Science.gov

Sample records for run through trains

  1. Pressure Fluctuation Characteristics of Narrow Gauge Train Running Through Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Sakuma, Yutaka

    Pressure fluctuations on the sides of narrow (1067 mm) gauge trains running in tunnels are measured for the first time to investigate the aerodynamic force acting on the trains. The present measurements are compared with earlier measurements obtained with the Shinkansen trains. The results are as follows: (1) The aerodynamic force, which stems from pressure fluctuations on the sides of cars, puts the energy into the vibration of the car body running through a tunnel. (2) While the pressure fluctuations appear only on one of the two sides of the trains running in double-track tunnels, the fluctuations in opposite phase on both sides in single-track tunnels. (3) The on-track test data of the narrow gauge trains show the same tendency as those of the Shinkansen trains, although it is suggested that the pressure fluctuations develop faster along the narrow gauge trains than the Shinkansen trains.

  2. Running Training, Instruction on Running Technique, and Running Economy in 10-year-old Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petray, Clayre K.; Krahenbuhl, Gary S.

    1985-01-01

    This study attempted to determine the effects of running training, instruction on running techniques, or a combination of instruction and training on the running economy of 10-year-old children. No significant alterations in running economy or technique were produced as a result of the various regimens. (Author/MT)

  3. Improvement in Running Economy after 6 Weeks of Plyometric Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Amanda M.; Owings, Matt; Schwane, James A.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated whether a 6-week regimen of plyometric training would improve running economy. Data were collected on 18 regular but not highly trained distance runners who participated in either regular running training or plyometric training. Results indicated that 6 weeks of plyometric training improved running economy at selected speeds in this…

  4. The Effects of Backwards Running Training on Forward Running Economy in Trained Males.

    PubMed

    Ordway, Jason D; Laubach, Lloyd L; Vanderburgh, Paul M; Jackson, Kurt J

    2016-03-01

    Backwards running (BR) results in greater cardiopulmonary response and muscle activity compared with forward running (FR). BR has traditionally been used in rehabilitation for disorders such as stroke and lower leg extremity injuries, as well as in short bursts during various athletic events. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of sustained backwards running training on forward running economy in trained male athletes. Eight highly trained, male runners (26.13 ± 6.11 years, 174.7 ± 6.4 cm, 68.4 ± 9.24 kg, 8.61 ± 3.21% body fat, 71.40 ± 7.31 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) trained with BR while harnessed on a treadmill at 161 m·min(-1) for 5 weeks following a 5-week BR run-in period at a lower speed (134 m·min(-1)). Subjects were tested at baseline, postfamiliarized, and post-BR training for body composition, a ramped VO2max test, and an economy test designed for trained male runners. Subjects improved forward running economy by 2.54% (1.19 ± 1.26 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), p = 0.032) at 215 m·min(-1). VO2max, body mass, lean mass, fat mass, and % body fat did not change (p > 0.05). Five weeks of BR training improved FR economy in healthy, trained male runners without altering VO2max or body composition. The improvements observed in this study could be a beneficial form of training to an already economical population to improve running economy. PMID:26332781

  5. Teaching Bank Runs through Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The author advocates the use of films to supplement textbook treatments of bank runs and panics in money and banking or general banking classes. Modern students, particularly those in developed countries, tend to be unfamiliar with potential fragilities of financial systems such as a lack of deposit insurance or other safety net mechanisms. Films…

  6. Running, or Stumbling Through, Simulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ken

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of the difference between an educational simulation and other interactive learning events highlights the effects terminology can have on both facilitators and participants. Five common mistakes made in running simulations are identified, and gaming terminology used in Britain and in the United States is discussed. (three references)…

  7. Ventilatory Threshold, Running Economy and Distance Running Performance of Trained Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Scott K.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    In an attempt to identify physiological factors that account for success in distance running, researchers evaluated relationships among ventilatory threshold, running economy, and distance running performance. Subjects were trained male runners with similar maximal aerobic power. (Authors/PP)

  8. Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Vikmoen, Olav; Raastad, Truls; Seynnes, Olivier; Bergstrøm, Kristoffer; Ellefsen, Stian; Rønnestad, Bent R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes. We hypothesized that the added strength training would improve performance and running economy through altered stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex of leg extensors. Methods Nineteen female endurance athletes [maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 53±3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, 5.8 h weekly endurance training] were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11). The strength training consisted of four leg exercises [3 x 4–10 repetition maximum (RM)], twice a week for 11 weeks. Muscle strength, 40 min all-out running distance, running performance determinants and patellar tendon stiffness were measured before and after the intervention. Results E+S increased 1RM in leg exercises (40 ± 15%) and maximal jumping height in counter movement jump (6 ± 6%) and squat jump (9 ± 7%, p < 0.05). This was accompanied by increased muscle fiber cross sectional area of both fiber type I (13 ± 7%) and fiber type II (31 ± 20%) in m. vastus lateralis (p < 0.05), with no change in capillary density in m. vastus lateralis or the stiffness of the patellar tendon. Neither E+S nor E changed running economy, fractional utilization of VO2max or VO2max. There were also no change in running distance during a 40 min all-out running test in neither of the groups. Conclusion Adding heavy strength training to endurance training did not affect 40 min all-out running performance or running economy compared to endurance training only. PMID:26953893

  9. The Effect of Training in Minimalist Running Shoes on Running Economy.

    PubMed

    Ridge, Sarah T; Standifird, Tyler; Rivera, Jessica; Johnson, A Wayne; Mitchell, Ulrike; Hunter, Iain

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of minimalist running shoes on oxygen uptake during running before and after a 10-week transition from traditional to minimalist running shoes. Twenty-five recreational runners (no previous experience in minimalist running shoes) participated in submaximal VO2 testing at a self-selected pace while wearing traditional and minimalist running shoes. Ten of the 25 runners gradually transitioned to minimalist running shoes over 10 weeks (experimental group), while the other 15 maintained their typical training regimen (control group). All participants repeated submaximal VO2 testing at the end of 10 weeks. Testing included a 3 minute warm-up, 3 minutes of running in the first pair of shoes, and 3 minutes of running in the second pair of shoes. Shoe order was randomized. Average oxygen uptake was calculated during the last minute of running in each condition. The average change from pre- to post-training for the control group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 3.1 ± 15.2% and 2.8 ± 16.2%, respectively. The average change from pre- to post-training for the experimental group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 8.4 ± 7.2% and 10.4 ± 6.9%, respectively. Data were analyzed using a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA. There were no significant interaction effects, but the overall improvement in running economy across time (6.15%) was significant (p = 0.015). Running in minimalist running shoes improves running economy in experienced, traditionally shod runners, but not significantly more than when running in traditional running shoes. Improvement in running economy in both groups, regardless of shoe type, may have been due to compliance with training over the 10-week study period and/or familiarity with testing procedures. Key pointsRunning in minimalist footwear did not result in a change in running economy compared to running in traditional footwear

  10. The Effect of Training in Minimalist Running Shoes on Running Economy

    PubMed Central

    Ridge, Sarah T.; Standifird, Tyler; Rivera, Jessica; Johnson, A. Wayne; Mitchell, Ulrike; Hunter, Iain

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of minimalist running shoes on oxygen uptake during running before and after a 10-week transition from traditional to minimalist running shoes. Twenty-five recreational runners (no previous experience in minimalist running shoes) participated in submaximal VO2 testing at a self-selected pace while wearing traditional and minimalist running shoes. Ten of the 25 runners gradually transitioned to minimalist running shoes over 10 weeks (experimental group), while the other 15 maintained their typical training regimen (control group). All participants repeated submaximal VO2 testing at the end of 10 weeks. Testing included a 3 minute warm-up, 3 minutes of running in the first pair of shoes, and 3 minutes of running in the second pair of shoes. Shoe order was randomized. Average oxygen uptake was calculated during the last minute of running in each condition. The average change from pre- to post-training for the control group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 3.1 ± 15.2% and 2.8 ± 16.2%, respectively. The average change from pre- to post-training for the experimental group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 8.4 ± 7.2% and 10.4 ± 6.9%, respectively. Data were analyzed using a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA. There were no significant interaction effects, but the overall improvement in running economy across time (6.15%) was significant (p = 0.015). Running in minimalist running shoes improves running economy in experienced, traditionally shod runners, but not significantly more than when running in traditional running shoes. Improvement in running economy in both groups, regardless of shoe type, may have been due to compliance with training over the 10-week study period and/or familiarity with testing procedures. Key points Running in minimalist footwear did not result in a change in running economy compared to running in traditional footwear

  11. Expedition 31 Qualification Training Simulation Runs

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 31 Flight Engineers Gennady Padalka, Sergei Revin and Joe Acaba, along with backup crew members Kevin Ford, Oleg Novitskiy and Evgeny Tarelkin, complete qualification training simulation...

  12. Astronaut John Glenn running as part of physical training program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr., pilot of the Mercury-Atlas 6 mission, participates in a strict physical training program, as he exemplifies by frequent running. Here he pauses during an exercise period on the beach near Cape Canaveral, Florida.

  13. The effect of plyometric training on distance running performance.

    PubMed

    Spurrs, Robert W; Murphy, Aron J; Watsford, Mark L

    2003-03-01

    Previous research has reported that plyometric training improves running economy (RE) and ultimately distance-running performance, although the exact mechanism by which this occurs remains unclear. This study examined whether changes in running performance resulting from plyometric training were related to alterations in lower leg musculotendinous stiffness (MTS). Seventeen male runners were pre- and post-tested for lower leg MTS, maximum isometric force, rate of force development, 5-bound distance test (5BT), counter movement jump (CMJ) height, RE, VO(2max), lactate threshold (Th(la)), and 3-km time. Subjects were randomly split into an experimental (E) group which completed 6 weeks of plyometric training in conjunction with their normal running training, and a control (C) group which trained as normal. Following the training period, the E group significantly improved 3-km performance (2.7%) and RE at each of the tested velocities, while no changes in VO(2max) or Th(la) were recorded. CMJ height, 5BT, and MTS also increased significantly. No significant changes were observed in any measures for the C group. The results clearly demonstrated that a 6-week plyometric programme led to improvements in 3-km running performance. It is postulated that the increase in MTS resulted in improved RE. We speculate that the improved RE led to changes in 3-km running performance, as there were no corresponding alterations in VO(2max) or Th(la). PMID:12627298

  14. 12. A LONG RUN OF EXPOSED TOP SURFACE, NORTH TRAINING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. A LONG RUN OF EXPOSED TOP SURFACE, NORTH TRAINING WALL, ABOUT 1,500 FEET EAST OF THE FEDERAL CHANNEL MOUTH. VIEW TO WEST, TOWARD SAN FRANCISCO. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  15. Preventing Running Injuries through Barefoot Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Priscilla M.; Smith, Darla R.

    2008-01-01

    Running has become a very popular lifetime physical activity even though there are numerous reports of running injuries. Although common theories have pointed to impact forces and overpronation as the main contributors to chronic running injuries, the increased use of cushioning and orthotics has done little to decrease running injuries. A new…

  16. Drive-Through Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how the early childhood field's approach to staff training reflects the drive-through, fast-food culture. Year after year directors send their teachers to workshops to get some quick refresher techniques. The author suggests that rather than focusing professional development on topics, focus on observing…

  17. Acute effects of intense interval training on running mechanics.

    PubMed

    Collins, M H; Pearsall, D J; Zavorsky, G S; Bateni, H; Turcotte, R A; Montgomery, D L

    2000-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if there are significant kinematic changes in running pattern after intense interval workouts, whether duration of recovery affects running kinematics, and whether changes in running economy are related to changes in running kinematics. Seven highly trained male endurance runners (VO2max = 72.3+/-3.3 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1); mean +/- s) performed three interval running workouts of 10 x 400 m at a speed of 5.94+/-0.19 m x s(-1) (356+/-11.2 m x min(-1)) with a minimum of 4 days recovery between runs. Recovery of 60, 120 or 180 s between each 400 m repetition was assigned at random. Before and after each workout, running economy and several kinematic variables were measured at speeds of 3.33 and 4.47 m x s(-1) (200 and 268 m x min(-1)). Speed was found to have a significant effect on shank angle, knee velocity and stride length (P < 0.05). Correlations between changes pre- and post-test for VO2 (ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and several kinematic variables were not significant (P > 0.05) at both speeds. In general, duration of recovery was not found to adversely affect running economy or the kinematic variables assessed, possibly because of intra-individual adaptations to fatigue. PMID:10718563

  18. TRAINING ERRORS AND RUNNING RELATED INJURIES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Buist, Ida; Sørensen, Henrik; Lind, Martin; Rasmussen, Sten

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries. Methods: A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and SportDiscus. Studies were included if they examined novice, recreational, or elite runners between the ages of 18 and 65. Exposure variables were training characteristics defined as volume, distance or mileage, time or duration, frequency, intensity, speed or pace, or similar terms. The outcome of interest was Running Related Injuries (RRI) in general or specific RRI in the lower extremity or lower back. Methodological quality was evaluated using quality assessment tools of 11 to 16 items. Results: After examining 4561 titles and abstracts, 63 articles were identified as potentially relevant. Finally, nine retrospective cohort studies, 13 prospective cohort studies, six case-control studies, and three randomized controlled trials were included. The mean quality score was 44.1%. Conflicting results were reported on the relationships between volume, duration, intensity, and frequency and RRI. Conclusion: It was not possible to identify which training errors were related to running related injuries. Still, well supported data on which training errors relate to or cause running related injuries is highly important for determining proper prevention strategies. If methodological limitations in measuring training variables can be resolved, more work can be conducted to define training and the interactions between different training variables, create several hypotheses, test the hypotheses in a large scale prospective study, and explore cause and effect relationships in randomized controlled trials. Level of evidence: 2a PMID:22389869

  19. Any Way to Run a Railroad: Implications of Dedicated Trains

    SciTech Connect

    Dilger, F.C.; Halstead, R. J.

    2006-07-01

    The DOE recently issued a policy statement that it would use dedicated trains for most waste shipments to Yucca Mountain. Prior uncertainty about use of dedicated trains for Yucca Mountain rail shipments prevented an assessment of the likely impacts. This paper examines the controversy over the use of dedicated trains and evaluates the national impacts of shipping waste to Yucca Mountain using dedicated trains on the Union Pacific's preferred rail system. The national impacts of the routing are reported as route miles through three land use types: Rural, Urban and Census Places. (authors)

  20. Influence of Strength, Sprint Running, and Combined Strength and Sprint Running Training on Short Sprint Performance in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Marques, M C; Gabbett, T J; Marinho, D A; Blazevich, A J; Sousa, A; van den Tillaar, R; Izquierdo, M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of transference of 6 weeks of full squat vs. full squat plus sprint running training to short (ranged from 0-10 to 0-30 m) sprint running performance in non-athletes. We hypothesized that a speed-full-squat training regimen could enhance squat strength and power with simultaneous improvements in short sprint performance. 122 physically active adults (age: 20.5±2.5 years; body mass: 65.8±6.1 kg; height: 1.71±0.08 m) were randomly divided into 4 groups: full squat training (n=36), combined full squat and sprint training (n=32), speed training only (n=34) and non-training control group (n=20). Each training group completed 2 sessions per week over 6 weeks, while the control group performed only their normal physical activity. Sprint performance was improved after sprint running or full squat training alone (1.7% and 1.8% P<0.05, respectively), however larger enhancements (2.3%; P<0.01) were observed after the combined full squat plus sprint training intervention. These results suggest that in recreationally active adults, combined full squat and sprint training provides a greater stimulus for improving sprint performance than either modality alone. PMID:25958946

  1. The Acute Effect of Concurrent Training on Running Performance over 6 Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doma, Kenji; Deakin, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of strength training on alternating days and endurance training on consecutive days on running performance for 6 days. Methods: Sixteen male and 8 female moderately trained individuals were evenly assigned into concurrent-training (CCT) and strength-training (ST) groups. The CCT group undertook strength…

  2. Maximum Power Training and Plyometrics for Cross-Country Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebben, William P.

    2001-01-01

    Provides a rationale for maximum power training and plyometrics as conditioning strategies for cross-country runners, examining: an evaluation of training methods (strength training and maximum power training and plyometrics); biomechanic and velocity specificity (role in preventing injury); and practical application of maximum power training and…

  3. Bovine colostrum supplementation during running training increases intestinal permeability.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Jonathan D; Butler, Ross N; Southcott, Emma; Brinkworth, Grant D

    2009-02-01

    Endurance exercise training can increase intestinal permeability which may contribute to the development of gastrointestinal symptoms in some athletes. Bovine colostrum (BC) supplementation reduces intestinal permeability induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This study aimed to determine whether BC could also reduce intestinal permeability induced by endurance exercise. Thirty healthy adult males (25.0 ± 4.7 yr; mean ± SD) completed eight weeks of running three times per week for 45 minutes at their lactate threshold while consuming 60 g/day of BC, whey protein (WP) or control (CON). Intestinal permeability was assessed at baseline and after eight weeks by measuring the ratio of urinary lactulose (L) and rhamnose (R) excretion. After eight weeks the L/R ratio increased significantly more in volunteers consuming BC (251 ± 140%) compared with WP (21 ± 35%, P < 0.05) and CON (-7 ± 13%, P < 0.02). The increase in intestinal permeability with BC may have been due to BC inducing greater leakiness of tight junctions between enterocytes or by increasing macromolecular transport as it does in neonatal gut. Further research should investigate the potential for BC to increase intestinal macromolecular transport in adults. PMID:22253980

  4. 2. Aerial view turnpike running through center of photograph along ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Aerial view turnpike running through center of photograph along the row of trees withing the bare spot on the landscape. Harriman Heights Road is the road located at the lower center of the photograph. View looking west. - Orange Turnpike, Parallel to new Orange Turnpike, Monroe, Orange County, NY

  5. 5. Aerial view of turnpike path running through center of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Aerial view of turnpike path running through center of photograph along row of trees. 1917 realignment visible along left edge of photograph along edge of forest. Modernized alignment resumes at top right of photograph. View looking north. - Orange Turnpike, Parallel to new Orange Turnpike, Monroe, Orange County, NY

  6. Running interval training and estimated plasma-volume variation.

    PubMed

    Ben Abderrahman, Abderraouf; Prioux, Jacques; Chamari, Karim; Ben Ounis, Omar; Tabka, Zouhair; Zouhal, Hassane

    2013-07-01

    The effect of endurance interval training (IT) on hematocrit (Ht), hemoglobin (Hb), and estimated plasma- volume variation (PVV) in response to maximal exercise was studied in 15 male subjects (21.1 ± 1.1 y; control group n = 6, and training group, n = 9). The training group participated in interval training 3 times a week for 7 wk. A maximal graded test (GXT) was performed to determine maximal aerobic power (MAP) and maximal aerobic speed (MAS) both before and after the training program. To determine Ht, Hb concentration, and lactate concentrations, blood was collected at rest, at the end of GXT, and after 10 and 30 min of recovery. MAP and MAS increased significantly (P < .05) after training only in training group. Hematocrit determined at rest was significantly lower in the training group than in the control group after the training period (P < .05). IT induced a significant increase of estimated PVV at rest for training group (P < .05), whereas there were no changes for control group. Hence, significant relationships were observed after training between PVV deter- mined at the end of the maximal test and MAS (r = .60, P < .05) and MAP (r = .76, P < .05) only for training group. In conclusion, 7 wk of IT led to a significant increase in plasma volume that possibly contributed to the observed increase of aerobic fitness (MAP and MAS). PMID:23113934

  7. 4. Aerial view of turnpike path running through center of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Aerial view of turnpike path running through center of photograph along row of trees. South edge of original alignment visible at left at cluster of white trailers. North edge of original alignment visible at right at the W.K. Smith house (HABS No. NY-6356-A) at the top right corner. Migel mansion visible on ridgetop at right-center of photograph, surrounded by trees. View looking west. - Orange Turnpike, Parallel to new Orange Turnpike, Monroe, Orange County, NY

  8. Thermographic Assessment of Eccentric Overload Training Within Three Days of a Running Session.

    PubMed

    Sanz-López, Fernando; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Valero-Campo, Carlos; Berzosa, César

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in patellar and Achilles tendons between a group trained using eccentric overload and an untrained group within 3 days of a running session. To this end, infrared thermography (IRT) will be used. Twenty healthy male subjects were divided into 2 groups. One group performed a 6-week squat training in the flywheel before the running session. During the running intervention, both groups ran in 3 different days, for 1 hour each, at 80% maximal heart rate. Before, just after, and after 10 minutes of the running intervention, participants were assessed using IRT. Eccentrically trained groups showed a statistically significant difference (analysis of variance, p = 0.0049) expressed as a smaller bilateral increase in temperature in the patellar tendon just before the first running day (right side, 0.11 °C; left side, 0.29 °C). On the other days of running and in the Achilles tendon groups, similar changes were observed: an increase in the temperature after running and no significant difference between contralateral limbs. Our results point at eccentric overload training providing a better adaptation for the first day of running. IRT is an easy-to-apply noninvasive tool to analyze and compare the effects of performance on tendon tissues. PMID:26110350

  9. Mental Training for the Distance Athlete: "The Running Values Auction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osteen, Deborah E.; Phillips, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    Coaches and sports psychologists often say that it is the mind that controls the body, and that once a race begins, it is 90 percent mental and 10 percent physical training. Teaching young athletes to use mental strategies is a skill they will continue to use throughout their athletic career, and best of all, throughout their everyday lives, even…

  10. Can Trained Runners Effectively Attenuate Impact Acceleration During Repeated High-Intensity Running Bouts?

    PubMed

    Clansey, Adam C; Lake, Mark J; Wallace, Eric S; Feehally, Tom; Hanlon, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prolonged high-intensity running on impact accelerations in trained runners. Thirteen male distance runners completed two 20-minute treadmill runs at speeds corresponding to 95% of onset of blood lactate accumulation. Leg and head accelerations were collected for 20 s every fourth minute. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scores were recorded during the third and last minute of each run. RPE responses increased (P < .001) from the start (11.8 ± 0.9, moderate intensity) of the first run to the end (17.7 ± 1.5, very hard) of the second run. Runners maintained their leg impact acceleration, impact attenuation, stride length, and stride frequency characteristics with prolonged run duration. However, a small (0.11-0.14g) but significant increase (P < .001) in head impact accelerations were observed at the end of both first and second runs. It was concluded that trained runners are able to control leg impact accelerations during sustained high-intensity running. Alongside the substantial increases in perceived exertion levels, running mechanics and frequency domain impact attenuation levels remained constant. This suggests that the present trained runners are able to cope from a mechanical perspective despite an increased physiological demand. PMID:26695109

  11. Meeting training needs through operator training simulators

    SciTech Connect

    Sendelbach, S.P.; Stewart, W.B.; Morgan, S.W.

    1994-12-31

    An Operator Training Simulator (OTS) can be used to train operators how to safely operate their process plant. Of particular concern are the most critical plant operations and upsets which occur very infrequently during the course of normal every day operations. In that context, the OTS is similar in concept to federally mandated flight simulators which are used to certify commercial airline pilots in take-off, landing and emergency conditions. Of the 170 largest industry losses, 127 occurred during normal operation, while the remaining 43 occurred during other activities. When these figures are combined with the fact that the industry average on-stream factor is 94%, an accident is over five times more likely to occur during other than normal plant operation. The costs associated with atypical plant operation accidents (start-up, shutdown, severe upsets, etc.) are 50% higher than those which occur during normal operation. These statistics combined with new OSHA training requirements suggest that operating companies must now take additional measures to ensure that their operating staff are totally familiar with abnormal process operations, particularly handling of process upsets and emergency operating procedures.

  12. Running characteristics of the magnetically levitated train in a curved track section

    SciTech Connect

    Ohashi, S.; Ohsaki, H.; Masada, E.

    1997-09-01

    A three-dimensional running simulation program of the train motion which includes both electromagnetic and mechanical systems has been developed. For verification of running stability, the motion of the Maglev train with four bogies and three cars running into the curved section was calculated. Because the spring strength of the secondary suspension between bogies and cabins was much smaller than that of the electrodynamic suspension, interaction among bogies was small. The lateral displacement reached 0.045m, which is about 50% of the lateral air gap. Therefore train can run without touching the wall of the guideway. As this lateral air gap caused roll torque, total roll angle of the bogie became 12.5% larger than the cant angle of the curved section.

  13. Effects of Cycling Versus Running Training on Sprint and Endurance Capacity in Inline Speed Skating.

    PubMed

    Stangier, Carolin; Abel, Thomas; Mierau, Julia; Hollmann, Wildor; Strüder, Heiko K

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of running versus cycling training on sprint and endurance capacity in inline speed skating. Sixteen elite athletes (8 male, 8 female, 24 ± 8 yrs) were randomly assigned into 2 training groups performing either 2 session per week of treadmill running or ergometer cycling in addition to 3 skating specific sessions (technique, plyometrics, parkour) for 8 weeks. Training intensity was determined within non-specific (cycling or running) and effects on specific endurance capacity within a specific incremental exercise test. Before and after the intervention all athletes performed a specific (300m) and one non-specific (30s cycling or 200m running) all-out sprint test according to the group affiliation. To determine the accumulation of blood lactate (BLa) and glucose (BGL) 20 μl arterialized blood was drawn at rest, as well as in 1 min intervals for 10 min after the sprint test. The sport-specific peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) was significantly increased (+17%; p = 0.01) in both groups and highly correlated with the sprint performance (r = -0.71). BLa values decreased significantly (-18%, p = 0.02) after the specific sprint test from pre to post-testing without any group effect. However, BGL values only showed a significant decrease (-2%, p = 0.04) in the running group. The close relationship between aerobic capacity and sprint performance in inline speed skating highlights the positive effects of endurance training. Although both training programs were equally effective in improving endurance and sprint capacities, the metabolic results indicate a faster recovery after high intensity efforts for all athletes, as well as a higher reliance on the fat metabolism for athletes who trained in the running group. Key pointsIn addition to a highly developed aerobic performance inline speed skaters also require a highly trained anaerobic capacity to be effective in the sprint sections such as the mass start, tactical attacks

  14. Effects of Cycling Versus Running Training on Sprint and Endurance Capacity in Inline Speed Skating

    PubMed Central

    Stangier, Carolin; Abel, Thomas; Mierau, Julia; Hollmann, Wildor; Strüder, Heiko K.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of running versus cycling training on sprint and endurance capacity in inline speed skating. Sixteen elite athletes (8 male, 8 female, 24 ± 8 yrs) were randomly assigned into 2 training groups performing either 2 session per week of treadmill running or ergometer cycling in addition to 3 skating specific sessions (technique, plyometrics, parkour) for 8 weeks. Training intensity was determined within non-specific (cycling or running) and effects on specific endurance capacity within a specific incremental exercise test. Before and after the intervention all athletes performed a specific (300m) and one non-specific (30s cycling or 200m running) all-out sprint test according to the group affiliation. To determine the accumulation of blood lactate (BLa) and glucose (BGL) 20 μl arterialized blood was drawn at rest, as well as in 1 min intervals for 10 min after the sprint test. The sport-specific peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) was significantly increased (+17%; p = 0.01) in both groups and highly correlated with the sprint performance (r = -0.71). BLa values decreased significantly (-18%, p = 0.02) after the specific sprint test from pre to post-testing without any group effect. However, BGL values only showed a significant decrease (-2%, p = 0.04) in the running group. The close relationship between aerobic capacity and sprint performance in inline speed skating highlights the positive effects of endurance training. Although both training programs were equally effective in improving endurance and sprint capacities, the metabolic results indicate a faster recovery after high intensity efforts for all athletes, as well as a higher reliance on the fat metabolism for athletes who trained in the running group. Key points In addition to a highly developed aerobic performance inline speed skaters also require a highly trained anaerobic capacity to be effective in the sprint sections such as the mass start, tactical attacks

  15. 'Functional' inspiratory and core muscle training enhances running performance and economy.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tomas K; McConnell, Alison K; Lin, Hua; Nie, Jinlei; Zhang, Haifeng; Wang, Jiayuan

    2014-08-26

    We compared the effects of two 6-week high-intensity interval training interventions. Under the control condition (CON), only interval training was undertaken, whilst under the intervention condition (ICT), interval training sessions were followed immediately by core training, which was combined with simultaneous inspiratory muscle training - 'functional' IMT. Sixteen recreational runners were allocated to either ICT or CON groups. Prior to the intervention phase, both groups undertook a 4-week programme of 'foundation' IMT to control for the known ergogenic effect of IMT [30 inspiratory efforts at 50% maximal static inspiratory pressure (P0) per set, 2 sets.d, 6 d.wk]. The subsequent 6-week interval running training phase, consisted of 3-4 sessions.wk. In addition, the ICT group undertook four inspiratory-loaded core exercises [10 repetitions.set, 2 sets.d, inspiratory load set at 50% post-IMT P0] immediately after each interval training session. The CON group received neither core training nor functional IMT. Following the intervention phase, global inspiratory and core muscle functions increased in both groups (P<0.05), as evidenced by P0 and a sport-specific endurance plank test performance (SEPT), respectively. Compared to CON, the ICT group showed larger improvements in SEPT, running economy at the speed of the OBLA, and 1-hr running performance (3.04% vs 1.57%, P<0.05). The changes in these variables were inter-individually correlated (r≥0.57, n=16, P<0.05). Such findings suggest that the addition of inspiratory-loaded core conditioning into a high-intensity interval training program augments the influence of the interval program upon endurance running performance, and that this may be underpinned by an improvement in running economy. PMID:25162653

  16. Interval Running Training Improves Cognitive Flexibility and Aerobic Power of Young Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Venckunas, Tomas; Snieckus, Audrius; Trinkunas, Eugenijus; Baranauskiene, Neringa; Solianik, Rima; Juodsnukis, Antanas; Streckis, Vytautas; Kamandulis, Sigitas

    2016-08-01

    Venckunas, T, Snieckus, A, Trinkunas, E, Baranauskiene, N, Solianik, R, Juodsnukis, A, Streckis, V, and Kamandulis, S. Interval running training improves cognitive flexibility and aerobic power of young healthy adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2114-2121, 2016-The benefits of regular physical exercise may well extend beyond the reduction of chronic diseases risk and augmentation of working capacity, to many other aspects of human well-being, including improved cognitive functioning. Although the effects of moderate intensity continuous training on cognitive performance are relatively well studied, the benefits of interval training have not been investigated in this respect so far. The aim of the current study was to assess whether 7 weeks of interval running training is effective at improving both aerobic fitness and cognitive performance. For this purpose, 8 young dinghy sailors (6 boys and 2 girls) completed the interval running program with 200 m and 2,000 m running performance, cycling maximal oxygen uptake, and cognitive function was measured before and after the intervention. The control group consisted of healthy age-matched subjects (8 boys and 2 girls) who continued their active lifestyle and were tested in the same way as the experimental group, but did not complete any regular training. In the experimental group, 200 m and 2,000 m running performance and cycling maximal oxygen uptake increased together with improved results on cognitive flexibility tasks. No changes in the results of short-term and working memory tasks were observed in the experimental group, and no changes in any of the measured indices were evident in the controls. In conclusion, 7 weeks of interval running training improved running performance and cycling aerobic power, and were sufficient to improve the ability to adjust behavior to changing demands in young active individuals. PMID:26808852

  17. Four Weeks of Sprint Interval Training Improves 5-km Run Performance.

    PubMed

    Denham, Joshua; Feros, Simon A; OʼBrien, Brendan J

    2015-08-01

    Sprint interval training (SIT) rapidly improves cardiorespiratory fitness but demands less training time and volume than traditional endurance training. Although the health and fitness benefits caused by SIT have received considerable research focus, the effect of short-term SIT on 5-km run performance is unknown. Thirty healthy untrained participants (aged 18-25 years) were allocated to a control (n = 10) or a SIT (n = 20) group. Sprint interval training involved 3-8 sprints at maximal intensity, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Sprints were progressed to 8 by the 12th session. All participants completed a 5-km time trial on a public running track and an incremental treadmill test in an exercise physiology laboratory to determine 5-km run performance and maximum oxygen uptake, respectively, before and after the 4-week intervention. Relative to the controls, sprint interval-trained participants improved 5-km run performance by 4.5% (p < 0.001), and this was accompanied by improvements in absolute and relative maximum oxygen uptake (4.9%, p = 0.04 and 4.5%, p = 0.045, respectively). Therefore, short-term SIT significantly improves 5-km run performance in untrained young men. We believe that SIT is a time-efficient means of improving cardiorespiratory fitness and 5-km endurance performance. PMID:25647646

  18. The effect of short-term Swiss ball training on core stability and running economy.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Robert; Reaburn, Peter R; Humphries, Brendan

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a short-term Swiss ball training on core stability and running economy. Eighteen young male athletes (15.5 +/- 1.4 years; 62.5 +/- 4.7 kg; sigma9 skinfolds 78.9 +/- 28.2 mm; VO2max 55.3 +/- 5.7 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) were divided into a control (n = 10) and experimental (n = 8) groups. Athletes were assessed before and after the training program for stature, body mass, core stability, electromyographic activity of the abdominal and back muscles, treadmill VO2max, running economy, and running posture. The experimental group performed 2 Swiss ball training sessions per week for 6 weeks. Data analysis revealed a significant effect of Swiss ball training on core stability in the experimental group (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed for myoelectric activity of the abdominal and back muscles, treadmill VO2max, running economy, or running posture in either group. It appears Swiss ball training may positively affect core stability without concomitant improvements in physical performance in young athletes. Specificity of exercise selection should be considered. PMID:15320664

  19. Physiological Responses to On-Court vs Running Interval Training in Competitive Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Sanz-Rivas, David; Sanchez-Muñoz, Cristobal; de la Aleja Tellez, Jose Gonzalez; Buchheit, Martin; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare heart rate (HR), blood lactate (LA) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) responses to a tennis-specific interval training (i.e., on-court) session with that of a matched-on-time running interval training (i.e., off-court). Eight well-trained, male (n = 4) and female (n = 4) tennis players (mean ± SD; age: 16.4 ± 1.8 years) underwent an incremental test where peak treadmill speed, maximum HR (HRmax) and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) were determined. The two interval training protocols (i.e., off- court and on-court) consisted of 4 sets of 120 s of work, interspersed with 90 s rest. Percentage of HRmax (95.9 ± 2.4 vs. 96.1 ± 2.2%; p = 0.79), LA (6.9 ± 2.5 vs. 6.2 ± 2.4 mmol·L-1; p = 0.14) and RPE (16.7 ± 2.1 vs. 16.3 ± 1.8; p = 0.50) responses were similar for off-court and on-court, respectively. The two interval training protocols used in the present study have equivalent physiological responses. Longitudinal studies are still warranted but tennis-specific interval training sessions could represent a time-efficient alternative to off-court (running) interval training for the optimization of the specific cardiorespiratory fitness in tennis players. Key points On-court interval training protocol can be used as an alternative to running interval training Technical/tactical training should be performed under conditions that replicate the physical and technical demands of a competitive match During the competitive season tennis on-court training might be preferred to off-court training PMID:24150630

  20. The 400- and 800-m Track Running Induces Inspiratory Muscle Fatigue in Trained Female Middle-Distance Runners.

    PubMed

    Ohya, Toshiyuki; Yamanaka, Ryo; Hagiwara, Masahiro; Oriishi, Marie; Suzuki, Yasuhiro

    2016-05-01

    Inspiratory muscle fatigue (IMF) may limit exercise performance. A few studies have reported that IMF occurs after short-duration swimming exercise, but whether short-duration running can induce IMF remains unclear. Intra-abdominal pressure is increased during running through diaphragmatic activation to stabilize the spine during movements of the upper limbs. This occurs along with the increased inspiratory muscle effort associated with increased respirations during exercise; thus, we hypothesized that short-duration running exercise would induce IMF. To test this hypothesis, we measured maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) before and after 400- and 800-m track running sessions. Eight female middle-distance (400, 800 m) runners performed a 400- and 800-m running test. Maximal inspiratory pressure was measured before and after each test using a portable autospirometer. The mean MIPs were significantly lower after running than before running; values obtained were 107 ± 25 vs. 97 ± 27 cmH2O (p = 0.01, effect size [ES] = 0.65) and 108 ± 26 vs. 92 ± 27 cmH2O (p = 0.01, ES = 0.74) before vs. after the 400- and 800-m tests, respectively. The mean MIP after the 800-m test was significantly lower than after the 400-m test (p = 0.04, ES = 0.48). There was no correlation between IMF value and running time (r = 0.53 and r = -0.28 for either the 400- and 800-m tests, respectively; p > 0.05). In conclusion, IMF occurs after short-duration running exercise. Coaches could consider prescribing inspiratory muscle training or warm-up in an effort to reduce the inevitable IMF associated with maximal effort running. PMID:26422611

  1. Changing the Firm through Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdier, Eric

    1992-01-01

    A survey of French research by CEREQ ("A French research centre for analysis of occupations and of vocational education and training") shows that firms have undertaken a number of experiments, most of them large scale, to retrain their work force. These initiatives are situated within a general context of change. Training programs based on…

  2. Training through Telematics in Virtual Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, C. B.

    1997-01-01

    Defines telematics and argues that India should exploit telematics resources for training. Describes training through telematics and virtual means, as well as a redefinition of the notion of training. Discusses the cost factor and its influence on policy at different levels. (AEF)

  3. Effects of running training on in vitro brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozu, Tsukasa; Kikuchi, Kazue; Ogawa, Koji; Kuroshima, Akihiro

    1992-06-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a major site of nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) during cold acclimation for most mammals. Repetitive nonthermal stress such as immobilization has been shown to enhance the capacity of NST as cold acclimation. In the present study, the effects of running training, another type of nonthermal stress, were investigated on in vitro thermogenesis and the cellularity of interscapular BAT in rats. The rats were subjected to treadmill running for 30 min daily at 30 m/min under 8° inclination for 4 5 weeks. In vitro thermogenesis was then measured in minced tissue blocks incubated in a Krebs-Ringer phosphate buffer containing glucose and albumin at 37° C, using a Clark type oxygen electrode. The trained rats showed less body weight gain during the experiment. The weights of BAT and epididymal white adipose tissue were smaller in the trained rats. Noradrenaline- and glucagon-stimulated oxygen consumption were also significantly smaller in the trained rats. The tissue DNA level was greater in the trained rats, but the DNA content per tissue pad did not significantly differ. The results indicate that running training reduces BAT thermogenesis, possibly as an adaptation to conserve energy substrates for physical work.

  4. Effect on Oxygen Cost of Transport from 8-Weeks of Progressive Training with Barefoot Running.

    PubMed

    Tam, N; Tucker, R; Astephen Wilson, J L; Santos-Concejero, J

    2015-11-01

    Popular interest in barefoot running has emerged as a result of its alleged performance and injury prevention benefits. Oxygen cost of transport (COT) improvements from barefoot running, however, remains equivocal. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of an 8-week progressive barefoot training program on COT and associated spatiotemporal variables. 15 male runners participated in this study. Variables such as oxygen uptake, biomechanical and spatiotemporal characteristics of gait, including ground contact (GC) and swing time; stride length and frequency and ankle plantar-dorsiflexion were measured pre- and post-intervention. The COT did not differ between barefoot and shod running either pre- or post-training. Improved barefoot COT (p<0.05) but not shod was found between pre- and post-training. Biomechanical differences between barefoot and shod conditions persisted over the training period. A decrease in barefoot COT was associated with a decrease in GC time (p=0.003, r=0.688) and a small increase in stride frequency (p=0.030; r=0.569). Ground contact time and stride frequency, previously associated with COT, only partly contribute (32% - Stride frequency and 47% - GC time) to a decrease in COT after barefoot training. Thus other physiological and biomechanical variables must influence the improvement in COT after a barefoot training intervention. PMID:26332902

  5. "Running a Train": Adolescent Boys' Accounts of Sexual Intercourse Involving Multiple Males and One Female

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily F.; Decker, Michele R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G.; Miller, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The authors used qualitative research methods to explore the context and sexual risk behavior associated with sexual intercourse involving multiple males and one female, commonly called "running a train." Participants were 20 adolescent males aged 14 to 22 years who were either perpetrators of dating violence or perceived by teachers to be at risk…

  6. Rivers Run Through It: Discovering the Interior Columbia River Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Shelley; Wojtanik, Brenda Lincoln; Rieben, Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Explores the Columbia River Basin, its ecosystems, and challenges faced by natural resource managers. By studying the basin's complexity, students can learn about common scientific concepts such as the power of water and effects of rain shadows. Students can also explore social-scientific issues such as conflicts between protecting salmon runs and…

  7. Does Achilles Tendon Cross Sectional Area Differ after Downhill, Level and Uphill Running in Trained Runners?

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Katy Andrews; Johnson, A. Wayne; Hunter, Iain; Myrer, J. William

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined how hill running affects the Achilles tendon, a common location for injuries in runners. Twenty females ran for 10 min on each of three randomly ordered grades (-6%, 0 and +6%) at speeds selected to match the metabolic rates. Achilles tendon (AT) cross-sectional area (CSA) was imaged using Doppler ultrasound and peak vertical forces were analyzed using an instrumented treadmill. A metabolic cart and gas analyzer ensured a similar metabolic cost across grades. Data were analyzed using a forward selection regression. Results showed similar decreases in AT CSA from pre- to post-run for all three conditions of ~5 to 7% (p = 0.0001). Active peak vertical forces were different across grades (p = 0.0001) with the largest occurring during downhill running and smallest during uphill running. Since changes in AT CSA were not different between grades, each form of running appears equal and acceptable in regards to how the Achilles tendon reacts. That is, the results suggest that the Achilles tendon is affected by downhill, level, and uphill running and a decrease in CSA appears to be a normal response. Key Points Downhill (- 6%), level and uphill (+ 6%) running at different speeds each caused a statistically significant decrease in the Achilles tendon cross-sectional area in healthy, trained runners. The magnitude of change in Achilles tendon cross-sectional area did not differ between grades when metabolic cost of running was matched. Downhill running resulted in the largest peak vertical force, while uphill running resulted in the smallest. PMID:25435775

  8. The effects of incline and level-grade high-intensity interval treadmill training on running economy and muscle power in well-trained distance runners.

    PubMed

    Ferley, Derek D; Osborn, Roy W; Vukovich, Matthew D

    2014-05-01

    Despite a paucity of evidence, uphill running has been touted as a sport-specific resistance-to-movement training tactic capable of enhancing metabolic, muscular, and neuromuscular processes in distance runners in ways similar to previously established resistance-to-movement training methods, such as heavy and/or explosive strength training and plyometric training. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation included documenting the effects of incline and level-grade interval treadmill training on indices of running economy (RE) (i.e., oxygen consumption [VO2] and blood lactate [BLa] responses of submaximal running) and muscle power. Thirty-two well-trained distance runners (age, 27.4 ± 3.8 years; body mass, 64.8 ± 8.9 kg; height, 173.6 ± 6.4 cm; and VO2max, 60.9 ± 8.5 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1)) received assignment to an uphill (GHill = 12), level-grade (GFlat = 12), or control (GCon = 8) group. GHill and GFlat completed 12 interval and 12 continuous run sessions over 6 weeks, whereas GCon maintained their normal training. Dependent variables measured before and after training were VO2 and BLa at 2 separate velocities associated with lactate threshold (VLT) (VO2-60% and VO2-80%; and BLa-60% and BLa-80%, respectively); percentage of VO2max at lactate threshold (%VO2max at VLT); muscle power as assessed through a horizontal 5-jump test (5Jmax); and isokinetic knee extension and flexion at 3 angular velocities (90, 180, and 300°·s(-1)). Statistical significance was set to p ≤ 0.05. All groups significantly improved 5Jmax, VO2-60%, VO2-80%, BLa-60%, and BLa-80%. Additionally, GHill and GFlat significantly improved %VO2max at VLT. Other indices of RE and muscle power did not improve. We conclude incline treadmill training effective for improving the components of RE, but insufficient as a resistance-to-movement exercise for enhancing muscle power output. PMID:24172721

  9. Training speech pathologists through microtherapy.

    PubMed

    Irwin, R B

    1981-03-01

    Two microtraining methods were evaluated for training speech pathologists in the acquisition of skills utilized in treating misarticulations. Fifteen subjects in an introductory class in speech pathology were randomly placed in two groups (modeling, video replay, and counseling versus video replay and counseling). The training included reading a manual about the skills and a sequence of three teach sessions. The control group did not view the video model. According to the results, the model group made a greater gain score (M = 8.38) than the nonmodel group (M = 3.88). Significant gains were made for both experimental groups between teach sessions one and two, but no significant gains were made between the second and third teach sessions. PMID:7019270

  10. Carbohydrate supercompensation and muscle glycogen utilization during exhaustive running in highly trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Madsen, K; Pedersen, P K; Rose, P; Richter, E A

    1990-01-01

    Three female and three male highly trained endurance runners with mean maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) values of 60.5 and 71.5 ml.kg-1.min-1, respectively, ran to exhaustion at 75%-80% of VO2max on two occasions after an overnight fast. One experiment was performed after a normal diet and training regimen (Norm), the other after a diet and training programme intended to increase muscle glycogen levels (Carb). Muscle glycogen concentration in the gastrocnemius muscle increased by 25% (P less than 0.05) from 581 mmol.kg-1 dry weight, SEM 50 to 722 mmol.kg-1 dry weight, SEM 34 after Carb. Running time to exhaustion, however, was not significantly different in Carb and Norm, 77 min, SEM 13 vs 70 min, SEM 8, respectively. The average glycogen concentration following exhaustive running was 553 mmol.kg-1 dry weight, SEM 70 in Carb and 434 mmol.kg-1 dry weight, SEM 57 in Norm, indicating that in both tests muscle glycogen stores were decreased by about 25%. Periodic acid-Schiff staining for semi-quantitative glycogen determination in individual fibres confirmed that none of the fibres appeared to be glycogen-empty after exhaustive running. The steady-state respiratory exchange ratio was higher in Carb than in Norm (0.92, SEM 0.01 vs 0.89, SEM 0.01; P less than 0.05). Since muscle glycogen utilization was identical in the two tests, the indication of higher utilization of total carbohydrate appears to be related to a higher utilization of liver glycogen. We have concluded that glycogen depletion of the gastrocnemius muscle is unlikely to be the cause of fatigue during exhaustive running at 75%-80% of VO2max in highly trained endurance runners. Furthermore, diet- and training-induced carbohydrate super-compensation does not appear to improve endurance capacity in such individuals. PMID:2079068

  11. Effects of Cycling vs. Running Training on Endurance Performance in Preparation for Inline Speed Skating.

    PubMed

    Stangier, Carolin; Abel, Thomas; Hesse, Clemens; Claen, Stephanie; Mierau, Julia; Hollmann, Wildor; Strüder, Heiko K

    2016-06-01

    Stangier, C, Abel, T, Hesse, C, Claßen, S, Mierau, J, Hollmann, W, and Strüder, HK. Effects of cycling vs. running training on endurance performance in preparation for inline speed skating. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1597-1606, 2016-Winter weather conditions restrict regular sport-specific endurance training in inline speed skating. As a result, this study was designed to compare the effects of cycling and running training programs on inline speed skaters' endurance performance. Sixteen (8 men, 8 women) high-level athletes (mean ± SD 24 ± 8 years) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (running and cycling). Both groups trained twice a week for 8 weeks, one group on a treadmill and the other on a cycle ergometer. Training intensity and duration was individually calculated (maximal fat oxidation: ∼52% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak: 500 kcal per session). Before and after the training intervention, all athletes performed an incremental specific (inline speed skating) and 1 nonspecific (cycling or running) step test according to the group affiliation. In addition to blood lactate concentration, oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), ventilatory equivalent (VE/V[Combining Dot Above]O2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and heart rate were measured. The specific posttest revealed significantly increased absolute V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak values (2.9 ± 0.4, 3.4 ± 0.7, p = 0.01) and submaximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 values (p ≤ 0.01). VE/V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and RER significantly decreased at maximal (46.6 ± 6.6, 38.5 ± 3.4, p = 0.005; 1.1 ± 0.03, 1.0 ± 0.04, p = 0.001) and submaximal intensities (p ≤ 0.04). None of the analysis revealed a significant group effect (p ≥ 0.15). The results indicate that both cycling vs. running exercise at ∼52% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak had a positive effect on the athletes' endurance performance. The increased submaximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 values indicate a reduction in athletes' inline speed

  12. Time-to-Fatigue During Incline Treadmill Running: Implications for Individualized Training Prescription.

    PubMed

    Ferley, Derek D; Vukovich, Matthew D

    2015-07-01

    Uphill running has been touted as a key interval training tactic for distance runners despite few scientifically derived recommendations for individualized training prescription. To date, a majority of uphill training research has focused on shorter, faster training bouts; however, longer, slower bouts based on an individual's velocity at maximum oxygen consumption (Vmax) may prove more effective. One potential longer bout length may be associated with the time Vmax can be maintained (Tmax), an approach proven effective in level-grade interval training. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation included examining the Tmax, heart rate, and test-retest reliability of incline treadmill running (INC) on a 10% grade at 65, 70, 75, 80, and 85%Vmax compared with level-grade running at Vmax. Twelve moderately trained distance runners (age, 26.4 ± 4.8; body mass, 64.3 ± 12.9 kg; height, 171.2 ± 9.3 cm; and V̇O2max, 56.6 ± 7.6 ml·min⁻¹·kg⁻¹) completed 2 Tmax INC trials at each submaximal Vmax and a level-grade Tmax at Vmax. The dependent variables were Tmax, heart rate plateau (HR(Plateau)), and half-time to heart rate plateau (½HR(Plateau)) of each condition. Statistical significance was set to p ≤ 0.05. Student's t-test revealed no significant differences in Tmax, HR(Plateau), and ½HR(Plateau) between trials 1 and 2 at any INC condition. One-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences in (a) Tmax during INC at 75, 80, and 85%Vmax and level-grade at Vmax and (b) ½HR(Plateau) during INC at 80 and 85%Vmax and all other conditions. In conclusion, Tmax and heart rate dynamics during INC proved reliable, and simple regression analysis revealed ∼68%Vmax during INC yields the same level-grade Tmax at Vmax. PMID:25756323

  13. Effects of running wheel training on adult obese rats programmed by maternal prolactin inhibition.

    PubMed

    Boaventura, G; Casimiro-Lopes, G; Pazos-Moura, C C; Oliveira, E; Lisboa, P C; Moura, E G

    2013-10-01

    The inhibition of maternal prolactin production in late lactation leads to metabolic syndrome and hypothyroidism in adult offspring. Physical training is a therapeutic strategy that could prevent or reverse this condition. We evaluated the effects of a short-duration low-intensity running wheel training program on the metabolic and hormonal alterations in rats. Lactating Wistar rats were treated with bromocriptine (Bro, 1 mg twice a day) or saline on days 19, 20, and 21 of lactation, and the training of offspring began at 35 days of age. Offspring were divided into sedentary and trained controls (C-Sed and C-Ex) and sedentary and trained Bro-treated rats (Bro-Sed and Bro-Ex). Chronic exercise delayed the onset of weight gain in Bro-Ex offspring, and the food intake did not change during the experimental period. At 180 days, visceral fat mass was higher (+46%) in the Bro-Sed offspring than in C-Sed and Bro-Ex rats. As expected, running capacity was higher in trained animals. Most parameters observed in the Bro-Sed offspring were consistent with hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome and were reversed in the Bro-Ex group. Chronic exercise did not influence the muscle glycogen in the C-Ex group; however, liver glycogen was higher (+30%) in C-Ex group and was unchanged in both Bro offspring groups. Bro-Ex animals had higher plasma lactate dehydrogenase levels, indicating skeletal muscle damage and intolerance of the training program. Low-intensity chronic training is able to normalize many clinical aspects in Bro animals; however, these animals might have had a lower threshold for exercise adaptation than the control rats. PMID:23863192

  14. Effect of training in minimalist footwear on oxygen consumption during walking and running.

    PubMed

    Bellar, D; Judge, L W

    2015-06-01

    The present study sought to examine the effect of 5 weeks of training with minimalist footwear on oxygen consumption during walking and running. Thirteen college-aged students (male n = 7, female n = 6, age: 21.7±1.4 years, height: 168.9±8.8 cm, weight: 70.4±15.8 kg, VO2max: 46.6±6.6 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) participated in the present investigation. The participants did not have experience with minimalist footwear. Participants underwent metabolic testing during walking (5.6 km·hr(-1)), light running (7.2 km·hr(-1)), and moderate running (9.6 km·hr(-1)). The participants completed this assessment barefoot, in running shoes, and in minimalist footwear in a randomized order. The participants underwent 5 weeks of training with the minimalist footwear. Afterwards, participants repeated the metabolic testing. Data was analyzed via repeated measures ANOVA. The analysis revealed a significant (F4,32= 7.576, [Formula: see text]=0.408, p ≤ 0.001) interaction effect (time × treatment × speed). During the initial assessment, the minimalist footwear condition resulted in greater oxygen consumption at 9.6 km·hr(-1) (p ≤ 0.05) compared to the barefoot condition, while the running shoe condition resulted in greater oxygen consumption than both the barefoot and minimalist condition at 7.2 and 9.6 km·hr(-1). At post-testing the minimalist footwear was not different at any speed compared to the barefoot condition (p> 0.12). This study suggests that initially minimalist footwear results in greater oxygen consumption than running barefoot, however; with utilization the oxygen consumption becomes similar. PMID:26060339

  15. Effect of training in minimalist footwear on oxygen consumption during walking and running

    PubMed Central

    Judge, LW

    2015-01-01

    The present study sought to examine the effect of 5 weeks of training with minimalist footwear on oxygen consumption during walking and running. Thirteen college-aged students (male n = 7, female n = 6, age: 21.7±1.4 years, height: 168.9±8.8 cm, weight: 70.4±15.8 kg, VO2max: 46.6±6.6 ml·kg−1·min−1) participated in the present investigation. The participants did not have experience with minimalist footwear. Participants underwent metabolic testing during walking (5.6 km·hr−1), light running (7.2 km·hr−1), and moderate running (9.6 km·hr−1). The participants completed this assessment barefoot, in running shoes, and in minimalist footwear in a randomized order. The participants underwent 5 weeks of training with the minimalist footwear. Afterwards, participants repeated the metabolic testing. Data was analyzed via repeated measures ANOVA. The analysis revealed a significant (F4,32= 7.576, ηp2=0.408, p ≤ 0.001) interaction effect (time × treatment × speed). During the initial assessment, the minimalist footwear condition resulted in greater oxygen consumption at 9.6 km·hr−1 (p ≤ 0.05) compared to the barefoot condition, while the running shoe condition resulted in greater oxygen consumption than both the barefoot and minimalist condition at 7.2 and 9.6 km·hr−1. At post-testing the minimalist footwear was not different at any speed compared to the barefoot condition (p> 0.12). This study suggests that initially minimalist footwear results in greater oxygen consumption than running barefoot, however; with utilization the oxygen consumption becomes similar. PMID:26060339

  16. Bovine colostrum supplementation during endurance running training improves recovery, but not performance.

    PubMed

    Buckley, J D; Abbott, M J; Brinkworth, G D; Whyte, P B D

    2002-06-01

    This study examined the effect of supplementation with concentrated bovine colostrum protein powder (intact) on plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentrations, endurance running performance and recovery. Thirty physically active males completed 8 weeks of running training whilst consuming 60 g x day(-1) of intact powder (n=17) or a concentrated whey protein powder placebo (n=13) in a randomised, double-blind, parallel design. Plasma IGF-I concentrations were measured prior to subjects performing two (approximately 30 min) incremental treadmill running tests to exhaustion (RUN1 and RUN2) separated by 20 min of passive recovery at Weeks 0. 4 and 8. Plasma IGF-I concentrations showed little change in either group (p=0.83). Effective peak running speed (PRSE; i.e. equivalent of peak power) during RUN1 was not different between groups at Week 0 (p>0.99), and had increased by a similar amount in both groups by Week 4 (mean+/-SD, intact 2.2+/-4.0%, placebo 3.2+/-3.3%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI 15.7 to -13.7%; p=0.89) and Week 8 (intact 3.6+/-5.6%, placebo 3.4+/-4.4 %; 95% CI -100.0 to 100.0%; p>0.99). PRSE was less in both groups during RUN2 (p<0.05), but was not significantly different between groups at Week 0 (p>0.99). PRSE during RUN2 tended to have increased more in the placebo group by Week 4 (intact 1.8+/-4.8%, placebo 4.2+/-3.9%; 95% CI 0.2 to -5 0%; p=0.07), but the intact group had increased PRSE significantly more by Week 8 (intact 4.6+/-6.1%, placebo 2.0+/-4.5%; 95% Cl 0.0 to 5.2%; p=0.05). resulting in a significantly faster PRSE (p=0.003). We conclude that supplementation with intact powder did not increase plasma IGF-I concentrations or improve performance during an initial bout of incremental running to exhaustion in our sample. However, performance during a second bout of exercise may be improved by as much as 5.2% in the average subject after 8 weeks of supplementation, possibly due to an enhancement of recovery. PMID:12188088

  17. Stabilizing mechanism and running behavior of couplers on heavy haul trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ziqiang; Wu, Qing; Luo, Shihui; Ma, Weihua; Dong, Xiaoqing

    2014-11-01

    Published studies in regard to coupler systems have been mainly focused on the manufacturing process or coupler strength issues. With the ever increasing of tonnage and length of heavy haul trains, lateral in-train forces generated by longitudinal in-train forces and coupler rotations have become a more and more significant safety issue for heavy haul train operations. Derailments caused by excessive lateral in-train forces are frequently reported. This article studies two typical coupler systems used on heavy haul locomotives. Their structures and stabilizing mechanism are analyzed before the corresponding models are developed. Coupler systems models are featured by two distinct stabilizing mechanism models and draft gear models with hysteresis considered. A model set which consists of four locomotives and three coupler systems is developed to study the rotational behavior of different coupler systems and their implications for locomotive dynamics. Simulated results indicate that when the locomotives are equipped with the type B coupler system, locomotives can meet the dynamics standard on tangent tracks; while the dynamics performance on curved tracks is very poor. The maximum longitudinal in-train force for locomotives equipped with the type B coupler system is 2000 kN. Simulations revealed a distinct trend for the type A coupler system. Locomotive dynamics are poorer for the type A case when locomotives are running on tangent tracks, while the dynamics are better for the type A case when locomotives are running on curved tracks. Theoretical studies and simulations carried out in this article suggest that a combination of the two types of stabilizing mechanism can result in a good design which can significantly decrease the relevant derailments.

