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Sample records for ruminant health management

  1. Plant bioactives for ruminant health and productivity.

    PubMed

    Rochfort, Simone; Parker, Anthony J; Dunshea, Frank R

    2008-01-01

    Plants have been used throughout history for their medicinal properties. This use has often focused on human health but plants have also been, and still are, applied in ethnoveterinary practice and animal health management. In recent times, the use of synthetic chemicals has become prevalent. Public awareness of the potential environmental and health risks associated with heavy chemical use has also increased. This has put pressure on regulatory bodies to reduce the use of chemicals in agriculture. The most striking example is the 2006 banning of antibiotics in animal feed by the European Union. Moves such as this have increased the drive to find alternatives to synthetic chemicals and research has again turned to the use of plant bioactives as a means of improving animal health. Current scientific evidence suggests there is significant potential to use plants to enhance animal health in general and that of ruminants (cattle, deer, sheep, etc.) in particular. Active areas of research for plant bioactives (particularly saponin and tannin containing plants) include reproductive efficiency, milk and meat quality improvement, foam production/bloat control and methane production. Nematode control is also a significant area of research and the evidence suggests a much broader range of phytochemicals may be effective. This review presents a summary of the literature and examines international research efforts towards the development of plant bioactives for animal health. PMID:17919666

  2. [The effects of self-anger on rumination and on mental health].

    PubMed

    Katsumata, Yuina

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of self-anger on rumination and mental health (depression and anxiety). In study 1, a scale to measure self-anger was developed by the review of previous studies and survey interviews. Exploratory factor analysis identified one factor of self-anger. The reliability and validity of the scale were confirmed by internal consistency measures and correlations with other anger-related scales. In study 2, which used the self-anger scale developed in study 1, undergraduate and graduate students completed a set of scales to measure self-anger, rumination, depression, anxiety, and five-factor personality traits. The results of mediation analysis indicated that self-anger effects depression and anxiety directly or through mediating rumination excluding the effect of sex and neuroticism. Finally, the possibility that self-anger management leads to the reduction of rumination and improvement of mental health was discussed. PMID:26562940

  3. Approaches to management and care of the neonatal nondomestic ruminant.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Barbara A; Lamberski, Nadine

    2012-05-01

    Management and care of the nondomestic ruminant neonate are similar in principle to domestic animal practice. Housing of the dam, conditions for birth, preparation for intervention, and plans for treatment and hand-rearing of sick neonates must all be considered carefully before undertaking nondomestic ruminant breeding. Unfortunately, neonatal losses tend to be much higher in nondomestic calves before weaning than in domestic cattle, sheep, and goat herds.1 With continued habitat and population declines in wild species, successful captive breeding of nondomestic herds becomes more important to species sustainability and potential reintroduction programs. The primary challenges contributing to neonatal losses in nondomestic ruminants are often animal temperament and adaptation to captivity. Only through experience can some of these challenges be overcome. However, by understanding some species-specific behavioral tendencies and the fractious nature of nondomestic ruminants in general, we can improve our success in managing and maintaining healthy populations of nondomestic ruminants in captivity. PMID:22640541

  4. 9 CFR 93.405 - Health certificate for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 93.405, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Health certificate for ruminants. 93.405 Section 93.405 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE,...

  5. 9 CFR 93.405 - Health certificate for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 93.405, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Health certificate for ruminants. 93.405 Section 93.405 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE,...

  6. 9 CFR 93.405 - Health certificate for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 93.405, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Health certificate for ruminants. 93.405 Section 93.405 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE,...

  7. 9 CFR 93.405 - Health certificate for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 93.405, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health certificate for ruminants. 93.405 Section 93.405 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE,...

  8. 9 CFR 93.405 - Health certificate for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 93.405, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Health certificate for ruminants. 93.405 Section 93.405 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE,...

  9. NEW CONCEPTS IN PASTURE MANAGEMENT FOR SMALL RUMINANTS. PART 1: THE PLANT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New small ruminant producers in Appalachia have many questions about forage management. Forage management decisions need to be keyed to the specific needs of the small ruminant t species to be grazed. Sheep and goats are different from each other and both are very different from cattle. Important...

  10. Is co-ruminating with friends related to health problems in victimized adolescents?

    PubMed

    Guarneri-White, Maria E; Jensen-Campbell, Lauri A; Knack, Jennifer M

    2015-02-01

    Co-rumination, or the tendency to revisit and endlessly discuss problems and negative events, has been linked to depression and other emotional difficulties (Rose, Carson, & Waller, 2007). The current study examined the moderating effect of co-rumination on the relationship between peer victimization and depression, anxiety, PTSD symptoms, and health problems in 108 adolescents aged 10-15 years. Adolescents and a parent completed measures of adolescents' peer victimization, co-rumination, depression, and health problems. Results indicate that adolescents who are both peer victimized and engaged in high levels of co-rumination were at highest risk for psychological problems. Co-rumination also moderated the relationship between peer victimization and physical health problems via general depressive symptoms (i.e., moderated mediation). PMID:25544426

  11. AUTOCLAVED RUMINAL FLUID IMMEDIATELY AFTER BIRTH IMPROVES THE GROWTH AND HEALTH OF NEONATE DAIRY CALVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent work (Muscato, T.V., L.O. Tedeschi, and Russell, J.B. 2002. The effect of ruminal fluid preparations on the growth and health of new-born dairy calves. Journal Dairy Science. In press.) showed that ruminal fluid (RF) supplements (8 ml per d) decreased (P <0.05) the incidence of scours in dair...

  12. Rumination and self-defining memories in the context of health concerns.

    PubMed

    Sansom-Daly, Ursula M; Bryant, Richard A; Cohn, Richard J; Wakefield, Claire E

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with health anxiety report experiencing a strong sense of vulnerability to illness. Such beliefs may be driven by the biased recollection of past illness-related events. However, little research has explored the role of memory in health anxiety. In other disorders, rumination has also been identified as a process that leads individuals to recall memories dominated by the content of their concerns. This study examined the proposition that rumination might impact the content of "self-defining" autobiographical memories among 60 college students with varying health anxiety (35% with clinical-level health anxiety). Participants were randomised to experiential/ruminative self-focus conditions, and then they completed the Self-Defining Memory Task. Responses were coded for valence and illness-relatedness. Results indicated that rumination led participants to retrieve more illness-related self-defining memories, while higher health anxiety scores were associated with more negative, but not more illness-focused memories. Ruminative thinking appears to activate health concerns, and may play a role in maintaining ongoing health anxiety. PMID:26273962

  13. Cadmium exposure and consequence for the health and productivity of farmed ruminants.

    PubMed

    Lane, E A; Canty, M J; More, S J

    2015-08-01

    This paper reviews Cd exposure and consequences for the health and productivity of farmed ruminants. In farmed ruminants, Cd exposure may be associated with a number of different activities, including industrial processing, mining, and agricultural practices, and is also higher in soils in some geographic regions. Cd kidney concentrations increase with age and Cd exposure. Although Cd toxicity in farmed ruminants has been demonstrated experimentally, there are no published reports of naturally occurring Cd toxicity in farmed ruminants. Clinical signs of Cd intoxication are unlikely with a daily dietary Cd intake of less than 5 mg/kg feed, which is 5-10 times higher than the maximum permitted Cd concentration in ruminant feed in the European Union. In farmed ruminants, Cd levels in tissue are largely dependent on the Cd content of diet. However, many factors affect Cd availability, relating to soils, plants and the presence of other trace elements including Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se and Zn. Experimental studies have highlighted the ability of Cd to alter trace element status, and the protective effect of good mineral status, however, there remain gaps in knowledge of the impact of these interactions on the health and productivity of farmed animals. PMID:26267103

  14. Diagnosis, Treatment and Management of Haemonchus contortus in Small Ruminants.

    PubMed

    Besier, R B; Kahn, L P; Sargison, N D; Van Wyk, J A

    2016-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is a highly pathogenic, blood-feeding nematode of small ruminants, and a significant cause of mortalities worldwide. Haemonchosis is a particularly significant threat in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions, where warm and moist conditions favour the free-living stages, but periodic outbreaks occur more widely during periods of transient environmental favourability. The clinical diagnosis of haemonchosis is based mostly on the detection of anaemia in association with a characteristic epidemiological picture, and confirmed at postmortem by the finding of large numbers of H. contortus in the abomasum. The detection of impending haemonchosis relies chiefly on periodic monitoring for anaemia, including through the 'FAMACHA' conjunctival-colour index, or through faecal worm egg counts and other laboratory procedures. A range of anthelmintics for use against H. contortus is available, but in most endemic situations anthelmintic resistance significantly limits the available treatment options. Effective preventative programmes vary depending on environments and enterprise types, and according to the scale of the haemonchosis risk and the local epidemiology of infections, but should aim to prevent disease outbreaks while maintaining anthelmintic efficacy. Appropriate strategies include animal management programmes to avoid excessive H. contortus challenge, genetic and nutritional approaches to enhance resistance and resilience to infection, and the monitoring of H. contortus infection on an individual animal or flock basis. Specific strategies to manage anthelmintic resistance centre on the appropriate use of effective anthelmintics, and refugia-based treatment schedules. Alternative approaches, such as biological control, may also prove useful, and vaccination against H. contortus appears to have significant potential in control programmes. PMID:27238006

  15. Productivity, digestion, and health responses to hindgut acidosis in ruminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of large intestinal or hindgut fermentation in ruminant nutrition has received little research attention in recent decades. Though the contribution of the hindgut to total tract nutrient digestion is substantially less than the contribution from the rumen, hindgut fermentation impacts anima...

  16. Assessment of farmer knowledge of large ruminant health and production in developing village-level biosecurity in northern Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Nampanya, S; Rast, L; Khounsy, S; Windsor, P A

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine baseline knowledge and identify knowledge gaps of farmers on biosecurity, risk of transmission of transboundary diseases and large ruminant health and production in three provinces of northern Laos, Hua Phan (HP), Luang Prabang (LPB) and Xieng Khoung (XK). The survey was conducted in six villages that are project sites for an Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) project, with two villages located in each of the three provinces. A census survey was conducted by interview with all 238 farmers participating in the ACIAR project, using a structured questionnaire. The interviews were conducted in Lao language and took 1-2 h per farmer. The answers were recorded in Lao and the survey data were translated into English and transcribed into Microsoft Excel, and a linear mixed model in the Genstat statistical analysis package was used to compare quantitative traits between the target provinces. The results showed that the prediction mean of farmer knowledge scores on parasitic disorders, infectious disease, reproduction and nutrition management were significantly different between the target provinces. The prediction mean of farmer knowledge scores on infectious disease questions ranged between 5.11 in HP to 8.54 in XK of 24 marks (P < 0.001). The prediction mean of total knowledge scores was 13.48 in LPB and 19.29 in XK of 42 marks (P < 0.001). The results indicate both the need for and scope required to attain improvements in farmer knowledge of large ruminant health and production. It was concluded that a participatory research and extension programme to address village-level biosecurity and reduce disease risks, plus enhance large ruminant production capabilities of smallholder producers, is a valid and potentially important strategy to address transboundary disease risk and rural poverty in northern Laos. PMID:21029399

  17. Microbial Fuel Cells and Microbial Ecology: Applications in Ruminant Health and Production Research

    PubMed Central

    Osterstock, Jason B.; Pinchak, William E.; Ishii, Shun’ichi; Nelson, Karen E.

    2009-01-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) systems employ the catalytic activity of microbes to produce electricity from the oxidation of organic, and in some cases inorganic, substrates. MFC systems have been primarily explored for their use in bioremediation and bioenergy applications; however, these systems also offer a unique strategy for the cultivation of synergistic microbial communities. It has been hypothesized that the mechanism(s) of microbial electron transfer that enable electricity production in MFCs may be a cooperative strategy within mixed microbial consortia that is associated with, or is an alternative to, interspecies hydrogen (H2) transfer. Microbial fermentation processes and methanogenesis in ruminant animals are highly dependent on the consumption and production of H2in the rumen. Given the crucial role that H2 plays in ruminant digestion, it is desirable to understand the microbial relationships that control H2 partial pressures within the rumen; MFCs may serve as unique tools for studying this complex ecological system. Further, MFC systems offer a novel approach to studying biofilms that form under different redox conditions and may be applied to achieve a greater understanding of how microbial biofilms impact animal health. Here, we present a brief summary of the efforts made towards understanding rumen microbial ecology, microbial biofilms related to animal health, and how MFCs may be further applied in ruminant research. PMID:20024685

  18. Short dry period management improves peripartum ruminal adaptation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Jolicoeur, M S; Brito, A F; Santschi, D E; Pellerin, D; Lefebvre, D; Berthiaume, R; Girard, C L

    2014-12-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether the improvement in postpartum energy balance frequently reported in cows under short dry period management could be due to an improvement in ruminal function related to the reduction in the number of diet changes before calving. Six multiparous and 6 primiparous Holstein cows equipped with ruminal cannula were assigned to 6 blocks of 2 cows each according to parity, projected milk production at 305 d, and expected calving date. Within each block, cows were randomly assigned to either a conventional (CDP; 63.2 ± 2.0 d) or a short dry period (SDP; 35.2 ± 2.0 d) management in a randomized complete block design. The CDP cows were fed a far-off diet until 28 d before calving, followed by a prepartum diet, whereas SDP cows received only the prepartum diet. After calving, both groups were fed the same lactation diet. Milk yield and dry matter intake (DMI) were recorded daily and milk composition, weekly. Blood samples were taken twice a week during the first 4 wk postcalving and weekly otherwise. Omasal and ruminal samples were collected approximately 3 wk prior and 3 wk after calving. From 28 d before calving until calving, when the 2 groups of cows were fed the same prepartum diet, there was no effect of the dry period length management on DMI, plasma concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterified fatty acids, and glucose and nutrient digestibility in the rumen. However, CDP cows tended to have lower ruminal pH and higher ruminal concentrations of total volatile fatty acids than SDP cows. From calving to 60 d in milk, daily DMI was higher for SDP than for CDP cows (22.3 ± 0.44 vs. 20.7 ± 0.30 kg), but milk production and milk concentrations and yields of fat, protein, and total solids were not affected by the dry period length management. After calving, body weight loss was reduced and body condition score tended to increase more rapidly for SDP than for CDP cows. Nutrient digestibility in the rumen, expressed in

  19. Silvopasture: Small ruminants for establishment, management and usage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small farm pastures, hayfields, and woodlots are very productive in terms of forage, animal and wood products. Inherent livestock production capability can be improved through better herbage and animal management. Woodlot management can increase economic return, species diversity, and farm aesthetic...

  20. The management of anthelmintic resistance in grazing ruminants in Australasia--strategies and experiences.

    PubMed

    Leathwick, D M; Besier, R B

    2014-07-30

    In many countries the presence of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of small ruminants, and in some cases also in those infecting cattle and horses, has become the status quo rather than the exception. It is clear that consideration of anthelmintic resistance, and its management, should be an integral component of anthelmintic use regardless of country or host species. Many years of research into understanding the development and management of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of small ruminants has resulted in an array of strategies for minimising selection for resistance and for dealing with it once it has developed. Importantly, many of these strategies are now supported by empirical science and some have been assessed and evaluated on commercial farms. In sheep the cost of resistance has been measured at about 10% of the value of the lamb at sale which means that losses due to undetected resistance far outweigh the cost of testing anthelmintic efficacy. Despite this many farmers still do not test for anthelmintic resistance on their farm. Many resistance management strategies have been developed and some of these have been tailored for specific environments and/or nematode species. However, in general, most strategies can be categorised as either; identify and mitigate high risk management practices, maintain an anthelmintic-susceptible population in refugia, choose the optimal anthelmintic (combinations and formulations), or prevent the introduction of resistant nematodes. Experiences with sheep farmers in both New Zealand and Australia indicate that acceptance and implementation of resistance management practices is relatively easy as long as the need to do so is clear and the recommended practices meet the farmer's criteria for practicality. A major difference between Australasia and many other countries is the availability and widespread acceptance of combination anthelmintics as a resistance management tool. The current situation in cattle and horses

  1. Evaluation of the Impact of Ruminant Trans Fatty Acids on Human Health: Important Aspects to Consider.

    PubMed

    Kuhnt, Katrin; Degen, Christian; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2016-09-01

    The definition and evaluation of trans fatty acids (TFA) with regard to foodstuffs and health hazard are not consistent. Based on the current situation, the term should be restricted only to TFA with isolated double bonds in trans-configuration. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) should be separately assessed. Ideally, the origin of the consumed fat should be declared, i.e., ruminant TFA (R-TFA) and industrial TFA (non-ruminant; I-TFA). In ruminant fat, more than 50% of R-TFA consists of vaccenic acid (C18:1 t11). In addition, natural CLA, i.e., c9,t11 CLA is also present. Both are elevated in products from organic farming. In contrast to elaidic acid (t9) and t10, which occur mainly in partially hydrogenated industrial fat, t11 is partially metabolized into c9,t11 CLA via Δ9-desaturation. This is the major metabolic criterion used to differentiate between t11 and other trans C18:1. t11 indicates health beneficial effects in several studies. Moreover, CLA in milk fat is associated with the prevention of allergy and asthma. An analysis of the few studies relating to R-TFA alone makes clear that no convincing adverse physiological effect can be attributed to R-TFA. Only extremely high R-TFA intakes cause negative change in blood lipids. In conclusion, in most European countries, the intake of R-TFA is assessed as being low to moderate. Restriction of R-TFA would unjustifiably represent a disadvantage for organic farming of milk. PMID:25746671

  2. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Modulation of metabolism through nutrition and management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary role of the dairy cow is to help provide high-quality protein and other nutrients through lactation to the human diet. It is clear that these high-producing and long lactations are stressful on the cows, and minor changes in nutrition and management can have significant impacts on profi...

  3. Tools for managing internal parasites in small ruminants: Sericea Lespedeza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of internal parasites, especially of Haemonchus contortus (barber pole worm, stomach worm), is a primary concern for the majority of sheep and goat producers. These parasites have become more difficult to manage because of increasing resistance to nearly all available dewormers. A severe inf...

  4. Rumination Mediates the Relationships between Depressed Mood and both Sleep Quality and Self-Reported Health in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Slavish, Danica C.; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    The psychological mechanisms by which depressed mood can lead to impaired sleep and poorer overall health remain unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which a tendency to ruminate accounts for the associations between depressed mood and both sleep quality and self-reported health in 165 healthy young adults. Self-reported assessments of anxiety, depressed mood, rumination, sleep quality, and general health were collected at two different time points approximately two months apart. Structural equation modeling revealed that rumination measured at the earlier time point mediated the relationships between depressed mood and both sleep quality and health, all measured at the later time point, in a model that was a good fit to the data overall, χ2 (50, N = 165) = 103.08, p < .001; RMSEA = .08 (.06 – .10), TLI = .91, CFI = .94. Results were similar whether or not anxiety was controlled. Results indicate that rumination may be a psychological mechanism by which negative mood leads to impaired sleep and poorer perceived health. PMID:25195078

  5. Rumination mediates the relationships between depressed mood and both sleep quality and self-reported health in young adults.

    PubMed

    Slavish, Danica C; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E

    2015-04-01

    The psychological mechanisms by which depressed mood can lead to impaired sleep and poorer overall health remain unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which a tendency to ruminate accounts for the associations between depressed mood and both sleep quality and self-reported health in 165 healthy young adults. Self-reported assessments of anxiety, depressed mood, rumination, sleep quality, and general health were collected at two different time points approximately 2 months apart. Structural equation modeling revealed that rumination measured at the earlier time point mediated the relationships between depressed mood and both sleep quality and health, all measured at the later time point, in a model that was a good fit to the data overall, χ(2) (50, N = 165) = 103.08, p < 0.001; RMSEA = 0.08 (0.06-0.10), TLI = 0.91, CFI = 0.94. Results were similar whether or not anxiety was controlled. Results indicate that rumination may be a psychological mechanism by which negative mood leads to impaired sleep and poorer perceived health. PMID:25195078

  6. Willingness to Pay for Annual Health Care Services in Small Ruminants: The Case of South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathiravan, G.; Thirunavukkarasu, M.; Michealraj, P.

    A study was undertaken in southern peninsular State of India, the Tamil Nadu State, to assess the farmers Willingness To Pay` (WTP) for annual health care services in small ruminants. The districts of the State were categorized as Livestock Developed (LD) and Livestock Under Developed (LUD) based on initial base line developed. Contingent Valuation (CV) approach was used to study the farmers maximum WTP value for two types of health care services: (a) providing animal health care services at government veterinary centres, (b) extending animal health care services at farmers door steps. A Payment Card (PC) format was used to assess the farmers` maximum WTP for ensuring health care services to sheep and goat. The Maximum Likelihood technique was used on interval midpoints. The study revealed that the farmers were willing to pay a maximum of INR 56.34 and INR 61.61 for availing health services to their sheep and goat, respectively, by in-centre services, while they were ready to offer INR 87.49 and INR 95.27 for the animal health services delivered at doorsteps. The mean maximum WTP value was found to be more for goats than sheep, postulated both in-centre and home services. Of the factors incorporated in the in-centre service model for sheep, age of respondent, livelihood share of livestock, number of sheep and VLU owned and distance from nearest public veterinary centre were found to significantly influence the WTP values. Unlike sheep, age of respondent, VLU possession, distance of the public veterinary centre and district versatility had a significant role in determining WTP values for goats. WTP values in sheep for home service were found to be significantly predisposed by all the significant factors of in-centre services model, except number of sheep owned. Similarly, in goat, the age of respondent turned to be insignificant in home services model. The results indicated that the people were willing to pay more for getting their small ruminants adequately

  7. Ruminal Prevotella spp. may play an important role in the conversion of plant lignans into human health beneficial antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Schogor, Ana L B; Huws, Sharon A; Santos, Geraldo T D; Scollan, Nigel D; Hauck, Barbara D; Winters, Ana L; Kim, Eun J; Petit, Hélène V

    2014-01-01

    Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), the most abundant lignan in flaxseed, is metabolized by the ruminal microbiota into enterolignans, which are strong antioxidants. Enterolactone (EL), the main mammalian enterolignan produced in the rumen, is transferred into physiological fluids, with potentially human health benefits with respect to menopausal symptoms, hormone-dependent cancers, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis and diabetes. However, no information exists to our knowledge on bacterial taxa that play a role in converting plant lignans into EL in ruminants. In order to investigate this, eight rumen cannulated cows were used in a double 4 × 4 Latin square design and fed with four treatments: control with no flax meal (FM), or 5%, 10% and 15% FM (on a dry matter basis). Concentration of EL in the rumen increased linearly with increasing FM inclusion. Total rumen bacterial 16S rRNA concentration obtained using Q-PCR did not differ among treatments. PCR-T-RFLP based dendrograms revealed no global clustering based on diet indicating between animal variation. PCR-DGGE showed a clustering by diet effect within four cows that had similar basal ruminal microbiota. DNA extracted from bands present following feeding 15% FM and absent with no FM supplementation were sequenced and it showed that many genera, in particular Prevotella spp., contributed to the metabolism of lignans. A subsequent in vitro study using selected pure cultures of ruminal bacteria incubated with SDG indicated that 11 ruminal bacteria were able to convert SDG into secoisolariciresinol (SECO), with Prevotella spp. being the main converters. These data suggest that Prevotella spp. is one genus playing an important role in the conversion of plant lignans to human health beneficial antioxidants in the rumen. PMID:24709940

  8. Ruminant self-medication against gastrointestinal nematodes: evidence, mechanism, and origins☆

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, Juan J.; Miller, James; Ungar, Eugene D.; Landau, Serge Y.; Glendinning, John

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal helminths challenge ruminants in ways that reduce their fitness. In turn, ruminants have evolved physiological and behavioral adaptations that counteract this challenge. Ruminants display anorexia and avoidance behaviors, which tend to reduce the incidence of parasitism. In addition, ruminants appear to learn to self-medicate against gastrointestinal parasites by increasing consumption of plant secondary compounds with antiparasitic actions. This selective feeding improves health and fitness. Here, we review the evidence for self-medication in ruminants, propose a hypothesis to explain self-medicative behaviors (based on post-ingestive consequences), and discuss mechanisms (e.g., enhanced neophilia, social transmission) that may underlie the ontogeny and spread of self-medicative behaviors in social groups. A better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie and trigger self-medication in parasitized animals will help scientists devise innovative and more sustainable management strategies for improving ruminant health and well-being. PMID:24971486

  9. Use of rumination and activity monitoring for the identification of dairy cows with health disorders: Part II. Mastitis.

