transport was passive and modulated by luminal pH in the presence of SCFA and CO2, rising in response to luminal acidification to a peak value at pH 5.8 and dropping with further acidification, resulting in a bell-shaped curve. Presence of ammonia reduced the amplitude, but not the shape of the relationship between urea flux and pH, so that urea flux remained maximal at pH 5.8. Effects of ammonia were concentration dependent, with saturation at 5 mmol/l. Clamping the transepithelial potential altered the inhibitory potential of ammonia on urea flux. Ammonia depolarized the apical membrane and acidified pHi, suggesting that, at physiological pH (< 7), uptake of NH4 (+) into the cytosol may be a key signaling event regulating ruminal urea transport. We conclude that transport of urea across the ruminal epithelium involves proteins subject to rapid modulation by manipulations that alter pHi and the cytosolic concentration of NH4 (+). Implications for epithelial and ruminal homeostasis are discussed. PMID:24920734

  20. Ruminants, climate change and climate policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripple, William J.; Smith, Pete; Haberl, Helmut; Montzka, Stephen A.; McAlpine, Clive; Boucher, Douglas H.

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from ruminant meat production are significant. Reductions in global ruminant numbers could make a substantial contribution to climate change mitigation goals and yield important social and environmental co-benefits.

  1. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Our ePublications > Urinary tract infection fact sheet ePublications Urinary tract infection fact sheet Print this fact sheet Urinary tract ... a doctor find out if I have a urinary tract infection (UTI)? To find out if you have a ...

  2. Isolation and characterization of an atypical Listeria monocytogenes associated with a canine urinary tract infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes, a well-described cause of encephalitis and abortion in ruminants and of food-borne illness in humans, is rarely associated with disease in companion animals. A case of urinary tract infection associated with an atypical, weakly hemolytic L. monocytogenes strain is described i...

  3. Fermentation Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  4. Effect of maturity and hybrid on ruminal and intestinal digestion of corn silage in dry cows.

    PubMed

    Peyrat, J; Baumont, R; Le Morvan, A; Nozière, P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of stage of maturity at harvest on extent of starch, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and protein digestion, and rumen fermentation in dry cows fed whole-plant corn silage from different hybrids. Four nonlactating Holstein cows cannulated at the rumen and proximal duodenum were fed 4 corn silages differing in hybrid (flint vs. flint-dent) and maturity stage (early vs. late) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. From early to late maturity, starch content increased (from 234.5 to 348.5 g/kg), whereas total-tract (99.7 to 94.5%) and ruminal starch digestibility (91.3 to 86.5%) decreased significantly. The decrease in ruminal starch digestibility with increasing maturity was similar between hybrids. No effects were found of maturity, hybrid, or maturity × hybrid interaction on total-tract NDF digestibility, ruminal NDF digestibility, true digestibility of N and organic matter in the rumen, or microbial synthesis. Harvesting at later maturity led to increased ruminal ammonia, total volatile fatty acid concentrations, and acetate/propionate ratio but not pH. This study concludes that delaying date of harvest modifies the proportions of digestible starch and NDF supplied to cattle. Adjusting date of corn harvest to modulate amount of rumen-digested starch could be used as a strategy to control nutrient delivery to ruminants. PMID:26585483

  5. Rumination and Performance in Dynamic, Team Sport.

    PubMed

    Roy, Michael M; Memmert, Daniel; Frees, Anastasia; Radzevick, Joseph; Pretz, Jean; Noël, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    People high in rumination are good at tasks that require persistence whereas people low in rumination is good at tasks that require flexibility. Here we examine real world implications of these differences in dynamic, team sport. In two studies, we found that professional male football (soccer) players from Germany and female field hockey players on the US national team were lower in rumination than were non-athletes. Further, low levels of rumination were associated with a longer career at a higher level in football players. Results indicate that athletes in dynamic, team sport might benefit from the flexibility associated with being low in rumination. PMID:26779110