  18. The Correlation between Running Economy and Maximal Oxygen Uptake: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Relationships in Highly Trained Distance Runners

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Andrew J.; Ingham, Stephen A.; Atkinson, Greg; Folland, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    A positive relationship between running economy and maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) has been postulated in trained athletes, but previous evidence is equivocal and could have been confounded by statistical artefacts. Whether this relationship is preserved in response to running training (changes in running economy and V̇O2max) has yet to be explored. This study examined the relationships of (i) running economy and V̇O2max between runners, and (ii) the changes in running economy and V̇O2max that occur within runners in response to habitual training. 168 trained distance runners (males, n = 98, V̇O2max 73.0 ± 6.3 mL∙kg-1∙min-1; females, n = 70, V̇O2max 65.2 ± 5.9 mL kg-1∙min-1) performed a discontinuous submaximal running test to determine running economy (kcal∙km-1). A continuous incremental treadmill running test to volitional exhaustion was used to determine V̇O2max 54 participants (males, n = 27; females, n = 27) also completed at least one follow up assessment. Partial correlation analysis revealed small positive relationships between running economy and V̇O2max (males r = 0.26, females r = 0.25; P<0.006), in addition to moderate positive relationships between the changes in running economy and V̇O2max in response to habitual training (r = 0.35; P<0.001). In conclusion, the current investigation demonstrates that only a small to moderate relationship exists between running economy and V̇O2max in highly trained distance runners. With >85% of the variance in these parameters unexplained by this relationship, these findings reaffirm that running economy and V̇O2max are primarily determined independently. PMID:25849090

  19. Online Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Software Training through the Behavioral Modeling Approach: A Longitudinal Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Charlie C.; Shaw, Ruey-shiang

    2006-01-01

    The continued and increasing use of online training raises the question of whether the most effective training methods applied in live instruction will carry over to different online environments in the long run. Behavior Modeling (BM) approach--teaching through demonstration--has been proven as the most effective approach in a face-to-face (F2F)…

  20. Oxygen uptake during high-intensity running: response following a single bout of interval training.

    PubMed

    James, D V; Doust, J H

    1999-02-01

    Elevated oxygen uptake (VO2) during moderate-intensity running following a bout of interval running training has been studied previously. To further investigate this phenomenon, the VO2 response to high-intensity exercise was examined following a bout of interval running. Well-trained endurance runners were split into an experimental group [maximum oxygen uptake, VO2max 4.73 (0.39)l x min(-1)] and a reliability group [VO2max 4.77 (0.26)l x min(-1)]. The experimental group completed a training session (4 x 800 m at 1 km x h(-1) below speed at VO2max, with 3 min rest between each 800-m interval). Five minutes prior to, and 1 h following the training session, subjects completed 6 min 30 s of constant speed, high-intensity running designed to elicit 40% delta (where delta is the difference between VO2 at ventilatory threshold and VO2max; tests 1 and 2, respectively). The slow component of VO2 kinetics was quantified as the difference between the VO2 at 6 min and the VO2 at 3 min of exercise, i.e. deltaVO2(6-3). The deltaVO2(-3) was the same in two identical conditions in the reliability group [mean (SD): 0.30 (0.10)l x min(-1) vs 0.32 (0.13)l x min(-1)]. In the experimental group, the magnitude of the slow component of VO2 kinetics was increased in test 2 compared with test 1 by 24.9% [0.27 (0.14)l x min(-1) vs 0.34 (0.08)l x min(-1), P < 0.05]. The increase in deltaVO2(6-3) in the experimental group was observed in the absence of any significant change in body mass, core temperature or blood lactate concentration, either at the start or end of tests 1 or 2. It is concluded that similar mechanisms may be responsible for the slow component of VO2 kinetics and for the fatigue following the training session. It has been suggested previously that this mechanism may be linked primarily to changes within the active limb, with the recruitment of alternative and/or additional less efficient fibres. PMID:10048628

  1. TRAIN: Training through Research Application Italian iNitiative.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Claudio; Bottero, Sergio; d'Alessandro, Francesca; Giacomini, Mauro; Guderzo, Angela; Moretti, Franca; Marincola, Margherita; Pesce, Giorgia; Pierotti, Marco A; Spagnoli, Luigi Giusto; Belardelli, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    Training through Research Application Italian iNitiative (TRAIN) is a mobility program financed under the EU action called "Cofinancing of regional, national and international programs" (COFUND) of the European Commission Seventh Framework Program (FP7) - People, and has been designed to encourage the promotion and development of international programs of research through mobility at various stages of research careers. The aim of TRAIN is to improve translational skills in the field of cancer by promoting a three-year international mobility program assigning a total of 51 fellowships subdivided into incoming, outgoing and reintegration fellowships.?The TRAIN proposal has been submitted in February 2009 to the European Commission in reply to the 2008 FP7-PEOPLE-COFUND call and has been successfully evaluated. TRAIN is addressed to postdoctoral scientists or scientists who have at least four years' full-time equivalent research experience and who wish to improve their careers spending one year abroad. The mobility program is open also to non-Italian experienced scientists wishing to spend one year in an Italian research center or private company. Part of the scheme is targeted to experienced Italian scientists who have completed at least three years of research in a foreign country and are interested in returning to Italy.?TRAIN is part of an overall Italian strategy outlined by the International Program of the Italian Cancer Network "Alleanza Contro il Cancro" to promote Italian participation in the building of the European Area for translational cancer research and to enhance the interaction between academy and industry. PMID:21623583

  2. Oxygen uptake during moderate intensity running: response following a single bout of interval training.

    PubMed

    James, D V; Doust, J H

    1998-05-01

    Eight male endurance runners [mean+/-(SD): age 25 (6) years; height 1.79 (0.06) m; body mass 70.5 (6.0) kg; % body fat 12.5 (3.2); maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max 62.9 (1.7) ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)] performed an interval training session, preceded immediately by test 1, followed after 1 h by test 2, and after 72 h by test 3. The training session was six 800-m intervals at 1 km x h(-1) below the velocity achieved at VO2max with 3 min of recovery between each interval. Tests 1, 2 and 3 were identical, and included collection of expired gas, measurement of ventilatory frequency (fr), heart rate (Fc)r rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate concentration ([La-]B) during the final 5 min of 15 min of running at 50% of the velocity achieved at V02max (50% v-VO2max). Oxygen uptake (VO2), ventilation (VE), and respiratory exchange ratio (R) were subsequently determined from duplicate expired gas collections. Body mass and plasma volume changes were measured preceding and immediately following the training session, and before tests 1-3. Subjects ingested water immediately following the training session, the volume of which was determined from the loss of body mass during the session. Repeated measures analysis of variance with multiple comparison (Tukey) was used to test differences between results. No significant differences in body mass or plasma volume existed between the three test stages, indicating that the differences recorded for the measured parameters could not be attributed to changes in body mass or plasma volume between tests, and that rehydration after the interval training session was successful. A significant (P < 0.05) increase was found from test 1 to test 2 [mean (SD)] for VO2 [2.128 (0.147) to 2.200 (0.140) l x min(-1)], fc [125 (17) to 132 (16) beats x min(-1)], and RPE [9 (2) to 11 (2)]. A significant (P < 0.05) decrease was found for submaximal R [0.89 (0.03) to 0.85 (0.04)]. These results suggest that alterations in VO2 during moderate

  3. A seven day running training period increases basal urinary hepcidin levels as compared to cycling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This investigation compared the effects of an extended period of weight-bearing (running) vs. non-weight-bearing (cycling) exercise on hepcidin production and its implications for iron status. Methods Ten active males performed two separate exercise training blocks with either running (RTB) or cycling (CTB) as the exercise mode. Each block consisted of five training sessions (Day 1, 2, 4, 5, 6) performed over a seven day period that were matched for exercise intensity. Basal venous blood samples were obtained on Day 1 (D1), and on Recovery Days 3 (R3) and 7 (R7) to assess iron status, while basal and 3 h post-exercise urinary hepcidin levels were measured on D1, D2, D6, as well as R3 and R7 (basal levels only) for each condition. Results Basal urinary hepcidin levels were significantly elevated (p ≤ 0.05) at D2, R3 and R7 as compared to D1 in RTB. Furthermore, 3 h post-exercise urinary hepcidin levels on D1 were also significantly higher in RTB compared to CTB (p ≤ 0.05). In CTB, urinary hepcidin levels were not statistically different on D1 as compared to R7. Iron parameters were not significantly different at D1 compared to R3 and R7 during both conditions. Conclusions These results suggest that basal hepcidin levels may increase over the course of an extended training program, especially if a weight-bearing exercise modality is undertaken. However, despite any variations in hepcidin production, serum iron parameters in both RTB and CTB were unaffected, possibly due to the short duration of each training block. In comparing running to cycling, non-weight-bearing activity may require more training sessions, or sessions of extended duration, before any significant changes in basal hepcidin levels appear. Chronic elevations in hepcidin levels may help to explain the high incidence of iron deficiency in athletes. PMID:24716892

  4. Developing Teacher Effectiveness Through Interpersonal Skill Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Kolk, Charles J.

    1975-01-01

    A model for developing teacher interpersonal skill was employed to improve teacher-student relationships. Teachers (N=18) received 20 hours of training that consisted of studying human relationship skills, listening to taped examples of good relationships, and practice through role playing. Teachers did significantly increase their ability to…

  5. Reflections on Running Training Workshops for Research Ethics Committee Members in Spain Between 2001 and 2008

    PubMed Central

    Baños, Josep-E.; Lucena, M. Isabel; Serés, Elisabet; Bosch, Fèlix

    2010-01-01

    Aim To present the experience of running workshops for members of research ethics committees (REC) in Spain from 2001-2008 by a non-profit institution. Methods We analyzed data from 7 sessions of the course, involving 165 health professionals. Data were taken from an opinion survey conducted at the end of each seminar and a deferred questionnaire sent after the workshops. Results Opinions of 122 participants who completed the first questionnaire (84% of the 146 attendees) on these training courses were very positive (median, ≥4.5 out of 5). The second questionnaire was administered a few months after each session, and a total of 43 participants responded (36% of 118). The participants improved their knowledge, attitude, and skills (median, 4.0 out of 5) in most of the areas evaluated. Furthermore, they believed that training for REC members should be mandatory (median, 5.0 out of 5) and carried out regularly (median, 4.0 out of 5). The lack of communication between RECs and limitations in monitoring clinical trials (median, 4.5 out of 5) were the main problems according to respondents. Training was rated as a strong necessity (median, 4.0 out of 5). Conclusion The courses were well received, they contributed to the overall learning of the participants, and served to highlight some of the major problems faced by REC members. These results emphasize the importance of training. PMID:21162168

  6. A video based run-off-road training program with practice and evaluation in a simulator.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Paul; Neyens, David M; Wagner, John; Switzer, Fred; Alexander, Kim; Pidgeon, Philip

    2015-09-01

    A run-off-road (ROR) event occurs when one or more of a vehicle's wheels leaves the roadway and begins to travel on the surface or shoulder adjacent to the road. Despite various countermeasures, ROR crashes continue to yield a large number of fatalities and injuries. Infrastructure-based solutions do not directly address the critical factor of driver performance preceding and during an ROR event. In this study, a total of 75 individuals participated in a pre-post experiment to examine the effect of a training video on improving driver performance during a set of simulated ROR scenarios (e.g., on a high speed highway, a horizontal curve, and a residential rural road). In each scenario, the vehicle was unexpectedly forced into an ROR scenario for which the drivers were instructed to recover as safely as possible. The treatment group then watched a custom ROR training video while the control group viewed a placebo video. The participants then drove the same simulated ROR scenarios. The results suggest that the training video had a significant positive effect on drivers' steering response on all three roadway conditions as well as improvements in vehicle stability, subjectively rated demand on the driver, and self-evaluated performance in the highway scenario. Under the highway conditions, the treatment group reduced the frequency of spinouts from 70% in the pre-training events to 16% in the post-training events (χ(2)(1)=23.32, p<0.001) with no significant improvement found for the control group. In the horizontal curve, spinouts were reduced for the treatment group from 50% in the pre-training events to 30% in the post-training events (χ(2)(1)=8.45, p=0.004) with the control group also not showing any significant improvement. The results of this study suggest that even a short video about recovering from ROR events can significantly influence a driver's ability to recover. It is possible that additional training may have further benefits in recovering from ROR

  7. Run Run Run.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilt, Fred

    This guidebook is written for coaches of runners competing in both crosscountry and track. The techniques of training athletes in this sport are described with emphasis placed on why certain methods are successful as well as how they are accomplished. The methods of training runners of different ages and varying experience are discussed. Articles…

  8. Personal best marathon time and longest training run, not anthropometry, predict performance in recreational 24-hour ultrarunners.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2011-08-01

    In recent studies, a relationship between both low body fat and low thicknesses of selected skinfolds has been demonstrated for running performance of distances from 100 m to the marathon but not in ultramarathon. We investigated the association of anthropometric and training characteristics with race performance in 63 male recreational ultrarunners in a 24-hour run using bi and multivariate analysis. The athletes achieved an average distance of 146.1 (43.1) km. In the bivariate analysis, body mass (r = -0.25), the sum of 9 skinfolds (r = -0.32), the sum of upper body skinfolds (r = -0.34), body fat percentage (r = -0.32), weekly kilometers ran (r = 0.31), longest training session before the 24-hour run (r = 0.56), and personal best marathon time (r = -0.58) were related to race performance. Stepwise multiple regression showed that both the longest training session before the 24-hour run (p = 0.0013) and the personal best marathon time (p = 0.0015) had the best correlation with race performance. Performance in these 24-hour runners may be predicted (r2 = 0.46) by the following equation: Performance in a 24-hour run, km) = 234.7 + 0.481 (longest training session before the 24-hour run, km) - 0.594 (personal best marathon time, minutes). For practical applications, training variables such as volume and intensity were associated with performance but not anthropometric variables. To achieve maximum kilometers in a 24-hour run, recreational ultrarunners should have a personal best marathon time of ∼3 hours 20 minutes and complete a long training run of ∼60 km before the race, whereas anthropometric characteristics such as low body fat or low skinfold thicknesses showed no association with performance. PMID:21642857

  9. Beetroot juice does not enhance altitude running performance in well-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Josh Timothy; Oliver, Samuel James; Lewis-Jones, Tammy Maria; Wylie, Lee John; Macdonald, Jamie Hugo

    2015-06-01

    We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) provided as concentrated beetroot juice supplement would improve endurance running performance of well-trained runners in normobaric hypoxia. Ten male runners (mean (SD): sea level maximal oxygen uptake, 66 (7) mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); 10 km personal best, 36 (2) min) completed incremental exercise to exhaustion at 4000 m and a 10-km treadmill time-trial at 2500 m simulated altitude on separate days after supplementation with ∼7 mmol NO3(-) and a placebo at 2.5 h before exercise. Oxygen cost, arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were determined during the incremental exercise test. Differences between treatments were determined using means [95% confidence intervals], paired sample t tests, and a probability of individual response analysis. NO3(-) supplementation increased plasma nitrite concentration (NO3(-), 473 (226) nmol·L(-1) vs. placebo, 61 (37) nmol·L(-1), P < 0.001) but did not alter time to exhaustion during the incremental test (NO3(-), 402 (80) s vs. placebo 393 (62) s, P = 0.5) or time to complete the 10-km time-trial (NO3(-), 2862 (233) s vs. placebo, 2874 (265) s, P = 0.6). Further, no practically meaningful beneficial effect on time-trial performance was observed as the 11 [-60 to 38] s improvement was less than the a priori determined minimum important difference (51 s), and only 3 runners experienced a "likely, probable" performance improvement. NO3(-) also did not alter oxygen cost, arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate, or RPE. Acute dietary NO3(-) supplementation did not consistently enhance running performance of well-trained athletes in normobaric hypoxia. PMID:25942474

  10. Immediate effect of visual and auditory feedback to control the running mechanics of well-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Martin; Halvorsen, Kjartan A; Gullstrand, Lennart

    2011-02-01

    The correlation between mechanical factors of running and running economy as measured by metabolic cost is a subject of much interest in the study of locomotion. However, no change in running technique has been shown to result in an immediate improvement in running economy on an intra-individual basis. To evaluate the effect of a modified running technique, it is probably necessary that the individual trains with the new technique for a longer period using a feedback system to control the new kinematics. In this study, we examine the feasibility of using visual and auditory feedback to adapt running technique according to a simplistic model of the mechanical cost of running. The model considers only the mechanical work against gravity, which is the product of the magnitude of the vertical displacement of the runner's centre of mass and the step-frequency. In the experiments reported here, 18 trained runners, running at 16 km · h(-1) on a treadmill, were given feedback on these parameters together with indicated target levels. In almost all cases, the runners were able to adjust their technique accordingly. PMID:21170792

  11. Solar Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure of South African Marathon Runners During Competition Marathon Runs and Training Sessions: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Nurse, Victoria; Wright, Caradee Y; Allen, Martin; McKenzie, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Marathon runners spend considerable time in outdoor training for and participating in marathons. Outdoor runners may experience high solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. South Africa, where running is popular, experiences high ambient solar UVR levels that may be associated with adverse health effects. This feasibility study explores the use of personal dosimeters to determine solar UVR exposure patterns and possible related acute health risks of four marathon runners during marathons and training sessions in Cape Town and Pretoria. Runners running marathons that started early in the day, and that did not exceed 4 hours, yielded low total solar UVR exposure doses (mean 0.093 SED per exposure period run, median 0.088 SED, range 0.062-0.136 SED; average of 16.54% of ambient solar UVR). Training sessions run during early morning and late afternoon presented similar results. Several challenges hindered analysis including accounting for anatomical position of personal dosimeter and natural shade. To assess health risks, hazard quotients (HQs) were calculated using a hypothetical runner's schedule. Cumulative, annual solar UVR exposure-calculated acute health risks were low (HQ = 0.024) for training sessions and moderate (HQ = 4.922) for marathon runs. While these data and calculations are based on 18 person-days, one can measure marathon runners' personal solar UVR exposure although several challenges must be overcome. PMID:25918823

  12. The Elimination of a Self-Injurious Avoidance Response through a Forced Running Consequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borreson, Paul M.

    1980-01-01

    The self-injurious avoidance responses of a 22-year-old severely mentally retarded male were eliminated through a forced running consequence. Side effects, such as reduced noise, increase in smiling, and faster progress toward instructional objectives, were also noted. The results were maintained over a period of two years. (Author/PHR)

  13. Effects of simultaneous training for strength and endurance on upper and lower body strength and running performance.

    PubMed

    Hortobágyi, T; Katch, F I; Lachance, P F

    1991-03-01

    This study examined simultaneous training for strength and endurance during a 13-week, 3-day a week program of hydraulic resistive circuit training and running. Eighteen college males (U.S. Army ROTC) were placed into low resistance (LR; n = 10) or high resistance (HR; n = 8) groups, and 10 college males were controls and did not train. There were 20 exercise stations (7 upper and lower body, and 6 supplementary). LR and HR performed 2 circuits with a work/rest ratio of 20 to 40 s during the 40 min workout. LR trained at two low resistances (approximately 100 cm.s-1), while HR trained at a higher resistance (approximately 50 cm.s-1). Following the workout, subjects ran 2 miles. Pre and post tests included strength, physical fitness, and anthropometry. Strength was assessed with (1) hydraulic resistance dynamometry for 4 exercises at 2 speeds using a computerized dynamometer (Hydra-Fitness, Belton, TX); (2) isokinetic and isotonic upright squat and supine bench press using the Ariel Exerciser (Trabuco Canyon, CA); (3) concentric and eccentric arm flexion/extension at 60 and 120 degrees.s-1 on the Biodex dynamometer (Shirley, NY), and (4) 1-RM free weight concentric and eccentric arm flexion and extension. The fitness tests included 2-mile run, sit-ups, and push-ups. Anthropometry included 3 fatfolds, 6 girths, and arm and leg volume. There were no significant changes in body composition or interactions between the fitness test measures and the 2 training groups (p greater than 0.05). Improvements averaged 15% (run time), 30% (push-ups), and 19% (sit-ups; p less than 0.05). Significant improvements also occurred in 3 of 8 measures for hydraulic testing (overall change 8.8%), in 3 of 4 1-RM tests (9.4%), and in 2 of 8 Biodex tests (6%), but no significant changes for isokinetic and isotonic squat and bench press (1.9%). The change in overall strength averaged 6.5% compared to 16% in a prior study that used hydraulic resistive training without concomitant running. We

  14. The Effect of Extra-Curricular Mental Training with Biofeedback on Short Running Performance of Adolescent Physical Education Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Eli, Michael; Blumenstein, Boris

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between mental training with biofeedback and performance was investigated. An adapted version of the Wingate five-step approach was used as a mental preparation technique for enhancing the short-running performance among 16-18-year-old adolescent physical education pupils. Participants (n = 79) were randomly…

  15. The combination of plyometric and balance training improves sprint and shuttle run performances more often than plyometric-only training with children.

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Anis; Othman, Aymen Ben; Hammami, Raouf; Drinkwater, Eric J; Behm, David G

    2014-02-01

    Because balance is not fully developed in children and studies have shown functional improvements with balance only training studies, a combination of plyometric and balance activities might enhance static balance, dynamic balance, and power. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of plyometric only (PLYO) with balance and plyometric (COMBINED) training on balance and power measures in children. Before and after an 8-week training period, testing assessed lower-body strength (1 repetition maximum leg press), power (horizontal and vertical jumps, triple hop for distance, reactive strength, and leg stiffness), running speed (10-m and 30-m sprint), static and dynamic balance (Standing Stork Test and Star Excursion Balance Test), and agility (shuttle run). Subjects were randomly divided into 2 training groups (PLYO [n = 14] and COMBINED [n = 14]) and a control group (n = 12). Results based on magnitude-based inferences and precision of estimation indicated that the COMBINED training group was considered likely to be superior to the PLYO group in leg stiffness (d = 0.69, 91% likely), 10-m sprint (d = 0.57, 84% likely), and shuttle run (d = 0.52, 80% likely). The difference between the groups was unclear in 8 of the 11 dependent variables. COMBINED training enhanced activities such as 10-m sprints and shuttle runs to a greater degree. COMBINED training could be an important consideration for reducing the high velocity impacts of PLYO training. This reduction in stretch-shortening cycle stress on neuromuscular system with the replacement of balance and landing exercises might help to alleviate the overtraining effects of excessive repetitive high load activities. PMID:23669821

  16. Effects of Continuous and Interval Training on Running Economy, Maximal Aerobic Speed and Gait Kinematics in Recreational Runners.

    PubMed

    González-Mohíno, Fernando; González-Ravé, José M; Juárez, Daniel; Fernández, Francisco A; Barragán Castellanos, Rubén; Newton, Robert U

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on running economy (RE), V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, maximal aerobic speed (MAS), and gait kinematics (step length [SL] and frequency, flight and contact time [CT]) in recreational athletes, with 2 different training methods, Interval and Continuous (CON). Eleven participants were randomly distributed in an interval training group (INT; n = 6) or CON training group (CON; n = 5). Interval training and CON performed 2 different training programs (95-110% and 70-75% of MAS, respectively), which consisted of 3 sessions per week during 6 weeks with the same external workload (%MAS × duration). An incremental test to exhaustion was performed to obtain V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, MAS, RE, and gait variables (high speed camera) before and after the training intervention. There was a significant improvement (p ≤ 0.05) in RE at 60 and 90% of MAS by the CON group; without changes in gait. The INT group significantly increased MAS and higher stride length at 80, 90, and 100% of MAS and lower CT at 100% of MAS. As expected, training adaptations are highly specific to the overload applied with CON producing improvements in RE at lower percentage of MAS whereas INT produces improvements in MAS. The significantly increased stride length and decreased CT for the INT group are an important outcome of favorable changes in running gait. PMID:26356481

  17. Cost-Effective Training through Job Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Charles D.

    Whether an organization has its own facilities and programs to teach people to perform the jobs necessary to accomplish its purpose, or sends its prospective employees to schools outside its own confines to receive that training, occupational education and training is big business. One problem with occupational training programs is that such…

  18. Building Reference Strengths through Peer Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dankert, Holly Stec; Dempsey, Paula R.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses types of peer training and describes the development of peer training instruction for reference/instruction librarians at DePaul University (Illinois) to keep communication open among staff members, share subject expertise, sharpen skills needed in group and one-on-one instruction, train new librarians, and provide ongoing professional…

  19. Learning Basic Surgical Skills through Simulator Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvennoinen, Minna; Helfenstein, Sacha; Ruoranen, Minna; Saariluoma, Pertti

    2012-01-01

    Computer-based surgical training simulators are instrumental in skill-based training and performance measurement. However, to date, the educational employment of these tools lacks empirically founded insights and effective practical guidelines. This study examined surgical residents during computer-based simulator training of basic laparoscopic…

  20. Effects of age, maturity and body dimensions on match running performance in highly trained under-15 soccer players.

    PubMed

    Buchheit, Martin; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare, in 36 highly trained under-15 soccer players, the respective effects of age, maturity and body dimensions on match running performance. Maximal sprinting (MSS) and aerobic speeds were estimated. Match running performance was analysed with GPS (GPSport, 1 Hz) during 19 international friendly games (n = 115 player-files). Total distance and distance covered >16 km h(-1) (D > 16 km h(-1)) were collected. Players advanced in age and/or maturation, or having larger body dimensions presented greater locomotor (Cohen's d for MSS: 0.5-1.0, likely to almost certain) and match running performances (D > 16 km h(-1): 0.2-0.5, possibly to likely) than their younger, less mature and/or smaller teammates. These age-, maturation- and body size-related differences were of larger magnitude for field test measures versus match running performance. Compared with age and body size (unclear to likely), maturation (likely to almost certainly for all match variables) had the greatest impact on match running performance. The magnitude of the relationships between age, maturation and body dimensions and match running performance were position-dependent. Within a single age-group in the present player sample, maturation had a substantial impact on match running performance, especially in attacking players. Coaches may need to consider players' maturity status when assessing their on-field playing performance. PMID:24786981

  1. Differences in plantar loading between training shoes and racing flats at a self-selected running speed.

    PubMed

    Wiegerinck, Johannes I; Boyd, Jennifer; Yoder, Jordan C; Abbey, Alicia N; Nunley, James A; Queen, Robin M

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in plantar loading between two different running shoe types. We hypothesized that a higher maximum force, peak pressure, and contact area would exist beneath the entire foot while running in a racing flat when compared to a training shoe. 37 athletes (17 male and 20 female) were recruited for this study. Subjects had no history of lower extremity injuries in the past six months, no history of foot or ankle surgery within the past 3 years, and no history of metatarsal stress fractures. Subjects had to be physically active and run at least 10 miles per week. Each subject ran on a 10m runway 7 times wearing two different running shoe types, the Nike Air Pegasus (training shoe) and the Nike Air Zoom Katana IV (racing flat). A Pedar-X in-shoe pressure measurement system sampling at 50Hz was used to collect plantar pressure data. Peak pressure, maximum force, and contact area beneath eight different anatomical regions of the foot as well as beneath the total foot were obtained. The results of this study demonstrated a significant difference between training shoes and racing flats in terms of peak pressure, maximum force, and contact area. The significant differences measured between the two shoes can be of importance when examining the influence of shoe type on the occurrence of stress fractures in runners. PMID:19147359

  2. The effects of creatine and glycerol hyperhydration on running economy in well trained endurance runners

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ingestion of creatine (Cr) and glycerol (Gly) has been reported to be an effective method in expanding water compartments within the human body, attenuating the rise in heart rate (HR) and core temperature (Tcore) during exercise in the heat. Despite these positive effects, a substantial water retention could potentially impair endurance performance through increasing body mass (BM) and consequently impacting negatively on running economy (RE). The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of a combined Cr and Gly supplementation on thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses and RE during running for 30 min at speed corresponding to 60% of maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) in hot and cool conditions. Methods Cr·H2O (11.4 g), Gly (1 g·kg-1 BM) and Glucose polymer (75 g) were administered twice daily to 15 male endurance runners during a 7-day period. Exercise trials were conducted pre- and post-supplementation at 10 and 35°C and 70% relative humidity. Results BM and total body water increased by 0.90 ± 0.40 kg (P < 0.01; mean ± SD) and 0.71 ± 0.42 L (P < 0.01), respectively following supplementation. Despite the significant increase in BM, supplementation had no effect on V˙O2 and therefore RE. Both HR and Tcore were attenuated significantly after supplementation (P < 0.05, for both). Nevertheless, thermal comfort and rating of perceived exertion was not significantly different between pre- and post-supplementation. Similarly, no significant differences were found in sweat loss, serum osmolality, blood lactate and in plasma volume changes between pre- and post-supplementation. Conclusions Combining Cr and Gly is effective in reducing thermal and cardiovascular strain during exercise in the heat without negatively impacting on RE. PMID:22176668

  3. Improved Visual Cognition through Stroboscopic Training

    PubMed Central

    Appelbaum, L. Gregory; Schroeder, Julia E.; Cain, Matthew S.; Mitroff, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    Humans have a remarkable capacity to learn and adapt, but surprisingly little research has demonstrated generalized learning in which new skills and strategies can be used flexibly across a range of tasks and contexts. In the present work we examined whether generalized learning could result from visual–motor training under stroboscopic visual conditions. Individuals were assigned to either an experimental condition that trained with stroboscopic eyewear or to a control condition that underwent identical training with non-stroboscopic eyewear. The training consisted of multiple sessions of athletic activities during which participants performed simple drills such as throwing and catching. To determine if training led to generalized benefits, we used computerized measures to assess perceptual and cognitive abilities on a variety of tasks before and after training. Computer-based assessments included measures of visual sensitivity (central and peripheral motion coherence thresholds), transient spatial attention (a useful field of view – dual task paradigm), and sustained attention (multiple-object tracking). Results revealed that stroboscopic training led to significantly greater re-test improvement in central visual field motion sensitivity and transient attention abilities. No training benefits were observed for peripheral motion sensitivity or peripheral transient attention abilities, nor were benefits seen for sustained attention during multiple-object tracking. These findings suggest that stroboscopic training can effectively improve some, but not all aspects of visual perception and attention. PMID:22059078

  4. Four weeks of running sprint interval training improves cardiorespiratory fitness in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Taura N; Thomas, Matthew P L; Schmale, Matthew S; Copeland, Jennifer L; Hazell, Tom J

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 4-week running sprint interval training protocol to improve both aerobic and anaerobic fitness in middle-aged adults (40-50 years) as well as compare the adaptations to younger adults (20-30 years). Twenty-eight inactive participants - 14 young 20-30-year-olds (n = 7 males) and 14 middle-aged 40-50-year-olds (n = 5 males) - completed 4 weeks of running sprint interval training (4 to 6, 30-s "all-out" sprints on a curved, self-propelled treadmill separated by 4 min active recovery performed 3 times per week). Before and after training, all participants were assessed for maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), 2000 m time trial performance, and anaerobic performance on a single 30-s sprint. There were no interactions between group and time for any tested variable, although training improved relative VO2max (young = 3.9, middle-aged = 5.2%; P < 0.04), time trial performance (young = 5.9, middle-aged = 8.2%; P < 0.001), peak sprint speed (young = 9.3, middle-aged = 2.2%; P < 0.001), and average sprint speed (young = 6.8, middle-aged = 11.6%; P < 0.001) in both young and middle-aged groups from pre- to post-training on the 30-s sprint test. The current study demonstrates that a 4-week running sprint interval training programme is equally effective at improving aerobic and anaerobic fitness in younger and middle-aged adults. PMID:26514645

  5. Retaining through Training Even for Older Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picchio, Matteo; van Ours, Jan C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates whether on-the-job training has an effect on the employability of workers. Using data from the Netherlands we disentangle the true effect of training incidence from the spurious one determined by unobserved individual heterogeneity. We also take into account that there might be feedback from shocks in the employment status…

  6. Developing ICT Competency for Thai Teachers through Blended Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akarawang, Chaiya; Kidrakran, Pachoen; Nuangchalerm, Prasart

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study aims to enhance teachers' ICT competency. Three hundred and thirty seven teachers are surveyed through a questionnaire to identify training problems and training needs. Then the blended training model is implemented with teachers. The result showed that it can increase score in cognitive and attitude tests. The post-test…

  7. Prediction and mitigation analysis of ground vibration caused by running high-speed trains on rigid-frame viaducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Liangming; Xie, Weiping; He, Xingwen; Hayashikawa, Toshiro

    2016-03-01

    In this study a 3D numerical analysis approach is developed to predict the ground vibration around rigid-frame viaducts induced by running high-speed trains. The train-bridge-ground interaction system is divided into two subsystems: the train-bridge interaction and the soil-structure interaction. First, the analytical program to simulate bridge vibration with consideration of train-bridge interaction is developed to obtain the vibration reaction forces at the pier bottoms. The highspeed train is described by a multi-DOFs vibration system and the rigid-frame viaduct is modeled with 3D beam elements. Second, applying these vibration reaction forces as input external excitations, the ground vibration is simulated by using a general-purpose program that includes soil-structure interaction effects. The validity of the analytical procedure is confirmed by comparing analytical and experimental results. The characteristics of high-speed train-induced vibrations, including the location of predominant vibration, are clarified. Based on this information a proposed vibration countermeasure using steel strut and new barrier is found effective in reducing train-induced vibrations and it satisfies environmental vibration requirements. The vibration screening efficiency is evaluated by reduction VAL based on 1/3 octave band spectral analysis.

  8. Health and economic burden of running-related injuries in runners training for an event: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hespanhol Junior, L C; van Mechelen, W; Postuma, E; Verhagen, E

    2016-09-01

    Prospective running-related injury (RRI) data from runners training for an event are scarce, especially with regard to RRI-associated costs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and economic burden of RRIs in runners participating in an organized training program preparing them for an event. This was a prospective cohort study with 18 weeks of follow-up. Individuals aged 18 or older and registered to participate in an organized running program were eligible. Follow-up surveys were sent every 2 weeks to collect data about running exposure, RRIs, and costs. Of the 161 potential participants, 53 (32.9%) were included in this study. A total of 32 participants reported 41 RRIs. The mean prevalence during follow-up was 30.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 25.6-36.0%]. Overuse was the main mechanism of RRI (85.4%, n = 35). An RRI was estimated to have an economic burden of €57.97 (95% CI €26.17-94.00) due to healthcare utilization (direct costs) and €115.75 (95% CI €10.37-253.73) due to absenteeism from paid work (indirect costs). These results indicate that the health and economic burden of RRIs may be considered significant for public health. Therefore, prevention programs are needed for runners participating in organized training programs. PMID:26282068

  9. Realistic Communication through Assertiveness Training Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Joel C.

    1980-01-01

    Self-help activities designed to practice and improve communication are outlined. Sixteen learning activities are proposed that are based on assertiveness training. They can be used on all language levels to develop all four skills. (Author/AMH)

  10. Improving Reading Comprehension through Metacognitive Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangano, Nancy G.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Argues that metacognitive training in students can help students to remediate comprehension difficulties, to more accurately guage their success as learners, and to view reading as a flexible, thought-provoking process of interaction with text. (HOD)

  11. Nanosecond-Timescale Intra-Bunch-Train Feedback for the Linear Collider: Results of the FONT2 Run

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, R.; Dufau, M.; Kalinin, A.; Myatt, G.; Perry, C.; Burrows, P.N.; Hartin, T.; Hussain, S.M.; Molloy, S.; White, G.R.; Adolphsen, C.; Frisch, J.C.; Hendrickson, L.; Jobe, R.K.; Markiewicz, T.; McCormick, D.J.; Nelson, J.; Ross, M.C.; Smith, S.; Smith, T.J.; /SLAC

    2005-05-11

    We report on experimental results from the December 2003/January 2004 data run of the Feedback On Nanosecond Timescales (FONT) experiment at the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator at SLAC. We built a second-generation prototype intra-train beam-based feedback system incorporating beam position monitors, fast analogue signal processors, a feedback circuit, fast-risetime amplifiers and stripline kickers. We applied a novel real-time charge-normalization scheme to account for beam current variations along the train. We used the system to correct the position of the 170-nanosecond-long bunchtrain at NLCTA. We achieved a latency of 53 nanoseconds, representing a significant improvement on FONT1 (2002), and providing a demonstration of intra-train feedback for the Linear Collider.

  12. Mechanical and energetic scaling relationships of running gait through ontogeny in the ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    Smith, Nicola C; Wilson, Alan M

    2013-03-01

    It is unclear whether small animals, with their high stride frequency and crouched posture, or large animals, with more tendinous limbs, are more reliant on storage and return of elastic energy during locomotion. The ostrich has a limb structure that appears to be adapted for high-speed running with long tendons and short muscle fibres. Here we investigate biomechanics of ostrich gait through growth and, with consideration of anatomical data, identify scaling relationships with increasing body size, relating to forces acting on the musculoskeletal structures, effective mechanical advantage (EMA) and mechanical work. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected through growth from running ostriches. Joint moments scaled in a similar way to the pelvic limb segments as a result of consistent posture through growth, such that EMA was independent of body mass. Because no postural change was observed, relative loads applied to musculoskeletal tissues would be predicted to increase during growth, with greater muscle, and hence tendon, load allowing increased potential for elastic energy storage with increasing size. Mass-specific mechanical work per unit distance was independent of body mass, resulting in a small but significant increase in the contribution of elastic energy storage to locomotor economy in larger ostriches. PMID:23155079

  13. Run-Through Stabilization: An MPI Proposal for Process Fault Tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Hursey, Joshua J; Graham, Richard L; Bronevetsky, Greg; Butinas, Darius; Pritchard, Howard; Solt, David G.

    2011-01-01

    The MPI standard lacks semantics and interfaces for sustained application execution in the presence of process failures. Exascale HPC systems may require scalable, fault resilient MPI applications. The mission of the MPI Forum's Fault Tolerance Working Group is to enhance the standard to enable the development of scalable, fault tolerant HPC applications. This paper presents an overview of the Run-Through Stabilization proposal. This proposal allows an application to continue execution even if MPI processes fail during execution. The discussion introduces the implications on point-to-point and collective operations over communicators, though the full proposal addresses all aspects of the MPI standard.

  14. Air Pollution Training Courses July 1972 through June 1973 and University Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC.

    Responding to the demands of the Clean Air Act of 1970, the Manpower Development Staff of the Office of Air Programs has acted to provide more and better-trained practitioners in the field of air pollution control. Numerous courses are conducted through the Institute for Air Pollution Training, while university training programs are administered…

  15. Enhancing the Flight Safety Culture Through Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    In the 1970's, flight safety professionals became profoundly concerned about the prevalence of crew-caused accidents and incidents, and the role of human error in flight operations. As result, they initiated a change in the flight safety culture which has grown to significant proportions today. At the heart of the evolution were crew concepts such as flightdeck management, crew coordination, and cockpit resource management, concepts which seemed to target critical deficiencies. In themselves, the concepts were not new but their incorporation into training as a direct means of changing the flight safety culture was an untried, almost 'grassroots' approach. The targeted crew concepts and skills were not an integral part of the typical training program; the methods, curriculum, media, and even course content itself, would have to be developed and implemented from the bottom up. A familiar truism in the pilot culture is that you should 'Train the way you fly; Fly the way you train'. In short, training was expected to provide the pilot with practical operational skills that were consistent with the performance standards they were required to maintain and the operational demands they met on a daily basis. In short, one could not simply command crews to use good CRM; one would have to research and define these skills operationally as well as develop and implement a consistent and effective training program. Furthermore, one would need active support and collaboration among the research, industry and government communities in order to ensure acceptance and continued commitment. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Improving Organizational Learning through Leadership Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasson, Henna; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Holmstrom, Stefan; Karanika-Murray, Maria; Tafvelin, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to evaluate whether training of managers at workplaces can improve organizational learning. Managers play a crucial role in providing opportunities to employees for learning. Although scholars have called for intervention research on the effects of leadership development on organizational learning, no such research is…

  17. The development of social capital through football and running: studying an intervention program for inactive women.

    PubMed

    Ottesen, L; Jeppesen, R S; Krustrup, B R

    2010-04-01

    This article examines the development of social capital through the use and dynamics of different types of stories ("I,"we" and "they") as described by Robert D. Putnam. The data come from a research project in which inactive women participated in a 16-week intervention program of physical exercise, either in the form of football or running. The study shows a positive development of social capital in the two different types of physical activity. The I-stories show themselves to be central to bonding within the two groups and bridging outside the groups (developing and/or creating networks). The study also points to the importance of the activity itself for internal bonding illustrated through we- and they-stories. Our data indicate that team sports, such as football, may have an advantage over individual sports in the development of social capital. PMID:20546546

  18. Effects of Strength Training on Running Economy in Highly Trained Runners: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis of Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Santos-Concejero, Jordan; Grivas, Gerasimos V

    2016-08-01

    Balsalobre-Fernández, C, Santos-Concejero, J, and Grivas, GV. Effects of strength training on running economy in highly trained runners: a systematic review with meta-analysis of controlled trials. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2361-2368, 2016-The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials to determine the effect of strength training programs on the running economy (RE) of high-level middle- and long-distance runners. Four electronic databases were searched in September 2015 (PubMed, SPORTDiscus, MEDLINE, and CINAHL) for original research articles. After analyzing 699 resultant original articles, studies were included if the following criteria were met: (a) participants were competitive middle- or long-distance runners; (b) participants had a V[Combining Dot Above]O2max >60 ml·kg·min; (c) studies were controlled trials published in peer-reviewed journals; (d) studies analyzed the effects of strength training programs with a duration greater than 4 weeks; and (e) RE was measured before and after the strength training intervention. Five studies met the inclusion criteria, resulting in a total sample size of 93 competitive, high-level middle- and long-distance runners. Four of the 5 included studies used low to moderate training intensities (40-70% one repetition maximum), and all of them used low to moderate training volume (2-4 resistance lower-body exercises plus up to 200 jumps and 5-10 short sprints) 2-3 times per week for 8-12 weeks. The meta-analyzed effect of strength training programs on RE in high-level middle- and long-distance runners showed a large, beneficial effect (standardized mean difference [95% confidence interval] = -1.42 [-2.23 to -0.60]). In conclusion, a strength training program including low to high intensity resistance exercises and plyometric exercises performed 2-3 times per week for 8-12 weeks is an appropriate strategy to improve RE in highly trained middle- and long-distance runners

  19. Effect of running training on uncoupling protein mRNA expression in rat brown adipose tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Mikio; Sato, Yuzo; Izawa, Tetsuya; Komabayashi, Takao; Saito, Daizo; Ohno, Hideki

    1993-03-01

    The effect was investigated of endurance training on the expression of uncoupling protein (UCP) mRNA in brown adipose tissue (BAT) of rats. The exercised rats were trained on a rodent treadmill for 5 days per week and a total of 9 weeks. After the training programme, a marked decrease in BAT mass was found in terms of weight or weight per unit body weight; there was a corresponding decrease in DNA content and a downward trend in RNA and glycogen levels. The UCP mRNA was present at a markedly decreased level in BAT of trained animals. In consideration of the reduced levels of mRNAs for hormone-sensitive lipase and acylCoA synthetase, the brown adipose tissue investigated appeared to be in a relatively atrophied and thermogenically quiescent state.

  20. Soccer vs. running training effects in young adult men: which programme is more effective in improvement of body composition? Randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Pantelić, S; Kostić, R; Trajković, N; Sporiš, G

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were: 1) To determine the effects of a 12-week recreational soccer training programme and continuous endurance running on body composition of young adult men and 2) to determine which of these two programmes was more effective concerning body composition. Sixty-four participants completed the randomized controlled trial and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a soccer training group (SOC; n=20), a running group (RUN; n=21) or a control group performing no physical training (CON; n=23). Training programmes for SOC and RUN lasted 12-week with 3 training sessions per week. Soccer sessions consisted of 60 min ordinary five-a-side, six-a-side or seven-a-side matches on a 30-45 m wide and 45-60 m long plastic grass pitch. Running sessions consisted of 60 min of continuous moderate intensity running at the same average heart rate as in SOC (~80% HRmax). All participants, regardless of group assignment, were tested for each of the following dependent variables: body weight, body height, body mass index, percent body fat, body fat mass, fat-free mass and total body water. In the SOC and RUN groups there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in body composition parameters from pre- to post-training values for all measures with the exception of fat-free mass and total body water. Body mass index, percent body fat and body fat mass did not differ between groups at baseline, but by week 12 were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the SOC and RUN groups compared to CON. To conclude, recreational soccer training provides at least the same changes in body composition parameters as continuous running in young adult men when the training intensity is well matched. PMID:26681832

  1. Soccer vs. running training effects in young adult men: which programme is more effective in improvement of body composition? Randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Milanović, Z; Pantelić, S; Kostić, R; Trajković, N; Sporiš, G

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study were: 1) To determine the effects of a 12-week recreational soccer training programme and continuous endurance running on body composition of young adult men and 2) to determine which of these two programmes was more effective concerning body composition. Sixty-four participants completed the randomized controlled trial and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a soccer training group (SOC; n=20), a running group (RUN; n=21) or a control group performing no physical training (CON; n=23). Training programmes for SOC and RUN lasted 12-week with 3 training sessions per week. Soccer sessions consisted of 60 min ordinary five-a-side, six-a-side or seven-a-side matches on a 30-45 m wide and 45-60 m long plastic grass pitch. Running sessions consisted of 60 min of continuous moderate intensity running at the same average heart rate as in SOC (~80% HRmax). All participants, regardless of group assignment, were tested for each of the following dependent variables: body weight, body height, body mass index, percent body fat, body fat mass, fat-free mass and total body water. In the SOC and RUN groups there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in body composition parameters from pre- to post-training values for all measures with the exception of fat-free mass and total body water. Body mass index, percent body fat and body fat mass did not differ between groups at baseline, but by week 12 were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the SOC and RUN groups compared to CON. To conclude, recreational soccer training provides at least the same changes in body composition parameters as continuous running in young adult men when the training intensity is well matched. PMID:26681832

  2. Child health in low-resource settings: pathways through UK paediatric training.

    PubMed

    Goenka, Anu; Magnus, Dan; Rehman, Tanya; Williams, Bhanu; Long, Andrew; Allen, Steve J

    2013-11-01

    UK doctors training in paediatrics benefit from experience of child health in low-resource settings. Institutions in low-resource settings reciprocally benefit from hosting UK trainees. A wide variety of opportunities exist for trainees working in low-resource settings including clinical work, research and the development of transferable skills in management, education and training. This article explores a range of pathways for UK trainees to develop experience in low-resource settings. It is important for trainees to start planning a robust rationale early for global child health activities via established pathways, in the interests of their own professional development as well as UK service provision. In the future, run-through paediatric training may include core elements of global child health, as well as designated 'tracks' for those wishing to develop their career in global child health further. Hands-on experience in low-resource settings is a critical component of these training initiatives. PMID:23899919

  3. Supporting Quality in Vocational Training through Networking. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyfried, Erwin; Kohlmeyer, Klaus; Furth-Riedesser, Rafael

    The extent to which network cooperation between the general education system, vocational training institutions, business enterprises, social partners, and political decision makers affects quality development in vocational training was examined through a literature review and synthesis of eight case studies in the following seven European…

  4. Continuous and interval training programs using deep water running improves functional fitness and blood pressure in the older adults.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Thaís; Kanitz, Ana Carolina; Delevatti, Rodrigo Sudatti; Bagatini, Natália Carvalho; Barroso, Bruna Machado; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of two periodized training programs of deep water running on functional fitness and blood pressure in the older adults. Thirty-six individuals were divided into continuous group (CONT) and interval group (INT). Both groups were trained for 28 weeks (twice weekly). Measures were performed before the training period, after 12 weeks and training period. Two-way ANOVA and post hoc of Bonferroni were used (α = 0.05). There were no differences between groups in functional tests, with the exception of the flexibility of the upper limbs, in which the INT group showed the highest values. There was a significant improvement in both groups of foot up-and-go test (CONT 6.45 to 5.67; INT 6.59 to 5.78, in seconds), flexibility of lower limbs (CONT -4.76 to -0.61; INT 0.54 to 4.63, in centimeters), strength of upper (CONT 18.76 to 27.69; INT 18.66 to 26.58, in repetitions) and lower limbs (CONT 14.46 to 21.23; INT 14.40 to 21.58, in repetitions), and 6-min walk (CONT 567.50 to 591.16; INT 521.41 to 582.77, in meters). No differences were shown between groups for systolic blood pressure; however, diastolic blood pressure remained higher in CONT during all training. The blood pressure decreased significantly in both groups after the training (CONT 142 ± 16/88 ± 3 to 125 ± 14/77 ± 7 mmHg; INT 133 ± 15/75 ± 7 to 123 ± 17 and 69 ± 11 mmHg). Both programs of deep water running training promoted improvements of similar magnitude in all parameters of functional fitness, with the exception of flexibility of upper limbs, and decreased blood pressure in the older individuals. PMID:26841888

  5. Improvements in heat tolerance induced by interval running training in the heat and in sweat clothing in cool conditions.