    PubMed

    Stangaferro, M L; Wijma, R; Caixeta, L S; Al-Abri, M A; Giordano, J O

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate (1) the performance of an automated health-monitoring system (AHMS) to identify cows with mastitis based on an alert system (health index score, HIS) that combines rumination time and physical activity; (2) the number of days between the first HIS alert and clinical diagnosis (CD) of mastitis by farm personnel; and (3) the daily rumination time, physical activity, and HIS patterns around CD. Holstein cows (n=1,121; 451 nulliparous and 670 multiparous) were fitted with a neck-mounted electronic rumination and activity monitoring tag (HR Tags, SCR Dairy, Netanya, Israel.) from at least -21 to 80 d in milk (DIM). Raw data collected in 2-h periods were summarized per 24 h as daily rumination and activity. An HIS (0 to 100 arbitrary units) was calculated daily for individual cows with an algorithm that used rumination and activity. A positive HIS outcome was defined as an HIS of <86 units during at least 1 d from -5 to 2 d after CD. Blood concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, total calcium, and haptoglobin were also determined in a subgroup of cows (n=459) at -11±3, -4±3, 0, 3±1, 7±1, 14±1, and 28±1 DIM. The sensitivity of the HIS was 58% [95% confidence interval (CI): 49, 67] for all cases of clinical mastitis (n=123), and 55% (95% CI: 46, 64; n=114) and 89% (95% CI: 68, 100; n=9) for cases of mastitis alone or concurrent with other health disorders, respectively. Among clinical cases, sensitivity was 80.7% (95% CI: 67, 97) for cases caused by Escherichia coli (n=31) and ranged from 45 to 48% for cases caused by gram-positive bacteria (n=39; Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Trueperella pyogenes), Staphylococcus aureus (n=11), or cases with no bacterial growth (n=25). Days between the first HIS <86 and CD were -0.6 (95% CI: -1.1, -0.2) for all cases of mastitis. Cows diagnosed with mastitis had alterations

  10. Fish Health Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For commercial success, a recirculating aquaculture operation must maintain fish at densities far greater than normally found in nature. At the same time, the producer must maintain an environment that supports good fish health. This chapter discusses various aspects of fish health management, inclu...

  11. Health supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Rolf; Gallagher, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The actual application of supply chain practice and disciplines required for service delivery improvement within the current health environment. * A rationale for the application of Supply Chain Management (SCM) approaches to the Health sector. * The tools and methods available for supply chain analysis and benchmarking. * Key supply chain success factors. PMID:20407173

  12. Consequences of plant phenolic compounds for productivity and health of ruminants.

    PubMed

    Waghorn, Garry C; McNabb, Warren C

    2003-05-01

    Plant phenolic compounds are diverse in structure but are characterised by hydroxylated aromatic rings (e.g. flavan-3-ols). They are categorised as secondary metabolites, and their function in plants is often poorly understood. Many plant phenolic compounds are polymerised into larger molecules such as the proanthocyanidins (PA; condensed tannins) and lignins. Only the lignins, PA, oestrogenic compounds and hydrolysable tannins will be considered here. Lignins slow the physical and microbial degradation of ingested feed, because of resilient covalent bonding with hemicellulose and cellulose, rather than any direct effects on the rumen per se. The PA are prevalent in browse and are expressed in the foliage of some legumes (e.g. Lotus spp.), but rarely in grasses. They reduce the nutritive value of poor-quality diets, but can also have substantial benefits for ruminant productivity and health when improved temperate forages are fed. Beneficial effects are dependent on the chemical and physical structure, and concentration of the PA in the diet, but they have been shown to improve live-weight gain, milk yield and protein concentration, and ovulation rate. They prevent bloat in cattle, reduce gastrointestinal nematode numbers, flystrike and CH4 production. Some phenolic compounds (e.g. coumestans) cause temporary infertility, whilst those produced by Fusarium fungi found in pasture, silage or stored grains can cause permanent infertility. The HT may be toxic because products of their metabolism can cause liver damage and other metabolic disorders. PMID:14506885

  13. Managed health care.

    PubMed

    Curtiss, F R

    1989-04-01

    The fundamental components of managed-care plans are described; the development of managed-care programs is discussed; and the impact of managed care on pharmacy services and the price, quality, and accessibility of health care are reviewed. Health care can be considered to be managed when at least one of the following fundamental components is present: prospective pricing, "UCR" (usual, customary, and reasonable) pricing of services, peer review, mandatory use review, benefit redesign, capitation payments, channeling, quality criteria, and health promotion. The managed-care industry consists of health maintenance organizations (HMOs), preferred provider organizations (PPOs), and managed fee-for-service plans. Managed-care reimbursement principles involve transferring some or all of the impetus for controlling use of services to the health-care provider. Means by which this is done include prospective pricing, services bundling, price discounts and negotiated fees, and capitation financing and reimbursement. Financial risk-sharing arrangements with providers--including hospitals, physicians, pharmacies, and home-care companies--are necessary for any managed-care plan to attain true control over its service costs. Use-review and use-management services are also fundamental to containing health-care spending. These include retrospective, concurrent, and prospective reviews of the necessity and appropriateness of medical services. Use management, like services bundling and prospective pricing, has been more effective in reducing costs of hospital inpatient services than costs associated with ambulatory care. Per case payments and services bundling have made individual charges for items irrelevant to hospital revenue. This has forced hospital pharmacy managers to become more sensitive to cost management. Drug formularies, improved productivity, and use of prescribing protocols are means by which hospital pharmacies have controlled costs. However, since shorter hospital

  14. Ruminal Fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminal fermentation is an exergonic process that converts feedstuffs into short chain volatile fatty acids (VFA), CO2, CH4, NH3, and heat. Some of the free energy is trapped as ATP and this energy is used to drive the growth of anaerobic ruminal microorganisms. The ruminant animals absorb VFA and...

  15. Use of rumination and activity monitoring for the identification of dairy cows with health disorders: Part III. Metritis.

    PubMed

    Stangaferro, M L; Wijma, R; Caixeta, L S; Al-Abri, M A; Giordano, J O

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate (1) the performance of an automated health-monitoring system (AHMS) to identify cows with metritis based on an alert system (health index score, HIS) that combines rumination time and physical activity; (2) the number of days between the first HIS alert and clinical diagnosis (CD) of metritis by farm personnel; and (3) the daily rumination time, physical activity, and HIS patterns around CD. In this manuscript, the overall performance of HIS to detect cows with all disorders of interest in this study [ketosis, displaced abomasum, indigestion (companion paper, part I), mastitis (companion paper, part II), and metritis] is also reported. Holstein cattle (n=1,121; 451 nulliparous and 670 multiparous) were fitted with a neck-mounted electronic rumination and activity monitoring tag (HR Tags, SCR Dairy, Netanya, Israel) from at least -21 to 80 d in milk (DIM). Raw data collected in 2-h periods were summarized per 24 h as daily rumination and activity. An HIS (0 to 100 arbitrary units) was calculated daily for individual cows with an algorithm that used rumination and activity. A positive HIS outcome was defined as an HIS of <86 units during at least 1 d from -5 to 2 d after CD. Blood concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, total calcium, and haptoglobin were determined in a subgroup of cows (n=459) at -11±3, -4±3, 0, 3±1, 7±1, 14±1, and 28±1 DIM. The overall sensitivity of HIS was 55% for all cases of metritis (n=349), but it was greater for cows with metritis and another disorder (78%) than for cows with metritis only (53%). Cows diagnosed with metritis and flagged based on HIS had substantial alterations in their rumination, activity, and HIS patterns around CD, alterations of blood markers of metabolic and health status around calving, reduced milk production, and were more likely to exit the herd than cows not flagged based on the HIS and cows without disease, suggesting that cows flagged

  16. Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy for the management of urolithiasis in small ruminants and pot-bellied pigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halland, Spring K.; House, John K.; George, Lisle

    2001-05-01

    Obstructive urolithiasis is a common problem in small ruminants and pot-bellied pigs. The most common site of urinary tract obstruction in these species is the urethra. Surgical procedures developed to relieve obstructions, in our experience have been effective in approximately 75% of cases. Urethral stricture is a common complication if the mucosa of the urethra is disrupted. The objective of this project was to evaluate endoscopy guided laser lithotripsy as a therapeutic modality to relieve urethral obstructions in small ruminants and pot-bellied pigs. The study population consisted of patients presented to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at the University of California Davis with obstructive urolithiasis. Lithotripsy was performed using a Holmium:YAG laser via a 200-micron low water quartz fiber passed through a flexible mini-endoscope. Two types of urinary calculi were managed with this technique, calcium carbonate and calcium hydroxyphosphate. Laser lithotripsy was effective at relieving obstructions caused by both types of calculi when conventional methods had failed. Laser lithotripsy performed via urethral endoscopy is a safe and effective therapeutic modality for management of obstructive urolithiasis in small ruminants and pot-bellied pigs and reduces the risk of post procedural urethral stricture.

  17. Animal Health Equipment Management.

    PubMed

    Rethorst, David N

    2015-07-01

    Proper health equipment management requires significant attention to detail. Establishing and following protocols during processing (eg, cleaning and disinfecting equipment at the end of the work day) is required to ensure a safe product that is free of defects and residues. Overall cleanliness of equipment and facilities is important not only from a food safety standpoint but many view these as an overall indicator of attention to detail in the entire production system. Ensuring that needles are changed, implant guns are managed properly, vaccine is handled in an acceptable manner, and that proper chute operation occurs is essential. PMID:26139191

  18. Rumination disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... with rumination and good consequences with more appropriate behavior (mild aversive training). Other techniques include improving the environment (if there is abuse or neglect) and counseling the parents.

  19. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT ECOSYSTEMS AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON TOXOPLASMA GONDII AND NEOSPORA CANINUM INFECTIONS IN WILD RUMINANTS IN SPAIN.

    PubMed

    San Miguel, José M; Gutiérrez-Expósito, Daniel; Aguado-Martínez, Adriana; González-Zotes, Elena; Pereira-Bueno, Juana; Gómez-Bautista, Mercedes; Rubio, Pedro; Ortega-Mora, Luis M; Collantes-Fernández, Esther; Álvarez-García, Gema

    2016-04-28

    Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are two major abortifacient protozoans in domestic small ruminants and cattle, respectively, and they also parasitize a wide range of wildlife. Numerous serosurveys have been conducted in wild ruminants worldwide. However, the potential effect of different ecosystems and management practices on these infections has not been investigated. We studied the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum in wild ruminants between 2007 and 2012 from four national wildlife reserves: three open space reserves in northwest Spain (Ancares, Mampodre, and Riaño) and a fenced reserve in central Spain (Quintos de Mora). Sera from roe deer ( Capreolus capreolus ) and chamois ( Rupicapra rupicapra ) were collected in Ancares (roe deer), Mampodre (both species), and Riaño (both species), whereas red deer ( Cervus elaphus ) sera were collected only in Quintos de Mora. The results of immunofluorescence antibody tests showed a T. gondii antibody prevalence significantly higher in red deer (13%; 17/131) than in roe deer (2%; 5/228) and chamois (4%; 6/149) (P<0.05, Fisher's exact test). Moreover, N. caninum -specific antibodies were only detected in 1% of animals (2/131 red deer, 2/228 roe deer, and 2/149 chamois). Management measures were implemented in the Quintos de Mora reserve and T. gondii antibody prevalence in red deer decreased from 13% to 2% after 5 yr. In contrast, N. caninum antibody prevalences were very low (<2%) over the years. The results suggest a low frequency of sylvatic life cycles in the hunting reservations studied, so interconnection between sylvatic and domestic life cycles is unlikely. Regardless, a sustainable exploitation of natural resources in wildlife reserves may help to reduce the prevalence of T. gondii infection. PMID:26967135

  20. Intelligent Vehicle Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission

  1. Use of rumination and activity monitoring for the identification of dairy cows with health disorders: Part I. Metabolic and digestive disorders.

    PubMed

    Stangaferro, M L; Wijma, R; Caixeta, L S; Al-Abri, M A; Giordano, J O

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate (1) the performance of an automated health-monitoring system (AHMS) to identify cows with metabolic and digestive disorders-including displaced abomasum, ketosis, and indigestion-based on an alert system (health index score, HIS) that combines rumination time and physical activity; (2) the number of days between the first HIS alert and clinical diagnosis (CD) of the disorders by farm personnel; and (3) the daily rumination time, physical activity, and HIS patterns around CD. Holstein cattle (n=1,121; 451 nulliparous and 670 multiparous) were fitted with a neck-mounted electronic rumination and activity monitoring tag (HR Tags, SCR Dairy, Netanya, Israel) from at least -21 to 80 d in milk (DIM). Raw data collected in 2-h periods were summarized per 24 h as daily rumination and activity. A HIS (0 to 100 arbitrary units) was calculated daily for individual cows with an algorithm that used rumination and activity. A positive HIS outcome was defined as a HIS of <86 during at least 1 d from -5 to 2 d after CD. Blood concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, total calcium, and haptoglobin were determined in a subgroup of cows (n=459) at -11±3, -4±3, 0, 3±1, 7±1, 14±1, and 28±1 DIM. The sensitivity of the HIS was 98% [95% confidence interval (CI): 93, 100] for displaced abomasum (n=41); 91% (95% CI: 83, 99) for ketosis (n=54); 89% (95% CI: 68, 100) for indigestion (n=9); and 93% (95% CI: 89, 98) for all metabolic and digestive disorders combined (n=104). Days (mean and 95% CI) from the first positive HIS <86 and CD were -3 (-3.7, -2.3), -1.6 (-2.3, -1.0), -0.5 (-1.5, 0.5), and -2.1 (-2.5, -1.6) for displaced abomasum, ketosis, indigestion, and all metabolic and digestive disorders, respectively. The patterns of rumination, activity, and HIS for cows flagged by the AHMS were characterized by lower levels than for cows without a health disorder and cows not flagged by the AHMS from -5 to 5 d after CD

  2. The effect of ruminal fluid preparations on the growth and health of newborn, milk-fed dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Muscato, T V; Tedeschi, L O; Russell, J B

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of oral doses of ruminal fluid (RF) on the growth and health of newborn, milk-fed heifer dairy calves (0 to 6 wk of age). Calves given 8 ml of RF each day until weaning gained more weight and had fewer scours than controls that did not receive RF. Because RF that was exposed to oxygen or was autoclaved also gave a response, it is unlikely that the preparations were acting as a probiotic. When the RF was centrifuged to separate the cells (RFC) from the fluid (RFS), both fractions had similar activity, and this result indicated that the response was not nutritional; that is, 1) RFC supplied a small amount of protein (approximately 8 mg/d), but RFS had much less protein, and 2) RFS had volatile fatty acid, but RFC had little if any volatile fatty acid. However, both RFS and RFC had bacterial polysaccharide, and bacterial polysaccharide has strong antigenic properties. In the first three studies, treated calves were given RF preparations each day until weaning (6 wk), but a subsequent experiment indicated that calves given autoclaved RF for only 5 d (d 1 to 5) also had greater body weight gains during the first 2 wk of life and fewer scours than untreated controls. Given that the dosage of RF was small and the material could be autoclaved to prevent disease transmission, RF supplementation could be a practical tool for improving calf health. PMID:11949870

  3. Disaster Management: Mental Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C.

    2015-01-01

    Disaster mental health is based on the principles of ‘preventive medicine’ This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six ‘R’s such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health. PMID:26664073

  4. Disaster Management: Mental Health Perspective.

    PubMed

    Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C

    2015-01-01

    Disaster mental health is based on the principles of 'preventive medicine' This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six 'R's such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health. PMID:26664073

  5. Paratuberculosis on small ruminant dairy farms in Ontario, Canada: A survey of management practices.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Cathy A; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David

    2016-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to determine the risk factors for dairy goat herds and dairy sheep flocks testing positive for paratuberculosis (PTB) in Ontario, Canada. A questionnaire was administered to 50 producers during a farm visit in which concurrently, 20 randomly selected, lactating animals over the age of 2 years underwent sampling for paratuberculosis testing. Only 1 of 50 farms (2.0%) was closed to animal movement, whereas 96.6% of dairy goat farms and 94.1% of sheep farms purchased livestock from other producers. Only 10.3% of dairy goat, and no dairy sheep farms used artificial insemination. Manure was spread on grazing pastures by 65.5% and 70.6% of dairy goat and dairy sheep farms, respectively. Because of the high true-prevalence of paratuberculosis infection detected, no risk factor analysis could be performed. This study demonstrates that biosecurity practices conducive to transmission of PTB are highly prevalent in Ontario small ruminant dairy farms. PMID:27152042

  6. Managed consumerism in health care.

    PubMed

    Robinson, James C

    2005-01-01

    The future of market-oriented health policy and practice lies in "managed consumerism," a blend of the patient-centric focus of consumer-driven health care and the provider-centric focus of managed competition. The optimal locus of incentives will vary among health services according to the nature of the illness, the clinical technology, and the extent of discretion in utilization. A competitive market will manifest a variety of comprehensive and limited benefit designs, broad and narrow contractual networks, and single-and multispecialty provider organizations. PMID:16284020

  7. Intelligent Integrated System Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) is the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system (Management: storage, distribution, sharing, maintenance, processing, reasoning, and presentation). Presentation discusses: (1) ISHM Capability Development. (1a) ISHM Knowledge Model. (1b) Standards for ISHM Implementation. (1c) ISHM Domain Models (ISHM-DM's). (1d) Intelligent Sensors and Components. (2) ISHM in Systems Design, Engineering, and Integration. (3) Intelligent Control for ISHM-Enabled Systems

  8. Managed care and reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S S; Williams, D R

    1998-01-01

    Managed care poses special challenges to midwives providing reproductive health care. This is owing to the sensitive nature of issues surrounding reproductive health and aspects of managed care that may impede a woman's ability to obtain continuous, confidential, and comprehensive care from the provider of her choice. Variations across payers (ie, Medicare, Medicaid, and commercial insurers) regarding covered benefits and reimbursement of midwifery services also may create obstacles. Furthermore, some physicians and managed care organizations are embracing policies that threaten the ability of midwives to function as primary health care providers for women. Despite these hurdles, midwives have the potential to remain competitive in the new marketplace. This article underscores the importance of being knowledgeable about legislation and policy issues surrounding the financing of midwifery services, quality performance measurement for HMOs as they pertain to reproductive health, and discussions regarding which clinicians should be defined as primary care providers. PMID:9674347

  9. Knowledge management in health care.

    PubMed

    Guptill, Janet

    2005-01-01

    It is a long-term, sustainable commitment to changing the culture of health care to become more collaborative, more transparent, and more proactive. Knowledge management, implemented well, will transform the health care delivery system over the next few decades, into a more cost-effective, error-averse, and accountable public resource. For the sake of simplicity, this article will limit the application of knowledge management principles to the context of hospitals, hospital systems or associations, or other groupings of hospitals based on a common interest or focus. The field of knowledge management has tremendous application and value to the health care industry, particularly for hospitals and hospital systems. For many who have invested in a knowledge management infrastructure, it has become the measure of value of belonging to a hospital system or membership organization. PMID:16080410

  10. Gamification and geospatial health management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wortley, David

    2014-06-01

    Sensor and Measurement technologies are rapidly developing for many consumer applications which have the potential to make a major impact on business and society. One of the most important areas for building a sustainable future is in health management. This opportunity arises because of the growing popularity of lifestyle monitoring devices such as the Jawbone UP bracelet, Nike Fuelband and Samsung Galaxy GEAR. These devices measure physical activity and calorie consumption and, when visualised on mobile and portable devices, enable users to take more responsibility for their personal health. This presentation looks at how the process of gamification can be applied to develop important geospatial health management applications that could not only improve the health of nations but also significantly address some of the issues in global health such as the ageing society and obesity.

  11. Outcomes management in women's health.

    PubMed

    Houston, S; Fleschler, R

    1997-01-01

    Outcomes management uses a quality and research approach to reducing costs in health care. Populations may be targeted for high volumes or their potential for cost savings. Outcomes are identified and measured through data collection and analysis. System and care processes that drive these outcomes are analyzed. Tenets related to outcomes management include questioning practice, administrative and physician involvement; recognizing that change is necessary; accepting uncontrollable factors; and valuing the outcomes management process. Resources necessary for managing outcomes include the use of collaborative practice teams, outcomes assessment, information systems, and educational support services. The women's health population can benefit from an outcomes management effort by improving and standardizing care for mothers and infants across the continuum. There is the opportunity to affect the wellness of this population even before the pregnancy occurs. PMID:9170599

  12. Square Pegs and Round Holes: Ruminations on the Relationship between Performance Appraisal and Performance Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravina, Nicole E.; Siers, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Models of comprehensive Performance Management systems include both employee development and evaluative components. The Organizational Behavior Management discipline focuses almost exclusively on the developmental component, while the Industrial and Organizational Psychology discipline is focused on use of performance appraisals. Performance…

  13. The physiology of stress and effects on immune health in ruminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As researchers have continued to explore the complex interactions among stress and production parameters such as growth, feed efficiency, and health, multidisciplinary efforts have emerged leading to a greater understanding of homeostatic regulation. The immune system can be regulated by several dif...

  14. Reengineering health care materials management.

    PubMed

    Connor, L R

    1998-01-01

    Health care executives across the country, faced with intense competition, are being forced to consider drastic cost cutting measures as a matter of survival. The entire health care industry is under siege from boards of directors, management and others who encourage health care systems to take actions ranging from strategic acquisitions and mergers to simple "downsizing" or "rightsizing," to improve their perceived competitive positions in terms of costs, revenues and market share. In some cases, management is poorly prepared to work within this new competitive paradigm and turns to consultants who promise that following their methodologies can result in competitive advantage. One favored methodology is reengineering. Frequently, cost cutting attention is focused on the materials management budget because it is relatively large and is viewed as being comprised mostly of controllable expenses. Also, materials management is seldom considered a core competency for the health care system and the organization performing these activities does not occupy a strongly defensible position. This paper focuses on the application of a reengineering methodology to healthcare materials management. PMID:9785300

  15. Invited review: effect, persistence, and virulence of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species associated with ruminant udder health.

