Science.gov

Sample records for runway incursions

  1. Analysis of Runway Incursion Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2013-01-01

    A statistical analysis of runway incursion (RI) events was conducted to ascertain relevance to the top ten challenges of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). The information contained in the RI database was found to contain data that may be relevant to several of the AvSP top ten challenges. When combined with other data from the FAA documenting air traffic volume from calendar year 2000 through 2011, the structure of a predictive model emerges that can be used to forecast the frequency of RI events at various airports for various classes of aircraft and under various environmental conditions.

  2. Runway Incursion Prevention for General Aviation Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2006-01-01

    A Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) and additional incursion detection algorithm were adapted for general aviation operations and evaluated in a simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) in the fall of 2005. RIPS has been designed to enhance surface situation awareness and provide cockpit alerts of potential runway conflicts in order to prevent runway incidents while also improving operational capability. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the airborne incursion detection algorithms and associated alerting and airport surface display concepts for general aviation operations. This paper gives an overview of the system, simulation study, and test results.

  3. Runway Incursion Prevention: A Technology Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Steven D.; Jones, Denise R.

    2001-01-01

    A runway incursion occurs any time an airplane, vehicle, person or object on the ground creates a collision hazard with an airplane that is taking off or landing at an airport under the supervision of Air Traffic Control (ATC). Despite the best efforts of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), runway incursions continue to occur more frequently. The number of incursions reported in the U.S. rose from 186 in 1993 to 431 in 2000, an increase of 132 percent. Recently, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) has made specific recommendations for reducing runway incursions including a recommendation that the FAA require, at all airports with scheduled passenger service, a ground movement safety system that will prevent runway incursions; the system should provide a direct warning capability to flight crews. To this end, NASA and its industry partners have developed an advanced surface movement guidance and control system (A-SMGCS) architecture and operational concept that are designed to prevent runway incursions while also improving operational capability. This operational concept and system design have been tested in both full-mission simulation and operational flight test experiments at major airport facilities. Anecdotal, qualitative, and specific quantitative results will be presented along with an assessment of technology readiness with respect to equipage.

  4. Runway Safety Monitor Algorithm for Runway Incursion Detection and Alerting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, David F., Jr.; Jones, Denise R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Runway Safety Monitor (RSM) is an algorithm for runway incursion detection and alerting that was developed in support of NASA's Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) research conducted under the NASA Aviation Safety Program's Synthetic Vision System element. The RSM algorithm provides pilots with enhanced situational awareness and warnings of runway incursions in sufficient time to take evasive action and avoid accidents during landings, takeoffs, or taxiing on the runway. The RSM currently runs as a component of the NASA Integrated Display System, an experimental avionics software system for terminal area and surface operations. However, the RSM algorithm can be implemented as a separate program to run on any aircraft with traffic data link capability. The report documents the RSM software and describes in detail how RSM performs runway incursion detection and alerting functions for NASA RIPS. The report also describes the RIPS flight tests conducted at the Dallas-Ft Worth International Airport (DFW) during September and October of 2000, and the RSM performance results and lessons learned from those flight tests.

  5. Electronic System for Preventing Airport Runway Incursions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard; Elrod, Susan

    2009-01-01

    A proposed system of portable illuminated signs, electronic monitoring equipment, and radio-communication equipment for preventing (or taking corrective action in response to) improper entry of aircraft, pedestrians, or ground vehicles onto active airport runways is described. The main overall functions of the proposed system would be to automatically monitor aircraft ground traffic on or approaching runways and to generate visible and/or audible warnings to affected pilots, ground-vehicle drivers, and control-tower personnel when runway incursions take place.

  6. Runway Incursion Prevention System Simulation Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.

    2002-01-01

    A Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) was evaluated in a full mission simulation study at the NASA Langley Research center in March 2002. RIPS integrates airborne and ground-based technologies to provide (1) enhanced surface situational awareness to avoid blunders and (2) alerts of runway conflicts in order to prevent runway incidents while also improving operational capability. A series of test runs was conducted in a high fidelity simulator. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the RIPS airborne incursion detection algorithms and associated alerting and airport surface display concepts. Eight commercial airline crews participated as test subjects completing 467 test runs. This paper gives an overview of the RIPS, simulation study, and test results.

  7. Cockpit Technology for Prevention of General Aviation Runway Incursions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Jones, Denise R.

    2007-01-01

    General aviation accounted for 74 percent of runway incursions but only 57 percent of the operations during the four-year period from fiscal year (FY) 2001 through FY2004. Elements of the NASA Runway Incursion Prevention System were adapted and tested for general aviation aircraft. Sixteen General Aviation pilots, of varying levels of certification and amount of experience, participated in a piloted simulation study to evaluate the system for prevention of general aviation runway incursions compared to existing moving map displays. Pilots flew numerous complex, high workload approaches under varying weather and visibility conditions. A rare-event runway incursion scenario was presented, unbeknownst to the pilots, which represented a typical runway incursion situation. The results validated the efficacy and safety need for a runway incursion prevention system for general aviation aircraft.

  8. Runway Incursion Prevention System for General Aviation Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel III, Lawrence J.

    2006-01-01

    A Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) and additional incursion detection algorithm were adapted for general aviation operations and evaluated in a simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) in the fall of 2005. RIPS has been designed to enhance surface situation awareness and provide cockpit alerts of potential runway conflicts in order to prevent runway incidents while also improving operational capability. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the airborne incursion detection algorithms and associated alerting and airport surface display concepts for general aviation operations. This paper gives an overview of the system, simulation study, and test results.

  9. Runway Safety Monitor Algorithm for Single and Crossing Runway Incursion Detection and Alerting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, David F., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The Runway Safety Monitor (RSM) is an aircraft based algorithm for runway incursion detection and alerting that was developed in support of NASA's Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) research conducted under the NASA Aviation Safety and Security Program's Synthetic Vision System project. The RSM algorithm provides warnings of runway incursions in sufficient time for pilots to take evasive action and avoid accidents during landings, takeoffs or when taxiing on the runway. The report documents the RSM software and describes in detail how RSM performs runway incursion detection and alerting functions for NASA RIPS. The report also describes the RIPS flight tests conducted at the Reno/Tahoe International Airport (RNO) and the Wallops Flight Facility (WAL) during July and August of 2004, and the RSM performance results and lessons learned from those flight tests.

  10. Runway Incursion Prevention System Testing at the Wallops Flight Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.

    2005-01-01

    A Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) integrated with a Synthetic Vision System concept (SVS) was tested at the Reno/Tahoe International Airport (RNO) and Wallops Flight Facility (WAL) in the summer of 2004. RIPS provides enhanced surface situational awareness and alerts of runway conflicts in order to prevent runway incidents while also improving operational capability. A series of test runs was conducted using a Gulfstream-V (G-V) aircraft as the test platform and a NASA test aircraft and a NASA test van as incurring traffic. The purpose of the study, from the RIPS perspective, was to evaluate the RIPS airborne incursion detection algorithms and associated alerting and airport surface display concepts, focusing on crossing runway incursion scenarios. This paper gives an overview of the RIPS, WAL flight test activities, and WAL test results.

  11. Black Box Testing: Experiments with Runway Incursion Advisory Alerting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, Ravi

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes our research findings on the Black box testing of Runway Incursion Advisory Alerting System (RIAAS) and Runway Safety Monitor (RSM) system. Developing automated testing software for such systems has been a problem because of the extensive information that has to be processed. Customized software solutions have been proposed. However, they are time consuming to develop. Here, we present a less expensive, and a more general test platform that is capable of performing complete black box testing. The technique is based on the classification of the anomalies that arise during Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, we also discuss a generalized testing tool (prototype) that we have developed.

  12. Development of a Bayesian Belief Network Runway Incursion Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2014-01-01

    In a previous paper, a statistical analysis of runway incursion (RI) events was conducted to ascertain their relevance to the top ten Technical Challenges (TC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). The study revealed connections to perhaps several of the AvSP top ten TC. That data also identified several primary causes and contributing factors for RI events that served as the basis for developing a system-level Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) model for RI events. The system-level BBN model will allow NASA to generically model the causes of RI events and to assess the effectiveness of technology products being developed under NASA funding. These products are intended to reduce the frequency of RI events in particular, and to improve runway safety in general. The development, structure and assessment of that BBN for RI events by a Subject Matter Expert panel are documented in this paper.

  13. Prevention of runway incursions due to closed runways or unsuitable runway choices by enhanced crew situational awareness and alerting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernaleken, Christoph; Urvoy, Carole; Klingauf, Uwe

    2007-04-01

    Of all incidents on the aerodrome surface, Runway Incursions, i.e. the incorrect presence of an aircraft on a runway, are the by far most safety-critical, resulting in many fatalities if they lead to an accident. A lack of flight crew situational awareness is almost always a causal factor in these occurrences, and like any Runway Incursion, the special case of choosing a closed or unsuitable runway - including mistaking a taxiway for a runway - may have catastrophic consequences, as the Singapore Airlines Flight SQ006 accident at Taipei in 2000 and, most recently, Comair Flight 5191, tragically show. In other incidents, such as UPS Flight 896 at Denver in 2001 departing from a closed runway or China Airlines Flight 11 taking off from a taxiway at Anchorage in 2002, a disaster was only avoided by mere luck. This paper describes how the concept for an onboard Surface Movement Awareness and Alerting System (SMAAS) can be applied to this special case and might help to prevent flight crews from taking off or landing on closed runways, unsuitable runways or taxiways, and presents initial evaluation results. An airport moving map based on an ED-99A/DO- 272A compliant Aerodrome Mapping Database (AMDB) is used to visualize runway closures and other applicable airport restrictions, based on NOTAM and D-ATIS data, to provide the crew with enhanced situational awareness in terms of position and operational environment. If this is not sufficient to prevent a hazardous situation, e.g. in case the crew is distracted, a tailored alerting concept consisting of both visual and aural alerts consistent with existing warning systems catches the crew's attention. For runway closures and restrictions, particularly those of temporary nature, the key issue for both extended situational awareness and alerting is how to get the corresponding data to the aircraft's avionics. Therefore, this paper also develops the concept of a machine-readable electronic Pre-flight Information Bulletin (e

  14. NASA Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) Dallas-Fort Worth Demonstration Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassell, Rick; Evers, Carl; Esche, Jeff; Sleep, Benjamin; Jones, Denise R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Aviation Safety Program Synthetic Vision System project conducted a Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) flight test at the Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport in October 2000. The RIPS research system includes advanced displays, airport surveillance system, data links, positioning system, and alerting algorithms to provide pilots with enhanced situational awareness, supplemental guidance cues, a real-time display of traffic information, and warnings of runway incursions. This report describes the aircraft and ground based runway incursion alerting systems and traffic positioning systems (Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) and Traffic Information Service - Broadcast (TIS-B)). A performance analysis of these systems is also presented.

  15. An assessment of predominant causal factors of pilot deviations that contribute to runway incursions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Denado M.

    The aim of this study was to identify predominant causal factors of pilot deviations in runway incursions over a two-year period. Runway incursion reports were obtained from NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), and a qualitative method was used by classifying and coding each report to a specific causal factor(s). The causal factors that were used were substantiated by research from the Aircraft Owner's and Pilot's Association that found that these causal factors were the most common in runway incursion incidents and accidents. An additional causal factor was also utilized to determine the significance of pilot training in relation to runway incursions. From the reports examined, it was found that miscommunication and situational awareness have the greatest impact on pilots and are most often the major causes of runway incursions. This data can be used to assist airports, airlines, and the FAA to understand trends in pilot deviations, and to find solutions for specific problem areas in runway incursion incidents.

  16. Development of the Runway Incursion Advisory and Alerting System (RIAAS): Research Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R. (Technical Monitor); Cassell, Rick

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted on an aircraft based Runway Incursion Advisory and Alerting System (RIAAS) developed under a cooperative agreement between Rannoch Corporation and the NASA Langley Research Center. A summary of RIAAS is presented along with results from simulation and flight testing, safety benefits, and key technical issues.

  17. Runway Incursion Prevention System: Demonstration and Testing at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Quach, Cuong C.; Young, Steven D.

    2007-01-01

    A Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) was tested at the Dallas-Ft. Worth International Airport (DFW) in October 2000. The system integrated airborne and ground components to provide both pilots and controllers with enhanced situational awareness, supplemental guidance cues, a real-time display of traffic information, and warning of runway incursions in order to prevent runway incidents while also improving operational capability. A series of test runs was conducted using NASA s Boeing 757 research aircraft and a test van equipped to emulate an incurring aircraft. The system was also demonstrated to over 100 visitors from the aviation community. This paper gives an overview of the RIPS, DFW flight test activities, and quantitative and qualitative results of the testing.

  18. Simulator Evaluation of Runway Incursion Prevention Technology for General Aviation Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2011-01-01

    A Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) has been designed under previous research to enhance airport surface operations situation awareness and provide cockpit alerts of potential runway conflict, during transport aircraft category operations, in order to prevent runway incidents while also improving operations capability. This study investigated an adaptation of RIPS for low-end general aviation operations using a fixed-based simulator at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC). The purpose of the study was to evaluate modified RIPS aircraft-based incursion detection algorithms and associated alerting and airport surface display concepts for low-end general aviation operations. This paper gives an overview of the system, simulation study, and test results.

  19. A fresh look at runway incursions: onboard surface movement awareness and alerting system based on SVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernaleken, Christoph; Mihalic, Lamir; Güttler, Mathias; Klingauf, Uwe

    2006-05-01

    Increasing traffic density on the aerodrome surface due to the continuous worldwide growth in the number of flight operations does not only cause capacity and efficiency problems, but also increases the risk of serious incidents and accidents on the airport movement area. Of these, Runway Incursions are the by far most safety-critical. In fact, the worst-ever accident in civil aviation, the collision of two Boeing B747s on Tenerife in 1977 with 583 fatalities, was caused by a Runway Incursion. Therefore, various Runway Safety programs have recently been initiated around the globe, often focusing on ground-based measures such as improved surveillance. However, as a lack of flight crew situational awareness is a key causal factor in many Runway Incursion incidents and accidents, there is a strong need for an onboard solution, which should be capable of interacting cooperatively with ground-based ATM systems, such as A-SMGCS where available. This paper defines the concept of preventive and reactive Runway Incursion avoidance and describes a Surface Movement Awareness & Alerting System (SMAAS) designed to alert the flight crew if they are at risk of infringing a runway. Both the SVS flight deck displays and the corresponding alerting algorithms utilize an ED 99A/RTCA DO-272A compliant aerodrome database, as well as airport operational, traffic and clearance data received via ADS-B or other data links, respectively. The displays provide the crew with enhanced positional, operational, clearance and traffic awareness, and they are used to visualize alerts. A future enhancement of the system will provide intelligent alerting for conflicts caused by surrounding traffic.

  20. Los Angeles International Airport Runway Incursion Studies: Phase III--Center-Taxiway Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madson, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Phase III of the Los Angeles International Airport Runway Incursion Studies was conducted, under an agreement with HNTB Corporation, at the NASA Ames FutureFlight Central (FFC) facility in June 2003. The objective of the study was the evaluation of a new center-taxiway concept at LAX. This study is an extension of the Phase I and Phase II studies previously conducted at FFC. This report presents results from Phase III of the study, in which a center-taxiway concept between runways 25L and 25R was simulated and evaluated. Phase III data were compared objectively against the Baseline data. Subjective evaluations by participating LAX controllers were obtained with regard to workload, efficiency, and safety criteria. To facilitate a valid comparison between Baseline and Phase III data, the same scenarios were used for Phase III that were tested during Phases I and II. This required briefing participating controllers on differences in airport and airline operations between 2001 and today.

  1. Development of a Bayesian Belief Network Runway Incursion and Excursion Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2014-01-01

    In a previous work, a statistical analysis of runway incursion (RI) event data was conducted to ascertain the relevance of this data to the top ten Technical Challenges (TC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). The study revealed connections to several of the AvSP top ten TC and identified numerous primary causes and contributing factors of RI events. The statistical analysis served as the basis for developing a system-level Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) model for RI events, also previously reported. Through literature searches and data analysis, this RI event network has now been extended to also model runway excursion (RE) events. These RI and RE event networks have been further modified and vetted by a Subject Matter Expert (SME) panel. The combined system-level BBN model will allow NASA to generically model the causes of RI and RE events and to assess the effectiveness of technology products being developed under NASA funding. These products are intended to reduce the frequency of runway safety incidents/accidents, and to improve runway safety in general. The development and structure of the BBN for both RI and RE events are documented in this paper.

  2. Runway Incursion Prevention System ADS-B and DGPS Data Link Analysis Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmerman, J.; Jones, Denise R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) was tested at the Dallas - Ft. Worth International Airport in October 2000. The system integrated airborne and ground components to provide both pilots and controllers with enhanced situational awareness, supplemental guidance cues, a real-time display of traffic information, and warning of runway incursions in order to prevent runway incidents while also improving operational capability. Rockwell Collins provided and supported a prototype Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) system using 1090 MHz and a prototype Differential GPS (DGPS) system onboard the NASA Boeing 757 research aircraft. This report describes the Rockwell Collins contributions to the RIPS flight test, summarizes the development process, and analyzes both ADS-B and DGPS data collected during the flight test. In addition, results are report on interoperability tests conducted between the NASA Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) ADS-B flight test system and the NASA Boeing 757 ADS-B system.

  3. Positioning System Accuracy Assessment for the Runway Incursion Prevention System Flight Test at the Dallas/Ft. Worth International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quach, Cuong C.

    2004-01-01

    NASA/Langley Research Center collaborated with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to test a Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) at the Dallas Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) in October 2000. The RIPS combines airborne and ground sensor data with various cockpit displays to improve pilots' awareness of traffic conditions on the airport surface. The systems tested at DFW involved surface radar and data systems that gather and send surface traffic information to a research aircraft outfitted with the RIPS software, cockpit displays, and data link transceivers. The data sent to the airborne systems contained identification and GPS location of traffic. This information was compared with the own-ship location from airborne GPS receivers to generate incursion alerts. A total of 93 test tracks were flown while operating RIPS. This report compares the accuracy of the airborne GPS systems that gave the own-ship position of the research aircraft for the 93 test tracks.

  4. Pilot Evaluations of Runway Status Light System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Steven D.; Wills, Robert W.; Smith, R. Marshall

    1996-01-01

    This study focuses on use of the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) Simulator at the Langley Research Center to obtain pilot opinion and input on the Federal Aviation Administration's Runway Status Light System (RWSL) prior to installation in an operational airport environment. The RWSL has been designed to reduce the likelihood of runway incursions by visually alerting pilots when a runway is occupied. Demonstrations of the RWSL in the TSRV Simulator allowed pilots to evaluate the system in a realistic cockpit environment.

  5. Status of runway slipperiness research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.

    1976-01-01

    Runway slipperiness research performed in the United States and Europe since 1968 is reviewed. Topics discussed include: (1) runway flooding during rainstorms; (2) hydroplaning; (3) identification of slippery runways including the results from ground vehicle friction measurements and attempts to correlate these measurements with aircraft stopping performance; (4) progress and problems associated with the development of antihydroplaning runway surface treatments such as pavement grooving and porous friction course (PFC); and (5) runway rubber deposits and their removal.

  6. Tobacco Smoke Incursions in Multiunit Housing

    PubMed Central

    Torok, Michelle; McMillen, Robert; Tanski, Susanne; Klein, Jonathan D.; Winickoff, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to describe the prevalence of secondhand tobacco smoke incursions reported by multiunit housing (MUH) residents, pinpoint factors associated with exposure, and determine whether smoke-free building policy was associated with prevalence of reported tobacco smoke incursions. Methods. Data are from a 2011 nationally representative dual-frame survey (random-digit-dial and Internet panels) of US adults aged 18 years and older. Individuals who lived in MUH and who reported no smoking in their homes for the past 3 months, whether or not they reported being smokers themselves, were included in this study. Incursions were defined as smelling tobacco smoke in their building or unit. Results. Of 562 respondents, 29.5% reported smoke incursions in their buildings. Of these, 16% reported incursions in their own unit, 36.2% of which occurred at least weekly. Government-subsidized housing and partial smoke-free policies were associated with a higher likelihood of reporting smoke incursions. Conclusions. Many residents of multiunit housing are exposed to tobacco smoke in their units and buildings. Partial smoke-free policies do not appear to protect residents and might increase the likelihood of incursions in residents’ individual units. PMID:24922124

  7. Development and Execution of the RUNSAFE Runway Safety Bayesian Belief Network Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2015-01-01

    One focus area of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is to improve aviation safety. Runway safety is one such thrust of investigation and research. The two primary components of this runway safety research are in runway incursion (RI) and runway excursion (RE) events. These are adverse ground-based aviation incidents that endanger crew, passengers, aircraft and perhaps other nearby people or property. A runway incursion is the incorrect presence of an aircraft, vehicle or person on the protected area of a surface designated for the landing and take-off of aircraft; one class of RI events simultaneously involves two aircraft, such as one aircraft incorrectly landing on a runway while another aircraft is taking off from the same runway. A runway excursion is an incident involving only a single aircraft defined as a veer-off or overrun off the runway surface. Within the scope of this effort at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), generic RI, RE and combined (RI plus RE, or RUNSAFE) event models have each been developed and implemented as a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN). Descriptions of runway safety issues from the literature searches have been used to develop the BBN models. Numerous considerations surrounding the process of developing the event models have been documented in this report. The event models were then thoroughly reviewed by a Subject Matter Expert (SME) panel through multiple knowledge elicitation sessions. Numerous improvements to the model structure (definitions, node names, node states and the connecting link topology) were made by the SME panel. Sample executions of the final RUNSAFE model have been presented herein for baseline and worst-case scenarios. Finally, a parameter sensitivity analysis for a given scenario was performed to show the risk drivers. The NASA and LaRC research in runway safety event modeling through the use of BBN technology is important for several reasons. These include: 1) providing a means to clearly

  8. 14 CFR 151.79 - Runway paving: Second runway; wind conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Runway paving: Second runway; wind...: Second runway; wind conditions. (a) All airports. Paving a second runway on the basis of wind conditions... second runway is oriented with the existing paved runway to achieve the maximum wind coverage, with...

  9. 14 CFR 151.79 - Runway paving: Second runway; wind conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Runway paving: Second runway; wind...: Second runway; wind conditions. (a) All airports. Paving a second runway on the basis of wind conditions... second runway is oriented with the existing paved runway to achieve the maximum wind coverage, with...

  10. 14 CFR 151.79 - Runway paving: Second runway; wind conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Runway paving: Second runway; wind...: Second runway; wind conditions. (a) All airports. Paving a second runway on the basis of wind conditions... second runway is oriented with the existing paved runway to achieve the maximum wind coverage, with...

  11. 14 CFR 151.79 - Runway paving: Second runway; wind conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Runway paving: Second runway; wind...: Second runway; wind conditions. (a) All airports. Paving a second runway on the basis of wind conditions... second runway is oriented with the existing paved runway to achieve the maximum wind coverage, with...

  12. Progress Toward Future Runway Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohr, Gary W.; Brown, Sherilyn A.; Atkins, Stephen; Eisenhawer, Stephen W.; Bott, Terrance F.; Long, Dou; Hasan, Shahab

    2011-01-01

    The runway is universally acknowledged as a constraining factor to capacity in the National Airspace System (NAS). It follows that investigation of the effective use of runways, both in terms of selection and assignment, is paramount to the efficiency of future NAS operations. The need to address runway management is not a new idea; however, as the complexities of factors affecting runway selection and usage increase, the need for effective research in this area correspondingly increases. Under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Airspace Systems Program, runway management is a key research area. To address a future NAS which promises to be a complex landscape of factors and competing interests among users and operators, effective runway management strategies and capabilities are required. This effort has evolved from an assessment of current practices, an understanding of research activities addressing surface and airspace operations, traffic flow management enhancements, among others. This work has yielded significant progress. Systems analysis work indicates that the value of System Oriented Runway Management tools is significantly increased in the metroplex environment over that of the single airport case. Algorithms have been developed to provide runway configuration recommendations for a single airport with multiple runways. A benefits analysis has been conducted that indicates the SORM benefits include supporting traffic growth, cost reduction as a result of system efficiency, NAS optimization from metroplex operations, fairness in aircraft operations, and rational decision making.

  13. Recent Studies of Runway Roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Garland; Hall, Albert W.

    1965-01-01

    Recent studies of NASA research related to aircraft operating problems on rough runways are presented. Some of these investigations were conducted cooperatively with the airport operators, with the Federal Aviation Agency, and with the U.S. Air Force. The studies show that criteria based on power spectral levels of runway-profile data are not sufficient to define acceptable levels of runway roughness from the piloting viewpoint. Because of the large variation in response characteristics between various types of aircraft, a runway may be acceptable for some aircraft and unacceptable for others. A criterion for roughness, therefore, should be expressed in terms of aircraft response - preferably, cockpit acceleration. A criterion suggested is that the maximum vertical acceleration in the cockpit should not exceed +/- 0.4 g for sections of the runway where precise aircraft control is required.

  14. Conceptual model for collision detection and avoidance for runway incursion prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latimer, Bridgette A.