    PubMed

    Dawson, B; Pyke, F S; Morton, A R

    1989-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of training in heat and in sweat clothing in cool conditions on improving heat tolerance, two groups of active subjects (n = 6 in each) performed an interval running heat-tolerance test before and after a 7-day experimental treatment. On each treatment day the subjects attempted to complete 4 x 15 min interval treadmill running periods (a 7.5 s effort every 30 s, on 15 km h-1, 15% grade; the same exercise format as the heat-tolerance test), which were interspersed with 5-min recovery periods (total time each day = 80 min). Group 1 (heat) ran in shorts, socks and shoes in hot humid conditions, and Group 2 (sweat clothing) ran in cool conditions dressed in shorts, socks and T-shirt covered by a polyester-cotton tracksuit, over which was worn 100% nylon spray-proof pants and jacket (cotton lined) with an acrylic cloth bobble hat (beanie) on the head. Both groups displayed changes typical of heat acclimatization over the 7-day period, with significant decreases in final rectal temperature (Tr) and heart rate (HR) being evident, but no change in sweat loss. Mean skin temperature (Tsk) was similar in both groups during the training sessions (heat group: 34.8-35.7 degrees C; sweat clothing group 34.9-35.5 degrees C). After the heat-tolerance test, both groups had significantly lower Tr, Tsk and HR values than before, and sweating sensitivity (g m-2 h-1 degrees C rise in Tr) was significantly increased. There was only one significant difference between the two groups (Tsk, 20th min value). It was concluded that training in sweat clothing in cool conditions can provide the same improvements in heat tolerance as training in hot humid conditions where a fixed exercise intensity and duration are used. PMID:2621757

  6. Drying damaged K West fuel elements (Summary of whole element furnace runs 1 through 8)

    SciTech Connect

    LAWRENCE, L.A.

    1998-10-13

    N Reactor fuel elements stored in the Hanford K Basins were subjected to high temperatures and vacuum conditions to remove water. Results of the first series of whole element furnace tests i.e., Runs 1 through 8 were collected in this summary report. The report focuses on the six tests with breached fuel from the K West Basin which ranged from a simple fracture at the approximate mid-point to severe damage with cladding breaches at the top and bottom ends with axial breaches and fuel loss. Results of the tests are summarized and compared for moisture released during cold vacuum drying, moisture remaining after drying, effects of drying on the fuel element condition, and hydrogen and fission product release.

  7. Downhill Running Excessive Training Inhibits Hypertrophy in Mice Skeletal Muscles with Different Fiber Type Composition.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Alisson L; Pereira, Bruno C; Pauli, José R; de Souza, Claudio T; Teixeira, Giovana R; Lira, Fábio S; Cintra, Dennys E; Ropelle, Eduardo R; Júnior, Carlos R B; da Silva, Adelino S R

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of running overtraining protocols performed in downhill, uphill, and without inclination on the proteins related to hypertrophy signaling pathway in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus of C57BL/6 mice. We also performed histological and stereological analyses. Rodents were divided into control (CT; sedentary mice), overtrained by downhill running (OTR/down), overtrained by uphill running (OTR/up), and overtrained by running without inclination (OTR). The incremental load, exhaustive, and grip force tests were used as performance evaluation parameters. 36 h after the grip force test, EDL and soleus were removed and immediately used for immunoblotting analysis or stored at -80°C for histological and stereological analyses. For EDL, OTR/down decreased the protein kinase B (Akt) and tuberous sclerosis protein 2 (TSC2) phosphorylation (p), and increased myostatin, receptor-activated Smads (pSMAD2-3), and insulin receptor substrate-1 (pIRS-1; Ser307/636). OTR/down also presented low and high relative proportions of cytoplasm and connective tissue, respectively. OTR/up increased the mammalian target of rapamycin (pmTOR), 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (pS6K1) and pSMAD2-3, and decreased pTSC2. OTR decreased pTSC2 and increased pIRS-1 (Ser636). For soleus, OTR/down increased S6 ribosomal protein (pS6RP) and pSMAD2-3, and decreased pIRS-1 (Ser639). OTR/up decreased pS6K1, pS6RP and pIRS-1 (Ser639), and increased pTSC2 (Ser939), and pSMAD2-3. OTR increased pS6RP, 4E-binding protein-1 (p4E-BP1), pTSC2 (Ser939), and pSMAD2-3, and decreased pIRS-1 (Ser639). In summary, OTR/down inhibited the skeletal muscle hypertrophy with concomitant signs of atrophy in EDL. The effects of OTR/up and OTR depended on the analyzed skeletal muscle type. PMID:26381504

  8. Marathon Running, Accreditation of Study Programmes and Professional Development in Consultancies: Are They All about the Same? A Cognitive Perspective on Transfer of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Three challenges are presented which address problems of transfer of training: running marathon, accreditation of study programmes, professional development in consultancies. It is discussed in-how-far and why different approaches to transfer of training stress commonalities or differences between these challenges. The results are used to analyse…

  9. The Artswork: Employment Training through the Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warger, Cynthia L.; Cuskaden, Eileen C.

    This booklet, based on the Transition Through the Arts project developed by Very Special Arts, describes the successes that project instructors have achieved in using the arts to assist individuals with developmental disabilities reach employment. The project uses the arts as a vehicle to teach and reinforce the social and personal skill…

  10. Sprint running with a body-weight supporting kite reduces ground contact time in well-trained sprinters.

    PubMed

    Kratky, Sascha; Müller, Erich

    2013-05-01

    It is well founded that ground contact time is the crucial part of sprinting because the available time window to apply force to the ground diminishes with growing running velocity. In view of this knowledge, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of body-weight support during full-effort sprints on ground contact time and selected stride parameters in 19 Austrian male elite sprinters. A kite with a lifting effect combined with a towing system to erase drag was used. The subjects performed flying 20-m sprints under 3 conditions: (a) free sprint; (b) body-weight supported sprint-normal speed (BWS-NS); and (c) body-weight supported sprint-overspeed (BWS-OS). Sprint cycle characteristics were recorded during the high-speed phase by an optical acquisition system. Additionally, running velocity was derived from the 20-m sprint time. Compared with the fastest free sprint, running velocity, step length, and step frequency remained unchanged during BWS-NS, whereas ground contact time decreased (-5.80%), and air time increased (+5.79%) (both p < 0.001). Throughout, BWS-OS ground contact time (-7.66%) was reduced, whereas running velocity (+2.72%), air time (+4.92%), step length (+1.98%) (all p < 0.001), and step frequency (+1.05%; p < 0.01) increased. Compared with BWS-NS, BWS-OS caused an increase in running velocity (+3.33%), step length (+1.92%) (both p < 0.001), and step frequency (+1.37%; p < 0.01), whereas ground contact time was diminished (-1.97%; p < 0.001). In summary, sprinting with a body-weight supporting kite appeared to be a highly specific method to simulate an advanced performance level, indicated by higher running velocities requiring reduced ground contact times. The additional application of an overspeed condition led to a further reduction of ground contact time. Therefore, we recommend body-weight supported sprinting as an additional tool in sprint training. PMID:22744303

  11. Trends in Spending on Training: An Analysis of the 1982 through 2008 Training Annual Industry Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carliner, Saul; Bakir, Ingy

    2010-01-01

    This article explores long-term trends in spending using data compiled from the "Training" magazine Annual Industry Survey from 1982 through 2008. It builds on literature that proposes spending on training is an investment that yields benefits--and that offers methods for demonstrating it. After adjusting for inflation, aggregate spending on…

  12. Running away from stress: How regulatory modes prospectively affect athletes' stress through passion.

    PubMed

    Lucidi, F; Pica, G; Mallia, L; Castrucci, E; Manganelli, S; Bélanger, J J; Pierro, A

    2016-06-01

    A prospective field study conducted with runners training for an upcoming marathon (Marathon of Rome 2013) examined the relation between regulatory modes, locomotion and assessment, and stress. Integrating regulatory mode theory and the dualistic model of passion, we hypothesized that the relation between regulatory modes (evaluated 3 months before the race) and the experience of stress approaching the marathon, is mediated by the type of passion (harmonious vs obsessive) athletes experience with regard to marathoning. Results revealed that (a) locomotion positively predicted harmonious passion, which in turn reduced athletes' experience of stress; and (b) assessment positively predicted obsessive passion, which in turn enhanced athletes' experience of stress. Overall, the present results suggest that proximal psychological mechanisms such as basic regulatory mode orientations can predict distal outcomes such as stress indirectly through their relation with motivational phenomena such as passion. PMID:26059847

  13. Formation of spatial thinking skills through different training methods.

    PubMed

    Kornkasem, Sorachai; Black, John B

    2015-09-01

    Spatial training can be durable and transferable if the training involves cognitive process-based tasks. The current study explored different spatial training methods and investigated the sequences of process-based mental simulation that was facilitated by various structures of external spatial representation, 3D technology, spatial cues, and/or technical languages. A total of 115 Columbia University's students were conducted through three experiments using a between-subjects design to examine the effects of spatial training methods on spatial ability performance. The conditions for training environments included 3D-virtual and 3D-physical interactions with abstract (nonsense-geometric) and concrete (everyday-object) contents. Overall, learners in the treatment conditions improved in their spatial skills significantly more than those in the control conditions. Particularly, 3D-direct-manipulation conditions in the third experiment added promising results about the specific sequences during spatial thinking formation processes. PMID:26224268

  14. Optoelectronic Systems Trained With Backpropagation Through Time.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Michiel; Dambre, Joni; Bienstman, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Delay-coupled optoelectronic systems form promising candidates to act as powerful information processing devices. In this brief, we consider such a system that has been studied before in the context of reservoir computing (RC). Instead of viewing the system as a random dynamical system, we see it as a true machine-learning model, which can be fully optimized. We use a recently introduced extension of backpropagation through time, an optimization algorithm originally designed for recurrent neural networks, and use it to let the network perform a difficult phoneme recognition task. We show that full optimization of all system parameters of delay-coupled optoelectronics systems yields a significant improvement over the previously applied RC approach. PMID:25137733

  15. A Basic Study on Countermeasure Against Aerodynamic Force Acting on Train Running Inside Tunnel Using Air Blowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Nakade, Koji

    A basic study of flow controls using air blowing was conducted to reduce unsteady aerodynamic force acting on trains running in tunnels. An air blowing device is installed around a model car in a wind tunnel. Steady and periodic blowings are examined utilizing electromagnetic valves. Pressure fluctuations are measured and the aerodynamic force acting on the car is estimated. The results are as follows: a) The air blowing allows reducing the unsteady aerodynamic force. b) It is effective to blow air horizontally at the lower side of the car facing the tunnel wall. c) The reduction rate of the unsteady aerodynamic force relates to the rate of momentum of the blowing to that of the uniform flow. d) The periodic blowing with the same frequency as the unsteady aerodynamic force reduces the aerodynamic force in a manner similar to the steady blowing.

  16. High-Intensity Cycling Training: The Effect of Work-to-Rest Intervals on Running Performance Measures.

    PubMed

    Kavaliauskas, Mykolas; Aspe, Rodrigo R; Babraj, John

    2015-08-01

    The work-to-rest ratio during cycling-based high-intensity interval training (HIT) could be important in regulating physiological and performance adaptations. We sought to determine the effectiveness of cycling-based HIT with different work-to-rest ratios for long-distance running. Thirty-two long-distance runners (age: 39 ± 8 years; sex: 14 men, 18 women; average weekly running training volume: 25 miles) underwent baseline testing (3-km time-trial, V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak and time to exhaustion, and Wingate test) before a 2-week matched-work cycling HIT of 6 × 10-second sprints with different rest periods (30 seconds [R30], 80 seconds [R80], 120 seconds [R120], or control). Three-kilometer time trial was significantly improved in the R30 group only (3.1 ± 4.0%, p = 0.04), whereas time to exhaustion was significantly increased in the 2 groups with a lower work-to-rest ratio (R30 group 6.4 ± 6.3%, p = 0.003 vs. R80 group 4.4 ± 2.7%, p = 0.03 vs. R120 group 1.9 ± 5.0%, p = 0.2). However, improvements in average power production were significantly greater with a higher work-to-rest ratio (R30 group 0.3 ± 4.1%, p = 0.8 vs. R80 group 4.6 ± 4.2%, p = 0.03 vs. R120 group 5.3 ± 5.9%, p = 0.02), whereas peak power significantly increased only in the R80 group (8.5 ± 8.2%, p = 0.04) but not in the R30 group (4.3 ± 6.1%, p = 0.3) or in the R120 group (7.1 ± 7.9%, p = 0.09). Therefore, cycling-based HIT is an effective way to improve running performance, and the type and magnitude of adaptation is dependent on the work-to-rest ratio. PMID:26203737

  17. Effects of a Body-Weight Supporting Kite on Sprint Running Kinematics in Well-Trained Sprinters.

    PubMed

    Kratky, Sascha; Buchecker, Michael; Pfusterschmied, Jürgen; Szekely, Csaba; Müller, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Data of elite sprinters indicate that faster athletes realize shorter ground contact times compared with slower individuals. Furthermore, the importance of the so-called "front side mechanics" for elite sprint performance is frequently emphasized by researchers and coaches. Recently, it was demonstrated that using a body-weight supporting kite during full-effort sprints in highly trained sprinters leads to a reduction in ground contact time. The aim of this study was to investigate possible negative effects of this body-weight supporting device on sprint running kinematics, which was not clarified in previous studies. Eleven well-trained Austrian sprinters performed flying 20-m sprints under 2 conditions: (a) free sprint (FS); and (b) body-weight supported sprint (BWS). Sprint cycle characteristics were recorded during the high-speed phase by a 16 camera 3D-system (Vicon), an optical acquisition system (Optojump-next), and a high-speed camera. Paired sample t-tests and Cohen's d effect size were used to determine differences between sprinting conditions. Compared with FS, BWS caused a decrease in ground contact time by 5.6% and an increase in air time by 5.5% (both p < 0.001), whereas stride length and rate remained unchanged. Furthermore, a reduced hip joint extension at and after take-off, an increased maximal hip joint flexion (i.e., high knee position), and a smaller horizontal distance of the touchdown to the center of gravity could be observed (all p < 0.01). These results indicate no negative effects on front side mechanics during BWS and that sprinting with a body-weight supporting kite seems to be a highly specific method to reduce ground contact time in well-trained sprinters. PMID:26270692

  18. Providing Customized Job Training through the Traditional Administrative Organizational Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, William A.

    1984-01-01

    Sees the centralized organizational model as offering the greatest chances of success for colleges responding to business and industry's training needs. Identifies the needs and responsibilities of the centralized office, points to ways company-college relationships are enhanced through this organizational model, and addresses program evaluation…

  19. Explosive-train initiated through solid bulkhead by pressure cartridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkowski, J. C.

    1968-01-01

    Explosive-train initiated pressure cartridge transmits a shock wave igniting a main charge of explosive through a solid bulkhead without destroying or damaging the seal or the bulkhead. The main charge could be an explosive, a pyrotechnic, or a propellant.

  20. The Effects of a 6-Week Strength Training on Critical Velocity, Anaerobic Running Distance, 30-M Sprint and Yo-Yo Intermittent Running Test Performances in Male Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Karsten, Bettina; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Kandemir, Gokhan; Hazir, Tahir; Klose, Andreas; Naclerio, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of a moderate intensity strength training on changes in critical velocity (CV), anaerobic running distance (D'), sprint performance and Yo-Yo intermittent running test (Yo-Yo IR1) performances. Methods: two recreational soccer teams were divided in a soccer training only group (SO; n = 13) and a strength and soccer training group (ST; n = 13). Both groups were tested for values of CV, D', Yo-Yo IR1 distance and 30-m sprint time on two separate occasions (pre and post intervention). The ST group performed a concurrent 6-week upper and lower body strength and soccer training, whilst the SO group performed a soccer only training. Results: after the re-test of all variables, the ST demonstrated significant improvements for both, YoYo IR1 distance (p = 0.002) and CV values (p<0.001) with no significant changes in the SO group. 30-m sprint performance were slightly improved in the ST group with significantly decreased performance times identified in the SO group (p<0.001). Values for D' were slightly reduced in both groups (ST -44.5 m, 95% CI = -90.6 to 1.6; SO -42.6 m, 95% CI = -88.7 to 3.5). Conclusions: combining a 6-week moderate strength training with soccer training significantly improves CV, Yo-Yo IR1 whilst moderately improving 30-m sprint performances in non-previously resistance trained male soccer players. Critical Velocity can be recommended to coaches as an additional valid testing tool in soccer. PMID:27015418

  1. Effect of Maturation on Hemodynamic and Autonomic Control Recovery Following Maximal Running Exercise in Highly Trained Young Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Buchheit, Martin; Al Haddad, Hani; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Quod, Marc J.; Bourdon, Pitre C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of maturation on post-exercise hemodynamic and autonomic responses. Fifty-five highly trained young male soccer players (12–18 years) classified as pre-, circum-, or post-peak height velocity (PHV) performed a graded running test to exhaustion on a treadmill. Before (Pre) and after (5th–10th min, Post) exercise, heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), arterial pressure (AP), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were monitored. Parasympathetic (high frequency [HFRR] of HR variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity [Ln BRS]) and sympathetic activity (low frequency [LFSAP] of systolic AP variability) were estimated. Post-exercise blood lactate [La]b, the HR recovery (HRR) time constant, and parasympathetic reactivation (time-varying HRV analysis) were assessed. In all three groups, exercise resulted in increased HR, CO, AP, and LFSAP (P < 0.001), decreased SV, HFRR, and Ln BRS (all P < 0.001), and no change in TPR (P = 0.98). There was no “maturation × time” interaction for any of the hemodynamic or autonomic variables (all P > 0.22). After exercise, pre-PHV players displayed lower SV, CO, and [La]b, faster HRR and greater parasympathetic reactivation compared with circum- and post-PHV players. Multiple regression analysis showed that lean muscle mass, [La]b, and Pre parasympathetic activity were the strongest predictors of HRR (r2 = 0.62, P < 0.001). While pre-PHV players displayed a faster HRR and greater post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation, maturation had little influence on the hemodynamic and autonomic responses following maximal running exercise. HRR relates to lean muscle mass, blood acidosis, and intrinsic parasympathetic function, with less evident impact of post-exercise autonomic function. PMID:22013423

  2. Effect of maturation on hemodynamic and autonomic control recovery following maximal running exercise in highly trained young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Buchheit, Martin; Al Haddad, Hani; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Quod, Marc J; Bourdon, Pitre C

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of maturation on post-exercise hemodynamic and autonomic responses. Fifty-five highly trained young male soccer players (12-18 years) classified as pre-, circum-, or post-peak height velocity (PHV) performed a graded running test to exhaustion on a treadmill. Before (Pre) and after (5th-10th min, Post) exercise, heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), arterial pressure (AP), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were monitored. Parasympathetic (high frequency [HF(RR)] of HR variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity [Ln BRS]) and sympathetic activity (low frequency [LF(SAP)] of systolic AP variability) were estimated. Post-exercise blood lactate [La](b), the HR recovery (HRR) time constant, and parasympathetic reactivation (time-varying HRV analysis) were assessed. In all three groups, exercise resulted in increased HR, CO, AP, and LF(SAP) (P < 0.001), decreased SV, HF(RR), and Ln BRS (all P < 0.001), and no change in TPR (P = 0.98). There was no "maturation × time" interaction for any of the hemodynamic or autonomic variables (all P > 0.22). After exercise, pre-PHV players displayed lower SV, CO, and [La](b), faster HRR and greater parasympathetic reactivation compared with circum- and post-PHV players. Multiple regression analysis showed that lean muscle mass, [La](b), and Pre parasympathetic activity were the strongest predictors of HRR (r(2) = 0.62, P < 0.001). While pre-PHV players displayed a faster HRR and greater post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation, maturation had little influence on the hemodynamic and autonomic responses following maximal running exercise. HRR relates to lean muscle mass, blood acidosis, and intrinsic parasympathetic function, with less evident impact of post-exercise autonomic function. PMID:22013423

  3. Barefoot Running

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Scott; Cotton, Jon; Bechtold, Megan; Toby, E. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Background: It has been proposed that running barefoot can lead to improved strength and proprioception. However, the duration that a runner must train barefoot to observe these changes is unknown. Hypothesis: Runners participating in a barefoot running program will have improved proprioception, increased lower extremity strength, and an increase in the volume or size of the intrinsic musculature of the feet. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: In this 8-week study, 29 runners with a mean age of 36.34 years were randomized into either a control group (n = 10) who completed training in their regular running shoes or to an experimental barefoot group (n = 14). Pretraining tests consisted of a volumetric measurement of the foot followed by a strength and dynamic balance assessment. Five subjects completed the pretests but did not complete the study for reasons not related to study outcomes. Participants then completed 8 weeks of training runs. They repeated the strength and dynamic balance assessment after 8 weeks. Results: Significant changes from baseline to 8 weeks were observed within the barefoot group for single-leg hop (right, P = .0121; left, P = .0430) and reach and balance (right, P = .0029) and within the control group for single–left leg hop (P = .0286) and reach and balance (right, P = .0096; left, P = .0014). However, when comparing the differences in changes from baseline to 8 weeks between the barefoot and control groups, the improvements were not significant at the .05 level for all measures. Conclusion: Although statistically significant changes were not observed between the pre- and posttest evaluations in strength and proprioception with the 8-week low-intensity barefoot running regimen, this does not necessarily mean that these changes do not occur. It is possible that it may take months or years to observe these changes, and a short course such as this trial is insufficient. PMID:26535308

  4. Chasing Personal Meaning: Pedagogical Lessons through Luis Rodriguez's "Always Running"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theisen-Homer, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    In this autobiographical narrative, the author recounts her experiences teaching the novel "Always Running" by Luis Rodriguez with her English classes at a high school in a gang-heavy area. When she first started teaching, this teacher struggled to engage students. One particularly disruptive student requested to read "Always…

  5. A Rapid Method for Optimizing Running Temperature of Electrophoresis through Repetitive On-Chip CE Operations

    PubMed Central

    Kaneda, Shohei; Ono, Koichi; Fukuba, Tatsuhiro; Nojima, Takahiko; Yamamoto, Takatoki; Fujii, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a rapid and simple method to determine the optimal temperature conditions for denaturant electrophoresis using a temperature-controlled on-chip capillary electrophoresis (CE) device is presented. Since on-chip CE operations including sample loading, injection and separation are carried out just by switching the electric field, we can repeat consecutive run-to-run CE operations on a single on-chip CE device by programming the voltage sequences. By utilizing the high-speed separation and the repeatability of the on-chip CE, a series of electrophoretic operations with different running temperatures can be implemented. Using separations of reaction products of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) with a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligomer, the effectiveness of the presented method to determine the optimal temperature conditions required to discriminate a single-base substitution (SBS) between two different ssDNAs is demonstrated. It is shown that a single run for one temperature condition can be executed within 4 min, and the optimal temperature to discriminate the SBS could be successfully found using the present method. PMID:21845077

  6. Learning Surgically Oriented Anatomy in a Student-Run Extracurricular Club: An Education through Recreation Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullah, Shahnoor M.; Bodrogi, Andrew; Cristea, Octav; Johnson, Marjorie; McAlister, Vivian C.

    2012-01-01

    Didactic and laboratory anatomical education have seen significant reductions in the medical school curriculum due, in part, to the current shift from basic science to more clinically based teaching in North American medical schools. In order to increase medical student exposure to anatomy, with clinical applicability, a student-run initiative…

  7. Strategies to improve running economy.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Kyle R; Kilding, Andrew E

    2015-01-01

    Running economy (RE) represents a complex interplay of physiological and biomechanical factors that is typically defined as the energy demand for a given velocity of submaximal running and expressed as the submaximal oxygen uptake (VO2) at a given running velocity. This review considered a wide range of acute and chronic interventions that have been investigated with respect to improving economy by augmenting one or more components of the metabolic, cardiorespiratory, biomechanical or neuromuscular systems. Improvements in RE have traditionally been achieved through endurance training. Endurance training in runners leads to a wide range of physiological responses, and it is very likely that these characteristics of running training will influence RE. Training history and training volume have been suggested to be important factors in improving RE, while uphill and level-ground high-intensity interval training represent frequently prescribed forms of training that may elicit further enhancements in economy. More recently, research has demonstrated short-term resistance and plyometric training has resulted in enhanced RE. This improvement in RE has been hypothesized to be a result of enhanced neuromuscular characteristics. Altitude acclimatization results in both central and peripheral adaptations that improve oxygen delivery and utilization, mechanisms that potentially could improve RE. Other strategies, such as stretching should not be discounted as a training modality in order to prevent injuries; however, it appears that there is an optimal degree of flexibility and stiffness required to maximize RE. Several nutritional interventions have also received attention for their effects on reducing oxygen demand during exercise, most notably dietary nitrates and caffeine. It is clear that a range of training and passive interventions may improve RE, and researchers should concentrate their investigative efforts on more fully understanding the types and mechanisms that

  8. Training the inspiratory muscles improves running performance when carrying a 25 kg thoracic load in a backpack.

    PubMed

    Faghy, Mark A; Brown, Peter I

    2016-08-01

    Load carriage (LC) exercise in physically demanding occupations is typically characterised by periods of low-intensity steady-state exercise and short duration, high-intensity exercise while carrying an external mass in a backpack; this form of exercise is also known as LC exercise. This induces inspiratory muscle fatigue and reduces whole-body performance. Accordingly we investigated the effect of inspiratory muscle training (IMT, 50% maximal inspiratory muscle pressure (PImax) twice daily for six week) upon running time-trial performance with thoracic LC. Nineteen healthy males formed a pressure threshold IMT (n = 10) or placebo control group (PLA; n = 9) and performed 60 min LC exercise (6.5 km h(-1)) followed by a 2.4 km running time trial (LCTT) either side of a double-blind six week intervention. Prior to the intervention, PImax was reduced relative to baseline, post-LC and post-LCTT in both groups (pooled data: 13 ± 7% and 16 ± 8%, respectively, p < .05) and similar changes were observed post-PLA. Post-IMT only, resting PImax increased +31% (p < .05) and relative to pre-IMT was greater post-LC (+19%) and post-LCTT (+18%, p < .05), however, the relative reduction in PImax at each time point was unchanged (13 ± 11% and 17 ± 9%, respectively, p > .05). In IMT only, heart rate and perceptual responses were reduced post-LC (p < .05). Time-trial performance was unchanged post-PLA and improved 8 ± 4% after IMT (p < .05). In summary, when wearing a 25 kg backpack, IMT attenuated the cardiovascular and perceptual responses to steady-state exercise and improved high-intensity time-trial performance which we attribute in part to reduced relative work intensity of the inspiratory muscles due to improved inspiratory muscle strength. These findings have real-world implications for occupational contexts. PMID:26274785

  9. Enhanced learning of proportional math through music training and spatial-temporal training.

    PubMed

    Graziano, A B; Peterson, M; Shaw, G L

    1999-03-01

    It was predicted, based on a mathematical model of the cortex, that early music training would enhance spatial-temporal reasoning. We have demonstrated that preschool children given six months of piano keyboard lessons improved dramatically on spatial-temporal reasoning while children in appropriate control groups did not improve. It was then predicted that the enhanced spatial-temporal reasoning from piano keyboard training could lead to enhanced learning of specific math concepts, in particular proportional math, which is notoriously difficult to teach using the usual language-analytic methods. We report here the development of Spatial-Temporal Math Video Game software designed to teach fractions and proportional math, and its strikingly successful use in a study involving 237 second-grade children (age range six years eight months-eight years five months). Furthermore, as predicted, children given piano keyboard training along with the Math Video Game training scored significantly higher on proportional math and fractions than children given a control training along with the Math Video Game. These results were readily measured using the companion Math Video Game Evaluation Program. The training time necessary for children on the Math Video Game is very short, and they rapidly reach a high level of performance. This suggests that, as predicted, we are tapping into fundamental cortical processes of spatial-temporal reasoning. This spatial-temporal approach is easily generalized to teach other math and science concepts in a complementary manner to traditional language-analytic methods, and at a younger age. The neural mechanisms involved in thinking through fractions and proportional math during training with the Math Video Game might be investigated in EEG coherence studies along with priming by specific music. PMID:10100200

  10. A forced running wheel system with a microcontroller that provides high-intensity exercise training in an animal ischemic stroke model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, C.C.; Chang, M.W.; Chang, C.P.; Chan, S.C.; Chang, W.Y.; Yang, C.L.; Lin, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a forced non-electric-shock running wheel (FNESRW) system that provides rats with high-intensity exercise training using automatic exercise training patterns that are controlled by a microcontroller. The proposed system successfully makes a breakthrough in the traditional motorized running wheel to allow rats to perform high-intensity training and to enable comparisons with the treadmill at the same exercise intensity without any electric shock. A polyvinyl chloride runway with a rough rubber surface was coated on the periphery of the wheel so as to permit automatic acceleration training, and which allowed the rats to run consistently at high speeds (30 m/min for 1 h). An animal ischemic stroke model was used to validate the proposed system. FNESRW, treadmill, control, and sham groups were studied. The FNESRW and treadmill groups underwent 3 weeks of endurance running training. After 3 weeks, the experiments of middle cerebral artery occlusion, the modified neurological severity score (mNSS), an inclined plane test, and triphenyltetrazolium chloride were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed platform. The proposed platform showed that enhancement of motor function, mNSS, and infarct volumes was significantly stronger in the FNESRW group than the control group (P<0.05) and similar to the treadmill group. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed platform can be applied to test the benefit of exercise-preconditioning-induced neuroprotection using the animal stroke model. Additional advantages of the FNESRW system include stand-alone capability, independence of subjective human adjustment, and ease of use. PMID:25140816

  11. Periodic spring-mass running over uneven terrain through feedforward control of landing conditions.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Luther R; Eaton, Caitrin E

    2014-09-01

    This work pursues a feedforward control algorithm for high-speed legged locomotion over uneven terrain. Being able to rapidly negotiate uneven terrain without visual or a priori information about the terrain will allow legged systems to be used in time-critical applications and alongside fast-moving humans or vehicles. The algorithm is shown here implemented on a spring-loaded inverted pendulum model in simulation, and can be configured to approach fixed running height over uneven terrain or self-stable terrain following. Offline search identifies unique landing conditions that achieve a desired apex height with a constant stride period over varying ground levels. Because the time between the apex and touchdown events is directly related to ground height, the landing conditions can be computed in real time as continuous functions of this falling time. Enforcing a constant stride period reduces the need for inertial sensing of the apex event, which is nontrivial for physical systems, and allows for clocked feedfoward control of the swing leg. PMID:25162480

  12. It's Money! Real-World Grant Experience through a Student-Run, Peer-Reviewed Program

    PubMed Central

    Dumanis, Sonya B.; Ullrich, Lauren; Washington, Patricia M.; Forcelli, Patrick A.

    2013-01-01

    Grantsmanship is an integral component of surviving and thriving in academic science, especially in the current funding climate. Therefore, any additional opportunities to write, read, and review grants during graduate school may have lasting benefits on one's career. We present here our experience with a small, student-run grant program at Georgetown University Medical Center. Founded in 2010, this program has several goals: 1) to give graduate students an opportunity to conduct small, independent research projects; 2) to encourage graduate students to write grants early and often; and 3) to give graduate students an opportunity to review grants. In the 3 yr since the program's start, 28 applications have been submitted, 13 of which were funded for a total of $40,000. From funded grants, students have produced abstracts and manuscripts, generated data to support subsequent grant proposals, and made new professional contacts with collaborators. Above and beyond financial support, this program provided both applicants and reviewers an opportunity to improve their writing skills, professional development, and understanding of the grants process, as reflected in the outcome measures presented. With a small commitment of time and funding, other institutions could implement a program like this to the benefit of their graduate students. PMID:24006391

  13. Towards the run and walk activity classification through step detection--an android application.

    PubMed

    Oner, Melis; Pulcifer-Stump, Jeffry A; Seeling, Patrick; Kaya, Tolga

    2012-01-01

    Falling is one of the most common accidents with potentially irreversible consequences, especially considering special groups, such as the elderly or disabled. One approach to solve this issue would be an early detection of the falling event. Towards reaching the goal of early fall detection, we have worked on distinguishing and monitoring some basic human activities such as walking and running. Since we plan to implement the system mostly for seniors and the disabled, simplicity of the usage becomes very important. We have successfully implemented an algorithm that would not require the acceleration sensor to be fixed in a specific position (the smart phone itself in our application), whereas most of the previous research dictates the sensor to be fixed in a certain direction. This algorithm reviews data from the accelerometer to determine if a user has taken a step or not and keeps track of the total amount of steps. After testing, the algorithm was more accurate than a commercial pedometer in terms of comparing outputs to the actual number of steps taken by the user. PMID:23366305

  14. Running WRF on various distributed computing infrastructures through a standard-based Science Gateway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbera, Roberto; Bruno, Riccardo; La Rocca, Giuseppe; Markussen Lunde, Torleif; Pehrson, Bjorn

    2014-05-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modelling system is a widely used meso-scale numerical weather prediction system designed to serve both atmospheric research and operational forecasting needs. WRF has a large worldwide community counting more than 20,000 users in 130 countries and it has been specifically designed to be the state-of-the-art atmospheric simulation system being portable and running efficiently on available parallel computing platforms. Although WRF can be executed in many different environments ranging form the single core inside a stand-alone machine up to the most sophisticated HPC platforms, there are no solutions yet to match the e-Science paradigm where software, data and users are "linked" together by the network as components of distributed computing infrastructures. The topmost component of the typical e-Science model consists of Science Gateways, defined as community-developed sets of tools, applications, and data collections that normally are integrated via a portal to get access to a distributed infrastructure. One of the many available Science Gateway solutions is the Catania Science Gateway Framework (CSGF - www.catania-science-gateways.it) whose most descriptive keywords are: standard adoption, interoperability and standard adoption. The support of standards such as SAGA and SAML allows any CSGF user to seamlessly access and use both Grid and Cloud-based resources. In this work we present the CSGF and how it has been used in the context of the eI4frica project (www.ei4africa.eu) to implement the Africa Grid Science Gateway (http://sgw.africa-grid.org), which allows to execute WRF simulations on various kinds of distributed computing infrastructures at the same time, including the EGI Federated Cloud.

  15. The Effect of a Combined High-Intensity Plyometric and Speed Training Program on the Running and Jumping Ability of Male Handball Players

    PubMed Central

    Cherif, Monsef; Said, Mohamed; Chaatani, Sana; Nejlaoui, Olfa; Gomri, Daghbaji; Abdallah, Aouidet

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a combined program including sprint repetitions and drop jump training in the same session on male handball players. Methods Twenty-two male handball players aged more than 20 years were assigned into 2 groups: experimental group (n=11) and control group (n=11). Selection was based on variables “axis” and “lines”, goalkeepers were not included. The experimental group was subjected to 2 testing periods (test and retest) separated by 12 weeks of an additional combined plyometric and running speed training program. The control group performed the usual handball training. The testing period comprised, at the first day, a medical checking, anthropometric measurements and an incremental exercise test called yo-yo intermittent recovery test. 2 days later, participants performed the Repeated Sprint Ability test (RSA), and performed the Jumping Performance using 3 different events: Squat jump (SJ), Countermovement jump without (CMJ) and with arms (CMJA), and Drop jump (DJ). At the end of the training period, participants performed again the repeated sprint ability test, and the jumping performance. Results The conventional combined program improved the explosive force ability of handball players in CMJ (P=0.01), CMJA (P=0.01) and DJR (P=0.03). The change was 2.78, 2.42 and 2.62% respectively. No significant changes were noted in performances of the experimental group at the squat jump test and the drop jump with the left leg test. The training intervention also improved the running speed ability of the experimental group (P=0.003). No statistical differences were observed between lines or axes. Conclusion Additional combined training program between sprint repetition and vertical jump in the same training session positively influence the jumping ability and the sprint ability of handball players. PMID:22461962

  16. Importing Quality Higher Educational Resources through Chinese-Foreign Cooperation in Running Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-hui; Liu, Zhi-ping

    2007-01-01

    Importing quality higher education resources is the core mission of a Chinese-foreign joint initiative in higher education as well as the key to improving the level of the cooperation initiatives. The paper reviews the history and current situation of the introduction of quality higher education resources through Sino-foreign cooperation in…

  17. Exercise training improves functional sympatholysis in spontaneously hypertensive rats through a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Masaki; Iwamoto, Gary A; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Mitchell, Jere H; Smith, Scott A

    2014-07-15

    Functional sympatholysis is impaired in hypertensive animals and patients. Exercise training (ET) improves functional sympatholysis through a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent mechanism in normotensive rats. However, whether ET has similar physiological benefits in hypertension remains to be elucidated. Thus we tested the hypothesis that the impairment in functional sympatholysis in hypertension is reversed by ET through a NO-dependent mechanism. In untrained normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYUT; n = 13), untrained spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRUT; n = 13), and exercise-trained SHR (SHRET; n = 6), changes in femoral vascular conductance (FVC) were examined during lumbar sympathetic nerve stimulation (1, 2.5, and 5 Hz) at rest and during muscle contraction. The magnitude of functional sympatholysis (Δ%FVC = Δ%FVC muscle contraction - Δ%FVC rest) in SHRUT was significantly lower than WKYUT (1 Hz: -2 ± 4 vs. 13 ± 3%; 2.5 Hz: 9 ± 3 vs. 21 ± 3%; and 5 Hz: 12 ± 3 vs. 26 ± 3%, respectively; P < 0.05). Three months of voluntary wheel running significantly increased maximal oxygen uptake in SHRET compared with nontrained SHRUT (78 ± 6 vs. 62 ± 4 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), respectively; P < 0.05) and restored the magnitude of functional sympatholysis in SHRET (1 Hz: 9 ± 2%; 2.5 Hz: 20 ± 4%; and 5 Hz: 34 ± 5%). Blockade of NO synthase (NOS) by N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester attenuated functional sympatholysis in WKYUT but not SHRUT. Furthermore, NOS inhibition significantly diminished the improvements in functional sympatholysis in SHRET. These data demonstrate that impairments in functional sympatholysis are normalized via a NO mechanism by voluntary wheel running in hypertensive rats. PMID:24816260

  18. Technology Transfer through Training: Emerging Roles for the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergsma, Harold M.

    The importance of training in the technology transfer process is discussed, with special consideration to conditions in developing countries. Also considered is the role universities can play in training to promote technology transfer. Advisors on training and curriculum development are needed to introduce a new technology. Training farmers to…

  19. Water Resources Division Training Bulletin, July 1973 Through June 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, R. O.; Brown, D. W.

    This bulletin provides information about available training as well as information to assist supervisors and training officers in developing a coordinated, efficient training program in hydrology and other subjects related to water-resources investigations. Most of the training is presented at the Center at Lakewood, Colorado. Information is given…

  20. Changes in Running Performance After Four Weeks of Interval Hypoxic Training in Australian Footballers: A Single-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    McLean, Blake D; Tofari, Paul J; Gore, Christopher J; Kemp, Justin G

    2015-11-01

    There is a paucity of data examining the impact of high-intensity interval hypoxic training (IHT) on intermittent running performance. This study assessed the effects of IHT on 17 amateur Australian Footballers, who completed 8 interval treadmill running sessions (IHT [FIO2 = 15.1%] or PLACEBO) over 4 weeks, in addition to normoxic football (2 per week) and resistance (2 per week) training sessions. To match relative training intensity, absolute IHT intensity reduced by 6% of normoxic vV[Combining Dot Above]O2peak compared with PLACEBO. Before and after the intervention, performance was assessed by Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) and a self-paced team sport running protocol. Standardized effect size statistics were calculated using Cohen's d to compare between the interventions. Compared with PLACEBO, IHT subjects experienced (a) smaller improvements in Yo-Yo IR2 performance (Cohen's d = -0.42 [-0.82 to -0.02; 90% confidence interval]); (b) similar increases in high-intensity running distance during the team sport protocol (d = 0.17 [-0.50 to 0.84]); and (c) greater improvements in total distance (d = 0.72 [0.33-1.10]) and distance covered during low-intensity activity (d = 0.59 [-0.07 to 1.11]) during the team sport protocol. The lower absolute training intensity of IHT may explain the smaller improvements in Yo-Yo IR2 performance in the hypoxic group. Conversely, the data from the self-paced protocol suggest that IHT may positively influence pacing strategies in team sport athletes. In conclusion, IHT alters pacing strategies in team sport athletes (i.e., increased distance covered during low-intensity activity). However, IHT leads to smaller improvements in externally paced high-intensity intermittent running performance (i.e., Yo-Yo IR2), which may be related to a reduced absolute training intensity during IHT sessions. PMID:25944456

  1. Running Away

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Running Away KidsHealth > For Kids > Running Away Print A ... life on the streets. continue The Reality of Running Away When you think about running away, you ...

  2. The Running Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Henning, P. Troy

    2014-01-01

    Context: Pelvic stress fractures, osteitis pubis, and snapping hip syndrome account for a portion of the overuse injuries that can occur in the running athlete. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed searches were performed for each entity using the following keywords: snapping hip syndrome, coxa sultans, pelvic stress fracture, and osteitis pubis from 2008 to 2013. Topic reviews, case reports, case series, and randomized trials were included for review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: Collectively, 188 articles were identified. Of these, 58 were included in this review. Conclusion: Based on the available evidence, the majority of these overuse injuries can be managed non-operatively. Primary treatment should include removal from offending activity, normalizing regional muscle strength/length imbalances and nutritional deficiencies, and mitigating training errors through proper education of the athlete and training staff. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy: C PMID:24587861

  3. Fixed-bed gasifier and cleanup system engineering summary report through Test Run No. 100

    SciTech Connect

    Pater, K. Jr.; Headley, L.; Kovach, J.; Stopek, D.

    1984-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of high-pressure, fixed-bed gasification has been advanced by the many refinements developed over the last 5 years. A novel full-flow gas cleanup system has been installed and tested to clean coal-derived gases. This report summarizes the results of tests conducted on the gasifier and cleanup system from its inception through 1982. Selected process summary data are presented along with results from complementary programs in the areas of environmental research, process simulation, analytical methods development, and component testing. 20 references, 32 figures, 42 tables.

  4. Configuring a Graphical User Interface for Managing Local HYSPLIT Model Runs Through AWIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, mark M.; Blottman, Peter F.; Sharp, David W.; Hoeth, Brian; VanSpeybroeck, Kurt M.

    2009-01-01

    Responding to incidents involving the release of harmful airborne pollutants is a continual challenge for Weather Forecast Offices in the National Weather Service. When such incidents occur, current protocol recommends forecaster-initiated requests of NOAA's Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model output through the National Centers of Environmental Prediction to obtain critical dispersion guidance. Individual requests are submitted manually through a secured web site, with desired multiple requests submitted in sequence, for the purpose of obtaining useful trajectory and concentration forecasts associated with the significant release of harmful chemical gases, radiation, wildfire smoke, etc., into local the atmosphere. To help manage the local HYSPLIT for both routine and emergency use, a graphical user interface was designed for operational efficiency. The interface allows forecasters to quickly determine the current HYSPLIT configuration for the list of predefined sites (e.g., fixed sites and floating sites), and to make any necessary adjustments to key parameters such as Input Model. Number of Forecast Hours, etc. When using the interface, forecasters will obtain desired output more confidently and without the danger of corrupting essential configuration files.

  5. The development of an ergonomics training program to identify, evaluate, and control musculoskeletal disorders among nursing assistants at a state-run veterans' home.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Erica L; McGlothlin, James D; Blue, Carolyn L

    2004-01-01

    Nursing assistants (NAs) who work in nursing and personal care facilities are twice and five times more likely, respectively, to suffer a musculoskeletal disorder compared to service industries and other health care facilities, respectively. The purpose of this study was to develop an ergonomics training program for selected NAs at a state-run veterans' home to decrease musculoskeletal disorders by 1) developing questionnaires to assess musculoskeletal stress, 2) evaluating the work environment, 3) developing and using a training package, and 4) determining the application of the information from the training package by NAs on the floor. Results show two new risk factors not previously identified for nursing personnel in the peer-reviewed literature. Quizzes given to the nursing personnel before and after training indicated a significant improvement in understanding the principles of ergonomics and patient-handling techniques. Statistical analysis comparing the pre-training and post-training questionnaires indicated no significant decrease in musculoskeletal risk factors and no significant reduction in pain or discomfort or overall mental or physical health. PMID:15202149

  6. 20 CFR 638.600 - Applied vocational skills training (VST) through work projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applied vocational skills training (VST) through work projects. 638.600 Section 638.600 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Applied Vocational Skills Training (VST) §...

  7. Running the gauntlet: regional movement patterns of Manta alfredi through a complex of parks and fisheries.

    PubMed

    Germanov, Elitza S; Marshall, Andrea D

    2014-01-01

    Manta rays (Genus Manta) are economically important for fisheries and tourism in Indonesia. These species have been listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List as Vulnerable to extinction; therefore, human exploitation of manta rays must be regulated. A better understanding of the habitat use and movement patterns of manta rays in Indonesia is needed in order to employ effective conservation measures. To gain better insight into the movements of Manta alfredi we used 'Manta Matcher', an online database with an integrated automated matching algorithm, to compare photographs from 2,604 encounters of M. alfredi collected by recreational divers and dive operators throughout Indonesia over a nine-year period. This photographic comparison revealed that manta rays migrated between regional sanctuaries such as Nusa Penida, the Gili Islands, and the Komodo National Park (up to 450 km straight-line distance). The areas between these sanctuaries are heavily fished and trafficked by ships, and when manta rays travel through these regions they risk being fished and injured by ship strikes. These long-range manta ray movements suggest connectivity between M. alfredi populations in neighboring islands and raise concerns about the future management of regional populations. It is recommended that a national conservation strategy be developed to protect the remaining populations in the country. PMID:25337865

  8. Running the Gauntlet: Regional Movement Patterns of Manta alfredi through a Complex of Parks and Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Germanov, Elitza S.; Marshall, Andrea D.

    2014-01-01

    Manta rays (Genus Manta) are economically important for fisheries and tourism in Indonesia. These species have been listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List as Vulnerable to extinction; therefore, human exploitation of manta rays must be regulated. A better understanding of the habitat use and movement patterns of manta rays in Indonesia is needed in order to employ effective conservation measures. To gain better insight into the movements of Manta alfredi we used ‘Manta Matcher’, an online database with an integrated automated matching algorithm, to compare photographs from 2,604 encounters of M. alfredi collected by recreational divers and dive operators throughout Indonesia over a nine-year period. This photographic comparison revealed that manta rays migrated between regional sanctuaries such as Nusa Penida, the Gili Islands, and the Komodo National Park (up to 450 km straight-line distance). The areas between these sanctuaries are heavily fished and trafficked by ships, and when manta rays travel through these regions they risk being fished and injured by ship strikes. These long-range manta ray movements suggest connectivity between M. alfredi populations in neighboring islands and raise concerns about the future management of regional populations. It is recommended that a national conservation strategy be developed to protect the remaining populations in the country. PMID:25337865

  9. A tunnel runs through it: an inside view of the Tualatin Mountains, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Ken; Peterson, Gary L.; Beeson, Marvin H.; Wells, Ray E.; Fleck, Robert J.; Evarts, Russell C.; Duvall, Alison; Blakely, Richard J.; Burns, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The Tualatin Mountains form a northwest-striking ridge about 350 m high that separates Portland, Oregon, from the cities of the Tualatin Valley to the west. Known informally as the Portland Hills, the ridge is a late Cenozoic anticline, bounded by reverse faults that dip toward the anticlinal axis. The anticline is a broad, open fold consisting chiefly of Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group, with remnants of Miocene-Pliocene Troutdale Formation and Pleistocene basalt of the Boring Volcanic Field on the flanks of the anticline. Anticlinal structures similar to the Tualatin Mountains are characteristic of the northern Willamette Valley, where the structures accommodate margin-parallel shortening of the Cascadia fore arc. Global Positioning System (GPS) results indicate that the shortening is due to the northward motion of Oregon at several millimeters per year with respect to stable North America. Some of the uplifts may contain active faults, but the structures are poorly exposed and are overlain by thick Pleistocene loess and Missoula flood deposits. Between 1993 and 1998, construction of the 3-mile-long (4500-m-long) TriMet MAX Light Rail tunnel through the Tualatin Mountains provided an unusual opportunity to investigate the geological structure and history of the Tualatin Mountains. This report is a collaborative effort among the tunnel geologists and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to document the geologic story and quantify late Cenozoic and Quaternary deformation rates of the Tualatin Mountains.

  10. 20 CFR 638.600 - Applied vocational skills training (VST) through work projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) through work projects. 638.600 Section 638.600 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION... Skills Training (VST) § 638.600 Applied vocational skills training (VST) through work projects. (a)(1... service projects for nearby communities and capital improvements for other Job Corps centers. (c)...

  11. Reconnecting Education, Development and Training through Learning: A Holographic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonacopoulou, Elena P.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a holographic perspective that illuminates relationships among learning, education, training, and development in organizations, indicating how each process emanates from interactions between individual, organizational, and societal learning. Suggests that government and organizational training and development practices should be better…

  12. Serving Parenting Teens through the Job Training Partnership Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, G. Ray; Pruitt, Katy

    Job Training Partnership Act funds were provided for the Options for Young Mothers project in a mid-sized Texas community. The program was developed and 14 clients were selected. The main components of the program were life skills, General Educational Development (GED) training, counseling, and basic skills training and job placement (Jobs). The…

  13. Communication Runs through It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landrum, Tom S.

    2012-01-01

    Effective writing is every bit as important in alumni and development communications as it is in the public affairs shop. A poorly written donor proposal, awkward or grammatically incorrect thank-you letter, and ambiguous, jargon-filled copy have no place in a professional advancement operation. Good communication is especially important for…

  14. High Resolution MEMS Accelerometers to Estimate VO2 and Compare Running Mechanics between Highly Trained Inter-Collegiate and Untrained Runners

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Stephen J.; Busa, Michael A.; Yaggie, James A.; Bollt, Erik M.

    2009-01-01

    Background The purposes of this study were to determine the validity and reliability of high resolution accelerometers (HRA) relative to VO2 and speed, and compare putative differences in HRA signal between trained (T) and untrained (UT) runners during treadmill locomotion. Methodology Runners performed 2 incremental VO2max trials while wearing HRA. RMS of high frequency signal from three axes (VT, ML, AP) and the Euclidean resultant (RES) were compared to VO2 to determine validity and reliability. Additionally, axial rms relative to speed, and ratio of axial accelerations to RES were compared between T and UT to determine if differences in running mechanics could be identified between the two groups. Principal Findings Regression of RES was strongly related to VO2, but T was different than UT (r = 0.96 vs 0.92; p<.001) for walking and running. During walking, only the ratio of ML and AP to RES were different between groups. For running, nearly all acceleration parameters were lower for T than UT, the exception being ratio of VT to RES, which was higher in T than UT. All of these differences during running were despite higher VO2, O2 cost, and lower RER in T vs UT, which resulted in no significant difference in energy expenditure between groups. Conclusions/Signficance These results indicate that HRA can accurately and reliably estimate VO2 during treadmill locomotion, but differences exist between T and UT that should be considered when estimating energy expenditure. Differences in running mechanics between T and UT were identified, yet the importance of these differences remains to be determined. PMID:19806216

  15. Salivary and plasma cortisol and testosterone responses to interval and tempo runs and a bodyweight-only circuit session in endurance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Amy Vivien; Nielsen, Birthe Vejby; Allgrove, Judith

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute response to plasma and salivary cortisol and testosterone to three training protocols. Ten trained endurance athletes participated in three experimental trials, such as interval training (INT), tempo run (TEMP) and bodyweight-only circuit training (CIR), on separate days. Blood and saliva samples were collected pre- and 0, 15, 30 and 60 min post-exercise. Peak post-exercise salivary cortisol was higher than pre-exercise in all trials (P < 0.01). After INT, salivary cortisol remained elevated above pre-exercise than 60 min post-exercise. Salivary testosterone also increased post-exercise in all trials (P < 0.05). Plasma and salivary cortisol were correlated between individuals (r = 0.81, 0.73-0.88) and within individuals (r = 0.81, 0.73-0.87) (P < 0.01). Plasma and salivary testosterone was also correlated between (r = 0.57, 0.43-0.69) and within individuals (r = 0.60, 0.45-0.72), (P < 0.01). Peak cortisol and testosterone levels occurred simultaneously in plasma and saliva, but timing of post-exercise hormone peaks differed between trials and individuals. Further investigation is required to identify the mechanisms eliciting an increase in hormones in response to CIR. Furthermore, saliva is a valid alternative sampling technique for measurement of cortisol, although the complex, individual and situation dependent nature of the hormone response to acute exercise should be considered. PMID:24279436

  16. Spatial Reasoning Training Through Light Curves Of Model Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziffer, Julie; Nakroshis, Paul A.; Rudnick, Benjamin T.; Brautigam, Maxwell J.; Nelson, Tyler W.

    2015-11-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that spatial reasoning skills, long known to be crucial to math and science success, are teachable. Even short stints of training can improve spatial reasoning skills among students who lack them (Sorby et al., 2006). Teaching spatial reasoning is particularly valuable to women and minorities who, through societal pressure, often doubt their spatial reasoning skill (Hill et al., 2010). We have designed a hands on asteroid rotation lab that provides practice in spatial reasoning tasks while building the student’s understanding of photometry. For our tool, we mount a model asteroid, with any shape of our choosing, on a slowly rotating motor shaft, whose speed is controlled by the experimenter. To mimic an asteroid light curve, we place the model asteroid in a dark box, shine a movable light source upon our asteroid, and record the light reflected onto a moveable camera. Students may then observe changes in the light curve that result from varying a) the speed of rotation, b) the model asteroid’s orientation with respect to the motor axis, c) the model asteroid’s shape or albedo, and d) the phase angle. After practicing with our tool, students are asked to pair new objects to their corresponding light curves. To correctly pair objects to their light curves, students must imagine how light scattering off of a three dimensional rotating object is imaged on a ccd sensor plane, and then reduced to a series of points on a light curve plot. Through the use of our model asteroid, the student develops confidence in spatial reasoning skills.