    PubMed

    Vanderhaeghen, W; Piepers, S; Leroy, F; Van Coillie, E; Haesebrouck, F; De Vliegher, S

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this review is to assess the effect of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) species on udder health and milk yield in ruminants, and to evaluate the capacity of CNS to cause persistent intramammary infections (IMI). Furthermore, the literature on factors suspected of playing a role in the pathogenicity of IMI-associated CNS, such as biofilm formation and the presence of various putative virulence genes, is discussed. The focus is on the 5 CNS species that have been most frequently identified as causing bovine IMI using reliable molecular identification methods (Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis). Although the effect on somatic cell count and milk production is accepted to be generally limited or nonexistent for CNS as a group, indications are that the typical effects differ between CNS species and perhaps even strains. It has also become clear that many CNS species can cause persistent IMI, contrary to what has long been believed. However, this trait appears to be quite complicated, being partly strain dependent and partly dependent on the host's immunity. Consistent definitions of persistence and more uniform methods for testing this phenomenon will benefit future research. The factors explaining the anticipated differences in pathogenic behavior appear to be more difficult to evaluate. Biofilm formation and the presence of various staphylococcal virulence factors do not seem to (directly) influence the effect of CNS on IMI but the available information is indirect or insufficient to draw consistent conclusions. Future studies on the effect, persistence, and virulence of the different CNS species associated with IMI would benefit from using larger and perhaps even shared strain collections and from adjusting study designs to a common framework, as the large variation currently existing therein is a major problem. Also within-species variation should

  16. Tools for managing internal parasites in small ruminants: Copper wire particles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal parasite management, especially of Haemonchus contortus (barber pole worm, stomach worm), is a primary concern for the majority of sheep and goat producers. These parasites have become more difficult to manage because of developed resistance to nearly all available dewormers. A severe infec...

  17. X-33/RLV System Health Management/ Vehicle Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garbos, Raymond J.; Mouyos, William

    1998-01-01

    To reduce operations cost, the RLV must include the following elements: highly reliable, robust subsystems designed for simple repair access with a simplified servicing infrastructure and incorporating expedited decision making about faults and anomalies. A key component for the Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) RLV System used to meet these objectives is System Health Management (SHM). SHM deals with the vehicle component- Vehicle Health Management (VHM), the ground processing associated with the fleet (GVHM) and the Ground Infrastructure Health Management (GIHM). The objective is to provide an automated collection and paperless health decision, maintenance and logistics system. Many critical technologies are necessary to make the SHM (and more specifically VHM) practical, reliable and cost effective. Sanders is leading the design, development and integration of the SHM system for RLV and X-33 SHM (a sub-scale, sub-orbit Advanced Technology Demonstrator). This paper will present the X-33 SHM design which forms the baseline for RLV SHM. This paper will also discuss other applications of these technologies.

  18. Vaccination schedules in small ruminant farms.

    PubMed

    Lacasta, D; Ferrer, L M; Ramos, J J; González, J M; Ortín, A; Fthenakis, G C

    2015-12-14

    Development and implementation of health management plans is the cornerstone of profitable farms; prevention of microbial diseases by means of vaccination is an integral part of such a plan. In every production type and management system in small ruminants, microbial diseases have a major significance, hence their proper control must be based in good health management practices, including use of effective and safe vaccines. Development of various types of vaccines is evolving very quickly in recent years and the improvement of new type of vaccines offers prospects. The article reviews and discusses vaccination programs and latest advances in development of vaccines against diseases that cause major economic losses in small ruminants. Specifically, vaccination schedules for the following diseases are reviewed: bacterial abortion (abortion associated with Brucella melitensis, Campylobacter spp., Chlamydophila abortus, Coxiella burnetii, Salmonella abortus ovis or Salmonella brandenburg), caseous lymphadenitis, clostridial diseases, colibacillosis, contagious echtyma, epididymitis caused by Brucella ovis, footrot, mammary diseases (contagious agalactia, mastitis), paratuberculosis and respiratory diseases (respiratory disease caused by Mannheimia haemolytica or other Pasteurellaceae). PMID:26220514

  19. Peste des petits ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Parida, S.; Muniraju, M.; Mahapatra, M.; Muthuchelvan, D.; Buczkowski, H.; Banyard, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants. PMID:26443889

  20. X-33/RLV System Health Management/Vehicle Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouyos, William; Wangu, Srimal

    1998-01-01

    To reduce operations costs, Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVS) must include highly reliable robust subsystems which are designed for simple repair access with a simplified servicing infrastructure, and which incorporate expedited decision-making about faults and anomalies. A key component for the Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) RLV system used to meet these objectives is System Health Management (SHM). SHM incorporates Vehicle Health Management (VHM), ground processing associated with the vehicle fleet (GVHM), and Ground Infrastructure Health Management (GIHM). The primary objective of SHM is to provide an automated and paperless health decision, maintenance, and logistics system. Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company, is leading the design, development, and integration of the SHM system for RLV and for X-33 (a sub-scale, sub-orbit Advanced Technology Demonstrator). Many critical technologies are necessary to make SHM (and more specifically VHM) practical, reliable, and cost effective. This paper will present the X-33 SHM design which forms the baseline for the RLV SHM, and it will discuss applications of advanced technologies to future RLVs. In addition, this paper will describe a Virtual Design Environment (VDE) which is being developed for RLV. This VDE will allow for system design engineering, as well as program management teams, to accurately and efficiently evaluate system designs, analyze the behavior of current systems, and predict the feasibility of making smooth and cost-efficient transitions from older technologies to newer ones. The RLV SHM design methodology will reduce program costs, decrease total program life-cycle time, and ultimately increase mission success.

  1. 9 CFR 93.417 - Import permit and declaration for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ruminants. 93.417 Section 93.417 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.417 Import permit and declaration for ruminants. (a) For ruminants intended for importation from Canada, the importer shall...

  2. 9 CFR 93.422 - Import permit and declaration for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ruminants. 93.422 Section 93.422 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Central America and West Indies 9 § 93.422 Import permit and declaration for ruminants. (a) For ruminants intended for importation...

  3. 9 CFR 93.422 - Import permit and declaration for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ruminants. 93.422 Section 93.422 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Central America and West Indies 9 § 93.422 Import permit and declaration for ruminants. (a) For ruminants intended for importation...

  4. 9 CFR 93.422 - Import permit and declaration for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ruminants. 93.422 Section 93.422 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Central America and West Indies 9 § 93.422 Import permit and declaration for ruminants. (a) For ruminants intended for importation...

  5. 9 CFR 93.417 - Import permit and declaration for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ruminants. 93.417 Section 93.417 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.417 Import permit and declaration for ruminants. (a) For ruminants intended for importation from Canada, the importer shall...

  6. 9 CFR 93.424 - Import permits and applications for inspection of ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... inspection of ruminants. 93.424 Section 93.424 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.424 Import permits and applications for inspection of ruminants. (a) For ruminants intended for importation...

  7. 9 CFR 93.424 - Import permits and applications for inspection of ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... inspection of ruminants. 93.424 Section 93.424 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.424 Import permits and applications for inspection of ruminants. (a) For ruminants intended for importation...

  8. 9 CFR 93.424 - Import permits and applications for inspection of ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... inspection of ruminants. 93.424 Section 93.424 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.424 Import permits and applications for inspection of ruminants. (a) For ruminants intended for importation...

  9. 9 CFR 93.417 - Import permit and declaration for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ruminants. 93.417 Section 93.417 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.417 Import permit and declaration for ruminants. (a) For ruminants intended for importation from Canada, the importer shall...

  10. 9 CFR 93.424 - Import permits and applications for inspection of ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... inspection of ruminants. 93.424 Section 93.424 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.424 Import permits and applications for inspection of ruminants. (a) For ruminants intended for importation...

  11. 9 CFR 93.417 - Import permit and declaration for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ruminants. 93.417 Section 93.417 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.417 Import permit and declaration for ruminants. (a) For ruminants intended for importation from Canada, the importer shall...

  12. 9 CFR 93.422 - Import permit and declaration for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ruminants. 93.422 Section 93.422 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Central America and West Indies 9 § 93.422 Import permit and declaration for ruminants. (a) For ruminants intended for importation...

  13. 9 CFR 93.424 - Import permits and applications for inspection of ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inspection of ruminants. 93.424 Section 93.424 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.424 Import permits and applications for inspection of ruminants. (a) For ruminants intended for importation...

  14. 9 CFR 93.422 - Import permit and declaration for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ruminants. 93.422 Section 93.422 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Central America and West Indies 9 § 93.422 Import permit and declaration for ruminants. (a) For ruminants intended for importation...

  15. 9 CFR 93.417 - Import permit and declaration for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ruminants. 93.417 Section 93.417 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.417 Import permit and declaration for ruminants. (a) For ruminants intended for importation from Canada, the importer shall...

  16. Vehicle health management technology needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Walter E.; Jones, W. G.

    1992-01-01

    Background material on vehicle health management (VHM) and health monitoring/control is presented. VHM benefits are described and a list of VHM technology needs that should be pursued is presented. The NASA funding process as it impacts VHM technology funding is touched upon, and the VHM architecture guidelines for generic launch vehicles are described. An example of a good VHM architecture, design, and operational philosophy as it was conceptualized for the National Launch System program is presented. Consideration is given to the Strategic Avionics Technology Working Group's role in VHM, earth-to-orbit, and space vehicle avionics technology development considerations, and some actual examples of VHM benefits for checkout are given.

  17. The need for absolute truth and self-rumination as basic suppressors in the relationship between private self-consciousness and mental health.

    PubMed

    Şimşek, Ömer Faruk; Ceylandağ, Aylin Ecem; Akcan, Gizem

    2013-01-01

    Self-reflection has not so far been shown to have any specific benefits for mental health except for self-knowledge. Recent research showed that the controversy concerning the relationship between self-reflection and mental health could completely be eliminated if self-rumination and the need for absolute truth, especially the need for absolute truth, were considered as suppressor variables. This research replicated these findings in a different sample and expanded these findings by showing that the same is true for private self-consciousness. The need for absolute truth as a new variable was shown to be highly important in understanding the effects of self-consciousness on mental health. PMID:24837822

  18. SSME Advanced Health Management: Project Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plowden, John

    2000-01-01

    This document is the viewgraphs from a presentation concerning the development of the Health Management system for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). It reviews the historical background of the SSME Advanced Health Management effort through the present final Health management configuration. The document includes reviews of three subsystems to the Advanced Health Management System: (1) the Real-Time Vibration Monitor System, (2) the Linear Engine Model, and (3) the Optical Plume Anomaly Detection system.

  19. Beware the Managed Health-Care Companies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbaugh, John; Smith, Gary

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses implications of the movement toward managed health care models for long-term health care services for people with disabilities, especially people with developmental disabilities. It notes possible advantages of managed care but raises issues concerning consumer choice, management and financial capacity of managed care…

  20. Prevention through health risk management.

    PubMed

    Friedman, G M

    1992-08-01

    Risk can lead to catastrophe. Risk-management systems are highly effective in preventing the catastrophes of fire, earthquakes, and work-site injuries. No such effective systems are present to prevent health and social problems. A practical, cost-effective system to manage risk in children is being developed by the nonprofit Arizona Health Evaluation and Longevity Planning (HELP) Foundation. Information regarding such risk is collected in the school setting. This voluntary information comes from the administration, the school nurse, physical fitness testing, blood testing by the local hospital, self-esteem instruments, and parent, teacher, and child questionnaires. The HELP Foundation then develops an individual child and class risk profile that is presented to the teacher, school nurse, principal, and parent. Those involved with each child then prioritize, plan, and implement programs and activities to manage the identified risk(s). Risks is tracked throughout the child's school career by periodic reassessment. Evaluation of change in problem outcome will be a natural extension of the process. PMID:1643740

  1. [Considerations about health risk management].

    PubMed

    Bossi, A; Abetti, P; De Luca, S; Masullo, M

    2003-01-01

    From the birth of doctrines of Risk Management to today a lot of time is passed. From the initial application in the field of the insurances and the management of the enterprises, theories inspired to the identification, evaluation and correction of connected risks to the activity and the industrial trial has been figurative to the health, field in which the application of these principles results to be how much never profit and productive of benefits above all for the patients that suffer consequences of errors but also for the physicians and the personnel that, perfectly inserted in an organization aware of the trials to put into effect, can bring their contribution to underline the weak points of the relief trial. The economic cost and consequences of errors can decrease if a new culture is established inspired to the learning and the communication of the adverse events, to minimize the possibility that they again occurs. PMID:14969298

  2. Management Education in Public Health: Further Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Darr, Kurt J.

    2015-01-01

    Knowing and applying the basic management functions of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling, as well as their permutations and combinations, are vital to effective delivery of public health services. Presently, graduate programs that prepare public health professionals neither emphasize teaching management theory, nor its application. This deficit puts those who become managers in public health and those they serve at a distinct disadvantage. This deficit can be remedied by enhanced teaching of management subjects PMID:26673475

  3. Characteristics of effective health care managers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sherryl W

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of traditional and contemporary management theories. Concerns, characteristics, and skills of effective managers are also presented. Further, a self-assessment (survey) of 7 highly effective health care managers in a South Georgia community was conducted to determine their ratings on 6 management indices. The assessment or Scale of Transformational Leadership uses a Likert-type scale to allow for the evaluation of managers. The scale contains 6 management elements for assessment: attention, meaning, trust, self, vision, and feeling. Individual ratings and group summary skills rating are presented. Findings revealed the order of managerial importance of the elements as follows (from highest to lowest): Management of Trust, Management of Attention, Management of Self, Management of Feeling, Management of Meaning, and Management of Risk. As a second tier, the final ratings are corroborated by health care management interns. PMID:15923923

  4. Spirulina in health care management.

    PubMed

    Kulshreshtha, Archana; Zacharia, Anish J; Jarouliya, Urmila; Bhadauriya, Pratiksha; Prasad, G B K S; Bisen, P S

    2008-10-01

    Spirulina is a photosynthetic, filamentous, spiral-shaped and multicellular edible microbe. It is the nature's richest and most complete source of nutrition. Spirulina has a unique blend of nutrients that no single source can offer. The alga contains a wide spectrum of prophylactic and therapeutic nutrients that include B-complex vitamins, minerals, proteins, gamma-linolenic acid and the super anti-oxidants such as beta-carotene, vitamin E, trace elements and a number of unexplored bioactive compounds. Because of its apparent ability to stimulate whole human physiology, Spirulina exhibits therapeutic functions such as antioxidant, anti-bacterial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and anti-diabetic and plethora of beneficial functions. Spirulina consumption appears to promote the growth of intestinal micro flora as well. The review discusses the potential of Spirulina in health care management. PMID:18855693

  5. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification for diagnosis of 18 World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) notifiable viral diseases of ruminants, swine and poultry.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Shimaa M G; Ali, Haytham; Chase, Christopher C L; Cepica, Arnost

    2015-12-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a simple, powerful state-of-the-art gene amplification technique used for the rapid diagnosis and early detection of microbial diseases. Many LAMP assays have been developed and validated for important epizootic diseases of livestock. We review the LAMP assays that have been developed for the detection of 18 viruses deemed notifiable of ruminants, swine and poultry by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). LAMP provides a fast (the assay often takes less than an hour), low cost, highly sensitive, highly specific and less laborious alternative to detect infectious disease agents. The LAMP procedure can be completed under isothermal conditions so thermocyclers are not needed. The ease of use of the LAMP assay allows adaptability to field conditions and works well in developing countries with resource-limited laboratories. However, this technology is still underutilized in the field of veterinary diagnostics despite its huge capabilities. PMID:25900363

  6. The employer's case for health management.

    PubMed

    Coulter, Christopher H

    2006-01-01

    Employers' past solutions to rising health benefit costs--adopting managed care strategies, cost shifting to employees and reducing benefits-are no longer effectively controlling costs and are depressing the value of health benefits for employee recruitment and retention. An alternative strategy is to implement health management approaches that improve the health status of employees. These programs reduce medical costs and have a documented positive impact on workers' compensation, disability costs, absenteeism and productivity. Further, this approach is complementary to health care consumerism as a strategy for health improvement and benefit cost reduction and results in improved employee health, outlook and satisfaction. PMID:16792389

  7. Software for Intelligent System Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis C.

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the characteristics and advantages of autonomy and artificial intelligence in systems health monitoring. The presentation lists technologies relevant to Intelligent System Health Management (ISHM), and some potential applications.

  8. Rumination disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Katzman DK, Kearney SA, Becker AE. Feeding and eating disorders. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Eating Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  9. Health, Stress, and the Manager's Life Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, John D.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses a preventive approach to health which incorporates an understanding of how stress operates in modern organizations and its effect on organizational members. Describes two impact studies that suggest stress and life-style management training have a positive outcome. Suggests a protective health-management paradigm. (Author)

  10. Software for Intelligent System Health Management (ISHM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis C.

    2004-01-01

    The slide presentation is a briefing in four areas: overview of health management paradigms; overview of the ARC-Houston Software Engineering Technology Workshop held on April 20-22, 2004; identified technologies relevant to technical themes of intelligent system health management; and the author's thoughts on these topics.

  11. The inverse of managed health.

    PubMed

    Borremans, V

    1978-01-01

    In providing a non-professional view on health, on health in a desirable modern world, the modern form of "medicalized health" is contrasted with the conception of health among the Aztecs before the arrival of the Spaniards. Health was "medicalized" in the 1960s; the medical model of health care was determined mostly by what physicians do. Since that time, 4 distinct professional approaches each have challenged the monopoly of doctors over the definition of health. 1 of the key mistakes of modern civilization is to assume that there is only 1 health - a universal health, which is given in the form of health services and imposed on the people. In actuality, there are many different kinds of health - as many as there are cultures. In modern society health will be high when 2 conditions are met: 1) when society distributes equitably what it produces; and 2) when society produces just barely as many goods and services as are needed to equip people equitably with the tools they need for the most effective level of autonomous action. The answer is not simply to redistribute health. People need to be involved in determining their own health needs. A lesson can be learned from what the Spaniards did to the Aztecs in Mexico. In 1519 there was a population of 25 million in Mexico, but by 1608 there were just 1 million after the Spaniards had begun their campaign to bring health to the Aztecs. PMID:12260676

  12. An assessment of GHG emissions from small ruminants in comparison with GHG emissions from large ruminants and monogastric livestock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zervas, G.; Tsiplakou, E.

    2012-03-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are expected to cause global warming which results in extreme weather changes that could affect crop yields and productivity, food supplies and food prices. It is also expected that climate change will have an impact on animal metabolism and health, reproduction and productivity. On the other hand, the expected increased demand of animal origin products in the coming years will increase the reared animal numbers and consequently GHG emissions. This paper outlines the main GHGs emitted from livestock which are CO2, CH4 and N2O, coming from respiration, enteric fermentation and manure management respectively, with CH4 and N2O having the highest global warming potential. Ruminant livestock has the highest contribution to these GHG emissions with small ruminants share being 12.25% of the total GHG emissions from livestock's enteric and manure CH4, and manure N2O in CO2 equivalent, producing 9.45 kg CO2 equivalent per kg body weight with the respective values for cattle, pigs and poultry being 5.45, 3.97 and 3.25. Since the production systems significantly affect the GHG emissions, the grazing, livestock crop complex, and intensive ones account for 30.5%, 67.29% and 5.51% for total CH4 emission (from enteric fermentation and manure management) and 24.32%, 68.11% and 7.57% for N2O respectively. Taking into account the positive and negative impacts of small ruminant livestock production systems to the environmental aspects in general, it is recommended that a number of potentially effective measures should be taken and the appropriate mitigation technologies should be applied in order to reduce effectively and essentially the GHG emissions to the atmosphere, with no adverse effects on intensification and increased productivity of small ruminants production systems.

  13. Integrated fly management in European ruminant operations from the perspective of directive 2009/128/EC on sustainable use of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Durel, Luc; Estrada-Peña, Augustin; Franc, Michel; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Bouyer, Jérémy

    2015-02-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) in agriculture animals remains undeveloped as compared to IPM in crops. With respect to the range of external nuisance arthropods that may bother farm animals, development and implementation of systematic IPM strategies are difficult to carry out. However, recurrent outbreaks of blue tongue disease in sheep and cattle, the public threats regarding the prophylactic use of veterinary insecticides and the need to preserve the efficacy of available actives have to lead the reflexion on new control strategies for arthropod pests of livestock. A recent extension of EU regulation on the use of pesticides in crops provides an opportunity to compare IPM strategies and to suggest new lines of reflection for the control of nuisance pests in ruminants under European conditions. In this paper, actions suggested by the Annex III of the Directive 2009/128/CE on Sustainable Use of Pesticides and related National Action Plans from 28 member states of the EU were reviewed from an animal production perspective by a group of veterinary entomologists. Eight lines of action have been identified and thus challenged with respect to current husbandry practices in modern European ruminant operations. Many IPM strategies for crops were identified to be unsuitable for large animals. Suggestions for implementing tools, opportunities and constraint assessment, and needs for support were also discussed. Only control of pest development sites and monitoring of harmful organisms were considered achievable in the near future; both in conjunction with the use of topical insecticides. Complementary actions such as alternatives to chemical control require further researches and industrial development. Marketing of IGR-based feed additives would be of great interest, but development of new compounds for veterinary medicines is very unlikely with respect to the European regulatory environment and associated cost of development. PMID:25547079

  14. A Population Health Management Approach to Oral Health.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Jeff; Phillips, Kathryn E

    2016-03-01

    Clinical outcomes have been shown to be better, and total costs lower, when patients with chronic illness such as diabetes are managed using a population health strategy in a primary care setting that includes structured coordination of care with specialty services. This "population health management approach" offers a promising new vision for addressing oral disease as a chronic illness through a collaborative partnership between primary care teams and dental professionals. PMID:27044237

  15. Managing diversity in health services organizations.

    PubMed

    Muller, H J; Haase, B E

    1994-01-01

    The changing ethnic, racial, and gender workforce characteristics require innovations in management philosophy and practice. Valuing employees' differences is believed to be a competitive advantage in many modern corporations. This article offers recommendations to health care managers for rethinking and improving the management of their heterogeneous workforces. A conceptual framework and evaluative criteria are developed in an attempt to better understand the factors that influence effective diversity management. The experiences of health services institutions in the Southwest (already a multicultural region) are studied to illustrate various approaches to diversity management. Leader philosophy and support, organizational policies and programs, workforce composition, structural integration, and organizational type constitute the main elements in this study. As the nation debates restructuring the health industry, it should also take the opportunity to integrate a management philosophy that values diversity and its practice. PMID:10138715

  16. eHealth Terminology Management in Austria.

    PubMed

    Seerainer, Carina; Sabutsch, Stefan W

    2016-01-01

    When it comes to establishing and operating a nationwide personal health record (PHR), effective and efficient terminology management including the development, administration, maintenance and publishing of terminologies is a precondition for semantic interoperability. In the Austrian national patient health record "ELGA" all relevant terminologies are provided and distributed by means of a CTS2-conformant terminology server. In the following article, issues and lessons learned from terminology management in a large-scale eHealth project are presented. Experience has proved the necessity of a national authority for medical terminology management in Austria. PMID:27577418

  17. Future developments in health care performance management

    PubMed Central

    Crema, Maria; Verbano, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights the challenges of performance management in health care, wherein multiple different objectives have to be pursued. The literature suggests starting with quality performance, following the sand cone theory, but considering a multidimensional concept of health care quality. Moreover, new managerial approaches coming from an industrial context and adapted to health care, such as lean management and risk management, can contribute to improving quality performance. Therefore, the opportunity to analyze them arises from studying their overlaps and links in order to identify possible synergies and to investigate the opportunity to develop an integrated methodology enabling improved performance. PMID:24255600

  18. Concept Development for Software Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riecks, Jung; Storm, Walter; Hollingsworth, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the work performed by Lockheed Martin Aeronautics (LM Aero) under NASA contract NNL06AA08B, delivery order NNL07AB06T. The Concept Development for Software Health Management (CDSHM) program was a NASA funded effort sponsored by the Integrated Vehicle Health Management Project, one of the four pillars of the NASA Aviation Safety Program. The CD-SHM program focused on defining a structured approach to software health management (SHM) through the development of a comprehensive failure taxonomy that is used to characterize the fundamental failure modes of safety-critical software.