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), National Transportation and Safety Board (NTSB), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), numerous corporate entities, and research facilities have each come together to determine ways to make air travel safer and more efficient. These efforts have resulted in the development of a concept known as the Next Generation (Next Gen) of Aircraft or Next Gen. The Next Gen concept promises to be a clear departure from the way in which aircraft operations are performed today. The Next Gen initiatives require that modifications are made to the existing National Airspace System (NAS) concept of operations, system level requirements, software (SW) and hardware (HW) requirements, SW and HW designs and implementations. A second example of the changes in the NAS is the shift away from air traffic controllers having the responsibility for separation assurance. In the proposed new scheme of free flight, each aircraft would be responsible for assuring that it is safely separated from surrounding aircraft. Free flight would allow the separation minima for enroute aircraft to be reduced from 2000 nautical miles (nm) to 1000 nm. Simply put "Free Flight is a concept of air traffic management that permits pilots and controllers to share information and work together to manage air traffic from pre-flight through arrival without compromising safety [107]." The primary goal of this research project was to create a conceptual model that embodies the essential ingredients needed for a collision detection and avoidance system. This system was required to operate in two modes: air traffic controller's perspective and pilot's perspective. The secondary goal was to demonstrate that the technologies, procedures, and decision logic embedded in the conceptual model were able to effectively detect and avoid collision risks from both perspectives. Embodied in the conceptual model are five distinct software modules: Data Acquisition, State Processor, Projection, Collision Detection, and Alerting and Resolution. The underlying algorithms in the Projection module are linear projection and Kalman filtering which are used to estimate the future state of the aircraft. The Resolution and Alerting module is comprised of two algorithms: a generic alerting algorithm and the potential fields algorithm [71]. The conceptual model was created using Enterprise Architect RTM and MATLAB RTM was used to code the methods and to simulate conflict scenarios.

  15. Runway configuration improvement programming model.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, J. C.; Gibson, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    The basic objectives of the study were to subject a set of runway configurations to cost analysis and to develop a dynamic programming model which would enable an airport to economically match the ground capacity to its air traffic demand. Quantitative differences in the capacity of runway configurations result from the various aircraft/aircraft and aircraft/air-system interactions. A problem formulation and solution procedure is presented which is intended to be a meaningful technique for the long-range planning of runway expansion programs.

  16. Controllers and Pilots Play a Key Role in Runway Safety Initiatives Through Real-Time Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madson, Mike; Bender, Kim

    2004-01-01

    A new and innovative way to evaluate runway safety initiatives for airports is through the use of interactive real-time simulation. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) operates an integrated suite of simulators that can give both pilots and tower controllers the ability to simultaneously "try out" ideas in the safety of virtual reality. In February of 2003, the FAA conducted a demonstration in the NASA facilities for Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) of a concept to reduce runway crossings and enhance the efficiency of the airport. Currently DFW experiences about 1,700 runway crossings per day, which contribute to arrival and departure delays and the potential for runway incursions. The proposed concept included the addition of new perimeter taxiways on the East and West sides of the airport. Through use of NASA's unique simulation capabilities, DFW controllers and commercial pilots provided expert feedback on the safety and operational implications by directly experiencing the proposed changes. Overall, the data collected from the participants and the simulators demonstrated that the concept would improve operations at DFW, if implemented. Improvements were observed in many areas including departure rates, taxi duration, runway crossings, and controller and pilot communications.

  17. Tire and runway surface research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1986-01-01

    The condition of aircraft tires and runway surfaces can be crucial in meeting the stringent demands of aircraft ground operations, particularly under adverse weather conditions. Gaining a better understanding of the factors influencing the tire/pavement interface is the aim of several ongoing NASA Langley research programs which are described in this paper. Results from several studies conducted at the Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility, tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and some recent aircraft accident investigations are summarized to indicate effects of different tire and runway properties. The Joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program is described together with some preliminary test findings. The scope of future NASA Langley research directed towards solving aircraft ground operational problems related to the tire/pavement interface is given.

  18. 14 CFR 151.80 - Runway paving: Additional runway; other conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Runway paving: Additional runway; other conditions. 151.80 Section 151.80 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.80 Runway paving: Additional runway; other...

  19. Preliminary Human-in-the-Loop Assessment of Procedures for Very-Closely-Spaced Parallel Runways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, Savita; Lozito, Sandra C.; Ballinger, Deborah S.; Trot, Greg; Hardy, Gordon H.; Panda, Ramesh C.; Lehmer, Ronald D.; Kozon, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Demand in the future air transportation system concept is expected to double or triple by 2025 [1]. Increasing airport arrival rates will help meet the growing demand that could be met with additional runways but the expansion airports is met with environmental challenges for the surrounding communities when using current standards and procedures. Therefore, changes to airport operations can improve airport capacity without adding runways. Building additional runways between current ones, or moving them closer, is a potential solution to meeting the increasing demand, as addressed by the Terminal Area Capacity Enhancing Concept (TACEC). TACEC requires robust technologies and procedures that need to be tested such that operations are not compromised under instrument meteorological conditions. The reduction of runway spacing for independent simultaneous operations dramatically exacerbates the criticality of wake vortex incursion and the calculation of a safe and proper breakout maneuver. The study presented here developed guidelines for such operations by performing a real-time, human-in-the-loop simulation using precision navigation, autopilot-flown approaches, with the pilot monitoring aircraft spacing and the wake vortex safe zone during the approach.

  20. Aerial view of Runway 33 at SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This aerial view shows the approach on Runway 33 at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility. The runway is 15,000 feet long, with 1,000-foot paved overruns at each end; 300 feet wide (about length of football field), with 50-foot asphalt shoulders each side; 16 inches thick in the center, and 15 inches thick on sides. It has a slope of 24 inches from the center line to the edge for drainage. The single landing strip is considered two runways, depending on approach -- Runway 15 from northwest, Runway 33 from southeast.

  1. Tire/runway friction interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of NASA Langley's tire/runway pavement interface studies. The National Tire Modeling Program, evaluation of new tire and landing gear designs, tire wear and friction tests, and tire hydroplaning studies are examined. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility is described along with some ground friction measuring vehicles. The major goals and scope of several joint FAA/NASA programs are identified together with current status and plans.

  2. 14 CFR 151.79 - Runway paving: Second runway; wind conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Runway paving: Second runway; wind conditions. 151.79 Section 151.79 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.79 Runway...

  3. 14 CFR 151.80 - Runway paving: Additional runway; other conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Runway paving: Additional runway; other conditions. 151.80 Section 151.80 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.80 Runway...

  4. 14 CFR 151.80 - Runway paving: Additional runway; other conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Runway paving: Additional runway; other conditions. 151.80 Section 151.80 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.80 Runway...

  5. 14 CFR 151.80 - Runway paving: Additional runway; other conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Runway paving: Additional runway; other conditions. 151.80 Section 151.80 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.80 Runway...

  6. 14 CFR 151.80 - Runway paving: Additional runway; other conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Runway paving: Additional runway; other conditions. 151.80 Section 151.80 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.80 Runway...

  7. Current Practices in Runway Configuration Management (RCM) and Arrival/Departure Runway Balancing (ADRB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohr, Gary W.; Williams, Daniel M.

    2008-01-01

    Significant air traffic increases are anticipated for the future of the National Airspace System (NAS). To cope with future traffic increases, fundamental changes are required in many aspects of the air traffic management process including the planning and use of NAS resources. Two critical elements of this process are the selection of airport runway configurations, and the effective management of active runways. Two specific research areas in NASA's Airspace Systems Program (ASP) have been identified to address efficient runway management: Runway Configuration Management (RCM) and Arrival/Departure Runway Balancing (ADRB). This report documents efforts in assessing past as well as current work in these two areas.

  8. Wet runways. [aircraft landing and directional control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft stopping and directional control performance on wet runways is discussed. The major elements affecting tire/ground traction developed by jet transport aircraft are identified and described in terms of atmospheric, pavement, tire, aircraft system and pilot performance factors or parameters. Research results are summarized, and means for improving or restoring tire traction/aircraft performance on wet runways are discussed.

  9. Spot and Runway Departure Advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Yoon Chul

    2013-01-01

    The Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) is a research prototype of a decision support tool for ATC tower controllers to assist in manging and controlling traffic on the surface of an airport. SARDA employs a scheduler to generate an optimal runway schedule and gate push-back - spot release sequence and schedule that improves efficiency of surface operations. The advisories for ATC tower controllers are displayed on an Electronic Flight Strip (EFS) system. The human-in-the-loop simulation of the SARDA tool was conducted for east operations of Dallas-Ft. Worth International Airport (DFW) to evaluate performance of the SARDA tool and human factors, such as situational awareness and workload. The results indicates noticeable taxi delay reduction and fuel savings by using the SARDA tool. Reduction in controller workload were also observed throughout the scenario runs. The future plan includes modeling and simulation of the ramp operations of the Charlotte International Airport, and develop a decision support tool for the ramp controllers.

  10. System Oriented Runway Management: A Research Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohr, Gary W.; Brown, Sherilyn A.; Stough, Harry P., III; Eisenhawer, Steve; Atkins, Stephen; Long, Dou

    2011-01-01

    The runway configuration used by an airport has significant implications with respect to its capacity and ability to effectively manage surface and airborne traffic. Aircraft operators rely on runway configuration information because it can significantly affect an airline's operations and planning of their resources. Current practices in runway management are limited by a relatively short time horizon for reliable weather information and little assistance from automation. Wind velocity is the primary consideration when selecting a runway configuration; however when winds are below a defined threshold, discretion may be used to determine the configuration. Other considerations relevant to runway configuration selection include airport operator constraints, weather conditions (other than winds) traffic demand, user preferences, surface congestion, and navigational system outages. The future offers an increasingly complex landscape for the runway management process. Concepts and technologies that hold the potential for capacity and efficiency increases for both operations on the airport surface and in terminal and enroute airspace are currently under investigation. Complementary advances in runway management are required if capacity and efficiency increases in those areas are to be realized. The System Oriented Runway Management (SORM) concept has been developed to address this critical part of the traffic flow process. The SORM concept was developed to address all aspects of runway management for airports of varying sizes and to accommodate a myriad of traffic mixes. SORM, to date, addresses the single airport environment; however, the longer term vision is to incorporate capabilities for multiple airport (Metroplex) operations as well as to accommodate advances in capabilities resulting from ongoing research. This paper provides an update of research supporting the SORM concept including the following: a concept of overview, results of a TRCM simulation, single

  11. 14 CFR 151.11 - Runway clear zones; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... zone areas (in connection with initial land acquisition) for all eligible runways or landing strips... runways or landing strips are developed, the sponsor must own, acquire, or agree to acquire adequate property interests in runway clear zone areas for each runway and landing strip to be developed or...

  12. 14 CFR 151.11 - Runway clear zones; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... zone areas (in connection with initial land acquisition) for all eligible runways or landing strips... runways or landing strips are developed, the sponsor must own, acquire, or agree to acquire adequate property interests in runway clear zone areas for each runway and landing strip to be developed or...

  13. Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) is a decision support tool to assist airline ramp controllers and ATC tower controllers to manage traffic on the airport surface to significantly improve efficiency and predictability in surface operations. The core function of the tool is the runway scheduler which generates an optimal solution for runway sequence and schedule of departure aircraft, which would minimize system delay and maximize runway throughput. The presentation also discusses the latest status of NASA's current surface research through a collaboration with an airline partner, where a tool is developed for airline ramp operators to assist departure pushback operations. The presentation describes the concept of the SARDA tool and results from human-in-the-loop simulations conducted in 2012 for Dallas-Ft. Worth International Airport and 2014 for Charlotte airport ramp tower.

  14. Effect of Uncertainty on Deterministic Runway Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Gautam; Malik, Waqar; Jung, Yoon C.

    2012-01-01

    Active runway scheduling involves scheduling departures for takeoffs and arrivals for runway crossing subject to numerous constraints. This paper evaluates the effect of uncertainty on a deterministic runway scheduler. The evaluation is done against a first-come- first-serve scheme. In particular, the sequence from a deterministic scheduler is frozen and the times adjusted to satisfy all separation criteria; this approach is tested against FCFS. The comparison is done for both system performance (throughput and system delay) and predictability, and varying levels of congestion are considered. The modeling of uncertainty is done in two ways: as equal uncertainty in availability at the runway as for all aircraft, and as increasing uncertainty for later aircraft. Results indicate that the deterministic approach consistently performs better than first-come-first-serve in both system performance and predictability.

  15. TRIZ Tool for Optimization of Airport Runway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. Venkata; Selladurai, V.; Saravanan, R.

    TRIZ tool is used for conceptual design and layout of the novel ascending and descending runway model for the effective utilization of short length airports. Handling bigger aircrafts at smaller airports become the necessity for economic consideration and for the benefit of vast airliners and the aspiring air travelers of the region. The authors’ proposal of ascending and descending runway would enable the operational need of wide body aircrafts such as Boeing 747 and Airbus A380-800. Negotiating take-off and landing of bigger aircrafts at less than 10000 feet runway is an optimization solution. This conceptual model and the theoretical design with its layout is dealt in this paper as Part - I. The computer-aided design and analysis using MATLAB with Simulink tool box to confirm the adequacy of the runway length for the bigger aircrafts at smaller airports is however dealt in subsequent papers.

  16. Joint Winter Runway Friction Program Accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Wambold, James C.; Henry, John J.; Andresen, Arild; Bastian, Matthew

    2002-01-01

    The major program objectives are: (1) harmonize ground vehicle friction measurements to report consistent friction value or index for similar contaminated runway conditions, for example, compacted snow, and (2) establish reliable correlation between ground vehicle friction measurements and aircraft braking performance. Accomplishing these objectives would give airport operators better procedures for evaluating runway friction and maintaining acceptable operating conditions, providing pilots information to base go/no go decisions, and would contribute to reducing traction-related aircraft accidents.

  17. Runway Scheduling Using Generalized Dynamic Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, Justin; Wood, Zachary; Rathinam, Sivakumar

    2011-01-01

    A generalized dynamic programming method for finding a set of pareto optimal solutions for a runway scheduling problem is introduced. The algorithm generates a set of runway fight sequences that are optimal for both runway throughput and delay. Realistic time-based operational constraints are considered, including miles-in-trail separation, runway crossings, and wake vortex separation. The authors also model divergent runway takeoff operations to allow for reduced wake vortex separation. A modeled Dallas/Fort Worth International airport and three baseline heuristics are used to illustrate preliminary benefits of using the generalized dynamic programming method. Simulated traffic levels ranged from 10 aircraft to 30 aircraft with each test case spanning 15 minutes. The optimal solution shows a 40-70 percent decrease in the expected delay per aircraft over the baseline schedulers. Computational results suggest that the algorithm is promising for real-time application with an average computation time of 4.5 seconds. For even faster computation times, two heuristics are developed. As compared to the optimal, the heuristics are within 5% of the expected delay per aircraft and 1% of the expected number of runway operations per hour ad can be 100x faster.

  18. Late Neogene marine incursions and the ancestral Gulf of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDougall, K.

    2008-01-01

    The late Neogene section in the Salton Trough, California, and along the lower Colorado River in Arizona is composed of marine units bracketed by nonmarine units. Microfossils from the marine deposits indicate that a marine incursion inundated the Salton Trough during the late Miocene. Water depths increased rapidly in the Miocene and eventually flooded the region now occupied by the Colorado River as far north as Parker, Arizona. Marine conditions were restricted in the Pliocene as the Colorado River filled the Salton Trough with sediments and the Gulf of California assumed its present configuration. Microfossils from the early part of this incursion include a diverse assemblage of benthic foraminifers (Amphistegina gibbosa, Uvigerina peregrina, Cassidulina delicata, and Bolivina interjuncta), planktic foraminifers (Globigerinoides obliquus, G. extremus, and Globigerina nepenthes), and calcareous nannoplankton (Discoaster brouweri, Discoaster aff. Discoaster surculus, Sphenolithus abies, and S. neoabies), whereas microfossils in the final phase contain a less diverse assemblage of benthic foraminifers that are diagnostic of marginal shallow-marine conditions (Ammonia, Elphidium, Bolivina, Cibicides, and Quinqueloculina). Evidence of an earlier middle Miocene marine incursion comes from reworked microfossils found near Split Mountain Gorge in the Fish Creek Gypsum (Sphenolithus moriformis) and near San Gorgonio Pass (Cyclicargolithus floridanus and Sphenolithus heteromorphus and planktic foraminifers). The middle Miocene incursion may also be represented by the older marine sedimentary rocks encountered in the subsurface near Yuma, Arizona, where rare middle Miocene planktic foraminifers are found. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  19. Runway hazard detection in poor visibility conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bo; Rahman, Zia-ur

    2012-01-01

    More recently, research on enhancing the situational awareness of pilots, especially in poor visibility flight conditions, gains more and more interests. Since pilots may not be able to spot the runway clearly in poor visibility conditions, such as fog, smoke, haze or dim lighting conditions, aviation landing problem can occur due to the (unexpected) presence of objects on the runway. Complicated and trivial instruments, switches, bottoms, plus sudden happenings are enough for the pilots to take care of during landing approach. Therefore, an automatic hazard detection approach that combines non-linear Multi-scale Retinex (MSR) image enhancement, edge detection with basic edge pattern analysis, and image analysis is investigated. The effect of applying the enhancement method is to make the image of the runway almost independent from the poor atmospheric conditions. The following smart edge detection process extracts edge information, which can also reduce the storing space, the comparison and retrieval time, and the effect of sensor noise. After analyzing the features existing in the edge differences occurring in the runway area by digital image processing techniques, the existing potential hazard will be localized and labeled. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is effective in runway hazard detection in poor visibility conditions.

  20. Terminal Area Procedures for Paired Runways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lozito, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    Parallel Runway operations have been found to increase capacity within the National Airspace (NAS) however, poor visibility conditions reduce this capacity [1]. Much research has been conducted to examine the concepts and procedures related to parallel runways however, there has been no investigation of the procedures associated with the strategic and tactical pairing of aircraft for these operations. This study developed and examined the pilot and controller procedures and information requirements for creating aircraft pairs for parallel runway operations. The goal was to achieve aircraft pairing with a temporal separation of 15s(+/- 10s error) at a coupling point that is about 12 nmi from the runway threshold. Two variables were explored for the pilot participants: Two levels of flight deck automation (current-day flight deck automation, and a prototype future automation) as well as two flight deck displays that assisted in pilot conformance monitoring. The controllers were also provided with automation to help create and maintain aircraft pairs. Data showed that the operations in this study were found to be acceptable and safe. Workload when using the pairing procedures and tools was generally low for both controllers and pilots, and situation awareness (SA) was typically moderate to high. There were some differences based upon the display and automation conditions for the pilots. Future research should consider the refinement of the concepts and tools for pilot and controller displays and automation for parallel runway concepts.

  1. 1. VIEW OF ALTERNATE RUNWAY (TAXIWAY J) LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF ALTERNATE RUNWAY (TAXIWAY J) LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM SOUTH RUNWAY OBSERVATION BUILDING TOWARD BUILDING 8250 (ARCH HANGAR) AND FLIGHTLINE BUILDINGS. - Loring Air Force Base, Airfield, Central portion of base, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  2. NASA tire/runway friction projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper reviews several aspects of NASA Langley Research Center's tire/runway friction evaluations directed towards improving the safety and economy of aircraft ground operations. The facilities and test equipment used in implementing different aircraft tire friction studies and other related aircraft ground performance investigations are described together with recent workshop activities at NASA Wallops Flight Facility. An overview of the pending Joint NASA/Transport Canada/FM Winter Runway Friction Program is given. Other NASA ongoing studies and on-site field tests are discussed including tire wear performance and new surface treatments. The paper concludes with a description of future research plans.

  3. Probabilistic computer model of optimal runway turnoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoen, M. L.; Preston, O. W.; Summers, L. G.; Nelson, B. A.; Vanderlinden, L.; Mcreynolds, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    Landing delays are currently a problem at major air carrier airports and many forecasters agree that airport congestion will get worse by the end of the century. It is anticipated that some types of delays can be reduced by an efficient optimal runway exist system allowing increased approach volumes necessary at congested airports. A computerized Probabilistic Runway Turnoff Model which locates exits and defines path geometry for a selected maximum occupancy time appropriate for each TERPS aircraft category is defined. The model includes an algorithm for lateral ride comfort limits.

  4. A late Wisconsinan marine incursion into Cape Cod Bay, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oldale, R.N.

    1988-01-01

    Reinterpretation of seismic-reflection data from Cape Cod Bay has produced a revised late Wisconsinan history. Acoustically laminated deposits, originally inferred to be glaciolacustrine, are shown to be glaciomarine by tracing them to glaciomarine mud in Stellwagen Basin, north of Cape Cod Bay. A late Wisconsinan marine deposit of nonglacial origin overlies the glaciomarine deposits in Cape Cod Bay. Both deposits indicate that the crust was isostatically depressed below the late Wisconsinan eustatic sea level and that deglaciation and marine submergence occurred simultaneously. Valleys cut into the marine deposits, both glacial and nonglacial, indicate that a low sea-level stand, the result of isostatic rebound, occurred shortly after the marine incursion. A transgressive uncomformity and marine deposits, both mostly of Holocene age, overlie the late Wisconsinan deposits. The marine incursion, regression, and Holocene transgression represent the northward passage of an isostatically induced peripheral bulge following deglaciation. In turn, the bulge, a response to crustal loading and unloading, indicates thick glacier ice in the terminal zone and lends support to arguments for a maximum Laurentide ice model. Evidence for a late Wisconsinan marine incursion, regression, and the passage of a peripheral bulge should be sought in the other bays and sounds of the New England terminal zone. ?? 1988.

  5. Some effects of grooved runway configurations on aircraft tire braking traction under flooded runway conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrdsong, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effect of grooved runway configurations on aircraft tire braking traction on flooded runway surfaces. The investigation was performed, utilizing size 49 x 17, type VII, aircraft tires with an inflation pressure of 170 lb per square inch at ground speeds up to approximately 120 knots. The results of this investigation indicate that when the runway is flooded, grooved surfaces provide better braking traction than an ungrooved surface and, in general, the level of braking traction was found to improve as the tire bearing pressure was increased because of an increase in the groove area of either the surface or the tire tread. Rounding the groove edges tended to degrade the tire braking capability from that developed on the same groove configuration with sharp edges. Results also indicate that braking friction coefficients for the test tires and runway surfaces decreased as ground speed was increased because of the hydroplaning effects.

  6. Evaluation of Scheduling Methods for Multiple Runways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolender, Michael A.; Slater, G. L.

    1996-01-01

    Several scheduling strategies are analyzed in order to determine the most efficient means of scheduling aircraft when multiple runways are operational and the airport is operating at different utilization rates. The study compares simulation data for two and three runway scenarios to results from queuing theory for an M/D/n queue. The direction taken, however, is not to do a steady-state, or equilibrium, analysis since this is not the case during a rush period at a typical airport. Instead, a transient analysis of the delay per aircraft is performed. It is shown that the scheduling strategy that reduces the delay depends upon the density of the arrival traffic. For light traffic, scheduling aircraft to their preferred runways is sufficient; however, as the arrival rate increases, it becomes more important to separate traffic by weight class. Significant delay reduction is realized when aircraft that belong to the heavy and small weight classes are sent to separate runways with large aircraft put into the 'best' landing slot.

  7. Perseus B Landing on Runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Perseus B high-altitude, remotely piloted research vehicle touches down on the runway at Edwards AFB, adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, after a test flight in September 1999. The Perseus B was the third version of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under the Dryden-managed Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third

  8. Runway Operations Planning: A Two-Stage Solution Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anagnostakis, Ioannis; Clarke, John-Paul

    2003-01-01

    The airport runway is a scarce resource that must be shared by different runway operations (arrivals, departures and runway crossings). Given the possible sequences of runway events, careful Runway Operations Planning (ROP) is required if runway utilization is to be maximized. Thus, Runway Operations Planning (ROP) is a critical component of airport operations planning in general and surface operations planning in particular. From the perspective of departures, ROP solutions are aircraft departure schedules developed by optimally allocating runway time for departures given the time required for arrivals and crossings. In addition to the obvious objective of maximizing throughput, other objectives, such as guaranteeing fairness and minimizing environmental impact, may be incorporated into the ROP solution subject to constraints introduced by Air Traffic Control (ATC) procedures. Generating optimal runway operations plans was approached in with a 'one-stage' optimization routine that considered all the desired objectives and constraints, and the characteristics of each aircraft (weight class, destination, Air Traffic Control (ATC) constraints) at the same time. Since, however, at any given point in time, there is less uncertainty in the predicted demand for departure resources in terms of weight class than in terms of specific aircraft, the ROP problem can be parsed into two stages. In the context of the Departure Planner (OP) research project, this paper introduces Runway Operations Planning (ROP) as part of the wider Surface Operations Optimization (SOO) and describes a proposed 'two stage' heuristic algorithm for solving the Runway Operations Planning (ROP) problem. Focus is specifically given on including runway crossings in the planning process of runway operations. In the first stage, sequences of departure class slots and runwy crossings slots are generated and ranked based on departure runway throughput under stochastic conditions. In the second stage, the

  9. Optimum runway orientation relative to crosswinds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falls, L. W.; Brown, S. C.

    1972-01-01

    Specific magnitudes of crosswinds may exist that could be constraints to the success of an aircraft mission such as the landing of the proposed space shuttle. A method is required to determine the orientation or azimuth of the proposed runway which will minimize the probability of certain critical crosswinds. Two procedures for obtaining the optimum runway orientation relative to minimizing a specified crosswind speed are described and illustrated with examples. The empirical procedure requires only hand calculations on an ordinary wind rose. The theoretical method utilizes wind statistics computed after the bivariate normal elliptical distribution is applied to a data sample of component winds. This method requires only the assumption that the wind components are bivariate normally distributed. This assumption seems to be reasonable. Studies are currently in progress for testing wind components for bivariate normality for various stations. The close agreement between the theoretical and empirical results for the example chosen substantiates the bivariate normal assumption.