  17. Effectiveness of Start to Run, a 6-week training program for novice runners, on increasing health-enhancing physical activity: a controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of the organized sports sector as a setting for health-promotion is a relatively new strategy. In the past few years, different countries have been investing resources in the organized sports sector for promoting health-enhancing physical activity. In the Netherlands, National Sports Federations were funded to develop and implement “easily accessible” sporting programs, aimed at the least active population groups. Start to Run, a 6-week training program for novice runners, developed by the Dutch Athletics Organization, is one of these programs. In this study, the effects of Start to Run on health-enhancing physical activity were investigated. Methods Physical activity levels of Start to Run participants were assessed by means of the Short QUestionnaire to ASsess Health-enhancing physical activity (SQUASH) at baseline, immediately after completing the program and six months after baseline. A control group, matched for age and sex, was assessed at baseline and after six months. Compliance with the Dutch physical activity guidelines was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures were the total time spent in physical activity and the time spent in each physical activity intensity category and domain. Changes in physical activity within groups were tested with paired t-tests and McNemar tests. Changes between groups were examined with multiple linear and logistic regression analyses. Results In the Start to Run group, the percentage of people who met the Dutch Norm for Health-enhancing Physical Activity, Fit-norm and Combi-norm increased significantly, both in the short- and longer-term. In the control group, no significant changes in physical activity were observed. When comparing results between groups, significantly more Start to Run participants compared with control group participants were meeting the Fit-norm and Combi-norm after six months. The differences in physical activity between groups in favor of the Start to Run group

  18. Training Insight Problem Solving through Focus on Barriers and Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walinga, Jennifer; Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has reported successful training interventions that improve insight problem solving. In some ways this is surprising, because the processes involved in insight solutions are often assumed to be unconscious, whereas the training interventions focus on conscious cognitive strategies. We propose one mechanism that may help to explain…

  19. Flight Hour Reductions in Fleet Replacement Pilot Training through Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smode, Alfred F.

    A project was undertaken to integrate the 2F87F operational flight trainer into the program for training replacement patrol plane pilots. The objectives were to determine the potential of the simulator as a substitute environment for learning aircraft tasks and to effectively utilize the simulator in pilot training. The students involved in the…

  20. Reducing the Risks of Military Aircrew Training through Simulation Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrow, Douglas R.

    1982-01-01

    This discussion of the types of risks associated with military aircrew training and the varieties of training devices and techniques currently utilized to minimize those risks includes an examination of flight trainer simulators and complex mission simulators for coping with military aviation hazards. Four references are listed. (Author/MER)

  1. Improving Preceptor Behavior through Formative Feedback in Preceptor Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groh, Nancy; Gill, Diane; Henning, Jolene; Stevens, Susan W.; Dondanville, Abbey

    2013-01-01

    Context: Clinical instructor educators (CIEs) prepare athletic trainers (ATs) to serve as preceptors. Structured performance observation and supervisory conferencing is a well-established method to improve teaching practice that may prove effective for training preceptors. Objective: To explore the impact of a systematic preceptor training program…

  2. Decreasing Students' Stress through Time Management Training: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Häfner, Alexander; Stock, Armin; Oberst, Verena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a time management training program on perceived control of time and perceived stress in the context of higher education. Twenty-three undergraduate students attended a time management training intervention and reported demands, perceived stress and perceived control of time directly before 2 and…

  3. Enhancing the benefits of written emotional disclosure through response training.

    PubMed

    Konig, Andrea; Eonta, Alison; Dyal, Stephanie R; Vrana, Scott R

    2014-05-01

    Writing about a personal stressful event has been found to have psychological and physical health benefits, especially when physiological response increases during writing. Response training was developed to amplify appropriate physiological reactivity in imagery exposure. The present study examined whether response training enhances the benefits of written emotional disclosure. Participants were assigned to either a written emotional disclosure condition (n=113) or a neutral writing condition (n=133). Participants in each condition wrote for 20 minutes on 3 occasions and received response training (n=79), stimulus training (n=84) or no training (n=83). Heart rate and skin conductance were recorded throughout a 10-minute baseline, 20-minute writing, and a 10-minute recovery period. Self-reported emotion was assessed in each session. One month after completing the sessions, participants completed follow-up assessments of psychological and physical health outcomes. Emotional disclosure elicited greater physiological reactivity and self-reported emotion than neutral writing. Response training amplified physiological reactivity to emotional disclosure. Greater heart rate during emotional disclosure was associated with the greatest reductions in event-related distress, depression, and physical illness symptoms at follow-up, especially among response trained participants. Results support an exposure explanation of emotional disclosure effects and are the first to demonstrate that response training facilitates emotional processing and may be a beneficial adjunct to written emotional disclosure. PMID:24680230

  4. Facilitating Representation Change in Insight Problems through Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John; Ahmed, Afia

    2014-01-01

    Our aim in this article is to elaborate the role of training in representational change theory (RCT), particularly in terms of Ohlsson's (2011) spread of activation explanation (named "redistribution theory"), and to develop novel training manipulations that effect the re-encoding mechanism proposed by RCT (Ohlsson, 1992). Two…

  5. The Challenge of Competence. Professionalism through Vocational Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodkinson, Phil, Ed.; Issitt, Mary, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers about the role of vocational education and training in developing a competent work force in Great Britain (United Kingdom): "The Challenge of Competence for the Caring Professions: An Overview" (Phil Hodkinson, Mary Issitt); "The European Challenge to British Vocational Education and Training" (Andy Green);…

  6. Partnering through Training and Practice to Achieve Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a partnership effort among managers, trainers, and employees to spring to life performance improvement using the performance templates (P-T) approach. P-T represents a process model as well as a method of training leading to performance improvement. Not only does it add to our repertoire of training and performance management…

  7. Developing Meaningfulness at Work through Emotional Intelligence Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thory, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    To date, there remains a significant gap in the human resource development (HRD) literature in understanding how training and development contributes to meaningful work. In addition, little is known about how individuals proactively make their work more meaningful. This article shows how emotional intelligence (EI) training promotes learning about…

  8. Heart ABCA1 and PPAR- α Genes Expression Responses in Male rats: Effects of High Intensity Treadmill Running Training and Aqueous Extraction of Black Crataegus-Pentaegyna

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari-Niaki, Abbass; Ghanbari-Abarghooi, Safieyh; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Zare-Kookandeh, Navabeh; Gholizadeh, Monireh; Roudbari, Fatemeh; Zare-Kookandeh, Asghar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Heart as a high metabolic and aerobic tissue is consuming lipid as a fuel for its energy provision at rest during light and moderate exercise, except when lactate level is higher in blood circulation. It has been shown that any type of regular exercise and crataegus species would improve cardiovascular function and minimizes several risk factors via stimulating lipid metabolism by acting on enzymes and genes expression such as ABCA1 and PPAR α which are involving in this process. Materials and Methods: Twenty Wistar male rats (4-6 weeks old, 140-173 g weight) were used. Animals were randomly classified into training (n = 10) and control (n = 10) groups and then divided into saline-control (SC), saline-training (ST), Crataegus-Pentaegyna -control (CPC), and Crataegus-Pentaegyna -training (CPT) groups. Training groups have performed a high-intensity running program (at 34 m/min (0% grade), 60 min/day, 5 days/week) on a motor-driven treadmill for eight weeks. Animals were orally fed with Crataegus-Pentaegyna extraction (500mg/kg) and saline solution for six weeks. Seventy- two hours after the last training session, rats were sacrificed, hearts were excised, cleaned and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 °C until RNA extraction. Plasma also was collected for plasma variable measurements. Statistical analysis was performed using a two way analysis of variance, and significance was accepted at P < 0.05. Results: A non-significant (P < 0.4, P < 0.79, respectively) increase in ABCA1 and PPAR α genes expression was accompanied by a significant (P < 0.01, P < 0.04, P < 0.04, respectively) reduction in TC, TG, and VLDL-C levels in Crataegus-Pentaegyna groups. Conclusions: Our findings show that a high intensity treadmill running was able to express ABCA1 and PPAR α in rat heart. Data also possibly indicate that the Crataeguse-Pentaegyna supplementation solely could mimic training effect on the mentioned genes and lipid profiles via

  9. Enhancing teamwork in complex environments through team training.

    PubMed

    Stout, R J; Salas, E; Fowlkes, J E

    1997-06-01

    Although the importance of team training has become widely recognized, research is needed to more clearly understand what instructional strategies actually lead to enhanced teamwork and performance. This research incorporates a theoretical framework, based on the work of J.A. Cannon-Bowers, S.I. Tannenbaum, E. Salas, and C.E. Volpe (1995), to guide the systematic development of training that targeted specific team competencies (i.e., knowledge, skills, and attitudes). The theoretically designed training was delivered to 42 male aviators from an undergraduate naval aviation community. A comprehensive evaluation of this training was conducted using a multiple-measurement approach. Results provide strong support for the effectiveness of this team training in improving critical team competencies. PMID:11540606

  10. Career Advancement through Short-Term Training Project (CAST). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cofer-Henderson, Karen

    The Career Advancement through Short-term Training (CAST) project offered comprehensive career guidance and counseling to those persons needing to upgrade technical skills, those needing flexible training schedules, those moving into new careers, and those needing prerequisite training. Materials and products were developed to implement a…

  11. Best Practices for Improving Capacity Building Outcomes through Professional Training: Insights from NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training (ARSET) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blevins, B.; Mehta, A. V.; Gupta, P.; Prados, A. I.; McCullum, A. J. K.; Schmidt, C.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training Program (ARSET), http://arset.gsfc.nasa.gov, has been providing applied remote sensing training since 2008. To date, the program has reached over 3500 participants, with 1600 stakeholders from 100 countries in 2015 alone. The goals of the program are to develop the technical and analytical skills necessary to utilize NASA resources for decision-support, and to help end-users navigate through the vast, freely available and open data resources. We discuss ARSET's best practices and training approach to improved data access and application of NASA satellite and model data for air quality, water resources, disasters, land, and wildfire management. ARSET follows an iterative approach where the end user community is engaged and data needs input is solicited throughout the training process. End-user data needs and feedback are also incorporated into current and future training content and communicated to NASA Applied Sciences Program principal investigators and data centers responsible for developing NASA tools, portals, data formats, and other data delivery structures. ARSET's success has relied upon 1) targeting outreach to applied science professionals both as training participants and collaborators in developing training activities 2) developing training content tailored to a specific to community's decision support activities and unique environmental challenges 3) promoting interactive forums during trainings to capture and assess end-user needs 4) training scientists within the program in science communication 5) adopting a contextualized gradual learning approach through online and hands-on instruction, and 6) conducting program evaluation, used to assess the benefit of ARSET to program participants and to plan and adapt future training content, methods, and outreach activities.

  12. Practice experiences of running UK DonorLink, a voluntary information exchange register for adults related through donor conception.

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, Marilyn; Marshall, Lyndsey

    2008-12-01

    Previous practices of withholding information from those conceived through donor conception are changing. However, little is known about the service needs of those affected. In response to this, the UK Government-funded pilot voluntary information exchange and contact register, UK DonorLink, was launched in 2004, covering conceptions prior to August 1991. It is the only register worldwide that relies primarily on DNA testing to establish genetic connectedness in the absence of written records. Approximately 150 adults came forward to register in the first three years of operation, drawn from all interested parties. Matches between half-siblings have been made, but none yet between donor and offspring. Employing staff with expertise in post-adoption work has proved effective, as long as additional training and support specific to donor issues is provided. The infrastructure required to promote and deliver the service reflects the complex mix of skills and tasks required, and confirms that a service provided through independent counsellors alone would be inappropriate. Having a geographically and socially widespread potential registrant group, together with a limited budget, has limited the effectiveness of advertising and promotion campaigns. Ethical and emotional complexities arising through the direct service are highlighted, including those presented by DNA use. PMID:19085259

  13. Running to Achieve: Engaging Students in Literacy and Physical Activity through an After-School Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanzandt, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this participant-observation study is to describe rural, southern, 3rd-5th grade children's engagement in running and writing in an after-school learning community called "Running to Achieve." This study provides insights into links between physical activity and writing by using one to engage students in the other. Three…

  14. Enhancing Icing Training for Pilots Through Web-Based Multimedia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, William; Nolan, Gary; Adanich, Emery; Bond, Thomas H.

    2006-01-01

    The Aircraft Icing Project of the NASA Aviation Safety Program has developed a number of in-flight icing education and training aids designed to increase pilot awareness about the hazards associated with various icing conditions. The challenges and advantages of transitioning these icing training materials to a Web-based delivery are discussed. Innovative Web-based delivery devices increased course availability to pilots and dispatchers while increasing course flexibility and utility. These courses are customizable for both self-directed and instructor-led learning. Part of our goal was to create training materials with enough flexibility to enable Web-based delivery and downloadable portability while maintaining a rich visual multimedia-based learning experience. Studies suggest that using visually based multimedia techniques increases the effectiveness of icing training materials. This paper describes these concepts, gives examples, and discusses the transitional challenges.

  15. Training your brain: Do mental and physical (MAP) training enhance cognition through the process of neurogenesis in the hippocampus?

    PubMed

    Curlik, D M; Shors, T J

    2013-01-01

    New neurons are produced each day in the hippocampus through the process of neurogenesis. Both mental and physical training can modify this process by increasing the number of new cells that mature into functional neurons in the adult brain. However, the mechanisms whereby these increases occur are not necessarily the same. Physical activity, especially aerobic exercise greatly increases the number of new neurons that are produced in the hippocampal formation. In contrast, mental training via skill learning increases the numbers that survive, particularly when the training goals are challenging. Both manipulations can increase cognitive performance in the future, some of which are reportedly mediated by the presence of new neurons in the adult hippocampus. Based on these data, we suggest that a combination of mental and physical training, referred to here as MAP training, is more beneficial for neuronal recruitment and overall mental health than either activity alone. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. PMID:22898496

  16. Training your brain: Do mental and physical (MAP) training enhance cognition through the process of neurogenesis in the hippocampus?

    PubMed Central

    Curlik, D.M.; Shors, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    New neurons are produced each day in the hippocampus through the process of neurogenesis. Both mental and physical training can modify this process by increasing the number of new cells that mature into functional neurons in the adult brain. However, the mechanisms whereby these increases occur are not necessarily the same. Physical activity, especially aerobic exercise greatly increases the number of new neurons that are produced in the hippocamal formation. In contrast, mental training via skill learning increases the numbers that survive, particularly when the training goals are challenging. Both manipulations can increase cognitive performance in the future, some of which are reportedly mediated by the presence of new neurons in the adult hippocampus. Based on these data, we suggest that a combination of mental and physical training, referred to here as MAP training, is more beneficial for neuronal recruitment and overall mental health than either activity alone. PMID:22898496

  17. Improving classroom behavior in mentally retarded children through correspondence training.

    PubMed Central

    Whitman, T L; Scibak, J W; Butler, K M; Richter, R; Johnson, M R

    1982-01-01

    Except for a few studies, most research investigating correspondence training procedures has been more analogue in nature. The purpose of the present set of studies was to examine whether a "say-do" correspondence training technique could be used with children in special education classes to improve classroom behavior. The specific behaviors targeted for change included: out-of-seat behavior (Experiment 1), sitting posture (Experiment 2), and on-task behavior (Experiment 3). The say-do procedure used in Experiment 1 resembled that of previous studies, whereas that in Experiment 2 was more elaborate in the specificity of verbal statements required from the children and the feedback given them. The training procedure in Experiment 3 used a format similar to the say-do approach, but stressed visual rather than verbal cuing because it was used with nonverbal children. All three studies used single-subject designs and examined maintenance and/or generalization questions. Experiments 2 and 3 also evaluated whether concomitant changes in performance on academic tasks occurred. The results of the three studies provide strong evidence that correspondence training can be effectively used with educationally handicapped children. Moreover, the successful modification of the "say-do" to a "show-do" procedure in Experiment 3 points out the flexibility of the correspondence training approach. PMID:7153191

  18. Minimizing Injuries and Enhancing Performance in Golf Through Training Programs

    PubMed Central

    Meira, Erik P.; Brumitt, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Context: Golf is a popular sport, particularly in older populations. Regardless of age and skill level, golfers risk injury to the back, shoulder, wrist and hand, elbow, and knee. Because of the unique compressive, shear, rotational, and lateral bending forces created in the lumbar region during the golf swing, the primary sport-related malady experienced by amateurs and professionals is low back pain. Extrinsic and intrinsic injury risk factors have been reported in the literature. A growing body of evidence supports the prescription of strength training routines to enhance performance and reduce the risk of injury. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant studies were reviewed on golf injuries, swing mechanics, training routines, and general training program design. The following electronic databases were used to identify research relevant to this report: MEDLINE (from 1950–November 2009), CINAHL (1982–November 2009), and SPORTDiscus (1830–November 2009). Results: Injuries may be associated with lack of warm-up, poor trunk flexibility and strength, faulty swing technique, and overuse. Conclusions: Implementing a training program that includes flexibility, strength, and power training with correction of faulty swing mechanics will help the golfer reduce the likelihood of injury and improve overall performance. PMID:23015957

  19. Increasing mathematical problem-solving performance through relaxation training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Conni; Coltharp, Hazel; Hurford, David; Cole, Amykay

    2000-04-01

    Two intact classes of 30 undergraduate students enrolled in the same general education mathematics course were each administered the IPSP Mathematics Problem Solving Test and the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale at the beginning and end of the semester. Both groups experienced the same syllabus, lectures, course requirements, and assessment techniques; however, one group received relaxation training during an initial class meeting and during the first 5 to 7 minutes of each subsequent class. The group which had received relaxation training had significantly lower mathematics anxiety and significantly higher mathematics performance at the end of the course. The results suggest that relaxation training may be a useful tool for treating anxiety in undergraduate general education mathematics students.

  20. Break through to success with training and teamwork.

    PubMed

    Williams, M K

    1999-08-01

    This is a case study on the effect of training and teamwork in two different divisions within the same company. One division consisted of a nonunion manufacturing plant; the second was a unionized distribution operation. In both operations, serious problems existed--poor customer service levels, inadequate inventory turns, and insufficient profitability. These are the kinds of problems that, left untreated, can cause the death of any manufacturing or distribution operation. However, by implementing training and teamwork at both operations, impressive benefits were achieved, including customer service levels exceeding 90 percent, dramatic improvements in the inventory turnover rate, and profitability that exceeded corporate goals. PMID:10662444

  1. Voluntary wheel running reduces voluntary consumption of ethanol in mice: identification of candidate genes through striatal gene expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Darlington, T M; McCarthy, R D; Cox, R J; Miyamoto-Ditmon, J; Gallego, X; Ehringer, M A

    2016-06-01

    Hedonic substitution, where wheel running reduces voluntary ethanol consumption, has been observed in prior studies. Here, we replicate and expand on previous work showing that mice decrease voluntary ethanol consumption and preference when given access to a running wheel. While earlier work has been limited mainly to behavioral studies, here we assess the underlying molecular mechanisms that may account for this interaction. From four groups of female C57BL/6J mice (control, access to two-bottle choice ethanol, access to a running wheel, and access to both two-bottle choice ethanol and a running wheel), mRNA-sequencing of the striatum identified differential gene expression. Many genes in ethanol preference quantitative trait loci were differentially expressed due to running. Furthermore, we conducted Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis and identified gene networks corresponding to each effect behavioral group. Candidate genes for mediating the behavioral interaction between ethanol consumption and wheel running include multiple potassium channel genes, Oprm1, Prkcg, Stxbp1, Crhr1, Gabra3, Slc6a13, Stx1b, Pomc, Rassf5 and Camta2. After observing an overlap of many genes and functional groups previously identified in studies of initial sensitivity to ethanol, we hypothesized that wheel running may induce a change in sensitivity, thereby affecting ethanol consumption. A behavioral study examining Loss of Righting Reflex to ethanol following exercise trended toward supporting this hypothesis. These data provide a rich resource for future studies that may better characterize the observed transcriptional changes in gene networks in response to ethanol consumption and wheel running. PMID:27063791

  2. Improving Lecture Quality through Training in Public Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowbray, Robert; Perry, Laura B.

    2015-01-01

    Lecturing is a common instructional format but poor lecturing skills can detract from students' learning experiences and outcomes. As lecturing is essentially a form of public communication, training in public speaking may improve lecture quality. Twelve university lecturers in Malaysia participated in a six-week public speaking skills…

  3. Enhancing Employability through Industrial Training in the Malaysian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillai, Stefanie; Khan, Mahmud H.; Ibrahim, Ida Syahirah; Raphael, Sharmane

    2012-01-01

    This study discusses the industrial training programme at the University of Malaya in Malaysia, specifically the issues that need to be addressed in order to enhance the employability skills of graduates. Findings from the feedback obtained from trainees and organizations in the 2008/2009 academic session were examined in terms of the extent to…

  4. Improved Teacher Training Through Dimensions of International Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Univ., University. Coll. of Education.

    The program is a learning system designed to facilitate the professional growth of (1) teachers in training (student teachers, doctoral interns, overseas personnel); (2) teachers in service (in Alabama and overseas schools, and university professors); (3) educational leadership personnel (overseas school administrators, State Department of…

  5. Maximize the Return on Your Training Investment through Needs Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgenson, Dave; Del Gaizo, Edward

    1984-01-01

    Six steps to successful needs analysis are (1) collect information about the organization, (2) identify potential training opportunities, (3) conduct a performance audit, (4) select and test content areas, (5) determine the required skills, knowledge, and abilities, and (6) verify this information against the organization's issues and goals. (SK)

  6. Cultivating Mind Fitness through Mindfulness Training: Applied Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heydenfeldt, Jo Ann; Herkenhoff, Linda; Coe, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness reduces distress, promotes optimal health, improves attentional control, mental agility, emotional intelligence, and situational awareness. Stress management and cognitive performance in Marines who spent more hours practicing Mindfulness Based Mind Fitness Training were superior to those soldiers who practiced fewer hours. Students…

  7. Transfer of Training: Adding Insight through Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van den Bossche, Piet; Segers, Mien

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews studies which apply a social network perspective to examine transfer of training. The theory behind social networks focuses on the interpersonal mechanisms and social structures that exist among interacting units such as people within an organization. A premise of this perspective is that individual's behaviors and outcomes…

  8. Improving Nursing Home Care through Training and Job Redesign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyer, Michael; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Short-term longitudinal study assessed single and combined effects of two interventions designed to affect nursing assistants' (n=193) performance by increasing knowledge and motivation. Four sites included skills training only, job redesign only, both interventions, and control. Significant differences were found in knowledge in comparisons…

  9. Prevention through Parent Training: Making More of a Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Peter; Stanley, Lesley

    2005-01-01

    Responding to serious behaviour problems requires new practice answers and emphases. Best practice principles and a developmental perspective indicate that the family should be the focus of preventative work. The Incredible Years parent training series is described as an important example of an empirically-supported programme that is presently…

  10. Rights Consciousness: Victimization Prevention through Personal Defense and Assertiveness Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidder, Louise H.; And Others

    Anger and consciousness of rights may play a significant role in victimization prevention. In an attempt to examine how personal defense and assertiveness training would alter women's feelings of fear, helplessness, and anger, as well as their judgments of what rights they have, three studies were conducted. The first study, a participant…

  11. Improving Foundational Number Representations through Simple Arithmetical Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallai, Arava Y.; Schunn, Christian D.; Ponting, Andrea L.; Fiez, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test a training program intended to fine-tune the mental representations of double-digit numbers, thus increasing the discriminability of such numbers. The authors' assumption was that increased fluency in math could be achieved by improving the analogic representations of numbers. The study was completed in the…

  12. Shaping Learning through Space: The Case of Outdoor Management Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Roger; Rowland, Caroline

    This paper explores the relationship between experiential learning theory and outdoor management training, and describes a British outdoor management program grounded in adult learning theory. An introduction explores competing paradigms in management education: the managerialist perspective, which focuses on development of skills and…

  13. Power in Staff Development through Research on Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Bruce R.; Showers, Beverly

    Mastering alternative models of teaching helps build competence and effectiveness in the repertoire of classroom teachers. However, because the attainment of new skills does not by itself ensure transfer to classroom use, teacher training programs should incorporate study of the transfer process itself, reinforced by team effort. Accordingly,…

  14. Designing Simulations for Athletic Training Students through Interprofessional Teaching Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tivener, Kristin Ann; Gloe, Donna Sue

    2015-01-01

    Context: While multidisciplinary team approaches to education and practice have been promoted for decades, literature on collaborative efforts in athletic training and nursing remains sparse. Objective: The goal of this article is to provide an example of an interprofessional teaching collaboration in which a simulation scenario was developed…

  15. Increasing Accurate Preference Assessment Implementation through Pyramidal Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Sacha T.; St. Peter, Claire C.; Tetreault, Allison S.

    2012-01-01

    Preference assessments directly evaluate items that may serve as reinforcers, and their implementation is an important skill for individuals who work with children. This study examined the effectiveness of pyramidal training on teachers' implementation of preference assessments. During Experiment 1, 3 special education teachers taught 6 trainees…

  16. Training communication abilities in Rett Syndrome through reading and writing

    PubMed Central

    Fabio, Rosa Angela; Castelli, Ilaria; Marchetti, Antonella; Antonietti, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this clinical case study is to investigate the possibility of training communication abilities in people with Rett Syndrome (RS). Usually, girls with RS never exceed the sensorimotor stage of development, but the inter-individual variability typical of RS may lead us to doubt the irrevocability of that developmental limit, especially for those girls who are engaged in cognitive rehabilitation. The case study reported here concerns a 21-year-old girl with RS who was engaged in cognitive rehabilitation training based upon the principles of Feuerstein's modificability and mediated learning theory. The training aimed to teach her basic concepts and enhance reading-writing abilities. Statistical analyses showed that the girl reached adequate reading-writing abilities, proving the validity of the cognitive intervention which allowed her to communicate by composing words with her forefinger on an alphabetic table. Although these results need to be cautiously considered as they derive from a single case study, they have implications for future cognitive rehabilitation for deeply impaired clinical conditions as in the case of RS. PMID:24367345

  17. Nutrition education and leadership for improved clinical outcomes: training and supporting junior doctors to run ‘Nutrition Awareness Weeks’ in three NHS hospitals across England

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One in four adults are estimated to be at medium to high risk of malnutrition when screened using the ‘Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool’ upon admission to hospital in the United Kingdom. The Need for Nutrition Education/Education Programme (NNEdPro) Group was developed to address this issue and the Nutrition Education and Leadership for Improved Clinical Outcomes (NELICO) is a project within this group. The objective of NELICO was to assess whether an intensive training intervention combining clinical and public health nutrition, organisational management and leadership strategies, could equip junior doctors to contribute to improvement in nutrition awareness among healthcare professionals in the National Health Service in England. Methods Three junior doctors were self-selected from the NNEdPro Group original training. Each junior doctor recruited three additional team members to attend an intensive training weekend incorporating nutrition, change management and leadership. This equipped them to run nutrition awareness weeks in their respective hospitals. Knowledge, attitudes and practices were evaluated at baseline as well as one and four months post-training as a quality assurance measure. The number and type of educational events held, pre-awareness week Online Hospital Survey results, attendance and qualitative feedback from training sessions, effectiveness of dissemination methods such as awareness stalls, Hospital Nutrition Attitude Survey results and overall feedback were also used to determine impact. Results When the weighted average score for knowledge, attitudes and practices at baseline was compared with four months post-intervention scores, there was a significant increase in the overall score (p = 0.03). All three hospital teams conducted an effective nutrition awareness week, as determined by qualitative data collected from interviews and feedback from educational sessions. Conclusion The NELICO project and its resulting

  18. Improving a Bimanual Motor Skill Through Unimanual Training.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takuji; Nozaki, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    When we learn a bimanual motor skill (e.g., rowing a boat), we often break it down into unimanual practices (e.g., a rowing drill with the left or right arm). Such unimanual practice is thought to be useful for learning bimanual motor skills efficiently because the learner can concentrate on learning to perform a simpler component. However, it is not so straightforward to assume that unimanual training (UT) improves bimanual performance. We have previously demonstrated that motor memories for reaching movements consist of three different parts: unimanual-specific, bimanual-specific, and overlapping parts. According to this scheme, UT appears to be less effective, as its training effect is only partially transferred to the same limb for bimanual movement. In the present study, counter-intuitively, we demonstrate that, even after the bimanual skill is almost fully learned by means of bimanual training (BT), additional UT could further improve bimanual skill. We hypothesized that this effect occurs because UT increases the memory content in the overlapping part, which might contribute to an increase in the memory for bimanual movement. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether the UT performed after sufficient BT could improve the bimanual performance. Participants practiced performing bimanual reaching movements (BM) in the presence of a novel force-field imposed only on their left arm. As an index for the motor performance, we used the error-clamp method (i.e., after-effect of the left arm) to evaluate the force output to compensate for the force-field during the reaching movement. After sufficient BT, the training effect reached a plateau. However, UT performed subsequently improved the bimanual performance significantly. In contrast, when the same amount of BT was continued, the bimanual performance remained unchanged, highlighting the beneficial effect of UT on bimanual performance. Considering memory structure, we also expected that BT could improve unimanual

  19. Improving a Bimanual Motor Skill Through Unimanual Training

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Takuji; Nozaki, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    When we learn a bimanual motor skill (e.g., rowing a boat), we often break it down into unimanual practices (e.g., a rowing drill with the left or right arm). Such unimanual practice is thought to be useful for learning bimanual motor skills efficiently because the learner can concentrate on learning to perform a simpler component. However, it is not so straightforward to assume that unimanual training (UT) improves bimanual performance. We have previously demonstrated that motor memories for reaching movements consist of three different parts: unimanual-specific, bimanual-specific, and overlapping parts. According to this scheme, UT appears to be less effective, as its training effect is only partially transferred to the same limb for bimanual movement. In the present study, counter-intuitively, we demonstrate that, even after the bimanual skill is almost fully learned by means of bimanual training (BT), additional UT could further improve bimanual skill. We hypothesized that this effect occurs because UT increases the memory content in the overlapping part, which might contribute to an increase in the memory for bimanual movement. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether the UT performed after sufficient BT could improve the bimanual performance. Participants practiced performing bimanual reaching movements (BM) in the presence of a novel force-field imposed only on their left arm. As an index for the motor performance, we used the error-clamp method (i.e., after-effect of the left arm) to evaluate the force output to compensate for the force-field during the reaching movement. After sufficient BT, the training effect reached a plateau. However, UT performed subsequently improved the bimanual performance significantly. In contrast, when the same amount of BT was continued, the bimanual performance remained unchanged, highlighting the beneficial effect of UT on bimanual performance. Considering memory structure, we also expected that BT could improve unimanual

  20. Improving the Way Staff Communicate with Young Children through In-Service Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Emmaline J.

    This practicum aimed to improve the way staff communicated with young children through in-service training in a university early childhood laboratory school setting. Eight in-service training sessions, combined with discussion groups, classroom/recorded observations, and practical applications, were provided. The program focused on appropriate…

  1. Inservice Training in Special Education for Classroom Teachers - Kindergarten through Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howze, Wendell M.

    A core group of pre-kindergarten through fourth-grade teachers and staff at a private day school were given in-service training to meet the special education needs of students. Training aimed to prepare personnel to identify students with mild handicaps, refer more severely handicapped students for diagnosis, and teach students with special…

  2. Building a culture of safety through team training and engagement.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lily; Galla, Catherine

    2013-05-01

    Medical errors continue to occur despite multiple strategies devised for their prevention. Although many safety initiatives lead to improvement, they are often short lived and unsustainable. Our goal was to build a culture of patient safety within a structure that optimised teamwork and ongoing engagement of the healthcare team. Teamwork impacts the effectiveness of care, patient safety and clinical outcomes, and team training has been identified as a strategy for enhancing teamwork, reducing medical errors and building a culture of safety in healthcare. Therefore, we implemented Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS), an evidence-based framework which was used for team training to create transformational and/or incremental changes; facilitating transformation of organisational culture, or solving specific problems. To date, TeamSTEPPS (TS) has been implemented in 14 hospitals, two Long Term Care Facilities, and outpatient areas across the North Shore LIJ Health System. 32 150 members of the healthcare team have been trained. TeamSTEPPS was piloted at a community hospital within the framework of the health system's organisational care delivery model, the Collaborative Care Model to facilitate sustainment. AHRQ's Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture, (HSOPSC), was administered before and after implementation of TeamSTEPPS, comparing the perception of patient safety by the heathcare team. Pilot hospital results of HSOPSC show significant improvement from 2007 (pre-TeamSTEPPS) to 2010. System-wide results of HSOPSC show similar trends to those seen in the pilot hospital. Valuable lessons for organisational success from the pilot hospital enabled rapid spread of TeamSTEPPS across the rest of the health system. PMID:23211280

  3. Generation of biphoton correlation trains through spectral filtering.

    PubMed

    Lukens, Joseph M; Odele, Ogaga; Langrock, Carsten; Fejer, Martin M; Leaird, Daniel E; Weiner, Andrew M

    2014-04-21

    We demonstrate the generation of two-photon correlation trains based on spectral filtering of broadband biphotons. Programmable amplitude filtering is employed to create biphoton frequency combs, which when coupled with optical dispersion allows us to experimentally verify the temporal Talbot effect for entangled photons. Additionally, an alternative spectral phase-filtering approach is shown to significantly improve the overall efficiency of the generation process when a comb-like spectrum is not required. Our technique is ideal for the creation of tunable and high-repetition-rate biphoton states. PMID:24787846

  4. KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS ENHANCEMENT THROUGH PERIOPERATIVE NURSING SIMULATION LAB TRAINING.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Trish; Shi, Xinzhe; Yorke, Sue; Andony, Keith; Andony, Keith; McKenzie, Mary Lou

    2016-06-01

    In Edmonton Zone, the attrition rate among new perioperative nursing staff is an issue of concern and many ORs are facing noticeable staffing challenges. In the Edmonton area there are approximately 79 surgical suites. A series of simulation labs were established in 2015 to provide perioperative nurses in order to increase their comfort on the job and to help build confidence levels. The expectations for this simulation are an overall improvement in perioperative nurses' competency, a reduction in OR orientation and training time, and a decrease in the attrition rates among OR nurses. PMID:27509765

  5. It's Money! Real-World Grant Experience through a Student-Run, Peer-Reviewed Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumanis, Sonya B.; Ullrich, Lauren; Washington, Patricia M.; Forcelli, Patrick A.

    2013-01-01

    Grantsmanship is an integral component of surviving and thriving in academic science, especially in the current funding climate. Therefore, any additional opportunities to write, read, and review grants during graduate school may have lasting benefits on one's career. We present here our experience with a small, student-run grant program at…

  6. Training in Socio-Emotional Skills through On-Site Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talavera, Elvira Repetto; Perez-Gonzalez, Juan Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Socio-emotional skills are highly prized on the labour market these days; many writers say that competencies of this type help to increase individuals' employability, but educational institutions consistently forget their responsibility for providing training in them. Most jobs call not only for knowledge and specific technical competencies, but…

  7. Accomplishing Europe through Education and Training. Report. Study Group on Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education, Training, and Youth.

    If Europe is to remain at the driving edge, economic and political progress must be complemented by offering a "European vision" to Europe's young people. All young Europeans must be guaranteed access to education and training culminating in acquisition of a foundation of recognized basic knowledge and skills and access to guidance and counseling…

  8. Preceptor development in residency training through a faculty facilitator.

    PubMed

    Stuart, M R; Orzano, A J; Eidus, R

    1980-10-01

    To address the demand for training preceptors, a community hospital-based residency program is using a part-time preceptor in a consultative capacity as a faculty facilitator to model, assess skills, and generally improve the level of teaching. Direct observation of resident-patient interactions and subsequent preceptor critiques are followed by feedback to the preceptor on the cogency and effectiveness of comments made. Goals, objectives, and teaching style are jointly examined by the preceptor and faculty facilitator. Evaluation of videotaped resident-preceptor interactions before and after six months' experience with the faculty facilitator shows significant increases in preceptor skills. Greatest improvement is in comments related to resident's clinical assessments, the resident-patient relationship, and in the quality of the resident-preceptor interaction. Scores by the faculty facilitator are significantly lower but parallel those of an independent, blind evaluator. Preceptor, resident, and administration reactions to the project are all positive. This ongoing program assures the continued upgrading of preceptor skills and provides for faculty attrition. A faculty facilitator providing direct feedback in the clinical setting is a low-cost and viable alternative to workshops and conferences for training effective teachers of family medicine. PMID:6106660

  9. A case study of interior low-frequency noise from box-shaped bridge girders induced by running trains: Its mechanism, prediction and countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xun; Li, Xiaozhen; Hao, Hong; Wang, Dangxiong; Li, Yadong

    2016-04-01

    A side effect of high-speed railway and urban rail transit systems is the associated vibration and noise. Since the use of concrete viaducts is predominant in railway construction due to scarce land resources, low-frequency (20-200 Hz) structure-radiated noise from concrete bridges is a principal concern. Although it is the most commonly used bridge type, the mechanism of noise emission from box-shaped bridge girders when subjected to impact forces from moving trains, which sounds like beating a drum, has not been well studied. In this study, a field measurement was first made on a simply-supported box-shaped bridge to record the acceleration of the slabs and the associated sound pressures induced by running trains. These data indicated that a significant beat-wave noise occurred in the box-shaped cavity when the train speed was around 340 km/h, which arose from the interference between two sound waves of 75.0 Hz and 78.8 Hz. The noise leakage from the bridge expansion joint was serious and resulted in obvious noise pollution near the bridge once the beat-wave noise was generated in the cavity. The dominant frequency of the interior noise at 75.0 Hz was confirmed from the spectrum of the data and the modal analysis results, and originated from the peak vibration of the top slab due to resonance and the first-order vertical acoustic mode, which led to cavity resonance, amplifying the corresponding noise. The three-dimensional acoustic modes and local vibration modes of the slab were calculated by using the finite element method. A simplified vehicle-track-bridge coupling vibration model was then developed to calculate the wheel-rail interaction force in a frequency range of 20-200 Hz. Numerical simulations using the boundary element method confirmed the cavity resonance effect and the numerical results agreed well with the data. Based on the calibrated numerical model, three noise reduction measures, i.e., adding a horizontal baffle in the interior cavity, narrowing

  10. 49 CFR 236.326 - Mechanical locking removed or disarranged; requirement for permitting train movements through...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... interlocking. When mechanical locking of interlocking machine is being changed or is removed from the machine... provided by electric locking or electric circuits, train movements through the interlocking shall not...

  11. Improving an Extended Day Care Environment through Staff Training and Activity Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Mary Kathryn

    The aim of this practicum was to increase parent, child, and caregiver satisfaction with the university lab elementary school site's extended day care program through training of caregivers and development of appropriate activities. Two groups participated, one for preschoolers through first graders, the other for second through fifth graders.…

  12. The Effects of Different Training Backgrounds on VO2 Responses to All-Out and Supramaximal Constant-Velocity Running Bouts

    PubMed Central

    de Aguiar, Rafael Alves; Lisbôa, Felipe Domingos; Turnes, Tiago; Cruz, Rogério Santos de Oliveira; Caputo, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the impact of different training backgrounds on pulmonary oxygen uptake (V̇O2) responses during all-out and supramaximal constant-velocity running exercises, nine sprinters (SPRs) and eight endurance runners (ENDs) performed an incremental test for maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) assessment and two supramaximal running exercises (1-min all-out test and constant-velocity exercise). The V̇O2 responses were continuously determined during the tests (K4b2, Cosmed, Italy). A mono-exponential function was used to describe the V̇O2 onset kinetics during constant-velocity test at 110%MAV, while during 1-min all-out test the peak of V̇O2 (V̇O2peak), the time to achieve the V̇O2peak (tV̇O2peak) and the V̇O2 decrease at last of the test was determined to characterize the V̇O2 response. During constant-velocity exercise, ENDs had a faster V̇O2 kinetics than SPRs (12.7 ± 3.0 vs. 19.3 ± 5.6 s; p < 0.001). During the 1-min all-out test, ENDs presented slower tV̇O2peak than SPRs (40.6 ± 6.8 and 28.8 ± 6.4 s, respectively; p = 0.002) and had a similar V̇O2peak relative to the V̇O2max (88 ± 8 and 83 ± 6%, respectively; p = 0.157). Finally, SPRs was the only group that presented a V̇O2 decrease in the last half of the test (-1.8 ± 2.3 and 3.5 ± 2.3 ml.kg-1.min-1, respectively; p < 0.001). In summary, SPRs have a faster V̇O2 response when maximum intensity is required and a high maximum intensity during all-out running exercise seems to lead to a higher decrease in V̇O2 in the last part of the exercise. PMID:26252001

  13. Training at the Gym, Training for Life: Creating Better Versions of the Self Through Exercise.

    PubMed

    Doğan, Ceren

    2015-08-01

    The present study draws on Scott's (2011) notion of the Re-Inventive Institution and explores how gym members make sense and give meaning to their exercise regime. Overall, it is argued that for many participants gym exercise is more than physical training; it is also training for life. Based on a thematic analysis of 32 semi-structured interviews it is argued that gym workout is a means to create better versions of the self on mainly three levels. First, gym participants perceive themselves to be efficient and productive in general. Second, gym training is believed to increase the control they have over their lives. Third, gym members associate their gym workout with amplified emotional resilience, believing that fitness workout makes them not only fitter in a physical sense but also fitter and better equipped in a psychological sense. Surprisingly, a small group of regular gym users displayed more critical sentiments and distanced themselves from the images and values the gym stands for. The results of this study can be linked to broader political discourses on health and fitness that make use of corporate managerial vocabularies and are based on ideals of rationalization and efficiency. PMID:27247669

  14. Training at the Gym, Training for Life: Creating Better Versions of the Self Through Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Doğan, Ceren

    2015-01-01

    The present study draws on Scott’s (2011) notion of the Re-Inventive Institution and explores how gym members make sense and give meaning to their exercise regime. Overall, it is argued that for many participants gym exercise is more than physical training; it is also training for life. Based on a thematic analysis of 32 semi-structured interviews it is argued that gym workout is a means to create better versions of the self on mainly three levels. First, gym participants perceive themselves to be efficient and productive in general. Second, gym training is believed to increase the control they have over their lives. Third, gym members associate their gym workout with amplified emotional resilience, believing that fitness workout makes them not only fitter in a physical sense but also fitter and better equipped in a psychological sense. Surprisingly, a small group of regular gym users displayed more critical sentiments and distanced themselves from the images and values the gym stands for. The results of this study can be linked to broader political discourses on health and fitness that make use of corporate managerial vocabularies and are based on ideals of rationalization and efficiency. PMID:27247669

  15. Core self-evaluations and training effectiveness: prediction through motivational intervening mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Stanhope, Daniel S; Pond, Samuel B; Surface, Eric A

    2013-09-01

    Understanding the processes through which trainee characteristics influence learning is important for identifying mechanisms that drive training effectiveness. We examine the direct and indirect paths through which core self-evaluations (CSE) impact learning. We also include general cognitive ability (GCA) to explore whether CSE's paths to effectiveness differ from those of a well-documented predictor of learning. We proposed a model in which CSE contributes to training effectiveness through its influence on motivational intervening mechanisms, and we tested this model empirically with military personnel (N = 638) who participated in job-required training. The data supported a partially mediated model. Irrespective of inclusion of GCA as a control variable, motivation and effort allocation (MEA) process variables (i.e., training motivation, midtraining self-efficacy, and midtraining goal setting) mediated (or partially mediated) the relationship between CSE and training outcomes that included affective (e.g., intentions to transfer), cognitive (e.g., declarative knowledge), and skill-based (e.g., proficiency) learning. Conversely, GCA had neither direct nor indirect effects on affective learning but did demonstrate direct effects on cognitive and skill-based learning. Results support the utility of including CSE in training research and practice, suggest that MEA serves as an explanatory mechanism for CSE's relation to learning outcomes, and demonstrate that CSE and GCA differentially influence training effectiveness and do so through different explanatory mechanisms. PMID:23565894

  16. Community Capacity Building as a vital mechanism for enhancing the growth and efficacy of a sustainable scientific software ecosystem: experiences running a real-time bi-coastal "Open Science for Synthesis" Training Institute for young Earth and Environmental scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildhauer, M.; Jones, M. B.; Bolker, B.; Lenhardt, W. C.; Hampton, S. E.; Idaszak, R.; Rebich Hespanha, S.; Ahalt, S.; Christopherson, L.

    2014-12-01

    Continuing advances in computational capabilities, access to Big Data, and virtual collaboration technologies are creating exciting new opportunities for accomplishing Earth science research at finer resolutions, with much broader scope, using powerful modeling and analytical approaches that were unachievable just a few years ago. Yet, there is a perceptible lag in the abilities of the research community to capitalize on these new possibilities, due to lacking the relevant skill-sets, especially with regards to multi-disciplinary and integrative investigations that involve active collaboration. UC Santa Barbara's National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS), and the University of North Carolina's Renaissance Computing Institute (RENCI), were recipients of NSF OCI S2I2 "Conceptualization awards", charged with helping define the needs of the research community relative to enabling science and education through "sustained software infrastructure". Over the course of our activities, a consistent request from Earth scientists was for "better training in software that enables more effective, reproducible research." This community-based feedback led to creation of an "Open Science for Synthesis" Institute— a innovative, three-week, bi-coastal training program for early career researchers. We provided a mix of lectures, hands-on exercises, and working group experience on topics including: data discovery and preservation; code creation, management, sharing, and versioning; scientific workflow documentation and reproducibility; statistical and machine modeling techniques; virtual collaboration mechanisms; and methods for communicating scientific results. All technologies and quantitative tools presented were suitable for advancing open, collaborative, and reproducible synthesis research. In this talk, we will report on the lessons learned from running this ambitious training program, that involved coordinating classrooms among two remote sites, and

  17. Improving Behavior of Kindergarten Children through Effective Training and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Patricia

    A kindergarten teacher working at a school on a military base located on an island in the North Atlantic used improved methods of communication to design a practicum intervention to improve the behavior of kindergarten children who resided on the base. The goal of the practicum was to improve the behavior of the children through: (1) frequent…

  18. Improving human capabilities for combined manual handling tasks through a short and intensive physical training program.

    PubMed

    Genaidy, A M; Gupta, T; Alshedi, A

    1990-11-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to test whether the muscular endurance, muscular strength, cardiovascular endurance, and workload perception of individuals engaged in combined manual handling tasks could be improved through a short and intensive physical training program. Three groups were formed to achieve the objectives of this study, and five subjects participated in each group. Two groups were trained using the concept of progressive resistance exercise; one group used the concept of six-repetition maximum (6 RM) while the other group followed the ten-repetition maximum (10 RM) protocol. The third group was used as a control group to monitor the effectiveness of the training groups. The training groups required subjects' attendance at 16 sessions for a period of 6 weeks. The control group performed the same tests given to the training group twice, separated by a period of 6 weeks. Endurance time, heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion, and static and dynamic strength were the response variables. Based on the results of this study, the following conclusions could be made: (1) it is possible to significantly improve muscular endurance, muscular strength, and cardiovascular endurance through the short and intensive training protocols examined in this investigation (the 10 RM training protocol, however, yielded better improvement in human physical capability than the 6 RM training protocol); and (2) for a fixed work load, endurance time can increase without changing job demand perception. PMID:2085166

  19. Effects of Training on Recognition of Musical Instruments Presented through Cochlear Implant Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Virginia D.; Oleson, Jacob; Jiang, Dingfeng; Gfeller, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Background The simulation of the CI (cochlear implant) signal presents a degraded representation of each musical instrument, which makes recognition difficult. Purpose To examine the efficiency and effectiveness of three types of training on recognition of musical instruments as presented through simulations of the sounds transmitted through a CI. Research Design Participants were randomly assigned to one of three training conditions: repeated exposure, feedback, and direct instruction. Study Sample Sixty-six adults with normal hearing. Intervention Each participant completed three training sessions per week, over a five-week time period, in which they listened to the CI simulations of eight different musical instruments. Data Collection and Analysis Analyses on percent of instruments identified correctly showed statistically significant differences between recognition accuracy of the three training conditions (p< .01). Results those assigned to the direct instruction group showed the greatest improvement over the five-week training period as well as sustained improvement after training. The feedback group achieved the next highest level of recognition accuracy. The repeated exposure group showed modest improvement during the first three-week time period, but no subsequent improvements. Conclusions These results indicate that different types of training are differentially effective with regard to improving recognition of musical instruments presented through a degraded signal, which has practical implications for the auditory rehabilitation of persons who use cochlear implants. PMID:19927684

  20. Citizenship Development through Vocational Training: British Columbia Rural Youth Training School, 1947-1959

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mclean, Scott; Gondek, Jyoti

    2012-01-01

    This article inspires critical and creative thinking about the promotion of citizenship development through programmes of study designed primarily to enhance adults' vocational skills. It does so through presenting an empirical case study of an important adult education programme delivered by the Department of University Extension at the…

  1. Reducing the size of the human physiological blind spot through training.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paul A; Wallis, Guy; Bex, Peter J; Arnold, Derek H

    2015-08-31

    The physiological blind spot refers to a zone of functional blindness all normally sighted people have in each eye, due to an absence of photoreceptors where the optic nerve passes through the surface of the retina. Here we report that the functional size of the physiological blind spot can be shrunk through training to distinguish direction signals at the blind spot periphery. Training on twenty successive weekdays improved sensitivity to both direction and colour, suggesting a generalizable benefit. Training on one blind spot, however, did not transfer to the blind spot in the untrained eye, ruling out mediation via a generic practice effect; nor could training benefits be attributed to eye movements, which were monitored to ensure stable fixation. These data suggest that training enhances the response gains of neurons with receptive fields that partially overlap, or abut, the physiological blind spot, thereby enhancing sensitivity to weak signals originating primarily from within the functionally-defined region of blindness [1-3]. Our results have important implications for situations where localised blindness has been acquired through damage to components of the visual system [4,5], and support proposals that these situations might be improved through perceptual training [5-7]. PMID:26325131

  2. Enhancing Digital Fluency through a Training Program for Creative Problem Solving Using Computer Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, SugHee; Chung, KwangSik; Yu, HeonChang

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a training program for creative problem solving based on computer programming. The proposed program will encourage students to solve real-life problems through a creative thinking spiral related to cognitive skills with computer programming. With the goal of enhancing digital fluency through this proposed…

  3. Knowledge Is Power: Empowering the Autism Community through Parent-Professional Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Mary M.; Ackerman-Spain, Karen; Williams, Ellen U.; Ryley, Anderia T.

    2011-01-01

    Partnerships for Autism through Collaborative Community Choice and Empowerment (Project PACE) was developed to empower parents and professionals (e.g., general or special education teachers, therapists, social workers, school counselors, psychologists) through training and education. Project PACE was designed to provide participants with basic…

  4. Revitalizing Young Adults through Leadership Training at Victory Presbyterian Church, Ilsan, Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noh, Kyeong Cheon

    2009-01-01

    This study has the aim of examining the effects obtained mainly through the leadership development process through small group dynamics for the purpose of making the youth group church, vitalized. The church reached the conclusion that the important problem for continuous church development was how to find a trained leader and to help the…

  5. Bridging the Gap: Supporting Translational Research Careers Through an Integrated Research Track Within Residency Training

    PubMed Central

    Arbuckle, Melissa R.; Gordon, Joshua A.; Pincus, Harold A.; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    In the setting of traditional residency training programs, physician–scientists are often limited in their ability to pursue research training goals while meeting clinical training requirements. This creates a gap in research training at a critical developmental stage. In response, Columbia University Medical Center’s Department of Psychiatry, in partnership with the New York State Psychiatric Institute, has created a formal Research Track Program (RTP) for psychiatry residents so that interested individuals can maintain their attention on research training during formative residency years. Clinical and research training are integrated through core clinical rotations on research units. With protected research time and clear developmental milestones for each year of training, the RTP allows research track residents to meet both clinical and research training goals while maintaining a healthy work–life balance. In coordination with existing postdoctoral research fellowship programs, research track residents can effectively jump-start fellowship training with advanced course work and consistent, continuous mentorship bridging residency and fellowship years. A key element of the program is its provision of core training in research literacy and extensive research opportunities for all residents, stimulating research interest across the whole residency program. Supported by the National Institutes of Health and a private foundation, this RTP capitalizes on a unique academic–private partnership to address many of the challenges facing physician–scientists. By integrating clinical and research exposures and offering protected research time, careful mentoring, and financial resources, the program aims to further the development of those most poised to establish careers in translational research. PMID:23619070

  6. Estimation of Recent and Ancient Inbreeding in a Small Endogamous Tunisian Community Through Genomic Runs of Homozygosity.