  19. Future developments in health care performance management.

    PubMed

    Crema, Maria; Verbano, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights the challenges of performance management in health care, wherein multiple different objectives have to be pursued. The literature suggests starting with quality performance, following the sand cone theory, but considering a multidimensional concept of health care quality. Moreover, new managerial approaches coming from an industrial context and adapted to health care, such as lean management and risk management, can contribute to improving quality performance. Therefore, the opportunity to analyze them arises from studying their overlaps and links in order to identify possible synergies and to investigate the opportunity to develop an integrated methodology enabling improved performance. PMID:24255600

  20. Ruminant nitrogen usage

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book brings together the latest research on protein absorption by ruminants and takes a look at the calculation of optimum nutrient requirements, including bacterial digestion, in the calculations. It also describes the parameters of nitrogen conversion in the ruminant and examines the different kinds of protein found in animal feedstuffs.

  1. 9 CFR 93.407 - Declaration and other documents for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ruminants. 93.407 Section 93.407 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.407 Declaration and other documents for ruminants. (a) The certificates, declarations, and affidavits required by the regulations in...

  2. 9 CFR 93.403 - Ports designated for the importation of ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of ruminants. 93.403 Section 93.403 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.403 Ports designated for the importation of ruminants. (a) Air and ocean ports. The following ports have APHIS...

  3. 9 CFR 93.407 - Declaration and other documents for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ruminants. 93.407 Section 93.407 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.407 Declaration and other documents for ruminants. (a) The certificates, declarations, and affidavits required by the regulations in...

  4. 9 CFR 93.403 - Ports designated for the importation of ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of ruminants. 93.403 Section 93.403 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.403 Ports designated for the importation of ruminants. (a) Air and ocean ports. The following ports have APHIS...

  5. 9 CFR 93.407 - Declaration and other documents for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ruminants. 93.407 Section 93.407 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.407 Declaration and other documents for ruminants. (a) The certificates, declarations, and affidavits required by the regulations in...

  6. 9 CFR 93.403 - Ports designated for the importation of ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of ruminants. 93.403 Section 93.403 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.403 Ports designated for the importation of ruminants. (a) Air and ocean ports. The following ports have APHIS...

  7. 9 CFR 93.403 - Ports designated for the importation of ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of ruminants. 93.403 Section 93.403 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.403 Ports designated for the importation of ruminants. (a) Air and ocean ports. The following ports have APHIS...

  8. 9 CFR 93.407 - Declaration and other documents for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ruminants. 93.407 Section 93.407 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.407 Declaration and other documents for ruminants. (a) The certificates, declarations, and affidavits required by the regulations in...

  9. 9 CFR 93.403 - Ports designated for the importation of ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of ruminants. 93.403 Section 93.403 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.403 Ports designated for the importation of ruminants. (a) Air and ocean ports. The following ports have APHIS...

  10. 9 CFR 93.407 - Declaration and other documents for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ruminants. 93.407 Section 93.407 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.407 Declaration and other documents for ruminants. (a) The certificates, declarations, and affidavits required by the regulations in...

  11. Health informatics: managing information to deliver value.

    PubMed

    Ball, M J; Douglas, J V; Lillis, J

    2001-01-01

    Can informatics improve health? This paper answers yes, exploring its components, benefits, and effect on a wide variety of health-related activities. We first examine how information technology enables health informatics, supporting information management and knowledge creation through its four cornerstones. Success factors in using informatics are covered next, including human factors, the role of trained health informaticians, and the importance of matching informatics initiatives with business goals and establishing and measuring value. We demonstrate the potential effect of the Internet on health services through such e-health applications as enterprise-wide patient records, state-of-the-art call centers, and data repositories. For current evidence that informatics is already improving health, we turn to such topics as disease management, telehealth, patient safety, and decision support. As more organizations move informatics from theory into practice and realize its value, they will transform inefficient processes and improve care for all. PMID:11604752

  12. Cooperative Education: Training Health Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, William N.

    Health administration students attending a college or university in Los Angeles, California, participated in a study of the effect of cooperative education. Three groups of students were selected. Group 1 consisted of undergraduate minority students--five males and five females (19-28 years old) with no prior health related work experience. Groups…

  13. Rotorcraft Health Management Issues and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, James J.; Dempsey, Paula J.; Huff, Edward M.; Augustin, Michael; Safa-Bakhsh, Robab; Ephraim, Piet; Grabil, Paul; Decker, Harry J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of health management issues and challenges that are specific to rotorcraft. Rotorcraft form a unique subset of air vehicles in that their propulsion system is used not only for propulsion, but also serves as the primary source of lift and maneuvering of the vehicle. No other air vehicle relies on the propulsion system to provide these functions through a transmission system with single critical load paths without duplication or redundancy. As such, health management of the power train is a critical and unique part of any rotorcraft health management system. This paper focuses specifically on the issues and challenges related to the dynamic mechanical components in the main power train. This includes the transmission and main rotor mechanisms. This paper will review standard practices used for rotorcraft health management, lessons learned from fielded trials, and future challenges.

  14. Managing Health and Safety in Science Departments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrows, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Discusses strategies for managing health and safety within science departments. Emphasizes the importance of risk assessment for both pupil activities and those carried out by technicians. Stresses the role of training and the need for security. (MM)

  15. Development and Testing of Propulsion Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Lekki, John D.; Simon, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    An Integrated Vehicle Health Management system aims to maintain vehicle health through detection, diagnostics, state awareness, prognostics, and lastly, mitigation of detrimental situations for each of the vehicle subsystems and throughout the vehicle as a whole. This paper discusses efforts to advance Propulsion Health Management technology for in-flight applications to provide improved propulsion sensors measuring a range of parameters, improve ease of propulsion sensor implementation, and to assess and manage the health of gas turbine engine flow-path components. This combined work is intended to enable real-time propulsion state assessments to accurately determine the vehicle health, reduce loss of control, and to improve operator situational awareness. A unique aspect of this work is demonstration of these maturing technologies on an operational engine.

  16. Risk management issues in postmenopausal health care.

    PubMed

    Edozien, Leroy C

    2007-12-01

    As in other areas of clinical activity, unintended harm to patients may occur in the course of postmenopausal health care, and measures to ensure patient safety should be actively promoted. This paper discusses the application of some basic principles of risk management to postmenopausal health care. To facilitate communication and reduce errors in diagnosis and treatment, risk management should be incorporated in the development of a dedicated menopause service. PMID:18088524

  17. American Health Information Management Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stakeholders Code-Check™ ICD-10 Trainer Program Privacy & Security Overview HIM Role Education Certification P&S Month Informatics & ... Sponsorship Events Calendar Of Events HIP Week Privacy & Security Month CAREER & STUDENT CENTER Health Information 101 What ...

  18. Applying business management models in health care.

    PubMed

    Trisolini, Michael G

    2002-01-01

    Most health care management training programmes and textbooks focus on only one or two models or conceptual frameworks, but the increasing complexity of health care organizations and their environments worldwide means that a broader perspective is needed. This paper reviews five management models developed for business organizations and analyses issues related to their application in health care. Three older, more 'traditional' models are first presented. These include the functional areas model, the tasks model and the roles model. Each is shown to provide a valuable perspective, but to have limitations if used in isolation. Two newer, more 'innovative' models are next discussed. These include total quality management (TQM) and reengineering. They have shown potential for enabling dramatic improvements in quality and cost, but have also been found to be more difficult to implement. A series of 'lessons learned' are presented to illustrate key success factors for applying them in health care organizations. In sum, each of the five models is shown to provide a useful perspective for health care management. Health care managers should gain experience and training with a broader set of business management models. PMID:12476639

  19. Managed care in four managed competition OECD health systems.

    PubMed

    Shmueli, Amir; Stam, Piet; Wasem, Jürgen; Trottmann, Maria

    2015-07-01

    Managed care emerged in the American health system in the 1980s as a way to manage suppliers' induced demand and to contain insurers' costs. While in Israel the health insurers have always been managed care organizations, owning health care facilities, employing medical personnel or contracting selectively with independent providers, European insurers have been much more passive, submitting themselves to collective agreements between insurers' and providers' associations, accompanied by extensive government regulation of prices, quantities, and budgets. With the 1990s reforms, and the introduction of risk-adjusted "managed competition", a growing pressure to allow the European insurers to manage their own care - including selective contracting with providers - has emerged, with varying speed of the introduction of policy changes across the individual countries. This paper compares experiences with managed care in Israel, The Netherlands, Germany and Switzerland since the 1990s. After a brief description of the health insurance markets in the four countries, we focus comparatively on the emergence of managed care in the markets for ambulatory care and inpatient market care. We conclude with an evaluation of the current situation and a discussion of selected health policy issues. PMID:25776034

  20. Financial management in leading health care systems.

    PubMed

    Smith, D G; Wheeler, J R; Rivenson, H L; Reiter, K L

    2000-01-01

    To understand better the financial management practices and strategies of modern health care organizations, we conducted interviews with chief financial officers (CFOs) of several leading health care systems. In this introduction, we present an overview of the project and summary responses on corporate financial structures and strategic challenges facing CFOs. PMID:10845383

  1. Integrated System Health Management Development Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Jorge; Smith, Harvey; Morris, Jon

    2009-01-01

    This software toolkit is designed to model complex systems for the implementation of embedded Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) capability, which focuses on determining the condition (health) of every element in a complex system (detect anomalies, diagnose causes, and predict future anomalies), and to provide data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) to control systems for safe and effective operation.

  2. Home Health Management Aide. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincemoyer, Betty Jane

    The report describes a demonstration project to provide a course of study at the senior high level in home health management for the academically handicapped. The course consisted of practice in nursing skills, home management and laboratory work in food preparation techniques, the family, and child care. Activities included field trips,…

  3. Training managers for primary health care.

    PubMed

    Kekki, P

    1994-01-01

    The University of Helsinki has devised a powerful in-service training course for managers of health centres. By working together at the University and their own centres on setting objectives, analysing data and solving problems, the participants greatly enhance their management and teamwork skills. PMID:7945761

  4. Research collaboration in health management research communities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study uses scientometrics methodology to reveal the status quo and emerging issues of collaboration in health management. Methods We searched all the articles with the keyword “health management” in the period 1999–2011 in Web of Knowledge, then 3067 articles were found. Methods such as Social network analysis (SNA), co-authorship, co-word analysis were used in this study. Results Analysis of the past 13 years of research in the field of health management indicates that, whether the production of scientific research, or authors, institutions and scientific research collaboration at the national level, collaboration behavior has been growing steadily across all collaboration types. However, the international scientific research cooperation about health management study between countries needs to be further encouraged. 17 researchers can be seen as the academic leaders in this field. 37 research institutions play a vital role in the information dissemination and resources control in health management. The component analysis found that 22 research groups can be regarded as the backbone in this field. The 8 institution groups consisting of 33 institutions form the core of this field. USA, UK and Australia lie in the center by cohesive subgroup analysis; Based on keywords analysis, 44 keywords with high frequency such as care, disease, system and model were involved in the health management field. Conclusions This study demonstrates that although it is growing steadily, collaboration behavior about health management study needs to be enhanced, especially between different institutions or countries/regions, which would promote the progress and internationalization of health management. Besides, researchers should pay attention to the cooperation of representative scholars and institutions, as well as the hot areas of research, because their experience would help us promote the research development of our nation. PMID:23617236

  5. Simulation modeling for the health care manager.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Michael H

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the use of simulation software to solve administrative problems faced by health care managers. Spreadsheet add-ins, process simulation software, and discrete event simulation software are available at a range of costs and complexity. All use the Monte Carlo method to realistically integrate probability distributions into models of the health care environment. Problems typically addressed by health care simulation modeling are facility planning, resource allocation, staffing, patient flow and wait time, routing and transportation, supply chain management, and process improvement. PMID:19668066

  6. Job redesign and the health care manager.

    PubMed

    Layman, Elizabeth J

    2007-01-01

    Health care supervisors and managers are often asked to redesign jobs in their departments. Frequently, little information accompanies the directive. This article lists sources of change in work and defines key terms. Also reviewed are factors that supervisors and managers can weigh in their redesigns. The article suggests actions aligned to common problems in the work environment. Finally, guidelines for a practical, step-by-step approach are provided. For health care supervisors and managers, the key to a successful job redesign is to achieve the unique balance of factors that matches the situation. PMID:17464222

  7. Management academy for public health: creating entrepreneurial managers.

    PubMed

    Orton, Stephen; Umble, Karl; Zelt, Sue; Porter, Janet; Johnson, Jim

    2007-04-01

    The Management Academy for Public Health develops public health managers' management skills. Ultimately, the program aims to develop civic entrepreneurs who can improve the efficiency and the effectiveness of their organizations. With help from a coach, teams write public health business plans to meet needs in their communities. An external evaluation found that 119 teams trained during the first 3 years of the program generated more than $6 million in enhanced revenue-including grants, contracts, and fees through their business plans--from $2 million in program funding. Approximately 38% of the teams expected to generate revenue from an academy business plan or a spin-off plan. Action-learning methods can help midcareer managers transfer their training to the workplace and build entrepreneurial skills. PMID:17329658

  8. Grazing management and ecosystem health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbivore activity interacts with weather and vegetation to markedly affect soil condition, biotic activity, and nutrient cycling in pasture and range. In turn, soil condition regulates the impact of environment on nutrient cycling, vegetation, herd or flock management, and animal productivity. Ther...

  9. Real health plans manage care.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The public sector might seem to be an appealing growth opportunity to commercial insurers confronted by stalled private-sector coverage expansion, but whether these insurers have the means and motivation to deliver value to Medicare and Medicaid is unproven. State Medicaid purchasers in particular have found alternative sources for care management and have sound reasons to question whether industry-leading commercial insurers will be responsive to their needs. PMID:17102171

  10. Health-care waste management in India.

    PubMed

    Patil, A D; Shekdar, A V

    2001-10-01

    Health-care waste management in India is receiving greater attention due to recent regulations (the Biomedical Wastes (Management & Handling) Rules, 1998). The prevailing situation is analysed covering various issues like quantities and proportion of different constituents of wastes, handling, treatment and disposal methods in various health-care units (HCUs). The waste generation rate ranges between 0.5 and 2.0 kg bed-1 day-1. It is estimated that annually about 0.33 million tonnes of waste are generated in India. The solid waste from the hospitals consists of bandages, linen and other infectious waste (30-35%), plastics (7-10%), disposable syringes (0.3-0.5%), glass (3-5%) and other general wastes including food (40-45%). In general, the wastes are collected in a mixed form, transported and disposed of along with municipal solid wastes. At many places, authorities are failing to install appropriate systems for a variety of reasons, such as non-availability of appropriate technologies, inadequate financial resources and absence of professional training on waste management. Hazards associated with health-care waste management and shortcomings in the existing system are identified. The rules for management and handling of biomedical wastes are summarised, giving the categories of different wastes, suggested storage containers including colour-coding and treatment options. Existing and proposed systems of health-care waste management are described. A waste-management plan for health-care establishments is also proposed, which includes institutional arrangements, appropriate technologies, operational plans, financial management and the drawing up of appropriate staff training programmes. PMID:11721600

  11. Applying e-health to case management.

    PubMed

    Adams, J M

    2000-01-01

    The healthcare industry is only beginning to understand e-health. E-health can be defined as the use of technology to directly improve healthcare delivery-affording patients the opportunity to participate in their own healthcare management, provider, and institution. The market is changing rapidly, and innovations, partnerships, and mergers are taking place daily. For healthcare institutions, setting a long-term, yet adaptable e-health strategy is of vital importance for the continued success of the organization. For clinicians, an understanding of and familiarity with technologies can significantly improve workflow, organization, and patient interaction. For the patient, technology can be leveraged as a means to take initiative and responsibility for his/her own health. This article defines e-health and explains the implications and benefits of e-health to nurses and their patients. The article also identifies unique opportunities e-health/e-commerce can provide case managers in promoting patient connectivity, care management, and economy in cost of care. PMID:16397993

  12. Purslane: A Potential Forage for Small Ruminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable small ruminant production on small-acreage farms in Appalachia depends upon use of various plant resources to meet nutritional and health requirements of animals and provide meat products that satisfy consumer desires and expectations. While traditional forage species can supply nutrien...

  13. Health monitoring for effective management of infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktan, A. Emin; Catbas, Fikret N.; Grimmelsman, Kirk A.; Pervizpour, Mesut; Curtis, Joshua M.; Shen, Kaizhen; Qin, Xiaoli

    2002-06-01

    Significance of effectively managing civil infrastructure systems (CIS) throughout CIS life-cycles, and especially during and after natural or man-made disasters is well recognized. Disaster mitigation includes preparedness for hazards to avoid casualties and human suffering, as well as to ensure that critical CIS components can become operational within a short amount of time following a disaster. It follows that mitigating risk due to disasters and CIS managementare intersecting and interacting societal concerns. A coordinated, multi-disciplinary approach that integrates field, theoretical and laboratory research is necessary for innovating both hazard mitigation and infrastructure management. Health monitoring (HM) of CIS is an emerging paradigm for effective management, including emergency response and recovery management. Challenges and opportunities in health monitoring enabled by recent advances in information technology are discussed in this paper. An example of HM research on an actual CIS test-bed is presented.

  14. Responding to health care reform: how managed health care providers can manage major change overload.

    PubMed

    Gilmartin, J J

    1994-02-01

    Multiple pressures for clinical, administrative, economical, and political change face providers today. To cope with a changing society and health care delivery system, change management skills have become essential for survival. However, implementing and managing organizational change demands a level of expertise that is, unfortunately, not readily found in many managed health care organizations. In this article, the author addresses the importance for providers to understand the process of change implementation. PMID:10132445

  15. Managing diversity in the health care workplace.

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, R; Dowd, S; Newman Giger, J

    1999-03-01

    Cultural diversity is increasing in the United States as increasing numbers of minorities enter the United States from abroad, and cultural diversity is especially prevalent in the health care workplace. In fact, the health care professions are particularly interested in the presence of minorities among caregivers because this often enhances the cultural competence of care delivery. Nevertheless, subtle discrimination can still be found, and managers must be alert that such behavior is not tolerated. Use of the Giger-Davidhizar Cultural Assessment Model can provide managers with information needed to respond to diversity among staff appropriately. PMID:10351046

  16. Physicians in health care management: 10. Managing conflict through negotiation.

    PubMed Central

    Lemieux-Charles, L

    1994-01-01

    The recent focus on collaborative relationships in health care means that people and groups must cooperate to accomplish clinical and management tasks. This increasing interdependence may also cause increased organizational conflict. The management of conflicts is critical to the effectiveness of an organization. Negotiating strategies, based on Fisher and Ury's method of "principled negotiation," include establishing superordinate goals, separating the people from the problem, focussing on interests, inventing options, using objective criteria and defining success in terms of gains. PMID:7922944

  17. Strategic service quality management for health care.

    PubMed

    Anderson, E A; Zwelling, L A

    1996-01-01

    Quality management has become one of the most important and most debated topics within the service sector. This is especially true for health care, as the controversy rages on how the existing American system should be restructured. Health care reform aimed at reducing costs and ensuring access to all Americans cannot be allowed to jeopardize the quality of care. As such, total quality management (TQM) has become a vital ingredient to strategic planning within the health care domain. At the heart of any such quality improvement effort is the issue of measurement. TQM cannot be effectively utilized as a competitive weapon unless quality can be accurately defined, measured, evaluated, and monitored over time. Through such analysis a hospital can elect how to expend its limited resources toward those quality improvement projects which will impact customer perceptions of service quality the most. Thus, the purpose of this report is to establish a framework by which to approach the issue of quality measurement, delineate the various components of quality that exist in health care, and explore how these elements affect one another. We propose that the issue of quality measurement in health care be approached as an integration of service quality attributes common to other service organizations and technical quality attributes unique to health care. We hope that this research will serve as a first step toward the synthesis of the various quality attributes inherent in the health care domain and encourage other researchers to address the interactions of the various quality attributes. PMID:8763215

  18. Towards Open Information Management in Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Yli-Hietanen, J; Niiranen, S

    2008-01-01

    The utilization of information technology as tool in health care is increasing. The main benefits stem from the fact that information in electronic form can be transferred to different locations rapidly and from the possibility to automate certain information management tasks. The current technological approach for this automation relies on structured, formally coded representation of information. We discuss the limitations of the current technological approach and present a viewpoint, grounded on previous research and the authors’ own experiences, on how to progress. We present that a bottleneck in the automation of the management of constantly evolving clinical information is caused by the fact that the current technological approach requires the formal coding of information to be static in nature. This inherently hinders the expandability of the information case space to be managed. We present a new paradigm entitled open information management targeting unlimited case spaces. We also present a conceptual example from clinical medicine demonstrating open information management principles and mechanisms. PMID:19415134

  19. Health Occupations Education Program Management Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Coll. of Education.

    This final report describes a project to develop a secondary education program management guide for health occupations education in Iowa. Introductory material includes the following: a summary sheet on project objectives, a description of how the objectives were met, the audience served, an educational equity statement, a statement that the…

  20. Relationship between Managers' Performance and Organizational Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadisadr, Mohammad; Siadat, Seyyedali; Arbabisarjou, Azizollah

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between managers' performance in the field of interpersonal, informational and decision-making tasks with organizational health. To measure the indicators of the model, a questionnaire was prepared and distributed among 113 company of Tehran stock Exchange Market. According to the…

  1. Managing interoperability and complexity in health systems.

    PubMed

    Bouamrane, M-M; Tao, C; Sarkar, I N

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, we have witnessed substantial progress in the use of clinical informatics systems to support clinicians during episodes of care, manage specialised domain knowledge, perform complex clinical data analysis and improve the management of health organisations' resources. However, the vision of fully integrated health information eco-systems, which provide relevant information and useful knowledge at the point-of-care, remains elusive. This journal Focus Theme reviews some of the enduring challenges of interoperability and complexity in clinical informatics systems. Furthermore, a range of approaches are proposed in order to address, harness and resolve some of the many remaining issues towards a greater integration of health information systems and extraction of useful or new knowledge from heterogeneous electronic data repositories. PMID:25579862

  2. Towards a Personal Health Management Assistant.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, G; Quinn, J; Horwitz, C; Swift, M; Allen, J; Galescu, L

    2010-10-01

    We describe design and prototyping efforts for a Personal Health Management Assistant for heart failure patients as part of Project HealthDesign. An assistant is more than simply an application. An assistant understands what its users need to do, interacts naturally with them, reacts to what they say and do, and is proactive in helping them manage their health. In this project, we focused on heart failure, which is not only a prevalent and economically significant disease, but also one that is very amenable to self-care. Working with patients, and building on our prior experience with conversational assistants, we designed and developed a prototype system that helps heart failure patients record objective and subjective observations using spoken natural language conversation. Our experience suggests that it is feasible to build such systems and that patients would use them. The system is designed to support rapid application to other self-care settings. PMID:20937478

  3. Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this paper, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an intelligent systems ]relevant ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. Both ground-based (remote) and on-board ISHM capabilities are compared and contrasted. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

  4. Software Health Management with Bayesian Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengshoel, Ole; Schumann, JOhann

    2011-01-01

    Most modern aircraft as well as other complex machinery is equipped with diagnostics systems for its major subsystems. During operation, sensors provide important information about the subsystem (e.g., the engine) and that information is used to detect and diagnose faults. Most of these systems focus on the monitoring of a mechanical, hydraulic, or electromechanical subsystem of the vehicle or machinery. Only recently, health management systems that monitor software have been developed. In this paper, we will discuss our approach of using Bayesian networks for Software Health Management (SWHM). We will discuss SWHM requirements, which make advanced reasoning capabilities for the detection and diagnosis important. Then we will present our approach to using Bayesian networks for the construction of health models that dynamically monitor a software system and is capable of detecting and diagnosing faults.