  10. Runway Operations Planning: A Two-Stage Heuristic Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anagnostakis, Ioannis; Clarke, John-Paul

    2003-01-01

    The airport runway is a scarce resource that must be shared by different runway operations (arrivals, departures and runway crossings). Given the possible sequences of runway events, careful Runway Operations Planning (ROP) is required if runway utilization is to be maximized. From the perspective of departures, ROP solutions are aircraft departure schedules developed by optimally allocating runway time for departures given the time required for arrivals and crossings. In addition to the obvious objective of maximizing throughput, other objectives, such as guaranteeing fairness and minimizing environmental impact, can also be incorporated into the ROP solution subject to constraints introduced by Air Traffic Control (ATC) procedures. This paper introduces a two stage heuristic algorithm for solving the Runway Operations Planning (ROP) problem. In the first stage, sequences of departure class slots and runway crossings slots are generated and ranked based on departure runway throughput under stochastic conditions. In the second stage, the departure class slots are populated with specific flights from the pool of available aircraft, by solving an integer program with a Branch & Bound algorithm implementation. Preliminary results from this implementation of the two-stage algorithm on real-world traffic data are presented.

  11. Formal Verification of the Runway Safety Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siminiceanu, Radu; Ciardo, Gianfranco

    2006-01-01

    The Runway Safety Monitor (RSM) designed by Lockheed Martin is part of NASA's effort to reduce runway accidents. We developed a Petri net model of the RSM protocol and used the model checking functions of our tool SMART to investigate a number of safety properties in RSM. To mitigate the impact of state-space explosion, we built a highly discretized model of the system, obtained by partitioning the monitored runway zone into a grid of smaller volumes and by considering scenarios involving only two aircraft. The model also assumes that there are no communication failures, such as bad input from radar or lack of incoming data, thus it relies on a consistent view of reality by all participants. In spite of these simplifications, we were able to expose potential problems in the RSM conceptual design. Our findings were forwarded to the design engineers, who undertook corrective action. Additionally, the results stress the efficiency attained by the new model checking algorithms implemented in SMART, and demonstrate their applicability to real-world systems.

  12. 14 CFR 151.9 - Runway clear zones: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Runway clear zones: General. 151.9 Section 151.9 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... above the elevation of the runway or 50 feet above the terrain at the outer extremity of the clear...

  13. 14 CFR 151.9 - Runway clear zones: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Runway clear zones: General. 151.9 Section 151.9 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... above the elevation of the runway or 50 feet above the terrain at the outer extremity of the clear...

  14. 14 CFR 151.9 - Runway clear zones: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Runway clear zones: General. 151.9 Section 151.9 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... above the elevation of the runway or 50 feet above the terrain at the outer extremity of the clear...

  15. 14 CFR 151.9 - Runway clear zones: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Runway clear zones: General. 151.9 Section 151.9 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... above the elevation of the runway or 50 feet above the terrain at the outer extremity of the clear...

  16. 14 CFR 151.9 - Runway clear zones: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Runway clear zones: General. 151.9 Section 151.9 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... above the elevation of the runway or 50 feet above the terrain at the outer extremity of the clear...

  17. 14 CFR 151.77 - Runway paving: General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... project include pavement construction and reconstruction, and include runway grooving to improve skid... course to correct major irregularities in the pavement. Runway resealing or refilling joints as an... Specification P-609) on a pavement the current surface of which consists of that kind of a bituminous...

  18. 32 CFR 256.6 - Runway classification by aircraft type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Runway classification by aircraft type. 256.6 Section 256.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS AIR INSTALLATIONS COMPATIBLE USE ZONES § 256.6 Runway classification by...

  19. 14 CFR 151.77 - Runway paving: General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Runway paving: General rules. 151.77 Section 151.77 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.77 Runway paving:...

  20. 14 CFR 151.77 - Runway paving: General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.77 Runway paving: General... treatment. (c) On new pavement construction, the applying of a bituminous seal coat on plant hot-mix... entire runway may be sealed. (e) Appendix C to this part sets forth typical eligible and ineligible...

  1. 14 CFR 151.77 - Runway paving: General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.77 Runway paving: General... treatment. (c) On new pavement construction, the applying of a bituminous seal coat on plant hot-mix... entire runway may be sealed. (e) Appendix C to this part sets forth typical eligible and ineligible...

  2. 14 CFR 151.77 - Runway paving: General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Runway paving: General rules. 151.77 Section 151.77 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.77 Runway paving: General rules. (a) On any airport, paving of...

  3. View from the center of the 1922 Seaplane Runway, with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from the center of the 1922 Seaplane Runway, with the 1930s Seaplane Beach angling off to the right - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Seaplane Runway, Southern tip of Ford Island, near Lexington Boulevard, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. Marine incursion into East Asia: a forgotten driving force of biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lu; Hou, Zhonge; Li, Shuqiang

    2013-01-01

    Episodic marine incursion has been a major driving force in the formation of present-day diversity. Marine incursion is considered to be one of the most productive ‘species pumps’ particularly because of its division and coalescence effects. Marine incursion events and their impacts on diversity are well documented from South America, North America and Africa; however, their history and impacts in continental East Asia largely remain unknown. Here, we propose a marine incursion scenario occurring in East Asia during the Miocene epoch, 10–17 Ma. Our molecular phylogenetic analysis of Platorchestia talitrids revealed that continental terrestrial populations (Platorchestia japonica) form a monophyletic group that is the sister group to the Northwest Pacific coastal species Platorchestia pacifica. The divergence time between the two species coincides with Middle Miocene high global sea levels. We suggest that the inland form arose as a consequence of a marine incursion event. This is the first solid case documenting the impact of marine incursion on extant biodiversity in continental East Asia. We believe that such incursion event has had major impacts on other organisms and has played an important role in the formation of biodiversity patterns in the region. PMID:23446524

  5. Throughput Benefit Assessment for Tactical Runway Configuration Management (TRCM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa M.; Lohr, Gary W.; Fenbert, James W.

    2014-01-01

    The System-Oriented Runway Management (SORM) concept is a collection of needed capabilities focused on a more efficient use of runways while considering all of the factors that affect runway use. Tactical Runway Configuration Management (TRCM), one of the SORM capabilities, provides runway configuration and runway usage recommendations, monitoring the active runway configuration for suitability given existing factors, based on a 90 minute planning horizon. This study evaluates the throughput benefits using a representative sample of today's traffic volumes at three airports: Memphis International Airport (MEM), Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW), and John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK). Based on this initial assessment, there are statistical throughput benefits for both arrivals and departures at MEM with an average of 4% for arrivals, and 6% for departures. For DFW, there is a statistical benefit for arrivals with an average of 3%. Although there is an average of 1% benefit observed for departures, it is not statistically significant. For JFK, there is a 12% benefit for arrivals, but a 2% penalty for departures. The results obtained are for current traffic volumes and should show greater benefit for increased future demand. This paper also proposes some potential TRCM algorithm improvements for future research. A continued research plan is being worked to implement these improvements and to re-assess the throughput benefit for today and future projected traffic volumes.

  6. Iron clad wetlands: Soil iron-sulfur buffering determines coastal wetland response to salt water incursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoepfer, Valerie A.; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Burgin, Amy J.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal freshwater wetland chemistry is rapidly changing due to increased frequency of salt water incursion, a consequence of global change. Seasonal salt water incursion introduces sulfate, which microbially reduces to sulfide. Sulfide binds with reduced iron, producing iron sulfide (FeS), recognizable in wetland soils by its characteristic black color. The objective of this study is to document iron and sulfate reduction rates, as well as product formation (acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and chromium reducible sulfide (CRS)) in a coastal freshwater wetland undergoing seasonal salt water incursion. Understanding iron and sulfur cycling, as well as their reduction products, allows us to calculate the degree of sulfidization (DOS), from which we can estimate how long soil iron will buffer against chemical effects of sea level rise. We show that soil chloride, a direct indicator of the degree of incursion, best predicted iron and sulfate reduction rates. Correlations between soil chloride and iron or sulfur reduction rates were strongest in the surface layer (0-3 cm), indicative of surface water incursion, rather than groundwater intrusion at our site. The interaction between soil moisture and extractable chloride was significantly related to increased AVS, whereas increased soil chloride was a stronger predictor of CRS. The current DOS in this coastal plains wetland is very low, resulting from high soil iron content and relatively small degree of salt water incursion. However, with time and continuous salt water exposure, iron will bind with incoming sulfur, creating FeS complexes, and DOS will increase.

  7. Evaluation of a tritium runway-lighting system. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, E.S.

    1992-04-01

    A tritium powered runway lighting system was installed and evaluated at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Technical Center. The purpose of this evaluation was to determine if the tritium runway lighting system would safely support Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Part 135 commercial operations, during nighttime visual flight rules (VFR) conditions at remote airports. Subject pilots having flight experience levels appropriate for pilots conducting FAR Part 135 air taxi operations were afforded the opportunity of flight testing the system. Results of the evaluation indicate that the tritium runway lighting system does not meet all of the minimum criteria necessary for FAA approval and, therefore, would not guarantee an acceptable level of safety. Tritium Runway Lighting System, Remote Airports.

  8. 3. VIEW OF PARKING APRON LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM SOUTH RUNWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF PARKING APRON LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM SOUTH RUNWAY OBSERVATION BUILDING TOWARD BUILDING 8280 (DOUBLE CANTILEVER HANGAR). - Loring Air Force Base, Airfield, Central portion of base, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  9. 14 CFR 151.11 - Runway clear zones; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... sponsor or other public agency shows that it is legally able to prevent the future erection or creation of obstructions in the runway clear zone area, and adopts protective measures to prohibit their future erection...

  10. STS-70 Discovery approaches Runway 33

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Space Shuttle orbiter Discovery approaches KSC's Runway 33, with the Vehicle Assembly Building in the background, marking a successful conclusion to the STS-70 mission. Discovery landed on orbit 143, during the second opportunity of the day. Main gear touchdown was unofficially listed at 8:02 a.m. EDT on July 22, 1995. The orbiter traveled some 3.7 million statute miles during the nearly nine-day flight, which included a one-day extension because of fog and low visibility conditions at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility. STS-70 was the 24th Shuttle landing at KSC and the 70th Space Shuttle mission. The five-member crew deployed the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-G (TDRS-G). Crew members were Commander Terence 'Tom' Henricks, Pilot Kevin R. Kregel, and Mission Specialists Nancy Jane Currie, Donald A. Thomas and Mary Ellen Weber. STS-70 also was the maiden flight of the new Block 1 orbiter main engine, which flew in the number one position. The other two engines were of the existing Phase II design.

  11. Aircraft and ground vehicle friction correlation test results obtained under winter runway conditions during joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Vogler, William A.; Baldasare, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Aircraft and ground vehicle friction data collected during the Joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program under winter runway conditions are discussed and test results are summarized. The relationship between the different ground vehicle friction measurements obtained on compacted snow- and ice-covered conditions is defined together with the correlation to aircraft tire friction performance under similar runway conditions.

  12. Human risk factors associated with pilots in runway excursions.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Hern; Yang, Hui-Hua; Hsiao, Yu-Jung

    2016-09-01

    A breakdown analysis of civil aviation accidents worldwide indicates that the occurrence of runway excursions represents the largest portion among all aviation occurrence categories. This study examines the human risk factors associated with pilots in runway excursions, by applying a SHELLO model to categorize the human risk factors and to evaluate the importance based on the opinions of 145 airline pilots. This study integrates aviation management level expert opinions on relative weighting and improvement-achievability in order to develop four kinds of priority risk management strategies for airline pilots to reduce runway excursions. The empirical study based on experts' evaluation suggests that the most important dimension is the liveware/pilot's core ability. From the perspective of front-line pilots, the most important risk factors are the environment, wet/containment runways, and weather issues like rain/thunderstorms. Finally, this study develops practical strategies for helping management authorities to improve major operational and managerial weaknesses so as to reduce the human risks related to runway excursions. PMID:27344128

  13. A Runway Surface Monitor using Internet of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troiano, Amedeo; Pasero, Eros

    2014-05-01

    The monitoring of runway surfaces, for the detection of ice formation or presence of water, is an important issue for reducing maintenance costs and improving traffic safety. An innovative sensor was developed to detect the presence of ice or water on its surface, and its repeatability, stability and reliability were assessed in different simulations and experiments, performed both in laboratory and in the field. Three sensors were embedded in the runway of the Turin-Caselle airport, in the north-west of Italy, to check the state of its surface. Each sensor was connected to a GPRS modem to send the collected data to a common database. The entire system was installed about three years ago, and up to now it shows correct work and automatic reactivation after malfunctions without any external help. The state of the runway surface is virtual represented in an internet website, using the Internet of Things features and opening new scenarios.

  14. Aircraft and Ground Vehicle Winter Runway Friction Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1999-01-01

    Some background information is given together with the scope and objectives of a 5-year, Joint Winter Runway Friction Measurement Program between the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA), Transport Canada (TC), and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The primary objective of this effort is to perform instrumented aircraft and ground vehicle tests aimed at identifying a common number that all the different ground vehicle devices would report. This number, denoted the International Runway Friction Index (IRFI), will be related to all types of aircraft stopping performance. The range of test equipment, the test sites, test results and accomplishments, the extent of the substantial friction database compiled, and future test plans will be described. Several related studies have also been implemented including the effects of contaminant type on aircraft impingement drag, and the effectiveness of various runway and aircraft de-icing chemical types, and application rates.

  15. Aluminum runway surface as possible aid to aircraft braking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. D.; Pinkel, I. I.

    1973-01-01

    Several concepts are described for use singly or in combination to improve aircraft braking. All involve a thin layer of aluminum covering all or part of the runway. Advantage would derive from faster heat conduction from the tire-runway interface. Heating of tread surface with consequent softening and loss of friction coefficient should be reduced. Equations are developed indicating that at least 99 percent of friction heat should flow into the aluminum. Preliminary test results indicate a coefficient of sliding friction of 1.4, with predictably slight heating of tread. Elimination of conventional brakes is at least a remote possibility.

  16. STS-53 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, lands on runway 22 at EAFB, Calif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-53 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, touches down at 12:43:17 pm (Pacific Standard Time (PST)) on concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California. A small cloud of dust is produced as the main landing gear (MLG) wheels hit the runway. The nose landing gear (NLG) rides above the runway surface. Desert scrub brush and the runway light fixtures appear in the foreground. Mountains and low-lying clouds are seen in the background.

  17. Measures to increase airfield capacity by changing aircraft runway occupancy characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosling, G. D.; Kanafani, A.; Rockaday, S. L. M.

    1981-01-01

    Airfield capacity and aircraft runway occupancy characteristics were studied. Factors that caused runway congestion and airfield crowding were identified. Several innovations designed to alleviate the congestion are discussed. Integrated landing management, the concept that the operation of the final approach and runway should be considered in concert, was identified as underlying all of the innovations.

  18. 76 FR 67018 - Notice to Manufacturers of Airport In-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice to Manufacturers of Airport In-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather... of In-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems. SUMMARY: Projects funded under the... Active or Passive In- Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems that meet the...

  19. Parallel runway requirement analysis study. Volume 2: Simulation manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebrahimi, Yaghoob S.; Chun, Ken S.

    1993-01-01

    This document is a user manual for operating the PLAND_BLUNDER (PLB) simulation program. This simulation is based on two aircraft approaching parallel runways independently and using parallel Instrument Landing System (ILS) equipment during Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). If an aircraft should deviate from its assigned localizer course toward the opposite runway, this constitutes a blunder which could endanger the aircraft on the adjacent path. The worst case scenario would be if the blundering aircraft were unable to recover and continue toward the adjacent runway. PLAND_BLUNDER is a Monte Carlo-type simulation which employs the events and aircraft positioning during such a blunder situation. The model simulates two aircraft performing parallel ILS approaches using Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) or visual procedures. PLB uses a simple movement model and control law in three dimensions (X, Y, Z). The parameters of the simulation inputs and outputs are defined in this document along with a sample of the statistical analysis. This document is the second volume of a two volume set. Volume 1 is a description of the application of the PLB to the analysis of close parallel runway operations.

  20. General view of runway 33 at the Kennedy Space Center ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of runway 33 at the Kennedy Space Center looking at the ground support equipment and the aft and starboard side of the Orbiter Discovery as the orbiter is undergoing post flight processing and preparations to be towed to the Orbiter Processing Facility. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  1. General view of runway 33 at the Kennedy Space Center ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of runway 33 at the Kennedy Space Center looking at the ground support equipment and the aft and port side of the Orbiter Discovery as the orbiter is undergoing post flight processing and preparations to be towed to the Orbiter Processing Facility. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  2. General view of the Orbiter Discovery on runway 33 at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the Orbiter Discovery on runway 33 at Kennedy Space Center shortly after landing. The orbiter is processed and prepared for being towed to the Orbiter Processing Facility for continued post flight processing and pre flight preparations for its next mission. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  3. General view of runway 33 at the Kennedy Space Center ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of runway 33 at the Kennedy Space Center looking at the ground support equipment and the port side of the Orbiter Discovery as the orbiter is undergoing post flight processing and preparations to be towed to the Orbiter Processing Facility. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  4. Runway drainage characteristics related to tire friction performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The capability of a runway pavement to rapidly drain water buildup during periods of precipitation is crucial to minimize tire hydroplaning potential and maintain adequate aircraft ground operational safety. Test results from instrumented aircraft, ground friction measuring vehicles, and NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) track have been summarized to indicate the adverse effects of pavement wetness conditions on tire friction performance. Water drainage measurements under a range of rainfall rates have been evaluated for several different runway surface treatments including the transversely grooved and longitudinally grinded concrete surfaces at the Space Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) runway at NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The major parameters influencing drainage rates and extent of flooding/drying conditions are identified. Existing drainage test data are compared to a previously derived empirical relationship and the need for some modification is indicated. The scope of future NASA Langley research directed toward improving empirical relationships to properly define runway drainage capability and consequently, enhance aircraft ground operational safety, is given.

  5. System-Oriented Runway Management Concept of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohr, Gary W.; Atkins, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This document describes a concept for runway management that maximizes the overall efficiency of arrival and departure operations at an airport or group of airports. Specifically, by planning airport runway configurations/usage, it focuses on the efficiency with which arrival flights reach their parking gates from their arrival fixes and departure flights exit the terminal airspace from their parking gates. In the future, the concept could be expanded to include the management of other limited airport resources. While most easily described in the context of a single airport, the concept applies equally well to a group of airports that comprise a metroplex (i.e., airports in close proximity that share resources such that operations at the airports are at least partially dependent) by including the coordination of runway usage decisions between the airports. In fact, the potential benefit of the concept is expected to be larger in future metroplex environments due to the increasing need to coordinate the operations at proximate airports to more efficiently share limited airspace resources. This concept, called System-Oriented Runway Management (SORM), is further broken down into a set of airport traffic management functions that share the principle that operational performance must be measured over the complete surface and airborne trajectories of the airport's arrivals and departures. The "system-oriented" term derives from the belief that the traffic management objective must consider the efficiency of operations over a wide range of aircraft movements and National Airspace System (NAS) dynamics. The SORM concept is comprised of three primary elements: strategic airport capacity planning, airport configuration management, and combined arrival/departure runway planning. Some aspects of the SORM concept, such as using airport configuration management1 as a mechanism for improving aircraft efficiency, are novel. Other elements (e.g., runway scheduling, which is a part

  6. Enhanced detection of LED runway/approach lights for EVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, J. Richard

    2008-04-01

    The acquisition of approach and runway lights by an imager is critical to landing-credit operations with EVS. Using a GPS clock, LED sources are pulsed at one-half the EVS video rate of 60 Hz or more. The camera then uses synchronous (lock-in) detection to store the imaged lights in alternate frames, with digital subtraction of the background for each respective frame-pair. Range and weather penetration, limited only by detector background shot-noise (or camera system noise at night), substantially exceed that of the human eye. An alternative is the use of short-wave infrared cameras with eyesafe laser diode emitters. Also, runway identification may be encoded on the pulses. With standardized cameras and emitters, an "instrument qualified visual range" may be established. The concept extends to portable beacons at austere airfields, and to see-and-avoid sensing of other aircraft including UAVs.

  7. NASA Research For Instrument Approaches To Closely Spaced Parallel Runways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Dawn M.; Perry, R. Brad

    2000-01-01

    Within the NASA Aviation Systems Capacity Program, the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Project is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological condition (IMC). The Airborne Information for Lateral Spacing (AILS) research within TAP has focused on an airborne centered approach for independent instrument approaches to closely spaced parallel runways using Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) technologies. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), working in partnership with Honeywell, Inc., completed in AILS simulation study, flight test, and demonstration in 1999 examining normal approaches and potential collision scenarios to runways with separation distances of 3,400 and 2,500 feet. The results of the flight test and demonstration validate the simulation study.

  8. Runway Exit Designs for Capacity Improvement Demonstrations. Phase 1: Algorithm Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trani, A. A.; Hobeika, A. G.; Sherali, H.; Kim, B. J.; Sadam, C. K.

    1990-01-01

    A description and results are presented of a study to locate and design rapid runway exits under realistic airport conditions. The study developed a PC-based computer simulation-optimization program called REDIM (runway exit design interactive model) to help future airport designers and planners to locate optimal exits under various airport conditions. The model addresses three sets of problems typically arising during runway exit design evaluations. These are the evaluations of existing runway configurations, addition of new rapid runway turnoffs, and the design of new runway facilities. The model is highly interactive and allows a quick estimation of the expected value of runway occupancy time. Aircraft populations and airport environmental conditions are among the multiple inputs to the model to execute a viable runway location and geometric design solution. The results presented suggest that possible reductions on runway occupancy time (ROT) can be achieved with the use of optimally tailored rapid runway designs for a given aircraft population. Reductions of up to 9 to 6 seconds are possible with the implementation of 30 m/sec variable geometry exits.

  9. The noise impact of proposed runway alternatives at Craig Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, R.

    1982-01-01

    Four proposed runway expansion alternatives at Craig Airport in Jacksonville, Florida have been assessed with respect to their forecasted noise impact in the year 2005. The assessment accounts for population distributions around the airport and human subjective response to noise, as well as the distribution of noise levels in the surrounding community (footprints). The impact analysis was performed using the Airport-noise Levels and Annoyance Model (ALAMO), an airport community response model recently developd at Langley Research Center.

  10. Benefits Assessment for Tactical Runway Configuration Management Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa; Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Lohr, Gary; Fenbert, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The Tactical Runway Configuration Management (TRCM) software tool was developed to provide air traffic flow managers and supervisors with recommendations for airport configuration changes and runway usage. The objective for this study is to conduct a benefits assessment at Memphis (MEM), Dallas Fort-Worth (DFW) and New York's John F. Kennedy (JFK) airports using the TRCM tool. Results from simulations using the TRCM-generated runway configuration schedule are compared with results using historical schedules. For the 12 days of data used in this analysis, the transit time (arrival fix to spot on airport movement area for arrivals, or spot to departure fix for departures) for MEM departures is greater (7%) than for arrivals (3%); for JFK, there is a benefit for arrivals (9%) but not for departures (-2%); for DFW, arrivals show a slight benefit (1%), but this is offset by departures (-2%). Departure queue length benefits show fewer aircraft in queue for JFK (29%) and MEM (11%), but not for DFW (-13%). Fuel savings for surface operations at MEM are seen for both arrivals and departures. At JFK there are fuel savings for arrivals, but these are offset by increased fuel use for departures. In this study, no surface fuel benefits resulted for DFW. Results suggest that the TRCM algorithm requires modifications for complex surface traffic operations that can cause taxi delays. For all three airports, the average number of changes in flow direction (runway configuration) recommended by TRCM was many times greater than the historical data; TRCM would need to be adapted to a particular airport's needs, to limit the number of changes to acceptable levels. The results from this analysis indicate the TRCM tool can provide benefits at some high-capacity airports. The magnitude of these benefits depends on many airport-specific factors and would require adaptation of the TRCM tool; a detailed assessment is needed prior to determining suitability for a particular airport.

  11. Review of incursive, hyperincursive and anticipatory systems-foundation of anticipation in electromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Daniel M.

    2000-05-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to show that anticipation is not only a property of biosystems but is also a fundamental property of physical systems. In electromagnetism, the anticipation is related to the Lorentz transform. In this framework the anticipation is a strong anticipation because it is not based on a prediction from a model of the physical system but is embedded in the fundamental system. So, Robert Rosen's anticipatory systems deal with weak anticipation. Contrary to Robert Rosen's affirmation, anticipation is thus not a characteristic of living systems. Finality is implicitly embedded in any system and thus the final cause of Aristotle is implicitly embedded in any physical and biological systems, contrary to what Robert Rosen argued. This paper will review some incursive and hyperincursive systems giving rise to strong anticipation. Space-time incursive parabolic systems show non-local properties. Hyperincursive crisp systems are related to catastrophe theory. Finally it will be shown that incursive and hyperincursive anticipatory systems could model properties of biosystems like free will, game strategy, theorem creation, etc. Anticipation is not only related to predictions but to decisions: hyperincursive systems create multiple choices and a decision process selects one choice. So, anticipation is not a final goal, like in cybernetics and system science, but is a fundamental property of physical and biological systems.