    PubMed

    Ben Halim, Nizar; Nagara, Majdi; Regnault, Béatrice; Hsouna, Sana; Lasram, Khaled; Kefi, Rym; Azaiez, Hela; Khemira, Laroussi; Saidane, Rachid; Ammar, Slim Ben; Besbes, Ghazi; Weil, Dominique; Petit, Christine; Abdelhak, Sonia; Romdhane, Lilia

    2015-11-01

    Runs of homozygosity (ROHs) are extended genomic regions of homozygous genotypes that record populations' mating patterns in the past. We performed microarray genotyping on 15 individuals from a small isolated Tunisian community. We estimated the individual and population genome-wide level of homozygosity from data on ROH above 0.5 Mb in length. We found a high average number of ROH per individual (48.2). The smallest ROH category (0.5-1.49 Mb) represents 0.93% of the whole genome, while medium-size (1.5-4.99 Mb) and long-size ROH (≥5 Mb) cover 1.18% and 0.95%, respectively. We found that genealogical individual inbreeding coefficients (Fped ) based on three- to four-generation pedigrees are not reliable indicators of the current proportion of genome-wide homozygosity inferred from ROH (FROH ) either for 0.5 or 1.5 Mb ROH length thresholds, while identity-by-descent sharing is a function of shared coancestry. This study emphasizes the effect of reproductive isolation and a prolonged practice of consanguinity that limits the genetic heterogeneity. It also provides evidence of both recent and ancient parental relatedness contribution to the current level of genome-wide homozygosity in the studied population. These findings may be useful for evaluation of long-term effects of inbreeding on human health and for future applications of ROHs in identifying recessive susceptibility genes. PMID:26420437

  7. Maximizing lipocalin prediction through balanced and diversified training set and decision fusion.

    PubMed

    Nath, Abhigyan; Subbiah, Karthikeyan

    2015-12-01

    Lipocalins are short in sequence length and perform several important biological functions. These proteins are having less than 20% sequence similarity among paralogs. Experimentally identifying them is an expensive and time consuming process. The computational methods based on the sequence similarity for allocating putative members to this family are also far elusive due to the low sequence similarity existing among the members of this family. Consequently, the machine learning methods become a viable alternative for their prediction by using the underlying sequence/structurally derived features as the input. Ideally, any machine learning based prediction method must be trained with all possible variations in the input feature vector (all the sub-class input patterns) to achieve perfect learning. A near perfect learning can be achieved by training the model with diverse types of input instances belonging to the different regions of the entire input space. Furthermore, the prediction performance can be improved through balancing the training set as the imbalanced data sets will tend to produce the prediction bias towards majority class and its sub-classes. This paper is aimed to achieve (i) the high generalization ability without any classification bias through the diversified and balanced training sets as well as (ii) enhanced the prediction accuracy by combining the results of individual classifiers with an appropriate fusion scheme. Instead of creating the training set randomly, we have first used the unsupervised Kmeans clustering algorithm to create diversified clusters of input patterns and created the diversified and balanced training set by selecting an equal number of patterns from each of these clusters. Finally, probability based classifier fusion scheme was applied on boosted random forest algorithm (which produced greater sensitivity) and K nearest neighbour algorithm (which produced greater specificity) to achieve the enhanced predictive performance

  8. Prevention of running injuries.

    PubMed

    Fields, Karl B; Sykes, Jeannie C; Walker, Katherine M; Jackson, Jonathan C

    2010-01-01

    Evidence for preventive strategies to lessen running injuries is needed as these occur in 40%-50% of runners on an annual basis. Many factors influence running injuries, but strong evidence for prevention only exists for training modification primarily by reducing weekly mileage. Two anatomical factors - cavus feet and leg length inequality - demonstrate a link to injury. Weak evidence suggests that orthotics may lessen risk of stress fracture, but no clear evidence proves they will reduce the risk of those athletes with leg length inequality or cavus feet. This article reviews other potential injury variables, including strength, biomechanics, stretching, warm-up, nutrition, psychological factors, and shoes. Additional research is needed to determine whether interventions to address any of these will help prevent running injury. PMID:20463502

  9. The water that runs within us - how Geography can be learned through volcanic calderas, fumaroles and hot springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Ana; Luís Gaspar, João

    2014-05-01

    "Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better." Albert Einstein Teaching Geography within the classroom walls is always a challenge, especially if it is done in S. Miguel Island. Its breath-taking scenery invites us to dive into the wilderness and learn from it directly! Located in the Atlantic Ocean, the Azorean Archipelago is a privileged volcanic region, which makes it an open and unique resource for geosciences lesson to anyone, especially for 10th grade students whose curricula is not based on Geography as the main subject. The challenge, for their Geography teacher is, therefore, greater. Being an islander makes us sometimes forget the importance of one of the most basic resources - water. My students asked me "It's everywhere we look, so why should we bother?" when they were told the theme of our project was water. The more obvious it is, the harder it gets - making them aware of how privileged they are by living in a region where rare natural phenomena occur, such as hot springs and geothermal spring. Moreover, water is a content of their two-year curricula. Being a major topic on the 10th grade curricula, with me as their Geography teacher, and engaging in the poster session "Science in tomorrow's classroom" (during the GIFT 2014 Workshop), as well as the choice of our main theme "The water that runs within us", seem like natural stages that had to happen, as in the cycle of water. Therefore, for two years, experimental activities will take place both inside and outside of the classroom in order to study the availability of water in lakes, streams, underwater and hydrothermal reservoirs, as well as to enhance its importance for geothermal centrals, but also to local tourism as a main income of the economy of the region. Natural hazards associated with water will be studied on the second year of this project. Nothing of this would be possible without the cooperation of certain local agents, such as the Centre for Volcanology and

  10. 49 CFR 236.326 - Mechanical locking removed or disarranged; requirement for permitting train movements through...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mechanical locking removed or disarranged... § 236.326 Mechanical locking removed or disarranged; requirement for permitting train movements through interlocking. When mechanical locking of interlocking machine is being changed or is removed from the...

  11. An Evaluation of Teachers Trained through Different Routes to Certification. Final Report. NCEE 2009-4043

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantine, Jill; Player, Daniel; Silva, Tim; Hallgren, Kristin; Grider, Mary; Deke, John

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses two questions related to teacher preparation and certification: (1) What are the relative effects on student achievement of teachers who chose to be trained through different routes to certification and how do observed teacher practices vary by chosen route to certification?; and (2) What aspects of certification programs…

  12. Workforce Skills Development and Engagement in Training through Skill Sets: Literature Review. Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, John; Bowman, Kaye; Crean, David; Ranshaw, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    This literature review examines the available research on skill sets. It provides background for a larger research project "Workforce skills development and engagement in training through skill sets," the report of which will be released early next year. This paper outlines the origin of skill sets and explains the difference between skill sets…

  13. Social Skills Training in Natural Play Settings: Educating through the Physical Theory to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aljadeff-Abergel, Elian; Ayvazo, Shiri; Eldar, Eitan

    2012-01-01

    Social skills are prerequisite to academic performance and success in school. Training of these skills is particularly important for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) who have social deficits and struggle maintaining appropriate and accepted behavior in and outside of the classroom. Educating through the "physical" model is a…

  14. Women's American ORT [Organization for Rehabilitation through Training] and Career Education. Monographs on Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Kenneth B.

    Women's American ORT (Organization for Rehabilitation through Training) is an autonomous affiliate of a worldwide Jewish volunteer organization. It is dedicated to fighting poverty by providing Jewish youth and adults with vocational skills so that they may become productive members of society. In the past, WAO (Women's American ORT) has made…

  15. Gaining Insight to Transfer of Training through the Lens of Social Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisweiler, Silke; Nikitopoulos, Alexandra; Netzel, Janine; Frey, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the question under which conditions people change their behavior through vocational trainings or not. Following the demand of more theory-driven investigations in transfer research (Blume, Ford, Baldwin, & Huang, 2010) we wish to add the perspective of social psychology. We therefore illustrate how well-known concepts from…

  16. STS-6 crewmembers go through a training exercise in the shuttle mock-up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    STS-6 crew members go through a training exercise in the full-scale engineering Shuttle mockup. Their seating configuration reflects that of launch and landing phases aboard the shuttle Challenger. The front stations are occupied by Astronauts Paul J. Weitz (left), commander, and Karol J. Bobko, pilot. In the rear seats are Astronauts Story Musgrave and Donald H. Peterson, both mission specialists.

  17. ALOHA to New Learning: Uniting Student and Career Staff through Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Lynn N.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines staff training from a different perspective, as a means of transmitting organizational culture to student employees through a closer communication between career and student part-time employees. Results of a qualitative survey suggest communication supports multigenerational relationships and administrators who invest in…

  18. Visions 2020.2: Student Views on Transforming Education and Training through Advanced Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Departments of Commerce and Education (who co-chair the NSTC Working Group) and NetDay formed a partnership aimed at analyzing K-12 student views about technology for learning. These views are analyzed in this second report, "Visions 2020.2: Student Views on Transforming Education and Training Through Advanced Technologies." In…

  19. Bulletin of Air Pollution Training Courses, July 1970 through June 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Issued by the National Air Pollution Control Administration (NAPCA), this directory covers program and course offerings through the Institute for Air Pollution Training (IAPT), Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Officers of the Triangle Universities (Duke, North Carolina, North Carolina State) Consortium on Air Pollution are listed first,…

  20. Beyond Parental Control and Authoritarian Parenting Style: Understanding Chinese Parenting through the Cultural Notion of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Ruth K.

    1994-01-01

    Examined the child-rearing practices of immigrant Chinese and European American mothers of preschool children through questionnaires that measured parental control, authoritative-authoritarian parenting style, and the Chinese concept of child training. Chinese mothers scored significantly higher than European American mothers on the training…

  1. Enhancing Connectedness Through Peer Training for Community-Dwelling Older People: A Person Centred Approach.

    PubMed

    Burmeister, Oliver K; Bernoth, Maree; Dietsch, Elaine; Cleary, Michelle

    2016-06-01

    Social interaction and connectedness is important to the mental health and wellbeing of older people. The aim of this research study was to facilitate and increase opportunities for social connectedness for older people living in regional areas through the use of technology training. Weekly technology training sessions were conducted at a Seniors Citizen's Club with a peer trainer (an experienced, retired computer teacher) and sessions were attended not only by the six study participants, but also by other club members, with up to 15 club members participating in sessions. Data analysis involved all documents generated by the project, including the individual interviews, researcher observations of training sessions, reports from the peer trainer and weekly diaries maintained by participants. Findings demonstrated that computer training at the Senior Citizens Club helped participants build group cohesion and to form tiered connections with partners, family, and friends with whom they no longer live. When the trainer is seen as a peer, and training is person-centred, older people are more receptive to learning, exploring, and experimenting with technology. Although only six people were involved in the in-depth evaluation part of the study, voluntary training with the trainer in the absence of any funding continues even to this present time. The outcome of this research reinforces the potential for technology facilitated tiered connectivity to enhance the quality of life for older people living in regional and rural Australia. PMID:27050818

  2. Megathrust Slip and the Care and Feeding of the Subduction Channel Through which the Seismogenic Zone Runs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, D. W.; Kirby, S. H.; Keranen, K. M.; Wells, R. E.; Blakely, R. J.; Michael, F.; von Huene, R.

    2004-12-01

    HABITATS OF GREAT OFFSHORE EARTHQUAKES: High-magnitude earthquakes (Mw = or >8.5) and trans- oceanic tsunamis commonly nucleate along subduction zones (SZ) bordered by laterally continuous, sediment- flooded trenches. Examples include: south-central Chile (1960 Mw=9.5), eastern Alaska (1964 Mw=9.2), Sumatra (2004, Mw=9.1), Cascadia (historic 1700 Mw=9.0), Colombia (1906 Mw=8.8), Sumatra (historic 1883, Mw=8.8), west-central Aleutian (1965 Mw=8.7), central Aleutian (1986, Mw=8.7), Sumatra (2005 Mw=8.6), and Nankai (historic 1707, Mw=8.5). In thickness, sediment entering these SZ ranges from 2 to 3 km and the column is axially continuous for more than 800 km. The depositional pile is typically the clastic beds of a trench-axis turbidite wedge and underlying fan and abyssal plain deposits that accrued seaward of the trench axis. Great rupture events also occur at subduction zones receiving little sediment, for example the Kamchatka (1952, Mw=9.0) and the north Chile SZs (historic 1868 Mw=8.9). Both SZs are areas of rapid upper plate thinning, subsidence, and truncation effected by subduction erosion. WORKINGS OF THE SUBDUCTION CHANNEL (SC): Beneath the submerged forearc, the SC functions to transport subducted ocean floor sediment and tectonically eroded forearc debris toward and into the mantle. The SC is the lowest structural unit containing upper plate crustal material. It hosts the seismogenic zone, which probably runs along the SC's upper boundary commonly referred to as the interplate decollement. A thick, laterally continuous SC structurally smoothes or simplifies the surface of the interplate decollement and sets up conditions for lengthy, high moment-release ruptures. Maximum slip is commonly concentrated beneath the thinned crust underlying forearc basins. These structures, in positive feed-back, are likely deepened co- seismically by high-slip-rate enhanced basal subduction erosion. The detached material lowers the effective stress on the decollement and

  3. Megathrust Slip and the Care and Feeding of the Subduction Channel Through which the Seismogenic Zone Runs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, D. W.; Kirby, S. H.; Keranen, K. M.; Wells, R. E.; Blakely, R. J.; Michael, F.; von Huene, R.

    2007-12-01

    HABITATS OF GREAT OFFSHORE EARTHQUAKES: High-magnitude earthquakes (Mw = or >8.5) and trans- oceanic tsunamis commonly nucleate along subduction zones (SZ) bordered by laterally continuous, sediment- flooded trenches. Examples include: south-central Chile (1960 Mw=9.5), eastern Alaska (1964 Mw=9.2), Sumatra (2004, Mw=9.1), Cascadia (historic 1700 Mw=9.0), Colombia (1906 Mw=8.8), Sumatra (historic 1883, Mw=8.8), west-central Aleutian (1965 Mw=8.7), central Aleutian (1986, Mw=8.7), Sumatra (2005 Mw=8.6), and Nankai (historic 1707, Mw=8.5). In thickness, sediment entering these SZ ranges from 2 to 3 km and the column is axially continuous for more than 800 km. The depositional pile is typically the clastic beds of a trench-axis turbidite wedge and underlying fan and abyssal plain deposits that accrued seaward of the trench axis. Great rupture events also occur at subduction zones receiving little sediment, for example the Kamchatka (1952, Mw=9.0) and the north Chile SZs (historic 1868 Mw=8.9). Both SZs are areas of rapid upper plate thinning, subsidence, and truncation effected by subduction erosion. WORKINGS OF THE SUBDUCTION CHANNEL (SC): Beneath the submerged forearc, the SC functions to transport subducted ocean floor sediment and tectonically eroded forearc debris toward and into the mantle. The SC is the lowest structural unit containing upper plate crustal material. It hosts the seismogenic zone, which probably runs along the SC's upper boundary commonly referred to as the interplate decollement. A thick, laterally continuous SC structurally smoothes or simplifies the surface of the interplate decollement and sets up conditions for lengthy, high moment-release ruptures. Maximum slip is commonly concentrated beneath the thinned crust underlying forearc basins. These structures, in positive feed-back, are likely deepened co- seismically by high-slip-rate enhanced basal subduction erosion. The detached material lowers the effective stress on the decollement and

  4. Facial Affect Recognition Training Through Telepractice: Two Case Studies of Individuals with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    WILLIAMSON, JOHN; ISAKI, EMI

    2015-01-01

    The use of a modified Facial Affect Recognition (FAR) training to identify emotions was investigated with two case studies of adults with moderate to severe chronic (> five years) traumatic brain injury (TBI). The modified FAR training was administered via telepractice to target social communication skills. Therapy consisted of identifying emotions through static facial expressions, personally reflecting on those emotions, and identifying sarcasm and emotions within social stories and role-play. Pre- and post-therapy measures included static facial photos to identify emotion and the Prutting and Kirchner Pragmatic Protocol for social communication. Both participants with chronic TBI showed gains on identifying facial emotions on the static photos.

  5. Training Initiative for Embedded Software Engineers through Collaborative Research Project and Open Educational Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Rieko; Yamamoto, Masaki; Unagami, Tomoaki; Mori, Takao; Hond, Shinya; Ichiba, Toshiyuki; Takase, Hideki; Takada, Hiroaki

    The authors developed two types of human resource development program consisting of a) one-year collaborative research project, and b) open education course, aimed to train embedded software engineers to high technical standards. In the collaborative research oriented approach, the authors train engineers through research project at Nagoya University. In the open education course, the authors reflect and adopt the latest outcome of the aforementioned research project to one or two days open education course to educate engineers. This allowed the authors to design and provide several courses aimed to train engineers with the latest contents that reflect the rapid technical advances in the embedded software industry. The courses were highly evaluated by the participants.

  6. Enhancing nonhuman primate care and welfare through the use of positive reinforcement training.

    PubMed

    Laule, Gail; Whittaker, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are excellent subjects for the enhancement of care and welfare through training. The broad range of species offers tremendous behavioral diversity, and individual primates show varying abilities to cope with the stressors of captivity, which differ depending on the venue. Biomedical facilities include small single cages, pair housing, and breeding corrals with large social groups. Zoos have social groupings of differing sizes, emphasizing public display and breeding. Sanctuaries have nonbreeding groups of varying sizes and often of mixed species. In every venue, the primary objective is to provide good quality care, with minimal stress. Positive reinforcement training improves care and reduces stress by enlisting a primate's voluntary cooperation with targeted activities, including both husbandry and medical procedures. It can also improve socialization, reduce abnormal behaviors, and increase species-typical behaviors. This article reviews the results already achieved with positive reinforcement training and suggests further possibilities for enhancing primate care and welfare. PMID:17484676

  7. Basic life support knowledge, self-reported skills and fears in Danish high school students and effect of a single 45-min training session run by junior doctors; a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Early recognition and immediate bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation are critical determinants of survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Our aim was to evaluate current knowledge on basic life support (BLS) in Danish high school students and benefits of a single training session run by junior doctors. Methods Six-hundred-fifty-one students were included. They underwent one 45-minute BLS training session including theoretical aspects and hands-on training with mannequins. The students completed a baseline questionnaire before the training session and a follow-up questionnaire one week later. The questionnaire consisted of an eight item multiple-choice test on BLS knowledge, a four-level evaluation of self-assessed BLS skills and evaluation of fear based on a qualitative description and visual analog scale from 0 to 10 for being first responder. Results Sixty-three percent of the students (413/651) had participated in prior BLS training. Only 28% (179/651) knew how to correctly recognize normal breathing. The majority was afraid of exacerbating the condition or causing death by intervening as first responder. The response rate at follow-up was 61% (399/651). There was a significant improvement in correct answers on the multiple-choice test (p < .001). The proportion of students feeling well prepared to perform BLS increased from 30% to 90% (p < .001), and the level of fear of being first responder was decreased 6.8 ± 2.2 to 5.5 ± 2.4 (p < .001). Conclusion Knowledge of key areas of BLS is poor among high school students. One hands-on training session run by junior doctors seems to be efficient to empower the students to be first responders to OHCA. PMID:24731392

  8. Student scientific understandings in a ninth-grade project-based science classroom: A river runs through it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talsma, Valerie Lynn

    student achievement generated through different assessments in different contexts can now have common meaning and value in the science education community. The issues encountered in deploying this tool included: (1) lack of correspondence between content in the curriculum and in the Standards. (2) How to handle different levels of specificity in the assessment criteria (expected content, "if-might" content, and serendipitous content). And (3) translating content standards into performance standards to assess learning below the proficiency level defined by the Standards.

  9. The Aircraft Simulation Role in Improving Flight Safety Through Control Room Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shy, Karla S.; Hageman, Jacob J.; Le, Jeanette H.; Sitz, Joel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center uses its six-degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) fixed-base simulations for mission control room training to improve flight safety and operations. This concept is applied to numerous flight projects such as the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), the F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS), the X-38 Actuator Control Test (XACT), and X-43A (Hyper-X). The Dryden 6-DOF simulations are typically used through various stages of a project, from design to ground tests. The roles of these simulations have expanded to support control room training, reinforcing flight safety by building control room staff proficiency. Real-time telemetry, radar, and video data are generated from flight vehicle simulation models. These data are used to drive the control room displays. Nominal static values are used to complete information where appropriate. Audio communication is also an integral part of training sessions. This simulation capability is used to train control room personnel and flight crew for nominal missions and emergency situations. Such training sessions are also opportunities to refine flight cards and control room display pages, exercise emergency procedures, and practice control room setup for the day of flight. This paper describes this technology as it is used in the X-43A and F-15 IFCS and XACT projects.

  10. A Critical Analysis of Managerial Skills Competencies of Secondary School Heads Trained through Distance Mode of Allama Iqbal Open University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akhlaq, Muhammad; Sulehri, Shazia Munawar

    2010-01-01

    The premise of this article is to analyze the managerial skills competencies of secondary schools heads trained through distance mode of education in Pakistan. For this purpose a sample 300 secondary school teachers and 100 secondary schools head-teachers trained through distance mode and working in the Federal Government Educational Institutions…

  11. Understanding the Initial Impact of Early Support and Key Working Training through the Voices of Trainers, Training Participants, and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brito, Ana Teresa; Lindsay, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    An exploratory study is reported of the delivery of the Early Support and Key Working (ES&KW) training program in England for multiagency professionals and parents. This qualitative study examined how ES&KW training principles and content relate to contemporary pillars in early childhood intervention; how this training is structured to…

  12. Capacity Building through Focus Group Training in Community-based Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    Amico, KL; Wieland, ML; Weis, JA; Sullivan, SM; Nigon, JA; Sia, IG

    2014-01-01

    Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) emphasizes collaborative efforts among communities and academics where all members are equitable contributors. Capacity building through training in research methodology is a potentially important outcome for CBPR partnerships. Objectives To describe the logistics and lessons learned from building community research capacity for focus group moderation in the context of a CBPR partnership. Methods After orientation to CBPR principles, members of a US suburban community underwent twelve hours of interactive learning in focus group moderation by a national focus group expert. An additional eight-hour workshop promoted advanced proficiency and built on identified strengths and weaknesses. Ten focus groups were conducted at an adult education center addressing a health concern previously identified by the center’s largely immigrant and refugee population. Program evaluation was achieved through multiple observations by community and academic-based observers. Results Twenty-seven community and academic members were recruited through established relationships for training in focus group moderation, note-taking, and report compilation. Focus group training led to increased trust among community and research partners while empowering individual community members and increasing research capacity for CBPR. Conclusions Community members were trained in focus group moderation and successfully applied these skills to a CBPR project addressing a health concern in the community. This approach of equipping community members with skills in a qualitative research method promoted capacity building within a socio-culturally diverse community, while strengthening community-academic partnership. In this setting, capacity building efforts may help to ensure the success and sustainability for continued health interventions through CBPR. PMID:22267359

  13. Education and Training for Major Incidents Through Medical Response to Major Incidents–MRMI course

    PubMed Central

    Samardzic, Josip; Hreckovski, Boris; Hasukic, Ismar

    2015-01-01

    Incidence of major incidents nowadays is in constant growth, especially in last decade. Main goal of all health systems is to minimize and prevent tragic outcomes of major incidents, thus reducing morbidity and mortality and psychological and physical suffering. Lessons learned from Major Incidents throughout the World point out that tragical outcomes could be avoided through adequate preparation and planning. Necessity to plan and to educate to response to Major incident is greater than ever. Finally it is legal obligation that every hospital has plan in case of Major Incident. Effective planning must incorporate: identification of risks, methods of prevention, identification of all recourses, anticipation of errors and detailed protocol of response for each participant. Knowledge and skills needed for Major incident situations must be adopted through interactive training and practical exercise („learning by doing„). That can be achieved by field exercises and by simulation model. Simulation model has many advantages and enables simultaneous education and training of all participants; scene, transport, hospitals, communication and command which than can be evaluated through objective outcomes. The goal is to train medical staff in real time, on position they are assigned to, with available resources in conditions of Major incident. PMID:26236085

  14. Education and Training for Major Incidents Through Medical Response to Major Incidents-MRMI course.

    PubMed

    Samardzic, Josip; Hreckovski, Boris; Hasukic, Ismar

    2015-06-01

    Incidence of major incidents nowadays is in constant growth, especially in last decade. Main goal of all health systems is to minimize and prevent tragic outcomes of major incidents, thus reducing morbidity and mortality and psychological and physical suffering. Lessons learned from Major Incidents throughout the World point out that tragical outcomes could be avoided through adequate preparation and planning. Necessity to plan and to educate to response to Major incident is greater than ever. Finally it is legal obligation that every hospital has plan in case of Major Incident. Effective planning must incorporate: identification of risks, methods of prevention, identification of all recourses, anticipation of errors and detailed protocol of response for each participant. Knowledge and skills needed for Major incident situations must be adopted through interactive training and practical exercise ("learning by doing"). That can be achieved by field exercises and by simulation model. Simulation model has many advantages and enables simultaneous education and training of all participants; scene, transport, hospitals, communication and command which than can be evaluated through objective outcomes. The goal is to train medical staff in real time, on position they are assigned to, with available resources in conditions of Major incident. PMID:26236085

  15. Improving health and safety conditions in agriculture through professional training of Florida farm labor supervisors.

    PubMed

    Morera, Maria C; Monaghan, Paul F; Tovar-Aguilar, J Antonio; Galindo-Gonzalez, Sebastian; Roka, Fritz M; Asuaje, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Because farm labor supervisors (FLSs) are responsible for ensuring safe work environments for thousands of workers, providing them with adequate knowledge is critical to preserving worker health. Yet a challenge to offering professional training to FLSs, many of whom are foreign-born and have received different levels of education in the US and abroad, is implementing a program that not only results in knowledge gains but meets the expectations of a diverse audience. By offering bilingual instruction on safety and compliance, the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) FLS Training program is helping to improve workplace conditions and professionalize the industry. A recent evaluation of the program combined participant observation and surveys to elicit knowledge and satisfaction levels from attendees of its fall 2012 trainings. Frequency distributions and dependent- and independent-means t-tests were used to measure and compare participant outcomes. The evaluation found that attendees rated the quality of their training experience as either high or very high and scored significantly better in posttraining knowledge tests than in pretraining knowledge tests across both languages. Nonetheless, attendees of the trainings delivered in English had significantly higher posttest scores than attendees of the trainings delivered in Spanish. As a result, the program has incorporated greater standardization of content delivery and staff development. Through assessment of its program components and educational outcomes, the program has documented its effectiveness and offers a replicable approach that can serve to improve the targeted outcomes of safety and health promotion in other states. PMID:24911687

  16. Global Health Opportunities in Obstetrics and Gynecology Training: Examining Engagement Through an Ethical Lens.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Mohammad Y; Haddad, Lisa; Lathrop, Eva

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to describe global health training (GHT) programs through the ethical lens suggested by the Working Group on Ethics Guidelines for Global Health Training (WEIGHT). A total of 35 GHT programs were identified, and general information was obtained online. Semi-structured telephone interviews of key members of 19 programs were then conducted and transcribed. The interview guide was constructed using WEIGHT recommendations. Transcript data were grouped according to domains: reciprocity, trainee selection and preparedness, needs assessments, and ethical questions. Many programs expressed difficulty in building reciprocal relationships due to imbalanced power structures. Eleven programs reported no formal application process for selecting trainees. Twelve (63%) programs reported only a single day of preparation. Nine (47%) programs did not conduct a formalized needs assessment of partner sites. Ethical considerations varied from concerns for safety to inadequate training for residents. This study reveals the limited preparedness curricula and lack of formalized needs assessments among several programs. Although many programs make an effort to build reciprocal exchanges with host partners, experiences for foreign trainees within the United States are limited, and U.S. residents are often tasked with duties above their training level abroad. This study demonstrates the need to restructure how GHT programs are formed and operated. PMID:26324736

  17. Cognitive enhancement through action video game training: great expectations require greater evidence

    PubMed Central

    Bisoglio, Joseph; Michaels, Timothy I.; Mervis, Joshua E.; Ashinoff, Brandon K.

    2014-01-01

    Action video game training may hold promise as a cognitive intervention with the potential to enhance daily functioning and remediate impairments, but this must be more thoroughly evaluated through evidence-based practices. We review current research on the effect of action video game training on visual attention and visuospatial processing, executive functions, and learning and memory. Focusing on studies that utilize strict experimental controls and synthesize behavioral and neurophysiological data, we examine whether there is sufficient evidence to support a causal relationship between action video game training and beneficial changes in cognition. Convergent lines of behavioral and neurophysiological evidence tentatively support the efficacy of training, but the magnitude and specificity of these effects remain obscure. Causal inference is thus far limited by a lack of standardized and well-controlled methodology. Considering future directions, we suggest stringent adherence to evidence-based practices and collaboration modeled after clinical trial networks. Finally, we recommend the exploration of more complex causal models, such as indirect causal relationships and interactions that may be masking true effects. PMID:24600427

  18. Swimmers can train in hypoxia at sea level through voluntary hypoventilation.

    PubMed

    Woorons, Xavier; Gamelin, François-Xavier; Lamberto, Christine; Pichon, Aurélien; Richalet, Jean Paul

    2014-01-01

    This study used an innovative technique of pulse oximetry to investigate whether swimmers can train under hypoxic conditions through voluntary hypoventilation (VH). Ten trained subjects performed a front crawl swimming series with normal breathing (NB), VH at high (VHhigh) and low pulmonary volume (VHlow). Arterial oxygen saturation was continuously measured via pulse oximetry (SpO2) with a waterproofed forehead sensor. Gas exchanges were recorded continuously and lactate concentration ([La]) was assessed at the end of each test. In VHlow, SpO2 fell down to 87% at the end of the series whereas it remained above 94% in VHhigh during most part of the series. Ventilation, oxygen uptake and end-tidal O2 pressure were lower in both VHhigh and VHlow than in NB. Compared to NB, [La] significantly increased in VHlow and decreased in VHhigh. This study demonstrated that swimmers can train under hypoxic conditions at sea level and can accentuate the glycolytic stimulus of their training if they perform VH at low but not high pulmonary volume. PMID:24012989

  19. Gains in cognition through combined cognitive and physical training: the role of training dosage and severity of neurocognitive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bamidis, Panagiotis D.; Fissler, Patrick; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G.; Zilidou, Vasiliki; Konstantinidis, Evdokimos I.; Billis, Antonis S.; Romanopoulou, Evangelia; Karagianni, Maria; Beratis, Ion; Tsapanou, Angeliki; Tsilikopoulou, Georgia; Grigoriadou, Eirini; Ladas, Aristea; Kyrillidou, Athina; Tsolaki, Anthoula; Frantzidis, Christos; Sidiropoulos, Efstathios; Siountas, Anastasios; Matsi, Stavroula; Papatriantafyllou, John; Margioti, Eleni; Nika, Aspasia; Schlee, Winfried; Elbert, Thomas; Tsolaki, Magda; Vivas, Ana B.; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Physical as well as cognitive training interventions improve specific cognitive functions but effects barely generalize on global cognition. Combined physical and cognitive training may overcome this shortcoming as physical training may facilitate the neuroplastic potential which, in turn, may be guided by cognitive training. This study aimed at investigating the benefits of combined training on global cognition while assessing the effect of training dosage and exploring the role of several potential effect modifiers. In this multi-center study, 322 older adults with or without neurocognitive disorders (NCDs) were allocated to a computerized, game-based, combined physical and cognitive training group (n = 237) or a passive control group (n = 85). Training group participants were allocated to different training dosages ranging from 24 to 110 potential sessions. In a pre-post-test design, global cognition was assessed by averaging standardized performance in working memory, episodic memory and executive function tests. The intervention group increased in global cognition compared to the control group, p = 0.002, Cohen’s d = 0.31. Exploratory analysis revealed a trend for less benefits in participants with more severe NCD, p = 0.08 (cognitively healthy: d = 0.54; mild cognitive impairment: d = 0.19; dementia: d = 0.04). In participants without dementia, we found a dose-response effect of the potential number and of the completed number of training sessions on global cognition, p = 0.008 and p = 0.04, respectively. The results indicate that combined physical and cognitive training improves global cognition in a dose-responsive manner but these benefits may be less pronounced in older adults with more severe NCD. The long-lasting impact of combined training on the incidence and trajectory of NCDs in relation to its severity should be assessed in future long-term trials. PMID:26300772

  20. Gains in cognition through combined cognitive and physical training: the role of training dosage and severity of neurocognitive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Fissler, Patrick; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G; Zilidou, Vasiliki; Konstantinidis, Evdokimos I; Billis, Antonis S; Romanopoulou, Evangelia; Karagianni, Maria; Beratis, Ion; Tsapanou, Angeliki; Tsilikopoulou, Georgia; Grigoriadou, Eirini; Ladas, Aristea; Kyrillidou, Athina; Tsolaki, Anthoula; Frantzidis, Christos; Sidiropoulos, Efstathios; Siountas, Anastasios; Matsi, Stavroula; Papatriantafyllou, John; Margioti, Eleni; Nika, Aspasia; Schlee, Winfried; Elbert, Thomas; Tsolaki, Magda; Vivas, Ana B; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Physical as well as cognitive training interventions improve specific cognitive functions but effects barely generalize on global cognition. Combined physical and cognitive training may overcome this shortcoming as physical training may facilitate the neuroplastic potential which, in turn, may be guided by cognitive training. This study aimed at investigating the benefits of combined training on global cognition while assessing the effect of training dosage and exploring the role of several potential effect modifiers. In this multi-center study, 322 older adults with or without neurocognitive disorders (NCDs) were allocated to a computerized, game-based, combined physical and cognitive training group (n = 237) or a passive control group (n = 85). Training group participants were allocated to different training dosages ranging from 24 to 110 potential sessions. In a pre-post-test design, global cognition was assessed by averaging standardized performance in working memory, episodic memory and executive function tests. The intervention group increased in global cognition compared to the control group, p = 0.002, Cohen's d = 0.31. Exploratory analysis revealed a trend for less benefits in participants with more severe NCD, p = 0.08 (cognitively healthy: d = 0.54; mild cognitive impairment: d = 0.19; dementia: d = 0.04). In participants without dementia, we found a dose-response effect of the potential number and of the completed number of training sessions on global cognition, p = 0.008 and p = 0.04, respectively. The results indicate that combined physical and cognitive training improves global cognition in a dose-responsive manner but these benefits may be less pronounced in older adults with more severe NCD. The long-lasting impact of combined training on the incidence and trajectory of NCDs in relation to its severity should be assessed in future long-term trials. PMID:26300772

  1. Enhancing visuospatial performance through video game training to increase learning in visuospatial science domains.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Christopher A

    2012-02-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated that performance on visuospatial assessments can be enhanced through relevant experience, an unaddressed question is whether such experience also produces a similar increase in target domains (such as science learning) where visuospatial abilities are directly relevant for performance. In the present study, participants completed either spatial or nonspatial training via interaction with video games and were then asked to read and learn about the geologic topic of plate tectonics. Results replicate the benefit of playing appropriate video games in enhancing visuospatial performance and demonstrate that this facilitation also manifests itself in learning science topics that are visuospatial in nature. This novel result suggests that visuospatial training not only can impact performance on measures of spatial functioning, but also can affect performance in content areas in which these abilities are utilized. PMID:22037919

  2. Missed opportunities for improving nutrition through institutional food: the case for food worker training.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Emma K; Deutsch, Jonathan; Patinella, Stefania; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2013-09-01

    The institutional food sector-including food served in schools, child care settings, hospitals, and senior centers-is a largely untapped resource for public health that may help to arrest increasing rates of obesity and diet-related health problems. To make this case, we estimated the reach of a diverse institutional food sector in 1 large municipality, New York City, in 2012, and explored the potential for improving institutional food by building the skills and nutritional knowledge of foodservice workers through training. Drawing on the research literature and preliminary data collected in New York City, we discuss the dynamics of nutritional decision-making in these settings. Finally, we identify opportunities and challenges associated with training the institutional food workforce to enhance nutrition and health. PMID:23865653

  3. Sensitive Training Through Body Awareness to Improve the Writing of Patients with Writer’s Cramp

    PubMed Central

    Waissman, Flavia Quadros Boisson; Orsini, Marco; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.; Leite, Marco Antônio A.; Pereira, João Santos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate if body awareness is important to improve the writing ability before using the splints. Twelve patients with writer’s cramp were evaluated by a specialist in movement disorders. The Burke-Fahn-Marsden Scale (BFM), the Jedynak Protocol and the Analog Pain Scale were used. The rehabilitation training was administered over an eight-week period, in two phases of four weeks each, twice a week. Each session would last 60 minutes. A significant improvement was shown, not only in the motor, but also in the pain perception, through the BFM scale, the Jedynak Protocol and the Analog Pain Scale. Therefore, we conclude that the motor training, thanks to the body awareness and immobilization by splints of the affected dystonic musculature, led to an important improvement in the writer’s cramp writing. PMID:24416488

  4. Missed Opportunities for Improving Nutrition Through Institutional Food: The Case for Food Worker Training

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Jonathan; Patinella, Stefania; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The institutional food sector—including food served in schools, child care settings, hospitals, and senior centers—is a largely untapped resource for public health that may help to arrest increasing rates of obesity and diet-related health problems. To make this case, we estimated the reach of a diverse institutional food sector in 1 large municipality, New York City, in 2012, and explored the potential for improving institutional food by building the skills and nutritional knowledge of foodservice workers through training. Drawing on the research literature and preliminary data collected in New York City, we discuss the dynamics of nutritional decision-making in these settings. Finally, we identify opportunities and challenges associated with training the institutional food workforce to enhance nutrition and health. PMID:23865653

  5. Transforming the Corporate Training Function through Developing a Training Strategy and Advisory Board: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalman, Howard K.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined use of a strategic planning process to reinvent a corporate training department. The naturalistic case describes how the corporate training function gained credibility and influence with senior management, developed alignment with organizational goals, and began transforming the function into a performance improvement…

  6. Tennessee's Statewide Early Childhood Training System (TECTA): Improving the Quality of Early Childhood Services through Coordinated Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mietlicki, Connie

    2010-01-01

    A critical issue facing the nation today stems from the fact that many classroom teachers in Early Childhood Education lack adequate training. This deficit in the professional education of teachers impacts outcomes for children every day. This article discusses the establishment of a training system that has impacted Early Childhood education in…

  7. Changing Services to Children with Disabilities and Their Families through In-Service Training--Is the Organisation Affected?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, M.; Bjorck-AKesson, E.; Granlund, M.

    2008-01-01

    Professional development in family-centred services was given to professionals supporting children with disabilities and their families with the purpose to influence ways to perform working tasks. Is it possible to change ways of working through in-service training? In order to find answers to that question perceptions of in-service training at…

  8. A Training Program to Improve IFSP/IEP Goals and Objectives through the Routines-Based Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boavida, Tânia; Aguiar, Cecília; McWilliam, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe a training program designed to improve the knowledge and skills of early childhood interventionists. Within the context of using the Routines-Based Early Intervention approach, this training focused on improving the quality of goals and objectives on individualized plans, through the Routines-Based Interview. We structured the…

  9. Simulation of longitudinal dynamics of a freight train operating through a car dumper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, R.; Sakalo, A.; Yazykov, V.; Shamdani, A.; Bowey, R.; Wakeling, C.

    2016-06-01

    A heavy haul train and car dumper model was created to analyse train longitudinal dynamics during dumping. Influence of such factors as performance curve of draft gears, total free slack in couplers, operating mode of train positioner and braking of last two cars of train on the in-train forces was considered.

  10. Class@Baikal: the Endurance of the UNESCO Training-Through-Research Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzini, A.; Akhmanov, G.; Khlystov, O.; Tokarev, M.; Korost, D. V.; Poort, J.; Fokina, A.; Giliazetdinova, D. R.; Yurchenko, A.; Vodopyanov, S.

    2014-12-01

    In July 2014, by the initiative of the Moscow State University and Limnological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, the first Training-through-Research Class@Baikal was launched in Lake Baikal, Russia. The cruise program focused on seafloor sampling and acoustic investigations of gas seeps, flares, mud volcanoes, slumps and debris flows, canyons and channels in the coastal proximity. A comprehensive multidisciplinary program to train students has been developed to cover sedimentology, fluid geochemistry, biology, geophysics and marine geology in general. Daily lectures were conducted on board by academics presenting pertinent research projects, and cruise planning and preliminary results were discussed with all the scientific crew. A daily blog with updates on the expedition activities, images, and ongoing cruise results, was also completed (i.e. visit the cruise blog: http://baikal.festivalnauki.ru/) and gave the opportunity to interact with experts as well as attract the interest also of a broader audience. This project is a follow up to the well-established UNESCO Training-through-Research (TTR) Floating University Programme (http://floatinguniversity.ru/) that covered large areas on the European and arctic margins since 1991 with 18 research cruises attended by about 1000 BSc, MSc and PhD students from Europe, Asia, Africa and America. The crucial goal of both programmes is the training of new generations of scientists through active research directly on the field. Students can access the collected data and samples for their Master and PhD projects. Typically an extensive set of analyses and data processing is completed in-house and the results and interpretations are presented at post cruise meetings and international conferences. The Baikal lake is 25 million years old rift zone and provides a large variety of active geological features that can be easily reached at daily sailing distance. This represents an extraordinary opportunity to switch and focus

  11. Mindfulness training modulates value signals in ventromedial prefrontal cortex through input from insular cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Ulrich; Gu, Xiaosi; Harvey, Ann H.; Fonagy, Peter; Montague, P. Read

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging research has demonstrated that ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) encodes value signals that can be modulated by top-down cognitive input such as semantic knowledge, price incentives, and monetary favors suggesting that such biases may have an identified biological basis. It has been hypothesized that mindfulness training (MT) provides one path for gaining control over such top-down influences; yet, there have been no direct tests of this hypothesis. Here, we probe the behavioral and neural effects of MT on value signals in vmPFC in a randomized longitudinal design of 8 weeks of MT on an initially naïve subject cohort. The impact of this within-subject training was assessed using two paradigms: one that employed primary rewards (fruit juice) in a simple conditioning task and another that used a well-validated art-viewing paradigm to test bias of monetary favors on preference. We show that MT behaviorally censors the top-down bias of monetary favors through a measurable influence on value signals in vmPFC. MT also modulates value signals in vmPFC to primary reward delivery. Using a separate cohort of subjects we show that 8 weeks of active control training (ACT) generates the same behavioral impact also through an effect on signals in the vmPFC. Importantly, functional connectivity analyses show that value signals in vmPFC are coupled with bilateral posterior insula in the MT groups in both paradigms, but not in the ACT groups. These results suggest that MT integrates interoceptive input from insular cortex in the context of value computations of both primary and secondary rewards. PMID:24956066

  12. Battling the challenges of training nurses to use information systems through theory-based training material design.

    PubMed

    Galani, Malatsi; Yu, Ping; Paas, Fred; Chandler, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The attempts to train nurses to effectively use information systems have had mixed results. One problem is that training materials are not adequately designed to guide trainees to gradually learn to use a system without experiencing a heavy cognitive load. This is because training design often does not take into consideration a learner's cognitive ability to absorb new information in a short training period. Given the high cost and difficulty of organising training in healthcare organisations, there is an urgent need for information system trainers to be aware of how cognitive overload or information overload affect a trainee's capability to acquire new knowledge and skills, and what instructional techniques can be used to facilitate effective learning. This paper introduces the concept of cognitive load and how it affects nurses when learning to use a new health information system. This is followed by the relevant strategies for instructional design, underpinned by the principles of cognitive load theory, which may be helpful for the development of effective instructional materials and activities for training nurses to use information systems. PMID:25087524

  13. Effect of chiropractic treatment on hip extension ability and running velocity among young male running athletes☆

    PubMed Central

    Sandell, Jörgen; Palmgren, Per J.; Björndahl, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study investigates the effect of chiropractic treatment on hip joint extension ability and running velocity. Methods This was a prospective, randomized, controlled experimental pilot study. Seventeen healthy male junior athletes (age, 17-20 years) training in middle distance running were recruited from local Swedish athletic associations. Hip extension ability and running velocity were measured before and after the study period. Chiropractic investigations comprised motion palpation of the sacroiliac and hip joints and modified Thomas test of the ability to extend the leg. In the treatment group, findings of restrictive joint dysfunctions formed the basis for the choice of chiropractic treatment. The interventions were based on a pragmatic approach consisting of high-velocity, low-amplitude manipulations targeted toward, but not exclusively to, the sacroiliac joints. Results The treatment group showed significantly greater hip extension ability after chiropractic treatment than did controls (P < .05). Participants in the treatment group did not show a significant decrease in time for running 30 m after treatment (average, −0.065 seconds; P = .0572), whereas the difference was even smaller for the control subjects (average, −0.003; P = .7344). Conclusions The results imply that chiropractic treatment can improve hip extensibility in subjects with restriction as measured by the modified Thomas test. It could be speculated that the running step was amplified by increasing the angle of step through facilitated hip joint extension ability. The possible effect of chiropractic treatment to enhance the running velocity, by increasing the hip joint extension ability and thereby increasing the running step, remains unproven. PMID:19674719

  14. SLATE: Virtualizing multiscale CT training

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Sourav; Sharma, Kriti Sen; Lee, Spencer J.; Fox, Edward A.; Wang, Ge

    2014-01-01

    Training on micro- and nano- computed tomography (CT) scanners has been traditionally conducted via extensive practice on the instrument. This entails presence of an instructor to guide through the training procedure, until reasonable experience is attained. Modern tomographic instruments being expensive to maintain, the operational costs escalates with increasing number of training conducted. In a pioneering approach, the technical know-how to operate such equipment has been partly imparted via virtual reality environment running on the Second Life grid. The experimentation has indicated a reduction of the total training time. The authors hope that in the long run, such techniques will aid in significant reduction of instruction time and costs associated with training. PMID:22635178

  15. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received,...

  16. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received,...

  17. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received,...

  18. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received,...

  19. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received,...

  20. Nutrition Improvement through Mixed Gardening in the Humid Tropics. A Trainer's Manual. Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Paul

    This manual is designed to provide Peace Corps trainers with suggested guidelines on the presentation of a nutrition-oriented household food production training program to community-level field workers. The manual describes and discusses simple, low-cost, local resources that may be available to the community. When applied through a home garden,…

  1. Training Music Teachers through Distance Learning: The Case of Teaching Practice Mentoring at One Primary School Teacher Training College in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhebhe, Sithulisiwe; Runhare, Tawanda; Monobe, Ratau John

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to examine the quality of teaching practice (TP) mentoring in the teaching of music at primary school level through the distance mode of training at one college of education in Zimbabwe. The study examined the experiences and perceptions of lecturers and student teachers on TP mentoring in music within the context of a distance…

  2. Training in outbreak investigation through use of an online discussion group.

    PubMed

    Stehr-Green, Jeanette; Gathany, Nancy

    2005-11-01

    Distance learning has been found to be effective for continuing public health training. The authors undertook a six-week pilot to teach skills in outbreak investigation through the combination of a self-instructional, interactive, computer-based case study and online discussions led by two instructors. Participants were public health practitioners with knowledge of basic epidemiology and public health. Eighteen public health practitioners participated. Overall, participants posted 113 messages to the online discussions, with a median of 5.5 messages per participant (range: 0-16). The number of postings was higher for participants who had taken part in an outbreak investigation before the pilot test than for those who had not. In general, participants enjoyed the experience and believed that the online discussions added value to the self-instructional case study. The authors conclude that the combination of the case study and the online discussions was a positive learning experience. They encourage others to consider this format for training. PMID:16334092

  3. Improving Inservice Training for Summer Staff in an Early Childhood Center through Individual Professional Development Goals and Ongoing Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroehl, Candace Olin

    This practicum focused on the problem of inservice training failing to meet the individual professional needs of a diverse summer staff in an early childhood center. The solution strategy utilized a needs assessment survey and consultations with staff members to determine areas of need and interest, the results of which were used to devise a…

  4. Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…

  5. Improving Training in Enterprise Resource Planning Systems Implementation through Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Don; Burgess, Kevin J.; Houghton, Luke; Murray, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    The Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) literature suggests that effective training is one of the key reasons for success in ERP implementations. However, limited research has been conducted on what constitutes effective training in an ERP environment. A case study approach was used to explore the effectiveness of traditional training and to…

  6. Teaching Children to Discriminate Letters of the Alphabet through Errorless Discrimination Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egeland, Byron; And Others

    Errorless discrimination training is a technique in which the discriminative stimulus is supplemented with a salient cue which is gradually removed or faded during the course of training. In this study errorless discrimination training was used to teach preschool children the distinctive features of letters of the alphabet that are difficult to…

  7. The Shaping of Managers' Security Objectives through Information Security Awareness Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Information security research states that corporate security policy and information security training should be socio-technical in nature and that corporations should consider training as a primary method of protecting their information systems. However, information security policies and training are predominately technical in nature. In addition,…

  8. Promoting Athletic Training through a General Education Course in Psychosocial Aspects of Sports Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner-Shires, Alison Marie; Heinerichs, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Context: A general education course taught by athletic training education faculty has the potential to expose the entire student body to the athletic training profession in a unique way while also meeting requirements of the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Objective: To introduce a detailed case study of a general…

  9. The IEDA-CCNY Data Internship Program: Undergraduate Workforce Training Through Immersion in Geoinformatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, K. A.; Goodwillie, A. M.; Cai, Y.; Gonzalez, S.; Mahmud, A.; Haggard, Z.; Wagner, J.; Chao, A. K.; Carbotte, S. M.; Lehnert, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Large NSF-funded facilities have a record of longevity and successful production of research tools that provide convenient access to data holdings, reaching far within the geoscience community. They are therefore natural vehicles for training undergraduates for the workforce. The NSF-funded Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance facility (IEDA), based at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, manages diverse geoscience data collections and is running a two-year pilot Data Internship Program with the City College of New York (CCNY). The program matches undergraduate students with senior researchers to compile, process, and analyze data for ingestion in IEDA repositories. The internship provides students with exposure to research areas beyond those currently available at CCNY, giving each student the opportunity to gain experiences and skills in the curation of authentic data. From the facility perspective, the work performed by the interns promotes IEDA data activities and increases awareness of the geoinformatics field amongst tomorrow's potential geoscientists. In the first year, five interns participated in the program: two interns working on geochemistry projects throughout the academic year, and three working on geophysics projects over nine weeks in the summer. The geochemistry interns successfully engaged in the initial development of MoonDB, an archival database of lunar rock chemistry, and the geophysics interns undertook a compilation and analysis of multibeam swath bathymetry data from Japan's JAMSTEC marine agency. Interns were involved with handling research-grade geochemical and geophysical data and maintained notes to allow reproducibility of their methods. They learned the basics of the data management software, how to dissect PhP data processing scripts, and how to track down data-related issues. By working at the Lamont campus, interns were exposed to a wide range of seminars given by in-house and visiting scientists. The IEDA interns completed regular

  10. Differential changes in self-reported aspects of interoceptive awareness through 3 months of contemplative training

    PubMed Central

    Bornemann, Boris; Herbert, Beate M.; Mehling, Wolf E.; Singer, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Interoceptive body awareness (IA) is crucial for psychological well-being and plays an important role in many contemplative traditions. However, until recently, standardized self-report measures of IA were scarce, not comprehensive, and the effects of interoceptive training on such measures were largely unknown. The Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) questionnaire measures IA with eight different scales. In the current study, we investigated whether and how these different aspects of IA are influenced by a 3-months contemplative intervention in the context of the ReSource project, in which 148 subjects engaged in daily practices of “Body Scan” and “Breath Meditation.” We developed a German version of the MAIA and tested it in a large and diverse sample (n = 1,076). Internal consistencies were similar to the English version (0.56–0.89), retest reliability was high (rs: 0.66–0.79), and the MAIA showed good convergent and discriminant validity. Importantly, interoceptive training improved five out of eight aspects of IA, compared to a retest control group. Participants with low IA scores at baseline showed the biggest changes. Whereas practice duration only weakly predicted individual differences in change, self-reported liking of the practices and degree of integration into daily life predicted changes on most scales. Interestingly, the magnitude of observed changes varied across scales. The strongest changes were observed for the regulatory aspects of IA, that is, how the body is used for self-regulation in daily life. No significant changes were observed for the Noticing aspect (becoming aware of bodily changes), which is the aspect that is predominantly assessed in other IA measures. This differential pattern underscores the importance to assess IA multi-dimensionally, particularly when interested in enhancement of IA through contemplative practice or other mind–body interventions. PMID:25610410

  11. A century after Flexner: the need for reform in medical education from college and medical school through residency training.

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Eddie L.

    2005-01-01

    The last major change in medical education occurred almost 100 years ago following an independent investigation conducted by Dr. Abraham Flexner in 1910. Although individual institutions have implemented drastic changes in their own curriculum and the accrediting agencies have mandated other initiatives intended to maintain medical education at the cutting edge of science and technology, many facets of medical education, from the premedical requirements through medical school and residency training, have not changed in nearly half a century. There are areas that are completely lacking in the process of training physicians, and perhaps the assumption was that physicians were intelligent enough to figure this out on their own. While that may have been true in the past when things were less complicated, this approach offers too many opportunities for misadventure, ultimately to the detriment of physicians and patients. Perhaps what is needed is a more rigorous, didactic training program and more thought put into areas where judgment, morality and ethics converge to create potential hazards that can defeat the finest training, equipment and intent. Although American residency programs produce physicians fully capable of independent practice after their prescribed periods of training, there are elements of these training programs that are outdated, costly and perhaps not the best way to get to the desired endpoint. Perhaps these can be revised to more accurately reflect the changing times. This manuscript addresses some of these issues at all levels of training with recommendations for corrective action. PMID:16296214

  12. Dr. Sheehan on Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, George A.

    This book is both a personal and technical account of the experience of running by a heart specialist who began a running program at the age of 45. In its seventeen chapters, there is information presented on the spiritual, psychological, and physiological results of running; treatment of athletic injuries resulting from running; effects of diet…

  13. Workplace safety and health improvements through a labor/management training and collaboration.

    PubMed

    Mahan, Bruce; Morawetz, John; Ruttenberg, Ruth; Workman, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Seven hundred thirty-nine workers at Merck's Stonewall plant in Elkton, Virginia, have a safer and healthier workplace because four of them were enthusiastic about health and safety training they received from the union's training center in Cincinnati, Ohio. What emerged was not only that all 739 plant employees received OSHA 10-hour General Industry training, but that it was delivered by "OSHA-authorized" members of the International Chemical Workers Union Council who worked at the plant. Merck created a new full-time position in its Learning and Development Department and filled it with one of the four workers who had received the initial training. Strong plant leadership promoted discussions both during the training, in evaluation, and in newly energized joint labor-management meetings following the training. These discussions identified safety and health issues needing attention. Then, in a new spirit of trust and collaboration, major improvements occurred. PMID:24704812

  14. Monitoring volcanic systems through cross-correlation of coincident A-Train satellite data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flower, V. J. B.; Carn, S. A.; Wright, R.