  5. Convergent Evolution of Health Information Management and Health Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, C. J.; Abrams, K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Clearly defined boundaries are disappearing among the activities, sources, and uses of health care data and information managed by health information management (HIM) and health informatics (HI) professionals. Definitions of the professional domains and scopes of practice for HIM and HI are converging with the proliferation of information and communication technologies in health care settings. Convergence is changing both the roles that HIM and HI professionals serve in their organizations as well as the competencies necessary for training future professionals. Many of these changes suggest a blurring of roles and responsibilities with increasingly overlapping curricula, job descriptions, and research agendas. Blurred lines in a highly competitive market create confusion for students and employers. In this essay, we provide some perspective on the changing landscape and suggest a course for the future. First we review the evolving definitions of HIM and HI. We next compare the current domains and competencies, review the characteristics as well as the education and credentialing of both disciplines, and examine areas of convergence. Given the current state, we suggest a path forward to strengthen the contributions HIM and HI professionals and educators make to the evolving health care environment. PMID:25848421

  6. Transforming health information management through technology.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Mary Ellen

    2002-08-01

    No one would deny the need to transform health care. Information technology is capable of transforming health care organizations and delivering measurable value. However, these organizations will have to deploy effective, proactive strategies for managing information and adapting to the opportunities the technology offers. If, for example, an organization wants to become paperless, its information strategy must include appropriate tools to store and access unstructured data components of the medical record as well as structured data. An Electronic Document Management System (EDMS) is a critical element of this strategy. Also, a plan for managing change must be developed to mitigate technology risks. This can be realized through the development of a clear vision of the future and strong leadership, among other key items. PMID:12402636

  7. Review on Mycotoxin Issues in Ruminants: Occurrence in Forages, Effects of Mycotoxin Ingestion on Health Status and Animal Performance and Practical Strategies to Counteract Their Negative Effects

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Antonio; Giuberti, Gianluca; Frisvad, Jens C.; Bertuzzi, Terenzio; Nielsen, Kristian F.

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant diets include cereals, protein feeds, their by-products as well as hay and grass, grass/legume, whole-crop maize, small grain or sorghum silages. Furthermore, ruminants are annually or seasonally fed with grazed forage in many parts of the World. All these forages could be contaminated by several exometabolites of mycotoxigenic fungi that increase and diversify the risk of mycotoxin exposure in ruminants compared to swine and poultry that have less varied diets. Evidence suggests the greatest exposure for ruminants to some regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, fumonisins and zearalenone) and to many other secondary metabolites produced by different species of Alternaria spp. (e.g., AAL toxins, alternariols, tenuazonic acid or 4Z-infectopyrone), Aspergillus flavus (e.g., kojic acid, cyclopiazonic acid or β-nitropropionic acid), Aspergillus fuminatus (e.g., gliotoxin, agroclavine, festuclavines or fumagillin), Penicillium roqueforti and P. paneum (e.g., mycophenolic acid, roquefortines, PR toxin or marcfortines) or Monascus ruber (citrinin and monacolins) could be mainly related to forage contamination. This review includes the knowledge of mycotoxin occurrence reported in the last 15 years, with special emphasis on mycotoxins detected in forages, and animal toxicological issues due to their ingestion. Strategies for preventing the problem of mycotoxin feed contamination under farm conditions are discussed. PMID:26274974

  8. Review on Mycotoxin Issues in Ruminants: Occurrence in Forages, Effects of Mycotoxin Ingestion on Health Status and Animal Performance and Practical Strategies to Counteract Their Negative Effects.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Antonio; Giuberti, Gianluca; Frisvad, Jens C; Bertuzzi, Terenzio; Nielsen, Kristian F

    2015-08-01

    Ruminant diets include cereals, protein feeds, their by-products as well as hay and grass, grass/legume, whole-crop maize, small grain or sorghum silages. Furthermore, ruminants are annually or seasonally fed with grazed forage in many parts of the World. All these forages could be contaminated by several exometabolites of mycotoxigenic fungi that increase and diversify the risk of mycotoxin exposure in ruminants compared to swine and poultry that have less varied diets. Evidence suggests the greatest exposure for ruminants to some regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, fumonisins and zearalenone) and to many other secondary metabolites produced by different species of Alternaria spp. (e.g., AAL toxins, alternariols, tenuazonic acid or 4Z-infectopyrone), Aspergillus flavus (e.g., kojic acid, cyclopiazonic acid or β-nitropropionic acid), Aspergillus fuminatus (e.g., gliotoxin, agroclavine, festuclavines or fumagillin), Penicillium roqueforti and P. paneum (e.g., mycophenolic acid, roquefortines, PR toxin or marcfortines) or Monascus ruber (citrinin and monacolins) could be mainly related to forage contamination. This review includes the knowledge of mycotoxin occurrence reported in the last 15 years, with special emphasis on mycotoxins detected in forages, and animal toxicological issues due to their ingestion. Strategies for preventing the problem of mycotoxin feed contamination under farm conditions are discussed. PMID:26274974

  9. Evaluation of feeding glycerol on free-fatty acid production and fermentation kinetics of mixed ruminal microbes in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strategies to enrich ruminant-derived foods with unsaturated fatty acids are desired as these are considered beneficial for good human health. Ruminant-derived foods contain high proportions of saturated fats, a result of ruminal biohydrogenation, which rapidly saturates and thus limits the availab...

  10. [PESTIVIRUSES IN RUMINANTS].

    PubMed

    Glotov, A G; Glotova, T I; Shulyak, A F

    2016-01-01

    The genus Pestivirus includes four species: bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, classical swine fever disease virus, and ovine border disease virus. Pestiviruses infect many species of domestic and wild animals. Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a prototypical representative of the pestiviruses of ruminant animals. Recently, new candidates appeared for including in this genus: two viruses of the wild ruminant animals that have not been officially classified and one HoBi-like virus discovered for the first time in the bovine fetal serum. The circulation of the ruminant animal pestiviruses within population of domestic and wild animals, the presence of these viruses in bioproducts stimulates studies of the infection reservoirs and their influence on the effect of the bovine viral diarrhea control programs. PMID:27451496

  11. The Implications of Death for Health: A Terror Management Health Model for Behavioral Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenberg, Jamie L.; Arndt, Jamie

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces a terror management health model (TMHM). The model integrates disparate health and social psychology literatures to elucidate how the conscious and nonconscious awareness of death can influence the motivational orientation that is most operative in the context of health decisions. Three formal propositions are presented.…

  12. Best practices for health technology management.

    PubMed

    2006-12-01

    In 2006, ECRI's Health Devices Group instituted the Health Devices Achievement Award to honor excellence in health technology management. The application process for this award yielded descriptions of many unique and effective technology management initiatives. This Guidance Article presents some of the best practices gleaned from the top award submissions. The following topics are discussed: The role of human factors testing in the technology management process. We describe one facility's approach to solving a particularly vexing problem: slow telemetry-alarm response times. The use of performance-based service contracting to improve inspection and preventive maintenance (IPM) completion rates. The advantages associated with one health system's process for grouping ventilator-dependent patients who are being cared for outside the intensive care unit. The ability of a technology assessment committee to bring a disciplined approach to the adoption of new technologies. The importance of customer satisfaction to a clinical engineering department. We describe how meeting the caregivers' needs contributes to building a patient-safe environment. The successful implementation of a new patient care technology: local anesthetic pumps. PMID:17300103

  13. Conflict management styles in the health professions.

    PubMed

    Sportsman, Susan; Hamilton, Patti

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine prevalent conflict management styles chosen by students in nursing and to contrast these styles with those chosen by students in allied health professions. The associations among the level of professional health care education and the style chosen were also determined. A convenience sample of 126 students in a comprehensive university completed the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI), which requires respondents to choose behaviors most characteristic of their response to conflict and classifies these behaviors as one of five styles. There was no significant difference between the prevalent conflict management styles chosen by graduate and undergraduate nursing students and those in allied health. Some of the students were already licensed in their discipline; others had not yet taken a licensing exam. Licensure and educational level were not associated with choice of styles. Women and men had similar preferences. The prevalent style for nursing students was compromise, followed by avoidance. In contrast, avoidance, followed by compromise and accommodation, was the prevalent style for allied health students. When compared to the TKI norms, slightly more than one half of all participants chose two or more conflict management styles, commonly avoidance and accommodation at the 75th percentile or above. Only 9.8% of the participants chose collaboration at that level. Implications for nurse educators, researchers, and administrators are discussed. PMID:17540319

  14. Value-managed mental health benefits.

    PubMed

    Burton, W N; Conti, D J

    1991-03-01

    The First National Bank of Chicago's comprehensive program for mental health services has been shown to be an effective response to the rising demand and cost of mental health care. By assertively managing a benefit plan rather than capriciously cutting it, employees are afforded quality care while the corporation is able to handle the costs of a worthwhile benefit. The plan represented a collaboration of the Benefits and Medical Units, which brought together philosophies of benefit plan management and research regarding primary prevention and early intervention. Employees are afforded education and early intervention while at the work site and appropriate referrals to cost-efficient providers outside the bank. Should they need time away from the work site for treatment, this along with their reentry is also managed to increase the probability of successful recovery. In this way continuity of care is assured so that recurrent disability (eg, rehospitalization, further STD) may be reduced. The 4-year follow-up investigation of the program reveals management of overall mental health care costs, reduction in inpatient psychiatric hospitalization costs, and reduction in the average length of psychiatric short-term disability episodes for employees. PMID:1903154

  15. FAILSAFE Health Management for Embedded Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Gregory A.; Wagner, David A.; Wen, Hui Ying; Barry, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The FAILSAFE project is developing concepts and prototype implementations for software health management in mission- critical, real-time embedded systems. The project unites features of the industry-standard ARINC 653 Avionics Application Software Standard Interface and JPL s Mission Data System (MDS) technology (see figure). The ARINC 653 standard establishes requirements for the services provided by partitioned, real-time operating systems. The MDS technology provides a state analysis method, canonical architecture, and software framework that facilitates the design and implementation of software-intensive complex systems. The MDS technology has been used to provide the health management function for an ARINC 653 application implementation. In particular, the focus is on showing how this combination enables reasoning about, and recovering from, application software problems.

  16. Making Technology Ready: Integrated Systems Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Oliver, Patrick J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper identifies work needed by developers to make integrated system health management (ISHM) technology ready and by programs to make mission infrastructure ready for this technology. This paper examines perceptions of ISHM technologies and experience in legacy programs. Study methods included literature review and interviews with representatives of stakeholder groups. Recommendations address 1) development of ISHM technology, 2) development of ISHM engineering processes and methods, and 3) program organization and infrastructure for ISHM technology evolution, infusion and migration.

  17. Structural health management for aging aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegami, Roy; Haugse, Eric D.

    2001-06-01

    An effective structural health management (SHM) system can be a useful tool for making aircraft fleet management decisions ranging from individual aircraft maintenance scheduling and usage restrictions to fleet rotation strategies. This paper discusses the end-user requirements for the elements and architecture of an effective SHM system for application to both military and commercial aging aircraft fleets. The elements discussed include the sensor systems for monitoring and characterizing the health of the structure, data processing methods for interpreting sensor data and converting it into useable information, and automated methods for erroneous data detection, data archiving and information dissemination. Current and past SHM technology development/maturation efforts in these areas at the Boeing Company will be described. An evolutionary technology development strategy is developed in which the technologies needed will be matured, integrated into a vehicle health management system, and benefits established without requiring extensive changes to the end-user's existing operation and maintenance infrastructure. Issues regarding the end-user customer acceptance of SHM systems are discussed and summarized.

  18. Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. Management implies storage, distribution, sharing, maintenance, processing, reasoning, and presentation. ISHM is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this chapter, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an ISHM capability relevant to intelligent systems. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system, emphasizing an advance toward an on-board, autonomous capability. Both ground-based and on-board ISHM capabilities are addressed. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

  19. Using rangeland health assessment to inform successional management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland health assessment provides qualitative information on ecosystem attributes. Successional management is a conceptual framework that allows managers to link information gathered in rangeland health assessment to ecological processes that need to be repaired to allow vegetation to change in ...

  20. Evidence-based health care management: what is the research evidence available for health care managers?

    PubMed

    Jaana, Mirou; Vartak, Smruti; Ward, Marcia M

    2014-09-01

    In light of increasing interest in evidence-based management, we conducted a scoping review of systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) to determine the availability and accessibility of evidence for health care managers; 14 MAs and 61 SRs met the inclusion criteria. Most reviews appeared in medical journals (53%), originated in the United States (29%) or United Kingdom (22%), were hospital-based (55%), and targeted clinical providers (55%). Topics included health services organization (34%), quality/patient safety (17%), information technology (15%), organization/workplace management (13%), and health care workforce (12%). Most reviews addressed clinical topics of relevance to managers; management-related interventions were rare. The management issues were mostly classified as operational (65%). Surprisingly, 96.5% of search results were not on target. A better classification within PubMed is needed to increase the accessibility of meaningful resources and facilitate evidence retrieval. Health care journals should take initiatives encouraging the publication of reviews in relevant management areas. PMID:24296471

  1. ISWHM: Tools and Techniques for Software and System Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Mengshoel, Ole J.; Darwiche, Adnan

    2010-01-01

    This presentation presents status and results of research on Software Health Management done within the NRA "ISWHM: Tools and Techniques for Software and System Health Management." Topics include: Ingredients of a Guidance, Navigation, and Control System (GN and C); Selected GN and C Testbed example; Health Management of major ingredients; ISWHM testbed architecture; and Conclusions and next Steps.

  2. An Assessment of Integrated Health Management Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Lybeck, Nancy; Coble, Jamie B.; Tawfik, Magdy; Bond, Leonard J.

    2012-05-18

    In order to meet the ever increasing demand for energy, the United States nuclear industry is turning to life extension of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs). Economically ensuring the safe, secure, and reliable operation of aging NPPs presents many challenges. The 2009 Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop identified online monitoring of active and structural components as essential to better understanding and management of the challenges posed by aging NPPs. Additionally, there is increasing adoption of condition-based maintenance (CBM) for active components in NPPs. These techniques provide a foundation upon which a variety of advanced online surveillance, diagnostic, and prognostic techniques can be deployed to continuously monitor and assess the health of NPP systems and components. The next step in the development of advanced online monitoring is to move beyond CBM to estimating the remaining useful life of active components using prognostic tools. Deployment of prognostic health management (PHM) on the scale of an NPP requires the use of an integrated health management (IHM) framework - a software product (or suite of products) used to manage the necessary elements needed for a complete implementation of online monitoring and prognostics. This paper provides a thoughtful look at the desirable functions and features of IHM architectures. A full PHM system involves several modules, including data acquisition, system modeling, fault detection, fault diagnostics, system prognostics, and advisory generation (operations and maintenance planning). The standards applicable to PHM applications are indentified and summarized. A list of evaluation criteria for PHM software products, developed to ensure scalability of the toolset to an environment with the complexity of an NPP, is presented. Fourteen commercially available PHM software products are identified and classified into four groups: research tools, PHM system development tools, deployable architectures

  3. Sharing Earth Observation Data When Health Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, E. L., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    While the global community is struck by pandemics and epidemics from time to time the ability to fully utilize earth observations and integrate environmental information has been limited - until recently. Mature science understanding is allowing new levels of situational awareness be possible when and if the relevant data is available and shared in a timely and useable manner. Satellite and other remote sensing tools have been used to observe, monitor, assess and predict weather and water impacts for decades. In the last few years much of this has included a focus on the ability to monitor changes on climate scales that suggest changes in quantity and quality of ecosystem resources or the "one-health" approach where trans-disciplinary links between environment, animal and vegetative health may provide indications of best ways to manage susceptibility to infectious disease or outbreaks. But the scale of impacts and availability of information from earth observing satellites, airborne platforms, health tracking systems and surveillance networks offer new integrated tools. This presentation will describe several recent events, such as Superstorm Sandy in the United States and the Ebola outbreak in Africa, where public health and health infrastructure have been exposed to environmental hazards and lessons learned from disaster response in the ability to share data have been effective in risk reduction.

  4. Management for School Environmental Health in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kitagaki, Kunihiko

    2016-01-01

    Some acts such as the Basic Environment Act are aimed at managing environmental health for a productive living environment in Japan. School is not only a place where lessons for a better future are taught but also an environment in which children spend many hours of their day. Therefore, activities involving regular checks are important to maintain and improve the school environment. Article 5 of the School Health and Safety Act states that schools must make plans and carry out regular checks on school environmental health. Article 6 prescribes that the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology establish a "school environmental health standard". This standard involves metrics on the classroom environment (quality of air, illumination, and noise levels), quality of drinking/pool water and so on, and their standard values and evaluation methods. Article 23 prescribes that each school except colleges/universities have a school pharmacist. The school pharmacist plays an important role in maintaining and improving the school's environmental health. However, the current actions taken are not adequate. Therefore, prospects for future activities will be discussed based on the current situations and problems. PMID:27252052

  5. The hierarchy of work pursuits of public health managers.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Luft, Sabine; Bender, Wolfgang; Callen, Joanne; Westbrook, Johanna I; Westbrook, Mary T; Mallock, Nadine A; Iedema, Rick; Hindle, Donald; Jochelson, Tanya

    2007-05-01

    How public health is managed in various settings is an important but under-examined issue. We examine themes in the management literature, contextualize issues facing public health managers and investigate the relative importance placed on their various work pursuits using a 14-activity management model empirically derived from studies of clinician-managers in hospitals. Ethnographic case studies of 10 managers in nine diverse public health settings were conducted. The case study accounts of managers' activities were content analysed, and substantive words encapsulating their work were categorized using the model. Managerial activities of the nine public health managers were ranked according to the number of words describing each activity. Kendall's coefficient of concordance yielded W = 0.710, P < 0.000, revealing significant similarity between the activity patterns of the public health managers. A rank order correlation between the activity patterns of the average ranks for the public health sample and for the hospital clinician-managers (n = 52) was R = 0.420, P = 0.131, indicating no significant relationship between relative activity priorities of the two groups. Public health managers put less emphasis on pursuits associated with structure, hierarchy and education, and more on external relations and decision-making. The model of hospital clinician-managers' managerial activities is applicable to public health managers while identifying differences in the way the two groups manage. The findings suggest that public health management work is more managerialist than previously thought. PMID:17524219

  6. Structural Health Management for Future Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.; Allison, S. G.; Woodard, S. E.; Wincheski, R. A.; Cooper, E. G.; Price, D. C.; Hedley, M.; Prokopenko, M.; Scott, D. A.; Tessler, A.

    2004-01-01

    Structural Health Management (SHM) will be of critical importance to provide the safety, reliability and affordability necessary for the future long duration space missions described in America's Vision for Space Exploration. Long duration missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond cannot be accomplished with the current paradigm of periodic, ground based structural integrity inspections. As evidenced by the Columbia tragedy, this approach is also inadequate for the current Shuttle fleet, thus leading to its initial implementation of on-board SHM sensing for impact detection as part of the return to flight effort. However, future space systems, to include both vehicles as well as structures such as habitation modules, will require an integrated array of onboard in-situ sensing systems. In addition, advanced data systems architectures will be necessary to communicate, store and process massive amounts of SHM data from large numbers of diverse sensors. Further, improved structural analysis and design algorithms will be necessary to incorporate SHM sensing into the design and construction of aerospace structures, as well as to fully utilize these sensing systems to provide both diagnosis and prognosis of structural integrity. Ultimately, structural integrity information will feed into an Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) system that will provide real-time knowledge of structural, propulsion, thermal protection and other critical systems for optimal vehicle management and mission control. This paper will provide an overview of NASA research and development in the area of SHM as well as to highlight areas of technology improvement necessary to meet these future mission requirements.

  7. A Distributed Prognostic Health Management Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaskar, Saha; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a generic distributed prognostic health management (PHM) architecture with specific application to the electrical power systems domain. Current state-of-the-art PHM systems are mostly centralized in nature, where all the processing is reliant on a single processor. This can lead to loss of functionality in case of a crash of the central processor or monitor. Furthermore, with increases in the volume of sensor data as well as the complexity of algorithms, traditional centralized systems become unsuitable for successful deployment, and efficient distributed architectures are required. A distributed architecture though, is not effective unless there is an algorithmic framework to take advantage of its unique abilities. The health management paradigm envisaged here incorporates a heterogeneous set of system components monitored by a varied suite of sensors and a particle filtering (PF) framework that has the power and the flexibility to adapt to the different diagnostic and prognostic needs. Both the diagnostic and prognostic tasks are formulated as a particle filtering problem in order to explicitly represent and manage uncertainties; however, typically the complexity of the prognostic routine is higher than the computational power of one computational element ( CE). Individual CEs run diagnostic routines until the system variable being monitored crosses beyond a nominal threshold, upon which it coordinates with other networked CEs to run the prognostic routine in a distributed fashion. Implementation results from a network of distributed embedded devices monitoring a prototypical aircraft electrical power system are presented, where the CEs are Sun Microsystems Small Programmable Object Technology (SPOT) devices.