  12. Aircraft and Ground Vehicle Winter Runway Friction Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1999-01-01

    Some background information is given together with the scope and objectives of a 5-year, Joint Winter Runway Friction Measurement Program between the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA), Transport Canada (TC), and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Participants recently completed the fourth winter season of testing. The primary objective of this effort is to perform instrumented aircraft and ground vehicle tests aimed at identifying a common number that all the different ground vehicle devices would report. This number, denoted the International Runway Friction Index (IRFI) will be related to all types of aircraft stopping performance. The range of test equipment, the test sites, test results and accomplishments, the extent of the substantial friction database compiled, and future test plans will be described. Several related studies have also been implemented including the effects of contaminant type on aircraft impingement drag and the effectiveness of various runway and aircraft de-icing chemical types and application rates. New equipment and techniques to measure surface frictional properties are also described. The status of an international friction index calibration device for use in ensuring accuracy of ground vehicle friction measurements will also be discussed. NASA considers the success of this joint program critical in terms of ensuring adequate ground handling capability in adverse weather conditions for future aircraft being designed and developed as well as improving the safety of current aircraft ground operations.

  13. Parallel runway requirement analysis study. Volume 1: The analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebrahimi, Yaghoob S.

    1993-01-01

    The correlation of increased flight delays with the level of aviation activity is well recognized. A main contributor to these flight delays has been the capacity of airports. Though new airport and runway construction would significantly increase airport capacity, few programs of this type are currently underway, let alone planned, because of the high cost associated with such endeavors. Therefore, it is necessary to achieve the most efficient and cost effective use of existing fixed airport resources through better planning and control of traffic flows. In fact, during the past few years the FAA has initiated such an airport capacity program designed to provide additional capacity at existing airports. Some of the improvements that that program has generated thus far have been based on new Air Traffic Control procedures, terminal automation, additional Instrument Landing Systems, improved controller display aids, and improved utilization of multiple runways/Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) approach procedures. A useful element to understanding potential operational capacity enhancements at high demand airports has been the development and use of an analysis tool called The PLAND_BLUNDER (PLB) Simulation Model. The objective for building this simulation was to develop a parametric model that could be used for analysis in determining the minimum safety level of parallel runway operations for various parameters representing the airplane, navigation, surveillance, and ATC system performance. This simulation is useful as: a quick and economical evaluation of existing environments that are experiencing IMC delays, an efficient way to study and validate proposed procedure modifications, an aid in evaluating requirements for new airports or new runways in old airports, a simple, parametric investigation of a wide range of issues and approaches, an ability to tradeoff air and ground technology and procedures contributions, and a way of considering probable

  14. STS-53 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, lands on runway 22 at EAFB, Calif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-53 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, lands on concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California. Main landing gear (MLG) touchdown occurred at 12:43:17 pm (Pacific Standard Time (PST)). This profile view shows OV-103's starboard side with MLG wheels on the runway and nose landing gear (NLG) riding above the runway. Desert scrub brush appears in the foreground. EAFB hangars and mountains are seen in the background.

  15. STS-48 Discovery, OV-103, lands at night on lit Edwards AFB runway 22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Spotlights illuminate the approach of STS-48 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, above concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) during its night landing sequence. With nose landing gear (NLG) and main landing gear (MLG) deployed, OV-103 nears touchdown which occurred at 12:38:38 am (Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)). Runway marker '2' is visible in the foreground. OV-103's starboard side glows in the runway lights while the rest of the orbiter blends into the shadowy darkness.

  16. Benefit Assessment for Metroplex Tactical Runway Configuration Management (mTRCM) in a Simulated Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa M.; Lohr, Gary W.; Robbins, Steven W.; Fenbert, James W.; Hartman, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    The System-Oriented Runway Management (SORM) concept is a collection of capabilities focused on a more efficient use of runways while considering all of the factors that affect runway use. Tactical Runway Configuration Management (TRCM), one of the SORM capabilities, provides runway configuration and runway usage recommendations, and monitoring the active runway configuration for suitability given existing factors. This report focuses on the metroplex environment, with two or more proximate airports having arrival and departure operations that are highly interdependent. The myriad of factors that affect metroplex opeations require consideration in arriving at runway configurations that collectively best serve the system as a whole. To assess the metroplex TRCM (mTRCM) benefit, the performance metrics must be compared with the actual historical operations. The historical configuration schedules can be viewed as the schedules produced by subject matter experts (SMEs), and therefore are referred to as the SMEs' schedules. These schedules were obtained from the FAA's Aviation System Performance Metrics (ASPM) database; this is the most representative information regarding runway configuration selection by SMEs. This report focused on a benefit assessment of total delay, transit time, and throughput efficiency (TE) benefits using the mTRCM algorithm at representative volumes for today's traffic at the New York metroplex (N90).

  17. Factors that determine depth perception of trapezoids, windsurfers, runways

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Chia-Huei; Gobell, Joetta L.; Sperling, George

    2015-01-01

    We report here a windsurfer1 illusion, a naturally occurring trapezoidal illusion in which the small end of the sail viewed at a distance appears to be pointed away from the observer even when it is closer. This naturally occurring illusion is so compelling that observers are unaware of their gross perceptual misinterpretation of the scene. Four laboratory experiment of this kind of trapezoidal illusion investigated the joint effects of retinal orientation, head position, relative motion, and the relative direction of gravity on automatic depth perception. Observers viewed two adjacent white trapezoids outlined on a black background rotating back and forth ± 20° on a vertical axis much like the sails of two adjacent windsurfers. Observers reported which side of the trapezoids (long or short) appeared to be closer to them (i.e., in front). The longer edge of the trapezoid was reported in front 76 ± 2% of trials (“windsurfer effect”) whether it was on the left or on the right. When the display was rotated 90°to produce a runway configuration, there was a striking asymmetry: the long edge was perceived to be in front 97% when it was on the bottom but only 43% when it was on top (“runway effect”). The runway effect persisted when the head was tilted 90° or when displays on the ceiling were viewed from the floor. Ninety-five percent of the variance of the variance in the strikingly different 3D perceptions produced by the same 2D trapezoid image was quantitatively explained by a model that assumes there are just three additive bias factors that account for perceiving an edge as closer: Implicit linear perspective, lower position on the retina (based on an automatic assumption of viewing from above), and being lower in world coordinates. PMID:26029073

  18. The Joint Winter Runway Friction Measurement Program: NASA Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1996-01-01

    Some background information is given together with the scope and objectives of the 5-year, Joint National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA)/Transport Canada (TC)/Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Winter Runway Friction Measurement Program. The range of the test equipment, the selected test sites and a tentative test program schedule are described. NASA considers the success of this program critical in terms of insuring adequate ground handling performance capability in adverse weather conditions for future aircraft being designed and developed as well as improving the safety of current aircraft ground operations.

  19. 32 CFR 256.6 - Runway classification by aircraft type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... type. Class A runways S-2, VC-6, C-1, C-2, TC-4C, U-10, U-11, LU-16, TU-16, HU-16, C-7, C-8, C-12, C-47, C-117, U-21, QU-22, E-1, E-2, O-1, U-1, U-3, U-6, U-8, U-9, O-2, OV-1, OV-10, T-28, T-34, T-41, T-42...-130, A-7, A-38, AV-8, P-2, P-3, T-29, T-33, T-37, T-39, T-1, HC-130B, C-131, C-140, C-5A, KC-97,...

  20. A Survey of Dog Owners in Remote Northern Australian Indigenous Communities to Inform Rabies Incursion Planning.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Emily G; Dhand, Navneet; Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P

    2016-04-01

    Australia is underprepared for a rabies incursion due to a lack of information about how a rabies outbreak would spread within the susceptible canine populations and which control strategies would be best to control it. The aim of this study was to collect information to parameterize a recently developed dog rabies spread model as well as use this information to gauge how the community would accept potential control strategies. Such information-together with model outputs-would be used to inform decision makers on the best control strategies and improve Australia's preparedness against a canine rabies incursion. The parameters this study focussed on were detection time, vaccination rates and dog-culling and dog movement restriction compliance. A cross-sectional survey of 31 dog-owners, using a questionnaire, was undertaken in the five communities of the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA) in northern Australia regarding community dog movements, veterinary visits, reporting systems, perceptions of sick dogs and potential human behaviours during hypothetical rabies outbreaks. It highlighted the significant shortfalls in veterinary care that would need to be vastly improved during an outbreak, who educational programs should be targeted towards and which dog movements should be restricted. The results indicate that men were significantly more likely than women to allow their dogs to roam and to move their dogs. The current low vaccination rate of 12% highlighted the limited veterinary services that would need to be substantially increased to achieve effective rabies control. Participation in mass vaccination was accepted by 100% of the respondents. There was lower acceptance for other possible rabies control strategies with 10-20% of the respondents stating a resistance to both a mass culling program and a ban on dog movements. Consequently, movement bans and mass dog culling would have limited effectiveness as a control strategy in the NPA community. More than half of the

  1. A Survey of Dog Owners in Remote Northern Australian Indigenous Communities to Inform Rabies Incursion Planning

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Emily G.; Dhand, Navneet; Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Australia is underprepared for a rabies incursion due to a lack of information about how a rabies outbreak would spread within the susceptible canine populations and which control strategies would be best to control it. The aim of this study was to collect information to parameterize a recently developed dog rabies spread model as well as use this information to gauge how the community would accept potential control strategies. Such information–together with model outputs–would be used to inform decision makers on the best control strategies and improve Australia’s preparedness against a canine rabies incursion. The parameters this study focussed on were detection time, vaccination rates and dog-culling and dog movement restriction compliance. A cross-sectional survey of 31 dog-owners, using a questionnaire, was undertaken in the five communities of the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA) in northern Australia regarding community dog movements, veterinary visits, reporting systems, perceptions of sick dogs and potential human behaviours during hypothetical rabies outbreaks. It highlighted the significant shortfalls in veterinary care that would need to be vastly improved during an outbreak, who educational programs should be targeted towards and which dog movements should be restricted. The results indicate that men were significantly more likely than women to allow their dogs to roam and to move their dogs. The current low vaccination rate of 12% highlighted the limited veterinary services that would need to be substantially increased to achieve effective rabies control. Participation in mass vaccination was accepted by 100% of the respondents. There was lower acceptance for other possible rabies control strategies with 10–20% of the respondents stating a resistance to both a mass culling program and a ban on dog movements. Consequently, movement bans and mass dog culling would have limited effectiveness as a control strategy in the NPA community. More than

  2. Graphical User Interface Development and Design to Support Airport Runway Configuration Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Debra G.; Lenox, Michelle; Onal, Emrah; Latorella, Kara A.; Lohr, Gary W.; Le Vie, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this effort was to develop a graphical user interface (GUI) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) System Oriented Runway Management (SORM) decision support tool to support runway management. This tool is expected to be used by traffic flow managers and supervisors in the Airport Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) and Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) facilities.

  3. 76 FR 21938 - Potential Environmental Impacts of the Proposed Runway 13 Extension and Associated Actions for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Potential Environmental Impacts of the Proposed Runway 13 Extension and... Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of availability of a final EA and FONSI/ROD for the evaluation of the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed Runway...

  4. Technical Note: Outlays on Construction of Airport Runways with Prestressed and Dowelled Pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Więckowski, Andrzej; Sznurawa, Alicja

    2015-09-01

    For two variants of runways with abrasive concrete pavements in the prestressed and dowelled technologies, analyses have been presented regarding labour, materials, use of machinery, and financial outlays, together with the necessary technological-organisational analyses and assessment of work execution cycles, by the example of construction of a runway at the Katowice Airport.

  5. STS-42 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, lands on runway 22 at EAFB, Calif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-42 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, with nose landing gear (NLG) and main landing gear (MLG) deployed glides over concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California. Runway lights appear in the foreground and by-standers (observers) and mountains appear in the background.

  6. STS-40 Columbia, OV-102, lands on concrete runway 22 at EAFB, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-40 Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, main landing gear (MLG) touches down on concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California at 8:29:11 am (Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)). OV-102's starboard side is captured in this profile view as its nose landing gear (NLG) glides above the runway before touch down and wheel stop.

  7. STS-33 Discovery, OV-103, MLG touches down on EAFB concrete runway 04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-33 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, main landing gear (MLG) touchdown is documented at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California, on concrete runway 04. Views look forward from the space shuttle main engines (SSMEs) to the crew compartment as OV-103 glides down the runway. The landing occurred at 16:31:02 pm Pacific Standard Time (PST).

  8. STS-33 Discovery, OV-103, MLG touches down on concrete runway 04 at EAFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-33 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, main landing gear (MLG) touches down on concrete runway 04 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California, at 16:31:02 pm Pacific Standard Time (PST). This view captures OV-103's profile (port side) as it glides down the runway.

  9. STS-29 Discovery, OV-103, lands on Edwards AFB concrete runway 22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-29 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, main landing gear (MLG) touches down at a speed of approximately 205 knots (235 miles per hour) on concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB), California. Nose landing gear (NLG) is deployed and rides above runway surface prior touchdown. Mojave desert scrub brush appears in the foreground with mountain range appearing in the background.

  10. STS-40 Columbia, OV-102, lands on concrete runway 22 at EAFB, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-40 Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, main landing gear (MLG) touches down on concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California at 8:29:11 am (Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)). OV-102's port side is captured in this profile view as its nose landing gear (NLG) glides above the runway before touch down and wheel stop.

  11. Tests of highly loaded skids on a concrete runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, Sandy M.; Daugherty, Robert H.

    1994-01-01

    Skids have been used at various times for aircraft landing gear ever since the Wright Flyer appeared in the early 1900's. Typically, skids have been employed as aircraft landing gear either at low speeds or at low bearing pressures. Tests were conducted to examine the friction and wear characteristics of various metals sliding on a rough, grooved concrete runway. The metals represented potential materials for an overload protection skid for the Space Shuttle orbiter. Data from tests of six skid specimens conducted at higher speeds and bearing pressures than those of previous tests in the open literature are presented. Skids constructed of tungsten with embedded carbide chips exhibited the lowest wear, whereas a skid constructed of Inconel 718 exhibited high wear rates. Friction coefficients for all the skid specimens were moderate and would provide adequate stopping performance on a long runway. Because of its low wear rate, a skid constructed of tungsten with embedded carbide chips is considered to be a likely candidate for an aircraft skid or overload protection skid.

  12. Comparison of Procedures for Dual and Triple Closely Spaced Parallel Runways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, Savita; Ballinger, Deborah; Subramanian Shobana; Kozon, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop high fidelity flight simulation experiment was conducted, which investigated and compared breakout procedures for Very Closely Spaced Parallel Approaches (VCSPA) with two and three runways. To understand the feasibility, usability and human factors of two and three runway VCSPA, data were collected and analyzed on the dependent variables of breakout cross track error and pilot workload. Independent variables included number of runways, cause of breakout and location of breakout. Results indicated larger cross track error and higher workload using three runways as compared to 2-runway operations. Significant interaction effects involving breakout cause and breakout location were also observed. Across all conditions, cross track error values showed high levels of breakout trajectory accuracy and pilot workload remained manageable. Results suggest possible avenues of future adaptation for adopting these procedures (e.g., pilot training), while also showing potential promise of the concept.

  13. Shuttle landing runway modification to improve tire spin-up wear performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Yager, Thomas J.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a series of tire spin-up wear tests on a simulated Kennedy Space Center (KSC) runway that were carried out to investigate the tire wear problem for Space Shuttle landings on the KSC runway and to test several modifications of the runway surface designed to alleviate the problem. It was found that the runway surface produced by a concrete smoothing machine using cutters spaced one and three-quarters blades per centimeter provided adequate wet cornering while limiting spin-up wear. Based on the test results, the KSC runway was smoothed for about 1066 m at each end, leaving the original high friction surface, for better wet steering and braking, in the 2438-m central section.

  14. Exploration of the Theoretical Physical Capacity of the John F. Kennedy International Airport Runway System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neitzke, Kurt W.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.

    2014-01-01

    A design study was completed to explore the theoretical physical capacity (TPC) of the John F. Kennedy International Airport (KJFK) runway system for a northflow configuration assuming impedance-free (to throughput) air traffic control functionality. Individual runways were modeled using an agent-based, airspace simulation tool, the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES), with all runways conducting both departures and arrivals on a first-come first-served (FCFS) scheduling basis. A realistic future flight schedule was expanded to 3.5 times the traffic level of a selected baseline day, September 26, 2006, to provide a steady overdemand state for KJFK runways. Rules constraining departure and arrival operations were defined to reflect physical limits beyond which safe operations could no longer be assumed. Safety buffers to account for all sources of operational variability were not included in the TPC estimate. Visual approaches were assumed for all arrivals to minimize inter-arrival spacing. Parallel runway operations were assumed to be independent based on lateral spacing distances. Resulting time intervals between successive airport operations were primarily constrained by same-runway and then by intersecting-runway spacing requirements. The resulting physical runway capacity approximates a theoretical limit that cannot be exceeded without modifying runway interaction assumptions. Comparison with current KJFK operational limits for a north-flow runway configuration indicates a substantial throughput gap of approximately 48%. This gap may be further analyzed to determine which part may be feasibly bridged through the deployment of advanced systems and procedures, and which part cannot, because it is either impossible or not cost-effective to control. Advanced systems for bridging the throughput gap may be conceptualized and simulated using this same experimental setup to estimate the level of gap closure achieved.

  15. Remote sensing over North Merritt Island. [space shuttle runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poonai, P. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. For monitoring the surface environment of North Merritt Island, two methods are studied, namely, color infrared photography and machine processing of LANDSAT multispectral scanner data. C.I.R. photos made at a height of about 12,000 ft were found to define the borders of ground features around the space shuttle runway with a nonsignificant mean error of 0.138 meters but a wide range, which can be reduced with photos taken at about 6,000 ft. LANDSAT multispectral scanner data, transformed by use of the function f(g) = g1 + g2 -g3 -g4 where g1, g2, g3, and g4 represent reflectance or grey levels of multispectral channels 1,2,3, and 4, gave values which are classifiable into a relatively small number of categories.

  16. KSC off-runway contingency operation - Mode 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maples, Arthur; Doerr, Donald

    1991-01-01

    The possibility of a mishap during a space shuttle landing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) dictates the need for plans to rescue astronauts from areas other than the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). All shuttle landings are unpowered, gliding flight maneuvers, and a deviation from the planned flight profile could result in a shuttle landing or crashing somewhere other than the SLF runway. The geography of the Kennedy Space Center makes helicopter airlifting the only universal means of transportation for the rescue crew. This rescue crew is composed of KSC contractor fire-rescuemen who would ride to the crash scene on USAF HH-3 helicopters. These crews are provided with personal protective suits and training in shallow water, swamp, and dry land rescues. They aid the egress of the crew to a safe area for helicopter pickup and subsequent triage and medevac.

  17. Incorporating Active Runway Crossings in Airport Departure Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Gautam; Malik, Waqar; Jung, Yoon C.

    2010-01-01

    A mixed integer linear program is presented for deterministically scheduling departure and ar rival aircraft at airport runways. This method addresses different schemes of managing the departure queuing area by treating it as first-in-first-out queues or as a simple par king area where any available aircraft can take-off ir respective of its relative sequence with others. In addition, this method explicitly considers separation criteria between successive aircraft and also incorporates an optional prioritization scheme using time windows. Multiple objectives pertaining to throughput and system delay are used independently. Results indicate improvement over a basic first-come-first-serve rule in both system delay and throughput. Minimizing system delay results in small deviations from optimal throughput, whereas minimizing throughput results in large deviations in system delay. Enhancements for computational efficiency are also presented in the form of reformulating certain constraints and defining additional inequalities for better bounds.

  18. A multi-proxy approach to identifying short-lived marine incursions in the Early Carboniferous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Carys; Davies, Sarah; Leng, Melanie; Snelling, Andrea; Millward, David; Kearsey, Timothy; Marshall, John; Reves, Emma

    2015-04-01

    This study is a contribution to the TW:eed Project (Tetrapod World: early evolution and diversification), which examines the rebuilding of Carboniferous ecosystems following a mass extinction at the end of the Devonian. The project focuses on the Tournaisian Ballagan Formation of Scotland and the Borders, which contains rare fish and tetrapod material. The Ballagan Formation is characterised by sandstones, dolomitic cementstones, paleosols, siltstones and gypsum deposits. The depositional environment ranges from fluvial, alluvial-plain to marginal-marine environments, with fluvial, floodplain and lacustrine deposition dominant. A multi-proxy approach combining sedimentology, palaeontology, micropalaeontology, palynology and geochemistry is used to identify short-lived marine transgressions onto the floodplain environment. Rare marginal marine fossils are: Chondrites-Phycosiphon, Spirorbis, Serpula, certain ostracod species, rare orthocones, brachiopods and putative marine sharks. More common non-marine fauna include Leiocopida and Podocopida ostracods, Mytilida and Myalinida bivalves, plants, eurypterids, gastropods and fish. Thin carbonate-bearing dolomitic cementstones and siltstone contain are the sedimentary deposits of marine incursions and occur throughout the formation. Over 600 bulk carbon isotope samples were taken from the 500 metre thick Norham Core (located near Berwick-Upon-Tweed), encompassing a time interval of around 13 million years. The results range from -26o to -19 δ13Corg, with an average of -19o much lighter than the average value for Early Carboniferous marine bulk organic matter (δ13C of -28 to -30). The isotope results correspond to broad-scale changes in the depositional setting, with more positive δ13C in pedogenic sediments and more negative δ13C in un-altered grey siltstones. They may also relate to cryptic (short-lived) marine incursions. A comparison of δ13C values from specific plant/wood fragments, palynology and bulk

  19. Evaluation of high pressure water blast with rotating spray bar for removing paint and rubber deposits from airport runways, and review of runway slipperiness problems created by rubber contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.; Griswold, G. D.

    1975-01-01

    A high pressure water blast with rotating spray bar treatment for removing paint and rubber deposits from airport runways is studied. The results of the evaluation suggest that the treatment is very effective in removing above surface paint and rubber deposits to the point that pavement skid resistance is restored to trafficked but uncontaminated runway surface skid resistance levels. Aircraft operating problems created by runway slipperiness are reviewed along with an assessment of the contributions that pavement surface treatments, surface weathering, traffic polishing, and rubber deposits make in creating or alleviating runway slipperiness. The results suggest that conventional surface treatments for both portland cement and asphaltic concrete runways are extremely vulnerable to rubber deposit accretions which can produce runway slipperiness conditions for aircraft operations as or more slippery than many snow and ice-covered runway conditions. Pavement grooving surface treatments are shown to be the least vulnerable to rubber deposits accretion and traffic polishing of the surface treatments examined.

  20. Wake Encounter Analysis for a Closely Spaced Parallel Runway Paired Approach Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckissick,Burnell T.; Rico-Cusi, Fernando J.; Murdoch, Jennifer; Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa M.; Stough, Harry P, III; O'Connor, Cornelius J.; Syed, Hazari I.

    2009-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation of simultaneous approaches performed by two transport category aircraft from the final approach fix to a pair of closely spaced parallel runways was conducted to explore the aft boundary of the safe zone in which separation assurance and wake avoidance are provided. The simulation included variations in runway centerline separation, initial longitudinal spacing of the aircraft, crosswind speed, and aircraft speed during the approach. The data from the simulation showed that the majority of the wake encounters occurred near or over the runway and the aft boundaries of the safe zones were identified for all simulation conditions.

  1. [Effects of saltwater incursion on the microbiological characteristics and denitrification in a riparian rhizosphere soil in Chongming Island of Shanghai, East China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang-Ming; Cai, Wen-Juan; Li, Jian-Hua

    2012-04-01

    A simulation test was conducted to study the effects of saltwater incursion on the microbiological characteristics and denitrification in the riparian rhizosphere soils vegetated with different plants in Chongming Island of Shanghai. Saltwater incursion changed the microflora in the rhizospheric soils. Except for actinomycete whose quantity had slight increase, the quantities of bacteria, fungi, nitrifiers, and denitrifiers all decreased to some extent by saltwater incursion, with the denitrifiers decreased by 51.8%, suggesting that the riparian soil microflora responded differentially to saltwater incursion. The activities of soil nitrogen-transforming enzymes were significantly inhibited by saltwater incursion, and the inhibitory effects differed with the enzymes. Nitrite reductase activity was most sensitive to saltwater incursion, with an inhibition rate of 43.5%, followed by urease activity, with 37.4% inhibition, and by dehydrogenase (29.5% inhibition). Saltwater incursion inhibited the denitrification, with the average denitrification rate decreased by 34.9%. There existed significant differences in the eco-physiological responses of the microbes in the rhizosphere soils vegetated with different plants to the saltwater incursion. The microbial quantities and enzyme activities showed the highest inhibition percentages in the rhizosphere soil of Zizania aquatica, followed by in the rhizosphere soils of Acorus calamus and Phragmites australis. Under saltwater incursion, the inhibition percentages of microbial quantities, enzyme activities, and denitrification rate in the rhizosphere soil of A. calamus-P. australis were significantly lower, as compared with those in the rhizosphere soils vegetated with Z. aquatica, A. calamus, and P. australis, respectively, suggesting that mixed vegetation showed a better buffer effect on the responses of riparian rhizosphere soil microbiological processes and denitrification to saltwater incursion. PMID:22803478

  2. Comparison of alternatives to passive surveillance to detect foot and mouth disease incursions in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Garner, M G; East, I J; Kompas, T; Ha, P V; Roche, S E; Nguyen, H T M

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate strategies to enhance the early detection of foot and mouth disease incursions in Australia. Two strategies were considered. First, improving the performance of the current passive surveillance system. Second, supplementing the current passive system with active surveillance strategies based on testing animals at saleyards or through bulk milk testing of dairy herds. Simulation modelling estimated the impact of producer education and awareness by either increasing the daily probability that a farmer will report the presence of diseased animals or by reducing the proportion of the herd showing clinical signs required to trigger a disease report. Both increasing the probability of reporting and reducing the proportion of animals showing clinical signs resulted in incremental decreases in the time to detection, the size and the duration of the outbreak. A gold standard system in which all producers reported the presence of disease once 10% of the herd showed clinical signs reduced the median time to detection of the outbreak from 20 to 15days, the duration of the subsequent outbreak from 53 to 42days and the number of infected farms from 46 to 32. Bulk milk testing reduced the median time to detection by two days and the number of infected farms by six but had no impact on the duration of the outbreak. Screening of animals at saleyards provided no improvement over the current passive surveillance system alone while having significant resource issues. It is concluded that the most effective way to achieve early detection of incursions of foot and mouth disease into Victoria, Australia is to invest in improving producer reporting. PMID:27237393

  3. Effects of various runway lighting parameters upon the relation between runway visual range and visual range of centerline and edge lights in fog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.