    2014-12-01

    The remote location and inaccessibility of many active volcanic systems around the world hinders detailed investigation of their eruptive dynamics. One methodology for monitoring such locations is through the utilisation of multiple satellite datasets to elucidate underlying eruption dynamics and aid volcanic hazard mitigation. Whilst satellite datasets are often analysed individually, here we exploit the multi-platform NASA A-Train satellite constellation, including the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on Aura and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Aqua. OMI measures volcanic emissions (e.g. sulphur dioxide, ash) whilst MODIS enables monitoring of thermal anomalies (e.g. lava flows, lava lakes, pyroclastic deposits), allowing analysis of a more diverse range of volcanic unrest than is possible using a single measurement technique alone, and permitting cross-correlation between datasets for specific locations to assess cyclic activity. A Multi-taper (MTM) Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis was implemented at an initial sample site (Soufriere Hills volcano [SHV], Montserrat) facilitating cycle identification and subsequent comparison with existing ground-based data. Corresponding cycles at intervals of 8, 12 and ~50 days were identified in both the satellite-based SO2 and thermal infrared signals and ground-based SO2 measurements (Nicholson et al. 2013), validating the methodology. Our analysis confirms the potential for identification of cyclical volcanic activity through synergistic analysis of satellite data, which would be of particular value at poorly monitored volcanic systems. Following our initial test at SHV, further sample sites have been selected in locations with varied eruption dynamics and monitoring capabilities including Ambrym (Vanuatu), Kilauea (Hawaii), Nyiragongo (DR Congo) and Etna (Italy) with the intention of identifying not only cyclic signals that can be attributed to volcanic systems but also those which are

  15. Cultivating Presence in Movement: Student Reflections on the Practice of Feldenkrais "Awareness through Movement[R]" in Dance Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Heidi; Chatfield, Steven J.; Cox, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design, implement, and evaluate an experimental course investigating the effect of Feldenkrais "Awareness Through Movement (ATM)" on students' self-image and its transference to concept related dance phrases, motif based improvisations, outside training and performance, and their daily lives. As a dancer and…

  16. Mitigating Disruptive Effects of Interruptions through Training: What Needs to Be Practiced?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cades, David M.; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A.; Trafton, J. Gregory; Monk, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    It is generally accepted that, with practice, people improve on most tasks. However, when tasks have multiple parts, it is not always clear what aspects of the tasks practice or training should focus on. This research explores the features that allow training to improve the ability to resume a task after an interruption, specifically focusing on…

  17. Implementing a K-12 Train the Trainer Professional Development Model through the School Improvement Grant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollnow, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Effective professional development has been shown to improve instruction and increase student academic achievement. The Train the Trainer professional development model is often chosen by the state Department of Education for its efficiency and cost effectiveness of delivering training to schools and districts widely distributed throughout the…

  18. 20 CFR 638.600 - Applied vocational skills training (VST) through work projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Applied Vocational...) The Job Corps Director shall establish procedures for administering applied vocational skills training... accordance with policies established by the Job Corps Director. Centers may also perform applied VST...

  19. Moving Beyond the Training Room: Fostering Workplace Learning through Online Journaling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyboran, Vincent L.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of instructional methods have been shown to be effective in fostering employee learning in workplace training. These include problem-based learning, cooperative learning, and situated learning. Despite their success, however, there are at least two important reasons to actively foster learning beyond the training room: The transfer of…

  20. Curriculum Change Through Organizational Change: A Human Relations Training Program in a School System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimple, James; And Others

    This document contains three papers describing the South Brunswick Township (Kindall Park, N.J.) Public Schools inservice and preservice program based on a training design which includes group dynamics or human relations training combined with a summer laboratory school. The first paper "A Three-Year Organizational Development with a Total School…

  1. Pathways through the Education and Training System: Do We Need a New Model?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosser, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Analyses conducted by the Education, Science and Skills Development (ESSD) research programme at the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC) reveal major areas of misalignment in the South African education pathway system. The majority of learners entering Further Education and Training (FET) colleges, nursing training institutions and learnerships…

  2. Stress Prevention through a Time Management Training Intervention: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Häfner, Alexander; Stock, Armin; Pinneker, Lydia; Ströhle, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a short-term time management training programme on perceived control of time and perceived stress. The sample of 177 freshmen was randomly assigned to a time management training (n?=?89) and an active control group (CG) (n?=?88). We expected that an increase in external demands during the…

  3. Continuing Professional Development through the DfES Training School Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, David

    2004-01-01

    The author, who is Director and Deputy Head Teacher of a newly established Department for Education and Skills training school, examines the origins of the successful bid for training school status, the proposed changes to professional practice and informed discourse, and the enhanced expertise which it will bring to all involved, and how already…

  4. Improving a Military Before and After School Program for Kindergarten Children through Staff Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Susan L.

    Concerns about the quality of a before- and after-school program on an overseas military installation arose due to low staff morale, caregivers' lack of training and experience, and child behavior problems. This practicum project devised and implemented a 10-week training program to increase staff knowledge of developmentally appropriate practices…

  5. Renaming Teaching Practice through Teacher Reflection Using Critical Incidents on a Virtual Training Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badia, Antoni; Becerril, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    This study approaches teacher learning from a dialogical viewpoint where lecturers' voices used in a training course context reflect how lecturers generated new professional discourse. The design of the training course considered the analysis of several critical incidents (CIs) in online teaching. An analytical framework based on lecturers'…

  6. Designing a Model of Vocational Training Programs for Disables through ODL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majid, Shaista; Razzak, Adeela

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to designing a model of vocational training programs for disables. For this purpose desk review was carried out and the vocational training models/programs of Israel, U.K., Vietnam, Japan and Thailand were analyzed to form a conceptual framework of the model. Keeping in view the local conditions/requirements a model of…

  7. Perspectives of Opera Singer Training and Education through an Examination of Collegiate-Level Opera Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Carleen Ray

    2009-01-01

    The publication and exchange of pedagogical information on opera singer training has traditionally been anecdotal and not derived from empirical investigation. There appears to be a lack of communication or understanding between the educators who train aspiring opera singers and others who work with them in professional performing environments…

  8. Facilitating Speech, Language and Auditory Training through Tap Dancing and Creative Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Katherine

    The paper describes specific techniques developed for utilizing tap dance and creative movement to facilitate speech, language, and auditory training in children with communication disorders. The integration of auditory training with speech and language activities is noted, as is the importance of incorporating movement, sound, rhythm, and…

  9. Learner Orientation through Professional Development of Teachers? Empirical Results from Cascade Training in Anglophone Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of a professional development programme on the attitudes towards the teaching and learning of teachers in the Anglophone part of Cameroon. The development programme combines a multiplier system with school-based in-service training. The research compares the effects that the training had on the attitudes of three…

  10. Advancing training to identify, intervene, and follow up with individuals at risk for suicide through research.

    PubMed

    Osteen, Philip J; Frey, Jodi J; Ko, Jungyai

    2014-09-01

    Research and training on suicide is critical given the fact that the majority of suicide deaths are preventable with accurate identification of risk and intervention by trained individuals. However, implementing and evaluating training is difficult because of the multiple factors involved, including, but not limited to, the heterogeneity of trainees, their diverse roles in suicide prevention, absence of clear guidelines for training content across settings, and limited methods for assessing outcomes. Here, three groups of trainees are discussed: community and professional gatekeepers and behavioral health providers. The roles each group plays in managing suicide risk and the training content it needs to be effective are addressed. A staged training approach is proposed, building on the core components of currently used suicide training: knowledge, attitudes, and skills/behaviors. Limitations of current assessment methods are identified and recommendations for alternative methods are provided. The article concludes with a discussion of next steps in moving the field forward, including overcoming challenges and identifying and engaging opportunities. PMID:25145742

  11. Reading, Writing, and Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detherage, Jim

    1980-01-01

    Describes an English course that capitalizes on the popularity of running, integrating running with reading and writing activities. Notes the positive results of this interdisciplinary approach. Provides samples of student writings. (RL)

  12. On Running and Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukes, Denzel; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Frederic Leer's article "Running as an Adjunct to Psychotherapy" (January 1980 issue of this journal) is criticized by three authors. They focus on the psychological and social effects of running and its usefulness as a treatment for depressed adults. (LAB)

  13. Fun Fitness Runs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scantling, Ed; Strand, Brad

    1997-01-01

    Fitness runs are planned activities that make running more interesting. The paper outlines five types of fitness runs, all of which can be modified to conform to different facilities, age groups, or available time. The activities have students playing detective, playing cards, deciphering words, learning about calories, and playing wolf. (SM)

  14. Biomechanics of Distance Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Peter R., Ed.

    Contributions from researchers in the field of running mechanics are included in the 13 chapters of this book. The following topics are covered: (1) "The Mechanics of Distance Running: A Historical Perspective" (Peter Cavanagh); (2) "Stride Length in Distance Running: Velocity, Body Dimensions, and Added Mass Effects" (Peter Cavanagh, Rodger…

  15. Promoting Evidence-Based Practice Through a Research Training Program for Point-of-Care Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Black, Agnes T.; Balneaves, Lynda G.; Garossino, Candy; Puyat, Joseph H.; Qian, Hong

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a research training program on clinicians’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to research and evidence-based practice (EBP). BACKGROUND: EBP has been shown to improve patient care and outcomes. Innovative approaches are needed to overcome individual and organizational barriers to EBP. METHODS: Mixed-methods design was used to evaluate a research training intervention with point-of-care clinicians in a Canadian urban health organization. Participants completed the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice Survey over 3 timepoints. Focus groups and interviews were also conducted. RESULTS: Statistically significant improvement in research knowledge and ability was demonstrated. Participants and administrators identified benefits of the training program, including the impact on EBP. CONCLUSIONS: Providing research training opportunities to point-of-care clinicians is a promising strategy for healthcare organizations seeking to promote EBP, empower clinicians, and showcase excellence in clinical research. PMID:25390076

  16. Innovating Training through Immersive Environments: Generation Y, Exploratory Learning, and Serious Games

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendron, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Over the next decade, those entering Service and Joint Staff positions within the military will come from a different generation than the current leadership. They will come from Generation Y and have differing preferences for learning. Immersive learning environments like serious games and virtual world initiatives can complement traditional training methods to provide a better overall training program for staffs. Generation Y members desire learning methods which are relevant and interactive, regardless of whether they are delivered over the internet or in person. This paper focuses on a project undertaken to assess alternative training methods to teach special operations staffs. It provides a summary of the needs analysis used to consider alternatives and to better posture the Department of Defense for future training development.

  17. Increasing Mathematics and Science Achievement for Culturally Diverse Students through Teaching Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahon, Lee

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this proposal was to field test and evaluate a Teacher Training program that would prepare teachers to increase the motivation and achievement of culturally diverse students in the areas of science and mathematics. Designed as a three year program, this report covers the first two years of the training program at the Ronald McNair School in the Ravenswood School district, using the resources of the NASA Ames Research Center and the California Framework for Mathematics and Science.

  18. Improving Patient Safety through Simulation Training in Anesthesiology: Where Are We?

    PubMed

    Green, Michael; Tariq, Rayhan; Green, Parmis

    2016-01-01

    There have been colossal technological advances in the use of simulation in anesthesiology in the past 2 decades. Over the years, the use of simulation has gone from low fidelity to high fidelity models that mimic human responses in a startlingly realistic manner, extremely life-like mannequin that breathes, generates E.K.G, and has pulses, heart sounds, and an airway that can be programmed for different degrees of obstruction. Simulation in anesthesiology is no longer a research fascination but an integral part of resident education and one of ACGME requirements for resident graduation. Simulation training has been objectively shown to increase the skill-set of anesthesiologists. Anesthesiology is leading the movement in patient safety. It is rational to assume a relationship between simulation training and patient safety. Nevertheless there has not been a demonstrable improvement in patient outcomes with simulation training. Larger prospective studies that evaluate the improvement in patient outcomes are needed to justify the integration of simulation training in resident education but ample number of studies in the past 5 years do show a definite benefit of using simulation in anesthesiology training. This paper gives a brief overview of the history and evolution of use of simulation in anesthesiology and highlights some of the more recent studies that have advanced simulation-based training. PMID:26949389

  19. When Running Is the Basic Form of Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kudriavtsev, E. V.

    1974-01-01

    This article discusses running as a universal means of physical training and of developing speed and especially endurance with sections on types of running, time and place for running, methods of exercise, and regulating size of stress load. (Author/JH)

  20. Brain enhancement through cognitive training: a new insight from brain connectome.

    PubMed

    Taya, Fumihiko; Sun, Yu; Babiloni, Fabio; Thakor, Nitish; Bezerianos, Anastasios

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the recent advances in neurotechnology and the progress in understanding of brain cognitive functions, improvements of cognitive performance or acceleration of learning process with brain enhancement systems is not out of our reach anymore, on the contrary, it is a tangible target of contemporary research. Although a variety of approaches have been proposed, we will mainly focus on cognitive training interventions, in which learners repeatedly perform cognitive tasks to improve their cognitive abilities. In this review article, we propose that the learning process during the cognitive training can be facilitated by an assistive system monitoring cognitive workloads using electroencephalography (EEG) biomarkers, and the brain connectome approach can provide additional valuable biomarkers for facilitating leaners' learning processes. For the purpose, we will introduce studies on the cognitive training interventions, EEG biomarkers for cognitive workload, and human brain connectome. As cognitive overload and mental fatigue would reduce or even eliminate gains of cognitive training interventions, a real-time monitoring of cognitive workload can facilitate the learning process by flexibly adjusting difficulty levels of the training task. Moreover, cognitive training interventions should have effects on brain sub-networks, not on a single brain region, and graph theoretical network metrics quantifying topological architecture of the brain network can differentiate with respect to individual cognitive states as well as to different individuals' cognitive abilities, suggesting that the connectome is a valuable approach for tracking the learning progress. Although only a few studies have exploited the connectome approach for studying alterations of the brain network induced by cognitive training interventions so far, we believe that it would be a useful technique for capturing improvements of cognitive functions. PMID:25883555

  1. Brain enhancement through cognitive training: a new insight from brain connectome

    PubMed Central

    Taya, Fumihiko; Sun, Yu; Babiloni, Fabio; Thakor, Nitish; Bezerianos, Anastasios

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the recent advances in neurotechnology and the progress in understanding of brain cognitive functions, improvements of cognitive performance or acceleration of learning process with brain enhancement systems is not out of our reach anymore, on the contrary, it is a tangible target of contemporary research. Although a variety of approaches have been proposed, we will mainly focus on cognitive training interventions, in which learners repeatedly perform cognitive tasks to improve their cognitive abilities. In this review article, we propose that the learning process during the cognitive training can be facilitated by an assistive system monitoring cognitive workloads using electroencephalography (EEG) biomarkers, and the brain connectome approach can provide additional valuable biomarkers for facilitating leaners’ learning processes. For the purpose, we will introduce studies on the cognitive training interventions, EEG biomarkers for cognitive workload, and human brain connectome. As cognitive overload and mental fatigue would reduce or even eliminate gains of cognitive training interventions, a real-time monitoring of cognitive workload can facilitate the learning process by flexibly adjusting difficulty levels of the training task. Moreover, cognitive training interventions should have effects on brain sub-networks, not on a single brain region, and graph theoretical network metrics quantifying topological architecture of the brain network can differentiate with respect to individual cognitive states as well as to different individuals’ cognitive abilities, suggesting that the connectome is a valuable approach for tracking the learning progress. Although only a few studies have exploited the connectome approach for studying alterations of the brain network induced by cognitive training interventions so far, we believe that it would be a useful technique for capturing improvements of cognitive functions. PMID:25883555

  2. Performance environment and nested task constraints influence long jump approach run: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Panteli, Flora; Smirniotou, Athanasia; Theodorou, Apostolos

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate possible changes at step pattern and technical performance of the long jump approach run in seven young long jumpers by modifying the performance environment (long jump runway versus track lane) and the nested actions (run-through with take-off versus complete long jump). Our findings suggest that the step pattern and technical aspects of the approach run are affected by environmental context and nested task constraints. In terms of environmental context, it appears that practising the training routine of run-through followed by take-off on the long jump runway allows athletes to simulate competition conditions in terms of step regulation and technical efficacy. The task of run-through followed by take-off on the track lane failed to initiate visual perception, step regulation and technical efficiency at the steps preceding the instant of take-off. In terms of nested task constraints, when run-ups were followed by jump for distance instead of only a take-off, a higher level of consistency was achieved and step regulation was based on perception-action coupling. Practising long jump run-up accuracy at a setting not containing the informational elements of the performance environment fails to develop the key elements of the skill. PMID:26390236

  3. Management Training, Yes! Excellence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Gary E.

    1990-01-01

    Management training programs are a necessity for transportation supervisors. Basic and advanced training programs are available through associations for business officials and university fleet management training programs. (MLF)

  4. Training with the BBC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jane

    1983-01-01

    Describes the special courses run by the British Broadcasting Corporation for overseas broadcasters. These include journalist training, television production, radio production, engineering training courses, and a course for educational broadcasters. (MBR)

  5. Improvement of nursing students' learning outcomes through scenario-based skills training

    PubMed Central

    Uysal, Nurcan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: this study analyzed the influence of scenario-based skills training on students' learning skills. Method: the author evaluated the nursing skills laboratory exam papers of 605 sophomores in nursing programs for seven years. The study determined the common mistakes of students and the laboratory work was designed in a scenario-based format. The effectiveness of this method was evaluated by assessing the number of errors the students committed and their achievement scores in laboratory examinations. This study presents the students' common mistakes in intramuscular and subcutaneous injection and their development of intravenous access skills, included in the nursing skills laboratory examination. Results: an analysis of the students' most common mistakes revealed that the most common was not following the principles of asepsis for all three skills (intramuscular, subcutaneous injection, intravenous access) in the first year of the scenario-based training. The students' exam achievement scores increased gradually, except in the fall semester of the academic year 2009-2010. The study found that the scenario-based skills training reduced students' common mistakes in examinations and enhanced their performance on exams. Conclusion: this method received a positive response from both students and instructors. The scenario-based training is available for use in addition to other skills training methods. PMID:27508922

  6. Optimizing Performance in Adult Cochlear Implant Users through Clinician Directed Auditory Training.

    PubMed

    Plant, Geoff; Bernstein, Claire Marcus; Levitt, Harry

    2015-11-01

    Clinician-directed auditory training using the KTH Speech Tracking Procedure can be a powerful approach for maximizing outcomes with adult cochlear implant (CI) users. This article first reviews prior research findings from an 8-week clinician-directed auditory training (AT) program using speech tracking that yielded significant gains in speech tracking rate and sentence recognition scores following training. The second focus of the article is to illustrate the value of intensive face-to-face long-term AT using speech tracking with adult CI users. A detailed case study report is presented that demonstrates major ongoing and progressive gains in tracking rate, sentence recognition, and improvements in self-perceived competence and confidence over the course of intensive long-term training. Given the potential of both short- and long-term clinician-directed auditory training via KTH speech tracking to help CI users reach their optimal performance level, consideration for more widespread clinical use is proposed in the overall rehabilitation of adult CI users. PMID:27587916

  7. Enhancement of cognitive and neural functions through complex reasoning training: evidence from normal and clinical populations.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Sandra B; Mudar, Raksha A

    2014-01-01

    Public awareness of cognitive health is fairly recent compared to physical health. Growing evidence suggests that cognitive training offers promise in augmenting cognitive brain performance in normal and clinical populations. Targeting higher-order cognitive functions, such as reasoning in particular, may promote generalized cognitive changes necessary for supporting the complexities of daily life. This data-driven perspective highlights cognitive and brain changes measured in randomized clinical trials that trained gist reasoning strategies in populations ranging from teenagers to healthy older adults, individuals with brain injury to those at-risk for Alzheimer's disease. The evidence presented across studies support the potential for Gist reasoning training to strengthen cognitive performance in trained and untrained domains and to engage more efficient communication across widespread neural networks that support higher-order cognition. The meaningful benefits of Gist training provide compelling motivation to examine optimal dose for sustained benefits as well as to explore additive benefits of meditation, physical exercise, and/or improved sleep in future studies. PMID:24808834

  8. Enhancement of cognitive and neural functions through complex reasoning training: evidence from normal and clinical populations

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Sandra B.; Mudar, Raksha A.

    2014-01-01

    Public awareness of cognitive health is fairly recent compared to physical health. Growing evidence suggests that cognitive training offers promise in augmenting cognitive brain performance in normal and clinical populations. Targeting higher-order cognitive functions, such as reasoning in particular, may promote generalized cognitive changes necessary for supporting the complexities of daily life. This data-driven perspective highlights cognitive and brain changes measured in randomized clinical trials that trained gist reasoning strategies in populations ranging from teenagers to healthy older adults, individuals with brain injury to those at-risk for Alzheimer's disease. The evidence presented across studies support the potential for Gist reasoning training to strengthen cognitive performance in trained and untrained domains and to engage more efficient communication across widespread neural networks that support higher-order cognition. The meaningful benefits of Gist training provide compelling motivation to examine optimal dose for sustained benefits as well as to explore additive benefits of meditation, physical exercise, and/or improved sleep in future studies. PMID:24808834

  9. Beyond parental control and authoritarian parenting style: understanding Chinese parenting through the cultural notion of training.

    PubMed

    Chao, R K

    1994-08-01

    This study addresses a paradox in the literature involving the parenting style of Asians: Chinese parenting has often been described as "controlling" or "authoritarian". These styles of parenting have been found to be predictive of poor school achievement among European-Americans, and yet the Chinese are performing quite well in school. This study suggests that the concepts of authoritative and authoritarian are somewhat ethnocentric and do not capture the important features of Chinese child rearing, especially for explaining their school success. Immigrant Chinese and European-American mothers of preschool-aged children were administered standard measures of parental control and authoritative-authoritarian parenting style as well as Chinese child-rearing items involving the concept of "training." After controlling for their education, and their scores on the standard measures, the Chinese mothers were found to score significantly higher on the "training" ideologies. This "training" concept has important features, beyond the authoritarian concept, that may explain Chinese school success. PMID:7956468

  10. Inservice Training of Primary Teachers Through Interactive Video Technology: An Indian Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheshwari, A. N.; Raina, V. K.

    1998-01-01

    India has yet to achieve elementary education for all children. Among the centrally sponsored initiatives to improve education are Operation Blackboard, to provide sufficient teachers and buildings, Minimum Levels of Learning, which set achievement targets, and the Special Orientation Programme for Primary School Teachers (SOPT). This article focuses on the last of these and describes the new technology used to train teachers so that the losses in transmission inherent in the cascade model are avoided. Interactive Video Technology involving the Indira Gandhi Open University and the Indian Space Research Organisation was used experimentally in seven-day training courses for primary school teachers in 20 centres in Karnataka State, providing one-way video transmissions and telephone feedback to experts from the centres. The responses from teachers and their trainers indicate considerable potential for the exploitation of new technology where large numbers of teachers require training.

  11. Older doctors and progression through specialty training in the UK: a cohort analysis of General Medical Council data

    PubMed Central

    Pyne, Yvette; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether older age at graduation is associated with any difference in outcomes from the annual specialty training progression assessment. Design An open cohort of 38 308 doctors who graduated from a UK medical school with annual assessments of progression in their specialty training programme with data centrally collected by the General Medical Council between 5 August 2009 to 31 July 2012. Results Mature junior doctors (≥29 years at graduation) were more likely to have problems with progression on their annual review of competence progression record of in training assessment (ARCP/RITA) than their younger colleagues (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.49, p<0.001). This association was, if anything, even stronger (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.41 to 1.74, p<0.001) after adjustment for gender, ethnicity, type of University and specialty. The same was true when only looking at the most extreme ARCP outcome (4) which is being asked to leave their specialist programme (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.44, p<0.001). Conclusions Mature doctors are a growing part of the medical workforce and they are likely to broaden the spectrum of doctors by bring different life experience to the profession. These results suggest that they are more likely to have problems with progressing through their specialist training programme. More research is required to determine the reasons behind these associations and how mature doctors can be supported both in choosing the best training programme and in coping with the complex demands of higher training at a later stage in their lives. PMID:25649208

  12. Relationships Between Design Characteristics of Avionics Subsystems and Training Cost, Training Difficulty, and Job Performance. Final Report, Covering Activity from 1 July 1971 Through 1 September 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lintz, Larry M.; And Others

    A study investigated the relationship between avionics subsystem design characteristics and training time, training cost, and job performance. A list of design variables believed to affect training and job performance was established and supplemented with personnel variables, including aptitude test scores and the amount of training and…

  13. Achieving Recognition as a World Class Airport through Education and Training. Sorenson Best Paper Award Recipient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quilty, Stephen M.

    2003-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization has standards for airport certification that require education and training of personnel. The American Association of Airport Executives offers accreditation and certification in airport operations and safety that can meet the needs of world-class airports. (Contains 18 references.) (SK)

  14. Cultivating Self-Awareness in Counselors-in-Training through Group Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Moro, Ronald R.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated processes, strategies, and frameworks that took place during group supervision classes, which best cultivate the self-awareness of Mental Health and Marriage and Family Counselors-in-Training (CITs). It was designed to explore factors across multiple theoretical models, which contributed to the cultivation of self-awareness…

  15. A New Program for the Inservice Training of Computer Studies Teachers through Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, E. J.

    This paper discusses some of the reasons for the shortage of qualified computer studies teachers in South Africa, as well as problems with current training programs. It then focuses on a new innovative learning program, leading to a degree in science education, being developed at the University of South Africa for the preservice and inservice…

  16. Enhancing the Quality of Tutorials through Peer-Connected Tutor Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calma, Angelito; Eggins, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates how a peer-connected tutor training program can lead to quality enhancement by helping tutors to develop more effective teaching strategies and promoting better learning approaches among business students. It uses 2007-2010 evaluation data from 343 program participants from accounting, economics, finance and management and…

  17. Facilitating Educational Change. Training Workshop. Initiating Change Through Inservice Education: A Topical Instructional Modules Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dormant, Diane; Byers, Kathy

    Workshop activities and materials designed to provide school personnel trainers with an organizing system, analytical skills, and strategies to increase training effectiveness are provided in five modules. The workshop is based on change agent principles and can be adapted to fit different situations. The introduction explains the workshop design,…

  18. Improving the Communication Environment for Children with Severe Handicaps through Manual Sign Inservice Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Lyle L.; And Others

    A "working party" (a decision-making group similar to the quality circles concept) comprised of public elementary school personnel (administrator, regular and special education staff), and parents, university special education faculty and graduate students worked cooperatively to develop and implement a manual sign inservice training package to…

  19. BioInnovate Ireland--fostering entrepreneurial activity through medical device innovation training.

    PubMed

    Bruzzi, M S; Linehan, J H

    2013-09-01

    In the midst of a rich environment for medical device development and manufacturing, universities can play a critical role by developing relevant training programs to produce entrepreneurs who can be efficient and successful in creating early stage companies by understanding deeply the issues involved in creating a useful device, how to raise money, designing early clinical studies and locating manufacturing partners. PMID:23494126

  20. Physical Challenge and the Development of Trust through Corporate Adventure Training. Research Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Simon

    1998-01-01

    To determine the role that physical aspects of corporate adventure training played in the acquisition of trust, 75 employees from a New Zealand computer company were assigned to one of two groups with varying levels of physical activity or to a control group. Trust was enhanced in the two experimental groups but more so in the more active group.…

  1. Workforce Skills Development and Engagement in Training through Skill Sets. NCVER Monograph Series 11/2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, John; Crean, David; Ranshaw, Danielle; Bowman, Kaye

    2012-01-01

    There has been some debate over whether skill sets have the capacity to be part of a more flexible skilling solution, one in which vocational education and training (VET) in Australia is enhanced. This proposition is explored using a case study of agrifood students who were enrolled in TAFE NSW Statement of Attainment in Rural Production Studies…

  2. Promoting Cooperative and Helping Behaviours in Student Work Groups through Training in Small Group Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillies, Robyn M.; Ashman, Adrian F.

    Research in recent years has demonstrated that cooperative learning is a highly effective classroom intervention that promotes student learning and development across a range of curriculum areas. This study compared the effects on behavioral interactions and achievement of: (1) cooperative learning in which members were trained to collaborate to…

  3. Faculty Development through Streaming Video: A New Delivery Medium for Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essex, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    College and university faculty face many demands on their time: research, teaching, service, committees, family, and other obligations. One of the major challenges faced by instructional support personnel at colleges and universities is to get their training efforts entered into the faculty members' busy calendars. This paper looks at a new option…

  4. Enhancing Cultural Adaptation through Friendship Training: A Single-Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yi-Ching; Baker, Stanley B.

    1993-01-01

    Four-year-old girl from mainland China experienced culture shock when attending American university day-care center. Counseling intern from Taiwan designed friendship training program based on assumptions concerning adaptation, acculturation, and peer relationships. Evaluated as intensive single-case study, findings indicated the program may be…

  5. Increasing Multiculturalism in Education through Teacher Self-Assessment and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    A superintendent's mandate required that teachers in a Midwestern U.S. city public school system tailor their lessons to be culturally sensitive. Teachers at one high school lacked training to support their implementation of this initiative. This project study evaluated participating teachers' racial awareness, determined how this awareness…

  6. Individuals with Mental Illness Can Control Their Aggressive Behavior through Mindfulness Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Adkins, Angela D.; Wahler, Robert G.; Sabaawi, Mohamed; Singh, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Verbal and physical aggression are risk factors for community placement of individuals with serious and persistent mental illness. Depending on the motivations involved, treatment typically consists of psychotropic medications and psychosocial interventions, including contingency management procedures and anger management training. Effects of a…

  7. Revisiting the Value of Somatic Education in Dance Training through an Inquiry into Practice Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batson, Glenna; Schwartz, Ray Eliot

    2007-01-01

    The practice conditions within dance training have remained essentially unchanged for decades. Those conditions appear to be based largely on a "culture of rigor," a philosophy of which implies that continuous practice is the most beneficial way to improve (motor) skills. Current evidence in motor learning supports the concept of "distributed…

  8. Improving Fifth Grade Students' Mathematics Self-Efficacy Calibration and Performance through Self-Regulation Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramdass, Darshanand H.

    2009-01-01

    This primary goal of this study was to investigate the effects of strategy training and self-reflection, two subprocesses of Zimmerman's cyclical model of self-regulation, on fifth grade students' mathematics performance, self-efficacy, self-evaluation, and calibration measures of self-efficacy bias, self-efficacy accuracy, self-evaluation bias,…

  9. Bottom Line Benefits: Increasing Profits through Targeted Tax and Job Training Incentives. A Handbook for Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Alliance of Business, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This handbook for businesses explains the benefits and incentives provided by the Targeted Jobs Tax Credit (TJTC) and the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) and shows how businesses can take advantage of them. An introduction summarizes the two pieces of legislation. Section 1 furnishes the specifics on the TJTC and explains how businesses can…

  10. Institute for Training Follow Through Personnel in Parent Participation and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Coll. of Education.

    A two-week summer training workshop will be conducted as the first step in a year-long relationship between six local communities (Providence, R.I.; Richmond, Va.; Jonesboro, Ark.; Lac du Flambeau, Wis.; Yakima, Wash.; Jacksonville, Fla.) and the University of Florida, Gainesville. (Each will use the Florida Parent Education Model--see SP 002…

  11. Stress Management and Anxiety Reduction Through EMG Biofeedback/Relaxation Training upon Junior High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Darrel

    The effectiveness of electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback/relaxation training on the stress management and anxiety levels of 18 eighth-grade students was tested. Chapter I serves as an introduction and presents information on the need for the study, hypotheses, limitations, and definition of terms. Chapter II contains a review of related…

  12. Open and Distance Learning for Health: Supporting Health Workers through Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Tony

    2011-01-01

    This case study surveys the growing use of open and distance learning approaches to the provision of support, education and training to health workers over the past few decades. It classifies such uses under four headings, providing brief descriptions from the literature of a few examples of each group. In conclusion, it identifies key lessons…

  13. Training vegetable parenting practices through a mobile game: Iterative qualitative alpha test

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable consumption protects against chronic diseases, but many young children do not eat vegetables. One quest within the mobile application Mommio was developed to train mothers of preschoolers in effective vegetable parenting practices, or ways to approach getting their child to eat and enjoy v...

  14. Management of Corporate Culture through Local Managers' Training in Foreign Companies in China: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Crystal L.

    2005-01-01

    Corporate culture is a complex phenomenon in foreign companies located in the People's Republic of China. For the management team of an international enterprise, it is a challenging task to manage cultural differences. Education and training provided to local managers might be one of the important solutions. Therefore, this study explores the…

  15. Helping to Solve the Energy Problem through In-Service Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnsworth, Briant J.; Gardner, Janet

    1978-01-01

    Granite School District has developed energy in-service training for teachers. The goal was to infuse energy concepts into the regular school curriculum. When part of the curriculum, this program provides students with greater understanding of the energy problem and possible solutions. (Author)

  16. JOB TRAINING THROUGH ADULT EDUCATION, A SECOND CHANCE FOR THE NEGRO AND THE COMMUNITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BLUM, ALBERT A.; SCHMIDT, CHARLES T., JR.

    TO BREAK THE CYCLE OF INFERIOR EDUCATION AND UNEMPLOYMENT WHICH MAKES MANY NEGROES MEMBERS OF A DISADVANTAGED CLASS, GOOD EDUCATION FOR CHILDREN MUST BE ACCOMPANIED BY EDUCATION AND JOB TRAINING FOR ADULTS. HUMAN RELATIONS COMMISSIONS, SCHOOL SYSTEMS, NEGRO LEADERS, AND COMMUNITY ACTION PROGRAMS HAVE USUALLY FAILED TO PROVIDE PROGRAMS TO UPGRADE…

  17. National Survey of Training Services to Business and Industry through Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, William A.; Schmutzler, Mark

    This project was conducted to describe state programs of economic development concerned with state-provided training for industry and to share the results among the states. Surveys were sent to the 50 state directors of vocational education plus the directors in the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Of the surveys…

  18. Building Collaboration between Professionals in Health and Education through Interdisciplinary Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Ciara; Kirkpatrick, Vickie

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a training programme which aimed to support language-, literacy- and social-communication-promoting strategies for professionals working with children with language delay. Sixteen teachers, special needs assistants and therapists based in services for children with mild to severe learning difficulties attended…

  19. Enhancing Discipline-Specific Training across Allied Health Professions through Reflective Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Elaine; Wightman, Barbara; Rosenthal, Harold

    2010-01-01

    The professional preparation of allied health professionals typically focuses on the acquisition of knowledge in a particular area of expertise with less consideration of training on social-emotional development and on how to engage parents in the clinical process, parent-child relationships, or principles of mental health. The authors explore how…

  20. Providing Competency Training to Clinical Supervisors through an Interactional Supervision Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer; Matlin, Samantha L.; Migdole, Scott J.; Farkas, Melanie S.; Money, Roy W.; Shulman, Lawrence; Hoge, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Training in supervisory competencies is essential to effective clinical practice and helps address the current national crisis in the behavioral health workforce. Interactional supervision, the approach used in the current study, is well established in clinical social work and focuses the task of the supervisee on the interpersonal exchanges…

  1. The influence of a new sole geometry while running.

    PubMed

    Knoepfli-Lenzin, Claudia; Waech, Jennifer Carole; Gülay, Turgut; Schellenberg, Florian; Lorenzetti, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Running shoe construction influences the forces experienced by the human body while running. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether the new sole architecture of the On running shoe reduces ground reaction forces compared with running barefoot or with a conventional running shoe and whether it changes the physiological parameters of running in shoes. Thirty-seven trained male participants were studied while running at submaximal speeds wearing their conventional running shoe, wearing the On running shoe and while barefoot. Additional biomechanical and physiological values were investigated to determine whether the On running shoe induced any changes in these parameters compared with conventional running shoes. The On exhibited similar ground reaction forces as conventional shoes, and these were different from the forces experienced while running barefoot, showing that the On was more similar to typical shoed running. No difference was observed in running economy between the On and a conventional shoe model. However, a slightly lower heart rate (HR) (≈1.3%) and blood lactate concentration (≈5.5%) were observed during submaximal running with the On running shoe compared with a conventional running shoe, as well as a greater lateral deviation of the centre of pressure mid-stance. The ramifications of the reduced HR and blood lactate concentration for competitive performance are unknown. PMID:24977468

  2. The influence of a new sole geometry while running

    PubMed Central

    Knoepfli-Lenzin, Claudia; Waech, Jennifer Carole; Gülay, Turgut; Schellenberg, Florian; Lorenzetti, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Running shoe construction influences the forces experienced by the human body while running. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether the new sole architecture of the On running shoe reduces ground reaction forces compared with running barefoot or with a conventional running shoe and whether it changes the physiological parameters of running in shoes. Thirty-seven trained male participants were studied while running at submaximal speeds wearing their conventional running shoe, wearing the On running shoe and while barefoot. Additional biomechanical and physiological values were investigated to determine whether the On running shoe induced any changes in these parameters compared with conventional running shoes. The On exhibited similar ground reaction forces as conventional shoes, and these were different from the forces experienced while running barefoot, showing that the On was more similar to typical shoed running. No difference was observed in running economy between the On and a conventional shoe model. However, a slightly lower heart rate (HR) (≈1.3%) and blood lactate concentration (≈5.5%) were observed during submaximal running with the On running shoe compared with a conventional running shoe, as well as a greater lateral deviation of the centre of pressure mid-stance. The ramifications of the reduced HR and blood lactate concentration for competitive performance are unknown. PMID:24977468

  3. Cultural Respect Encompassing Simulation Training: Being Heard About Health Through Broadband

    PubMed Central

    Min-Yu Lau, Phyllis; Woodward-Kron, Robyn; Livesay, Karen; Elliott, Kristine; Nicholson, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Background Cultural Respect Encompassing Simulation Training (CREST) is a learning program that uses simulation to provide health professional students and practitioners with strategies to communicate sensitively with culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) patients. It consists of training modules with a cultural competency evaluation framework and CALD simulated patients to interact with trainees in immersive simulation scenarios. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of expanding the delivery of CREST to rural Australia using live video streaming; and to investigate the fidelity of cultural sensitivity – defined within the process of cultural competency which includes awareness, knowledge, skills, encounters and desire – of the streamed simulations. Design and Methods In this mixed-methods evaluative study, health professional trainees were recruited at three rural academic campuses and one rural hospital to pilot CREST sessions via live video streaming and simulation from the city campus in 2014. Cultural competency, teaching and learning evaluations were conducted. Results Forty-five participants rated 26 reliable items before and after each session and reported statistically significant improvement in 4 of 5 cultural competency domains, particularly in cultural skills (P<0.05). Qualitative data indicated an overall acknowledgement amongst participants of the importance of communication training and the quality of the simulation training provided remotely by CREST. Conclusions Cultural sensitivity education using live video-streaming and simulation can contribute to health professionals’ learning and is effective in improving cultural competency. CREST has the potential to be embedded within health professional curricula across Australian universities to address issues of health inequalities arising from a lack of cultural sensitivity training. Significance for public health There are significant health inequalities for migrant

  4. Software Training Classes Now Open | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer                                            Data Management Services, Inc. (DMS), has announced the opening of its spring session of software training classes, available to all employees at NCI at Frederick. Classes begin on March 31 and run through June 30.

  5. Enhancing Cognitive Training Through Aerobic Exercise After a First Schizophrenia Episode: Theoretical Conception and Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Nuechterlein, Keith H; Ventura, Joseph; McEwen, Sarah C; Gretchen-Doorly, Denise; Vinogradov, Sophia; Subotnik, Kenneth L

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive training (CT) and aerobic exercise have separately shown promise for improving cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Aerobic exercise releases brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which promotes synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Thus, aerobic exercise provides a neurotrophic platform for neuroplasticity-based CT. The combination of aerobic exercise and CT may yield more robust effects than CT alone, particularly in the initial course of schizophrenia. In a pilot study, 7 patients with a recent onset of schizophrenia were assigned to Cognitive Training & Exercise (CT&E) and 9 to CT alone for a 10-week period. Posit Science programs were used for CT. Neurocognitive training focused on tuning neural circuits related to perceptual processing and verbal learning and memory. Social cognitive training used the same learning principles with social and affective stimuli. Both groups participated in these training sessions 2d/wk, 2h/d. The CT&E group also participated in an aerobic conditioning program for 30 minutes at our clinic 2d/wk and at home 2d/wk. The effect size for improvement in the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery Overall Composite score for CT&E patients relative to CT patients was large. Functional outcome, particularly independent living skills, also tended to improve more in the CT&E than in the CT group. Muscular endurance, cardiovascular fitness, and diastolic blood pressure also showed relative improvement in the CT&E compared to the CT group. These encouraging pilot study findings support the promise of combining CT and aerobic exercise to improve the early course of schizophrenia. PMID:27460618

  6. Examining neural plasticity and cognitive benefit through the unique lens of musical training.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Sylvain; Bidelman, Gavin M

    2014-02-01

    Training programs aimed to alleviate or improve auditory-cognitive abilities have either experienced mixed success or remain to be fully validated. The limited benefits of such regimens are largely attributable to our weak understanding of (i) how (and which) interventions provide the most robust and long lasting improvements to cognitive and perceptual abilities and (ii) how the neural mechanisms which underlie such abilities are positively modified by certain activities and experience. Recent studies indicate that music training provides robust, long-lasting biological benefits to auditory function. Importantly, the behavioral advantages conferred by musical experience extend beyond simple enhancements to perceptual abilities and even impact non-auditory functions necessary for higher-order aspects of cognition (e.g., working memory, intelligence). Collectively, preliminary findings indicate that alternative forms of arts engagement (e.g., visual arts training) may not yield such widespread enhancements, suggesting that music expertise uniquely taps and refines a hierarchy of brain networks subserving a variety of auditory as well as domain-general cognitive mechanisms. We infer that transfer from specific music experience to broad cognitive benefit might be mediated by the degree to which a listener's musical training tunes lower- (e.g., perceptual) and higher-order executive functions, and the coordination between these processes. Ultimately, understanding the broad impact of music on the brain will not only provide a more holistic picture of auditory processing and plasticity, but may help inform and tailor remediation and training programs designed to improve perceptual and cognitive benefits in human listeners. PMID:24079993

  7. Enhancement of children's self-esteem through social support training for youth sport coaches.

    PubMed

    Smoll, F L; Smith, R E; Barnett, N P; Everett, J J

    1993-08-01

    The authors examined the impact of coaching behaviors on players' self-enhancement processes. Eight baseball coaches attended a preseason workshop designed to increase their supportiveness and instructional effectiveness. Behavioral guidelines were presented and modeled. A no-treatment control group had 10 coaches. Boys (N = 152) in both groups were interviewed pre- and postseason. Trained coaches differed from controls in player-perceived behaviors in accordance with the guidelines. They were evaluated more positively by their players, their players had more fun, and their teams exhibited a higher level of attraction among players, despite the fact that their teams did not differ from controls in won-lost records. Consistent with a self-esteem enhancement model, findings showed that boys with low self-esteem who played for the trained coaches exhibited significant increases in general self-esteem; low self-esteem youngsters in the control group did not. PMID:8407704

  8. Who Runs Our Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, David

    2012-01-01

    Inside the academy there is a cultural perspective that it should run itself, in the sense that "business as usual" should be done with no one's hands obviously on the levers. This theory reaches its high point in the "self-government" of Oxford and Cambridge colleges. In this article, the author explores the question, "who runs our…

  9. Self-generation of bright microwave magnetic envelope soliton trains in ferrite films through frequency filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Mark M.; Kalinikos, Boris A.; Patton, Carl E.

    2001-02-01

    Resonant ring feedback with frequency filtering has been used for the self-generation of bright soliton trains. The solitons were produced from magnetostatic backward volume spin waves propagated in an in-plane magnetized magnetic film delay line as part of the resonant ring structure. The amplitude and phase time profiles, together with the power spectra of the self-generated pulses, confirm their bright soliton nature.

  10. Ureteral Obstruction Swine Model through Laparoscopy and Single Port for Training on Laparoscopic Pyeloplasty

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Güemes Martín-Portugués, Idoia; Hernández-Hurtado, Laura; Usón-Casaús, Jesús; Sánchez-Hurtado, Miguel Angel; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco Miguel

    2013-01-01

    This study aims firstly to assess the most adequate surgical approach for the creation of an ureteropelvic juntion obstruction (UPJO) animal model, and secondly to validate this model for laparoscopic pyeloplasty training among urologists. Thirty six Large White pigs (28.29±5.48 Kg) were used. The left ureteropelvic junction was occluded by means of an endoclip. According to the surgical approach for model creation, pigs were randomized into: laparoscopic conventional surgery (LAP) or single port surgery (LSP). Each group was further divided into transperitoneal (+T) or retroperitoneal (+R) approach. Time needed for access, surgical field preparation, wound closure, and total surgical times were registered. Social behavior, tenderness to the touch and wound inflammation were evaluated in the early postoperative period. After ten days, all animals underwent an Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty carried out by 9 urologists, who subsequently assessed the model by means of a subjective validation questionnaire. Total operative time was significantly greater in LSP+R (p=0.001). Tenderness to the touch was significantly increased in both retroperitoneal approaches, (p=0.0001). Surgeons rated the UPJO porcine model for training on laparoscopic pyeloplasty with high or very high scores, all above 4 on a 1-5 point Likert scale. Our UPJO animal model is useful for laparoscopic pyeloplasty training. The model created by retroperitoneal single port approach presented the best score in the subjective evaluation, whereas, as a whole, transabdominal laparoscopic approach was preferred. PMID:23801892

  11. Recombinative Generalization of Tacts Through Matrix Training with Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Audrey A; Ahearn, William H; Cohen, Stacy J

    2015-10-01

    Foss (Journal of Experimental Psychology, 76, 450-459, 1968a; Journal of Experimental Psychology, 77, 341-344, 1968b) compared overlap and non-overlap instruction to promote recombinative response generalization using a matrix training procedure. In the present study, we used a similar set of procedures to teach tacting of kitchen items and prepositions (i.e., relational autoclitics) to three females ages 13-20, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. We taught some kitchen items/prepositions as tacts (e.g., "the strainer is to the right of the box") according to a non-overlap instructional sequence. Subsequently, we taught more combinations in an overlap instructional sequence. Each training procedure was followed by probes of untrained relations. Two participants demonstrated recombinative generalization of untrained combinations following the first non-overlap phase, while the third participant demonstrated some response generalization of untrained relations after a few additional training sequences. All three participants demonstrated generalized tacting of object components while two participants showed generalized tacting of preposition components. PMID:27606212

  12. GASIFICATION TEST RUN TC06

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services, Inc.

    2003-08-01

    This report discusses test campaign TC06 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC06. Test run TC06 was started on July 4, 2001, and completed on September 24, 2001, with an interruption in service between July 25, 2001, and August 19, 2001, due to a filter element failure in the PCD caused by abnormal operating conditions while tuning the main air compressor. The reactor temperature was varied between 1,725 and 1,825 F at pressures from 190 to 230 psig. In TC06, 1,214 hours of solid circulation and 1,025 hours of coal feed were attained with 797 hours of coal feed after the filter element failure. Both reactor and PCD operations were stable during the test run with a stable baseline pressure drop. Due to its length and stability, the TC06 test run provided valuable data necessary to analyze long-term reactor operations and to identify necessary modifications to improve equipment and process performance as well as progressing the goal of many thousands of hours of filter element exposure.

  13. Preventing running injuries. Practical approach for family doctors.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, C. A. M.; Taunton, J. E.; Lloyd-Smith, D. R.; McKenzie, D. C.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a practical approach for preventing running injuries. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Much of the research on running injuries is in the form of expert opinion and comparison trials. Recent systematic reviews have summarized research in orthotics, stretching before running, and interventions to prevent soft tissue injuries. MAIN MESSAGE: The most common factors implicated in running injuries are errors in training methods, inappropriate training surfaces and running shoes, malalignment of the leg, and muscle weakness and inflexibility. Runners can reduce risk of injury by using established training programs that gradually increase distance or time of running and provide appropriate rest. Orthoses and heel lifts can correct malalignments of the leg. Running shoes appropriate for runners' foot types should be selected. Lower-extremity strength and flexibility programs should be added to training. Select appropriate surfaces for training and introduce changes gradually. CONCLUSION: Prevention addresses factors proven to cause running injuries. Unfortunately, injury is often the first sign of fault in running programs, so patients should be taught to recognize early symptoms of injury. PMID:14526862

  14. Teaching Astronomy through e-learning in Poland: Astronomical Education in teacher training conducted by the Regional Teacher Training Center in Skierniewice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowska, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    Regional Teacher Training Centre (RTTC) in Skierniewice is one of 49 public, accredited institutions in Poland carrying out it statutory goals at the regional level. It has been operating since 1989 and is responsible for organizing of support of schools, institutions, networks of teachers for cooperation and self-education, organizing various forms of in-service training and disseminating examples of good practice. It also has rich experience in teaching by using modern Interactive Computer Technology (ICT) tools and e-learning platform. I present examples about teaching of Astronomical issues through teacher training both as hands on workshops as well as through e-learning. E-learning is playing an important role in organizing educational activities not only in the field of modern didactic but also in learning Science subjects. Teachers find e-learning as a very economical, easy and convenient way of learning and developing their knowledge and skills. Moreover, they are no longer afraid of using new ICT tools and programs which help them to cooperate with students effectively. Since 2011 RTTC in Skierniewice has been an organizer of many on-line in-service programs for teachers, in learning Science. Some of them are organized as blended-learning programs which allow teachers to participate first in hands on activities then continue learning on the Moodle platform. These courses include two 15 and 30-hours of Astronomical topics. Teachers have the opportunity to gain knowledge and receive materials not only about the Universe and the Solar System but also can learn to use tools like Stellarium, Celestia, WorldWide Telescope, Your Sky and other tools. E-learning modules consist of both publishing learning materials in various forms, eg. PowerPoint Presentations, Word & PDF materials, web sites, publications, working sheets as well as practical duties like participation in chats, forums, tasks, Wiki, group workshop. Teachers use these materials for extending their

  15. Optimisation of simulated team training through the application of learning theories: a debate for a conceptual framework

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As a conceptual review, this paper will debate relevant learning theories to inform the development, design and delivery of an effective educational programme for simulated team training relevant to health professionals. Discussion Kolb’s experiential learning theory is used as the main conceptual framework to define the sequence of activities. Dewey’s theory of reflective thought and action, Jarvis modification of Kolb’s learning cycle and Schön’s reflection-on-action serve as a model to design scenarios for optimal concrete experience and debriefing for challenging participants’ beliefs and habits. Bandura’s theory of self-efficacy and newer socio-cultural learning models outline that for efficient team training, it is mandatory to introduce the social-cultural context of a team. Summary The ideal simulated team training programme needs a scenario for concrete experience, followed by a debriefing with a critical reflexive observation and abstract conceptualisation phase, and ending with a second scenario for active experimentation. Let them re-experiment to optimise the effect of a simulated training session. Challenge them to the edge: The scenario needs to challenge participants to generate failures and feelings of inadequacy to drive and motivate team members to critical reflect and learn. Not experience itself but the inadequacy and contradictions of habitual experience serve as basis for reflection. Facilitate critical reflection: Facilitators and group members must guide and motivate individual participants through the debriefing session, inciting and empowering learners to challenge their own beliefs and habits. To do this, learners need to feel psychological safe. Let the group talk and critical explore. Motivate with reality and context: Training with multidisciplinary team members, with different levels of expertise, acting in their usual environment (in-situ simulation) on physiological variables is mandatory to introduce

  16. Exercise economy in skiing and running

    PubMed Central

    Losnegard, Thomas; Schäfer, Daniela; Hallén, Jostein

    2014-01-01

    Substantial inter-individual variations in exercise economy exist even in highly trained endurance athletes. The variation is believed to be determined partly by intrinsic factors. Therefore, in the present study, we compared exercise economy in V2-skating, double poling, and uphill running. Ten highly trained male cross-country skiers (23 ± 3 years, 180 ± 6 cm, 75 ± 8 kg, VO2peak running: 76.3 ± 5.6 mL·kg−1·min−1) participated in the study. Exercise economy and VO2peak during treadmill running, ski skating (V2 technique) and double poling were compared based on correlation analysis. There was a very large correlation in exercise economy between V2-skating and double poling (r = 0.81) and large correlations between V2-skating and running (r = 0.53) and double poling and running (r = 0.58). There were trivial to moderate correlations between exercise economy and the intrinsic factors VO2peak (r = 0.00–0.23), cycle rate (r = 0.03–0.46), body mass (r = −0.09–0.46) and body height (r = 0.11–0.36). In conclusion, the inter-individual variation in exercise economy could be explained only moderately by differences in VO2peak, body mass and body height. Apparently other intrinsic factors contribute to the variation in exercise economy between highly trained subjects. PMID:24478718

  17. Remote Sensing Training for Middle School through the Center of Excellence in Remote Sensing Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, L. B.; Johnson, D.; Baltrop, J.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing has steadily become an integral part of multiple disciplines, research, and education. Remote sensing can be defined as the process of acquiring information about an object or area of interest without physical contact. As remote sensing becomes a necessity in solving real world problems and scientific questions an important question to consider is why remote sensing training is significant to education and is it relevant to training students in this discipline. What has been discovered is the interest in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields, specifically remote sensing, has declined in our youth. The Center of Excellence in Remote Sensing Education and Research (CERSER) continuously strives to provide education and research opportunities on ice sheet, coastal, ocean, and marine science. One of those continued outreach efforts are Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) Middle School Program. Sponsored by the National Science Foundation CReSIS Middle School Program offers hands on experience for middle school students. CERSER and NSF offer students the opportunity to study and learn about remote sensing and its vital role in today's society as it relate to climate change and real world problems. The CReSIS Middle School Program is an annual two-week effort that offers middle school students experience with remote sensing and its applications. Specifically, participants received training with Global Positioning Systems (GPS) where the students learned the tools, mechanisms, and applications of a Garmin 60 GPS. As a part of the program the students were required to complete a fieldwork assignment where several longitude and latitude points were given throughout campus. The students had to then enter the longitude and latitude points into the Garmin 60 GPS, navigate their way to each location while also accurately reading the GPS to make sure travel was in the right direction. Upon completion of GPS training the

  18. Republished: Building a culture of safety through team training and engagement.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lily; Galla, Catherine

    2013-07-01

    Medical errors continue to occur despite multiple strategies devised for their prevention. Although many safety initiatives lead to improvement, they are often short lived and unsustainable. Our goal was to build a culture of patient safety within a structure that optimised teamwork and ongoing engagement of the healthcare team. Teamwork impacts the effectiveness of care, patient safety and clinical outcomes, and team training has been identified as a strategy for enhancing teamwork, reducing medical errors and building a culture of safety in healthcare. Therefore, we implemented Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS), an evidence-based framework which was used for team training to create transformational and/or incremental changes; facilitating transformation of organisational culture, or solving specific problems. To date, TeamSTEPPS (TS) has been implemented in 14 hospitals, two Long Term Care Facilities, and outpatient areas across the North Shore LIJ Health System. 32 150 members of the healthcare team have been trained. TeamSTEPPS was piloted at a community hospital within the framework of the health system's organisational care delivery model, the Collaborative Care Model to facilitate sustainment. AHRQ's Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture, (HSOPSC), was administered before and after implementation of TeamSTEPPS, comparing the perception of patient safety by the heathcare team. Pilot hospital results of HSOPSC show significant improvement from 2007 (pre-TeamSTEPPS) to 2010. System-wide results of HSOPSC show similar trends to those seen in the pilot hospital. Valuable lessons for organisational success from the pilot hospital enabled rapid spread of TeamSTEPPS across the rest of the health system. PMID:23781114

  19. Interdisciplinary Training in Mathematical Biology through Team-based Undergraduate Research and Courses

    PubMed Central

    Walston, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by BIO2010 and leveraging institutional and external funding, Truman State University built an undergraduate program in mathematical biology with high-quality, faculty-mentored interdisciplinary research experiences at its core. These experiences taught faculty and students to bridge the epistemological gap between the mathematical and life sciences. Together they created the infrastructure that currently supports several interdisciplinary courses, an innovative minor degree, and long-term interdepartmental research collaborations. This article describes how the program was built with support from the National Science Foundation's Interdisciplinary Training for Undergraduates in Biology and Mathematics program, and it shares lessons learned that will help other undergraduate institutions build their own program. PMID:20810960

  20. Improving health in the Arctic region through safe and affordable access to household running water and sewer services: an Arctic Council initiative.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Thomas W; Bressler, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Important health disparities have been documented among the peoples of the Arctic and subarctic, including those related to limited access to in-home improved drinking water and sanitation services. Although improving water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has been a focus of the United Nations for decades, the Arctic region has received little attention in this regard. A growing body of evidence highlights inequalities across the region for the availability of in-home drinking WASH services and for health indicators associated with these services. In this review, we highlight relevant data and describe an initiative through the Arctic Council's Sustainable Development Working Group to characterize the extent of WASH services in Arctic nations, the related health indicators and climate-related vulnerabilities to WASH services. With this as a baseline, efforts to build collaborations across the Arctic will be undertaken to promote innovations that can extend the benefits of water and sanitation services to all residents. PMID:27132632

  1. Improving health in the Arctic region through safe and affordable access to household running water and sewer services: an Arctic Council initiative

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Thomas W.; Bressler, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Important health disparities have been documented among the peoples of the Arctic and subarctic, including those related to limited access to in-home improved drinking water and sanitation services. Although improving water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has been a focus of the United Nations for decades, the Arctic region has received little attention in this regard. A growing body of evidence highlights inequalities across the region for the availability of in-home drinking WASH services and for health indicators associated with these services. In this review, we highlight relevant data and describe an initiative through the Arctic Council's Sustainable Development Working Group to characterize the extent of WASH services in Arctic nations, the related health indicators and climate-related vulnerabilities to WASH services. With this as a baseline, efforts to build collaborations across the Arctic will be undertaken to promote innovations that can extend the benefits of water and sanitation services to all residents. PMID:27132632

  2. Effects of a minimalist shoe on running economy and 5-km running performance.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Joel T; Thewlis, Dominic; Tsiros, Margarita D; Brown, Nicholas A T; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if minimalist shoes improve time trial performance of trained distance runners and if changes in running economy, shoe mass, stride length, stride rate and footfall pattern were related to any difference in performance. Twenty-six trained runners performed three 6-min sub-maximal treadmill runs at 11, 13 and 15 km·h(-1) in minimalist and conventional shoes while running economy, stride length, stride rate and footfall pattern were assessed. They then performed a 5-km time trial. In the minimalist shoe, runners completed the trial in less time (effect size 0.20 ± 0.12), were more economical during sub-maximal running (effect size 0.33 ± 0.14) and decreased stride length (effect size 0.22 ± 0.10) and increased stride rate (effect size 0.22 ± 0.11). All but one runner ran with a rearfoot footfall in the minimalist shoe. Improvements in time trial performance were associated with improvements in running economy at 15 km·h(-1) (r = 0.58), with 79% of the improved economy accounted for by reduced shoe mass (P < 0.05). The results suggest that running in minimalist shoes improves running economy and 5-km running performance. PMID:27328725

  3. Run Anyone?... Everyone!

    PubMed Central

    McInnis, W. P.