  6. Rumination and Performance in Dynamic, Team Sport

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Michael M.; Memmert, Daniel; Frees, Anastasia; Radzevick, Joseph; Pretz, Jean; Noël, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    People high in rumination are good at tasks that require persistence whereas people low in rumination is good at tasks that require flexibility. Here we examine real world implications of these differences in dynamic, team sport. In two studies, we found that professional male football (soccer) players from Germany and female field hockey players on the US national team were lower in rumination than were non-athletes. Further, low levels of rumination were associated with a longer career at a higher level in football players. Results indicate that athletes in dynamic, team sport might benefit from the flexibility associated with being low in rumination. PMID:26779110

  7. Rumination in adults: two case histories.

    PubMed

    Tamburrino, M B; Campbell, N B; Franco, K N; Evans, C L

    1995-01-01

    Rumination has been reported to be a relatively rare disorder of eating during infancy. Over the past decade, there appears to be a renewed interest in and recognition of adult rumination. Although some authors believe adult rumination is benign, others have begun to link it with both eating disorders and depressive symptoms. This paper presents two adult cases whose rumination was associated with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. More identification and study of adult rumination is needed to clarify its course and medical significance. PMID:7894448

  8. Brief Report: Preliminary evidence that co-rumination fosters adolescents’ depression risk by increasing rumination

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Lindsey B.; Gibb, Brandon E.

    2014-01-01

    Mounting research shows that the tendency to co-ruminate with peers regarding ongoing problems increases adolescents’ depression risk; however, the means by which this interpersonal process fosters risk has not been identified. This said, theorists have proposed that co-rumination increases depression risk, in part, by increasing one’s tendency to ruminate when alone. We tested this hypothesis in a study of 201 high-school freshmen who completed two assessments, six months apart. Supporting the proposed model, co-rumination predicted prospective increases in rumination and rumination predicted increases in depressive symptoms. The direct effect of co-rumination on depressive symptom change was not significant. Results indicate that co-rumination with friends may serve to increase rumination, which in turn increases depression risk. PMID:25460674

  9. Effect of cellulose fine structure on kinetics of its digestion by mixed ruminal microorganisms in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Weimer, P J; Lopez-Guisa, J M; French, A D

    1990-01-01

    The digestion kinetics of a variety of pure celluloses were examined by using an in vitro assay employing mixed ruminal microflora and a modified detergent extraction procedure to recover residual cellulose. Digestion of all of the celluloses was described by a discontinuous first-order rate equation to yield digestion rate constants and discrete lag times. These kinetic parameters were compared with the relative crystallinity indices and estimated accessible surface areas of the celluloses. For type I celluloses having similar crystallinities and simple nonaggregating particle morphologies, the fermentation rate constants displayed a strong positive correlation (r2 = 0.978) with gross specific surface area; lag time exhibited a weaker, negative correlation (r2 = 0.930) with gross specific surface area. Crystallinity was shown to have a relatively minor effect on the digestion rate and lag time. Swelling of microcrystalline cellulose with 72 to 77% phosphoric acid yielded substrates which were fermented slightly more rapidly than the original material. However, treatment with higher concentrations of phosphoric acid resulted in a more slowly fermented substrate, despite a decrease in crystallinity and an increase in pore volume. This reduced fermentation rate was apparently due to the partial conversion of the cellulose from the type I to the type II allomorph, since mercerized (type II) cellulose was also fermented more slowly, and only after a much longer lag period. The results are consistent with earlier evidence for the cell-associated nature of cellulolytic enzymes of ruminal bacteria and suggest that ruminal microflora do not rapidly adapt to utilization of celluloses with altered unit cell structures. PMID:2403252

  10. Alternative pastures for small ruminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small ruminant livestock have some unique considerations for grazing compared to cattle. Like cattle, sheep are natural grazers that readily eat grass, but goats are browsers that prefer to eat leaves from shrubs. Sheep and goats require greater nutritive quality in the diet than cattle, and if st...