    1973-01-01

    Thirty six students and 54 commercial airline pilots were tested in the fog chamber to determine the effect of runway edge and centerline light intensity and spacing, fog density, ambient luminance level, and lateral and vertical offset distance of the subject from the runway's centerline upon horizontal visual range. These data were obtained to evaluate the adequacy of a balanced lighting system to provide maximum visual range in fog viewing both centerline and runway edge lights. The daytime system was compared against two other candidate lighting systems; the nighttime system was compared against other candidate lighting systems. The second objective was to determine if visual range is affected by lights between the subject and the farthestmost light visible through the fog. The third objective was to determine if college student subjects differ from commercial airline pilots in their horizontal visual range through fog. Two studies were conducted.

  4. 31. CRANE RUNWAY FOR 5TON PUSH TYPE CRANE, SANTA ANA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. CRANE RUNWAY FOR 5-TON PUSH TYPE CRANE, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 3, SEPT. 4, 1945. SCE drawing no. 523856-2. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Powerhouse, San Bernardino National Forest, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  5. Three-track runway and taxiway profiles measured at international airports I and J

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    Three-track runway and taxiway profiles are presented for use in studies of airplane response to ground roughness. Tabulated and plotted data for two international airports, (designated I and J), are included.

  6. Three-track runway and taxiway profiles measured at international airports G and H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    Three-track runway and taxiway profiles are presented for use in studies of airplane response to ground roughness. This report presents the tabulated and plotted data for two international airports (designated airports G and H).

  7. Three-track runway and taxiway profiles measured at International Airports E and F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, A. W.

    1971-01-01

    Three-track runway and taxiway profiles are presented for use in studies of airplane response to ground roughness. This report presents the tabulated and plotted data for two international airports (designed airports E and F).

  8. White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Runway 17/35, Extending 35,000 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Runway 17/35, Extending 35,000 feet north from Range Road 10, beginning approximately 4.2 miles northeast of intersection with Range Road 7, White Sands, Dona Ana County, NM

  9. STS-41 Discovery, OV-103, glides over concrete runway 22 at EAFB, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-41 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, with nose landing gear (NLG) and main landing gear (MLG) deployed, glides over concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California, prior to touchdown.

  10. STS-31 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, lands on EAFB concrete runway 22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The main landing gear (MLG) of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, rides along concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California, bringing mission STS-31 to an end. The nose landing gear (NLG) is suspended above the runway prior to touchdown and wheel stop which occurred at 6:51:00 am (Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)). View shows OV-103's starboard side and deployed rudder/speedbrake. EAFB facilities are seen in the distance.

  11. Determination of optimal trajectories for an aircraft returning to the runway following a complete loss of thrust after takeoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Craig A.

    This thesis examines the ability of a small, single-engine airplane to return to the runway following an engine failure shortly after takeoff. Two sets of trajectories are examined. One set of trajectories has the airplane fly a straight climb on the runway heading until engine failure. The other set of trajectories has the airplane perform a 90° turn at an altitude of 500 feet and continue until engine failure. Various combinations of wind speed, wind direction, and engine failure times are examined. The runway length required to complete the entire flight from the beginning of the takeoff roll to wheels stop following the return to the runway after engine failure is calculated for each case. The optimal trajectories following engine failure consist of three distinct segments: a turn back toward the runway using a large bank angle and angle of attack; a straight glide; and a reversal turn to align the airplane with the runway. The 90° turn results in much shorter required runway lengths at lower headwind speeds. At higher headwind speeds, both sets of trajectories are limited by the length of runway required for the landing rollout, but the straight climb cases generally require a lower angle of attack to complete the flight. The glide back to the runway is performed at an airspeed below the best glide speed of the airplane due to the need to conserve potential energy after the completion of the turn back toward the runway. The results are highly dependent on the rate of climb of the airplane during powered flight. The results of this study can aid the pilot in determining whether or not a return to the runway could be performed in the event of an engine failure given the specific wind conditions and runway length at the time of takeoff. The results can also guide the pilot in determining the takeoff profile that would offer the greatest advantage in returning to the runway.

  12. Fuel dispersal modeling for aircraft-runway impact scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Tieszen, S.R.

    1995-11-01

    A fuel dispersal model for C-141 transport accidents was developed for the Defense Nuclear Agency`s Fuel Fire Technology Base Program to support Weapon System Safety Assessments. The spectrum of accidents resulting from aircraft impact on a runway was divided into three fuel dispersal regimes: low, intermediate, and high-velocity impact. Sufficient data existed in the accident, crash test, and fuel-filled bomb literature to support development of a qualitative framework for dispersal models, but not quantitative models for all regimes. Therefore, a test series at intermediate scale was conducted to generate data on which to base the model for the high-velocity regime. Tests were conducted over an impact velocity range from 12 m/s to 91 m/s and angles of impact from 22.5{degrees} to 67.5{degrees}. Dependent variables were area covered by dispersed fuel, amount of mass in that area, and location of the area relative to the impact line. Test results showed that no liquid pooling occurred for impact velocities greater than 61 m/s, independent of the angle of impact. Some pooling did occur at lower velocities, but in no test was the liquid-layer thickness greater than 5.25 mm.

  13. Runway Independent Aircraft Extremely Short Takeoff and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David W.; Pasman, Renee

    2004-01-01

    This report Summarizes the work done is support of NASA/Ames Runway Independent Aircraft Research during the summer of 2003. This work centered on the tasks laid out by the Statement of Work, which was to: Identify and assess operational scenarios including airport air and ground operations and how RIA operations would interface; 2) Identify critical technologies and create a list of technologies that might be pushed to provide a quantum jump in operating economy, reliability, and safety should sufficient finding be available; 3) Create public domain powered high lift methodologies; and 4) Identify and assess vehicle concepts that provide innovative approaches to RIA operations. All these tasks were accomplished, with certain areas needing additional exploration in future grant work. Three designs were analyzed to provide strawman configurations for the RIA operations. All three aircraft carried 60 passengers, with a stage length of 1,000 nautical miles. They were capable of operating with a balanced field length of 2000 feet or less. Three different technology approaches were explored. The first, the Model 115, was a mid-wing USB design, developed as a near-term, low risk concept. The second aircraft, the EMAX, used a directed thrust system, was a far-term, high-risk approach. The third configuration was the Model 114, whose development began in summer 2002. In addition, further research was conducted on issues related to STOL operations, such as noise concerns, SNI operations, and other areas of interest.

  14. Hydroelastic response of a floating runway to cnoidal waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ertekin, R. C.; Xia, Dingwu

    2014-02-15

    The hydroelastic response of mat-type Very Large Floating Structures (VLFSs) to severe sea conditions, such as tsunamis and hurricanes, must be assessed for safety and survivability. An efficient and robust nonlinear hydroelastic model is required to predict accurately the motion of and the dynamic loads on a VLFS due to such large waves. We develop a nonlinear theory to predict the hydroelastic response of a VLFS in the presence of cnoidal waves and compare the predictions with the linear theory that is also developed here. This hydroelastic problem is formulated by directly coupling the structure with the fluid, by use of the Level I Green-Naghdi theory for the fluid motion and the Kirchhoff thin plate theory for the runway. The coupled fluid structure system, together with the appropriate jump conditions are solved in two-dimensions by the finite-difference method. The numerical model is used to study the nonlinear response of a VLFS to storm waves which are modeled by use of the cnoidal-wave theory. Parametric studies show that the nonlinearity of the waves is very important in accurately predicting the dynamic bending moment and wave run-up on a VLFS in high seas.

  15. STS-94 Columbia Landing at KSC (South Runway)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia touches down on Runway 33 at KSCs Shuttle Landing Facility at 6:46:34 a.m. EDT with Mission Commander James D. Halsell Jr. and Pilot Susan L. Still at the controls to complete the STS-94 mission. Also on board are Mission Specialist Donald A. Thomas, Mission Specialist Michael L. Gernhardt, Payload Commander Janice Voss, and Payload Specialists Roger K. Crouch and Gregory T. Linteris. During the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 (MSL-1) mission, the Spacelab module was used to test some of the hardware, facilities and procedures that are planned for use on the International Space Station while the flight crew conducted combustion, protein crystal growth and materials processing experiments. This mission was a reflight of the STS-83 mission that lifted off from KSC in April of this year. That space flight was cut short due to indications of a faulty fuel cell. This was Columbias 11th landing at KSC and the 38th landing at the space center in the history of the Shuttle program.

  16. STS-90 Columbia landing at KSC's runway 33

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A flock of birds takes flight as the orbiter Columbia, with its drag chute deployed, touches down on Runway 33 of KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility to complete the nearly 16-day STS-90 mission. Main gear touchdown was at 12:08:59 p.m. EDT on May 3, 1998, landing on orbit 256 of the mission. The wheels stopped at 12:09:58 EDT, completing a total mission time of 15 days, 21 hours, 50 minutes and 58 seconds. The 90th Shuttle mission was Columbia's 13th landing at the space center and the 43rd KSC landing in the history of the Space Shuttle program. During the mission, the crew conducted research to contribute to a better understanding of the human nervous system. The crew of the STS-90 Neurolab mission include Commander Richard Searfoss; Pilot Scott Altman; Mission Specialists Richard Linnehan, D.V.M., Dafydd (Dave) Williams, M.D., with the Canadian Space Agency, and Kathryn (Kay) Hire; and Payload Specialists Jay Buckey, M.D., and James Pawelczyk, Ph.D.

  17. Assessing the efficacy of general surveillance for detection of incursions of livestock diseases in Australia.

    PubMed

    Martin, P A J; Langstaff, I; Iglesias, R M; East, I J; Sergeant, E S G; Garner, M G

    2015-10-01

    Australia, as a relatively isolated country with a high level of agricultural production, depends on, and has the opportunity to maintain, freedom from a range of important diseases of livestock. Occasional incursions of such diseases are generally detected by 'passive', general surveillance (GS). In current surveillance planning, a risk-based approach has been taken to optimising allocation of resources to surveillance needs, and having mapped the relative risk of introduction and establishment of diseases of concern, a means of mapping the efficacy of GS for their detection was required, as was a means of assessing the likely efficacy of options for improving GS efficacy if needed. This paper presents the structure and application of a tool for estimating the efficacy of Australia's GS, using the example of foot and mouth disease (FMD). The GS assessment tool (GSAT) is a stochastic spreadsheet model of the detection, diagnosis and reporting of disease on a single infected farm. It utilises the output of an intraherd disease spread model to determine the duration and prevalence of infection on different types of farm. It was applied separately to each of twelve regions of Australia, demarcated by dominant livestock production practices. Each region supplied estimates of probabilities relevant to the detection of FMD, for each of fourteen farm types and all species susceptible to the disease. Outputs of the GSAT were the average probability that FMD on the farm would be detected (single farm sensitivity), the average time elapsed from incursion of the disease to the chief veterinary officer (CVO) being notified (time to detection), and the number of average properties that would need to be infected before the CVO could be 95% confident of detecting at least one. The median single farm sensitivity for FMD varied among regions from 0.23 to 0.52, the median time to detection from 20 to 33 days, and the number of properties infected for 95% confidence of detecting at

  18. Aircraft and runway deicers at General Mitchell International Airport, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. 2. Toxicity of aircraft and runway deicers.

    PubMed

    Corsi, S R; Hall, D W; Geis, S W

    2001-07-01

    Streams receiving runoff from General Mitchell International Airport (GMIA), Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, were studied to assess toxic impacts of aircraft and runway deicers. Elevated levels of constituents related to deicing (propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, and ammonia) were observed in stream samples. The LC50s of type I deicer for Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephelas promelas, Hyalela azteca, and Chironimus tentans and the EC50 for Microtox were less than 5,000 mg/L of propylene glycol. Concentrations up to 39,000 mg/L were observed at airport outfall sites in samples collected during deicing events. The IC25s of type I deicer for C. dubia and P. promelas were less than 1,500 mg/L of propylene glycol. Concentrations up to 960 mg/L were observed in low-flow samples at an airport outfall site. Measured toxicity of stream water was greatest during winter storms when deicers were applied. Chronic toxicity was observed at airport outfall samples from low-flow periods in the winter and the summer, with the greater toxic impacts from the winter sample. All forms of toxicity in stream-water samples decreased as downstream flows increased. PMID:11434288

  19. Aircraft and runway deicers at General Mitchell International Airport, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. 2. Toxicity of aircraft and runway deicer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corsi, Steven; Hall, David W.; Geis, Steven W.

    2001-01-01

    Streams receiving runoff from General Mitchell International Airport (GMIA), Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, were studied to assess toxic impacts of aircraft and runway deicers. Elevated levels of constituents related to deicing (propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, and ammonia) were observed in stream samples. The LC50s of type I deicer for Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephelas promelas, Hyalela azteca, and Chironimus tentans and the EC50 for Microtox® were less than 5,000 mg/L of propylene glycol. Concentrations up to 39,000 mg/L were observed at airport outfall sites in samples collected during deicing events. The IC25s of type I deicer for C. dubia and P. promelas were less than 1,500 mg/L of propylene glycol. Concentrations up to 960 mg/L were observed in low-flow samples at an airport outfall site. Measured toxicity of stream water was greatest during winter storms when deicers were applied. Chronic toxicity was observed at airport outfall samples from low-flow periods in the winter and the summer, with the greater toxic impacts from the winter sample. All forms of toxicity in stream-water samples decreased as downstream flows increased.

  20. Epidemiological consequences of an incursion of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza into the British poultry flock

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Kieran J; Bowers, Roger G; Morgan, Kenton L; Robinson, Susan E; Christley, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza and in particular the H5N1 strain has resulted in the culling of millions of birds and continues to pose a threat to poultry industries worldwide. The recent outbreak of H5N1 in the UK highlights the need for detailed assessment of the consequences of an incursion and of the efficacy of control strategies. Here, we present results from a model of H5N1 propagation within the British poultry industry. We find that although the majority of randomly seeded incursions do not spread beyond the initial infected premises, there is significant potential for widespread infection. The efficacy of the European Union strategy for disease control is evaluated and our simulations emphasize the pivotal role of duck farms in spreading H5N1. PMID:17956849

  1. Seawater Incursion Events in a Cretaceous Paleo-lake Revealed by Specific Marine Biological Markers

    PubMed Central

    Hu, J. F.; Peng, P. A.; Liu, M. Y.; Xi, D. P.; Song, J. Z.; Wan, X. Q.; Wang, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Many large paleo-lakes in North China were formed after the Triassic Era. Seawater incursion events (SWIEs) in these lakes have been extensively discussed in the literature, yet lack reliable methodology and solid evidence, which are essential for reconstructing and confirming SWIEs. The present study employs specific marine biological markers (24-n-propyl and 24-isopropyl cholestanes) to trace SWIEs in a dated core taken from the Songliao Basin (SLB). Two SWIEs were identified. The first SWIE from 91.37 to 89.00 Ma, was continuous and variable but not strong, while the second SWIE from 84.72 to 83.72 Ma was episodic and strong. SWIEs caused high total organic carbon (TOC) and negative δ13Corg values in the sediments, which were interpreted as an indication of high productivity in the lake, due to the enhancement of nutrient supplies as well as high levels of aqueous CO2, due to the mixing of alkaline seawater and acidic lake water. The SWIEs in SLB were controlled by regional tectonic activity and eustatic variation. Movement direction changes of the Izanagi/Kula Plate in 90 Ma and 84 Ma created faults and triggered SWIEs. A high sea level, from 90 to 84 Ma, also facilitated the occurrence of SWIEs in SLB. PMID:25946976

  2. Incursions of southern-sourced water into the deep North Atlantic during late Pliocene glacial intensification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, David C.; Bailey, Ian; Wilson, Paul A.; Chalk, Thomas B.; Foster, Gavin L.; Gutjahr, Marcus

    2016-05-01

    The circulation and internal structure of the oceans exert a strong influence on Earth's climate because they control latitudinal heat transport and the segregation of carbon between the atmosphere and the abyss. Circulation change, particularly in the Atlantic Ocean, is widely suggested to have been instrumental in the intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation when large ice sheets first developed on North America and Eurasia during the late Pliocene, approximately 2.7 million years ago. Yet the mechanistic link and cause/effect relationship between ocean circulation and glaciation are debated. Here we present new records of North Atlantic Ocean structure using the carbon and neodymium isotopic composition of marine sediments recording deep water for both the Last Glacial to Holocene (35-5 thousand years ago) and the late Pliocene to earliest Pleistocene (3.3-2.4 million years ago). Our data show no secular change. Instead we document major southern-sourced water incursions into the deep North Atlantic during prominent glacials from 2.7 million years ago. Our results suggest that Atlantic circulation acts as a positive feedback rather than as an underlying cause of late Pliocene Northern Hemisphere glaciation. We propose that, once surface Southern Ocean stratification and/or extensive sea-ice cover was established, cold-stage expansions of southern-sourced water such as those documented here enhanced carbon dioxide storage in the deep ocean, helping to increase the amplitude of glacial cycles.

  3. Seawater Incursion Events in a Cretaceous Paleo-lake Revealed by Specific Marine Biological Markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, J. F.; Peng, P. A.; Liu, M. Y.; Xi, D. P.; Song, J. Z.; Wan, X. Q.; Wang, C. S.

    2015-05-01

    Many large paleo-lakes in North China were formed after the Triassic Era. Seawater incursion events (SWIEs) in these lakes have been extensively discussed in the literature, yet lack reliable methodology and solid evidence, which are essential for reconstructing and confirming SWIEs. The present study employs specific marine biological markers (24-n-propyl and 24-isopropyl cholestanes) to trace SWIEs in a dated core taken from the Songliao Basin (SLB). Two SWIEs were identified. The first SWIE from 91.37 to 89.00 Ma, was continuous and variable but not strong, while the second SWIE from 84.72 to 83.72 Ma was episodic and strong. SWIEs caused high total organic carbon (TOC) and negative δ13Corg values in the sediments, which were interpreted as an indication of high productivity in the lake, due to the enhancement of nutrient supplies as well as high levels of aqueous CO2, due to the mixing of alkaline seawater and acidic lake water. The SWIEs in SLB were controlled by regional tectonic activity and eustatic variation. Movement direction changes of the Izanagi/Kula Plate in 90 Ma and 84 Ma created faults and triggered SWIEs. A high sea level, from 90 to 84 Ma, also facilitated the occurrence of SWIEs in SLB.

  4. STS-31 on Runway 22 at Edwards with Recovery Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Personnel and equipment converge on the orbiter Discovery to begin servicing the spacecraft following its landing April 29, 1990, at NASA's then Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California. Post-landing servicing by the recovery convoy is carried out after each Space Shuttle landing and includes safety checks for flammable and toxic gases escaping from systems aboard the orbiters, hooking up engine fuel purge and equipment coolant lines, and inspecting the brakes before the vehicle is towed from the runway to the shuttle facility at Dryden where it is prepared for the ferry flight back to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Up to 24 vehicles and scores of personnel make up the landing recovery convoys at Dryden. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain

  5. From Runway to Orbit: Reflections of a NASA Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Peebles, Curtis L.

    2004-01-01

    In his remarkable memoir Runway to Orbit, Dr. Kenneth W. Iliff - the recently retired Chief Scientist of the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center- tells a highly personal, yet a highly persuasive account of the last forty years of American aeronautical research. His interpretation of events commands respect, because over these years he has played pivotal roles in many of the most important American aeronautics and spaceflight endeavors. Moreover, his narrative covers much of the second half of the first 100 years of flight, a centennial anniversary being celebrated this year. aerospace knowledge. He arrived at the then NASA Flight Research Center in 1962 as a young aeronautical engineer and quickly became involved in two of the seminal projects of modern flight, the X-15 and the lifting bodies. In the process, he pioneered (with Lawrence Taylor) the application of digital computing to the reduction of flight data, arriving at a method known as parameter estimation, now applied the world over. Parameter estimation not only enabled researchers to acquire stability and control derivatives from limited flight data, but in time allowed them to obtain a wide range of aerodynamic effects. Although subsequently involved in dozens of important projects, Dr. Iliff devoted much of his time and energy to hypersonic flight, embodied in the Shuttle orbiter (or as he refers to it, the world s fastest airplane). To him, each Shuttle flight, instrumented to obtain a variety of data, represents a research treasure trove, one that he has mined for years. This book, then, represents the story of Dr. Ken Iliff s passion for flight, his work, and his long and astoundingly productive career. It can be read with profit not just by scientists and engineers, but equally by policy makers, historians, and journalists wishing to better comprehend advancements in flight during the second half of the twentieth century. Dr. Iliff's story is one of immense contributions to the nation s repository of

  6. Benefits Assessment for Single-Airport Tactical Runway Configuration Management Tool (TRCM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa; Phojanamonogkolkij, Nipa; Lohr, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    The System-Oriented Runway Management (SORM) concept was developed as part of the Airspace Systems Program (ASP) Concepts and Technology Development (CTD) Project, and is composed of two basic capabilities: Runway Configuration Management (RCM), and Combined Arrival/Departure Runway Scheduling (CADRS). RCM is the process of designating active runways, monitoring the active runway configuration for suitability given existing factors, and predicting future configuration changes; CADRS is the process of distributing arrivals and departures across active runways based on local airport and National Airspace System (NAS) goals. The central component in the SORM concept is a tool for taking into account all the various factors and producing a recommendation for what would be the optimal runway configuration, runway use strategy, and aircraft sequence, considering as many of the relevant factors required in making this type of decision, and user preferences, if feasible. Three separate tools were initially envisioned for this research area, corresponding to the time scale in which they would operate: Strategic RCM (SRCM), with a planning horizon on the order of several hours, Tactical RCM (TRCM), with a planning horizon on the order of 90 minutes, and CADRS, with a planning horizon on the order of 15-30 minutes[1]. Algorithm development was initiated in all three of these areas, but the most fully developed to date is the TRCM algorithm. Earlier studies took a high-level approach to benefits, estimating aggregate benefits across most of the major airports in the National Airspace Systems (NAS), for both RCM and CADRS [2]. Other studies estimated the benefit of RCM and CADRS using various methods of re-sequencing arrivals to reduce delays3,4, or better balancing of arrival fixes5,6. Additional studies looked at different methods for performing the optimization involved in selecting the best Runway Configuration Plan (RCP) to use7-10. Most of these previous studies were high

  7. Warm, salty surface water incursions and destabilization of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M.; Hendy, I. L.; Pak, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean temperature change has the potential to destabilize tide-water glaciers and ice shelves. Here we investigate the potential impact of changing North Pacific sea surface temperatures (SST) on the stability of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet during the last deglaciation. Stable isotope values and trace metal ratios were generated on the planktonic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma and Globigerina bulloides from core MD02-2496, (1243 m water depth; 48°58N, 127°02W), British Columbia. The site is located where the North Pacific Current bifurcates in the modern climate system, transporting water northward into the Alaskan Gyre and southward to the California Current system. In addition as the site is ~35 km from the coast of Vancouver Island, it is ideally located to detect changes in Cordilleran Ice Sheet behavior. The region is also affected by plumes from the Columbia River deflected north by the Coriolis effect, making it possible to monitor Glacial Lake Missoula Outburst Flooding. The high-resolution (50-200cm kyr-1) reconstruction of SST and δ18Oseawater (salinity) reveals cool (4-7°C), relatively fresh and stratified surface waters occupied the region between 20 and 16.5 ka. Frequent incursions of warm (>10°C), relatively saline water on decadal to centennial timescales began ~18.8 kyr, persisting until ~14.7 kyr. Reconstructed warm and salty waters from 18.5-17.9 kyr are associated with cyclic (~80 year) sedimentation of terrigenous organic carbon-rich, >300 Ma shale-like sediments, which may be evidence of Lake Missoula outburst floodwaters. These sediments contrast with the typical ~100 Ma volcanic sediments typically deposited during deglaciation. A step-wise warming of ~2-4°C occurs at ~16.6 ka and both planktonic foraminiferal species record identical SSTs until ~14.7 ka. During this interval the Vancouver Margin surface waters were relatively more saline and very well mixed. The warmest (14.5-16°C) incursion of saline water occurs at ~16.5 ka

  8. Non-airborne conflicts: The causes and effects of runway transgressions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarrel, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    The 1210 ASRS runway transgression reports are studied and expanded to yield descriptive statistics. Additionally, a one of three subset was studied in detail for purposes of evaluating the causes, risks, and consequences behind trangression events. Occurrences are subdivided by enabling factor and flight phase designations. It is concluded that a larger risk of collision is associated with controller enabled departure transgressions over all other categories. The influence of this type is especially evident during the period following the air traffic controllers' strike of 1981. Causal analysis indicates that, coincidentally, controller enabled departure transgressions also, show the strongest correlations between causal factors. It shows that departure errors occur more often when visibility is reduced, and when multiple takeoff runways or intersection takeoffs are employed. In general, runway transgressions attributable to both pilot and controller errors arise from three problem areas: information transfer, awareness, and spatial judgement. Enhanced awareness by controllers will probably reduce controller enabled incidents.