  8. Functions and Positions of Corporate Occupational Health Managers in Company-Wide Occupational Health Management.

    PubMed

    Mori, Koji; Nagata, Tomohisa; Kajiki, Shigeyuki; Hino, Yoshiyuki; Nagata, Masako

    2013-08-21

    Objectives: It has become necessary for Japanese corporations to manage occupational health (OH) programs consistently throughout their organizations. Corporations need to clarify their health policies, develop standardized programs, assign OH staff, and ensure that they communicate with each other. To realize such conditions, many occupational physicians (OPs), who have the skills to lead corporation-wide OH activities, are now being assigned to head offices of corporations and referred to as corporate OH managers. However, there has been no research to date in Japan on their actual situation and function. We conducted an interview study of corporate OH managers to clarify their functions and positions in corporations. Subjects and Methods: We conducted semi-structural interviews with 14 corporate OH managers in large corporations employing more than 5,000 workers and multiple OPs. Interview scripts were coded to identify their functions as corporate OH managers and the context of their positions within corporate-wide OH management systems. Results: Five contexts were suggested. 1) Corporate OH managers played central roles in developing corporate health policies, standards and plans. 2) Head office department managers who supervised the sites distributed the policies and standards, and corporate OH managers instructed site OPs and OH staff. 3) In some corporations, corporate OH managers participated in the evaluation process of OH programs as part of occupational safety and health management systems or business audits. 4) Corporate OH managers led communications among OPs and OH staff by facilitating corporate OH meetings, and provided technical training. 5) Corporate OH managers in positions that enabled them to report directly or indirectly to decision makers (i.e., directors in charge) on human resource issues. Discussion: The results of this study suggest that companies that promote consistent company-wide OH programs also utilized the professional knowledge

  9. Prospective Health: Duke's Approach to Improving Employee Health and Managing Health Care Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, H. Clint, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    If developing a healthy workforce is critical to reining in the skyrocketing cost of health care, then why have so many attempts at preventive health or disease management fallen short? How can employers connect with employees to engage them in changing unhealthy habits or lifestyles? Duke University has launched an innovative new approach called…

  10. Enabling medication management through health information technology (Health IT).

    PubMed Central

    McKibbon, K Ann; Lokker, Cynthia; Handler, Steve M; Dolovich, Lisa R; Holbrook, Anne M; O'Reilly, Daria; Tamblyn, Robyn; J Hemens, Brian; Basu, Runki; Troyan, Sue; Roshanov, Pavel S; Archer, Norman P; Raina, Parminder

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The objective of the report was to review the evidence on the impact of health information technology (IT) on all phases of the medication management process (prescribing and ordering, order communication, dispensing, administration and monitoring as well as education and reconciliation), to identify the gaps in the literature and to make recommendations for future research. DATA SOURCES We searched peer-reviewed electronic databases, grey literature, and performed hand searches. Databases searched included MEDLINE®, Embase, CINAHL (Cumulated Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Compendex, Inspec (which includes IEEE Xplore), Library and Information Science Abstracts, E-Prints in Library and Information Science, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, and Business Source Complete. Grey literature searching involved Internet searching, reviewing relevant Web sites, and searching electronic databases of grey literatures. AHRQ also provided all references in their e-Prescribing, bar coding, and CPOE knowledge libraries. METHODS Paired reviewers looked at citations to identify studies on a range of health IT used to assist in the medication management process (MMIT) during multiple levels of screening (titles and abstracts, full text and final review for assignment of questions and data abstrction). Randomized controlled trials and cohort, case-control, and case series studies were independently assessed for quality. All data were abstracted by one reviewer and examined by one of two different reviewers with content and methods expertise. RESULTS 40,582 articles were retrieved. After duplicates were removed, 32,785 articles were screened at the title and abstract phase. 4,578 full text articles were assessed and 789 articles were included in the final report. Of these, 361 met only content criteria and were listed without further abstraction. The final report included data

  11. [Quality management in a public health agency].

    PubMed

    Villalbí, Joan R; Ballestín, Manuela; Casas, Conrad; Subirana, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the introduction of quality improvement actions in a public health organization. After ISO 17025 accreditation, which was legally mandated, was granted to the official control laboratory, the management decided to expand a quality policy in 2003, through a series of actions based on process analysis and proposals for improvement, further definition of standard operating procedures, exploration of users' opinions, the creation of improvement groups, and external audits or certification. The organizational response to these initiatives was diverse. External audit or certification of services seems to be the most powerful tool for change. Costing studies showed that up to 75% of the total expenditure of the agency in 2010 was spent on public health services subject to external audit or certification. PMID:22425456

  12. Sensor Systems for Prognostics and Health Management

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shunfeng; Azarian, Michael H.; Pecht, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Prognostics and health management (PHM) is an enabling discipline consisting of technologies and methods to assess the reliability of a product in its actual life cycle conditions to determine the advent of failure and mitigate system risk. Sensor systems are needed for PHM to monitor environmental, operational, and performance-related characteristics. The gathered data can be analyzed to assess product health and predict remaining life. In this paper, the considerations for sensor system selection for PHM applications, including the parameters to be measured, the performance needs, the electrical and physical attributes, reliability, and cost of the sensor system, are discussed. The state-of-the-art sensor systems for PHM and the emerging trends in technologies of sensor systems for PHM are presented. PMID:22219686

  13. Investigation of Integrated Vehicle Health Management Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, Deidre

    2005-01-01

    This report is to present the work that was performed during the summer in the Advance Computing Application office. The NFFP (NASA Faculty Fellow Program) had ten summer faculty members working on IVHM (Integrated Vehicle Health Management) technologies. The objective of this project was two-fold: 1) to become familiar with IVHM concepts and key demonstrated IVHM technologies; and 2) to integrate the research that has been performed by IVHM faculty members into the MASTLAB (Marshall Avionic Software Test Lab). IVHM is a NASA-wide effort to coordinate, integrate and apply advanced software, sensors and design technologies to increase the level of intelligence, autonomy, and health state of future vehicles. IVHM is an important concept because it is consistent with the current plan for NASA to go to the moon, mars, and beyond. In order for NASA to become more involved in deep exploration, avionic systems will need to be highly adaptable and autonomous.

  14. Unforgiveness, Rumination, and Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ingersoll-Dayton, Berit; Torges, Cynthia; Krause, Neal

    2010-01-01

    The experience of feeling unforgiven for past transgressions may contribute to depressive symptoms in later life. This paper tests a model in which feeling unforgiven by God and by other people have direct effects on depressive symptoms while self-unforgiveness and rumination mediate this relationship. The sample consisted of 965 men and women aged 67 and older who participated in a national probability sample survey, the Religion, Aging, and Health Survey. Results from a latent variable model indicate that unforgiveness by others has a significant direct effect on depressive symptoms and an indirect effect via self-unforgiveness and rumination. However, rather than having a direct effect on depressive symptoms, unforgiveness by God operates only indirectly through self-unforgiveness and rumination. Similarly, self-unforgiveness has an indirect effect on depressive symptoms through rumination. PMID:20455120

  15. Outage management and health physics issue, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2006-05-15

    The focus of the May-June issue is on outage management and health physics. Major articles/reports in this issue include: A design with experience for the U.S., by Michael J. Wallace, Constellation Generation Group; Hope to be among the first, by Randy Hutchinson, Entergy Nuclear; Plans to file COLs in 2008, by Garry Miller, Progress Energy; Evolution of ICRP's recommendations, by Lars-Erik Holm, ICRP; European network on education and training in radiological protection, by Michele Coeck, SCK-CEN, Belgium; Outage managment: an important tool for improving nuclear power plant performance, by Thomas Mazour and Jiri Mandula, IAEA, Austria; and Plant profile: Exploring new paths to excellence, by Anne Thomas, Exelon Nuclear.

  16. Pain management and health care policy.

    PubMed

    Naccache, Nicole; Abou Zeid, Hicham; Nasser Ayoub, Eliane; Antakly, Marie-Claire

    2008-01-01

    Opioid analgesics are essential for the management of moderate to severe pain. In spite of their documented effectiveness, opioids are often underutilized, a factor which has contributed significantly to the undertreatment of pain. Many countries have developed true national policies on cancer pain and palliative care, and in others only guidelines for care have been developed. Ideally, national policies facilitate and legislate not only a patient's right to care, but also the necessary components of education and drug availability which are so critical for the appropriate achievement of public health programs. PMID:19534079

  17. [Justification to health managers: cost-benefit of osteoporosis management].

    PubMed

    Hernández-García, César

    2011-09-01

    Medicines are strictly regulated and controlled until they reach the patients. Once in the market, the mechanisms governing their use are very complex due to the large number of actors playing different roles. It is necessary to extend an evaluation culture among all involved and to make economic analysis a structured part of decisions made by physicians and health managers. Since physicians occupy a central place in this market of medicines, it is necessary that they assume their responsibility by actively participating in this evaluation. PMID:21924214

  18. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Role of fermentation acid absorption in the regulation of ruminal pH.

    PubMed

    Aschenbach, J R; Penner, G B; Stumpff, F; Gäbel, G

    2011-04-01

    Highly fermentable diets are rapidly converted to organic acids [i.e., short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactic acid] within the rumen. The resulting release of protons can constitute a challenge to the ruminal ecosystem and animal health. Health disturbances, resulting from acidogenic diets, are classified as subacute and acute acidosis based on the degree of ruminal pH depression. Although increased acid production is a nutritionally desired effect of increased concentrate feeding, the accumulation of protons in the rumen is not. Consequently, mechanisms of proton removal and their quantitative importance are of major interest. Saliva buffers (i.e., bicarbonate, phosphate) have long been identified as important mechanisms for ruminal proton removal. An even larger proportion of protons appears to be removed from the rumen by SCFA absorption across the ruminal epithelium, making efficiency of SCFA absorption a key determinant for the individual susceptibility to subacute ruminal acidosis. Proceeding initially from a model of exclusively diffusional absorption of fermentation acids, several protein-dependent mechanisms have been discovered over the last 2 decades. Although the molecular identity of these proteins is mostly uncertain, apical acetate absorption is mediated, to a major degree, via acetate-bicarbonate exchange in addition to another nitrate-sensitive, bicarbonate-independent transport mechanism and lipophilic diffusion. Propionate and butyrate also show partially bicarbonate-dependent transport modes. Basolateral efflux of SCFA and their metabolites has to be mediated primarily by proteins and probably involves the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1) and anion channels. Although the ruminal epithelium removes a large fraction of protons from the rumen, it also recycles protons to the rumen via apical sodium-proton exchanger, NHE. The latter is stimulated by ruminal SCFA absorption and salivary Na(+) secretion and protects epithelial integrity. Finally

  19. Dissemination of parasites by animal movements in small ruminant farms.

    PubMed

    Vasileiou, N G C; Fthenakis, G C; Papadopoulos, E

    2015-09-30

    The present paper discusses the spread of parasites by animal movements in small ruminant farms; it focuses in dissemination of parasitic forms that would lead to subsequent infection of sheep or goats. Systems of small ruminant production involve a component of animal movement (e.g., grazing) as part of routine husbandry, which favors spread of parasitic forms; that refers mainly to parasites of the digestive system (nematodes, trematodes, cestodes, protozoa), as well as helminthes of the respiratory system, although dissemination of the various parasitic forms in the environment would not always result to subsequent infection; external parasites may also be disseminated during movements, e.g., to inhabit wooden poles used in fencing. New livestock into a farm constitutes a biosecurity hazard and the most common means to introducing new parasitic pathogens into a farm; in contemporary small ruminant health management, this contributes in dissemination of anthelmintic resistant parasitic strains; other parasitic disease agents (e.g., mange mites, ticks) may also be spread into a farm that way. Often, especially in small scale farming, visits of rams or bucks take place from one farm to another during the mating season; in such cases, ectoparasites (e.g., mange mites) can be disseminated through direct contact of animals, as well other pathogens (e.g., Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum) via the semen. During transportation of sheep/goats, parasitic forms can also spread, as well as during movement of sheep or goats to slaughterhouses, in which case dogs present in these places would contribute to their dissemination. Spread of life forms of various parasites can also occur from animal species present in the environment of sheep or goats; these include animals present within a farm, stray dogs roaming around a farm (e.g., for spread of Multiceps multiceps, Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena, N. caninum), cats commanding the environment of a farm (e.g., for

  20. Managing the health of the elite athlete: a new integrated performance health management and coaching model.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, H Paul; Pollock, N; Chakraverty, R; Alonso, J M

    2014-04-01

    Elite athletes endeavour to train and compete even when ill or injured. Their motivation may be intrinsic or due to coach and team pressures. The sports medicine physician plays an important role to risk-manage the health of the competing athlete in partnership with the coach and other members of the support team. The sports medicine physician needs to strike the right ethical and operational balance between health management and optimising performance. It is necessary to revisit the popular delivery model of sports medicine and science services to elite athletes based on the current reductionist multispecialist system lacking in practice an integrated approach and effective communication. Athlete and coach in isolation or with a member of the multidisciplinary support team, often not qualified or experienced to do so, decide on the utilisation of services and how to apply the recommendations. We propose a new Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model based on the UK Athletics experience in preparation for the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. The Medical and Coaching Teams are managed by qualified and experienced individuals operating in synergy towards a common performance goal, accountable to a Performance Director and ultimately to the Board of Directors. We describe the systems, processes and implementation strategies to assist the athlete, coach and support teams to continuously monitor and manage athlete health and performance. These systems facilitate a balanced approach to training and competing decisions, especially while the athlete is ill or injured. They take into account the best medical advice and athlete preference. This Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model underpinned the Track and Field Gold Medal performances at the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:24620040

  1. Managing the health of the elite athlete: a new integrated performance health management and coaching model

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, H Paul; Pollock, N; Chakraverty, R; Alonso, J M

    2014-01-01

    Elite athletes endeavour to train and compete even when ill or injured. Their motivation may be intrinsic or due to coach and team pressures. The sports medicine physician plays an important role to risk-manage the health of the competing athlete in partnership with the coach and other members of the support team. The sports medicine physician needs to strike the right ethical and operational balance between health management and optimising performance. It is necessary to revisit the popular delivery model of sports medicine and science services to elite athletes based on the current reductionist multispecialist system lacking in practice an integrated approach and effective communication. Athlete and coach in isolation or with a member of the multidisciplinary support team, often not qualified or experienced to do so, decide on the utilisation of services and how to apply the recommendations. We propose a new Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model based on the UK Athletics experience in preparation for the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. The Medical and Coaching Teams are managed by qualified and experienced individuals operating in synergy towards a common performance goal, accountable to a Performance Director and ultimately to the Board of Directors. We describe the systems, processes and implementation strategies to assist the athlete, coach and support teams to continuously monitor and manage athlete health and performance. These systems facilitate a balanced approach to training and competing decisions, especially while the athlete is ill or injured. They take into account the best medical advice and athlete preference. This Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model underpinned the Track and Field Gold Medal performances at the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:24620040

  2. Requirements Flowdown for Prognostics and Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Kai; Saxena, Abhinav; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Celaya, Jose R.; Saha, Bhaskar; Saha, Sankalita

    2012-01-01

    Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) principles have considerable promise to change the game of lifecycle cost of engineering systems at high safety levels by providing a reliable estimate of future system states. This estimate is a key for planning and decision making in an operational setting. While technology solutions have made considerable advances, the tie-in into the systems engineering process is lagging behind, which delays fielding of PHM-enabled systems. The derivation of specifications from high level requirements for algorithm performance to ensure quality predictions is not well developed. From an engineering perspective some key parameters driving the requirements for prognostics performance include: (1) maximum allowable Probability of Failure (PoF) of the prognostic system to bound the risk of losing an asset, (2) tolerable limits on proactive maintenance to minimize missed opportunity of asset usage, (3) lead time to specify the amount of advanced warning needed for actionable decisions, and (4) required confidence to specify when prognosis is sufficiently good to be used. This paper takes a systems engineering view towards the requirements specification process and presents a method for the flowdown process. A case study based on an electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (e-UAV) scenario demonstrates how top level requirements for performance, cost, and safety flow down to the health management level and specify quantitative requirements for prognostic algorithm performance.

  3. Impact of health management, health treatments, and zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation on carcass quality, color, and palatability traits in heifers.

    PubMed

    Bloomberg, B D; Mafi, G G; Pye, B J; Wahrmund, J L; Richards, C J; Morgan, J B; Vanoverbeke, D L

    2013-07-01

    Two hundred sixty-eight strip loins were collected from heifers fed at Oklahoma State University in Stillwater, OK. In Exp. 1, heifers (n = 127) were assigned to 1 of 3 health management treatment groups: antimicrobial administrations were given based on standard feedlot protocol (SFP) or ruminal temperature (RT) or given a metaphylactic treatment of tulathromycin (MT) followed by visual assessment (VA). In Exp. 2, heifers (n = 155) were assigned to the same treatment groups as above and were supplemented zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) or control (CON). Three steaks were collected from each strip loin, 1 each for retail display, sensory evaluation, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). Color was evaluated from the retail display steak using a trained color panel and objectively using a HunterLab Miniscan XE. An Instron Universal Testing Machine with a Warner-Bratzler head was used for evaluation of instrumental tenderness, and a trained sensory panel was used to assess palatability traits. Heifers treated by VA had the least number of antimicrobial administrations and lowest yield grade and also had the lightest HCW (P < 0.05) compared with the heifers treated by the other health management protocols. There were no subjective color attribute differences or sensory panel differences (P > 0.05) across all health management systems or antimicrobial administrations. There were no differences in carcass and performance traits for any antimicrobial administrations treatment groups (P > 0.05). Heifers who had 0 or 1 antimicrobial administrations had lower (P < 0.05) a* (redness/greenness: positive values = red and negative values = green), and b* (yellowness/blueness: positive values = yellow and negative values = blue) values compared with those who had 2 antimicrobial administrations. In Exp. 2, heifers treated by VA had the least number (P < 0.05) of antimicrobial administrations when compared with MT and RT. Health management group did not have any other effects on

  4. Cyanobacterial toxins: risk management for health protection.

    PubMed

    Codd, Geoffrey A; Morrison, Louise F; Metcalf, James S

    2005-03-15

    This paper reviews the occurrence and properties of cyanobacterial toxins, with reference to the recognition and management of the human health risks which they may present. Mass populations of toxin-producing cyanobacteria in natural and controlled waterbodies include blooms and scums of planktonic species, and mats and biofilms of benthic species. Toxic cyanobacterial populations have been reported in freshwaters in over 45 countries, and in numerous brackish, coastal, and marine environments. The principal toxigenic genera are listed. Known sources of the families of cyanobacterial toxins (hepato-, neuro-, and cytotoxins, irritants, and gastrointestinal toxins) are briefly discussed. Key procedures in the risk management of cyanobacterial toxins and cells are reviewed, including derivations (where sufficient data are available) of tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) and guideline values (GVs) with reference to the toxins in drinking water, and guideline levels for toxigenic cyanobacteria in bathing waters. Uncertainties and some gaps in knowledge are also discussed, including the importance of exposure media (animal and plant foods), in addition to potable and recreational waters. Finally, we present an outline of steps to develop and implement risk management strategies for cyanobacterial cells and toxins in waterbodies, with recent applications and the integration of Hazard Assessment Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles. PMID:15737680

  5. Cyanobacterial toxins: risk management for health protection

    SciTech Connect

    Codd, Geoffrey A.; Morrison, Louise F.; Metcalf, James S

    2005-03-15

    This paper reviews the occurrence and properties of cyanobacterial toxins, with reference to the recognition and management of the human health risks which they may present. Mass populations of toxin-producing cyanobacteria in natural and controlled waterbodies include blooms and scums of planktonic species, and mats and biofilms of benthic species. Toxic cyanobacterial populations have been reported in freshwaters in over 45 countries, and in numerous brackish, coastal, and marine environments. The principal toxigenic genera are listed. Known sources of the families of cyanobacterial toxins (hepato-, neuro-, and cytotoxins, irritants, and gastrointestinal toxins) are briefly discussed. Key procedures in the risk management of cyanobacterial toxins and cells are reviewed, including derivations (where sufficient data are available) of tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) and guideline values (GVs) with reference to the toxins in drinking water, and guideline levels for toxigenic cyanobacteria in bathing waters. Uncertainties and some gaps in knowledge are also discussed, including the importance of exposure media (animal and plant foods), in addition to potable and recreational waters. Finally, we present an outline of steps to develop and implement risk management strategies for cyanobacterial cells and toxins in waterbodies, with recent applications and the integration of Hazard Assessment Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles.

  6. Physiological Roles of Adipokines, Hepatokines, and Myokines in Ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Sang-Gun; Suzuki, Yutaka; Gotoh, Takafumi; Tatsumi, Ryuichi; Katoh, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of leptin secreted from adipocytes, specialized tissues and cells have been found that secrete the several peptides (or cytokines) that are characterized to negatively and positively regulate the metabolic process. Different types of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines, which act as cytokines, are secreted from adipose, liver, and muscle tissue, respectively, and have been identified and examined for their physiological roles in humans and disease in animal models. Recently, various studies of these cytokines have been conducted in ruminants, including dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep, and goat. Interestingly, a few cytokines from these tissues in ruminants play an important role in the post-parturition, lactation, and fattening (marbling) periods. Thus, understanding these hormones is important for improving nutritional management in dairy cows and beef cattle. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reviews of the characteristics of these cytokines in beef and dairy products in ruminants. In particular, lipid and glucose metabolism in adipose tissue, liver tissue, and muscle tissue are very important for energy storage, production, and synthesis, which are regulated by these cytokines in ruminant production. In this review, we summarize the physiological roles of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines in ruminants. This discussion provides a foundation for understanding the role of cytokines in animal production of ruminants. PMID:26732322

  7. Physiological Roles of Adipokines, Hepatokines, and Myokines in Ruminants.

    PubMed

    Roh, Sang-Gun; Suzuki, Yutaka; Gotoh, Takafumi; Tatsumi, Ryuichi; Katoh, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of leptin secreted from adipocytes, specialized tissues and cells have been found that secrete the several peptides (or cytokines) that are characterized to negatively and positively regulate the metabolic process. Different types of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines, which act as cytokines, are secreted from adipose, liver, and muscle tissue, respectively, and have been identified and examined for their physiological roles in humans and disease in animal models. Recently, various studies of these cytokines have been conducted in ruminants, including dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep, and goat. Interestingly, a few cytokines from these tissues in ruminants play an important role in the post-parturition, lactation, and fattening (marbling) periods. Thus, understanding these hormones is important for improving nutritional management in dairy cows and beef cattle. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reviews of the characteristics of these cytokines in beef and dairy products in ruminants. In particular, lipid and glucose metabolism in adipose tissue, liver tissue, and muscle tissue are very important for energy storage, production, and synthesis, which are regulated by these cytokines in ruminant production. In this review, we summarize the physiological roles of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines in ruminants. This discussion provides a foundation for understanding the role of cytokines in animal production of ruminants. PMID:26732322

  8. Outage management and health physics issue, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2007-05-15

    The focus of the May-June issue is on outage management and health physics. Major articles/reports in this issue include: India: a potential commercial opportunity, a U.S. Department of Commerce Report, by Joe Neuhoff and Justin Rathke; The changing climate for nuclear energy, by Skip Bowman, Nuclear Energy Insitute; Selecting protective clothing, by J. Mark Price, Southern California Edison; and Succssful refurbishment outage, by Sudesh K. Gambhir, Omaha Public Power District. Industry innovation articles in this issue are: Containment radiation monitoring spiking, by Michael W. Lantz and Robert Routolo, Arizona Public Service Company; Improved outage performance, by Michael Powell and Troy Wilfong, Arizona Public Service Company, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station; Stop repacking valves and achieve leak-free performance, by Kenneth Hart, PPL Susquehanna LLC; and Head assembly upgrade package, by Timothy Petit, Dominion Nuclear.

  9. Rocket Testing and Integrated System Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Schmalzel, John

    2005-01-01

    Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) describes a set of system capabilities that in aggregate perform: determination of condition for each system element, detection of anomalies, diagnosis of causes for anomalies, and prognostics for future anomalies and system behavior. The ISHM should also provide operators with situational awareness of the system by integrating contextual and timely data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) as needed. ISHM capabilities can be implemented using a variety of technologies and tools. This chapter provides an overview of ISHM contributing technologies and describes in further detail a novel implementation architecture along with associated taxonomy, ontology, and standards. The operational ISHM testbed is based on a subsystem of a rocket engine test stand. Such test stands contain many elements that are common to manufacturing systems, and thereby serve to illustrate the potential benefits and methodologies of the ISHM approach for intelligent manufacturing.