    1974-01-01

    Fitness and health have become bywords in the past decade, signifying increased emphasis on these factors as necessary for good psychological and physical health. Reasons are given why we should run and how to do it. There is a discussion of the technique of running, and equipment. Brief mention is made of complications. An attempt is made to interest the individual in the benefits of running as a sport as well as the best method for the average person to achieve fitness and health. PMID:20469054

  4. Telomere Length Maintenance and Cardio-Metabolic Disease Prevention Through Exercise Training.

    PubMed

    Denham, Joshua; O'Brien, Brendan J; Charchar, Fadi J

    2016-09-01

    Telomeres are tandem repeat DNA sequences located at distal ends of chromosomes that protect against genomic DNA degradation and chromosomal instability. Excessive telomere shortening leads to cellular senescence and for this reason telomere length is a marker of biological age. Abnormally short telomeres may culminate in the manifestation of a number of cardio-metabolic diseases. Age-related cardio-metabolic diseases attributable to an inactive lifestyle, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, are associated with short leukocyte telomeres. Exercise training prevents and manages the symptoms of many cardio-metabolic diseases whilst concurrently maintaining telomere length. The positive relationship between exercise training, physical fitness and telomere length raises the possibility of a mediating role of telomeres in chronic disease prevention via exercise. Further elucidation of the underpinning molecular mechanisms of how exercise maintains telomere length should provide crucial information on how physical activity can be best structured to combat the chronic disease epidemic and improve the human health span. Here, we synthesise and discuss the current evidence on the impact of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness on telomere dynamics. We provide the molecular mechanisms with a known role in exercise-induced telomere length maintenance and highlight unexplored, alternative pathways ripe for future investigations. PMID:26914269

  5. Advancing refinement through training: is there a role for reflective practice?

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Maggie

    2009-04-01

    In the fifty years since the publication of Russell and Burch's The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, considerable progress has been made implementing the Three Rs in scientific research which involves the use of animals. However, there are still many areas where refinements are slow to be introduced, which may be due in part to a lack of knowledge by the experimenter. Information retrieval is increasingly difficult in the modern age, and there is information overload. This is combined with a fear of confounding the science by changing methods, as well as a natural instinct to defend one's methods from criticism by others. To overcome this, it is necessary for scientists to receive training in best practice throughout their careers, not just at the beginning, and to be encouraged to be actively self-critical, by evaluating their own techniques and methods and seeking to introduce refinements. Reflective practice is increasingly used in professional training programmes, and could encourage scientists to take the first step toward implementing refinements. PMID:19453211

  6. Planetary Perspectives: Training Teachers about Rocks from Earth and Space Through Project WISER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, S.; Crown, D. A.; Lebofsky, L. A.; Croft, S. K.; Canizo, T.; Baldridge, A. M.; Kortenkamp, S.; Chuang, F.; Pierazzo, E.

    2011-12-01

    Within the exciting context of planetary exploration, the Planetary Science Institute is offering an ongoing series of professional development workshops for elementary and middle school science teachers in Southern Arizona. Each workshop is an opportunity for teachers to learn about current exploration of the Solar System, engage in modeling scientific inquiry, and interact with active planetary science researchers. Current workshops include the Moon-Earth System, Exploring the Terrestrial Planets, Impact Cratering, Asteroid-Meteorite Connection, and Volcanoes of the Solar System. Two more workshops, Deserts of the Solar System and Astrobiology and the Search for Extrasolar Planetary Systems are being developed. Three rock kits have been designed for use during these workshops: the Impact Rock Kit, Meteorite Kit, and Volcanic Rock Kit. Each kit includes supporting materials with scientific background, supporting presentations, and additional ideas for using the kits in the classroom. In response to teachers' request to be able to use these kits in their classrooms, we have created a series of stand-alone workshops to train educators to use the rock kits in their own educational settings. After completing the training, teachers and other community educators are able to check out the kits for use in their classrooms, science fairs, star parties, and educational and social events. This work is supported by NASA EPOESS award NNX10AE56G: Workshops in Science Education and Resources (Wiser): Planetary Perspectives.

  7. Better quality in healthcare through gamified simulation based skill training application.

    PubMed

    Tancredi, Weronika; Wintell, Mikael; Lindsköld, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Although the screening of abdominal aortic diameter helps to identify men with abdominal aortic aneurysm and saves lives, there is need to coordinate and synchronize screening personnel's way to work. This article describes the design of a game based skill training application that could give the screening personnel an additional opportunity to refine measuring of abdominal aortic diameter in ultrasound images. The design work follows the steps of the Goal Directed design process. Consequently, the design activities are divided into six phases: the Research, Modelling, Requirements Definition, Framework Definition, Refinement and Development support. The design process described in this paper finishes with usability testing of an interactive prototype. The evaluation of the design was conducted with end users by studying their subjective ratings and performance on given tasks. The overall results of the usability testing show that the interactive prototype of the skill training application is not yet fully usable. Consequently, further improvement of the interface design is needed. The identified usability issues and collected qualitative and quantitative material about the interaction between test participants and the interface can guide the next design iteration and lead to more usable design. PMID:21893747

  8. Impact Accelerations of Barefoot and Shod Running.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M; Seegmiller, J; McGowan, C P

    2016-05-01

    During the ground contact phase of running, the body's mass is rapidly decelerated resulting in forces that propagate through the musculoskeletal system. The repetitive attenuation of these impact forces is thought to contribute to overuse injuries. Modern running shoes are designed to reduce impact forces, with the goal to minimize running related overuse injuries. Additionally, the fore/mid foot strike pattern that is adopted by most individuals when running barefoot may reduce impact force transmission. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of the barefoot running form (fore/mid foot strike & decreased stride length) and running shoes on running kinetics and impact accelerations. 10 healthy, physically active, heel strike runners ran in 3 conditions: shod, barefoot and barefoot while heel striking, during which 3-dimensional motion analysis, ground reaction force and accelerometer data were collected. Shod running was associated with increased ground reaction force and impact peak magnitudes, but decreased impact accelerations, suggesting that the midsole of running shoes helps to attenuate impact forces. Barefoot running exhibited a similar decrease in impact accelerations, as well as decreased impact peak magnitude, which appears to be due to a decrease in stride length and/or a more plantarflexed position at ground contact. PMID:26837933

  9. The LHCb Run Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessio, F.; Barandela, M. C.; Callot, O.; Duval, P.-Y.; Franek, B.; Frank, M.; Galli, D.; Gaspar, C.; Herwijnen, E. v.; Jacobsson, R.; Jost, B.; Neufeld, N.; Sambade, A.; Schwemmer, R.; Somogyi, P.

    2010-04-01

    LHCb has designed and implemented an integrated Experiment Control System. The Control System uses the same concepts and the same tools to control and monitor all parts of the experiment: the Data Acquisition System, the Timing and the Trigger Systems, the High Level Trigger Farm, the Detector Control System, the Experiment's Infrastructure and the interaction with the CERN Technical Services and the Accelerator. LHCb's Run Control, the main interface used by the experiment's operator, provides access in a hierarchical, coherent and homogeneous manner to all areas of the experiment and to all its sub-detectors. It allows for automated (or manual) configuration and control, including error recovery, of the full experiment in its different running modes. Different instances of the same Run Control interface are used by the various sub-detectors for their stand-alone activities: test runs, calibration runs, etc. The architecture and the tools used to build the control system, the guidelines and components provided to the developers, as well as the first experience with the usage of the Run Control will be presented

  10. Locomotor training through a 3D cable-driven robotic system for walking function in children with cerebral palsy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming; Kim, Janis; Arora, Pooja; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah J; Zhang, Yunhui

    2014-01-01

    Locomotor training using treadmill has been shown to elicit significant improvements in locomotor ability for some children with cerebral palsy (CP), the functional gains are relatively small and it requires greater involvement from a physical therapist. Current robotic gait training systems are effective in reducing the strenuous work of a physical therapist during locomotor training, but are less effective in improving locomotor function in some children with CP due to the limitations of the systems. Thus, a 3D cable-driven robotic gait training system was developed and tested in five children with CP through a 6 week of long-term gait training. Results indicated that both overground walking speed and 6 minute walking distance improved after robot assisted treadmill training through the cable-driven robotic system, and partially retained at 8 weeks after the end of training. Results from this pilot study indicated that it seems feasible to conduct locomotor training in children with CP through the 3D cable-driven robotic system. PMID:25570752

  11. Training the Millennial learner through experiential evolutionary scaffolding: implications for clinical supervision in graduate education programs.

    PubMed

    Venne, Vickie L; Coleman, Darrell

    2010-12-01

    They are the Millennials--Generation Y. Over the next few decades, they will be entering genetic counseling graduate training programs and the workforce. As a group, they are unlike previous youth generations in many ways, including the way they learn. Therefore, genetic counselors who teach and supervise need to understand the Millennials and explore new ways of teaching to ensure that the next cohort of genetic counselors has both skills and knowledge to represent our profession well. This paper will summarize the distinguishing traits of the Millennial generation as well as authentic learning and evolutionary scaffolding theories of learning that can enhance teaching and supervision. We will then use specific aspects of case preparation during clinical rotations to demonstrate how incorporating authentic learning theory into evolutionary scaffolding results in experiential evolutionary scaffolding, a method that potentially offers a more effective approach when teaching Millennials. We conclude with suggestions for future research. PMID:20844940

  12. Patching the Pipeline: Reducing Educational Disparities in the Sciences Through Minority Training Programs

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, P. Wesley; Hernandez, Paul R.; Woodcock, Anna; Estrada, Mica; Chance, Randie C.; Aguilar, Maria; Serpe, Richard T.

    2013-01-01

    For more than 40 years, there has been a concerted national effort to promote diversity among the scientific research community. Yet given the persistent national-level disparity in educational achievements of students from various ethnic and racial groups, the efficacy of these programs has come into question. The current study reports results from a longitudinal study of students supported by a national National Institutes of Health–funded minority training program, and a propensity score matched control. Growth curve analyses using Hierarchical Linear Modeling show that students supported by Research Initiative for Science Excellence were more likely to persist in their intentions to pursue a scientific research career. In addition, growth curve analyses indicate that undergraduate research experience, but not having a mentor, predicted student persistence in science. PMID:24285910

  13. Assessing locomotor skills development in childhood using wearable inertial sensor devices: the running paradigm.

    PubMed

    Masci, Ilaria; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Bergamini, Elena; Pesce, Caterina; Getchell, Nancy; Cappozzo, Aurelio

    2013-04-01

    Objective quantitative evaluation of motor skill development is of increasing importance to carefully drive physical exercise programs in childhood. Running is a fundamental motor skill humans adopt to accomplish locomotion, which is linked to physical activity levels, although the assessment is traditionally carried out using qualitative evaluation tests. The present study aimed at investigating the feasibility of using inertial sensors to quantify developmental differences in the running pattern of young children. Qualitative and quantitative assessment tools were adopted to identify a skill-sensitive set of biomechanical parameters for running and to further our understanding of the factors that determine progression to skilled running performance. Running performances of 54 children between the ages of 2 and 12 years were submitted to both qualitative and quantitative analysis, the former using sequences of developmental level, the latter estimating temporal and kinematic parameters from inertial sensor measurements. Discriminant analysis with running developmental level as dependent variable allowed to identify a set of temporal and kinematic parameters, within those obtained with the sensor, that best classified children into the qualitative developmental levels (accuracy higher than 67%). Multivariate analysis of variance with the quantitative parameters as dependent variables allowed to identify whether and which specific parameters or parameter subsets were differentially sensitive to specific transitions between contiguous developmental levels. The findings showed that different sets of temporal and kinematic parameters are able to tap all steps of the transitional process in running skill described through qualitative observation and can be prospectively used for applied diagnostic and sport training purposes. PMID:23067877

  14. STS-38 MS Springer climbs through CCT side hatch prior to egress training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-38 Mission Specialist (MS) Robert C. Springer, wearing launch and entry suit (LES), climbs through the side hatch of the crew compartment trainer (CCT) located in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Springer will practice emergency egress through the side hatch using the crew escape system (CES) pole (at Springer's left). The inflated safety cushion under Springer will break his fall as he rolls out of the side hatch.

  15. STS-38 Pilot Culbertson rolls through CCT side hatch during egress training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-38 Pilot Frank L. Culbertson, wearing launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), rolls through the side hatch of the crew compartment trainer (CCT) located in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Assisted by technicians, Culbertson practices emergency egress through the side hatch using the crew escape system (CES) pole which extends out the side hatch. The inflated safety cushion breaks Culbertson's fall as he rolls out of the side hatch.

  16. The profile of middle school students in experimental planning skills through inquiry training model on heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwis, Rahmiati; Rustaman, Nuryani Y.

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to describe the experimental planning skills in middle school students on the topic of heat transfer through Inquiry Training Model (ITM) with laboratory activity. This research used descriptive method with A number of middle school students (n=21) in Bone was involved as participants in this study. Data was collected through observation sheets on science process skills. Research finding shows that the experimental planning skills of the participants varied in a sense of groups and all was well developed (> 90%) after having experience learning on heat transfer through ITM. It can be shown in the data collected phase through experimentation and filled-in student worksheet, Topic of heat transfer was the last period of the whole heat topic carried out through ITM. The students carried out the investigation without following the experimental design presented in the student' workbook, instead they were active in discussions to determine the tools and materials, as well as setting the pace of work independently based on the agreement in their group, so they have had experience in planning experiments. This activity shows the various students 'creativity in designing an experiment and from that those creations the students' like scientists in proving, discovery and developing invention potency that have been there before.

  17. Training of Ability for Engineering Design through Long Term Internship Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konishi, Masami; Gofuku, Akio; Tomita, Eiji

    The education program for engineering design capabilities through long term internship of Okayama University had started in 2006. The program supported by the MEXT is aimed to educate students in the Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology of Okayama University. The internship satellite laboratory of the University is settled in the near place of collaborative companies in which students are engaged with the project themes extracted from problems in the factory of collaborative companies. Through the program, promotion of abilities for setup and solving a problem considering cost and due date together with performance of the solution. Students are also expected to gain knowledge on patent and ethics required for skillful engineers.

  18. High-intensity sprint training inhibits mitochondrial respiration through aconitase inactivation.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Filip J; Schiffer, Tomas A; Ørtenblad, Niels; Zinner, Christoph; Morales-Alamo, David; Willis, Sarah J; Calbet, Jose A; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Boushel, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Intense exercise training is a powerful stimulus that activates mitochondrial biogenesis pathways and thus increases mitochondrial density and oxidative capacity. Moderate levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during exercise are considered vital in the adaptive response, but high ROS production is a serious threat to cellular homeostasis. Although biochemical markers of the transition from adaptive to maladaptive ROS stress are lacking, it is likely mediated by redox sensitive enzymes involved in oxidative metabolism. One potential enzyme mediating such redox sensitivity is the citric acid cycle enzyme aconitase. In this study, we examined biopsy specimens of vastus lateralis and triceps brachii in healthy volunteers, together with primary human myotubes. An intense exercise regimen inactivated aconitase by 55-72%, resulting in inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by 50-65%. In the vastus, the mitochondrial dysfunction was compensated for by a 15-72% increase in mitochondrial proteins, whereas H2O2 emission was unchanged. In parallel with the inactivation of aconitase, the intermediary metabolite citrate accumulated and played an integral part in cellular protection against oxidative stress. In contrast, the triceps failed to increase mitochondrial density, and citrate did not accumulate. Instead, mitochondrial H2O2 emission was decreased to 40% of the pretraining levels, together with a 6-fold increase in protein abundance of catalase. In this study, a novel mitochondrial stress response was highlighted where accumulation of citrate acted to preserve the redox status of the cell during periods of intense exercise. PMID:26452378

  19. Training Vegetable Parenting Practices Through a Mobile Game: Iterative Qualitative Alpha Test

    PubMed Central

    Beltran, Alicia; Buday, Richard; Hughes, Sheryl; O'Connor, Teresia; Baranowski, Janice; Dadabhoy, Hafza R; Diep, Cassandra S; Baranowski, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Background Vegetable consumption protects against chronic diseases, but many young children do not eat vegetables. One quest within the mobile application Mommio was developed to train mothers of preschoolers in effective vegetable parenting practices, or ways to approach getting their child to eat and enjoy vegetables. A much earlier version of the game, then called Kiddio, was alpha tested previously, but the game has since evolved in key ways. Objective The purpose of this research was to alpha test the first quest, substantiate earlier findings and obtain feedback on new game features to develop an effective, compelling parenting game. Methods Mothers of preschool children (n=20) played a single quest of Mommio 2 to 4 times, immediately after which a semi-structured interview about their experience was completed. Interviews were transcribed and double coded using thematic analysis methods. Results Mothers generally liked the game, finding it realistic and engaging. Some participants had difficulties with mechanics for moving around the 3-D environment. Tips and hints were well received, and further expansion and customization were desired. Conclusions Earlier findings were supported, though Mommio players reported more enjoyment than Kiddio players. Continued development will include more user-friendly mechanics, customization, opportunities for environment interaction, and food parenting scenarios. PMID:26208899

  20. Construction of a reusable, high-fidelity model to enhance extracorporeal membrane oxygenation training through simulation.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jess L; Grisham, Lisa M; Scott, Jeanne; Mogan, Chris; Prescher, Hannes; Biffar, David; Jarred, John; Meyer, Robyn J; Hamilton, Allan J

    2014-04-01

    Initiation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is stressful, especially for inexperienced extracorporeal life support providers. The main objective of this study was to create a novel, reusable mannequin for high-fidelity simulation of ECMO initiation. We modified a Laerdal neonatal mannequin (SimNewB; Stavanger, Norway) so that it could be used to simulate an ECMO initiation. A simulation of a neonatal patient suffering from meconium aspiration was performed in the pediatric intensive care unit, and participants included new extracorporeal life support specialists in addition to the composition of the clinical ECMO team. A total of 17 individuals participated in the neonatal ECMO initiation simulation. Questionnaire results showed that 88% of participants felt better prepared to assist in an ECMO initiation after the simulation. All participants (100%) agreed that the modified mannequin and the environment were realistic and that this simulation helps teamwork and communication in future initiations of ECMO. Simulation can be used for the prevention, identification, and reduction of anxiety-related crisis situations that novice providers may infrequently encounter during routine clinical use of mechanical circulatory support. Use of a reusable, high-fidelity mannequin may be beneficial for effective team training of complex pediatric ECMO-related procedures. PMID:24675629

  1. Does research through Structured Operational Research and Training (SORT IT) courses impact policy and practice?

    PubMed Central

    Shewade, H. D.; Tripathy, J. P.; Guillerm, N.; Tayler-Smith, K.; Berger, S. Dar; Bissell, K.; Reid, A. J.; Zachariah, R.; Harries, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative (SORT IT) courses are well known for their output, with nearly 90% of participants completing the course and publishing in scientific journals. Objective: We assessed the impact of research papers on policy and practice that resulted from six SORT IT courses initiated between July 2012 and March 2013. Design: This was a cross-sectional study involving e-mail-based, self-administered questionnaires and telephone/skype/in-person responses from first and/or senior co-authors of course papers. A descriptive content analysis of the responses was performed and categorised into themes. Results: Of 72 participants, 63 (88%) completed the course. Course output included 81 submitted papers, of which 76 (94%) were published. Of the 81 papers assessed, 45 (55%) contributed to a change in policy and/or practice: 29 contributed to government policy/practice change (20 at national, 4 at subnational and 5 at hospital level), 11 to non-government organisational policy change and 5 to reinforcing existing policy. The changes ranged from modifications of monitoring and evaluation tools, to redrafting of national guidelines, to scaling up existing policies. Conclusion: More than half of the SORT IT course papers contributed to a change in policy and/or practice. Future assessments should include more robust and independent verification of the reported change(s) with all stakeholders. PMID:27051612

  2. Quantifying Above-Cloud Aerosols through Integrating Multi-Sensor Measurements from A-Train Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying above-cloud aerosols can help improve the assessment of aerosol intercontinental transport and climate impacts. Large-scale measurements of aerosol above low-level clouds had been generally unexplored until very recently when CALIPSO lidar started to acquire aerosol and cloud profiles in June 2006. Despite CALIPSO s unique capability of measuring above-cloud aerosol optical depth (AOD), such observations are substantially limited in spatial coverage because of the lidar s near-zero swath. We developed an approach that integrates measurements from A-Train satellite sensors (including CALIPSO lidar, OMI, and MODIS) to extend CALIPSO above-cloud AOD observations to substantially larger areas. We first examine relationships between collocated CALIPSO above-cloud AOD and OMI absorbing aerosol index (AI, a qualitative measure of AOD for elevated dust and smoke aerosol) as a function of MODIS cloud optical depth (COD) by using 8-month data in the Saharan dust outflow and southwest African smoke outflow regions. The analysis shows that for a given cloud albedo, above-cloud AOD correlates positively with AI in a linear manner. We then apply the derived relationships with MODIS COD and OMI AI measurements to derive above-cloud AOD over the whole outflow regions. In this talk, we will present spatial and day-to-day variations of the above-cloud AOD and the estimated direct radiative forcing by the above-cloud aerosols.

  3. Exploring Racial and Gender Identity for American Women of African Descent through Self-Defense Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speidel, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that one of the most effective responses for women to thwart sexual assault is through competence in physical fighting techniques. Various studies also reveal multiple benefits beyond the actual defensive moves learned and the impact of women's self-defense classes on gender identity; however, the primary focus has been on white…

  4. Networking among young global health researchers through an intensive training approach: a mixed methods exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Networks are increasingly regarded as essential in health research aimed at influencing practice and policies. Less research has focused on the role networking can play in researchers’ careers and its broader impacts on capacity strengthening in health research. We used the Canadian Coalition for Global Health Research (CCGHR) annual Summer Institute for New Global Health Researchers (SIs) as an opportunity to explore networking among new global health researchers. Methods A mixed-methods exploratory study was conducted among SI alumni and facilitators who had participated in at least one SI between 2004 and 2010. Alumni and facilitators completed an online short questionnaire, and a subset participated in an in-depth interview. Thematic analysis of the qualitative data was triangulated with quantitative results and CCGHR reports on SIs. Synthesis occurred through the development of a process model relevant to networking through the SIs. Results Through networking at the SIs, participants experienced decreased isolation and strengthened working relationships. Participants accessed new knowledge, opportunities, and resources through networking during the SI. Post-SI, participants reported ongoing contact and collaboration, although most participants desired more opportunities for interaction. They made suggestions for structural supports to networking among new global health researchers. Conclusions Networking at the SI contributed positively to opportunities for individuals, and contributed to the formation of a network of global health researchers. Intentional inclusion of networking in health research capacity strengthening initiatives, with supportive resources and infrastructure could create dynamic, sustainable networks accessible to global health researchers around the world. PMID:24460819

  5. Improving Elementary Teachers' Comfort and Skill with Instructional Technology through School-Based Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Elizabeth C.

    This practicum report describes a program designed to increase elementary teachers' comfort and skill in the use of computer related technology for the purpose of establishing effective integration of instructional technology. Other stated ancillary goals included improved instructional effectiveness in the classroom through the development of an…

  6. Multidimensional Language Performance in Training Teachers for Secondary Content Instruction through English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feryok, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study focuses on four non-native English speaking secondary content teachers in a short-term immersion program aimed at introducing them to language teaching methods for secondary school content instruction through the medium of English. Such programs have been found to have largely mixed results for language performance. This may…

  7. Leadership Skills Training for Youths through the Exploring Program of Boy Scouts of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Brian F.; Willis, A. Sandra

    This paper describes the Leadership Opportunity Forums for high school students sponsored by the Explorer's Post of the Birmingham Area Council of the Boy Scouts of America. The goal of the forum was to increase student leadership behaviors through informational sessions, needs assessment, informal discussions, shared meals, outdoor physical…

  8. Promoting Ethnic Studies in China through Emphasis on English Teacher Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnell, James A.

    This paper describes how the Chinese educational system promotes ethnic studies programming. The Chinese approach differs from approaches in the United States as the Chinese promote ethnic studies primarily through English teacher education programs. Since the opening of China, the teaching of English has been a priority in Chinese education.…

  9. 2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF OVENS ALONG CATS RUN LOOKING NORTHEAST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF OVENS ALONG CATS RUN LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING OVEN NOS. 159 (RIGHT) THROUGH 163 (LEFT) - Griffin No. 1 Coke Works, Along Cats Run, Southeast of Masontown Bourough (Nicholson Township), Masontown, Fayette County, PA

  10. Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) Predicts Middle Distance Running Performance

    PubMed Central

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Danese, Elisa; Skafidas, Spyros; Tarperi, Cantor; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Schena, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Background Running economy and performance in middle distance running depend on several physiological factors, which include anthropometric variables, functional characteristics, training volume and intensity. Since little information is available about hematological predictors of middle distance running time, we investigated whether some hematological parameters may be associated with middle distance running performance in a large sample of recreational runners. Methods The study population consisted in 43 amateur runners (15 females, 28 males; median age 47 years), who successfully concluded a 21.1 km half-marathon at 75–85% of their maximal aerobic power (VO2max). Whole blood was collected 10 min before the run started and immediately thereafter, and hematological testing was completed within 2 hours after sample collection. Results The values of lymphocytes and eosinophils exhibited a significant decrease compared to pre-run values, whereas those of mean corpuscular volume (MCV), platelets, mean platelet volume (MPV), white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils and monocytes were significantly increased after the run. In univariate analysis, significant associations with running time were found for pre-run values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), MPV, reticulocyte hemoglobin concentration (RetCHR), and post-run values of MCH, RDW, MPV, monocytes and RetCHR. In multivariate analysis, in which running time was entered as dependent variable whereas age, sex, blood lactate, body mass index, VO2max, mean training regimen and the hematological parameters significantly associated with running performance in univariate analysis were entered as independent variables, only MPV values before and after the trial remained significantly associated with running time. After adjustment for platelet count, the MPV value before the run (p = 0.042), but not thereafter (p = 0.247), remained significantly

  11. A River Runs through Math Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Linda L.; Roberge, Martin C.

    2012-01-01

    For students who have difficulty envisioning how the mathematics that they are learning is used outside the classroom, an adventure as field mathematicians can be enlightening. Measuring stream discharge is a field experience that allows students to engage in a hands-on (and boots-on) real-world, problem-solving activity and that integrates…

  12. Fermilab DART run control

    SciTech Connect

    Oleynik, G.; Engelfried, J.; Mengel, L.

    1995-05-01

    DART is the high speed, Unix based data acquisition system being developed by Fermilab in collaboration with seven High Energy Physics Experiments. This paper describes DART run control, which has been developed over the past year and is a flexible, distributed, extensible system for the, control and monitoring of the data acquisition systems. We discuss the unique and interesting concepts of the run control and some of our experiences in developing it. We also give a brief update and status of the whole DART system.

  13. Managing Parenting Stress through Life Skills Training: A Supportive Intervention for Mothers with Visually Impaired Children

    PubMed Central

    Khooshab, Elham; Jahanbin, Iran; Ghadakpour, Soraya; Keshavarzi, Sareh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vision impairment in children is one of the most severe disabilities that cause stress in parents. Therefore, it seems necessary to establish and conduct interventions for controlling parenting stress and preventing its negative consequences. This study aimed to investigate the effect of life skills training (LST) program on parenting stress of mothers with blind children aged 7 to 12 years. Methods: This study was a non-blinded randomized controlled trial. 52 mothers with blind children studying at Shoorideh Shirazi educational complex, Shiraz, Iran in 2013 were enrolled, using census sampling method. Balanced block randomization method was used to allocate the participants to groups. The intervention group participated in an LST program consisting of 5 two-hour sessions per week for 5 consecutive weeks but the control group didn’t. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and Parenting Stress Index; they were completed three times by the participants of both groups before, immediately after, and one month after the intervention. Collected data were analyzed using Chi-square, independent t-test and repeated measures analysis of variances (ANOVA). Results: The LST program could decrease parenting stress in the intervention group mothers (P<0/001). This statistically significant reduction in the mean scores of parenting stress was observed in both children and parents. Conclusion: LST program could reduce parenting stress in mothers with blind children. Therefore, it can be used as an efficient, cost-effective and simple technique for managing parenting stress in such parents. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201405147531N6 PMID:27382593

  14. Cilia Train Spotting.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Stefanie; Blacque, Oliver E

    2016-06-01

    Cilium formation depends on intraflagellar transport trains that move bidirectionally along ciliary microtubules. Reporting in Science, Stepanek and Pigino (2016) employ correlative light and electron microscopy in algae to determine the ultrastructure of anterograde and retrograde trains and discover that these trains avoid collision by running on B- and A-tubules, respectively. PMID:27270038

  15. Re-training refugee and other overseas doctors: re-qualification through the United Examining Board examination.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, John B; Emmett, L; Cappuccio, F P; Maxwell, J D

    2006-01-01

    The Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board test is well suited to overseas doctors who have migrated for reasons of career development but less so for groups such as refugees who have not had time to prepare for migration and may not speak English. We describe a 12-month structured clinical course leading to re-qualification, for 70 refugee and other overseas doctors. Between 1996 and 2003, 69 of the 70 overseas doctors on the course (27 of whom were refugees) re-qualified through the examination of the United Examining Board. We report on early and later outcomes of these 69 doctors who, by achieving provisional registration, were entitled to pre-registration house officer posts. Of the 69, 33 are now principals in general practice or GPs in training; a further 32 are in NHS hospital posts. Opportunities for disadvantaged overseas doctors to re-train are severely lacking; yet in the UK there are significant numbers who warrant special help. A very modest investment of resources could help them re-qualify and contribute to the health and economy of the nation. PMID:16521356

  16. From the Green Screen to the Classroom: Training Graduate Students to Communicate Science and Mathematics Effectively through the INSPIRE Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Donna M.; Radencic, Sarah P.; Walker, Ryan M.; Cartwright, John H.; Schmitz, Darrel W.; Bruce, Lori M.; McNeal, Karen S.

    2014-11-01

    Initiating New Science Partnerships in Rural Education (INSPIRE) is a five-year partnership between Mississippi State University and three school districts in Mississippi’s Golden Triangle region. This fellowship program is designed to strengthen the communication and scientific reasoning skills of STEM graduate students by having them design and implement inquiry-based lessons which channel various aspects of their research in our partner classrooms. Fellows are encouraged to explore a diversity of approaches in classroom lesson design and to use various technologies in their lessons, including GIS, SkyMaster weather stations, Celestia, proscopes, benchtop SEM, and others. Prior to entering the classrooms for a full school year, Fellows go through an intense graduate-level training course and work directly with their partner teachers, the program coordinator, and participating faculty, to fold their lessons into the curricula of the classrooms to which they’ve been assigned. Here, we will discuss the various written, oral, and visual exercises that have been most effective for training our Fellows, including group discussions of education literature, role playing and team-building exercises, preparation of written lesson plans for dissemination to other teachers nationwide, the Presentation Boot Camp program, and production of videos made by the Fellows highlighting careers in STEM fields. We will also discuss the changes observed in Fellows’ abilities to communicate science and mathematics over the course of their fellowship year. INSPIRE is funded by the NSF Graduate K-12 (GK-12) STEM Fellowship Program, award number DGE-0947419.

  17. Guiding the development of family medicine training in Africa through collaboration with the Medical Education Partnership Initiative.

    PubMed

    Mash, Robert J; de Villiers, Marietjie R; Moodley, Kalay; Nachega, Jean B

    2014-08-01

    Africa's health care challenges include a high burden of disease, low life expectancy, health workforce shortages, and varying degrees of commitment to primary health care on the part of policy makers and government officials. One overarching goal of the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) is to develop models of medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa. To do this, MEPI has created a network of universities and other institutions that, among other things, recognizes the importance of supporting training programs in family medicine. This article provides a framework for assessing the stage of the development of family medicine training in Africa, including the challenges that were encountered and how educational organizations can help to address them. A modified "stages of change" model (precontemplation, contemplation, action, maintenance, and relapse) was used as a conceptual framework to understand the various phases that countries go through in developing family medicine in the public sector and to determine the type of assistance that is useful at each phase. PMID:25072584

  18. Retaining nurses through conflict resolution. Training staff to confront problems and communicate openly can improve the work climate.

    PubMed

    Fowler, A R; Bushardt, S C; Jones, M A

    1993-06-01

    The way nurses resolve conflict may be leading them to quit their jobs or leave the profession altogether. Conflict is inevitable in a dynamic organization. What is important is not to avoid conflict but to seek its resolution in a constructive manner. Organizational conflict is typically resolved through one of five strategies: withdrawal, force, conciliation, compromise, or confrontation. A recent study of nurses in three different hospitals showed that the approach they use most is withdrawal. This might manifest itself in a request to change shifts or assignments and may lead to a job change and, eventually, abandonment of the field altogether. Given this scenario, changing nurses' conflict resolution style may help administrators combat the nursing shortage. Healthcare organizations must examine themselves to determine why nurses so frequently use withdrawal; then they must restructure work relationships as needed. Next, organizations need to increase nurses' awareness of the problem and train them to use a resolution style more conducive to building stable relationships: confrontation. Staff should also be trained in effective communications skills to develop trust and openness in their relationships. PMID:10126220

  19. Training Systems Modelers through the Development of a Multi-scale Chagas Disease Risk Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, J.; Stevens-Goodnight, S.; Kulkarni, S.; Bustamante, D.; Fytilis, N.; Goff, P.; Monroy, C.; Morrissey, L. A.; Orantes, L.; Stevens, L.; Dorn, P.; Lucero, D.; Rios, J.; Rizzo, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    The goal of our NSF-sponsored Division of Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences grant is to create a multidisciplinary approach to develop spatially explicit models of vector-borne disease risk using Chagas disease as our model. Chagas disease is a parasitic disease endemic to Latin America that afflicts an estimated 10 million people. The causative agent (Trypanosoma cruzi) is most commonly transmitted to humans by blood feeding triatomine insect vectors. Our objectives are: (1) advance knowledge on the multiple interacting factors affecting the transmission of Chagas disease, and (2) provide next generation genomic and spatial analysis tools applicable to the study of other vector-borne diseases worldwide. This funding is a collaborative effort between the RSENR (UVM), the School of Engineering (UVM), the Department of Biology (UVM), the Department of Biological Sciences (Loyola (New Orleans)) and the Laboratory of Applied Entomology and Parasitology (Universidad de San Carlos). Throughout this five-year study, multi-educational groups (i.e., high school, undergraduate, graduate, and postdoctoral) will be trained in systems modeling. This systems approach challenges students to incorporate environmental, social, and economic as well as technical aspects and enables modelers to simulate and visualize topics that would either be too expensive, complex or difficult to study directly (Yasar and Landau 2003). We launch this research by developing a set of multi-scale, epidemiological models of Chagas disease risk using STELLA® software v.9.1.3 (isee systems, inc., Lebanon, NH). We use this particular system dynamics software as a starting point because of its simple graphical user interface (e.g., behavior-over-time graphs, stock/flow diagrams, and causal loops). To date, high school and undergraduate students have created a set of multi-scale (i.e., homestead, village, and regional) disease models. Modeling the system at multiple spatial scales forces recognition that

  20. Take the monkey and run

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Kimberley A.; Hambright, M. Karen; Hewes, Kelly; Schilder, Brian M.; Ross, Corinna N.; Tardif, Suzette D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small, New World primate that is used extensively in biomedical and behavioral research. This short-lived primate, with its small body size, ease of handling, and docile temperament, has emerged as a valuable model for aging and neurodegenerative research. A growing body of research has indicated exercise, aerobic exercise especially, imparts beneficial effects to normal aging. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these positive effects of exercise, and the degree to which exercise has neurotherapeutic effects, is an important research focus. Thus, developing techniques to engage marmosets in aerobic exercise would have great advantages. New method Here we describe the marmoset exercise ball (MEB) paradigm: a safe (for both experimenter and subjects), novel and effective means to engage marmosets in aerobic exercise. We trained young adult male marmosets to run on treadmills for 30 min a day, 3 days a week. Results Our training procedures allowed us to engage male marmosets in this aerobic exercise within 4 weeks, and subjects maintained this frequency of exercise for 3 months. Comparison with existing methods To our knowledge, this is the first described method to engage marmosets in aerobic exercise. A major advantage of this exercise paradigm is that while it was technically forced exercise, it did not appear to induce stress in the marmosets. Conclusions These techniques should be useful to researchers wishing to address physiological responses of exercise in a marmoset model. PMID:25835199

  1. Running Wheel for Earthworms.

    PubMed

    Wilson, W Jeffrey; Johnson, Brandon A

    2016-01-01

    We describe the construction and use of a running wheel responsive to the movement of the earthworm. The wheel employs readily available, inexpensive components and is easily constructed. Movement of the wheel can be monitored visually or via standard behavioral laboratory computer interfaces. Examples of data are presented, and possibilities for use in the teaching classroom are discussed. PMID:27385934

  2. The Art of Running

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jill Harris

    2007-01-01

    Every year, the Parent-Teacher Association of Ferndale Elementary School in Atlanta, Georgia sponsors a fun road race for the students, teachers, families, and community. This annual event has inspired the author to develop the Running and Art project to show off her students' art and squeeze in a little art history, too. In this article, the…

  3. Running Wheel for Earthworms

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, W. Jeffrey; Johnson, Brandon A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the construction and use of a running wheel responsive to the movement of the earthworm. The wheel employs readily available, inexpensive components and is easily constructed. Movement of the wheel can be monitored visually or via standard behavioral laboratory computer interfaces. Examples of data are presented, and possibilities for use in the teaching classroom are discussed. PMID:27385934

  4. Runnings in the curvaton

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Takahashi, Tomo E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2012-06-01

    We investigate the scale-dependence, or the runnings, of linear and second order density perturbations generated in various curvaton scenarios. We argue that the second order perturbations, i.e. non-Gaussianity, can strongly depend on the scale, even when the linear perturbations are nearly scale-invariant. We present analytic formulae for the runnings from curvatons with general energy potentials, and clarify the conditions under which f{sub NL} becomes strongly scale-dependent. From the point of view of the f{sub NL} running, curvaton potentials can be classified into roughly two categories by whether the potential flattens or steepens compared to a quadratic one. As such examples, we study pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone curvatons, and self-interacting curvatons, respectively. The dynamics of non-quadratic curvatons and the behaviors of the resulting density perturbations are clarified by analytical methods. Then we also study models where multiple source can be responsible for density perturbations such as the multi-curvaton, and mixed curvaton and inflaton models where the running of f{sub NL} can also be large due to their multi-source nature. We make quantitative analysis for each curvaton scenario and discuss in what cases the scale-dependence, in particular, of f{sub NL} can be large enough to be probed with future CMB experiments.

  5. Vibration training for upper body: transmission of platform vibrations through cables.

    PubMed

    Tankisheva, Ekaterina; Boonen, Steven; Delecluse, Christophe; Druyts, Hans Lj; Verschueren, Sabine M P

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the vibration transmission from a vibration platform through Vectran cables to the upper body and its relationship to induced muscular activation. Fifteen clinically healthy participants performed 3 different arm exercises-biceps curl, triceps curl, and lateral raise. Vibration transmission to the upper body was assessed over a wide range of accelerations (from 1.90 to 5.98 g) and frequencies (from 25 to 40 Hz). To assess the vibration transmission, 7 triaxial accelerometers were attached from the hand up to the head, and the root-mean-square of acceleration signal of each site-specific body point was calculated. Muscular activity of biceps brachii, triceps brachii, deltoid, and upper trapezius was recorded. The results showed a significant attenuation of the platform accelerations transmitted through the Vectran cables to the upper body. Handle vibration ranged between 27 and 44% of the acceleration delivered by the platform depending on platform vibration parameters (acceleration/frequency). Vibration increased the muscle activity of biceps brachii, triceps brachii, deltoid, and upper trapezius muscles significantly only during biceps curl exercises. No frequency or acceleration effect was found on the size of the muscle response. The results of the present study suggest that a cable-pulley resistance system on a vibration platform channels the vibration safely from the platform to the arms and induces additional muscle activation in some arm muscles when biceps curl exercises are performed. PMID:24077381

  6. Negotiation of gender responsibilities in resettled refugee populations through Relationship Enhancement training.

    PubMed

    Bellinger, Goli Amin

    2013-06-01

    Being uprooted, displaced, and resettled can produce great tension in refugee marriages. This paper details a technique to help refugees recognize and manage changes and threats to traditional gender roles after resettlement to western countries. A case study from a multisite psycho-educational marriage project illustrates the application of the Relationship Enhancement model with a Bhutanese couple. Through empathy and structured dialogue, the couple is coached to identify their core concerns about the changes in their lives and come up with mutually beneficial solutions. Focusing on the redistribution of each gender's prescribed responsibilities allows the clinician to respond to the cultural structuring of equitable division of labor while helping families to address new responsibilities in managing household duties, parenting, employment, and finances. PMID:23599392

  7. Training Program for Practical Engineering Design through the Collaboration with Regional Companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gofuku, Akio; Tabata, Nobuhisa; Tomita, Eiji; Funabiki, Nobuo

    An education program to bring up engineering design capabilities through long-term internship by the collaboration with regional companies has been put in practice for five years. The program is composed of two types of long-term internships and several lectures for patent systems and engineering ethics. This paper describes the outline of the program, educational effects, and our experiences. The program was improved into two educational programs in 2011. The one is a special course to educate engineers and scientists who can lead the technologies of their domains. The other is a long-term internship program for master students in engineering divisions of graduate school. This paper also describes the current activities of the latter program.

  8. Ride comfort of a high-speed train through the structural upgrade of a bogie suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.-M.; Goverdovskiy, V. N.; Sim, C.-S.; Lee, J.-H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to upgrade a bogie suspension (without a damaging) and thus to increase vibration isolation of a carbody in the infra frequency range, which is most important for ride comfort. The approach involves analysis of kinematic structure of the suspension's function-generating mechanism to detect sources of inefficiency within the supply and maintenance support of an existing design, as well as to predict the structural causes of a new design. A theory of the approach is presented. A survey of the typical suspensions is made; their kinematic structures are analyzed. The type and number synthesis of new candidates for the mechanism is illustrated to avoid undesirable structure redundancy in suspension design by the method of "negative" stiffness, which proved most promising. The utility of the approach is demonstrated through the upgrade of scaled simulated models and real suspensions.

  9. STS-93 Crew Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Live footage of the STS-93 crewmembers shows Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, Mission Specialists Steven A. Hawley, Catherine G. Coleman, and Michel Tognini going through various training activities. These activities include Bail Out Training NBL, Emergency Egress Training, Earth Observations Classroom Training, Simulator Training, T-38 Departure from Ellington Field, Chandra Deploy Training, SAREX Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment, CCT Bail Out Crew Compartment Training, and Southwest Research Ultraviolet Imaging System (SWUIS) Training.

  10. A Theoretical Framework of Training Needs Analysis for African Para-Medical Personnel through Distance Education Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braimoh, Dele

    1994-01-01

    A theoretical conceptualization of training needs assessment is developed using the example of distance education of paramedical personnel (nurses) in the developing countries of Africa. Accurate training needs analysis and a baseline survey are essential for program development. (SLD)

  11. A dignified approach to improving the patient experience: promoting privacy, dignity and respect through collaborative training.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Angelina

    2012-07-01

    Globally there is a plethora of literature surrounding patients' privacy, dignity and respect, consequently highlighting the need for healthcare professionals to ensure such basic human rights are upheld when delivering care. For qualified practitioners this is further emphasised through the professional bodies and their varying codes of practice. To ensure privacy, dignity and respect move from rhetoric to reality in professional practice many pre-registration programmes promote service user involvement. Evidence suggests that involving service users in the delivery of educational programmes by directly telling their own stories enhances patient centred care. However given a number of recent patient surveys and/or audits reporting the lack of privacy, dignity and respect in health and social care settings there seems to be a growing need to reaffirm practitioners' knowledge, skills and values once qualified and practising in healthcare organisations. This paper reports on a project in a UK NHS Mental health Trust where service users, in collaboration with Trust staff, planned and delivered a series of privacy and dignity workshops to healthcare practitioners with the aim of improving the patient experience. Although the project took place within a Mental Health Trust the issues of privacy, dignity and respect apply to all healthcare sectors. PMID:22245653

  12. Rehabilitation and return to running after lower limb stress fractures.

    PubMed

    Liem, Brian C; Truswell, Hallie J; Harrast, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Lower limb stress fractures are common injuries in runners. In terms of treatment, much of the medical literature has focused primarily on rest and cessation of running, but little has been written about the rehabilitation and functional progression of runners following a lower limb stress fracture. This article reviews the scientific evidence behind common rehabilitation concepts used for runners recovering from these injuries and also discusses sport-specific training modalities such as deep water running and antigravity treadmill training. Overall this article is intended to be a practical resource for clinicians to guide runners in functional rehabilitation and return to running following lower limb stress injury. PMID:23669091

  13. Training through Dialogue. Promoting Effective Learning and Change with Adults. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, Jane

    This book, which is designed for trainers responsible for training other trainers, outlines and illustrates the principles of a program in which trainers are prepared to promote adult learning and change. Part 1: "Training That Respects the Learner," presents insights from popular education and a model for training trainers in the popular…

  14. Technology Training for Older Job-Seeking Adults: The Efficacy of a Program Offered through a University-Community Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taha, Jessica; Czaja, Sara J.; Sharit, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Many older adults who lose their jobs face challenges in finding new employment due to fundamental limitations in their technology skills. While training could give them the skills they need, older workers often have less access to training programs than younger workers. This study examined the feasibility of using an e-learning training program…

  15. Does running strengthen bone?

    PubMed

    Boudenot, Arnaud; Achiou, Zahra; Portier, Hugues

    2015-12-01

    Bone is a living tissue needing mechanical stress to maintain strength. Traditional endurance exercises offer only modest effects on bone. Walking and running produce low impact but lead to bone fatigue. This article is specifically addressed to therapists and explains the mechanisms involved for the effects of exercise on bone. Intermittent exercise limits bone fatigue, and downhill exercises increase ground impact forces and involve eccentric muscle contractions, which are particularly osteogenic. PMID:26562001

  16. Internships and UNAVCO: Training the Future Geoscience Workforce Through the NSF GAGE Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, A. R.; MacPherson-Krutsky, C. C.; Charlevoix, D. J.; Bartel, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Facilities are uniquely positioned to both serve a broad, national audience and provide unique workforce experience to students and recent graduates. Intentional efforts dedicated to broadening participation in the future geoscience workforce at the NSF GAGE (Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope) Facility operated by UNAVCO, are designed to meet the needs of the next generation of students and professionals. As a university-governed consortium facilitating research and education in the geosciences, UNAVCO is well-situated to both prepare students for geoscience technical careers and advanced research positions. Since 1998, UNAVCO has offered over 165 student assistant or intern positions including engineering, data services, education and outreach, and business support. UNAVCO offers three formal programs: the UNAVCO Student Internship Program (USIP), Research Experiences in Solid Earth Science for Students (RESESS), and the Geo-Launchpad (GLP) internship program. Interns range from community college students up through graduate students and recent Masters graduates. USIP interns gain real-world work experience in a professional setting, collaborate with teams toward a common mission, and contribute their knowledge, skills, and abilities to the UNAVCO community. RESESS interns conduct authentic research with a scientist in the Front Range area as well as participate in a structured professional development series. GLP students are in their first 2 years of higher education and work alongside UNAVCO technical staff gaining valuable work experience and insight into the logistics of supporting scientific research. UNAVCO's efforts in preparing the next generation of scientists largely focuses on increasing diversity in the geosciences, whether continuing academic studies or moving into the workforce. To date, well over half of our interns and student assistants come from backgrounds historically underrepresented in the geosciences. Over 80% of former interns

  17. Uniqueness of Human Running Coordination: The Integration of Modern and Ancient Evolutionary Innovations.

    PubMed

    Kiely, John; Collins, David J

    2016-01-01

    Running is a pervasive activity across human cultures and a cornerstone of contemporary health, fitness, and sporting activities. Yet for the overwhelming predominance of human existence running was an essential prerequisite for survival. A means to hunt, and a means to escape when hunted. In a very real sense humans have evolved to run. Yet curiously, perhaps due to running's cultural ubiquity and the natural ease with which we learn to run, we rarely consider the uniqueness of human bipedal running within the animal kingdom. Our unique upright, single stance, bouncing running gait imposes a unique set of coordinative difficulties. Challenges demanding we precariously balance our fragile brains in the very position where they are most vulnerable to falling injury while simultaneously retaining stability, steering direction of travel, and powering the upcoming stride: all within the abbreviated time-frames afforded by short, violent ground contacts separated by long flight times. These running coordination challenges are solved through the tightly-integrated blending of primitive evolutionary legacies, conserved from reptilian and vertebrate lineages, and comparatively modern, more exclusively human, innovations. The integrated unification of these top-down and bottom-up control processes bestows humans with an agile control system, enabling us to readily modulate speeds, change direction, negotiate varied terrains and to instantaneously adapt to changing surface conditions. The seamless integration of these evolutionary processes is facilitated by pervasive, neural and biological, activity-dependent adaptive plasticity. Over time, and with progressive exposure, this adaptive plasticity shapes neural and biological structures to best cope with regularly imposed movement challenges. This pervasive plasticity enables the gradual construction of a robust system of distributed coordinated control, comprised of processes that are so deeply collectively entwined that

  18. Uniqueness of Human Running Coordination: The Integration of Modern and Ancient Evolutionary Innovations

    PubMed Central

    Kiely, John; Collins, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Running is a pervasive activity across human cultures and a cornerstone of contemporary health, fitness, and sporting activities. Yet for the overwhelming predominance of human existence running was an essential prerequisite for survival. A means to hunt, and a means to escape when hunted. In a very real sense humans have evolved to run. Yet curiously, perhaps due to running's cultural ubiquity and the natural ease with which we learn to run, we rarely consider the uniqueness of human bipedal running within the animal kingdom. Our unique upright, single stance, bouncing running gait imposes a unique set of coordinative difficulties. Challenges demanding we precariously balance our fragile brains in the very position where they are most vulnerable to falling injury while simultaneously retaining stability, steering direction of travel, and powering the upcoming stride: all within the abbreviated time-frames afforded by short, violent ground contacts separated by long flight times. These running coordination challenges are solved through the tightly-integrated blending of primitive evolutionary legacies, conserved from reptilian and vertebrate lineages, and comparatively modern, more exclusively human, innovations. The integrated unification of these top-down and bottom-up control processes bestows humans with an agile control system, enabling us to readily modulate speeds, change direction, negotiate varied terrains and to instantaneously adapt to changing surface conditions. The seamless integration of these evolutionary processes is facilitated by pervasive, neural and biological, activity-dependent adaptive plasticity. Over time, and with progressive exposure, this adaptive plasticity shapes neural and biological structures to best cope with regularly imposed movement challenges. This pervasive plasticity enables the gradual construction of a robust system of distributed coordinated control, comprised of processes that are so deeply collectively entwined that

  19. Astronaut John Glenn during training exercise in Mercury Procedures Trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Mercury Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr. runs through a training exercise in the Mercury Procedures Trainer in use at Space Task Group, Langley Field, Virginia. This Link-type spacecraft simulator permits the practice of both normal and emergency modes of systems operations.