  9. Method and device for landing aircraft dependent on runway occupancy time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghalebsaz Jeddi, Babak (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A technique for landing aircraft using an aircraft landing accident avoidance device is disclosed. The technique includes determining at least two probability distribution functions; determining a safe lower limit on a separation between a lead aircraft and a trail aircraft on a glide slope to the runway; determining a maximum sustainable safe attempt-to-land rate on the runway based on the safe lower limit and the probability distribution functions; directing the trail aircraft to enter the glide slope with a target separation from the lead aircraft corresponding to the maximum sustainable safe attempt-to-land rate; while the trail aircraft is in the glide slope, determining an actual separation between the lead aircraft and the trail aircraft; and directing the trail aircraft to execute a go-around maneuver if the actual separation approaches the safe lower limit. Probability distribution functions include runway occupancy time, and landing time interval and/or inter-arrival distance.

  10. Runway exit designs for capacity improvement demonstrations. Phase 2: Computer model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trani, A. A.; Hobeika, A. G.; Kim, B. J.; Nunna, V.; Zhong, C.

    1992-01-01

    The development is described of a computer simulation/optimization model to: (1) estimate the optimal locations of existing and proposed runway turnoffs; and (2) estimate the geometric design requirements associated with newly developed high speed turnoffs. The model described, named REDIM 2.0, represents a stand alone application to be used by airport planners, designers, and researchers alike to estimate optimal turnoff locations. The main procedures are described in detail which are implemented in the software package and possible applications are illustrated when using 6 major runway scenarios. The main output of the computer program is the estimation of the weighted average runway occupancy time for a user defined aircraft population. Also, the location and geometric characteristics of each turnoff are provided to the user.

  11. STS-50 Columbia, OV-102, landing with drag chute deploy at KSC SLF runway 33

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-50 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, completes its landing sequence on runway 33 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). At this point in OV-102's landing, the main landing gear (MLG) and nose landing gear (NLG) ride along the runway surface with the drag chute deployed and at full inflation behind the vehicle. This head-on view looks directly at the crew compartment, includes the full wing span, and shows the vertical tail with deployed rudder/speedbrake system and drag chute. Runway lights appear in the foreground and a flock of birds is barely visible in the distant background. This landing at 7:42 am (Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) included Development Test Objective (DTO) 521, Orbiter drag chute system. It marked the first time for the usage of the parachute system for a KSC landing and the second occurrence in the program.

  12. Interval Management with Spacing to Parallel Dependent Runways (IMSPIDR) Experiment and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Swieringa, Kurt A.; Capron, William R.

    2012-01-01

    An area in aviation operations that may offer an increase in efficiency is the use of continuous descent arrivals (CDA), especially during dependent parallel runway operations. However, variations in aircraft descent angle and speed can cause inaccuracies in estimated time of arrival calculations, requiring an increase in the size of the buffer between aircraft. This in turn reduces airport throughput and limits the use of CDAs during high-density operations, particularly to dependent parallel runways. The Interval Management with Spacing to Parallel Dependent Runways (IMSPiDR) concept uses a trajectory-based spacing tool onboard the aircraft to achieve by the runway an air traffic control assigned spacing interval behind the previous aircraft. This paper describes the first ever experiment and results of this concept at NASA Langley. Pilots flew CDAs to the Dallas Fort-Worth airport using airspeed calculations from the spacing tool to achieve either a Required Time of Arrival (RTA) or Interval Management (IM) spacing interval at the runway threshold. Results indicate flight crews were able to land aircraft on the runway with a mean of 2 seconds and less than 4 seconds standard deviation of the air traffic control assigned time, even in the presence of forecast wind error and large time delay. Statistically significant differences in delivery precision and number of speed changes as a function of stream position were observed, however, there was no trend to the difference and the error did not increase during the operation. Two areas the flight crew indicated as not acceptable included the additional number of speed changes required during the wind shear event, and issuing an IM clearance via data link while at low altitude. A number of refinements and future spacing algorithm capabilities were also identified.

  13. Texture Modification of the Shuttle Landing Facility Runway at the NASA Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Yager, Thomas J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the test procedures and the selection criteria used in selecting the best runway surface texture modification at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) to reduce Orbiter tire wear. The new runway surface may ultimately result in an increase of allowable crosswinds for launch and landing operations. The modification allows launch and landing operations in 20-kt crosswinds if desired. This 5-kt increase over the previous 15-kt limit drastically increases landing safety and the ability to make on-time launches to support missions where space station rendezvous is planned.

  14. Views of the Columbia sitting on Lakebed runway during crew egress of STS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Astronauts Joe H. Engle, rear, and Richard H. Truly egress the Columbia after the STS-2 mission. At right is their physician, Dr. Charles LaPinta of the the JSC Medical Sciences Division (39580); Engle and Truly walk down the stairs from Columbia to the runway at Edwards Air Force Base (39581); Still wearing their high altitude pressure garments Engle, left, and Truly walk on to the runway at Edwards. They are greeted by George W.S. Abbey, Director of Flight Operations at the Johnson Space Center (39582).

  15. Expansion of flight simulator capability for study and solution of aircraft directional control problems on runways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kibbee, G. W.

    1978-01-01

    The development, evaluation, and evaluation results of a DC-9-10 runway directional control simulator are described. An existing wide bodied flight simulator was modified to this aircraft configuration. The simulator was structured to use either two of antiskid simulations; (1) an analog mechanization that used aircraft hardware; or (2) a digital software simulation. After the simulation was developed it was evaluated by 14 pilots who made 818 simulated flights. These evaluations involved landings, rejected takeoffs, and various ground maneuvers. Qualitatively most pilots evaluated the simulator as realistic with good potential especially for pilot training for adverse runway conditions.

  16. Reliability Modeling Methodology for Independent Approaches on Parallel Runways Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babcock, P.; Schor, A.; Rosch, G.

    1998-01-01

    This document is an adjunct to the final report An Integrated Safety Analysis Methodology for Emerging Air Transport Technologies. That report presents the results of our analysis of the problem of simultaneous but independent, approaches of two aircraft on parallel runways (independent approaches on parallel runways, or IAPR). This introductory chapter presents a brief overview and perspective of approaches and methodologies for performing safety analyses for complex systems. Ensuing chapter provide the technical details that underlie the approach that we have taken in performing the safety analysis for the IAPR concept.

  17. STS-57 Endeavour, OV-105, glides above KSC SLF runway 33 prior to landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    With main landing gear (MLG) and nose landing gear (NLG) deployed, Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, is captured just before touchdown on concrete runway 33 at the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC's) Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). The shuttle trainer aircraft (STA) monitors the STS-57 landing as it flies overhead. Moments after this picture was taken, MLG touched down at 8:52:16am (Eastern Daylight Time (EDT)). In the foreground are a waterway, grasses, and runway lights and markers. The view looks down OV-105's port side.

  18. STS-29 Discovery, OV-103, lands on Edwards AFB concrete runway 22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-29 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, main landing gear (MLG) touches down at a speed of approximately 205 knots (235 miles per hour) on concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB), California. Nose landing gear (NLG) is deployed and rides above runway surface prior touchdown. Rear view captures OV-103 as it glides past photographer to wheel stop showing the tail section (speedbrake/rudder) and three space shuttle main engines (SSMEs). Mojave desert scrub brush appears in the foreground with aircraft hangar appearing in the background.

  19. Air Traffic and Operational Data on Selected US Airports with Parallel Runways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Thomas M.; McGee, Frank G.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents information on a number of airports in the country with parallel runways and focuses on those that have at least one pair of parallel runways closer than 4300 ft. Information contained in the report describes the airport's current operational activity as obtained through contact with the facility and from FAA air traffic tower activity data for FY 1997. The primary reason for this document is to provide a single source of information for research to determine airports where Airborne Information for Lateral Spacing (AILS) technology may be applicable.

  20. STS-53 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, lands on runway 22 at EAFB, Calif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-53 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, is slowed by a red, white, and blue drag chute during its landing on concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California. Main landing gear (MLG) touchdown occurred at 12:43:17 pm (Pacific Standard Time (PST)). This aft view of OV-103 shows the drag chute deployed from its compartment at the base of the vertical tail, the speedbrake/rudder flaps open, and the space shuttle main engines (SSMEs). Both MLG and nose landing gear (NLG) ride along the runway surface. Desert scrub brush appears in the foreground and mountains are seen in the background.

  1. STS-53 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, lands on runway 22 at EAFB, Calif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-53 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, rides along concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California, as the red, white, and blue drag chute unfurls behind it. Nose landing gear (NLG) wheels are inches above the runway surface as the main landing gear (MLG) wheels roll along it. MLG touchdown occurred at 12:43:17 pm (Pacific Standard Time (PST)).This head-on view looks down OV-103's port side. The speedbrake/rudder flaps are deployed as the drag chute opens behind the vehicle. Desert scrub brush appears in the foreground and mountains are seen in the background.

  2. STS-36 on Edwards Runway with Recovery Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Personnel and equipment converge on the orbiter Atlantis to begin servicing the spacecraft following its landing 4 March 1990, at NASA's then Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California. Mission elapsed time for the Department of Defense mission was 4 days, 10 hours, 19 minutes and 15 seconds. Actual landing time was 10:08 a.m. Post-landing servicing by the recovery convoy is carried out after each Space Shuttle landing and includes safety checks for flammable and toxic gases escaping from systems aboard the orbiters, hooking up engine fuel purge and equipment coolant lines, and inspecting the brakes before the vehicle is towed from the runway to the shuttle facility at Dryden where it is prepared for the ferry flight back to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Up to 24 vehicles and scores of personnel make up the landing recovery convoys at Dryden. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed

  3. STS-31 on Runway 22 at Edwards with Recovery Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Personnel and equipment converge on the orbiter Discovery to begin servicing the spacecraft following its landing April 29, 1990, at NASA's then Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California. Post-landing servicing by the recovery convoy is carried out after each Space Shuttle landing and includes safety checks for flammable and toxic gases escaping from systems aboard the orbiters, hooking up engine fuel purge and equipment coolant lines, and inspecting the brakes before the vehicle is towed from the runway to the shuttle facility at Dryden where it is prepared for the ferry flight back to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Up to 24 vehicles and scores of personnel make up the landing recovery convoys at Dryden. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain

  4. STS-36 on Edwards Runway with Recovery Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Personnel and equipment converge on the orbiter Atlantis to begin servicing the spacecraft following its landing 4 March 1990, at NASA's then Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California. Mission elapsed time for the Department of Defense mission was 4 days, 10 hours, 19 minutes and 15 seconds. Actual landing time was 10:08 a.m. Post-landing servicing by the recovery convoy is carried out after each Space Shuttle landing and includes safety checks for flammable and toxic gases escaping from systems aboard the orbiters, hooking up engine fuel purge and equipment coolant lines, and inspecting the brakes before the vehicle is towed from the runway to the shuttle facility at Dryden where it is prepared for the ferry flight back to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Up to 24 vehicles and scores of personnel make up the landing recovery convoys at Dryden. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed

  5. Contrasting hydrological processes of meteoric water incursion during magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposition: An oxygen isotope study by ion microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekete, Szandra; Weis, Philipp; Driesner, Thomas; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Baumgartner, Lukas; Heinrich, Christoph A.

    2016-10-01

    Meteoric water convection has long been recognized as an efficient means to cool magmatic intrusions in the Earth's upper crust. This interplay between magmatic and hydrothermal activity thus exerts a primary control on the structure and evolution of volcanic, geothermal and ore-forming systems. Incursion of meteoric water into magmatic-hydrothermal systems has been linked to tin ore deposition in granitic plutons. In contrast, evidence from porphyry copper ore deposits suggests that crystallizing subvolcanic magma bodies are only affected by meteoric water incursion in peripheral zones and during late post-ore stages. We apply high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to analyze oxygen isotope ratios of individual growth zones in vein quartz crystals, imaged by cathodo-luminescence microscopy (SEM-CL). Existing microthermometric information from fluid inclusions enables calculation of the oxygen isotope composition of the fluid from which the quartz precipitated, constraining the relative timing of meteoric water input into these two different settings. Our results confirm that incursion of meteoric water directly contributes to cooling of shallow granitic plutons and plays a key role in concurrent tin mineralization. By contrast, data from two porphyry copper deposits suggest that downward circulating meteoric water is counteracted by up-flowing hot magmatic fluids. Our data show that porphyry copper ore deposition occurs close to a magmatic-meteoric water interface, rather than in a purely magmatic fluid plume, confirming recent hydrological modeling. On a larger scale, the expulsion of magmatic fluids against the meteoric water interface can shield plutons from rapid convective cooling, which may aid the build-up of large magma chambers required for porphyry copper ore formation.

  6. STS-68 on Runway with 747 SCA - Columbia Ferry Flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The space shuttle Endeavour receives a high-flying salute from its sister shuttle, Columbia, atop NASA's Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, shortly after Endeavor's landing 12 October 1994, at Edwards, California, to complete mission STS-68. Columbia was being ferried from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, to Air Force Plant 42, Palmdale, California, where it will undergo six months of inspections, modifications, and systems upgrades. The STS-68 11-day mission was devoted to radar imaging of Earth's geological features with the Space Radar Laboratory. The orbiter is surrounded by equipment and personnel that make up the ground support convoy that services the space vehicles as soon as they land. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the

  7. Dryden B-52 Launch Aircraft on Edwards AFB Runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's venerable workhorse, the B-52 mothership, rolls out on the Edwards AFB runway after a test flight in 1996. Over the course of more than 40 years, the B-52 launched numerous experimental aircraft, ranging from the X-15 to the X-38, and was also used as a flying testbed for a variety of other research projects. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket

  8. Down-to-the-runway enhanced flight vision system (EFVS) approach test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, John B.; Heidhausen, Eric; Cramer, James A.; Krone, Norris J., Jr.

    2008-04-01

    Flight tests where conducted at Cambridge-Dorchester Airport (KCGE) and Easton Municipal Airport / Newnam Field (KESN) in a Cessna 402B aircraft using a head-up display (HUD) and a Kollsman Enhanced Vision System (EVS-I) infrared camera. These tests were sponsored by the MITRE Corporation's Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (CAASD) and the Federal Aviation Administration. Imagery of the EVS-I infrared camera, HUD guidance cues, and out-the-window video were each separately recorded at an engineering workstation for each approach, roll-out, and taxi operation. The EVS-I imagery was displayed on the HUD with guidance cues generated by the mission computer. Also separately recorded was the inertial flight path data. Enhanced Flight Vision System (EFVS) approaches were conducted from the final approach fix to runway flare, touchdown, roll-out and taxi using the HUD and EVS-I sensor as the only visual reference. Flight conditions included two-pilot crew, day, night, non-precision course offset approaches, ILS approach, crosswind approaches, and missed approaches. Results confirmed the feasibility for safe conduct of down-to-the-runway precision approaches in low visibility to runways with and without precision approach systems, when consideration is given to proper aircraft instrumentation, pilot training, and acceptable procedures. Operational benefits include improved runway occupancy rates, and reduced delays and diversions.

  9. NASA RB57F aircraft taxis to runway at Ellington field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A NASA RB57F aircraft taxis to runway at Ellington field. This type of aircraft is used by the Earth Observations Division of the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) to furnish Earth resources photographic coverage from altitudes as high as 60,000 feet.

  10. STS-44 crewmembers on EAFB runway survey post flight servicing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-44 crewmembers, wearing launch and entry suits (LESs), stand on Runway 05 dry lake bed at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California. From left to right Mission Specialist (MS) Mario Runco, Jr, Commander Frederick D. Gregory, and Payload Specialist Thomas J. Hennen survey Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, postflight servicing operations

  11. STS-111 commander, Ken Cockrell, greets dignitaries and recovery technicians on the runway at Edward

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-111 commander Ken Cockrell greets dignitaries and recovery technicians on the runway at Edwards Air Force Base following the landing of the space shuttle Endeavour on June 19, 2002. Behind Cockrell are (from left) mission specialists Philippe Perrin and Franklin Chang-Diaz and Shuttle pilot Paul Lockhart.

  12. Design and development of a modified runway model of mouse drug self-administration.

    PubMed

    Pandy, Vijayapandi; Khan, Yasmin

    2016-01-01

    The present study established a novel mouse model of a runway drug self-administration in our laboratory. The operant runway apparatus consisted of three long runways arranged in a zig-zag manner. The methodology consisted of six distinct phases: habituation, preconditioning, conditioning, post-conditioning, extinction and reinstatement. The effects of saline were compared with escalating doses of either ethanol (0.5-4.0 g/kg, i.p), heroin (5-40 mg/kg, i.p), or nicotine (0.1-0.5mg/kg, i.p) administered in the goal box during the conditioning phase (day 1 to day 5). A significant decrease in the time of trained (conditioned) mice to reach the goal box confirmed the subjects' motivation to seek those drugs on day 6 (expression). The mice were then subjected to non-rewarded extinction trials for 5 days over which run times were significantly increased. After 5 days of abstinence, a priming dose of ethanol or heroin (1/5th of maximum dose used in conditioning) significantly reinstated the drug-seeking behavior. These results suggest that the modified runway model can serve as a powerful behavioral tool for the study of the behavioral and neurobiological bases of drug self-administration and, as such, is appropriate simple but powerful tool for investigating the drug-seeking behavior of laboratory mice. PMID:26902717

  13. STS-33 Discovery, OV-103, approaches concrete runway 04 at EAFB, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-33 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, approaches runway 04 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California. OV-103 with landing gear deployed is silhouetted against the orange sky of a sunset as it glides over the mountains. The landing occurred at 16:31:02 pm Pacific Standard Time (PST).

  14. STS-49 Endeavour, OV-105, landing on concrete runway 22 at EAFB, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, glides above concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California, just before main landing gear (MLG) touchdown. Nose landing gear (NLG) is also deployed during the landing sequence. Landing occurred at 1:36:38 pm (Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)).

  15. Aircraft and avionic related research required to develop an effective high-speed runway exit system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoen, M. L.; Hosford, J. E.; Graham, J. M., Jr.; Preston, O. W.; Frankel, R. S.; Erickson, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    Research was conducted to increase airport capacity by studying the feasibility of the longitudinal separation between aircraft sequences on final approach. The multidisciplinary factors which include the utility of high speed exits for efficient runway operations were described along with recommendations and highlights of these studies.

  16. Sensitivity of Runway Occupancy Time (ROT) to Various Rollout and Turnoff (ROTO) Factors. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldthorpe, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    The Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) research program was initiated by NASA to increase the airport capacity for transport aircraft operations. One element of the research program is called Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO). A goal of the LVLASO research is to develop transport aircraft technologies which reduce Runway Occupancy Time (ROT) so that it does not become the limiting factor in the terminal area operations that determine the capacity of a runway. Under LVLASO, the objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity of ROT to various factors associated with the Rollout and Turnoff (ROTO) operation for transport aircraft. The following operational factors were studied and are listed in the order of decreasing ROT sensitivity: ice/flood runway surface condition, exit entrance ground speed, number of exits, high-speed exit locations and spacing, aircraft type, touchdown ground speed standard deviation, reverse thrust and braking method, accurate exit prediction capability, maximum reverse thrust availability, spiral-arc vs. circle-arc exit geometry, dry/slush/wet/snow runway surface condition, maximum allowed deceleration, auto asymmetric braking on exit, do not stow reverse thrust before the exit, touchdown longitudinal location standard deviation, flap setting, anti-skid efficiency, crosswind conditions, stopping on the exit and touchdown lateral offset.

  17. Response of a WB-47E Airplane to Runway Roughness at Eielson AFB, Alaska, September 1964

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Garland J.; Hall, Albert W.

    1965-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to measure the response of a WB-47E airplane to the roughness of the runway at Eielson AFB, Alaska. The acceleration level in the pilot's compartment and the pitching oscillation of the airplane were found to be sufficiently high to possibly cause pilot discomfort and have an adverse effect on the precision of take-off.

  18. Design and development of a modified runway model of mouse drug self-administration

    PubMed Central

    Pandy, Vijayapandi; Khan, Yasmin

    2016-01-01

    The present study established a novel mouse model of a runway drug self-administration in our laboratory. The operant runway apparatus consisted of three long runways arranged in a zig-zag manner. The methodology consisted of six distinct phases: habituation, preconditioning, conditioning, post-conditioning, extinction and reinstatement. The effects of saline were compared with escalating doses of either ethanol (0.5–4.0 g/kg, i.p), heroin (5–40 mg/kg, i.p), or nicotine (0.1–0.5mg/kg, i.p) administered in the goal box during the conditioning phase (day 1 to day 5). A significant decrease in the time of trained (conditioned) mice to reach the goal box confirmed the subjects’ motivation to seek those drugs on day 6 (expression). The mice were then subjected to non-rewarded extinction trials for 5 days over which run times were significantly increased. After 5 days of abstinence, a priming dose of ethanol or heroin (1/5th of maximum dose used in conditioning) significantly reinstated the drug-seeking behavior. These results suggest that the modified runway model can serve as a powerful behavioral tool for the study of the behavioral and neurobiological bases of drug self-administration and, as such, is appropriate simple but powerful tool for investigating the drug-seeking behavior of laboratory mice. PMID:26902717

  19. Functional Analysis for an Integrated Capability of Arrival/Departure/Surface Management with Tactical Runway Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Okuniek, Nikolai; Lohr, Gary W.; Schaper, Meilin; Christoffels, Lothar; Latorella, Kara A.

    2014-01-01

    The runway is a critical resource of any air transport system. It is used for arrivals, departures, and for taxiing aircraft and is universally acknowledged as a constraining factor to capacity for both surface and airspace operations. It follows that investigation of the effective use of runways, both in terms of selection and assignment as well as the timing and sequencing of the traffic is paramount to the efficient traffic flows. Both the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and NASA have developed concepts and tools to improve atomic aspects of coordinated arrival/departure/surface management operations and runway configuration management. In December 2012, NASA entered into a Collaborative Agreement with DLR. Four collaborative work areas were identified, one of which is called "Runway Management." As part of collaborative research in the "Runway Management" area, which is conducted with the DLR Institute of Flight Guidance, located in Braunschweig, the goal is to develop an integrated system comprised of the three DLR tools - arrival, departure, and surface management (collectively referred to as A/D/S-MAN) - and NASA's tactical runway configuration management (TRCM) tool. To achieve this goal, it is critical to prepare a concept of operations (ConOps) detailing how the NASA runway management and DLR arrival, departure, and surface management tools will function together to the benefit of each. To assist with the preparation of the ConOps, the integrated NASA and DLR tools are assessed through a functional analysis method described in this report. The report first provides the highlevel operational environments for air traffic management (ATM) in Germany and in the U.S., and the descriptions of the DLR's A/D/S-MAN and NASA's TRCM tools at the level of details necessary to compliment the purpose of the study. Functional analyses of each tool and a completed functional analysis of an integrated system design are presented next in the report. Future efforts to fully

  20. Pilot perception of light emitting diodes versus incandescent elevated runway guard lights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Hilary

    Pilots must understand and be aware of the purpose of each airport sign, light and marking, for there are numerous. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is planning on replacing the current incandescent lighting with far more economical LED airport lighting. In preparation for this change, two experiments were conducted for this thesis. Experiment 1 attempted to determine what pilots know about the meaning of the signs, markings and lights on the taxiways and runways through a questionnaire that was developed with the FAA. Experiment 2 evaluated pilot perception of LED lighting compared to current incandescent elevated runway guard lights. The meaning of airfield lights is not often stressed in pilot training and many pilots are unsure as to the intended purpose of specific lighting. Experiment 1 attempted to evaluate the uncertainty of these caution lights. In experiment 1, a knowledge survey about runway lighting and markings was created. The survey was developed by a flight instructor and approved by the Federal Aviation Administration. The surveys were given to about 150 pilots with varying flight ratings and experience levels. Experiment 1 results determined that there is a need for more intensive or remedial training on some airport signals. Results also showed that some runway signals need to have greater cue salience. Experiment 2 was designed to replace the existing elevated runway guard lights at a local airport from incandescent lights to light emitting diodes. Permission to cross onto the runways from a taxiway at airports must be given by the air traffic (ground) controller. The demarcation between taxiway and runway is indicated by the elevated runway guard light (ERGL), which signals to the taxiing pilot to hold short at the border of the runway until permission to cross the intersection is obtained. Incandescent lights are currently installed in the ERGLs. Experiment 2 of this thesis was designed to evaluate pilot's perceptions of the elevated

  1. Rollout and Turnoff (ROTO) Guidance and Information Displays: Effect on Runway Occupancy Time in Simulated Low-Visibility Landings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueschen, Richard M.; Hankins, Walter W., III; Barker, L. Keith

    2001-01-01

    This report examines a rollout and turnoff (ROTO) system for reducing the runway occupancy time for transport aircraft in low-visibility weather. Simulator runs were made to evaluate the system that includes a head-up display (HUD) to show the pilot a graphical overlay of the runway along with guidance and steering information to a chosen exit. Fourteen pilots (airline, corporate jet, and research pilots) collectively flew a total of 560 rollout and turnoff runs using all eight runways at Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport. The runs consisted of 280 runs for each of two runway visual ranges (RVRs) (300 and 1200 ft). For each visual range, half the runs were conducted with the HUD information and half without. For the runs conducted with the HUD information, the runway occupancy times were lower and more consistent. The effect was more pronounced as visibility decreased. For the 1200-ft visibility, the runway occupancy times were 13% lower with HUD information (46.1 versus 52.8 sec). Similarly, for the 300-ft visibility, the times were 28% lower (45.4 versus 63.0 sec). Also, for the runs with HUD information, 78% (RVR 1200) and 75% (RVR 300) had runway occupancy times less than 50 sec, versus 41 and 20%, respectively, without HUD information.