  10. Outage management and health physics issue, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2009-05-15

    The focus of the May-June issue is on outage management and health physics. Major articles include the following: Planning and scheduling to minimize refueling outage, by Pat McKenna, AmerenUE; Prioritizing safety, quality and schedule, by Tom Sharkey, Dominion; Benchmarking to high standards, by Margie Jepson, Energy Nuclear; Benchmarking against U.S. standards, by Magnox North, United Kingdom; Enabling suppliers for new build activity, by Marcus Harrington, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; Identifying, cultivating and qualifying suppliers, by Thomas E. Silva, AREVA NP; Creating new U.S. jobs, by Francois Martineau, Areva NP. Industry innovation articles include: MSL Acoustic source load reduction, by Amir Shahkarami, Exelon Nuclear; Dual Methodology NDE of CRDM nozzles, by Michael Stark, Dominion Nuclear; and Electronic circuit board testing, by James Amundsen, FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company. The plant profile article is titled The future is now, by Julia Milstead, Progress Energy Service Company, LLC.

  11. 9 CFR 94.3 - Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... secretions of ruminants or swine. 94.3 Section 94.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.3 Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or...

  12. Integrated Systems Health Management for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uckun, Serdar

    2005-01-01

    Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is a system engineering discipline that addresses the design, development, operation, and lifecycle management of components, subsystems, vehicles, and other operational systems with the purpose of maintaining nominal system behavior and function and assuring mission safety and effectiveness under off-nominal conditions. NASA missions are often conducted in extreme, unfamiliar environments of space, using unique experimental spacecraft. In these environments, off-nominal conditions can develop with the potential to rapidly escalate into mission- or life-threatening situations. Further, the high visibility of NASA missions means they are always characterized by extraordinary attention to safety. ISHM is a critical element of risk mitigation, mission safety, and mission assurance for exploration. ISHM enables: In-space maintenance and repair; a) Autonomous (and automated) launch abort and crew escape capability; b) Efficient testing and checkout of ground and flight systems; c) Monitoring and trending of ground and flight system operations and performance; d) Enhanced situational awareness and control for ground personnel and crew; e) Vehicle autonomy (self-sufficiency) in responding to off-nominal conditions during long-duration and distant exploration missions; f) In-space maintenance and repair; and g) Efficient ground processing of reusable systems. ISHM concepts and technologies may be applied to any complex engineered system such as transportation systems, orbital or planetary habitats, observatories, command and control systems, life support systems, safety-critical software, and even the health of flight crews. As an overarching design and operational principle implemented at the system-of-systems level, ISHM holds substantial promise in terms of affordability, safety, reliability, and effectiveness of space exploration missions.

  13. Soil health paradigms and implications for disease management.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    Soil health has been defined as the capacity of soil to function as a vital living system to sustain biological productivity, maintain environmental quality, and promote plant, animal, and human health. Building and maintaining soil health are essential to agricultural sustainability and ecosystem function. Management practices that promote soil health, including the use of crop rotations, cover crops and green manures, organic amendments, and conservation tillage, also have generally positive effects on the management of soilborne diseases through a number of potential mechanisms, including increasing soil microbial biomass, activity, and diversity, resulting in greater biological suppression of pathogens and diseases. However, there also may be particular disease issues associated with some soil health management practices. In this review, research and progress made over the past twenty years regarding soil health, sustainability, and soil health management practices, with an emphasis on their implications for and effects on plant disease and disease management strategies, are summarized. PMID:26002292

  14. Consumer-directed health care: implications for health care organizations and managers.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kristina L

    2010-01-01

    This article uses a pyramid model to illustrate the key components of consumer-directed health care. Consumer-directed health care is considered the essential strategy needed to lower health care costs and is valuable for making significant strides in health care reform. Consumer-directed health care presents new challenges and opportunities for all health care stakeholders and their managers. The viability of the health system depends on the success of managers to respond rapidly and with precision to changes in the system; thus, new and modified roles of managers are necessary to successfully sustain consumerism efforts to control costs while maintaining access and quality. PMID:20436329

  15. [Public health management in invasive meningococcal diseases].

    PubMed

    Ehrhard, I; Arndt, U

    2004-12-01

    At the 54(th) Scientific Congress of the German Professional Association of Public Health Service Physicians and Dentists in Marburg on 6th May 2004 the working group on meningococci (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Meningokokken, AGMK) organised the international workshop "Public Health Management of invasive Meningococcal Disease". In recent years significant changes in the epidemiology of meningococcal disease took place in Europe: in some countries and regions the number of disease caused by meningococci serogroup C has increased significantly. In the Netherlands this increase led to the introduction of an immunisation programme with conjugated meningococcal vaccines targeting children aged 1 up to 18 years. In Switzerland a peak in the number of reported meningococcal group C cases could be observed in some regions. Therefore, a regional vaccination programme has been introduced. Nevertheless, compared with Germany, the indications for vaccination against meningococci in Switzerland are more extensive. In the workshop, Professor Ulrich Vogel and Dr. Ingrid Ehrhard presented the epidemiological situation in Germany and the recommended prophylaxis regimen against meningococci. PMID:15609213

  16. Herd health and management of dairy cow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćaǧlayan, Alper; Yüca, Songül

    2016-04-01

    Herd management requires multidisciplinary practices including animal feeding, gynecology, artificial insemination, immunology, and similar topics. Animal feeding is the most delicate subject as the fodder expense is 70% of the farm cost and as nearly all of the metabolic diseases arising out as health problem are because of misfeeding. However, a business organization's being able to maintain making profit will be possible by taking a healthy calf from breeding herd every year. For this reason, precision registrations of birth and artificial insemination, following-up pregnant state of animals, and making the other animals pregnant as soon as possible should be primary aim. It should not be forgotten that diarrhea and pneumonia in calves are among the most frequently witnessed infection related health problems. Mastitis, metritis and foot diseases take an important place in mature cows. These diseases can be minimized by vaccinations that are done properly and in suitable time, in-service training of staffs, making shelters suitable for animals welfare, and improving the hygienic conditions.

  17. Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Activities at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Jack

    2000-01-01

    Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) goals are to develop and integrate the technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce the costs of operations.

  18. Health Management Applications for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alena, Richard; Duncavage, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Traditional mission and vehicle management involves teams of highly trained specialists monitoring vehicle status and crew activities, responding rapidly to any anomalies encountered during operations. These teams work from the Mission Control Center and have access to engineering support teams with specialized expertise in International Space Station (ISS) subsystems. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) applications can significantly augment these capabilities by providing enhanced monitoring, prognostic and diagnostic tools for critical decision support and mission management. The Intelligent Systems Division of NASA Ames Research Center is developing many prototype applications using model-based reasoning, data mining and simulation, working with Mission Control through the ISHM Testbed and Prototypes Project. This paper will briefly describe information technology that supports current mission management practice, and will extend this to a vision for future mission control workflow incorporating new ISHM applications. It will describe ISHM applications currently under development at NASA and will define technical approaches for implementing our vision of future human exploration mission management incorporating artificial intelligence and distributed web service architectures using specific examples. Several prototypes are under development, each highlighting a different computational approach. The ISStrider application allows in-depth analysis of Caution and Warning (C&W) events by correlating real-time telemetry with the logical fault trees used to define off-nominal events. The application uses live telemetry data and the Livingstone diagnostic inference engine to display the specific parameters and fault trees that generated the C&W event, allowing a flight controller to identify the root cause of the event from thousands of possibilities by simply navigating animated fault tree models on their workstation. SimStation models the functional power flow

  19. Managing Scale and Innovation in Health IT.

    PubMed

    Enzmann, Dieter R; Pfeffer, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Given the high-intensity interaction between radiology and IT, radiology leadership should understand IT's new, somewhat conflicting, dual roles. Managing large-scale and small-scale projects concurrently has become an important challenge for leaders of health IT (HIT). Historical parallels of this challenge can be drawn from transportation and communication systems, in which a large-scale mind-set is needed to build the initial network, whereas a small-scale mind-set is more useful to develop the content that will traverse this network. Innovation and creativity is a cornerstone of content small-scale thinking, and in HIT, that is what is needed to extract the value from it. However, unlike the early historical transportation and communication examples, the time between the development of the infrastructure and the follow-on, value-rich content is shortened greatly because it has become nearly simultaneous in HIT. Weaving the ability to concomitantly manage both large- and small-scale projects into the fabric of the organizational HIT culture will be critical for its success. PMID:27039000

  20. Disease and health management in Asian aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Bondad-Reantaso, Melba G; Subasinghe, Rohana P; Arthur, J Richard; Ogawa, Kazuo; Chinabut, Supranee; Adlard, Robert; Tan, Zilong; Shariff, Mohamed

    2005-09-30

    Asia contributes more than 90% to the world's aquaculture production. Like other farming systems, aquaculture is plagued with disease problems resulting from its intensification and commercialization. This paper describes the various factors, providing specific examples, which have contributed to the current disease problems faced by what is now the fastest growing food-producing sector globally. These include increased globalization of trade and markets; the intensification of fish-farming practices through the movement of broodstock, postlarvae, fry and fingerlings; the introduction of new species for aquaculture development; the expansion of the ornamental fish trade; the enhancement of marine and coastal areas through the stocking of aquatic animals raised in hatcheries; the unanticipated interactions between cultured and wild populations of aquatic animals; poor or lack of effective biosecurity measures; slow awareness on emerging diseases; the misunderstanding and misuse of specific pathogen free (SPF) stocks; climate change; other human-mediated movements of aquaculture commodities. Data on the socio-economic impacts of aquatic animal diseases are also presented, including estimates of losses in production, direct and indirect income and employment, market access or share of investment, and consumer confidence; food availability; industry failures. Examples of costs of investment in aquatic animal health-related activities, including national strategies, research, surveillance, control and other health management programmes are also provided. Finally, the strategies currently being implemented in the Asian region to deal with transboundary diseases affecting the aquaculture sector are highlighted. These include compliance with international codes, and development and implementation of regional guidelines and national aquatic animal health strategies; new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques and new information technology; new biosecurity measures including

  1. Measuring State-Specific Rumination: Development of the Rumination about an Interpersonal Offense Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Nathaniel G.; Vogel, David L.; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Goldman, Daniel B.

    2008-01-01

    The tendency to ruminate has been consistently linked to psychological disturbances, such as increased stress, anger, and fear in response to provocations. However, existing measures of rumination focus on the disposition to ruminate rather than on rumination about a specific situation. This limits the ability to explore rumination about a…

  2. Brief Report: Adolescents' Co-Rumination with Mothers, Co-Rumination with Friends, and Internalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Erika M.; Rose, Amanda J.

    2013-01-01

    The current research examined co-rumination (extensively discussing, rehashing, and speculating about problems) with mothers and friends. Of interest was exploring whether adolescents who co-ruminate with mothers were especially likely to co-ruminate with friends as well as the interplay among co-rumination with mothers, co-rumination with…

  3. Managed care in mental health: the ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Boyle, P J; Callahan, D

    1995-01-01

    Praise and blame of managed mental health care are on the rise on many fronts, including allegations that it could adversely affect quality of care, access to care, the physician/patient relationship, and informed patient choice. Given the heterogeneity among managed mental health care organizations--each with differing practices--it is difficult to sift the ethically defensible concerns from the indefensible ones. In this paper we identify and examine the different moral concerns about managed mental health care and mark which problems have been addressed or are in need of resolution. We also identify which problems are unique to managed mental health care. PMID:7498905

  4. Management implications of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act.

    PubMed

    Prince, L H; Carroll-Barefield, A

    2000-09-01

    Health care professionals are faced with ever-changing rules and regulations and technological advances. Add to this the 1996 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and the health care manager's list of challenges continues to expand. This article presents an overview of HIPAA requirements and tools for use by health care managers in ensuring their facility is in compliance with the latest rulings. PMID:11183652

  5. Meeting global health challenges through operational research and management science

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper considers how operational research and management science can improve the design of health systems and the delivery of health care, particularly in low-resource settings. It identifies some gaps in the way operational research is typically used in global health and proposes steps to bridge them. It then outlines some analytical tools of operational research and management science and illustrates how their use can inform some typical design and delivery challenges in global health. The paper concludes by considering factors that will increase and improve the contribution of operational research and management science to global health. PMID:21897489

  6. The adoption of mobile health management services: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ming-Chien; Jen, Wen-Yuan

    2012-06-01

    As their populations age, many countries are facing the increasing economic pressure of providing healthcare to their people. In Taiwan, this problem is exacerbated by an increasing rate of obesity and obesity-related conditions. Encouraging the adoption of personal health management services is one way to maintain current levels of personal health and to efficiently manage the distribution of healthcare resources. This study introduces Mobile Health Management Services (MHMS) and employs the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to explore the intention of students in Executive Master of Business Management programs to adopt mobile health management technology. Partial least squares (PLS) was used to analyze the collected data, and the results revealed that "perceived usefulness" and "attitude" significantly affected the behavioral intention of adopting MHMS. Both "perceived ease of use" and "perceived usefulness," significantly affected "attitude," and "perceived ease of use" significantly affected "perceived usefulness" as well. The results also show that the determinants of intention toward MHMS differed with age; young adults had higher intention to adopt MHMS to manage their personal health. Therefore, relevant governmental agencies may profitably promote the management of personal health among this population. Successful promotion of personal health management will contribute to increases in both the level of general health and the efficient management of healthcare resources. PMID:20878452

  7. Managing risk: clinical decision-making in mental health services.

    PubMed

    Muir-Cochrane, Eimear; Gerace, Adam; Mosel, Krista; O'Kane, Debra; Barkway, Patricia; Curren, David; Oster, Candice

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment and management is a major component of contemporary mental health practice. Risk assessment in health care exists within contemporary perspectives of management and risk aversive practices in health care. This has led to much discussion about the best approach to assessing possible risks posed by people with mental health problems. In addition, researchers and commentators have expressed concern that clinical practice is being dominated by managerial models of risk management at the expense of meeting the patient's health and social care needs. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the risk assessment practices of a multidisciplinary mental health service. Findings indicate that mental health professionals draw on both managerial and therapeutic approaches to risk management, integrating these approaches into their clinical practice. Rather than being dominated by managerial concerns regarding risk, the participants demonstrate professional autonomy and concern for the needs of their clients. PMID:22077745

  8. Rumination fosters indecision in dysphoria.

    PubMed

    van Randenborgh, Annette; de Jong-Meyer, Renate; Hüffmeier, Joachim

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of rumination on indecision, assessed as high levels of perceived decision difficulty, low confidence in a decision, and decision latency. Dysphoric and nondysphoric participants were assigned to either a rumination or a distraction induction. Subsequently, they made four decisions with alleged real-life consequences. As predicted, rumination exhibited a negative effect on dysphoric participants' decision-making process. They experienced the decisions as more difficult and had less confidence in their choices. No effects emerged on the measure of decision time. Mediation analyses revealed that increased difficulty of the decisions was due to self-focused thinking as a cognitive consequence of rumination, while reduced confidence in the decisions was partly mediated by negative affect that resulted from rumination. The finding that rumination affects the important life domain of decision making by fostering indecision in dysphoric individuals is a central extension of previous studies on rumination's consequences. In addition, these results provide insight into the depressive symptom of indecisiveness by revealing its underlying mechanisms. PMID:19904809

  9. Putting Management Capacity Building at the Forefront of Health Systems Strengthening Comment on "Management Matters: A Leverage Point for Health Systems Strengthening in Global Health".

    PubMed

    Yeager, Valerie A; Bertrand, Jane

    2015-01-01

    The current limited focus on management in global health activities is highly problematic given the amounts of financial and human resources that are pouring into health system strengthening interventions and the complexity of clinical operations across settings. By ensuring that public health and healthcare practitioners in domestic and international settings receive management training in their educational programs and that we build management capacity among individuals already in the health workforce, we can begin to prepare for more effective health systems strengthening efforts. Rigorous evaluation of health systems strengthening and the impact of management capacity building is crucial to building evidence for the field. PMID:26927402

  10. Modelling digestive constraints in non-ruminant and ruminant foregut-fermenting mammals.

    PubMed

    Munn, Adam J; Streich, W Jürgen; Hummel, Jürgen; Clauss, Marcus

    2008-09-01

    It has been suggested that large foregut-fermenting marsupial herbivores, the kangaroos and their relatives, may be less constrained by food intake limitations as compared with ruminants, due mainly to differences in their digestive morphology and management of ingesta particles through the gut. In particular, as the quality of forage declines with increasing contents of plant fibre (cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin; measured as neutral-detergent fibre, NDF), the tubiform foregut of kangaroos may allow these animals to maintain food intakes more so than ruminants like sheep, which appear to be limited by fibrous bulk filling the foregut and truncating further ingestion. Using available data on dry matter intake (DMI, g kg(-0.75) d(-1)), ingesta mean retention time (MRT, h), and apparent digestibility, we modelled digestible dry matter intake (DDMI) and digestible energy intake (DEI) by ruminant sheep (Ovis aries) and by the largest marsupial herbivore, the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus). Sheep achieved higher MRTs on similar DMIs, and hence sheep achieved higher DDMIs for any given level of DMI as compared with kangaroos. Interestingly, MRT declined in response to increasing DMI in a similar pattern for both species, and the association between DMI and plant NDF contents did not support the hypothesis that kangaroos are less affected by increasing fibre relative to sheep. However, when DEI was modelled according to DDMIs and dietary energy contents, we show that the kangaroos could meet their daily maintenance energy requirements (MER) at lower levels of DMI and on diets with higher fibre contents compared with sheep, due largely to the kangaroos' lower absolute maintenance and basal energy metabolisms compared with eutherians. These results suggest that differences in the metabolic set-point of different species can have profound effects on their nutritional niche, even when their digestive constraints are similar, as was the case for these ruminant and non-ruminant

  11. [Ruminal drinkers and clay defecators].

    PubMed

    de Visser, N A; Breukink, H J

    1984-10-15

    In this clinical lecture, attention is drawn to the phenomenon of young milk-fed calves showing irregular appetites and recurrent bloat. These patients often produce faeces which are too dry and too light in colour. These symptoms are preceded by inadequate closing of the oesophageal groove during milk intake, which causes an inflow of milk into the rumen rather than into the abomasum. The present authors introduced the term 'Ruminal Drinkers' to describe this type of patient. The identification of ruminal drinkers as well as the clinical findings are reviewed. The effects of ruminal drinking, the therapy indicated and a number of preventive measures are discussed. PMID:6506050

  12. Health Professionals' Perceptions of Sexual Assault Management: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancey, Jonine; Meuleners, Lynn; Phillips, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore health professionals' perceptions of sexual assault management practices and identify issues related to these practices across Western Australia (WA). Design: A two-round electronic Delphi study was undertaken with health professionals (medical doctors, registered nurses, social workers and managers). Setting: Healthcare…

  13. Managing Evaluation in a Federal Public Health Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooley, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    The author, a federal manager who leads development and maintenance of evaluation for specific public health programs at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, tells the story of developing an evaluation unit in the Office on Smoking and Health. Lessons about managing evaluation, including his practices and related principles, are…

  14. Needs Assessment for Health Care Management Education in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rekhter, Natalia; Togunov, Igor A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: For more than 70 years, health care management in the Soviet Union reflected a centralized directive style familiar to the Soviet political system. Market-oriented reform in post-Soviet Russia is pushing practicing physicians and physician-executives to acquire new information and skills regarding health care management. To assist…

  15. Technology Maturation of Integrated System Health Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Uckun, Serdar; Hicks, Kenneth A.

    2008-01-01

    Despite two decades of significant investments in R&D of Integrated System Health Management (ISHM), mission-critical applications of it in aerospace are few and far between. ISHM is subject to the general difficulty of transitioning technologies out of R&D labs and into practical applications. New and unproven methods such as ISHM introduce multiple mission risks (technology, schedule, cost), and may require a transition to unconventional and as-yet-unproven operations concepts in order to be effective. Laboratory and flight demonstrations are necessary but insufficient to adequately reduce those risks. What is needed is a solid business case before a new technology can be considered for fleetwide deployment. To address these problems, we recently applied a technology maturation assessment process developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory to study the challenges of ISHM technology maturation. This application resulted in identification of the technologies (and technology maturation activities) that would result in the greatest risk reduction per investment dollar. Our approach and its results are described herein.

  16. Applying learning principles to the development of health services managers.

    PubMed

    Prideaux, G

    1991-01-01

    An Australian health services management program which leads to an M.H.A. for experienced managers was designed with a strong basis in principles of adult learning and management development. The program emphasizes management competencies, self-managed learning methodologies, team learning, learning contract processes, work-based projects, and choice for participants to undertake learning activities most relevant to their evolving careers. PMID:10114554

  17. Simulation: A Complementary Method for Teaching Health Services Strategic Management

    PubMed Central

    Reddick, W. T.

    1990-01-01

    Rapid change in the health care environment mandates a more comprehensive approach to the education of future health administrators. The area of consideration in this study is that of health care strategic management. A comprehensive literature review suggests microcomputer-based simulation as an appropriate vehicle for addressing the needs of both educators and students. Seven strategic management software packages are reviewed and rated with an instrument adapted from the Infoworld review format. The author concludes that a primary concern is the paucity of health care specific strategic management simulations.

  18. Cassia fistula Linn: Potential candidate in the health management

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Arshad H.