  20. Geoscience Perspectives in Carbon Sequestration - Educational Training and Research Through Classroom, Field, and Laboratory Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Wronkiewicz, David; Paul, Varum; Abousif, Alsedik; Ryback, Kyle

    2013-09-30

    The most effective mechanism to limit CO2 release from underground Geologic Carbon Sequestration (GCS) sites over multi-century time scales will be to convert the CO2 into solid carbonate minerals. This report describes the results from four independent research investigations on carbonate mineralization: 1) Colloidal calcite particles forming in Maramec Spring, Missouri, provide a natural analog to evaluate reactions that may occur in a leaking GCS site. The calcite crystals form as a result of physiochemical changes that occur as the spring water rises from a depth of more than 190'. The resultant pressure decrease induces a loss of CO2 from the water, rise in pH, lowering of the solubility of Ca2+ and CO32-, and calcite precipitation. Equilibrium modelling of the spring water resulted in a calculated undersaturated state with respect to calcite. The discontinuity between the observed occurrence of calcite and the model result predicting undersaturated conditions can be explained if bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) are directly involved in precipitation process rather than just carbonate ions (CO32-). 2) Sedimentary rocks in the Oronto Group of the Midcontinent Rift (MCR) system contain an abundance of labile Ca-, Mg-, and Fe-silicate minerals that will neutralize carbonic acid and provide alkaline earth ions for carbonate mineralization. One of the challenges in using MCR rocks for GCS results from their low porosity and permeability. Oronto Group samples were reacted with both CO2-saturated deionized water at 90°C, and a mildly acidic leachant solution in flow-through core-flooding reactor vessels at room temperature. Resulting leachate solutions often exceeded the saturation limit for calcite. Carbonate crystals were also detected in as little as six days of reaction with Oronto Group rocks at 90oC, as well as experiments with forsterite

  1. Running the Power Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeson, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Considers the history of the information technology revolution in education in Britain. Topics include the early ZX80 machine; the development of microcomputers; government support; audio-visual equipment; and problems that current teachers in training still have in using technology appropriately. (LRW)

  2. RUNNING A LANGUAGE LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    REES, ALUN L.W.

    THIS ARTICLE DESCRIBES THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY AT THE NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF TRUJILLO AS IT IS USED IN THE FIVE-YEAR ENGLISH TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAM. THE FIRST TWO YEARS OF THIS COURSE ARE INTENSIVE, BASED ON A STUDY OF ENGLISH USING LADO-FRIES MATERIALS (FOR LATIN AMERICAN LEARNERS) WHICH REQUIRE FIVE HOURS OF CLASSWORK A WEEK SUPPLEMENTED BY…

  3. National Strategies for Developing Human Resources through Technical and Vocational Education and Training. The 2001 KRIVET International Conference on Technical and Vocational Education and Training [Proceedings] (Seoul, South Korea, November 21-23, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korea Research Inst. for Vocational Education and Training, Seoul.

    This document contains 19 papers and case studies, in English and Korean, from a conference on national strategies for developing human resources through technical and vocational education and training. The following are representative: "The Need to Innovate and Optimize Resources [Keynote]" (Wataru Iwamoto); "School to Work Transition in…

  4. Train Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Running resistance, the combined resistance induced by aerodynamic drag and mechanical friction, absorbs about 16 percent of railroad budget and maintenance costs. In order to study these losses, AT&SF Railroad entered into a joint research project with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Various train configurations were tested when the resulting data was computer analyzed. The Coast-Down Technique was estimated at one percent accuracy. AT&SF is evaluating the data further.

  5. Run II luminosity progress

    SciTech Connect

    Gollwitzer, K.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron Collider Run II program continues at the energy and luminosity frontier of high energy particle physics. To the collider experiments CDF and D0, over 3 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity has been delivered to each. Upgrades and improvements in the Antiproton Source of the production and collection of antiprotons have led to increased number of particles stored in the Recycler. Electron cooling and associated improvements have help make a brighter antiproton beam at collisions. Tevatron improvements to handle the increased number of particles and the beam lifetimes have resulted in an increase in luminosity.

  6. 198. SPOUT RUN ARCH BRIDGE AND SPOUT RUN WESTBOUND BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    198. SPOUT RUN ARCH BRIDGE AND SPOUT RUN WESTBOUND BRIDGE FROM POTOMAC RIVER LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  7. PDU Run 10

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    PDU Run 10, a 46-day H-Coal syncrude mode operation using Wyodak coal, successfully met all targeted objectives, and was the longest PDU operation to date in this program. Targeted coal conversion of 90 W % was exceeded with a C/sub 4/-975/sup 0/F distillate yield of 43 to 48 W %. Amocat 1A catalyst was qualified for Pilot Plant operation based on improved operation and superior performance. PDU 10 achieved improved yields and lower hydrogen consumption compared to PDU 6, a similar operation. High hydroclone efficiency and high solids content in the vacuum still were maintained throughout the run. Steady operations at lower oil/solids ratios were demonstrated. Microautoclave testing was introduced as an operational aid. Four additional studies were successfully completed during PDU 10. These included a catalyst tracer study in conjunction with Sandia Laboratories; tests on letdown valve trims for Battelle; a fluid dynamics study with Amoco; and special high-pressure liquid sampling.

  8. Effect of "developmental speech and language training through music" on speech production in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hayoung A

    2010-01-01

    The study compared the effect of music training, speech training and no-training on the verbal production of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Participants were 50 children with ASD, age range 3 to 5 years, who had previously been evaluated on standard tests of language and level of functioning. They were randomly assigned to one of three 3-day conditions. Participants in music training (n = 18) watched a music video containing 6 songs and pictures of the 36 target words; those in speech training (n = 18) watched a speech video containing 6 stories and pictures, and those in the control condition (n = 14) received no treatment. Participants' verbal production including semantics, phonology, pragmatics, and prosody was measured by an experimenter designed verbal production evaluation scale. Results showed that participants in both music and speech training significantly increased their pre to posttest verbal production. Results also indicated that both high and low functioning participants improved their speech production after receiving either music or speech training; however, low functioning participants showed a greater improvement after the music training than the speech training. Children with ASD perceive important linguistic information embedded in music stimuli organized by principles of pattern perception, and produce the functional speech. PMID:20635521

  9. The establishment of an ISO compliant cancer biobank for Jordan and its neighboring countries through knowledge transfer and training.

    PubMed

    Barr, Martin; Souan, Lina; MacGabhann, Peadar; Müller, Jeanette; Al Ashhab, Maxim; Jasser, Mohammed; Hamza, Khetam; Al Hassoon, Sallam; Kuhn, Uwe; Infante, Daniela; Lawlor, Denise; Gately, Kathy; Amireh, Eyad; O'Byrne, Kenneth; Sughayer, Maher A

    2014-02-01

    Research studies aimed at advancing cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment depend on a number of key resources, including a ready supply of high-quality annotated biospecimens from diverse ethnic populations that can be used to test new drugs, assess the validity of prognostic biomarkers, and develop tailor-made therapies. In November 2011, KHCCBIO was established at the King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC) with the support of Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) funding from the European Union (khccbio.khcc.jo). KHCCBIO was developed for the purpose of achieving an ISO accredited cancer biobank through the collection, processing, and preservation of high-quality, clinically annotated biospecimens from consenting cancer patients, making it the first cancer biobank of its kind in Jordan. The establishment of a state-of-the-art, standardized biospecimen repository of matched normal and lung tumor tissue, in addition to blood components such as serum, plasma, and white blood cells, was achieved through the support and experience of its European partners, Trinity College Dublin, Biostór Ireland, and accelopment AG. To date, KHCCBIO along with its partners, have worked closely in establishing an ISO Quality Management System (QMS) under which the biobank will operate. A Quality Policy Manual, Validation, and Training plan have been developed in addition to the development of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for consenting policies on ethical issues, data privacy, confidentiality, and biobanking bylaws. SOPs have also been drafted according to best international practices and implemented for the donation, procurement, processing, testing, preservation, storage, and distribution of tissues and blood samples from lung cancer patients, which will form the basis for the procurement of other cancer types. KHCCBIO will be the first ISO accredited cancer biobank from a diverse ethnic Middle Eastern and North African population. It will provide a unique and valuable resource

  10. The Establishment of an ISO Compliant Cancer Biobank for Jordan and its Neighboring Countries Through Knowledge Transfer and Training

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Martin; Souan, Lina; MacGabhann, Peadar; Müller, Jeanette; Al Ashhab, Maxim; Jasser, Mohammed; Hamza, Khetam; Al Hassoon, Sallam; Kuhn, Uwe; Infante, Daniela; Lawlor, Denise; Gately, Kathy; Amireh, Eyad; O'Byrne, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Research studies aimed at advancing cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment depend on a number of key resources, including a ready supply of high-quality annotated biospecimens from diverse ethnic populations that can be used to test new drugs, assess the validity of prognostic biomarkers, and develop tailor-made therapies. In November 2011, KHCCBIO was established at the King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC) with the support of Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) funding from the European Union (khccbio.khcc.jo). KHCCBIO was developed for the purpose of achieving an ISO accredited cancer biobank through the collection, processing, and preservation of high-quality, clinically annotated biospecimens from consenting cancer patients, making it the first cancer biobank of its kind in Jordan. The establishment of a state-of-the-art, standardized biospecimen repository of matched normal and lung tumor tissue, in addition to blood components such as serum, plasma, and white blood cells, was achieved through the support and experience of its European partners, Trinity College Dublin, Biostór Ireland, and accelopment AG. To date, KHCCBIO along with its partners, have worked closely in establishing an ISO Quality Management System (QMS) under which the biobank will operate. A Quality Policy Manual, Validation, and Training plan have been developed in addition to the development of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for consenting policies on ethical issues, data privacy, confidentiality, and biobanking bylaws. SOPs have also been drafted according to best international practices and implemented for the donation, procurement, processing, testing, preservation, storage, and distribution of tissues and blood samples from lung cancer patients, which will form the basis for the procurement of other cancer types. KHCCBIO will be the first ISO accredited cancer biobank from a diverse ethnic Middle Eastern and North African population. It will provide a unique and valuable resource

  11. The Relationship between Running Velocity and the Energy Cost of Turning during Running

    PubMed Central

    Hatamoto, Yoichi; Yamada, Yosuke; Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Higaki, Yasuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Ball game players frequently perform changes of direction (CODs) while running; however, there has been little research on the physiological impact of CODs. In particular, the effect of running velocity on the physiological and energy demands of CODs while running has not been clearly determined. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between running velocity and the energy cost of a 180°COD and to quantify the energy cost of a 180°COD. Nine male university students (aged 18–22 years) participated in the study. Five shuttle trials were performed in which the subjects were required to run at different velocities (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 km/h). Each trial consisted of four stages with different turn frequencies (13, 18, 24 and 30 per minute), and each stage lasted 3 minutes. Oxygen consumption was measured during the trial. The energy cost of a COD significantly increased with running velocity (except between 7 and 8 km/h, p = 0.110). The relationship between running velocity and the energy cost of a 180°COD is best represented by a quadratic function (y = −0.012+0.066x +0.008x2, [r = 0.994, p = 0.001]), but is also well represented by a linear (y = −0.228+0.152x, [r = 0.991, p<0.001]). These data suggest that even low running velocities have relatively high physiological demands if the COD frequency increases, and that running velocities affect the physiological demands of CODs. These results also showed that the energy expenditure of COD can be evaluated using only two data points. These results may be useful for estimating the energy expenditure of players during a match and designing shuttle exercise training programs. PMID:24497913

  12. Competency-Based Job Related Basic Skills Training through a Model Partnership. Final Report and Final Evaluation Report of National Workplace Literacy Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacker, James C.

    A workplace literacy demonstration project was implemented through a partnership among the Michigan Department of Education, Michigan Institute for Adult Learning and Literacy, and the United Auto Workers/General Motors (UAW/GM) Human Resource Center. Competency-based, job-related foundation skills training was provided for 400 employees, and…

  13. Does Addiction Run in Families?

    MedlinePlus

    ... runs in some families. Addiction runs in ours." Matt's family has a history of addiction. He realizes ... may be more likely to become addicted. Read Matt's story About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  14. Social Competency Training Goes to School: Pupil Involvement in the Classroom through Problem-Solving with People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallarman, Prudence R.; And Others

    The need for a "systems" approach to school-based social competency training has been highlighted by a national commission and the U.S. Department of Education. The Pupil Involvement/Problem-Solving with People (PI/PSP) curriculum has adapted numerous, well-researched social compentency training models targeted for elementary classroom use.…

  15. Community Safety and Recidivism in Australia: Breaking the Cycle of Reoffending to Produce Safer Communities through Vocational Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahn, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This article links community safety with recidivism and argues that reintegration of offenders is a community responsibility. The paper discusses the role of vocational training for incarcerated offenders as a tool to reduce recidivism. Training and subsequent employment for released offenders are factors that assist them to become contributing…

  16. Professional Learning through a Generative Approach to Mentoring: Lessons from a Training School Partnership and Their Wider Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Joan; Fitzgerald, Bernie

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the development of a generative, research-based approach to mentoring initial teacher training students in a Training School/university partnership. Drawing on data from mentors, trainees and pupils it describes two phases of development, both of which use video recordings of participants' classroom practice to stimulate…

  17. Increasing School Success through Partnership-Based Family Competency Training: Experimental Study of Long-Term Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoth, Richard; Randall, G. Kevin; Shin, Chungyeol

    2008-01-01

    An expanding body of research suggests an important role for parent or family competency training in children's social-emotional learning and related school success. This article summarizes a test of a longitudinal model examining partnership-based family competency training effects on academic success in a general population. Specifically, it…

  18. Spelling Improvement through Letter-Sound and Whole-Word Training in Two Multilingual Greek- and English-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niolaki, Georgia Z.; Masterson, Jackie; Terzopoulos, Aris R.

    2014-01-01

    Case studies of two children with spelling difficulty are reported. LK was multilingual and ED bilingual. A training programme that targeted phonic decoding (or sublexical) spelling processes was conducted with both children. Immediate and delayed post-training assessments showed improvement in spelling nonwords for LK but not for ED. Training…

  19. Why Does My Nose Run?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Why Does My Nose Run? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Does My Nose Run? Print A A A Text ... smell, you must be upside down! But why does your nose run? Read on to find out ...

  20. A Usability and Learnability Case Study of Glass Flight Deck Interfaces and Pilot Interactions through Scenario-based Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cino, Thomas J., II

    In the aviation industry, digitally produced and presented flight, navigation, and aircraft information is commonly referred to as glass flight decks. Glass flight decks are driven by computer-based subsystems and have long been a part of military and commercial aviation sectors. Over the past 15 years, the General Aviation (GA) sector of the aviation industry has become a recent beneficiary of the rapid advancement of computer-based glass flight deck (GFD) systems. While providing the GA pilot considerable enhancements in the quality of information about the status and operations of the aircraft, training pilots on the use of glass flight decks is often delivered with traditional methods (e.g. textbooks, PowerPoint presentations, user manuals, and limited computer-based training modules). These training methods have been reported as less than desirable in learning to use the glass flight deck interface. Difficulties in achieving a complete understanding of functional and operational characteristics of the GFD systems, acquiring a full understanding of the interrelationships of the varied subsystems, and handling the wealth of flight information provided have been reported. Documented pilot concerns of poor user experience and satisfaction, and problems with the learning the complex and sophisticated interface of the GFD are additional issues with current pilot training approaches. A case study was executed to explore ways to improve training using GFD systems at a Midwestern aviation university. The researcher investigated if variations in instructional systems design and training methods for learning glass flight deck technology would affect the perceptions and attitudes of pilots of the learnability (an attribute of usability) of the glass flight deck interface. Specifically, this study investigated the effectiveness of scenario-based training (SBT) methods to potentially improve pilot knowledge and understanding of a GFD system, and overall pilot user

  1. Effect of Adaptive Paced Cardiolocomotor Synchronization During Running: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Bill; Jin, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Cardiolocomotor synchronization (CLS) has been well established for individuals engaged in rhythmic activity, such as walking, running, or cycling. When frequency of the activity is at or near the heart rate, entrainment occurs. CLS has been shown in many cases to improve the efficiency of locomotor activity, improving stroke volume, reducing blood pressure variability, and lowering the oxygen uptake (VO2). Instead of a 1:1 frequency ratio of activity to heart rate, an investigation was performed to determine if different harmonic coupling at other simple integer ratios (e.g. 1:2, 2:3, 3:2) could achieve any performance benefits. CLS was ensured by pacing the stride rate according to the measured heartbeat (i.e., adaptive paced CLS, or forced CLS). An algorithm was designed that determined the simplest ratio (lowest denominator) that, when multiplied by the heart rate will fall within an individualized, predetermined comfortable pacing range for the user. The algorithm was implemented on an iPhone 4, which generated a ‘tick-tock’ sound through the iPhone’s headphones. A sham-controlled crossover study was performed with 15 volunteers of various fitness levels. Subjects ran a 3 mile (4.83 km) simulated training run at their normal pace on two consecutive days (randomized one adaptive pacing, one sham). Adaptive pacing resulted in faster runs run times, with subjects running an average of 26:03 ± 3:23 for adaptive pacing and 26:38 ± 3:31 for sham (F = 5.46, p < 0.05). The increase in heart rate from the start of the race as estimated by an exponential time constant was significantly longer during adaptive pacing, τ = 0.99 ± 0.30, compared to sham, τ = 1.53 ± 0.34 (t = -6.62, p < 0.01). Eighty-seven percent of runners found it easy to adjust their stride length to match the pacing signal with seventy-nine percent reporting that pacing helped their performance. These results suggest that adaptive paced CLS may have a beneficial effect on running performance

  2. Spaced cognitive training promotes training transfer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zuowei; Zhou, Renlai; Shah, Priti

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive training studies yield wildly inconsistent results. One dimension on which studies vary is the scheduling of training sessions (Morrison and Chein, 2011). In this study, we systematically address whether or not spacing of practice influences training and transfer. We randomly assigned 115 fifth grade children to an active control group or one of four training groups who received working memory training based on a “running span” task (Zhao et al., 2011). All groups received the same total amount of training: 20 sessions of training with 60 trials for an average of 20 min per session. The training was spread across 2, 5, 10, or 20 days. The active control group received 20-min sessions of math instruction for 20 sessions. Before and after training participants in all five groups performed a single transfer test that assessed fluid intelligence, the Raven's Progressive Matrices Test. Overall, participants in all four training groups improved significantly on the training task (at least partially), as reflected by increased speed. More importantly, the only training group to show significant improvement on the Raven's was the group who had the greatest amount of spacing (20 days group) during training and improvement in this group was significantly higher than that of the control group. PMID:24782744

  3. Tracking at CDF: algorithms and experience from Run I and Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Snider, F.D.; /Fermilab

    2005-10-01

    The authors describe the tracking algorithms used during Run I and Run II by CDF at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, covering the time from about 1992 through the present, and discuss the performance of the algorithms at high luminosity. By tracing the evolution of the detectors and algorithms, they reveal some of the successful strategies used by CDF to address the problems of tracking at high luminosities.

  4. Implementation of a PACS for radiography training and clinical service in a university setting through a multinational effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Fuk-hay; Law, Yuen Y.; Zhang, Jianguo; Liu, Hai L.; Chang, Tony; Matsuda, Koyo; Cao, Fei

    2001-08-01

    The Hong Kong Polytechnic University has a Radiography Division under the Development of Optometry and Radiography. The Division trains both diagnostic and therapeutic radiographers with 60 students/year and offers a B.Sc. degree. In addition the Division together with the University Health Service operates a radiography clinic with radiology consultation from radiologists from other hospitals and clinics. This paper describers the implementation of a PACS in the Division for radiography training, and for clinical service.

  5. Collaborative Approaches to Increase the Utility of Spatial Data for the Wildfire Management Community Through NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCullum, A. J. K.; Schmidt, C.; Blevins, B.; Weber, K.; Schnase, J. L.; Carroll, M.; Prados, A. I.

    2015-12-01

    The utility of spatial data products and tools to assess risk and effectively manage wildfires has increased, highlighting the need for communicating information about these new capabilities to decision makers, resource managers, and community leaders. NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training (ARSET) program works directly with agencies and policy makers to develop in-person and online training courses that teach end users how to access, visualize, and apply NASA Earth Science data in their profession. The expansion of ARSET into wildfire applications began in 2015 with a webinar and subsequent in-person training hosted in collaboration with Idaho State University's (ISU) GIS Training and Research Center (TReC). These trainings featured presentations from the USDA Forest Service's Remote Sensing Training and Applications Center, the Land Processes DAAC, Northwest Nazarene University, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and ISU's GIS TReC. The webinar focused on providing land managers, non-governmental organizations, and international management agencies with an overview of 1) remote sensing platforms for wildfire applications, 2) products for pre- and post-fire planning and assessment, 3) the use of terrain data, 4) new techniques and technologies such as Unmanned Aircraft Systems and the Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP), and 5) the RECOVER Decision Support System. This training highlighted online tools that engage the wildfire community through collaborative monitoring and assessment efforts. Webinar attendance included 278 participants from 178 organizations in 42 countries and 33 US states. The majority of respondents (93%) from a post-webinar survey indicated they displayed improvement in their understanding of specific remote-sensing data products appropriate for their work needs. With collaborative efforts between federal, state, and local agencies and academic institutions, increased use of NASA Earth Observations may lead to improved near real

  6. Backward running or absence of running from Creutz ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Giedt, Joel; Weinberg, Evan

    2011-10-01

    We extract the running coupling based on Creutz ratios in SU(2) lattice gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation. Depending on how the extrapolation to zero fermion mass is performed, either backward running or an absence of running is observed at strong bare coupling. This behavior is consistent with other findings which indicate that this theory has an infrared fixed point.

  7. The 5- or 10-km Marikenloop Run: A Prospective Study of the Etiology of Running-Related Injuries in Women.

    PubMed

    van der Worp, Maarten P; de Wijer, Anton; van Cingel, Robert; Verbeek, André L M; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; Staal, J Bart

    2016-06-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort. Background The popularity of running events is still growing, particularly among women; however, little is known about the risk factors for running-related injuries in female runners. Objectives The aims of this study were to determine the incidence and characteristics (site and recurrence) of running-related injuries and to identify specific risk factors for running-related injuries among female runners training for a 5- or 10-km race. Methods Four hundred thirty-five women registered for the Marikenloop run of 5 or 10 km were recruited. Follow-up data were collected over 12 weeks using questionnaires, starting 8 weeks before the event and ending 4 weeks after the event. Two orthopaedic tests (navicular drop test and extension of the first metatarsophalangeal joint) were performed in the 8 weeks before the event. Running-related injuries, defined as running-related pain of the lower back and/or the lower extremity that restricted running for at least 1 day, were assessed at 1-, 2-, and 3-month follow-ups. Results Of 417 female runners with follow-up data (96%), 93 runners (22.3%) reported 109 running-related injuries, mainly of the hip/groin, knee, and lower leg. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that a weekly training distance of more than 30 km (hazard ratio = 3.28; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23, 8.75) and a previous running injury longer than 12 months prior (hazard ratio = 1.88; 95% CI: 1.03, 3.45) were associated with the occurrence of running-related injuries. Conclusion Hip/groin, knee, and lower-leg injuries were common among female runners. Only weekly training distance (greater than 30 km) and previous running injury (greater than 12 months prior) were associated with running-related injuries in female runners training for a 5- or 10-km event. Level of Evidence Etiology, 2b. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(6):462-470. Epub 26 Apr 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6402. PMID:27117730

  8. The QCD running coupling

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Deur, Alexandre; Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.

    2016-05-09

    Here, we review present knowledge onmore » $$\\alpha_{s}$$, the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) running coupling. The dependence of $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ on momentum transfer $Q$ encodes the underlying dynamics of hadron physics --from color confinement in the infrared domain to asymptotic freedom at short distances. We will survey our present theoretical and empirical knowledge of $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$, including constraints at high $Q^2$ predicted by perturbative QCD, and constraints at small $Q^2$ based on models of nonperturbative dynamics. In the first, introductory, part of this review, we explain the phenomenological meaning of the coupling, the reason for its running, and the challenges facing a complete understanding of its analytic behavior in the infrared domain. In the second, more technical, part of the review, we discuss $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ in the high momentum transfer domain of QCD. We review how $$\\alpha_s$$ is defined, including its renormalization scheme dependence, the definition of its renormalization scale, the utility of effective charges, as well as `` Commensurate Scale Relations" which connect the various definitions of the QCD coupling without renormalization scale ambiguity. We also report recent important experimental measurements and advanced theoretical analyses which have led to precise QCD predictions at high energy. As an example of an important optimization procedure, we discuss the ``Principle of Maximum Conformality" which enhances QCD's predictive power by removing the dependence of the predictions for physical observables on the choice of the gauge and renormalization scheme. In last part of the review, we discuss $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ in the low momentum transfer domain, where there has been no consensus on how to define $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ or its analytic behavior. We will discuss the various approaches used for low energy calculations. Among them, we will discuss the light-front holographic approach to QCD in the strongly coupled

  9. A Guide To The Prevention Of Running Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Clement, D. B.; Taunton, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    In North America, estimates of recreational runners have grown from two million in 1970 to 30 million in 1979. In Canada increased interest in running has been sparked by Participaction. Habituation to running is attributed to a sense of wellbeing and increased energy levels, as well as the possibility of reducing the threat of cardiovascular disease. Musculoskeletal injury is common to runners and can be prevented by carefully planned training programs, proper selection of training surface, regular stretching and strength drills, the use of protective footwear and balancing of vulnerable biomechanical alignments with functional orthotics in shoes. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:21293616

  10. Who Runs Presidential Campaigns?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindsvatter, Peter S.

    Presidential campaigns in the last decade have provided evidence of the rising influence of the mass media campaign and of campaign consultants. The media, through their power of access to the people, manipulate the public's recognition of a candidate by the amount of coverage given. Newspaper endorsements and the reporting of media-conducted…

  11. Marathon run: cardiovascular adaptation and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Predel, Hans-Georg

    2014-11-21

    The first marathon run as an athletic event took place in the context of the Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens, Greece. Today, participation in a 'marathon run' has become a global phenomenon attracting young professional athletes as well as millions of mainly middle-aged amateur athletes worldwide each year. One of the main motives for these amateur marathon runners is the expectation that endurance exercise (EE) delivers profound beneficial health effects. However, with respect to the cardiovascular system, a controversial debate has emerged whether the marathon run itself is healthy or potentially harmful to the cardiovascular system, especially in middle-aged non-elite male amateur runners. In this cohort, exercise-induced increases in cardiac biomarkers-troponin and brain natriuretic peptide-and acute functional cardiac alterations have been observed and interpreted as potential cardiac damage. Furthermore, in the cohort of 40- to 65-year-old males engaged in intensive EE, a significant risk for the development of atrial fibrillation has been identified. Fortunately, recent studies demonstrated a normalization of the cardiac biomarkers and the functional alterations within a short time frame. Therefore, these alterations may be perceived as physiological myocardial reactions to the strenuous exercise and the term 'cardiac fatigue' has been coined. This interpretation is supported by a recent analysis of 10.9 million marathon runners demonstrating that there was no significantly increased overall risk of cardiac arrest during long-distance running races. In conclusion, intensive and long-lasting EE, e.g. running a full-distance Marathon, results in high cardiovascular strain whose clinical relevance especially for middle-aged and older athletes is unclear and remains a matter of controversy. Furthermore, there is a need for evidence-based recommendations with respect to medical screening and training strategies especially in male amateur runners over the age of

  12. The QCD running coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deur, Alexandre; Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.

    2016-09-01

    We review the present theoretical and empirical knowledge for αs, the fundamental coupling underlying the interactions of quarks and gluons in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The dependence of αs(Q2) on momentum transfer Q encodes the underlying dynamics of hadron physics-from color confinement in the infrared domain to asymptotic freedom at short distances. We review constraints on αs(Q2) at high Q2, as predicted by perturbative QCD, and its analytic behavior at small Q2, based on models of nonperturbative dynamics. In the introductory part of this review, we explain the phenomenological meaning of the coupling, the reason for its running, and the challenges facing a complete understanding of its analytic behavior in the infrared domain. In the second, more technical, part of the review, we discuss the behavior of αs(Q2) in the high momentum transfer domain of QCD. We review how αs is defined, including its renormalization scheme dependence, the definition of its renormalization scale, the utility of effective charges, as well as "Commensurate Scale Relations" which connect the various definitions of the QCD coupling without renormalization-scale ambiguity. We also report recent significant measurements and advanced theoretical analyses which have led to precise QCD predictions at high energy. As an example of an important optimization procedure, we discuss the "Principle of Maximum Conformality", which enhances QCD's predictive power by removing the dependence of the predictions for physical observables on the choice of theoretical conventions such as the renormalization scheme. In the last part of the review, we discuss the challenge of understanding the analytic behavior αs(Q2) in the low momentum transfer domain. We survey various theoretical models for the nonperturbative strongly coupled regime, such as the light-front holographic approach to QCD. This new framework predicts the form of the quark-confinement potential underlying hadron spectroscopy and

  13. Jefferson Lab Data Acquisition Run Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Vardan Gyurjyan; Carl Timmer; David Abbott; William Heyes; Edward Jastrzembski; David Lawrence; Elliott Wolin

    2004-10-01

    A general overview of the Jefferson Lab data acquisition run control system is presented. This run control system is designed to operate the configuration, control, and monitoring of all Jefferson Lab experiments. It controls data-taking activities by coordinating the operation of DAQ sub-systems, online software components and third-party software such as external slow control systems. The main, unique feature which sets this system apart from conventional systems is its incorporation of intelligent agent concepts. Intelligent agents are autonomous programs which interact with each other through certain protocols on a peer-to-peer level. In this case, the protocols and standards used come from the domain-independent Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents (FIPA), and the implementation used is the Java Agent Development Framework (JADE). A lightweight, XML/RDF-based language was developed to standardize the description of the run control system for configuration purposes.

  14. Differential regulation of hippocampal progenitor proliferation by opioid receptor antagonists in running and non-running spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Persson, Anders I; Naylor, Andrew S; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H; Nyberg, Fred; Eriksson, Peter S; Thorlin, Thorleif

    2004-04-01

    Voluntary running in mice and forced treadmill running in rats have been shown to increase the amount of proliferating cells in the hippocampus. Little is known as yet about the mechanisms involved in these processes. It is well known that the endogenous opioid system is affected during running and other forms of physical exercise. In this study, we evaluated the involvement of the endogenous opioids in the regulation of hippocampal proliferation in non-running and voluntary running rats. Nine days of wheel running was compared with non-running in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a rat strain known to run voluntarily. On the last 2 days of the experimental period all rats received two daily injections of the opioid receptor antagonists naltrexone or naltrindole together with injections of bromodeoxyuridine to label dividing cells. Brain sections from the running rats showed approximately a five-fold increase in newly generated cells in the hippocampus, and this increase was partly reduced by naltrexone but not by naltrindole. By contrast, both naltrexone and naltrindole increased hippocampal proliferation in non-running rats. In non-running rats the administration of naltrexone decreased corticosterone levels and adrenal gland weights, whereas no significant effects on these parameters could be detected for naltrindole. However, adrenal gland weights were increased in naltrexone- but not in naltrindole-administered running rats. In addition, in voluntary running rats there was a three-fold increase in the hippocampal levels of Met-enkephalin-Arg-Phe compared with non-runners, indicating an increase in opioid activity in the hippocampus during running. These data suggest an involvement of endogenous opioids in the regulation of hippocampal proliferation in non-running rats, probably through hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis modulation. During voluntary running in SHR naltrexone altered hippocampal proliferation via as yet unknown mechanisms. PMID:15078558

  15. Biodiversity conservation in running waters

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, J.D. ); Flecker, A.S. )

    1993-01-01

    In the concerns about biodiversity conservation, fresh waters have received less attention than tropical forests and oceans. However, running waters harbor a diverse panoply of species, habitats, and ecosystems, including some of the most threatened and many having great value to human society. An overview of the biological diversity of running waters and the state of imperilment is presented. Six major factors that threaten destruction of running water species and ecosystems are discussed: habitat loss and degradation; species invasions; overharvesting; secondary extinctions; chemical and organic pollution; global climate change. General measures for recovery and restoration of running waters conclude the article.

  16. A Running Start: Resource Guide for Youth Running Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenny, Seth; Becker, Andrew; Armstrong, Tess

    2016-01-01

    The lack of physical activity is an epidemic problem among American youth today. In order to combat this, many schools are incorporating youth running programs as a part of their comprehensive school physical activity programs. These youth running programs are being implemented before or after school, at school during recess at the elementary…

  17. Is There an Economical Running Technique? A Review of Modifiable Biomechanical Factors Affecting Running Economy.

    PubMed

    Moore, Isabel S

    2016-06-01

    Running economy (RE) has a strong relationship with running performance, and modifiable running biomechanics are a determining factor of RE. The purposes of this review were to (1) examine the intrinsic and extrinsic modifiable biomechanical factors affecting RE; (2) assess training-induced changes in RE and running biomechanics; (3) evaluate whether an economical running technique can be recommended and; (4) discuss potential areas for future research. Based on current evidence, the intrinsic factors that appeared beneficial for RE were using a preferred stride length range, which allows for stride length deviations up to 3 % shorter than preferred stride length; lower vertical oscillation; greater leg stiffness; low lower limb moment of inertia; less leg extension at toe-off; larger stride angles; alignment of the ground reaction force and leg axis during propulsion; maintaining arm swing; low thigh antagonist-agonist muscular coactivation; and low activation of lower limb muscles during propulsion. Extrinsic factors associated with a better RE were a firm, compliant shoe-surface interaction and being barefoot or wearing lightweight shoes. Several other modifiable biomechanical factors presented inconsistent relationships with RE. Running biomechanics during ground contact appeared to play an important role, specifically those during propulsion. Therefore, this phase has the strongest direct links with RE. Recurring methodological problems exist within the literature, such as cross-comparisons, assessing variables in isolation, and acute to short-term interventions. Therefore, recommending a general economical running technique should be approached with caution. Future work should focus on interdisciplinary longitudinal investigations combining RE, kinematics, kinetics, and neuromuscular and anatomical aspects, as well as applying a synergistic approach to understanding the role of kinetics. PMID:26816209

  18. Improving Synergies through the Mentoring of Student Teachers during Practical Training in Schools and their Integration in Applied Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, Ulrike; Pospiech, Gesche; Martin, Peggy

    2010-07-01

    Pre-service teachers at TU Dresden should have profound theoretical knowledge of the studied school subjects. Furthermore, they need sufficient opportunities of acquiring practical experience at school. At TU Dresden pre-service teachers have five practical trainings with different intentions. During the first semester at the university they have a short training on the observation of the daily routine at school. The second time pre-service teachers sit in on different lessons at school. After this training they learn how to teach physics lessons on their own. We organize these first lessons of the students in small groups. Five or six students are trained together in one school for three months. A lecturer of the physics education department of the university accompanies them. Afterwards students go to different schools in Saxony twice for a four-week training. During this time they have to teach several lessons in a class of the mentor. The mentor should be a committed teacher. Once per training a lecturer of the physics department is sitting in on a student's class. After that, all participants of the lesson talk together and analyze the lesson. Students usually have problems finding their own role in the teaching process. The schoolbook plays an important part in the prearrangement of the lesson along with the learning experience gained during their schooldays. How can we ensure that students acquire an active and creative role in the learning and teaching process? We gained very good experience with the participation of students in our research questions. They can have different roles in our research projects. On the one hand they have to sit in on lessons solving one specific task; on the other hand they shall realize and discuss ideas developed in their own lessons. Furthermore they can participate actively in the development of ideas and concepts.

  19. A Star on the Run

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    Usually stars that are born together tend to move together but sometimes stars can go rogue and run away from their original birthplace. A pair of astronomers have now discovered the first runaway red supergiant (RSG) ever identified in another galaxy. With a radial velocity discrepancy of 300 km/s, its also the fastest runaway massive star known. Discrepant Speeds: When massive stars form in giant molecular clouds, they create what are known as OB associations: groups of hot, massive, short-lived stars that have similar velocities because theyre moving through space together. But sometimes stars that appear to be part of an OB association dont have the same velocity as the rest of the group. These stars are called runaways.What causes an OB star to run away is still debated, but we know that a fairly significant fraction of OB stars are runaways. In spite of this, surprisingly few runaways have been found that are evolved massive stars i.e., the post-main-sequence state of OB stars. This is presumably because these evolved stars have had more time to move away from their birthplace, and its more difficult to identify a runaway without the context of its original group. An Evolved Runaway: Difference between observed velocity and expected velocity, plotted as a function of expected velocity. The black points are foreground stars. The red points are expected RSGs, clustered around a velocity difference of zero. The green pentagon is the runaway RSG J004330.06+405258.4. [Evans Massey 2015]Despite this challenge, a recent survey of RSGs in the galaxy M31 has led to the detection of a massive star on the run! Kate Evans (Lowell Observatory and California Institute of Technology) and Philip Massey (Lowell Observatory and Northern Arizona University) discovered that RSG J004330.06+405258.4 is moving through the Andromeda Galaxy with a radial velocity thats off by about 300 km/s from the radial velocity expected for its location.Evans and Massey discovered this rogue star

  20. Evaluation of Retention of Knowledge and Skills Imparted to First-Year Medical Students through Basic Life Support Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pande, Sushma; Pande, Santosh; Parate, Vrushali; Pande, Sanket; Sukhsohale, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    Poor awareness among medical graduates about basic life support (BLS) is a matter of great concern. The presence of a trained rescuer is the key determinant of ultimate survival from life-threatening emergencies. To achieve this goal, early exposure to such life-saving skills is the right decision to foster these skills for medical students, which…

  1. Enhancing a Low-Cost Virtual Reality Application through Constructivist Approach: The Case of Spatial Training of Middle Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samsudin, Khairulanuar; Rafi, Ahmad; Mohamad Ali, Ahmad Zamzuri; Abd. Rashid, Nazre

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and to test a low-cost virtual reality spatial trainer in terms of its effectiveness in spatial training. The researchers adopted three features deriving from the constructivist perspective to guide the design of the trainer, namely interaction, instruction, and support. The no control pre test post test…

  2. Improving Literacy Skills and Self-Image within the Daycare Teacher Training Program through an Emphasis on Cultural Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchan, Barbara

    A consultant and guest trainer implemented a practicum intervention designed to enable the graduation of 10 at-risk Latina women from a day care teacher training program. The trainees had been identified as being at-risk of dropping out of the program due to a lack of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and literacy skills, low self-esteem, and…

  3. The Commodification of US Acting as Seen through the League of Professional Theatre Training Programs, 1968-1987

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zazzali, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores the relationship between US acting, actor training, and the sociology of theatre. Using the cultural criticism of notable Western Marxists, it argues that the profession of US acting has become a commodified enterprise, most especially since the 1970s and 80s. By using the now defunct League of Professional Theatre…

  4. Developing Truth Tellers: Freedom Forum Institute Sets out to Help Diversify America's Newsrooms through the Training of Minority Journalists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keels, Crystal L.

    2004-01-01

    A mortgage broker. A public school teacher. A retired elevator company employee. It's not likely that anyone would consider individuals in these jobs to be prospective journalists. Nevertheless, officials with the Freedom Forum's Diversity Institute last summer found three such individuals and several others, and trained them in an unique program…

  5. Empowerment of Fisher Women of Siluvaipatti Fishing Village of Tuticorin, Southeast Coast of India through Adult Education and ICT Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jamila; Linden, Eva; Bierbrier, Christin; Lofgren, Inger; Wilhelmsson, Dan; Edward, J. K. Patterson

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on adult education and information and communication technologies (ICT) training to fisherwomen of Siluvaipatti fishing village in Tuticorin district of Tamil Nadu State, southeastern India. The total families in this village are 209 with population 899 (Male: 442; Female: 457). The education level is generally good in…

  6. Scaring the Students Away? Institutional Selection through Assessment Practices in the Danish Vocational and Educational Training System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grønborg, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    This paper sheds light on how competence assessment takes place in the Danish Vocational and Educational Training System. It discusses how intentions formulated by the government have unintentional effects when implemented in practice. The qualitative methods used in this study consist of participant observations from my field study of dropouts in…

  7. Utah State University: Cross-Discipline Training through the Graduate Studies Program in Auditory Learning & Spoken Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, K. Todd

    2010-01-01

    Since 1946, Utah State University (USU) has offered specialized coursework in audiology and speech-language pathology, awarding the first graduate degrees in 1948. In 1965, the teacher training program in deaf education was launched. Over the years, the Department of Communicative Disorders and Deaf Education (COMD-DE) has developed a rich history…

  8. Workplace Performance-PLUS: Empowerment and Voice through Professional Development and Democratic Processes in Health Care Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kathleen P.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the theory of transformative learning (Mezirow, 1980) and critical pedagogy (Freire, 1980), mixed-methods research (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 1998) of a hospital workers' union and training organization addressed the impact of a custom-designed, group-focused, results-driven professional development model with 130 participants. Employees…

  9. Selecting training and test images for optimized anomaly detection algorithms in hyperspectral imagery through robust parameter design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mindrup, Frank M.; Friend, Mark A.; Bauer, Kenneth W.

    2011-06-01

    There are numerous anomaly detection algorithms proposed for hyperspectral imagery. Robust parameter design (RPD) techniques have been applied to some of these algorithms in an attempt to choose robust settings capable of operating consistently across a large variety of image scenes. Typically, training and test sets of hyperspectral images are chosen randomly. Previous research developed a frameworkfor optimizing anomaly detection in HSI by considering specific image characteristics as noise variables within the context of RPD; these characteristics include the Fisher's score, ratio of target pixels and number of clusters. This paper describes a method for selecting hyperspectral image training and test subsets yielding consistent RPD results based on these noise features. These subsets are not necessarily orthogonal, but still provide improvements over random training and test subset assignments by maximizing the volume and average distance between image noise characteristics. Several different mathematical models representing the value of a training and test set based on such measures as the D-optimal score and various distance norms are tested in a simulation experiment.

  10. Anatomy of a Demonstration: The Summer Training and Education Program (STEP) from Pilot through Replication and Postprogram Impacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Gary; Vilella-Velez, Frances

    The Summer Training and Education Program (STEP) research demonstration was initiated in 1984 to test the effects of a two-summer remediation, work, and life skills intervention on the lives of 14- and 15-year-olds from poor urban families who were already seriously behind academically. The program provided youth with half-day summer jobs combined…

  11. The Longest Run of Heads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Mark F.

    1990-01-01

    Developed are simple recursion formulas for generating the exact distribution of the longest run of heads, both for a fair coin and for a biased coin. Discusses the applications of runs-related phenomena such as molecular biology, Markov chains, geometric variables, and random variables. (YP)

  12. Coordinating the 2009 RHIC Run

    ScienceCinema

    Brookhaven Lab - Mei Bai

    2010-01-08

    Physicists working at the Brookhaven National Lab's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are exploring the puzzle of proton spin as they begin taking data during the 2009 RHIC run. For the first time, RHIC is running at a record energy of 500 giga-elect

  13. Stiffness adaptations in shod running.

    PubMed

    Divert, Carolyn; Baur, Heiner; Mornieux, Guillaume; Mayer, Frank; Belli, Alain

    2005-11-01

    When mechanical parameters of running are measured, runners have to be accustomed to testing conditions. Nevertheless, habituated runners could still show slight evolutions of their patterns at the beginning of each new running bout. This study investigated runners' stiffness adjustments during shoe and barefoot running and stiffness evolutions of shoes. Twenty-two runners performed two 4-minute bouts at 3.61 m.s-1 shod and barefoot after a 4-min warm-up period. Vertical and leg stiffness decreased during the shoe condition but remained stable in the barefoot condition, p < 0.001. Moreover, an impactor test showed that shoe stiffness increased significantly during the first 4 minutes, p < 0.001. Beyond the 4th minute, shoe properties remained stable. Even if runners were accustomed to the testing condition, as running pattern remained stable during barefoot running, they adjusted their leg and vertical stiffness during shoe running. Moreover, as measurements were taken after a 4-min warm-up period, it could be assumed that shoe properties were stable. Then the stiffness adjustment observed during shoe running might be due to further habituations of the runners to the shod condition. To conclude, it makes sense to run at least 4 minutes before taking measurements in order to avoid runners' stiffness alteration due to shoe property modifications. However, runners could still adapt to the shoe. PMID:16498177

  14. Coordinating the 2009 RHIC Run

    SciTech Connect

    Brookhaven Lab - Mei Bai

    2009-04-13

    Physicists working at the Brookhaven National Lab's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are exploring the puzzle of proton spin as they begin taking data during the 2009 RHIC run. For the first time, RHIC is running at a record energy of 500 giga-elect

  15. Experiential Learning Through Participatory Action Research in Public Health Supports Community-Based Training of Future Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Marriott, Lisa K.; Lipus, Adam C.; Choate, Laurie; Smith, Jamie; Coppola, Leigh; Cameron, William E.; Shannon, Jackilen

    2016-01-01

    Engaging community members in research can help cultivate effective partnerships while providing experiential training and continuing education opportunities. Several studies have involved communities in this way, though many have been small in the scale of community involvement or have included little detail of the institutional review board process by which community members became approved researchers in the study. This article presents findings on an evaluation of the training procedures and experiences of 703 first-time community-based volunteer researchers who were recruited in their communities and trained on-site to enroll research participants, collect data, and provide individualized consultation of results at travelling health education and research fairs. Open-ended registration prompts and postfair surveys assessed volunteers’ reasons for participating, comfort with their volunteer experiences, and attitudes toward the biomedical research process. An open-ended survey assessed two key community partners’ perspectives about their organizations’ involvement with supporting the research throughout the process. Volunteers reported their experience to be a unique training opportunity, citing its ability to help them engage with their community, advance research, and obtain additional experience in their health field of interest, particularly nursing, allied health, and medicine-related careers. Community partners cited that their community’s participation as volunteer researchers served as a tool to educate the larger community about research, which enabled other research projects to gain acceptance. Together, these results demonstrate that using volunteer researchers can strengthen community research partnerships while providing valuable training experience in public health research for current and aspiring health personnel. PMID:27536722

  16. Controlled-frequency breath swimming improves swimming performance and running economy.

    PubMed

    Lavin, K M; Guenette, J A; Smoliga, J M; Zavorsky, G S

    2015-02-01

    Respiratory muscle fatigue can negatively impact athletic performance, but swimming has beneficial effects on the respiratory system and may reduce susceptibility to fatigue. Limiting breath frequency during swimming further stresses the respiratory system through hypercapnia and mechanical loading and may lead to appreciable improvements in respiratory muscle strength. This study assessed the effects of controlled-frequency breath (CFB) swimming on pulmonary function. Eighteen subjects (10 men), average (standard deviation) age 25 (6) years, body mass index 24.4 (3.7) kg/m(2), underwent baseline testing to assess pulmonary function, running economy, aerobic capacity, and swimming performance. Subjects were then randomized to either CFB or stroke-matched (SM) condition. Subjects completed 12 training sessions, in which CFB subjects took two breaths per length and SM subjects took seven. Post-training, maximum expiratory pressure improved by 11% (15) for all 18 subjects (P < 0.05) while maximum inspiratory pressure was unchanged. Running economy improved by 6 (9)% in CFB following training (P < 0.05). Forced vital capacity increased by 4% (4) in SM (P < 0.05) and was unchanged in CFB. These findings suggest that limiting breath frequency during swimming may improve muscular oxygen utilization during terrestrial exercise in novice swimmers. PMID:24151982

  17. Optimized balance rehabilitation training strategy for the elderly through an evaluation of balance characteristics in response to dynamic motions

    PubMed Central

    Jung, HoHyun; Chun, Keyoung Jin; Hong, Jaesoo; Lim, Dohyung

    2015-01-01

    Balance is important in daily activities and essential for maintaining an independent lifestyle in the elderly. Recent studies have shown that balance rehabilitation training can improve the balance ability of the elderly, and diverse balance rehabilitation training equipment has been developed. However, there has been little research into optimized strategies for balance rehabilitation training. To provide an optimized strategy, we analyzed the balance characteristics of participants in response to the rotation of a base plate on multiple axes. Seven male adults with no musculoskeletal or nervous system-related diseases (age: 25.5±1.7 years; height: 173.9±6.4 cm; body mass: 71.3±6.5 kg; body mass index: 23.6±2.4 kg/m2) were selected to investigate the balance rehabilitation training using customized rehabilitation equipment. Rotation of the base plate of the equipment was controlled to induce dynamic rotation of participants in the anterior–posterior, right-diagonal, medial–lateral, and left-diagonal directions. We used a three-dimensional motion capture system employing infrared cameras and the Pedar Flexible Insoles System to characterize the major lower-extremity joint angles, center of body mass, and center of pressure. We found statistically significant differences between the changes in joint angles in the lower extremities in response to dynamic rotation of the participants (P<0.05). The maximum was greater with anterior–posterior and medial–lateral dynamic rotation than with that in other directions (P<0.05). However, there were no statistically significant differences in the frequency of center of body mass deviations from the base of support (P>0.05). These results indicate that optimizing rotation control of the base plate of balance rehabilitation training equipment to induce anterior–posterior and medial–lateral dynamic rotation preferentially can lead to effective balance training. Additional tests with varied speeds and ranges of

  18. Teaching Evaluation: A Student-Run Consulting Firm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cundiff, Nicole; Nadler, Joel; Scribner, Shauna

    2011-01-01

    Applied Research Consultants (ARC) is a graduate student run consulting firm that provides experience to students in evaluation and consultation. An overview of this program has been compiled in order to serve as a model of a graduate training practicum that could be applied to similar programs or aid in the development of such programs. Key…

  19. Anticipatory Guidance for Long-Distance Running in Young Athletes.

    PubMed

    Blankson, Kwabena L; Brenner, Joel S

    2016-03-01

    More young children are participating in endurance running events such as full and half marathons, and the safety of these events for children has been heavily debated. There is a paucity of evidence on either side of the debate. However, overuse injuries, stress fractures, as well as the potential for psychologic burnout are legitimate concerns. Parents who are seeking advice from pediatricians about child participation in these endurance events should be made aware of these risks. Young children may participate in endurance running events under close supervision from health professionals, coaches, and parents, with full medical evaluation before initiation of training, throughout training, as well as 6 to 12 months post-race. Special attention should be made to the psychologic well-being of the child, with the participation in running being child-driven, not parent- or coach-driven, and emphasis on enjoyment and fitness, not competition. PMID:27031315

  20. Importin-7 mediates memory consolidation through regulation of nuclear translocation of training-activated MAPK in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Zhang, Xuchen; Hu, Wantong; Liang, Xitong; Zhang, Fang; Wang, Lianzhang; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Zhong, Yi

    2016-03-15

    Translocation of signaling molecules, MAPK in particular, from the cytosol to nucleus represents a universal key element in initiating the gene program that determines memory consolidation. Translocation mechanisms and their behavioral impact, however, remain to be determined. Here, we report that a highly conserved nuclear transporter, Drosophila importin-7 (DIM-7), regulates import of training-activated MAPK for consolidation of long-term memory (LTM). We show that silencing DIM-7 functions results in impaired LTM, whereas overexpression of DIM-7 enhances LTM. This DIM-7-dependent regulation of LTM is confined to a consolidation time window and in mushroom body neurons. Image data show that bidirectional alteration in DIM-7 expression results in proportional changes in the intensity of training-activated MAPK accumulated within the nuclei of mushroom body neurons during LTM consolidation. Such DIM-7-regulated nuclear accumulation of activated MAPK is observed only in the training specified for LTM induction and determines the amplitude, but not the time course, of memory consolidation. PMID:26929354