  2. Marine Incursion: The Freshwater Herring of Lake Tanganyika Are the Product of a Marine Invasion into West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Anthony B.; Teugels, Guy G.; Meyer, Axel

    2008-01-01

    The spectacular marine-like diversity of the endemic fauna of Lake Tanganyika, the oldest of the African Great Lakes, led early researchers to suggest that the lake must have once been connected to the ocean. Recent geophysical reconstructions clearly indicate that Lake Tanganyika formed by rifting in the African subcontinent and was never directly linked to the sea. Although the Lake has a high proportion of specialized endemics, the absence of close relatives outside Tanganyika has complicated phylogeographic reconstructions of the timing of lake colonization and intralacustrine diversification. The freshwater herring of Lake Tanganyika are members of a large group of pellonuline herring found in western and southern Africa, offering one of the best opportunities to trace the evolutionary history of members of Tanganyika's biota. Molecular phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that herring colonized West Africa 25–50MYA, at the end of a major marine incursion in the region. Pellonuline herring subsequently experienced an evolutionary radiation in West Africa, spreading across the continent and reaching East Africa's Lake Tanganyika during its early formation. While Lake Tanganyika has never been directly connected with the sea, the endemic freshwater herring of the lake are the descendents of an ancient marine incursion, a scenario which may also explain the origin of other Tanganyikan endemics. PMID:18431469

  3. STS-68 on Runway with 747 SCA - Columbia Ferry Flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The space shuttle Endeavour receives a high-flying salute from its sister shuttle, Columbia, atop NASA's Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, shortly after Endeavor's landing 12 October 1994, at Edwards, California, to complete mission STS-68. Columbia was being ferried from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, to Air Force Plant 42, Palmdale, California, where it will undergo six months of inspections, modifications, and systems upgrades. The STS-68 11-day mission was devoted to radar imaging of Earth's geological features with the Space Radar Laboratory. The orbiter is surrounded by equipment and personnel that make up the ground support convoy that services the space vehicles as soon as they land. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the

  4. Perseus B Heads for Landing on Edwards AFB Runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft approaches the runway at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. at the conclusion of a development flight at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center in April 1998. The Perseus B is the latest of three versions of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation

  5. Proceedings of the NASA Workshop on Flight Deck Centered Parallel Runway Approaches in Instrument Meteorological Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Marvin C. (Editor); Scanlon, Charles H. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    A Government and Industry workshop on Flight-Deck-Centered Parallel Runway Approaches in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) was conducted October 29, 1996 at the NASA Langley Research Center. This document contains the slides and records of the proceedings of the workshop. The purpose of the workshop was to disclose to the National airspace community the status of ongoing NASA R&D to address the closely spaced parallel runway problem in IMC and to seek advice and input on direction of future work to assure an optimized research approach. The workshop also included a description of a Paired Approach Concept which is being studied at United Airlines for application at the San Francisco International Airport.

  6. An overview of the joint FAA/NASA aircraft/ground runway friction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    There is a need for information on runways which may become slippery due to various forms and types of contaminants. Experience has shown that since the beginning of all weather aircraft operations, there have been landing and aborted takeoff incidents and/or accidents each year where aircraft have either run off the end or veered off the shoulder of low friction runways. NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Dynamics Branch is involved in several research programs directed towards obtaining a better understanding of how different tire properties interact with varying pavement surface characteristics to produce acceptable performance for aircraft ground handling requirements. One such effort, which was jointly supported by not only NASA and the FAA but by several aviation industry groups including the Flight Safety Foundation, is described.

  7. Preliminary evaluation of the effect of a dynamic preferential runway system upon community noise disturbance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, H. P.; Edmiston, R. P.; Connor, W. K.

    1972-01-01

    A dynamic preferential runway system (DPRS) was developed for John F. Kennedy International Airport for the purpose of controlling short term noise exposure in the neighboring communities. The DPRS is a computer-aided procedure for optimum selection of runways from the standpoint of noise and is based upon a community disturbance model which takes into account flyover levels, size of exposed populations, time of day and week, and persistence of overflights. A preliminary evaluation of the DPRS is presented on the basis of social survey data and telephone complaint records, for the trial period of August and September, 1971. Comparative use is made of data taken in a previous survey of the same community areas in 1969.

  8. Soil runway friction evaluation in support of USAF C-17 transport aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    A series of NASA Diagonal-Braked Vehicle (DBV) test runs were performed on the soil runway 7/25 at Holland landing zone, Fort Bragg, North Carolina, near Pope Air Force Base in March 1995 at the request of the Air Force C-17 System Program Office. These ground vehicle test results indicated that the dry runway friction level was suitable for planned C-17 transport aircraft landing and take-off operations at various gross weights. These aircraft operations were successfully carried out. On-board aircraft deceleration measurements were comparable to NASA DBV measurements. Additional tests conducted with an Army High Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicle equipped with a portable decelerometer, showed good agreement with NASA DBV data.

  9. NASA Boeing 737 Aircraft Test Results from 1996 Joint Winter Runway Friction Measurement Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1996-01-01

    A description of the joint test program objectives and scope is given together with the performance capability of the NASA Langley B-737 instrumented aircraft. The B-737 test run matrix conducted during the first 8 months of this 5-year program is discussed with a description of the different runway conditions evaluated. Some preliminary test results are discussed concerning the Electronic Recording Decelerometer (ERD) readings and a comparison of B-737 aircraft braking performance for different winter runway conditions. Detailed aircraft parameter time history records, analysis of ground vehicle friction measurements and harmonization with aircraft braking performance, assessment of induced aircraft contaminant drag, and evaluation of the effects of other factors on aircraft/ground vehicle friction performance will be documented in a NASA Technical Report which is being prepared for publication next year.

  10. Cockpit Displays for Enhancing Terminal-Area Situational Awareness and Runway Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, Paul V.; Otero, Sharon; Jones, Denise R. (Technical Monitor)

    2007-01-01

    HUD and PFD displays have been developed to enhance situational awareness and improve runway safety. These displays were designed to seamlessly transition through all phases of flight providing guidance and information to the pilot. This report describes the background of the Langley Research Center (LaRC) HUD and PFD work, the steps required to integrate the displays with those of other LaRC programs, the display characteristics of the several operational modes and the transitional logic governing the transition between displays.

  11. Views of the Columbia sitting on Lakebed runway during crew egress of STS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Greeted by their medical doctor, Astronauts Joe H. Engle and Richard H. Truly egress the capbin of the shuttle Columbia at Edwards Air Force Base at the end of the STS-2 mission. Dr. Charles LaPinta of JSC's Medical Sciences Division is at right (39578); Engle, left, and Truly, still wearing their ejection/escape suits step out on to the runway at Edwards AFB (39579).

  12. Texture Modification of the Shuttle Landing Facility Runway at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Yager, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the test procedures and the criteria used in selecting an effective runway-surface-texture modification at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) to reduce Orbiter tire wear. The new runway surface may ultimately result in an increase of allowable crosswinds for launch and landing operations. The modification allows launch and landing operations in 20-knot crosswinds, if desired. This 5-knot increase over the previous 15-knot limit drastically increases landing safety and the ability to make on-time launches to support missions in which Space Station rendezvous are planned. The paper presents the results of an initial (1988) texture modification to reduce tire spin-up wear and then describes a series of tests that use an instrumented ground-test vehicle to compare tire friction and wear characteristics, at small scale, of proposed texture modifications placed into the SLF runway surface itself. Based on these tests, three candidate surfaces were chosen to be tested at full-scale by using a highly modified and instrumented transport aircraft capable of duplicating full Orbiter landing profiles. The full-scale Orbiter tire testing revealed that tire wear could be reduced approximately by half with either of two candidates. The texture-modification technique using a Humble Equipment Company Skidabrader(trademark) shotpeening machine proved to be highly effective, and the entire SLF runway surface was modified in September 1994. The extensive testing and evaluation effort that preceded the selection of this particular surface-texture-modification technique is described herein.

  13. STS-41 crew poses in front of OV-103 on concrete runway 22 at EAFB, Calif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-41 crewmembers pose in front of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, parked on concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California. Having just completed their mission, the crewmembers are still wearing their launch and entry suits (LESs). From left to right are Mission Specialist (MS) Thomas D. Akers, Pilot Robert D. Cabana, Commander Richard N. Richards, MS Bruce E. Melnick, and MS William M. Shepherd.

  14. Population Genetic Structure and Potential Incursion Pathways of the Bluetongue Virus Vector Culicoides brevitarsis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Tay, W. T.; Kerr, P. J.; Jermiin, L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Culicoides brevitarsis is a vector of the bluetongue virus (BTV), which infects sheep and cattle. It is an invasive species in Australia with an assumed Asian/South East Asian origin. Using one mitochondrial marker (i.e., part of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene) and six nuclear markers, we inferred population genetic structure and possible incursion pathways for Australian C. brevitarsis. Nine mitochondrial haplotypes, with low nucleotide sequence diversity (0.0–0.7%) among these, were identified in a sample of 70 individuals from seven sites. Both sets of markers revealed a homogeneous population structure, albeit with evidence of isolation by distance and two genetically distinct clusters distributed along a north-to-south cline. No evidence of a cryptic species complex was found. The geographical distribution of the mitochondrial haplotypes is consistent with at least two incursion pathways into Australia since the arrival of suitable livestock hosts. By contrast, 15 mitochondrial haplotypes, with up to four times greater nucleotide sequence diversity (0.0–2.9%) among these, were identified in a sample of 16 individuals of the endemic C. marksi (sampled from a site in South Australia and another in New South Wales). A phylogenetic tree inferred using the mitochondrial marker revealed that the Australian and Japanese samples of C. brevitarsis are as evolutionarily different from one another as some of the other Australian species (e.g., C. marksi, C. henryi, C. pallidothorax) are. The phylogenetic tree placed four of the species endemic to Australia (C. pallidothorax, C. bundyensis, C. marksi, C. henryi) in a clade, with a fifth such species (C. bunrooensis) sharing a common ancestor with that clade and a clade comprising two Japanese species (C. verbosus, C. kibunensis). PMID:26771743

  15. Models for estimating runway landing capacity with Microwave Landing System (MLS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tosic, V.; Horonjeff, R.

    1975-01-01

    A model is developed which is capable of computing the ultimate landing runway capacity, under ILS and MLS conditions, when aircraft population characteristics and air traffic control separation rules are given. This model can be applied in situations when only a horizontal separation between aircraft approaching a runway is allowed, as well as when both vertical and horizontal separations are possible. It is assumed that the system is free of errors, that is that aircraft arrive at specified points along the prescribed flight path precisely when the controllers intend for them to arrive at these points. Although in the real world there is no such thing as an error-free system, the assumption is adequate for a qualitative comparison of MLS with ILS. Results suggest that an increase in runway landing capacity, caused by introducing the MLS multiple approach paths, is to be expected only when an aircraft population consists of aircraft with significantly differing approach speeds and particularly in situations when vertical separation can be applied. Vertical separation can only be applied if one of the types of aircraft in the mix has a very steep descent angle.

  16. NASA diagonal-braked test vehicle evaluation of traction characteristics of grooved and ungrooved runway surfaces at Miami International Airport, Miami, Florida, 8-9 May 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Two runways were evaluated under artificially wetted conditions with the NASA diagonal-braked vehicle (DBV). Results of the evaluation which included a pavement drainage analysis, a pavement skid resistance analysis, and a DBV wet/dry stopping distance ratio analysis indicated that the ungrooved runway surfaces had poor water drainage characteristics and poor skid resistance under wet conditions at high speeds especially in rubbercoated areas of the runways. Grooving runways to a transverse 1-1/4 x 1/4 x 1/4 inch pattern greatly improved both the water drainage and pavement skid resistance capability of these asphaltic concrete surfaces.

  17. Evaluation of two transport aircraft and several ground test vehicle friction measurements obtained for various runway surface types and conditions. A summary of test results from joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Vogler, William A.; Baldasare, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Tests with specially instrumented NASA Boeing 737 and 727 aircraft together with several different ground friction measuring devices were conducted for a variety of runway surface types and conditions. These tests are part of joint FAA/NASA Aircraft/Ground Vehicle Runway Friction Program aimed at obtaining a better understanding of aircraft ground handling performance under adverse weather conditions and defining relationships between aircraft and ground vehicle tire friction measurements. Aircraft braking performance on dry, wet, snow and ice-covered runway conditions is discussed as well as ground vehicle friction data obtained under similar runway conditions. For a given contaminated runway surface condition, the correlation between ground vehicles and aircraft friction data is identified. The influence of major test parameters on friction measurements such as speed, test tire characteristics, type and amount of surface contaminant, and ambient temperature are discussed. The effect of surface type on wet friction levels is also evaluated from comparative data collected on grooved and ungrooved concrete and asphalt surfaces.

  18. A minute ostracod (Crustacea: Cytheromatidae) from the Miocene Solimões Formation (western Amazonia, Brazil): evidence for marine incursions?

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines F.; Piller, Werner E.

    2016-01-01

    A huge wetland (the ‘Pebas system’) covered western Amazonia during the Miocene, hosting a highly diverse and endemic aquatic fauna. One of the most contentious issues concerns the existence, potential pathways and effects of marine incursions on this ecosystem. Palaeontological evidences (body fossils) are rare. The finding of a new, presumably marine ostracod species (Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov.) in the upper middle Miocene Solimões Formation initiated a taxonomic, ecological and biogeographical review of the genus Pellucistoma. We demonstrate that this marine (sublittoral, euhaline), subtropical–tropical taxon is biogeographically confined to the Americas. The biogeographical distribution of Pellucistoma largely depends on geographical, thermal and osmotic barriers (e.g. land bridges, deep and/or cold waters, sea currents, salinity). We assume an Oligocene/early Miocene, Caribbean origin for Pellucistoma and outline the dispersal of hitherto known species up to the Holocene. Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov. is dwarfed in comparison to all other species of this genus and extremely thin-shelled. This is probably related to poorly oxygenated waters and, in particular, to strongly reduced salinity. The associated ostracod fauna (dominated by the eurypotent Cyprideis and a few, also stunted ostracods of possibly marine ancestry) supports this claim. Geochemical analyses (δ18O, δ13C) on co-occurring ostracod valves (Cyprideis spp.) yielded very light values, indicative of a freshwater setting. These observations point to a successful adaptation of P. curupira sp. nov. to freshwater conditions and therefore do not signify the presence of marine water. Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov. shows closest affinities to Caribbean species. We hypothesize that Pellucistoma reached northern South America (Llanos Basin) during marine incursions in the early Miocene. While larger animals of marine origin (e.g. fishes, dolphins, manatees) migrated actively into the Pebas

  19. An Exploratory Study of Runway Arrival Procedures: Time Based Arrival and Self-Spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Vincent E.; Barmore, Bryan

    2009-01-01

    The ability of a flight crew to deliver their aircraft to its arrival runway on time is important to the overall efficiency of the National Airspace System (NAS). Over the past several years, the NAS has been stressed almost to its limits resulting in problems such as airport congestion, flight delay, and flight cancellation to reach levels that have never been seen before in the NAS. It is predicted that this situation will worsen by the year 2025, due to an anticipated increase in air traffic operations to one-and-a-half to three times its current level. Improved arrival efficiency, in terms of both capacity and environmental impact, is an important part of improving NAS operations. One way to improve the arrival performance of an aircraft is to enable the flight crew to precisely deliver their aircraft to a specified point at either a specified time or specified interval relative to another aircraft. This gives the flight crew more control to make the necessary adjustments to their aircraft s performance with less tactical control from the controller; it may also decrease the controller s workload. Two approaches to precise time navigation have been proposed: Time-Based Arrivals (e.g., required times of arrival) and Self-Spacing. Time-Based Arrivals make use of an aircraft s Flight Management System (FMS) to deliver the aircraft to the runway threshold at a given time. Self-Spacing enables the flight crew to achieve an ATC assigned spacing goals at the runway threshold relative to another aircraft. The Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO), a multi-agency initiative established to plan and coordinate the development of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), has asked for data for both of these concepts to facilitate future research and development. This paper provides a first look at the delivery performance of these two concepts under various initial and environmental conditions in an air traffic simulation environment.

  20. Information for Lateral Aircraft Spacing Enabling Closely-Spaced Runway Operations During Instrument-Weather Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thrush, Trent; Pritchett, Amy; Johnson, Eric; Hansman, R. John; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to increase airport capacity, the U.S. plans on investing nearly $6 billion a year to properly maintain and improve the nation's major airports. Current FAA standards however, require a reduction in terminal operations during instrument-weather conditions at many airports, causing delays and reducing airport capacity. NASA, in cooperation with the FAA, has developed the Terminal Area Productivity Program to achieve clear-weather capacity in instrument- weather conditions for all phases of flight. This paper describes a series of experiments planned to investigate the conceptual design of different systems that provide information to flight crews regarding nearby traffic during the approach phase of flight. The purpose of this investigation is to identify and evaluate different display and auditory interfaces to the crew for use in closely-spaced parallel runway operations. Three separate experiments are planned for the investigation. The first two experiments will be conducted using part-task flight simulators located at the MIT Aeronautical Systems Laboratory and at NASA Ames. The third experiment will be conducted in the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator, a generic "glass-cockpit" simulator at NASA Ames. Subjects for each experiment will be current glass-cockpit pilots from major U.S. air carriers. Subject crews will fly several experimental scenarios in which pseudo-aircraft are "blundered" into the subject aircraft simulation. Runway spacing, longitudinal aircraft separation, aircraft performance and traffic information will be varied. Analyses of the subject reaction times in evading the blundering aircraft and the resulting closest points of approach will be conducted. This paper presents a preliminary examination of the data recorded during the part-task experiments. The impact of traffic information on closely-spaced parallel runway operations is discussed, cockpit displays to aid these operations are examined, and topics for future research

  1. Issues in Airborne Systems for Closely-Spaced Parallel Runway Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, A.; Carpenter, B.; Asari, K.; Kuchar, J.; Hansman, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    Efforts to increase airport capacity include studies of aircraft systems that would enable simultaneous approaches to closely spaced parallel runways in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). The time-critical nature of a parallel approach results in key design issues for current and future collision avoidance systems. These issues are being studied in two ways. First, a part-task flight simulator study has examined the procedural and display issues inherent in such a time-critical task. Second, a prototype collision avoidance logic capable of generating this maneuver guidance has been designed using a recently developed methodology.

  2. An Overview of the Annual NASA Tire/Runway Friction Workshop and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes the organization efforts, objectives, scope, agenda, test procedures and results from eleven years of conducting the NASA Tire/Runway Friction Workshop. The paper will also summarize the lessons learned between 1994 and 2004. A description of the various friction, texture and roughness equipment used during these workshops at NASA Wallops Flight Facility on the eastern shore of Virginia will be provided together with the range of test surfaces available for evaluation. The need for friction measuring equipment calibration centers is discussed and plans for future workshops are identified.

  3. STS-31 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, lands on EAFB concrete runway 22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-31 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, rolls along concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California, after nose landing gear (NLG) and main landing gear (MLG) touchdown. This view looks down OV-103's port side from the space shuttle main engines (SSMEs) to the nose section. The SSMEs are gimbaled to their descent position and the rudder/speedbrake is deployed on the vertical stabilizer. Wheel stop occurred at 6:51 am (Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)). In the distance EAFB facilities are visible.

  4. STS-41 crew poses in front of OV-103 on concrete runway 22 at EAFB, Calif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-41 crewmembers give 'thumbs up' signal while standing in front of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, parked on concrete runway 22 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California. Having just completed their mission, the crewmembers are still wearing their launch and entry suits (LESs). From left to right are Mission Specialist (MS) Thomas D. Akers, Pilot Robert D. Cabana, Commander Richard N. Richards, MS Bruce E. Melnick, and MS William M. Shepherd. Set up at OV-103's side hatch is a mobile stairway which the crew uses to egress the vehicle and which technicians use when safing the vehicle during postflight operations.

  5. STS-31 crew poses on EAFB concrete runway after egressing OV-103

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-31 crewmembers, wearing their launch and entry suits (LESs), pose for an informal portrait on Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) concrete runway 22 after egressing Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Left to right are Mission Specialist (MS) Steven A. Hawley, Pilot Charles F. Bolden, MS Kathryn D. Sullivan, Commander Loren J. Shriver, and MS Bruce McCandless II. A service vehicle and OV-103's main landing gear (MLG) are visible in the background. The highly successful five-day mission concluded at EAFB with wheel stop at 6:51:00 am (Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)).

  6. Using national movement databases to help inform responses to swine disease outbreaks in Scotland: the impact of uncertainty around incursion time

    PubMed Central

    Porphyre, Thibaud; Boden, Lisa A.; Correia-Gomes, Carla; Auty, Harriet K.; Gunn, George J.; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Modelling is an important component of contingency planning and control of disease outbreaks. Dynamic network models are considered more useful than static models because they capture important dynamic patterns of farm behaviour as evidenced through animal movements. This study evaluates the usefulness of a dynamic network model of swine fever to predict pre-detection spread via movements of pigs, when there may be considerable uncertainty surrounding the time of incursion of infection. It explores the utility and limitations of animal movement data to inform such models and as such, provides some insight into the impact of improving traceability through real-time animal movement reporting and the use of electronic animal movement databases. The study concludes that the type of premises and uncertainty of the time of disease incursion will affect model accuracy and highlights the need for improvements in these areas. PMID:26833241

  7. Sapflow and water use of freshwater wetland trees exposed to saltwater incursion in a tidally influenced South Carolina watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krauss, K.W.; Duberstein, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Sea-level rise and anthropogenic activity promote salinity incursion into many tidal freshwater forested wetlands. Interestingly, individual trees can persist for decades after salt impact. To understand why, we documented sapflow (Js), reduction in Js with sapwood depth, and water use (F) of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.) trees undergoing exposure to salinity. The mean Js of individual trees was reduced by 2.8 g H2O??m-2??s-1 (or by 18%) in the outer sapwood on a saline site versus a freshwater site; however, the smallest trees, present only on the saline site, also registered the lowest Js. Hence, tree size significantly influenced the overall site effect on Js. Trees undergoing perennial exposure to salt used greater relative amounts of water in outer sapwood than in inner sapwood depths, which identifies a potentially different strategy for baldcypress trees coping with saline site conditions over decades. Overall, individual trees used 100 kg H2O??day-1 on a site that remained relatively fresh versus 23.9 kg H2O??day-1 on the saline site. We surmise that perennial salinization of coastal freshwater forests forces shifts in individual-tree osmotic balance and water-use strategy to extend survival time on suboptimal sites, which further influences growth and morphology.

  8. Predicting Incursion of Plant Invaders into Kruger National Park, South Africa: The Interplay of General Drivers and Species-Specific Factors

    PubMed Central

    Jarošík, Vojtěch; Pyšek, Petr; Foxcroft, Llewellyn C.; Richardson, David M.; Rouget, Mathieu; MacFadyen, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Background Overcoming boundaries is crucial for incursion of alien plant species and their successful naturalization and invasion within protected areas. Previous work showed that in Kruger National Park, South Africa, this process can be quantified and that factors determining the incursion of invasive species can be identified and predicted confidently. Here we explore the similarity between determinants of incursions identified by the general model based on a multispecies assemblage, and those identified by species-specific models. We analyzed the presence and absence of six invasive plant species in 1.0×1.5 km segments along the border of the park as a function of environmental characteristics from outside and inside the KNP boundary, using two data-mining techniques: classification trees and random forests. Principal Findings The occurrence of Ageratum houstonianum, Chromolaena odorata, Xanthium strumarium, Argemone ochroleuca, Opuntia stricta and Lantana camara can be reliably predicted based on landscape characteristics identified by the general multispecies model, namely water runoff from surrounding watersheds and road density in a 10 km radius. The presence of main rivers and species-specific combinations of vegetation types are reliable predictors from inside the park. Conclusions The predictors from the outside and inside of the park are complementary, and are approximately equally reliable for explaining the presence/absence of current invaders; those from the inside are, however, more reliable for predicting future invasions. Landscape characteristics determined as crucial predictors from outside the KNP serve as guidelines for management to enact proactive interventions to manipulate landscape features near the KNP to prevent further incursions. Predictors from the inside the KNP can be used reliably to identify high-risk areas to improve the cost-effectiveness of management, to locate invasive plants and target them for eradication. PMID:22194893

  9. Expansion of flight simulator capability for study and solution of aircraft directional control problems on runways, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The MCAIR five-degree-of-freedom motion-base simulator (MBS) was used in combination with a six-degree-of-freedom aircraft mathematical model to demonstrate the simulation adequacy on uncrowned runways, under various conditions. Known aircraft parameters were used where possible to increase program credibility. Tire-runway friction models were coordinated with personnel of NASA, Langley Research Center. The F-4 experienced pilots representing NASA, FAA, and USAF participated in the 130 approach-touchdown-rollout demonstration and verified the simulation adequacy.