    2015-01-01

    Cassia fistula Linn is known as Golden shower has therapeutics importance in health care since ancient times. Research findings over the last two decade have confirmed the therapeutics consequence of C. fistula in the health management via modulation of biological activities due to the rich source of antioxidant. Several findings based on the animal model have confirmed the pharmacologically safety and efficacy and have opened a new window for human health management. This review reveals additional information about C. fistula in the health management via in vivo and in vitro study which will be beneficial toward diseases control. PMID:26130932

  19. A Primer on Population Health Management and Its Perioperative Application.

    PubMed

    Boudreaux, Arthur M; Vetter, Thomas R

    2016-07-01

    The movement toward value-based payment models, driven by governmental policies, federal statutes, and market forces, is propelling the importance of effectively managing the health of populations to the forefront in the United States and other developed countries. However, for many anesthesiologists, population health management is a new or even foreign concept. A primer on population health management and its potential perioperative application is thus presented here. Although it certainly continues to evolve, population health management can be broadly defined as the specific policies, programs, and interventions directed at optimizing population health. The Population Health Alliance has created a particularly cogent conceptual framework and interconnected and very useful population health process model, which together identify the key components of population health and its management. Population health management provides a useful rationale for patients, providers, payers, and policymakers to move collectively away from the traditional system of individual, siloed providers to a more integrated, coordinated, team-based approach, thus creating a holistic view of the patient population. The goal of population health management is to keep the targeted patient population as healthy as possible, thus minimizing the need for costly interventions such as emergency department visits, acute hospitalizations, laboratory testing and imaging, and diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Population health management strategies are increasingly more important to leaders of health care systems as the health of populations for which they care, especially in a strong cost risk-sharing environment, must be optimized. Most population health management efforts rely on a patient-centric team approach, coordination of care, effective communication, robust outcomes data analysis, and continuous quality improvement. Anesthesiologists have an opportunity to help lead these efforts in

  20. Management Matters: A Leverage Point for Health Systems Strengthening in Global Health.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Elizabeth H; Taylor, Lauren A; Cuellar, Carlos J

    2015-07-01

    Despite a renewed focus in the field of global health on strengthening health systems, inadequate attention has been directed to a key ingredient of high-performing health systems: management. We aimed to develop the argument that management - defined here as the process of achieving predetermined objectives through human, financial, and technical resources - is a cross-cutting function necessary for success in all World Health Organization (WHO) building blocks of health systems strengthening. Management within health systems is particularly critical in low-income settings where the efficient use of scarce resources is paramount to attaining health goals. More generally, investments in management capacity may be viewed as a key leverage point in grand strategy, as strong management enables the achievement of large ends with limited means. We also sought to delineate a set of core competencies and identify key roles to be targeted for management capacity building efforts. Several effective examples of management interventions have been described in the research literature. Together, the existing evidence underscores the importance of country ownership of management capacity building efforts, which often challenge the status quo and thus need country leadership to sustain despite inevitable friction. The literature also recognizes that management capacity efforts, as a key ingredient of effective systems change, take time to embed, as new protocols and ways of working become habitual and integrated as standard operating procedures. Despite these challenges, the field of health management as part of global health system strengthening efforts holds promise as a fundamental leverage point for achieving health system performance goals with existing human, technical, and financial resources. The evidence base consistently supports the role of management in performance improvement but would benefit from additional research with improved methodological rigor and longer

  1. Management Matters: A Leverage Point for Health Systems Strengthening in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Elizabeth H.; Taylor, Lauren A.; Cuellar, Carlos J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a renewed focus in the field of global health on strengthening health systems, inadequate attention has been directed to a key ingredient of high-performing health systems: management. We aimed to develop the argument that management – defined here as the process of achieving predetermined objectives through human, financial, and technical resources – is a cross-cutting function necessary for success in all World Health Organization (WHO) building blocks of health systems strengthening. Management within health systems is particularly critical in low-income settings where the efficient use of scarce resources is paramount to attaining health goals. More generally, investments in management capacity may be viewed as a key leverage point in grand strategy, as strong management enables the achievement of large ends with limited means. We also sought to delineate a set of core competencies and identify key roles to be targeted for management capacity building efforts. Several effective examples of management interventions have been described in the research literature. Together, the existing evidence underscores the importance of country ownership of management capacity building efforts, which often challenge the status quo and thus need country leadership to sustain despite inevitable friction. The literature also recognizes that management capacity efforts, as a key ingredient of effective systems change, take time to embed, as new protocols and ways of working become habitual and integrated as standard operating procedures. Despite these challenges, the field of health management as part of global health system strengthening efforts holds promise as a fundamental leverage point for achieving health system performance goals with existing human, technical, and financial resources. The evidence base consistently supports the role of management in performance improvement but would benefit from additional research with improved methodological rigor and longer

  2. Health Project Management. A Manual of Procedures for Formulating and Implementing Health Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bainbridge, J.; Sapirie, S.

    The manual presents 16 main steps for health project management, from project formulation through termination. The manual defines a health project as a temporary intensive effort to set up and put into operation a new or revised service that will result in the reduction of specific health or health-related problems. (Typical examples include the…

  3. Managing interdisciplinary health research--theoretical and practical aspects.

    PubMed

    Aagaard-Hansen, Jens; Ouma, John Henry

    2002-01-01

    Interdisciplinary health research can offer valuable evidence for health care managers. However, there are specific challenges regarding the management of such projects. Based on 7 years of experience from a project in western Kenya, the authors point to the need for a sufficient time horizon, a high level of communication, equity between the disciplines and the identification of appropriate evaluation criteria as issues to be considered. The theoretical framework of Rosenfield was modified to comply with the complexities of field management. PMID:12298143

  4. Health services management manpower and education: outlook for the future.

    PubMed

    Hilsenrath, P E; Levey, S; Weil, T P; Ludke, R

    1993-01-01

    There is much concern about administrative costs in health care. But little has been written on the market for health managers. This article discusses Bureau of Labor Statistics data estimating a total of 362,500 health managers in the United States in 1990 and projections showing an increase to 517,800 in 2005. The article further discusses the composition of health care employment in terms of settings and functions, and evaluates the implications of a rapidly changing market for health administrators. The authors conclude that sufficient demand exists for AUPHA programs to produce more graduates, but that curriculum should be revised and should place greater emphasis on efficient production of health services. This will provide qualitative differentiation and give health management training a competitive advantage over business and other educational backgrounds. PMID:10129821

  5. Behavioral Health Emergencies Managed by School Nurses Working with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Mary M.; Greenberg, Cynthia; Sapien, Robert; Bauer-Creegan, Judith; Hine, Beverly; Geary, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Background: As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses provide behavioral health services. Studies indicate that school nurses may lack sufficient continuing education in adolescent behavioral health and in the management of behavioral health emergencies, specifically. We conducted this study to describe the adolescent behavioral health…

  6. Environmental Management of Pediatric Asthma: Guidelines for Health Care Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, James R.; McCurdy, Leyla Erk

    2005-01-01

    These guidelines are the product of a new Pediatric Asthma Initiative aimed at integrating environmental management of asthma into pediatric health care. This document outlines competencies in environmental health relevant to pediatric asthma that should be mastered by primary health care providers, and outlines the environmental interventions…

  7. Children and Managed Health Care. Analysis and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Lisa W.; Shiono, Patricia H.; Behrman, Richard E.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the changes managed health care has brought to the delivery and use of medical services and recommends specific steps that will make the existing system more responsive to the needs of children. Systemwide health care reforms must give children stable medical care that emphasizes preventive health and developmental services. (SLD)

  8. Reducing Health Cost: Health Informatics and Knowledge Management as a Business and Communication Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyampoh-Vidogah, Regina; Moreton, Robert; Sallah, David

    Health informatics has the potential to improve the quality and provision of care while reducing the cost of health care delivery. However, health informatics is often falsely regarded as synonymous with information management (IM). This chapter (i) provides a clear definition and characteristic benefits of health informatics and information management in the context of health care delivery, (ii) identifies and explains the difference between health informatics (HI) and managing knowledge (KM) in relation to informatics business strategy and (iii) elaborates the role of information communication technology (ICT) KM environment. This Chapter further examines how KM can be used to improve health service informatics costs, and identifies the factors that could affect its implementation and explains some of the reasons driving the development of electronic health record systems. This will assist in avoiding higher costs and errors, while promoting the continued industrialisation of KM delivery across health care communities.

  9. Systematic Motorcycle Management and Health Care Delivery: A Field Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rerolle, Francois; Rammohan, Sonali V.; Albohm, Davis C.; Muwowo, George; Moseson, Heidi; Sept, Lesley; Lee, Hau L.; Bendavid, Eran

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether managed transportation improves outreach-based health service delivery to rural village populations. Methods. We examined systematic transportation management in a small-cluster interrupted time series field trial. In 8 districts in Southern Zambia, we followed health workers at 116 health facilities from September 2011 to March 2014. The primary outcome was the average number of outreach trips per health worker per week. Secondary outcomes were health worker productivity, motorcycle performance, and geographical coverage. Results. Systematic fleet management resulted in an increase of 0.9 (SD = 1.0) trips to rural villages per health worker per week (P < .001), village-level health worker productivity by 20.5 (SD = 5.9) patient visits, 10.2 (SD = 1.5) measles immunizations, and 5.2 (SD = 5.4) child growth assessments per health worker per week. Motorcycle uptime increased by 3.5 days per week (P < .001), use by 1.5 days per week (P < .001), and mean distance by 9.3 kilometers per trip (P < .001). Geographical coverage of health outreach increased in experimental (P < .001) but not control districts. Conclusions. Systematic motorcycle management improves basic health care delivery to rural villages in resource-poor environments through increased health worker productivity and greater geographical coverage. PMID:26562131

  10. Association of rumination time with subclinical ketosis in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, E I; LeBlanc, S J; McBride, B W; Duffield, T F; DeVries, T J

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the relationship between rumination and subclinical ketosis (SCK) in transition dairy cows. A study was conducted on 4 commercial dairy farms in eastern Ontario, Canada. A total of 339 Holstein dairy cows (107 primiparous and 232 multiparous) were monitored for rumination activity and SCK from 14 d before calving until 28 d after calving. Rumination was recorded daily using an automated monitoring system. A blood sample was taken from the coccygeal vein of each cow for measurement of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) once weekly throughout the 6-wk observation period. Cows with BHB ≥1.2mmol/L in any of the 4 postpartum samples were considered to have SCK. Cases of retained placenta, metritis, milk fever, or mastitis during the study period were also recorded. Cows were categorized into 1 of 4 groups: healthy cows (HLT) that had no SCK or any other recorded health problem (n=139); cows treated for at least one health issue other than SCK (HLT+; n=50); cows with SCK (hyperketonemia; HYK) with no other health problems during transition (n=97); or cows (HYK+) that had SCK and one or more other health problems (n=53). Daily rumination time was summarized by week and comparisons were made between HLT and HYK and HYK+. From 2 wk before calving (wk -2) to 4 wk after calving (wk +4), there was no difference in rumination time (409±9.8min/d) among HLT, HYK, and HYK+ cows in their first lactation. Multiparous cows in HLT spent an average of 459±11.3min/d ruminating from wk -2 to wk +4. Multiparous HYK cows ruminated 25±12.8min/d less than HLT cows, whereas HYK+ cows ruminated 44±15.6min/d less than HLT cows. The largest differences in rumination time between HLT and HYK+ cows were seen during wk -1, +1, and +2, when HYK+ cows ruminated 48±17.2, 73±16.0, and 65±19.4min/d less than HLT cows, respectively. In multiparous cows, increased odds of HYK were associated with greater milk yield in the previous lactation, greater loss of

  11. Pesticides and public health: integrated methods of mosquito management.

    PubMed Central

    Rose, R. I.

    2001-01-01

    Pesticides have a role in public health as part of sustainable integrated mosquito management. Other components of such management include surveillance, source reduction or prevention, biological control, repellents, traps, and pesticide-resistance management. We assess the future use of mosquito control pesticides in view of niche markets, incentives for new product development, Environmental Protection Agency registration, the Food Quality Protection Act, and improved pest management strategies for mosquito control. PMID:11266290

  12. Protozoal causes of reproductive failure in domestic ruminants.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M L; Barr, B C; Conrad, P A

    1994-11-01

    Protozoan parasites are a significant cause of abortion and infertility in domestic ruminants. Toxoplasma gondii, a widespread cause of abortion in sheep and goats, and Sarcocystis spp., which cause a common, frequently asymptomatic infection of domestic ruminants, both have a two-host life cycle. Carnivorous definitive hosts spread the infection through their feces and domestic ruminants are intermediate hosts. A similar, recently recognized protozoa, Neospora sp., has emerged as an important cause of reproductive disease, especially as an abortifacient in dairy cattle. Neospora is presumed to also have a two-host life cycle, although the definitive host(s) has not been identified. The venereally transmitted Tritrichomonas foetus is an important cause of pregnancy loss in naturally bred cattle throughout the world. In the absence of effective methods for vaccination or treatment, control of these parasites is based on management procedures to reduce infection and transmission. PMID:7728629

  13. Women's health services: restructuring for Medicaid managed care.

    PubMed

    Loughlin, J; Bronner, E F; Mascari, J S

    1997-04-01

    New Jersey health care providers face the need to change dramatically the way health care is delivered as it enters a new era of managed care. This year, more than 24% of New Jersey's total population is enrolled in commercial managed care plans (New Jersey Department of Insurance, 1996). In addition, the state's Medicaid agency took steps to improve the delivery of health services to recipients by initiating implementation activities to transition from the traditional Medicaid program to a managed care model. Eighty-two percent of New Jersey's Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and related populations have already been enrolled in managed care. The state plans to expand enrollment in managed care to the remaining 400,000 Medicaid beneficiaries. Communities with high Medicaid populations are challenged with the need to move through the managed care evolution at an accelerated rate. PMID:10181608

  14. Automation is key to managing a population's health.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Michael B; Hodach, Richard

    2012-04-01

    Online tools for automating population health management can help healthcare organizations meet their patients' needs both during and between encounters with the healthcare system. These tools can facilitate: The use of registries to track patients' health status and care gaps. Outbound messaging to notify patients when they need care. Care team management of more patients at different levels of risk. Automation of workflows related to case management and transitions of care. Online educational and mobile health interventions to engage patients in their care. Analytics programs to identify opportunities for improvement. PMID:22523891

  15. Sensor Technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Management of Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.; Brown, T. L.; Woodard, S. E.; Fleming, G. A.; Cooper, E. G.

    2002-01-01

    NASA is focusing considerable efforts on technology development for Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems. The research in this area is targeted toward increasing aerospace vehicle safety and reliability, while reducing vehicle operating and maintenance costs. Onboard, real-time sensing technologies that can provide detailed information on structural integrity are central to such a health management system. This paper describes a number of sensor technologies currently under development for integrated vehicle health management. The capabilities, current limitations, and future research needs of these technologies are addressed.

  16. Health Technologies for the Improvement of Chronic Disease Management

    PubMed Central

    Nikitovic, M; Brener, S

    2013-01-01

    Background As part of ongoing efforts to improve the Ontario health care system, a mega-analysis examining the optimization of chronic disease management in the community was conducted by Evidence Development and Standards, Health Quality Ontario (previously known as the Medical Advisory Secretariat [MAS]). Objective The purpose of this report was to identify health technologies previously evaluated by MAS that may be leveraged in efforts to optimize chronic disease management in the community. Data Sources The Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series and field evaluations conducted by MAS and its partners between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011. Review Methods Technologies related to at least 1 of 7 disease areas of interest (type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, stroke, and chronic wounds) or that may greatly impact health services utilization were reviewed. Only technologies with a moderate to high quality of evidence and associated with a clinically or statistically significant improvement in disease management were included. Technologies related to other topics in the mega-analysis on chronic disease management were excluded. Evidence-based analyses were reviewed, and outcomes of interest were extracted. Outcomes of interest included hospital utilization, mortality, health-related quality of life, disease-specific measures, and economic analysis measures. Results Eleven analyses were included and summarized. Technologies fell into 3 categories: those with evidence for the cure of chronic disease, those with evidence for the prevention of chronic disease, and those with evidence for the management of chronic disease. Conclusions The impact on patient outcomes and hospitalization rates of new health technologies in chronic disease management is often overlooked. This analysis demonstrates that health technologies can reduce the burden of illness; improve patient

  17. Financial coping strategies of mental health consumers: managing social benefits.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Mary Ager

    2014-05-01

    Mental health consumers depend on social benefits in the forms of supplemental security income and social security disability insurance for their livelihood. Although these programs pay meager benefits, little research has been undertaken into how this population makes ends meet. Using a qualitative approach, this study asks what are the financial coping strategies of mental health consumers? Seven approaches were identified: subsidies, cost-effective shopping, budgeting, prioritizing, technology, debt management, and saving money. Results illustrate the resourcefulness of mental health consumers in managing meager social benefits and highlight the need to strengthen community mental health efforts with financial capabilities education. PMID:24346222

  18. Case management in the social health maintenance organization demonstrations

    PubMed Central

    Yordi, Cathleen L.

    1988-01-01

    In this article, case management departments and roles during the early years of the social health maintenance organization (S/HMO) demonstrations are compared. These organizations provide acute and chronic care services under a prepaid plan for the elderly. Eligibility criteria for case management and chronic care services at each site are compared, followed by a description of the resultant case mix of members receiving chronic care benefits. Case managers principal activities are described, and a preliminary assessment is made about the strength of the linkages that have been developed between the case management component of these plans and the larger health care system. PMID:10312977

  19. "Burnout": definitions and health care management.

    PubMed

    Beemsterboer, J; Baum, B H

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines the existing definitions and perceptions of the concept of "burnout" in the health professions. The authors suggest that the understanding of "burnout" is hindered by the lack of a single operational definition and a clear set of criteria. An example of social workers in a community mental health setting serves as an illustration. PMID:6515524

  20. Solving a Health Information Management Problem. An international success story.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Terry J

    2015-01-01

    The management of health care delivery requires the availability of effective 'information management' tools based on e-technologies [eHealth]. In developed economies many of these 'tools' are readily available whereas in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC) there is limited access to eHealth technologies and this has been defined as the "digital divide". This paper provides a short introduction to the fundamental understanding of what is meant by information management in health care and how it applies to all social economies. The core of the paper describes the successful implementation of appropriate information management tools in a resource poor environment to manage the HIV/AIDS epidemic and other disease states, in sub-Saharan Africa and how the system has evolved to become the largest open source eHealth project in the world and become the health information infrastructure for several national eHealth economies. The system is known as Open MRS [www.openmrs.org). The continuing successful evolution of the OpenMRS project has permitted its key implementers to define core factors that are the foundations for successful eHealth projects. PMID:26521384

  1. Clinical and Management Requirements for Computerized Mental Health Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Levinton, Paula H.; Dunning, Tessa F.E.

    1980-01-01

    Information requirements of mental health providers are sufficiently different from those of other health care managers to warrant a different approach to the development of management information systems (MIS). Advances in computer technology and increased demands for fiscal accountability have led to developing integrated mental health information systems (MHIS) that support clinical and management requirements. In a study made to define a set of generic information requirements of mental health providers that can be supported by an MHIS, it was found that basic data needs can be defined and classified in functional terms: clinical, management, and consultation/education requirements. A basic set of data to support these needs was defined: demographic, financial, clinical, programmatic, and service delivery data.

  2. New health care law may spell opportunity for quality managers.

    PubMed

    2010-06-01

    New health care law emphasizes quality, safety, and efficiency. Pay-for-performance emphasis requires attention of quality managers. Many quality provisions will not kick in for several years. PMID:20491197

  3. Winners show the way to good management in health care.

    PubMed

    Schwefel, D; Pons, M C

    1994-01-01

    To stimulate resourcefulness in the health care services of the Philippines, the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) organized a competition to discover and publicize examples of good management. The results provide a rich fund of new ideas. PMID:7999220

  4. Sensors and Rotordynamics Health Management Research for Aircraft Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lekki, J.; Abdul-Aziz, A.; Adamovsky, G.; Berger, D.; Fralick, G.; Gyekenyesi, A.; Hunter, G.; Tokars, R.; Venti, M.; Woike, M.; Wrbanek, J.; Wrbanek, S.

    2011-01-01

    Develop Advanced Sensor Technology and rotordynamic structural diagnostics to address existing Aviation Safety Propulsion Health Management needs as well as proactively begin to address anticipated safety issues for new technologies.

  5. Risk management frameworks for human health and environmental risks.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Cindy; Hrudey, Steve; Shortreed, John; Craig, Lorraine; Krewski, Daniel; Furgal, Chris; McColl, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical review of the risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication approaches currently being undertaken by key national, provincial/state, territorial, and international agencies was conducted. The information acquired for review was used to identify the differences, commonalities, strengths, and weaknesses among the various approaches, and to identify elements that should be included in an effective, current, and comprehensive approach applicable to environmental, human health and occupational health risks. More than 80 agencies, organizations, and advisory councils, encompassing more than 100 risk documents, were examined during the period from February 2000 until November 2002. An overview was made of the most important general frameworks for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication for human health and ecological risk, and for occupational health risk. In addition, frameworks for specific applications were reviewed and summarized, including those for (1)contaminated sites; (2) northern contaminants; (3) priority substances; (4) standards development; (5) food safety; (6) medical devices; (7) prescription drug use; (8) emergency response; (9) transportation; (10) risk communication. Twelve frameworks were selected for more extensive review on the basis of representation of the areas of human health, ecological, and occupational health risk; relevance to Canadian risk management needs; representation of comprehensive and well-defined approaches; generalizability with their risk areas; representation of "state of the art" in Canada, the United States, and/or internationally; and extent of usage of potential usage within Canada. These 12 frameworks were: 1. Framework for Environmental Health Risk Management (US Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management, 1997). 2. Health Risk Determination: The Challenge of Health Protection (Health and Welfare Canada, 1990). 3. Health Canada Decision

  6. Ruminants, climate change and climate policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripple, William J.; Smith, Pete; Haberl, Helmut; Montzka, Stephen A.; McAlpine, Clive; Boucher, Douglas H.

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from ruminant meat production are significant. Reductions in global ruminant numbers could make a substantial contribution to climate change mitigation goals and yield important social and environmental co-benefits.

  7. Context-aware workflow management of mobile health applications.

    PubMed

    Salden, Alfons; Poortinga, Remco

    2006-01-01

    We propose a medical application management architecture that allows medical (IT) experts readily designing, developing and deploying context-aware mobile health (m-health) applications or services. In particular, we elaborate on how our application workflow management architecture enables chaining, coordinating, composing, and adapting context-sensitive medical application components such that critical Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Context (QoC) requirements typical for m-health applications or services can be met. This functional architectural support requires learning modules for distilling application-critical selection of attention and anticipation models. These models will help medical experts constructing and adjusting on-the-fly m-health application workflows and workflow strategies. We illustrate our context-aware workflow management paradigm for a m-health data delivery problem, in which optimal communication network configurations have to be determined. PMID:17095803

  8. Measuring adverse selection in managed health care.

    PubMed

    Frank, R G; Glazer, J; McGuire, T G

    2000-11-01

    Health plans paid by capitation have an incentive to distort the quality of services they offer to attract profitable and to deter unprofitable enrollees. We characterize plans' rationing as a "shadow price" on access to various areas of care and show how the profit maximizing shadow price depends on the dispersion in health costs, individuals' forecasts of their health costs, the correlation between use in different illness categories, and the risk adjustment system used for payment. These factors are combined in an empirically implementable index that can be used to identify the services that will be most distorted by selection incentives. PMID:11186848

  9. Dual-Use Aspects of System Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, P. R.; Jambor, B. J.; Eger, G. W.; Clark, W. A.

    1994-01-01

    System Health Management functionality is an essential part of any space launch system. Health management functionality is an integral part of mission reliability, since it is needed to verify the reliability before the mission starts. Health Management is also a key factor in life cycle cost reduction and in increasing system availability. The degree of coverage needed by the system and the degree of coverage made available at a reasonable cost are critical parameters of a successful design. These problems are not unique to the launch vehicle world. In particular, the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System, commercial aircraft systems, train systems, and many types of industrial production facilities require various degrees of system health management. In all of these applications, too, the designers must balance the benefits and costs of health management in order to optimize costs. The importance of an integrated system is emphasized. That is, we present the case for considering health management as an integral part of system design, rather than functionality to be added on at the end of the design process. The importance of maintaining the system viewpoint is discussed in making hardware and software tradeoffs and in arriving at design decisions. We describe an approach to determine the parameters to be monitored in any system health management application. This approach is based on Design of Experiments (DOE), prototyping, failure modes and effects analyses, cost modeling and discrete event simulation. The various computer-based tools that facilitate the approach are discussed. The approach described originally was used to develop a fault tolerant avionics architecture for launch vehicles that incorporated health management as an integral part of the system. Finally, we discuss generalizing the technique to apply it to other domains. Several illustrations are presented.

  10. Toward a Conceptual Knowledge Management Framework in Health

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Francis

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a conceptual organizing scheme for managing knowledge within the health setting. First, a brief review of the notions of knowledge and knowledge management is provided. This is followed by a detailed depiction of our proposed knowledge management framework, which focuses on the concepts of production, use, and refinement of three specific knowledge sources-policy, evidence, and experience. These concepts are operationalized through a set of knowledge management methods and tools tailored for the health setting. We include two case studies around knowledge translation on parent-child relations and virtual networks in community health research to illustrate how this knowledge management framework can be operationalized within specific contexts and the issues involved. We conclude with the lessons learned and implications. PMID:18066388