  10. Runway Wake Vortex, Crosswind, and Visibility Detection with a Scintillometer at Schiphol Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dinther, D.; Hartogensis, O. K.; Holtslag, A. A. M.

    2015-12-01

    We evaluate the performance and investigate the capability of a scintillometer to detect wake vortices, crosswind and visibility near an airport runway. An experiment is carried out at Schiphol airport (Amsterdam, The Netherlands), where an optical scintillometer is positioned alongside a runway. An algorithm is developed to detect wake vortices, and also the strength of the wake vortex, from the variance in the scintillation signal. The algorithm shows promising results in detecting wake vortices and their strengths during the night. During the day, the scintillometer signal is dominated by environmental turbulence and wake vortices are no longer detectable. The crosswind measured by the scintillometer is compared with wind-speed and wind-direction data at the airport. Our results show that, after applying an outlier filter, the scintillometer is able to measure the crosswind over the short time period of 3 s required for aviation applications. The outlier filter does not compromise the capability of the scintillometer to obtain the maximum 3 s crosswind over a 10-min time frame correctly. Finally, a transmission method is used to obtain the visibility from the scintillometer signal, which is then compared with that obtained from a visibility sensor. The scintillometer is able to identify periods of low visibility correctly, although it shows a high amount of scatter around the exact visibility value.

  11. Non-invasive diagnostic methods for investigating the quality of Žilina airport's runway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slabej, Martin; Grinč, Michal; Kováč, Matúš; Decký, Martin; Šedivý, Štefan

    2015-09-01

    The Žilina airport was after almost 50 years of use measured by non-invasive methods including GPR and Profilograph GE in order to investigate the quality of the runway pavement at the chosen spots. Since it was just a pilot action, a sample of survey was carried out. The testing spots were placed where the geologic drill core J02 have been drilled out. The measurements performed by Profilograph GE were used to verify the quality of the pavement surface in term longitudinal unevenness by means of index IRI and C. The GPR survey was performed in 3D geometry, hence in the x- and y-direction. A horn type antenna with central frequency of 2 GHz was used on the test field in order to verify the thicknesses of pavement construction layers. Here, the result of a 3D survey is presented. The investigation confirms two sub-horizontal construction layers of the runway pavement. In some areas the GPR interpretation was not possible due to the signal attenuation. This significant signal attenuation is found mainly in the areas where the linear cracks are situated.

  12. The Dynamic Planner: The Sequencer, Scheduler, and Runway Allocator for Air Traffic Control Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Gregory L.; Denery, Dallas (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Dynamic Planner (DP) has been designed, implemented, and integrated into the Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS) to assist Traffic Management Coordinators (TMCs), in real time, with the task of planning and scheduling arrival traffic approximately 35 to 200 nautical miles from the destination airport. The TMC may input to the DP a series of current and future scheduling constraints that reflect the operation and environmental conditions of the airspace. Under these constraints, the DP uses flight plans, track updates, and Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA) predictions to calculate optimal runway assignments and arrival schedules that help ensure an orderly, efficient, and conflict-free flow of traffic into the terminal area. These runway assignments and schedules can be shown directly to controllers or they can be used by other CTAS tools to generate advisories to the controllers. Additionally, the TMC and controllers may override the decisions made by the DP for tactical considerations. The DP will adapt to computations to accommodate these manual inputs.

  13. Uncertainty Analysis for the Evaluation of a Passive Runway Arresting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, Richard; Marlowe, Jill M.; Yager, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the stopping distance of an aircraft involved in a runway overrun incident when the runway has been provided with an extension comprised of a material engineered to induce high levels of rolling friction and drag. A formula for stopping distance is derived that is shown to be the product of a known formula for the case of friction without drag, and a dimensionless constant between 0 and 1 that quantifies the further reduction in stopping distance when drag is introduced. This additional quantity, identified as the Drag Reduction Factor, D, is shown to depend on the ratio of drag force to friction force experienced by the aircraft as it enters the overrun area. The specific functional form of D is shown to depend on how drag varies with speed. A detailed uncertainty analysis is presented which reveals how the uncertainty in estimates of stopping distance are influenced by experimental error in the force measurements that are acquired in a typical evaluation experiment conducted to assess candidate overrun materials.

  14. Recycle Runway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Pam

    2009-01-01

    Nancy Judd has been called a folk artist, an outsider artist, and a designer--all characterizations that she tends to shirk. Perhaps if labels are needed, environmental artist educator is more appropriate. Judd lives and works in Santa Fe, New Mexico. She dedicates much of her time to creating art that raises public awareness of environmental…

  15. Cold air incursions, δ18O variability, and monsoon dynamics associated with snow days at Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, John V.; Vuille, Mathias; Hardy, Douglas R.; Burns, Stephen J.; Thompson, Lonnie G.

    2015-08-01

    Quelccaya Ice Cap in the Andes of Peru contains an annually resolved δ18O record covering the past 1800 years; yet atmospheric dynamics associated with snow deposition and δ18O variability at this site are poorly understood. Here we make use of 10 years of snow pit and short core δ18O data and hourly snow-height measurements obtained by an automated weather station deployed at the ice cap's summit to analyze linkages between snowfall, δ18O, and the South American summer monsoon (SASM). Snow accumulation peaks in December and is negative May-September. Snow δ18O values decrease gradually through austral summer from about -17 to -24‰. Surface snow δ18O is altered after deposition during austral winter from about -24 to -15‰. More than 70% of the total snow accumulation is tied to convection along the leading edge of cold air incursions of midlatitude air advected equatorward from southern South America. Snowfall amplitude at Quelccaya Ice Cap varies systematically with regional precipitation, atmospheric dynamics, midtroposphere humidity, and water vapor δD. Strongest snowfall gains correspond with positive precipitation anomalies over the western Amazon Basin, increased humidity, and lowered water vapor δD values, consistent with the "amount effect." We discuss ventilation of the monsoon, modulated by midlatitude cold air advection, as potentially diagnostic of the relationship between SASM dynamics and Quelccaya snowfall. Results will serve as a basis for development of a comprehensive isotopic forward model to reconstruct past monsoon dynamics using the ice core δ18O record.

  16. Controlling disease outbreaks in wildlife using limited culling: modelling classical swine fever incursions in wild pigs in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Disease modelling is one approach for providing new insights into wildlife disease epidemiology. This paper describes a spatio-temporal, stochastic, susceptible- exposed-infected-recovered process model that simulates the potential spread of classical swine fever through a documented, large and free living wild pig population following a simulated incursion. The study area (300 000 km2) was in northern Australia. Published data on wild pig ecology from Australia, and international Classical Swine Fever data was used to parameterise the model. Sensitivity analyses revealed that herd density (best estimate 1-3 pigs km-2), daily herd movement distances (best estimate approximately 1 km), probability of infection transmission between herds (best estimate 0.75) and disease related herd mortality (best estimate 42%) were highly influential on epidemic size but that extraordinary movements of pigs and the yearly home range size of a pig herd were not. CSF generally established (98% of simulations) following a single point introduction. CSF spread at approximately 9 km2 per day with low incidence rates (< 2 herds per day) in an epidemic wave along contiguous habitat for several years, before dying out (when the epidemic arrived at the end of a contiguous sub-population or at a low density wild pig area). The low incidence rate indicates that surveillance for wildlife disease epidemics caused by short lived infections will be most efficient when surveillance is based on detection and investigation of clinical events, although this may not always be practical. Epidemics could be contained and eradicated with culling (aerial shooting) or vaccination when these were adequately implemented. It was apparent that the spatial structure, ecology and behaviour of wild populations must be accounted for during disease management in wildlife. An important finding was that it may only be necessary to cull or vaccinate relatively small proportions of a population to successfully contain

  17. Holocene sea level and climate change in the Black Sea: Multiple marine incursions related to freshwater discharge events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, R.E.; Leorri, E.; McLaughlin, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    Repeated marine invasions of the Black Sea during the Holocene have been inferred by many eastern scientists as resulting from episodes of marine inflow from the Mediterranean beneath a brackish outflow from the Black Sea. We support this scenario but a fundamental question remains: What caused the repeated marine invasions? We offer an hypothesis for the repeated marine invasions of the Black Sea based on: (1) the overall similarity of sea-level curves from both tectonically quiescent and active margins of the Black Sea and their similarity to a sequence stratigraphic record from the US mid-Atlantic coast. The similarity of the records from two widely-separated regions suggests their common response to documented Holocene climate ocean-atmosphere reorganizations (coolings); (2) the fact that in the modern Black Sea, freshwater runoff from surrounding rivers dominates over evaporation, so that excess runoff might have temporarily raised Black Sea level (although the Black Sea would have remained brackish). Following the initial invasion of the Black Sea by marine Mediterranean waters (through the Marmara Sea) in the early Holocene, repeated marine incursions were modulated, or perhaps even caused, by freshwater discharge to the Black Sea. Climatic amelioration (warming) following each documented ocean-atmosphere reorganization during the Holocene likely shifted precipitation patterns in the surrounding region and caused mountain glaciers to retreat, increasing freshwater runoff above modern values and temporarily contributing to an increase of Black Sea level. Freshwater-to-brackish water discharges into the Black Sea initially slowed marine inflow but upon mixing of runoff with more marine waters beneath them and their eventual exit through the Bosphorus, marine inflow increased again, accounting for the repeated marine invasions. The magnitude of the hydrologic and sea-level fluctuations became increasingly attenuated through the Holocene, as reflected by Black

  18. Real-time terminal area trajectory planning for runway independent aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Min

    The increasing demand for commercial air transportation results in delays due to traffic queues that form bottlenecks along final approach and departure corridors. In urban areas, it is often infeasible to build new runways, and regardless of automation upgrades traffic must remain separated to avoid the wakes of previous aircraft. Vertical or short takeoff and landing aircraft as Runway Independent Aircraft (RIA) can increase passenger throughput at major urban airports via the use of vertiports or stub runways. The concept of simultaneous non-interfering (SNI) operations has been proposed to reduce traffic delays by creating approach and departure corridors that do not intersect existing fixed-wing routes. However, SNI trajectories open new routes that may overfly noise-sensitive areas, and RIA may generate more noise than traditional jet aircraft, particularly on approach. In this dissertation, we develop efficient SNI noise abatement procedures applicable to RIA. First, we introduce a methodology based on modified approximated cell-decomposition and Dijkstra's search algorithm to optimize longitudinal plane (2-D) RIA trajectories over a cost function that minimizes noise, time, and fuel use. Then, we extend the trajectory optimization model to 3-D with a k-ary tree as the discrete search space. We incorporate geography information system (GIS) data, specifically population, into our objective function, and focus on a practical case study: the design of SNI RIA approach procedures to Baltimore-Washington International airport. Because solutions were represented as trim state sequences, we incorporated smooth transition between segments to enable more realistic cost estimates. Due to the significant computational complexity, we investigated alternative more efficient optimization techniques applicable to our nonlinear, non-convex, heavily constrained, and discontinuous objective function. Comparing genetic algorithm (GA) and adaptive simulated annealing (ASA

  19. Sensitivity of Runway Occupancy Time (ROT) to Various Rollout and Turnoff (ROTO) Factors. Volume 2; Complete Set of Plotted Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldthorpe, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    The Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) research program was initiated by NASA to increase the airport capacity for transport aircraft operations. One element of the research program is called Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO). A goal of the LVLASO research is to develop transport aircraft technologies which reduce Runway Occupancy Time (ROT) so that it does not become the limiting factor in the terminal area operations that determine the capacity of a runway. Under LVLASO, the objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity of ROT to various factors associated with the Rollout and Turnoff (ROTO) operation for transport aircraft. The following operational factors were studied and are listed in the order of decreasing ROT sensitivity: ice/flood runway surface condition, exit entrance ground speed, number of exits, high-speed exit locations and spacing, aircraft type, touchdown ground speed standard deviation, reverse thrust and braking method, accurate exit prediction capability, maximum reverse thrust availability, spiral-arc vs. circle-arc exit geometry, dry/slush/wet/snow runway surface condition, maximum allowed deceleration, auto asymmetric braking on exit, do not stow reverse thrust before the exit, touchdown longitudinal location standard deviation, flap setting, anti-skid efficiency, crosswind conditions, stopping on the exit and touchdown lateral offset.

  20. Expansion of flight simulator capability for study and solution of aircraft directional control problems on runways, appendixes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgowan, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The models used to implement the DC-9-10 aircraft simulation for the Runway Direction Control study are presented. The study was done on the Douglas Aircraft six-degree-of-freedom motion simulator. Documentation of the models was in algebraic form, to the extent possible. Effort was directed toward presenting what was actually done rather than general forms.

  1. Plastic (wire-combed) grooving of a slip-formed concrete runway overlay at Patrick Henry Airport: An initial evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marlin, E. C.; Horne, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    A wire-comb technique is described for transversely grooving the surface of a freshly laid (plastic state) slip-formed concrete overlay installed at Patrick Henry Airport. This method of surface texturing yields better water drainage and pavement skid resistance than that obtained with an older conventional burlap drag concrete surface treatment installed on an adjacent portion of the runway.

  2. Experiment Description and Results for Arrival Operations Using Interval Management with Spacing to Parallel Dependent Runways (IMSPiDR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Swieringa, Kurt A.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Capron, William R.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Shay, Richard F.; Abbott, Terence S.

    2013-01-01

    The predicted increase in the number of commercial aircraft operations creates a need for improved operational efficiency. Two areas believed to offer increases in aircraft efficiency are optimized profile descents and dependent parallel runway operations. Using Flight deck Interval Management (FIM) software and procedures during these operations, flight crews can achieve by the runway threshold an interval assigned by air traffic control (ATC) behind the preceding aircraft that maximizes runway throughput while minimizing additional fuel consumption and pilot workload. This document describes an experiment where 24 pilots flew arrivals into the Dallas Fort-Worth terminal environment using one of three simulators at NASA?s Langley Research Center. Results indicate that pilots delivered their aircraft to the runway threshold within +/- 3.5 seconds of their assigned time interval, and reported low workload levels. In general, pilots found the FIM concept, procedures, speeds, and interface acceptable. Analysis of the time error and FIM speed changes as a function of arrival stream position suggest the spacing algorithm generates stable behavior while in the presence of continuous (wind) or impulse (offset) error. Concerns reported included multiple speed changes within a short time period, and an airspeed increase followed shortly by an airspeed decrease.

  3. Detection of obstacles on runway using Ego-Motion compensation and tracking of significant features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasturi, Rangachar (Principal Investigator); Camps, Octavia (Principal Investigator); Gandhi, Tarak; Devadiga, Sadashiva

    1996-01-01

    This report describes a method for obstacle detection on a runway for autonomous navigation and landing of an aircraft. Detection is done in the presence of extraneous features such as tiremarks. Suitable features are extracted from the image and warping using approximately known camera and plane parameters is performed in order to compensate ego-motion as far as possible. Residual disparity after warping is estimated using an optical flow algorithm. Features are tracked from frame to frame so as to obtain more reliable estimates of their motion. Corrections are made to motion parameters with the residual disparities using a robust method, and features having large residual disparities are signaled as obstacles. Sensitivity analysis of the procedure is also studied. Nelson's optical flow constraint is proposed to separate moving obstacles from stationary ones. A Bayesian framework is used at every stage so that the confidence in the estimates can be determined.

  4. Optical design of precision approach path indicators in a portable runway lighting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Duncan J. W.; Monaghan, Adam

    2015-09-01

    Portable runway lighting systems pose an interesting illumination challenge. They are typically used in harsh environments where generators or batteries are used to provide electricity. As a result, not only do the systems have to satisfy the regulatory requirements which determine the light intensity profile but they also need to be highly efficient and within a compact design. This paper summarises the optical design and performance of a PAPI system using LEDs which are coupled into a waveguide to generate the required light distribution at an intermediate plane after the waveguide. The use of waveguides means that a single projection lens is used to generate the final beam and this images the output of the waveguides into the far field.

  5. Anxiolytic-like actions of buspirone in a runway model of intravenous cocaine self-administration

    PubMed Central

    Ettenberg, Aaron; Bernardi, Rick E.

    2007-01-01

    In previous work from our laboratory, rats traversing a straight alley for a reward of IV cocaine have been observed to develop ambivalence about entering the goal box. Over trials, animals repeatedly run toward the goal box, stop at the entry point, and then retreat back toward the start box. This unique pattern of retreat behavior has been shown to reflect a form of “approach-avoidance conflict” that stems from the subjects' concurrent positive (cocaine reward) and negative (cocaine-induced anxiety) associations with the goal box. Buspirone, a partial 5-HT1A agonist, has been reported to produce anxiolytic-like actions in the clinic, but has had mixed results in experimental tests of anxiety using animal subjects. Since most animal tests of conflict/anxiety employ the administration of foot-shock – a relatively strong aversive stimulus – it was of interest to determine whether buspirone would alter the more subtle approach-avoidance conflict observed in well-trained animals running a straight alley for single daily injections of 1.0 mg/kg IV cocaine. Runway testing consisted of single daily trials that continued until consistent approach-avoidance retreats were exhibited. Each animal was then pretreated 30 min prior to runway testing with vehicle and one of three doses of buspirone (0.0, 1.0, 2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg IP). Testing continued in a counterbalanced manner until all rats had experienced each dose of buspirone with 3 days of cocaine-only trials between each test day. The number of retreats exhibited on each trial served as an index of the approach-avoidance conflict present on that trial. Results clearly demonstrated that buspirone (at the two higher doses) attenuated the retreat behavior of animals approaching a goal-box for IV cocaine – an action consistent with its anxiolytic-like actions in the clinic. PMID:17064759

  6. Use of Data Comm by Flight Crew to Conduct Interval Management Operations to Parallel Dependent Runways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Hubbs, Clay; Shay, Rick; Karanian, James

    2011-01-01

    The Interval Management (IM) concept is being developed as a method to maintain or increase high traffic density airport arrival throughput while allowing aircraft to conduct near idle thrust descents. The Interval Management with Spacing to Parallel Dependent Runways (IMSPiDR1) experiment at NASA Langley Research Center used 24 commercial pilots to examine IM procedures to conduct parallel dependent runway arrival operations while maintaining safe but efficient intervals behind the preceding aircraft. The use of IM procedures during these operations requires a lengthy and complex clearance from Air Traffic Control (ATC) to the participating aircraft, thereby making the use of Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) highly desirable as the communication method. The use of CPDLC reduces the need for voice transmissions between controllers and flight crew, and enables automated transfer of IM clearance elements into flight management systems or other aircraft avionics. The result is reduced crew workload and an increase in the efficiency of crew procedures. This paper focuses on the subset of data collected related to the use of CPDLC for IM operations into a busy airport. Overall, the experiment and results were very successful, with the mean time under 43 seconds for the flight crew to load the clearance into the IM spacing tool, review the calculated speed, and respond to ATC. An overall mean rating of Moderately Agree was given when the crews were asked if the use of CPDLC was operationally acceptable as simulated in this experiment. Approximately half of the flight crew reported the use of CPDLC below 10,000 for IM operations was unacceptable, with 83% reporting below 5000 was unacceptable. Also described are proposed modifications to the IM operations that may reduce CPDLC Respond time to less than 30 seconds and should significantly reduce the complexity of crew procedures, as well as follow-on research issues for operational use of CPDLC during IM

  7. Runway Texture and Grid Pattern Effects on Rate-of-Descent Perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, J. A.; Dearing, M. G.; Sweet, B. T.; Kaiser, M. K.; Rutkowski, Mike (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To date, perceptual errors occur in determining descent rate from a computer-generated image in flight simulation. Pilots tend to touch down twice as hard in simulation than in flight, and more training time is needed in simulation before reaching steady-state performance. Barnes suggested that recognition of range may be the culprit, and he cited that problems such as collimated objects, binocular vision, and poor resolution lead to poor estimation of the velocity vector. Brown's study essentially ruled out that the lack of binocular vision is the problem. Dorfel added specificity to the problem by showing that pilots underestimated range in simulated scenes by 50% when 800 ft from the runway threshold. Palmer and Petitt showed that pilots are able to distinguish between a 1.7 ft/sec and 2.9 ft/sec sink rate when passively observing sink rates in a night scene. Platform motion also plays a role, as previous research has shown that the addition of substantial platform motion improves pilot estimates of vertical velocity and results in simulated touchdown rates more closely resembling flight. This experiment examined how some specific variations in the visual scene properties affect a pilot's perception of sink rate. It extended another experiment that focused on the visual and motion cues necessary for helicopter autorotations. In that experiment, pilots performed steep approaches to a runway. The visual content of the runway and its surroundings varied in two ways: texture and rectangular grid spacing. Four textures, included a no-texture case, were evaluated. Three grid spacings, including a no-grid case, were evaluated. The results showed that pilot better controlled their vertical descent rates when good texture cues were present. No significant differences were found for the grid manipulation. Using those visual scenes a simple psychophysics, experiment was performed. The purpose was to determine if the variations in the visual scenes allowed pilots to better

  8. Re-Evaluating the Geological Evidence for Late Holocene Marine Incursion Events along the Guerrero Seismic Gap on the Pacific Coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bianchette, Thomas A; McCloskey, Terrence A; Liu, Kam-Biu

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large number of tsunamis that impact Mexico's Pacific coast, stratigraphic studies focusing on geological impacts are scanty, making it difficult to assess the long-term risks for this vulnerable region. Surface samples and six cores were taken from Laguna Mitla near Acapulco to examine sedimentological and geochemical evidence for marine incursion events. Sediment cores collected from behind the beach barrier are dominated by intercalated layers of peat and inorganic sediments, mostly silt and clay, with little or no sand. Sand- and shell-rich clastic layers with high levels of sulfur, calcium, and strontium only occur adjacent to the relict beach ridge remnants near the center of the lagoon. With the exception of one thin fine sand layer, the absence of sand in the near-shore cores and the predominance of the terrigenous element titanium in the inorganic layers, evidently eroded from the surrounding hillslopes, suggests that these large-grained intervals do not represent episodic marine incursions, but rather were likely formed by the erosion and redeposition of older marine deposits derived from the beach ridge remnants when water levels were high. These results do not support the occurrence of a large tsunami event at Laguna Mitla during the Late Holocene. PMID:27571270

  9. Variable-number tandem repeats genotyping used to aid and inform management strategies for a bovine Johne's disease incursion in tropical and subtropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Oakey, Jane; Gavey, Lawrence; Singh, Shoor Vir; Platell, Joanne; Waltisbuhl, David

    2014-09-01

    The application of variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) genotyping of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates to assist in investigating incidents of bovine Johne's disease in a low-prevalence region of Australia is described in the current study. Isolates from a response to detection of bovine Johne's disease in Queensland were compared with strains from national and international sources. The tandem application of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit (MIRU) and multilocus short sequence repeats (MLSSR) genotyping identified 2 strains, 1 that infected cattle on multiple properties with trace-forward histories from a common infected property, and 1 genotypically different strain recovered from a single property. The former strain showed an identical genotype to an isolate from India. Neither strain showed a genotypic link to regions of Australia with a higher prevalence of the disease. Genotyping has indicated incursions from 2 independent sources. This intelligence has informed investigations into potential routes of entry and the soundness of ongoing control measures, and supported strategy and policy decisions regarding management of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis incursions for Queensland. PMID:25139793

  10. Re-Evaluating the Geological Evidence for Late Holocene Marine Incursion Events along the Guerrero Seismic Gap on the Pacific Coast of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Bianchette, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large number of tsunamis that impact Mexico’s Pacific coast, stratigraphic studies focusing on geological impacts are scanty, making it difficult to assess the long-term risks for this vulnerable region. Surface samples and six cores were taken from Laguna Mitla near Acapulco to examine sedimentological and geochemical evidence for marine incursion events. Sediment cores collected from behind the beach barrier are dominated by intercalated layers of peat and inorganic sediments, mostly silt and clay, with little or no sand. Sand- and shell-rich clastic layers with high levels of sulfur, calcium, and strontium only occur adjacent to the relict beach ridge remnants near the center of the lagoon. With the exception of one thin fine sand layer, the absence of sand in the near-shore cores and the predominance of the terrigenous element titanium in the inorganic layers, evidently eroded from the surrounding hillslopes, suggests that these large-grained intervals do not represent episodic marine incursions, but rather were likely formed by the erosion and redeposition of older marine deposits derived from the beach ridge remnants when water levels were high. These results do not support the occurrence of a large tsunami event at Laguna Mitla during the Late Holocene. PMID:27571270